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https://www.scribd.com/doc/148307273/021009
06/17/2013
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original
Nam Suk Lee, Yong Seouk Choi, Kyung Soo Kim, Chan Kyu Kim
*
Mobil Telecommunication Lab, Electronics and Telecommunication Institute, Korea
*
Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Hanbat National University of Technology, Korea
Tel : +82428606602, Fax : +82428605048 Email : namsuk@etri.re.kr
Abstract In this paper, the new technique combining space
time decoder with beamforming is proposed for an orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system with multi
input multioutput (MIMO). Through the proposed technique
for MIMOOFDM, the multibeams are formed toward each
multitransmitter antenna of the desired user. Therefore, the
performance of MIMOOFDM system is very improved by
the proposed techniques that can reduce cochannel
interference(CCI) and obtain diversity gain. BER
performance improvement of the proposed approach is
investigated through computer simulation in the multiusers
environment.
Key words : OFDM, MIMO, beamforming, spacetime code
I. Introduction
MIMO technique can improve greatly the system
capacity as the multiantennas installed at both transmitter
and receiver construct MIMO channel with rich multipath in
the mobile communication. Also, STC(SpaceTime Coding)
technique can transmit higher data rate in the multipath due to
getting more diversity gain by combing the coding algorithm
at transmitter with the signal processing at receiver of the
MIMO system[1][2]. OFDM is multicarrier scheme that can
effectively overcome ISI by inserting longer CP(cyclic prefix)
than delay spread of channel into guard band. Therefore,
MIMOOFDM technique with STC has been widely studied
for high data rate application such as 4G, WLAN,
WiBro[3][4]. In the multiusers environments, the
performance of MIMOOFDM is very decreased as the
received signals are much distorted by CCI during the space
time decoding of multiple antennas receiver. Beamforming
algorithm at mobile communication system with multiple
antennas is known as effective technique to further increase
the system capacity without allocating additional spectra due
to effectively removing CCI[5]. Recently, the technique
combing MIMOOFDM with beamforming is proposed to
improve the performance of systems through removing
CCI[6][7]. The previous schemes have the limitations that use
only one beam toward the desired user and then, are unable to
provide maximum gain simultaneously to various
DOAs(direction of arrival) of multiantennas transmitter. In
this paper, to overcome such as the limitation and to improve
the performance of MIMOOFDM system further in the
multiusers environments, we propose the new technique
combining beamformer with spacetime decoder for MIMO
OFDM. The proposed structure is MIMOOFDM system with
installing Nt (the number of transmitter antenna) beamfomers
and one ST decoder at Nr antennas receiver. In the proposed
scheme, as Nt beams with maximum gain are formed toward
each Nt transmitter antennas of the desired user, the
performance of MIMOOFDM system is greatly improved.
The beamforming algorithm for the proposed structure is
derived by transforming the frequencydomain error signals
into timedomain error signals, due to the nature of the
OFDM system utilizing the IFFT/FFT operation.
+

FFT
FFT
ST
Decoder
DE
MUX
DE
MUX
Demodulaor
00 W
01 W
10 W
11
W
11  Nr W
∑
∑
.
.
.
.
.
.
Weight Control/
Beamforming
Source
Data
) ( 0 n R
) ( 1 n R
) ( o n y
~
) ( 1 n y
~
) (
po
n y
~
) (n Z
MUX
Source
Data
Modulaor
Pilot
Symbol
Generator
Alamouti
Encoder
IFFT
IFFT
) (n Y
)) ( ( p0 n Y
) ( 0 d n _Y T
)) ( ( p1 n Y
) ( 0 d n _X T
) ( 1 d n _Y T
Add
GI
Add
GI
) ( 1 d n _X T
) (
p1
n y
~
Remove
GI
SUM
Reference
Pil ot
Symbol
) ( p1 n Y
) ( p0 n Y
Remove
GI
11  Nr W
Figure 1. A block diagram of MIMOOFDM system
combing beamfomer with ST decoder
II. MIMOOFDM system combing ST decoder with
beamforming
The figure 1 shows a block diagram of a MIMOOFDM
system with the transmitter employing Alamouti encoder and
the receiver combing Nt beamformers with ST decoder. In
this figure, the Alamouti encoding Nt symbols in the
frequency domain are transformed into time domain signals
by IFFT operation. After inserting GI(guard interval), the time
domain signals are transmitted into wireless channel through
Nt transmitters antennas, respectively. The transmitted signals
from M users with Nt antennas arrive at each Nr receiver
antennas with corresponding DOA. The received signals with
spatial phase for each receiver antenna are multiplied by the
weight of Nt beamformers, and then the GI is removed. The
Nt signals are transformed back into frequency domain
signals by the FFT and decoded by spacetime decoder.
