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STAAD.

Pro Standard Training
STAAD.Pro 2007

TRN011200-1/0002

Copyright Information

Trademarks
AccuDraw, Bentley, the “B” Bentley logo, MDL, MicroStation and SmartLine are registered trademarks; PopSet and Raster Manager are trademarks; Bentley SELECT is a service mark of Bentley Systems, Incorporated or Bentley Software, Inc. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Acrobat logo, Distiller, Exchange, and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Windows, Microsoft and Visual Basic are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. Other brands and product names are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Patents
United States Patent Nos. 5,8.15,415 and 5,784,068 and 6,199,125.

Copyrights
©2000-2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated. MicroStation ©1998 Bentley Systems, Incorporated. IGDS file formats ©1981-1988 Intergraph Corporation. Intergraph Raster File Formats ©1993 Intergraph Corporation. Portions ©1992 – 1994 Summit Software Company. Portions ©1992 – 1997 Spotlight Graphics, Inc. Portions ©1993 – 1995 Criterion Software Ltd. and its licensors. Portions ©1992 – 1998 Sun MicroSystems, Inc. Portions ©Unigraphics Solutions, Inc. Icc ©1991 – 1995 by AT&T, Christopher W. Fraser, and David R. Hanson. All rights reserved. Portions ©1997 – 1999 HMR, Inc. All rights reserved. Portions ©1992 – 1997 STEP Tools, Inc. Sentry Spelling-Checker Engine ©1993 Wintertree Software Inc. Unpublished – rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States and other countries. All rights reserved.
STAAD.Pro Standard Training Copyright © 2008 Bentley Systems Incorporated Oct-08

Table of Contents
Table of Contents i

Module 1: Introduction

1-1
1-2 1-3

1.1 About this STAAD.Pro Training Manual 1.2 STAAD.Pro Workflow Process

Module 2: Model Generation
2.2 The Start Page 2.3 Starting a New Project

2-1
2-2 2-3 2-7 2-12 2-15 2-16 2-19 2-27 2-46 2-48 2-82 2-99

2.1 Pre Processor: Model Generation

2.4 Elements of the STAAD.Pro Screen 2.5 Job Setup 2.6 STAAD.Pro Structural Elements 2.7 Working with Grids 2.8 Entering Structure Geometry 2.9 Modeling Exercise 1 2.10 Editing Structure Geometry 2.11 Viewing Structure Geometry 2.12 Modeling Exercise 2

Module 3: Property Assignment
3.2 Working with Groups

3-1
3-2 3-4 3-11 3-32 3-45 3-60 3-69 3-85

3.1 Steel Design Model Geometry 3.3 Assigning Member Properties 3.4 Member Beta Angle 3.5 Assigning Member Specifications 3.6 Assigning Supports 3.7 Assigning Loads 3.8 The Material Page

Oct-08

i Copyright © 2008 Bentley Systems Incorporated

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Module 4: Analyzing the Model
4.1 Preparing for the Analysis 4.2 Performing the Analysis

4-1
4-2 4-10 4-11 4-13

4.3 How Does STAAD.Pro Generate Results? 4.4 Viewing the Output File

Module 5: The Post Processor

5-1
5-2 5-3 5-6 5-9 5-12 5-14 5-19 5-28 5-44 5-48 5-53 5-55 5-62 5-65 5-69 5-72

5.1 Introduction to the Post Processor 5.2 Coordinate Systems for Reporting Results 5.3 Sign Conventions for Reporting Member End Forces 5.4 How to Determine if Results are Available 5.5 Activating the Post Processor 5.6 Displaying the Displacement Diagram 5.7 Displacement and Reactions Tables 5.8 Beam Analysis Results 5.9 Verifying the Results 5.10 Viewing Results with Member Query 5.11 Using Structural Tool Tips to View Results 5.12 Labeling the Structure Diagram 5.13 Individual Control of Labels 5.14 Animation 5.15 Plotting Output from STAAD.Pro 5.16 Simple Query

Module 6: Steel Design

6-1
6-2 6-4 6-18 6-25 6-30 6-34 6-39 6-51

6.1 Introduction to STAAD.Pro Steel Design 6.2 How to Specify Steel Design Parameters 6.3 How to Use the Check Code Command 6.4 Checking Steel Design Results 6.5 Optimizing Steel Designs 6.6 Statically Indeterminate Structures 6.7 Finalizing the Design 6.8 Additional Comments Regarding Design Commands

Table of Contents

ii Copyright © 2008 Bentley Systems Incorporated

Oct-08

Table of Contents

Module 7: Finite Element Modeling
7.2 How to Create Finite Elements

7-1
7-2 7-12 7-18 7-20 7-21 7-26 7-29 7-37

7.1 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 7.3 How to Create Plates with Nodes Off-Grid 7.4 Mesh Generation 7.4.1 Using Structure Wizard to Generate a Mesh 7.4.2 Creating a Mesh From a “Super-Element” 7.4.3 How to Use the Mesh Generation Cursor 7.4.4 Using the Editor to Create a Mesh

