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Performance of MIMO-OFDM systems with adaptive beamforming algorithm

Nam Suk Lee, Yong Seouk Choi, Kyung Soo Kim, Chan Kyu Kim
*


Mobil Telecommunication Lab, Electronics and Telecommunication Institute, Korea
*
Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Hanbat National University of Technology, Korea
Tel : +82-42-860-6602, Fax : +82-42-860-5048 E-mail : namsuk@etri.re.kr


Abstract- In this paper, the new technique combining space-
time decoder with beamforming is proposed for an orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system with multi-
input multi-output (MIMO). Through the proposed technique
for MIMO-OFDM, the multibeams are formed toward each
multi-transmitter antenna of the desired user. Therefore, the
performance of MIMO-OFDM system is very improved by
the proposed techniques that can reduce cochannel
interference(CCI) and obtain diversity gain. BER
performance improvement of the proposed approach is
investigated through computer simulation in the multi-users
environment.

Key words : OFDM, MIMO, beamforming, space-time code


I. Introduction

MIMO technique can improve greatly the system
capacity as the multi-antennas installed at both transmitter
and receiver construct MIMO channel with rich multipath in
the mobile communication. Also, STC(Space-Time Coding)
technique can transmit higher data rate in the multipath due to
getting more diversity gain by combing the coding algorithm
at transmitter with the signal processing at receiver of the
MIMO system[1][2]. OFDM is multicarrier scheme that can
effectively overcome ISI by inserting longer CP(cyclic prefix)
than delay spread of channel into guard band. Therefore,
MIMO-OFDM technique with STC has been widely studied
for high data rate application such as 4G, WLAN,
WiBro[3][4]. In the multi-users environments, the
performance of MIMO-OFDM is very decreased as the
received signals are much distorted by CCI during the space-
time decoding of multiple antennas receiver. Beamforming
algorithm at mobile communication system with multiple
antennas is known as effective technique to further increase
the system capacity without allocating additional spectra due
to effectively removing CCI[5]. Recently, the technique
combing MIMO-OFDM with beamforming is proposed to
improve the performance of systems through removing
CCI[6][7]. The previous schemes have the limitations that use
only one beam toward the desired user and then, are unable to
provide maximum gain simultaneously to various
DOAs(direction of arrival) of multi-antennas transmitter. In
this paper, to overcome such as the limitation and to improve
the performance of MIMO-OFDM system further in the
multi-users environments, we propose the new technique
combining beamformer with space-time decoder for MIMO-
OFDM. The proposed structure is MIMO-OFDM system with
installing Nt (the number of transmitter antenna) beamfomers
and one S-T decoder at Nr antennas receiver. In the proposed
scheme, as Nt beams with maximum gain are formed toward
each Nt transmitter antennas of the desired user, the
performance of MIMO-OFDM system is greatly improved.
The beamforming algorithm for the proposed structure is
derived by transforming the frequency-domain error signals
into time-domain error signals, due to the nature of the
OFDM system utilizing the IFFT/FFT operation.

+
-
FFT
FFT
S-T
Decoder
DE-
MUX
DE-
MUX
Demodulaor
00 W
01 W
10 W
11
W
11 - Nr W


.
.
.
.
.
.
Weight Control/
Beamforming
Source
Data
) ( 0 n R
) ( 1 n R
) ( o n y
~
) ( 1 n y
~
) (
po
n y
~
) (n Z
MUX
Source
Data
Modulaor
Pilot
Symbol
Generator
Alamouti
Encoder
IFFT
IFFT
) (n Y
)) ( ( p0 n Y
) ( 0 d n _Y T
)) ( ( p1 n Y
) ( 0 d n _X T
) ( 1 d n _Y T
Add
GI
Add
GI
) ( 1 d n _X T
) (
p1
n y
~
Remove
GI
SUM
Reference
Pil ot
Symbol
) ( p1 n Y
) ( p0 n Y
Remove
GI
11 - Nr W