Diversity gain can be obtained from spacetime decoding Nt
signals eliminated CCI, resulting in the increase of signal to
interference and noise ratio. When symbol vector in the
frequencydomain is
[ ]
T
N
n n n n
y y y
) ( ... ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 0 −
= Y
, the
encoded symbol matrix by Almouti encoder can be written as
follows
1424402646/07/$25.00 ©2007 IEEE
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
1 d 0 d d
n n n _Y T _Y T _Y T =
(1)
where
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
−
=
−
y
y
y
y
y
y
n
N
*
1
4
*
3
2
*
1
0
0 d
) (
#
_Y T
,
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
−
y
y
y
y
y
y
n
N
*
1
5
*
2
3
*
0
1
1 d
) (
#
_Y T
.
) (
0 d
n _Y T
and
) (
1 d
n _Y T
are the encoded signal vector for
the 0th antenna, the 1
st
transmitter antenna of desired user,
respectively when the number of transmitter is two and * is
represented conjugate. The encoded signal matrix in time
domain can be represented as follows
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
1 d 0 d d
n n n _X T _X T _X T =
(2)
Here, the transmitted signal vector at the 0th antenna, the
1
st
antenna for desired user in the time domain is defined,
respectively as
)) ( ( ) (
0 d 0 d
n n
H
_Y T F _X T =
(3)
)) ( ( ) (
1 d 1 d
n n
H
_Y T F _X T =
(4)
where
F(n)=
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
− − − − −
− − −
e e
e e
N N N j N N j
N N j N j
/ ) 1 )( 1 ( 2 / ) 1 )( 1 ( 2
/ ) 1 )( 1 ( 2 / ) 1 )( 1 ( 2
1
1
1 1 1
π π
π π
"
# % # #
"
"
F(n) and H are represented the FFT operation matrix and
Hermitian transpose, respectively.
The signal matrix, V(n), received at Nr antennas can be
expressed as follows
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
d d
inf d
n n n
n n n n
M
m
H
m m
H
B _inf T A _X T A
B V V V
+ ∑ + =
+ + =
−
=
θ θ
(5)
where
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
− −
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 , 1
11
01
0 , 1
10
00
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
Nr m
m
m
Nr m
m
m
m
a
a
a
a
a
a
# #
A
.
Here,
) ( ), (
inf d
n n V V
are the received signal matrix for
desired user and other user and
) (n B
is the matrix for the
background noise.
) (
d
θ A
,
) (θ
m
A
are the array response
matrix for desired user and the mth user with argument of
DOA and
) (n
m
_inf T
is the signal matrix for the mth user. The
signal matrix,
) (n R
, after passing through the beamfomer with
the weight matrix,
) (n W
, is given by
) ( ) ( ) ( n n n
H
V
W
R =
(6)
where
[ ]
1 0
) ( R R R = n
[ ]
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
= =
− − w
w
w
w
w
w
n n n
Nr Nr 1 , 1
11
01
0 , 1
10
00
1 0
) ( ) ( ) (
# #
w w W
.