Module 8: Concrete Design
8.2 Defining Model Geometry

8-1
8-2 8-4 8-6 8-11 8-13 8-16 8-20 8-21 8-27 8-29 8-32 8-37 8-43 8-45 8-46 8-49 8-59 8-65

8.1 Concrete Design Example Problem 8.3 Defining Element Properties 8.4 Adding the Supports 8.5 Defining Beam – Slab Monolithic Action 8.6 Defining the Slab 8.7 Tools for Viewing Plates 8.8 Plate Orientation and Local Coordinate System 8.9 Defining Plate Properties 8.10 Plate Element Specifications 8.11 Assigning the Loads 8.12 P – Delta Analysis 8.13 Providing Analysis Instructions 8.14 Running the Analysis 8.15 Viewing the Results 8.16 Reinforced Concrete Design 8.17 Understanding Concrete Design Results 8.18 Additional Concrete Modeling Examples

Oct-08

iii Copyright © 2008 Bentley Systems Incorporated

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Module 9: Exercise Problems
9.1 Exercise Problem One 9.2 Exercise Problem Two 9.3 Exercise Problem Three 9.4 Exercise Problem Four 9.5 Exercise Problem Five 9.6 Exercise Problem Six

9-1
9-2 9-4 9-6 9-11 9-17 9-23

Table of Contents

iv Copyright © 2008 Bentley Systems Incorporated

Oct-08

1-1

Introduction
Module 1
The following topics are included in this module. 1.1 About this STAAD.Pro Training Manual ........................................ 2  1.2 STAAD.Pro Workflow Process ......................................................... 3 

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual

1-2

Module 1

1.1

About this STAAD. Pro Training Manual
In the portion of this manual that covers the training instructions, the following conventions are used: Bold text in a box indicates actions that you are requested to perform. Italic text indicates the names of commands, menus, dialog boxes, edit box titles, etc., and suggestions or actions that are optional, but not essential. Underlined text indicates titles of books or reference documents. Text in the form of Tools | Orphan Nodes | Highlight indicates a string of sequential mouse clicks to be chosen from a menu. Shaded text indicates information that provides useful commentary, but is not essential to the flow of the training. Brackets { } indicate metric units or alternate instructions that are to be used if working in metric. However, all screenshots shown in this manual are based on English units. This STAAD. Pro Training Manual is intended to be used in conjunction with a Bentley Institute STAAD. Pro Training course. Depending on the specific course and presentation format, different Modules may be combined to create the overall course content. It is assumed that the reader has access to a working copy of STAAD. Pro to mirror some of the training steps and to complete the exercises and tutorials. In this manual, the first instance of a command is the most completely documented. Subsequent references to that command may not be as thorough since some general familiarity is assumed.

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 1

1-3

1.2

STAAD. Pro Workflow Process
The process of modeling and designing in STAAD. Pro can be summarized into the following general workflow process, which is suggested inherently by the on-screen organization of the tabs within the program:

Modules 2 and 7 Modules 3 and 11

1.

Basic Geometry: Define the basic geometry of the structure using beams, columns, plates and/or solid elements. Section Properties: Define the sizes of members by width, depth, cross sectional shape, etc. Materials Constants: Specify material such as timber, steel, concrete, or aluminum to define Poisson’s Ratio, Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, density, etc. Member Specifications: Define member orientations, member offsets, member releases where moment transfer is to be limited or eliminated, and conditions that only allow a partial transfer of certain types of forces such as tension-only. Supports: Define support locations and boundary conditions including moment fixity, support stiffness, and support angle. Loads: Assign loads such as self-weight, dead, live, wind and seismic, and define load combinations. Analysis Instructions: Indicate the type of analysis to be performed (regular analysis, P-delta, Buckling, Pushover, etc.) and define associated options. Post Processing Commands: Extract analysis results, review deflected shapes, prepare shear and moment diagrams, generate tables to present results, etc. Design Commands: Specify (for steel, concrete, timber, etc.)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Modules 4 and 12

7.

Modules 5 and 13 Modules 6,8,10,14

8.

9.

Pro Standard Training Manual 1-4 Module 1 -End of Module- .STAAD.

