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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the general sport. For a specific form of gymnastics, see Gymnastics (disambiguation).
Daniele Hypólito on the Balance Beam at the 2007 Pan American Games
Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG). Each country has its own national governing body affiliated to FIG. Competitive artistic gymnastics is the best known of the gymnastic sports. It typically involves the women's events of uneven bars, balance beam, floor exercise, and vault. Men's events are floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, vault, parallel bars, and high bar. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancientGreeks, that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills. Other gymnastic disciplines include: trampolining, tumbling, rhythmic gymnastics, aerobic gymnastics and acrobatic gymnastics. Participants can include children as young as four years old doing kindergym and children's gymnastics, recreational gymnasts of ages 5 and up, competitive gymnasts at varying levels of skill, and world class athletes.
1 Etymology 2 History 3 Forms 4 Artistic gymnastics
o o o
4.1 Events for women 4.2 Events for men 4.3 Rhythmic gymnastics
1 Film 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Etymology The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective γυμνός (gymnos) meaning "naked". because athletes exercised and competed without clothing History .3 Flying rings 6 Popular culture o 6.7 TeamGym 4. "train in gymnastic exercise".o o o o o 4. The verb had this meaning.6 Aerobic gymnastics 4.1 Rope (rhythmic gymnastics) 5. by way of the related verb γυμνάζω (gymnazo). whose meaning is "to train naked".2 Rope climb 5. generally "to train.5 Acrobatic gymnastics 4.4 Trampolining and tumbling 4. to exercise".8 Display gymnastics 5 Former apparatus and events o o o 5.
Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest. These tests were based on military exercises. Nadia Comăneci received the first perfect score. and gymnastics. The term included stretching exercises and warm-up preparations for athletes (from the Greek athlete ἆθλοςâthlos. marquis de Sotelo. By 1954. Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano. and excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. the Greek gymnastics gave way to gymnastics whose purpose was military training. "fight"). this kind of exercise was incorporated into a system that figured prominently in the state regulations for education. setting a precedent that continues. rope climbing. In fact. By the end of the nineteenth century. was born on February 19. 1770 in Valence and died on August 8. running. Jahn crafted early models of the horizontal bar. In AD 393 the Emperor Theodosius abolished the Olympic Games. which means "struggle". for it involved only synchronized calisthenics. that brought together his study of the attitudes of the ancients toward diet.1908 Summer Olympics in London: Display of the British women's gymnastics team Exercises of the ancient Greeks began with athletic feats performed by each individual according to his own notion. men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. and horizontal ladder. a courtyard for jumping. The first women's Olympic competition was primitive. that would seem strange to today's audiences and that included for example. In particular. the period for exercise or gymnastics was equal to the time spent on art and music combined. gymnastics was all but forgotten. and the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. and the vaulting horse. was held at the 1928 Games. In the year 1569. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Germany. 1848 in Paris. In time. introduced the wooden horse. both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric. and wrestling. For centuries. The Romans. The Federation of International Gymnastics (FIG) was founded in Liege in 1881. De Arte Gymnastica also explained the principles of physical therapy and is considered the first book on sports medicine. for example. From then on until the early 1950s. declined. three pioneer physical educators – Johann Friedrich GutsMuths (1759–1839) and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778–1852) – created exercises for boys and young men on apparatus they had designed that ultimately led to what is considered modern gymnastics. Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances. women organized and participated in gymnastics events. As the Roman Empire ascended. at the 1976 Summer Olympics held in Montreal. Girolamo Mercuriale from Forlì (Italy) wrote Le Arte Gymnastica. She was coached in . exercise and hygiene. Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format. Canada. which by then had become corrupt. The youth were encouraged to combine amusement with exercise. in Amsterdam. At this time. All Greek cities had a gymnasium. along with other sports. and the use of natural methods for the cure of disease. the parallel bars (from a horizontal ladder with the rungs removed). and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 15) had been agreed upon. The new medium of television helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics. synchronized team floor calisthenics. During the 1920s. gymnastics. running. He was a Spanish colonel. high jumping.