Figure 1. A block diagram of MIMO-OFDM system
combing beamfomer with S-T decoder


II. MIMO-OFDM system combing S-T decoder with
beamforming

The figure 1 shows a block diagram of a MIMO-OFDM
system with the transmitter employing Alamouti encoder and
the receiver combing Nt beamformers with S-T decoder. In
this figure, the Alamouti encoding Nt symbols in the
frequency domain are transformed into time domain signals
by IFFT operation. After inserting GI(guard interval), the time
domain signals are transmitted into wireless channel through
Nt transmitters antennas, respectively. The transmitted signals
from M users with Nt antennas arrive at each Nr receiver
antennas with corresponding DOA. The received signals with
spatial phase for each receiver antenna are multiplied by the
weight of Nt beamformers, and then the GI is removed. The
Nt signals are transformed back into frequency domain
signals by the FFT and decoded by space-time decoder.
Diversity gain can be obtained from space-time decoding Nt
signals eliminated CCI, resulting in the increase of signal to
interference and noise ratio. When symbol vector in the
frequency-domain is
[ ]
T
N
n n n n
y y y
) ( ... ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 0 −
= Y
, the
encoded symbol matrix by Almouti encoder can be written as
follows
1-4244-0264-6/07/$25.00 ©2007 IEEE

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
1 d 0 d d
n n n _Y T _Y T _Y T =
(1)

where

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸




=

y
y
y
y
y
y
n
N
*
1
4
*
3
2
*
1
0
0 d
) (
#
_Y T
,
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=

y
y
y
y
y
y
n
N
*
1
5
*
2
3
*
0
1
1 d
) (
#
_Y T
.

) (
0 d
n _Y T
and
) (
1 d
n _Y T
are the encoded signal vector for
the 0-th antenna, the 1
st
transmitter antenna of desired user,
respectively when the number of transmitter is two and * is
represented conjugate. The encoded signal matrix in time
domain can be represented as follows

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
1 d 0 d d
n n n _X T _X T _X T =
(2)

Here, the transmitted signal vector at the 0-th antenna, the
1
st
antenna for desired user in the time domain is defined,
respectively as

)) ( ( ) (
0 d 0 d
n n
H
_Y T F _X T =
(3)
)) ( ( ) (
1 d 1 d
n n
H
_Y T F _X T =
(4)

where
F(n)=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− − − − −
− − −
e e
e e
N N N j N N j
N N j N j
/ ) 1 )( 1 ( 2 / ) 1 )( 1 ( 2
/ ) 1 )( 1 ( 2 / ) 1 )( 1 ( 2
1
1
1 1 1
π π
π π
"
# % # #
"
"


F(n) and H are represented the FFT operation matrix and
Hermitian transpose, respectively.
The signal matrix, V(n), received at Nr antennas can be
expressed as follows

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
d d
inf d
n n n
n n n n
M
m
H
m m
H
B _inf T A _X T A
B V V V
+ ∑ + =
+ + =

=
θ θ
(5)
where
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
− −
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 , 1
11
01
0 , 1
10
00
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
Nr m
m
m
Nr m
m
m
m
a
a
a
a
a
a
# #
A
.

Here,
) ( ), (
inf d
n n V V
are the received signal matrix for
desired user and other user and
) (n B
is the matrix for the
background noise.
) (
d
θ A
,
) (θ
m
A
are the array response
matrix for desired user and the m-th user with argument of
DOA and
) (n
m
_inf T
is the signal matrix for the m-th user. The
signal matrix,
) (n R
, after passing through the beamfomer with
the weight matrix,
) (n W
, is given by

) ( ) ( ) ( n n n
H
V
W
R =
(6)

where
[ ]
1 0
) ( R R R = n

[ ]
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
− − w
w
w
w
w
w
n n n
Nr Nr 1 , 1
11
01
0 , 1
10
00
1 0
) ( ) ( ) (
# #
w w W
.