The received signal vector in the frequency domain after
FFT operation is given by
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
1
inf
~
d
~
~
n n n
n n
M
m
m
H
η + ∑ + =
=
−
=
Y Y
FR Y (7)
where
(
¸
(
¸
= ) ( ) ( ) (
1 0
n n n y y
~ ~ ~
Y
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ −
+
+ −
+
+ −
+
−
−
−
− −
− − y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
d d
N N
d d
d d
d d
d d
d d
d
N
d
N
d d
d d
d d
d d
d d
d
n
11 01
*
1
*
1
11 01
4 5
11 01
*
3
*
2
11 01
2 3
11 01
*
1
*
0
11 01
0 1
10
*
1
00
*
1
10
5
00
4
10
*
2
00
*
3
10
3
00
2
10
*
0
00
*
1
10
1
00
0
) (
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
# #
Y
~
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
− −
− −
11
~
11
10
~
01
11
~
11
10
~
01
01
~
11
00
~
01
11
~
10
10
~
00
11
~
10
10
~
00
01
~
10
00
~
00
inf
~
) (
N
m
m
N
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
N
m
m
N
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
n
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α
α
#
#
Y
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
− − 11
11
01
10
10
00
) (
N N
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
# #
η
Here,
) (n
j
y
~
is the output signal vector of the jth
beamformer and ) (
d
~
n
Y
,
inf
~
m
Y
,
) (n η
represent the signal
matrix for desired user, interference signal matrix for other
user and background nose matrix in the frequency domain,
respectively. Also,
jk
m
α is defined as follows
w a w a w a
w a w a w a
w a w a w a
w a w a w a
Nr Nr m m m
m
Nr Nr m m m
m
Nr Nr m m m
m
Nr Nr m m m
m
11 11
*
11 11
*
01 01
*
11
10 11
*
10 11
*
00 01
*
10
11 10
*
11 10
*
01 00
*
01
10 10
*
10 10
*
00 00
*
00
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
− −
− −
− −
− −
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
θ θ θ
α
θ θ θ
α
θ θ θ
α
θ θ θ
α
"
"
"
"
(8)
The output signal of ML detector is given by
0 inf
~
0 0
2
10
0
2
00
*
10
~
10 00
~
*
00 00
y n y y
y y z
d d
d d
+ + + =
+ =
α α
α α
(9)
) ( ) (
1
1
11
~
*
10
10
~
*
00
10
1
1
01
~
10
00
~
00
*
00 0 inf
~
∑ + + ∑ + =
−
=
−
=
M
m
* m
m
* m
m
d
M
m
m
m
m
m d
y y y y y
α α
α α α α
n
n n
d d
*
10 10 00
*
00 0
α α
+ =
1 inf
~
1 0
2
11
0
2
01
*
11
~
11 01
~
*
01 01
y n y y
y y z
d d
d d
+ + + =
+ =
α α
α α
(10)
) ( ) (
1
1
11
*
~
*
10
10
*
~
*
00 11
1
1
01
~
11
00
~
01
*
01 1 inf
~
∑ + + ∑ + =
−
=
−
=
M
m
m
m
m
m d
M
m
m
m
m
m d
y y y y y
α α α α α α
n
n n
d d
*
11 11 01
*
01 1
α α
+ =
2 inf
~
2 1
2
10
1
2
00
*
10
~
00 00
~
*
10 10
y n y y
y y z
d d
d d
+ + + =
− =
α α
α α
(11)
) ( ) (
1
1
11
*
~
*
10
10
*
~
*
00 00
1
1
01
~
10
00
~
00
*
10 2 inf
~
∑ + − ∑ + =
−
=
−
=
M
m
m
m
m
m d
M
m
m
m
m
m d
y y y y y
α α α α α α
n
n n
d d
*
10 00 00
*
10 2
α α
− =
3 inf
~
3 0
2
11
0
2
01
*
11
~
01 01
~
*
11 11
y n y y
y y z
d d
d d
+ + + =
− =
α α
α α (12)
) ( ) (
1
1
11
* ~
*
11
10
* ~
*
01 01
1
1
01
~
11
00
~
01
*
11 3 inf
~
∑ ∑
−
=
−
=
+ + + =
M
m
m
m
m
m d
M
m
m
m
m
m d
y y y y y α α α α α α
n
n n
d d
*
11 01 01
*
11 3
α α
+ =
Here,
ij
z
is the detected signal for the jth beamfomer at the
ith subcarrier. Also,
l
y
inf
~
,
l
n
are the interference and noise to
ij
z , respectively. Finally, the detected signal at ML is given
by
1 inf
~
1 0 inf
~
0 0
2
11
2
01
2
10
2
00 01 00 0
) ( y n y n y z z z + + + + + + + = + = α α α α
(13)
3 inf
~
3 2 inf
~
2 1
2
11
2
01
2
10
2
00 11 10 1
) ( y n y n y z z z + + + + + + + = + = α α α α
(14)
Here,
i
z is the detected signal at the ith subcarrier. In (13),
(14), by combing adaptive beamforming and spacetime
decoding technique, we can get the diversity gain and reduce
CCI for desired user.