It is very hard to connect skills if the first skill is not performed correctly. In 2006. Typically men compete on six events: Floor Exercise. (Hungarian ethnicity). The new code of points allows the gymnasts to gain higher scores based on the difficulty of the skills they perform as well as their execution.  Forms Artistic gymnastics Main article: Artistic gymnastics Artistic gymnastics is usually divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics. The system is used in the US for elite level competition. Comaneci became an Olympic icon. Balance Beam. a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. The B Score (or E Score). and High Bar. endurance and awareness to the limit. In some countries. Béla Károlyi. on or off the event. An execution score and a difficulty score. It was and still is out of 10. Pommel Horse. Vault. two on the balance beam and one in the floor exercise. Events for women . Connection bonuses are the most common deduction from a difficulty score.  Even with Nadia's perfect scores. or they do not connect a skill meant to be connected to another. they are physically exhausting and push the gymnast's strength. The introduction of the difficulty score is a significant change. Nevertheless. With an A Score (or D score) being the difficulty score.00. Uneven Bars. is the score for execution. The gymnast's difficulty score is based on what elements they perform and is subject to change if they do not perform or complete all the skills. in the 1950s in the USSR).00 deduction. During the gymnast's performance.Romania by the Romanian coach. and parallel bars (for example. there are two separate scores. and is given for how well the skills are performed. Though routines performed on each event may be short. as it can be difficult to connect multiple flight elements. women at one time competed on the rings. the Romanians lost the gold medal to the Soviet Union. while women compete on four: Vault. Parallel Bars. high bar. and Floor Exercise. Still Rings. flexibility. the judges deduct from this score only. In 2006. in elite level gymnastics. is a 1. Comaneci scored four of her perfect tens on the uneven bars. which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine (excluding Vault). In the previous system. FIG introduced a new points system for Artistic gymnastics in which scores are no longer limited to 10 points. the "execution score" was the only score. A fall.Unlike the old code of points.
Vault In the vaulting events gymnasts sprint down a 25 metres (82 ft) runway. With the addition of this new. jump onto or perform a roundoff entry onto a springboard (run/ take-off segment). and/or twisting movements. In vaults with roundoff entries. wider. . inverted on the hands on the vaulting horse or vaulting table (pre flight segment). The new apparatus is more stable. The post flight segment may include one or more multiple saltos or somersaults. and is therefore considered safer than the old vaulting horse. the traditional vaulting horse was replaced with a new apparatus. land momentarily. then spring off of this platform to a two footed landing (post flight segment). Round-off entry vaults are the most common vaults in elite level gymnastics. Every gymnast starts at a different point on the vault runway depending on their height and strength. In 2001.Piked Tsukahara vault. sometimes known as a tongue or table. gymnasts are attempting more difficult and dangerous vaults. gymnasts "round-off" so hands are on the runway while the feet land on the springboard (beatboard). and longer than the older vaulting horse—approximately 1m in length and 1m in width—giving gymnasts a larger blocking surface. She then blocks off the vaulting platform into various twisting and/or somersaulting combinations. From the roundoff position the gymnast travels backwards as in a backhandspring so that the hands land on the vaulting platform (horse). safer vaulting table. The post flight segment brings the gymnast to her feet.
poise and strength. and release moves. transitional. circling. in particular. turns and dance elements on a padded beam. 500 centimetres (16 ft 5 in) long. The beam is 125 centimetres (4 ft 1 in) from the ground. providing an incentive to switch to newer technologies. bars were made of wood. Movements may pass through the handstand. In the past. the gymnast performs a routine on two horizontal bars set at different heights. Uneven Bars On the uneven bars (also known as asymmetric bars. UK). balance. . to prevent them from breaking. acrobatic skills. that may pass over. flexibility. and 10 centimetres (3. Gymnasts often mount the Uneven Bars using a springboard. Balance Beam The gymnast performs a choreographed routine up to 90 seconds in length consisting of leaps. Gymnasts perform swinging. but the bars were prone to breaking.9 in) wide. These bars are made of fiberglass covered in wood laminate.Gymnast on uneven bars. The width of the bars may be adjusted. and between the two bars. under. somersaults. The event requires.
a gymnast is required to do 2 –3. In some gymnastic associations such as United States Association of Gymnastic Clubs (USAIGC). This provides a firm surface that provides extra bounce or spring when compressed. the floor event occurs on a carpeted 12m × 12m square. acrobatic skills. series of jumps. gymnasts are allowed to have vocals in their music but USA Gymnastics competitions a large deduction is taken from the score for having vocals in the music.Gymnast doing a stag leap on floor exercise. allowing gymnasts to achieve extra height and a softer landing than would be possible on a standard floor. Floor In the past. and turns.. dance elements. Today. the Floor Exercise event was executed on the bare floor or mats such as wrestling mats. Gymnasts perform a choreographed routine up to 90 seconds in the Floor Exercise event. The routine should consist of tumbling lines. at least 3–4 tumbling passes are required. Each level of gymnastics requires the athlete to perform a different number of tumbling passes. or piviots. which is supported by springs or foam blocks generally called a "spring" floor. usually consisting of hard foam over a layer of plywood. on one foot. . In level 7 in the United states. and in levels 8–10. They must choose an accompanying music piece. A gymnast can perform up to four tumbling lines that usually includes at least one flight element without hand support.