The received signal vector in the frequency domain after
FFT operation is given by

) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
1
inf
~
d
~
~
n n n
n n
M
m
m
H
η + ∑ + =
=

=
Y Y
FR Y (7)

where
(
¸
(

¸

= ) ( ) ( ) (
1 0
n n n y y
~ ~ ~
Y


(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ −
+
+ −
+
+ −
+



− −
− − y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
d d
N N
d d
d d
d d
d d
d d
d
N
d
N
d d
d d
d d
d d
d d
d
n
11 01
*
1
*
1
11 01
4 5
11 01
*
3
*
2
11 01
2 3
11 01
*
1
*
0
11 01
0 1
10
*
1
00
*
1
10
5
00
4
10
*
2
00
*
3
10
3
00
2
10
*
0
00
*
1
10
1
00
0
) (
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
# #
Y
~


(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
+
+
+
+
=
− −
− −
11
~
11
10
~
01
11
~
11
10
~
01
01
~
11
00
~
01
11
~
10
10
~
00
11
~
10
10
~
00
01
~
10
00
~
00
inf
~
) (
N
m
m
N
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
N
m
m
N
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
y y
n
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α
α
#
#
Y


(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
− − 11
11
01
10
10
00
) (
N N
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
# #
η


Here,
) (n
j
y
~
is the output signal vector of the j-th
beamformer and ) (
d
~
n
Y
,
inf
~
m
Y
,
) (n η
represent the signal
matrix for desired user, interference signal matrix for other
user and background nose matrix in the frequency domain,
respectively. Also,
jk
m
α is defined as follows

w a w a w a
w a w a w a
w a w a w a
w a w a w a
Nr Nr m m m
m
Nr Nr m m m
m
Nr Nr m m m
m
Nr Nr m m m
m
11 11
*
11 11
*
01 01
*
11
10 11
*
10 11
*
00 01
*
10
11 10
*
11 10
*
01 00
*
01
10 10
*
10 10
*
00 00
*
00
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
− −
− −
− −
− −
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
θ θ θ
α
θ θ θ
α
θ θ θ
α
θ θ θ
α
"
"
"
"
(8)

The output signal of ML detector is given by
0 inf
~
0 0
2
10
0
2
00
*
10
~
10 00
~
*
00 00
y n y y
y y z
d d
d d
+ + + =
+ =
α α
α α
(9)
) ( ) (
1
1
11
~
*
10
10
~
*
00
10
1
1
01
~
10
00
~
00
*
00 0 inf
~
∑ + + ∑ + =

=

=
M
m
* m
m
* m
m
d
M
m
m
m
m
m d
y y y y y
α α
α α α α

n
n n
d d
*
10 10 00
*
00 0

α α
+ =


1 inf
~
1 0
2
11
0
2
01
*
11
~
11 01
~
*
01 01
y n y y
y y z
d d
d d
+ + + =
+ =
α α
α α
(10)
) ( ) (
1
1
11
*
~
*
10
10
*
~
*
00 11
1
1
01
~
11
00
~
01
*
01 1 inf
~
∑ + + ∑ + =

=

=
M
m
m
m
m
m d
M
m
m
m
m
m d
y y y y y
α α α α α α

n
n n
d d
*
11 11 01
*
01 1

α α
+ =


2 inf
~
2 1
2
10
1
2
00
*
10
~
00 00
~
*
10 10
y n y y
y y z
d d
d d
+ + + =
− =
α α
α α
(11)
) ( ) (
1
1
11
*
~
*
10
10
*
~
*
00 00
1
1
01
~
10
00
~
00
*
10 2 inf
~
∑ + − ∑ + =

=

=
M
m
m
m
m
m d
M
m
m
m
m
m d
y y y y y
α α α α α α

n
n n
d d
*
10 00 00
*
10 2

α α
− =


3 inf
~
3 0
2
11
0
2
01
*
11
~
01 01
~
*
11 11
y n y y
y y z
d d
d d
+ + + =
− =
α α
α α (12)
) ( ) (
1
1
11
* ~
*
11
10
* ~
*
01 01
1
1
01
~
11
00
~
01
*
11 3 inf
~
∑ ∑

=

=
+ + + =
M
m
m
m
m
m d
M
m
m
m
m
m d
y y y y y α α α α α α

n
n n
d d
*
11 01 01
*
11 3

α α
+ =


Here,
ij
z
is the detected signal for the j-th beamfomer at the
i-th subcarrier. Also,
l
y
inf
~
,
l
n
are the interference and noise to
ij
z , respectively. Finally, the detected signal at ML is given
by