III. Adaptive beamforming algorithm for MIMOOFDM
system
The proposed adaptive algorithm for Nt beamformers in a
MIMOOFDM system can be derived by employing the
complex LMS. When the number of beamformer is two, the
complex LMS for updating the weight vectors in the time
domain is expressed as follows
) (
) (
2 ) ( ) 1 (
p0
*
0
p0
0 0
n
n
n n
H
E
w
E
w w
∂
∂
− = + µ
(15)
) (
) (
2 ) ( ) 1 (
p1
*
1
p1
1 1
n
n
n n
H
E
w
E
w w
∂
∂
− = + µ
(16)
Here,
j p
E
denotes the time domain error vector between
the reference pilot symbol of desired user and the received
pilot signal for the jth beamformer. The error vector should
be available in the time domain to update the weight vector in
the time domain. But it is difficult to separate the received
pilot signal in the time domain from the transmitted data.
Another method to obtain the error vector is to transform the
frequency domain error vector into time domain error vector.
Therefore, the error vector can be expressed by [8]
)) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) (
p0
~
p0 p p0
~
p0
p0
n n n n n
d H d
y − = − = Y
F X
X E
(17)
)) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) (
p1
~
p0 p p1
~
p1
p1
n n n n n
d H d
y − = − = Y
F X
X E
(18)
where
,
0
0
0
0
) (
0
0
0
0
) (
0 ,
~
~
0 , ) 1 (
0 ), 1 (
~
0 ,
~
0 , 1
~
0 , 0
~
p0
*
0 ,
0 , ) 1 (
*
0 ), 1 (
0 ,
*
0 , 1
0 , 0
p0
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
−
=
∆
∆ −
+ ∆
∆
∆
∆ −
+ ∆
∆
#
#
#
#
#
#
p Np
P Np
P
P
P Np
P Np
P
P
y
y
y
y
y
y
n
y
y
y
y
y
y
n y
~
, Y
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
∆
∆ −
+ ∆
∆
∆ −
∆
∆
+ ∆
0
0
0
0
) (
0
0
0
0
) (
1 ,
~
~
1 , ) 1 (
1 ), 1 (
~
1 ,
~
1 , 1
~
1 , 0
~
p1
*
1 , ) 1 (
1 ,
*
1 ,
1 ), 1 (
*
1 , 0
1 , 1
p1
#
#
#
#
#
#
p Np
P Np
P
P
P Np
P Np
P
P
y
y
y
y
y
y
n
y
y
y
y
y
y
n y
~
, Y
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
− − − − − − −
− −
−
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 0 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 0 1 , 0 0 , 0
p
N N N N N N N
N N
N
β λ β λ λ
β λ β λ λ
λ λ λ
"
# % # #
"
"
F
,
e
N l i j
l i
/ ) )( ( 2
,
π
β
−
=
1  0,1,2,..., 1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0
e 0
1
otherwis
1 or if
,
N i for N k
p
p k l p k l
l i
= − =
¹
´
¦
=
+ ∆ = ∆ =
λ
Here,
) ( ), (
p
~
p n n
j
j
d
X X
denote the pilot signal vector of
desired user and the received pilot signal vector in the time
domain and
) ( p n j
d
Y
,
) (
p
~
n
j
y
denote the coded pilot symbol
vector of desired and the received pilot signal vector in the
frequency domain for the jth beamformer, respectively.