Single leg skills are generally found in the form of scissors. Double leg work however. by 12m. This score is called the E score. And since 2007. and adding the result to the D score. A boy on the pommel horse Pommel Horse A typical pommel horse exercise involves both single leg and double leg work. Men's floor routines usually have four passes that will total between 60 –70 seconds and are performed without music. A series of tumbling passes are performed to demonstrate flexibility.  The final score is calculated by taking deductions from the E score. This score is called the D score. an element often done on the pommels.0. and press handstands. the scoring system has changed by adding bonus plus the execution and then adding those two together to get the final score. To make the exercise more challenging. including circles. Events for men Floor Male gymnasts also perform on a 12m. The composition requirements are different for each apparatus.Scoring: A gymnast's score comes from deductions taken from their start value. The gymnast swings both legs in a circular motion (clockwise or counterclockwise depending on preference) and performs such skills on all parts of the apparatus. The gymnast must also show strength skills. strength. spring floor.  Deductions in execution and artistry are taken from 10. The start value of a routine is calculated based on the difficulty of the elements the gymnast attempts and whether or not the gymnast meets composition requirements. is the main staple of this event. gymnasts will often include variations on a typical circling skill by turning (moores and spindles) or . Rules require that male gymnasts touch each corner of the floor at least once during their routine. scales. and balance. unlike the women's event.
He must perform a routine demonstrating balance. and overall presentation skills. and changes of direction. multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing. the length of the hurdle. and dynamic motion while preventing the rings themselves from swinging.8 cm thick steel or fiberglass bar raised 2. and the speed of rotation in the case of more difficult and complex vaults. balances.5m above the landing area is all the gymnast has to hold onto as he performs giants (revolutions around the bar). the power the gymnast generates from the legs and shoulder girdle. Parallel Bars Men perform on two bars slightly further than a shoulder's width apart and usually 1. and releases that require great strength and coordination. By using all of the momentum from giants and then releasing at the proper point. Leather grips are usually used to help maintain a grip on the bar. such as a triple-back salto. the kinesthetic awareness in the air. At least one static strength move is required. release skills.by straddling their legs (Flares). The body position is maintained while "punching" (blocking using only a shoulder movement) the vaulting platform. twists.75m high while executing a series of swings. Routines end when the gymnast performs a dismount. degree of difficulty. In advanced gymnastics. A routine should have a dismount equal in difficulty to the difficulty of the routine as a whole. before hurdling onto a spring board. either by swinging his body over the horse. which is a maximum of 25 meters in length. enough height can be achieved for spectacular dismounts. Vault Gymnasts sprint down a runway. and adjusted in height so the gymnast has room to hang freely and swing. for their execution. The gymnast then rotates to a standing position. strength. or landing after a handstand. but some gymnasts may include two or three.75 meters from the floor. Still Rings The rings are suspended on wire cable from a point 5. As with the women. Rhythmic gymnastics . Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run. power. male gymnasts are also judged on all of their events. High Bar A 2.
hoop. ribbon. for women sixteen and over again by their year of birth. rope—on a floor area. the score for artistry (choreography and music) is averaged with the score for difficulty of the moves and then added to the score for execution. International competitions are split between Juniors. Rhythmic routines are scored out of a possible 30 points. There are also group routines consisting of 5 gymnasts and 5 apparatuses of their choice. This is a sport that combines elements of ballet. Gymnasts in Russia and Europe typically start training at a very young age and those at their peak are typically in their late teens (15–19) or early twenties. gymnastics. dance. and apparatus manipulation. Russian rhythmic gymnast Main article: Rhythmic gymnastics Only women compete in rhythmic gymnastics although there is a new version of this discipline for men being pioneered inJapan (see Men's rhythmic gymnastics). under sixteen by their year of birth. World Championships. with a much greater emphasis on the aesthetic rather than the acrobatic.Irina Tchachina. The largest events in the sport are the Olympic Games. The sport involves the performance of five separate routines with the use of five apparatus —ball. . clubs. and Seniors. World Cup and Grand-Prix Tournaments.
Additional points (with no maximum at the highest levels of competition) can be earned depending on the difficulty of the moves and the length of time taken to complete the ten skills which is an indication of the average . Routines are marked out of a maximum score of 10 points.Trampolining and tumbling Double mini-trampoline competitor Main articles: Trampolining and Tumbling (gymnastics) Trampolining and tumbling consists of four events. Individual routines in trampolining involve a build-up phase during which the gymnast jumps repeatedly to achieve height. Since 2000. and tumbling (also known as power tumbling or rod floor ). followed by a sequence of ten leaps without pauses during which the gymnast performs a sequence of aerial skills. double mini trampoline. individual and synchronized trampoline. individual trampoline has been included in the Olympic Games.