1 inf
~
1 0 inf
~
0 0
2
11
2
01
2
10
2
00 01 00 0
) ( y n y n y z z z + + + + + + + = + = α α α α
(13)
3 inf
~
3 2 inf
~
2 1
2
11
2
01
2
10
2
00 11 10 1
) ( y n y n y z z z + + + + + + + = + = α α α α
(14)

Here,
i
z is the detected signal at the i-th subcarrier. In (13),
(14), by combing adaptive beamforming and space-time
decoding technique, we can get the diversity gain and reduce
CCI for desired user.


III. Adaptive beamforming algorithm for MIMO-OFDM
system

The proposed adaptive algorithm for Nt beamformers in a
MIMO-OFDM system can be derived by employing the
complex LMS. When the number of beamformer is two, the
complex LMS for updating the weight vectors in the time
domain is expressed as follows

) (
) (
2 ) ( ) 1 (
p0
*
0
p0
0 0
n
n
n n
H
E
w
E
w w


− = + µ
(15)
) (
) (
2 ) ( ) 1 (
p1
*
1
p1
1 1
n
n
n n
H
E
w
E
w w


− = + µ
(16)

Here,
j p
E
denotes the time domain error vector between
the reference pilot symbol of desired user and the received
pilot signal for the j-th beamformer. The error vector should
be available in the time domain to update the weight vector in
the time domain. But it is difficult to separate the received
pilot signal in the time domain from the transmitted data.
Another method to obtain the error vector is to transform the
frequency domain error vector into time domain error vector.
Therefore, the error vector can be expressed by [8]

)) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) (
p0
~
p0 p p0
~
p0
p0
n n n n n
d H d
y − = − = Y
F X
X E
(17)
)) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) (
p1
~
p0 p p1
~
p1
p1
n n n n n
d H d
y − = − = Y
F X
X E
(18)

where
,
0
0
0
0
) (
0
0
0
0
) (
0 ,
~
~
0 , ) 1 (
0 ), 1 (
~
0 ,
~
0 , 1
~
0 , 0
~
p0
*
0 ,
0 , ) 1 (
*
0 ), 1 (
0 ,
*
0 , 1
0 , 0
p0
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸




=

∆ −
+ ∆


∆ −
+ ∆

#
#
#
#
#
#
p Np
P Np
P
P
P Np
P Np
P
P
y
y
y
y
y
y
n
y
y
y
y
y
y
n y
~
, Y

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=

∆ −
+ ∆

∆ −


+ ∆
0
0
0
0
) (
0
0
0
0
) (
1 ,
~
~
1 , ) 1 (
1 ), 1 (
~
1 ,
~
1 , 1
~
1 , 0
~
p1
*
1 , ) 1 (
1 ,
*
1 ,
1 ), 1 (
*
1 , 0
1 , 1
p1
#
#
#
#
#
#
p Np
P Np
P
P
P Np
P Np
P
P
y
y
y
y
y
y
n
y
y
y
y
y
y
n y
~
, Y


(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
− − − − − − −
− −

1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 0 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 0 1 , 0 0 , 0
p
N N N N N N N
N N
N
β λ β λ λ
β λ β λ λ
λ λ λ
"
# % # #
"
"
F
,
e
N l i j
l i
/ ) )( ( 2
,
π
β

=

1 - 0,1,2,..., 1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0
e 0
1
otherwis
1 or if
,
N i for N k
p
p k l p k l
l i
= − =
¹
´
¦
=
+ ∆ = ∆ =
λ


Here,
) ( ), (
p
~
p n n
j
j
d
X X
denote the pilot signal vector of
desired user and the received pilot signal vector in the time
domain and
) ( p n j
d
Y
,
) (
p
~
n
j
y
denote the coded pilot symbol
vector of desired and the received pilot signal vector in the
frequency domain for the j-th beamformer, respectively.
Also, we assume the first pilot symbol is positioned at the
first subcarrier. The notations, ∆p and Np
, represent the
frequency spacing between pilot symbols and number of pilot
inserted in an OFDM block, respectively. By substituting (17),
(18) into (15),(16) the final adaptive algorithm for the
beamfomer in MIMO-OFDM system is given by

)) ( ) ( ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) 1 (
p0
~
p0
p 0 0
n n n n n
d H
y − + = + Y F V w w µ
(19)

)) ( ) ( ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) 1 (
p1
~
p1
p 1 1
n n n n n
d H
y − + = + Y F V w w µ
(20)


IV. Simulation and Numerical Results

In this section, the performances of the proposed technique
for the MIMO-OFDM system are investigated by computer
simulations. The modulation scheme and radio channel used
for simulation is QPSK and Rayleigh fading channel in the
multi-user and the size of one OFDM block including pilot
symbol is 64. The number of transmitter antenna is two and
can be varied by Almouti coding technique.

-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Angle(Degree)
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
P
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)

Figure 2. Beam pattern of MIMO-OFDM system when the
proposed beamforming scheme is applied.
DOAs of two transmitter antennas for desired user : -10°, -
20°, DOAs of other user : 25°,30°,35°,40°,45°,50°,55°,60°
(M = 4, Nr=5, SIR=10dB)

Figure 2 shows beam pattern the proposed adaptive
beamfromer with Nr=5 when DOAs of two transmitter
antennas for desired user are -10°, -20° and DOAs of other
users(M=4) are 25°, 30°, 35°, 40°, 45°, 50°, 55°, 60°,
respectively. From this figure, we can see that the beams are
formed toward two transmitter antennas for desired user while
the beam with a little gain is formed toward other users. The
convergence behavior of proposed algorithm for MIMO-
OFDM is shown in the figure 3 when step size,µ,varies. The
larger the value of step size becomes, the faster convergence
is obtained. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show BER comparison
between conventional S-T decoder and the S-T decoder with
the proposed beamforming for MIMO-OFDM systems when
there are CCI or not. Figure 6 shows the BER performances
of MIMO-OFDM systems with proposed beamforming when
the number of other users is 4. From this figure, one can see
that BER performance of two systems is similar at no CCI but
with CCI, the performance of the proposed system is
improved significantly by combing Nt signals removed CCI
while the performance of conventional system is degraded.


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Number of blocks
-20
-10
0
10
M
S
E
MSE_1
mu=0.2
mu=0.08
mu=0.05
mu=0.01

Figure 3. The learning curve of proposed algorithm for
MIMO-OFDM when µ is varied

1 3 5 7 9 11 13
SNR(dB)
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
1E-2
1E-1
1E+0
B
E
R
No Interfer
Nr=2(S-T decoder)
Nr=2(S-T decoder+beamformer)
Nr=3(S-T decoder)
Nr=3(S-T decoder+beamformer)

Figure 4. BER comparison between conventional S-T decoder
and the S-T decoder with the proposed beamforming for
MIMO-OFDM systems when there are no CCI

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
SNR(dB)
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
1E-2
1E-1
1E+0
B
E
R
SIR=10dB
Nr=2(S-T decoder)
Nr=2(S-T decoder+Beamformer)
Nr=4(S-T decoder+Beamformer)
Nr=6(S-T deocder+Beamformer)

Figure 5. BER comparison between conventional S-T decoder
and the S-T decoder with the proposed beamforming for
MIMO-OFDM systems when there is CCI

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
SNR
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
1E-2
1E-1
1E+0
B
E
R
SIR=10dB(inf_users=4)
Nr=2
Nr=3
Nr=4
Nr=5

Figure 6. BER performances of MIMO-OFDM systems with
proposed beamforming
(M=4).


V. Conclusion

In this paper, we proposed the new technique combing
beamforming with space-time coding for MIMO-OFDM
system. Computer simulation demonstrated that multibeams
were formed toward Nt transmitter antennas of desired user
and Nt signals removed CCI were combined by S-T decoder.
From this simulation, we conclude that the proposed
technique can reduce CCI and obtain diversity gain, thus
increasing the performance of MIMO-OFDM system in the
multi-user environments. The technique combing S-T decoder
with beamfoming for MIMO-OFDMA systems is being
studied.


Reference
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