Also, we assume the first pilot symbol is positioned at the
first subcarrier. The notations, ∆p and Np
, represent the
frequency spacing between pilot symbols and number of pilot
inserted in an OFDM block, respectively. By substituting (17),
(18) into (15),(16) the final adaptive algorithm for the
beamfomer in MIMOOFDM system is given by
)) ( ) ( ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) 1 (
p0
~
p0
p 0 0
n n n n n
d H
y − + = + Y F V w w µ
(19)
)) ( ) ( ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) 1 (
p1
~
p1
p 1 1
n n n n n
d H
y − + = + Y F V w w µ
(20)
IV. Simulation and Numerical Results
In this section, the performances of the proposed technique
for the MIMOOFDM system are investigated by computer
simulations. The modulation scheme and radio channel used
for simulation is QPSK and Rayleigh fading channel in the
multiuser and the size of one OFDM block including pilot
symbol is 64. The number of transmitter antenna is two and
can be varied by Almouti coding technique.
100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Angle(Degree)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
P
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
Figure 2. Beam pattern of MIMOOFDM system when the
proposed beamforming scheme is applied.
DOAs of two transmitter antennas for desired user : 10°, 
20°, DOAs of other user : 25°,30°,35°,40°,45°,50°,55°,60°
(M = 4, Nr=5, SIR=10dB)
Figure 2 shows beam pattern the proposed adaptive
beamfromer with Nr=5 when DOAs of two transmitter
antennas for desired user are 10°, 20° and DOAs of other
users(M=4) are 25°, 30°, 35°, 40°, 45°, 50°, 55°, 60°,
respectively. From this figure, we can see that the beams are
formed toward two transmitter antennas for desired user while
the beam with a little gain is formed toward other users. The
convergence behavior of proposed algorithm for MIMO
OFDM is shown in the figure 3 when step size,µ,varies. The
larger the value of step size becomes, the faster convergence
is obtained. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show BER comparison
between conventional ST decoder and the ST decoder with
the proposed beamforming for MIMOOFDM systems when
there are CCI or not. Figure 6 shows the BER performances
of MIMOOFDM systems with proposed beamforming when
the number of other users is 4. From this figure, one can see
that BER performance of two systems is similar at no CCI but
with CCI, the performance of the proposed system is
improved significantly by combing Nt signals removed CCI
while the performance of conventional system is degraded.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Number of blocks
20
10
0
10
M
S
E
MSE_1
mu=0.2
mu=0.08
mu=0.05
mu=0.01
Figure 3. The learning curve of proposed algorithm for
MIMOOFDM when µ is varied
1 3 5 7 9 11 13
SNR(dB)
1E5
1E4
1E3
1E2
1E1
1E+0
B
E
R
No Interfer
Nr=2(ST decoder)
Nr=2(ST decoder+beamformer)
Nr=3(ST decoder)
Nr=3(ST decoder+beamformer)
Figure 4. BER comparison between conventional ST decoder
and the ST decoder with the proposed beamforming for
MIMOOFDM systems when there are no CCI
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
SNR(dB)
1E6
1E5
1E4
1E3
1E2
1E1
1E+0
B
E
R
SIR=10dB
Nr=2(ST decoder)
Nr=2(ST decoder+Beamformer)
Nr=4(ST decoder+Beamformer)
Nr=6(ST deocder+Beamformer)
Figure 5. BER comparison between conventional ST decoder
and the ST decoder with the proposed beamforming for
MIMOOFDM systems when there is CCI
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
SNR
1E6
1E5
1E4
1E3
1E2
1E1
1E+0
B
E
R
SIR=10dB(inf_users=4)
Nr=2
Nr=3
Nr=4
Nr=5
Figure 6. BER performances of MIMOOFDM systems with
proposed beamforming
(M=4).
V. Conclusion
In this paper, we proposed the new technique combing
beamforming with spacetime coding for MIMOOFDM
system. Computer simulation demonstrated that multibeams
were formed toward Nt transmitter antennas of desired user
and Nt signals removed CCI were combined by ST decoder.
From this simulation, we conclude that the proposed
technique can reduce CCI and obtain diversity gain, thus
increasing the performance of MIMOOFDM system in the
multiuser environments. The technique combing ST decoder
with beamfoming for MIMOOFDMA systems is being
studied.
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