two moves are performed per routine. This is followed by a final routine which is optional. Skills can be repeated if a skill is thrown as a mounter in one routine and a dismount in another. The scores are marked in a similar manner to individual trampoline. there are two preliminary routines. Double mini trampoline involves a smaller trampoline with a run-up. Moves cannot be repeated in the same place on the double-mini during a competition. other add the final score to the preliminary results. one which has only two moves scored for difficulty and one where the athlete is free to perform any routine.height of the jumps. In high level competitions. Scoring is similar to trampolining. athletes perform an explosive series of flips and twists down a sprung tumbling track. In tumbling. Synchronized trampoline is similar except that both competitors must perform the routine together and marks are awarded for synchronization as well as the form and difficulty of the moves. Acrobatic gymnastics . Some competitions restart the score from zero for the finals.
trios or groups up to 6 people. which are used in the World Championships and many other events around the world. is a group gymnastic discipline for both men and women. pairs.00 for routine difficulty.00 For Artistry. no lyrics).00 For technical performance. (the overall performance of the routine. Currently acrobatic gymnastics is marked out of 30. Junior(12-19) and Senior (15+). They may. hands and feet of their partners.g. three and four perform routines with the heads. Throughout the world. All levels require a balance and dynamic routine. (how well the skills are executed) 10. subject to regulations (e. including European Championships and World Games. (valued from the tables of difficulties) 10. Acrobats in groups of two. often referred to as "Acro" if involved with the sport. flexibility. there at three FIG levels: Age group (Age 11-16). namely choreography) Aerobic gymnastics Main article: Aerobic gymnastics Aerobic gymnastics (formally Sport Aerobics) involves the performance of routines by individuals. Main article: Acrobatic gymnastics Acrobatic gymnastics (formerly Sport Acrobatics). Junior and Seniors are also required to perform a final (combined) routine. emphasizing strength.00 (can be higher at Senior FIG level based on difficulty): 10. From 2009. pick their own music. all senior trios and mixed pairs were required to be on the larger floor . acrobatic sports or simply sports acro.Acrobatic Women's Pair performing a skill. and aerobic fitness rather than acrobatic or balance skills. Routines are performed for all individuals on a 7x7m floor and also for 12– 14 and 15–17 trios and mixed pairs.
At least one of these runs has to be a vault run. These section elememts are bodywaves for women's teams. here there are three runs (rounds) involved. flexibility and skill. power elements for men's teams and lifts for mixed teams. choreographed routines. composed of a mixture of dance. One of which has to include all six gymnasts doing a forwards series. There has to be three runs in total. The largest . Floor Programme All members of the Team take part in the floor program. and subsequently by national gymnastic federations world wide with participants that now number 30 million. There are no age divisions in general gymnastics. Trampette Here a trampette is used. Another run has to include all the gymnasts doing the same move. This is generally the first run. Troupes may be all one gender or mixed. There needs to be at least two spins. Routines generally last 60–90 seconds depending on age of participant and routine category. In 1984 Gymnastics for All was officially recognized first as a Sport Program by the FIG (International Gymnastic Federation). Another run also has to include the gymnasts completing the same move. There are two components of this. all groups also perform on this floor. Vault and the Trampette on its own. They perform synchronized. The routine has to be skillfully choreographed and the judges look out for changes in shape. two balances and two section elements.(10x10m). Floor routines are performed to music. Tumbling Again. Each series must have at least three different acrobatic elements. although teams can compete the sport itself was developed to enhance fitness and health in the participants and is accessible to anyone of any age.These days. Display gymnastics General gymnastics enables people of all ages and abilities to participate in performance groups of 6 to more than 150 athletes. TeamGym TeamGym (also known as "Gymnastics for All") has it origins in earliest times. This is also performed to music.
Flying rings Main article: Flying rings Flying rings was an event similar to still rings. starting from a seated position on the floor and using only the hands and arms. Kicking the legs in a kind of "stride" was normally permitted.6m = 25 ft in USA). This will affect World Cups. 38mm (1. . which eliminates the help generated from the legs. Rope climb Main article: Rope climbing Generally. competitors climbed either a 6m (6. It was a gymnastic event sanctioned by both the NCAA and theAAU until the early 1960s.5") diameter natural fiber rope for speed. but with the performer executing a series of stunts while swinging. Former apparatus and events Rope (rhythmic gymnastics) Starting in 2011. the rhythmic apparatus rope will be removed from all FIG events and clubs will be returned to the competition. FIG has a policy of only using four of the five pieces of apparatus and changes them for different Olympic cycles. World Championships. Many gymnasts can do this in the straddle or pike position.1m = 20 ft in USA) or an 8m (7. and Olympics.general gymnastics exhibition is the quadrennial World Gymnaestrada which was first held in 1939.
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