....... 2... 16  2. 48  2................... 82  2............................................................................................................4 Elements of the STAAD....5 Job Setup ...................................2-1 Model Generation Module The following topics are included in this module......................................................................................................................................................................... 19  2.......................................Pro Structural Elements ................................... 12  2...................1 Pre-Processor: Model Generation ................ 7  2....... 99  2 .................................................3 Starting a New Project ............6 STAAD............................... 3  2............ 2  2............10 Editing Structure Geometry ....... 15  2.........................................................9 Modeling Exercise 1 ............ 27  2.............................................. 46  2..........................Pro Screen ................................................7 Working with Grids .....8 Entering Structure Geometry .....2 The Start Page ...11 Viewing Structure Geometry ...............12 Modeling Exercise 2 .

assembles and organizes all data needed for the analysis. reactions. .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-2 Module 2 2. • In STAAD.1 Pre-Processor: Model Generation All structural analysis software generally consists of three parts: • Pre Processor: Generates the model. • Analysis Engine: Calculates displacements. Pro using the Pre Processor’s graphical environment to define the geometry of our structure. we will focus on the model generation aspect of STAAD. Post Processor: Displays the results. etc. you do not need to leave one module to access another. Pro . In this module. these features are integrated into a unified graphic user interface (GUI) or working environment. stresses.STAAD. member forces.

Pro icon on the desktop or navigate through the Start menu in the lower-left corner of the desktop). Pro Start Page is displayed.2 The Start Page Start STAAD. Pro wizard.STAAD. Figure 2. Pro (double-click the STAAD. The STAAD. 1 The Start Page is divided into five sections that can be used to achieve the following: Project Tasks: • Start a New Project using the STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-3 2. .

Set the program behavior with the Configuration options.STAAD. Open an existing file from ProjectWise. See a preview of each model in the list by hovering the cursor over the model name. Access the License Management Tool to view and set configuration variables for the Bentley SELECT license. Locate technical support centers and find contact details. Pro . Setup the automatic Backup configuration requirements. Pro online knowledge base. Bentley’s engineering project team collaboration system. • • . • Help Topics: • • • Quick access to the online Help document.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-4 Module 2 • • Open an existing file using the traditional Windows browse dialog enhanced with a model preview window. Access the growing STAAD. Determine What’s New in the latest release of STAAD. Data bubbles are populated with the file path and project information entered in a specific Job Info dialog. Find the latest information on the program online from the Product News link. • • • Recent Files: • • Access the last 6 models opened. such as the server name and site activation key.

it will be shown with a red circle: Figure 2. 3 If the selected license cannot be obtained or is not available from the server. and training courses. .STAAD. 4 STAAD News: • Displays the most current information about STAAD and Bentley. 2 Licenses that have not been selected are marked with a grey circle: Figure 2. Pro using the following color coding scheme: If the license is available it is marked with a green circle: Figure 2.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-5 License Configuration: • Indicates which SELECT licenses are being used by the current session of STAAD. Each news items is identified with a title that acts as a link to a website containing more information on that particular item. using an RSS (Really Simple Syndication) reader. seminars. • Automatic Backup: • Click Backup Manager… in the Project Tasks area of the Start Page. such as program updates.

Pro has the ability to perform automatic saves at a user-specified frequency to protect against loss of data. and then click OK . Under normal conditions this is a user preference item. open. In order to ensure uniformity. • • • • • . compare. and restore backup saves from earlier times.STAAD. Backup Manager also provides tools to view.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-6 Module 2 • STAAD. disable the Auto Save option by removing the check from the Enable Auto Save checkbox. Pro training files. To avoid frequent messages during training. good practice would dictate executing manual saves after significant modeling steps by using File | Save from the Menu Bar. Even with powerful backup and restore features. this training session is accompanied by a dataset of standardized STAAD.

Permits three-dimensional structures. All loads and deformations are in the plane of the structure. Best practice is to orient Y axis up (so gravity pulls in negative Y-direction).3 Starting a New Project Click New Project in the Project Tasks box on the STAAD. File Name File Location Length Units Force Units Four structure types are available: Space: • Acceptable for any configuration of model geometry and loading. Permits loading in any direction. see “Notes about Coordinate System Orientation” below. Permits deformations in all three global axes. The New dialog provides input for: • • • • • Structure type – See structure type descriptions below. • . Pro Start Page. • • • • • Plane: • Acceptable only for two-dimensional models in the XYplane with no loading or deformations perpendicular to this plane. Coordinate system follows right-hand rule.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-7 2.STAAD.

Pro Standard Training Manual 2-8 Module 2 Floor: • Acceptable for two-dimensional models in the XZ-plane with loading and deformations perpendicular to this plane. Members cannot resist bending or shear loads. this is no longer necessary. • . Floor and Truss all conserve system resources by taking advantage of declared conditions to reduce the complexity of the stiffness matrix. • Truss: • Permits loading in any direction. but the program still provides these options for the convenience of long-time users who have become accustomed to using them. Notes about Coordinate System Orientation: • The location of components of a STAAD. • Select Space as the structure type. • • • Structure types Plane. Permits three-dimensional structures. Pro model is defined with reference to the origin point of the global coordinate system. Permits deformations in all three global directions. This coordinate system is a bit different than that used in CAD programs such as MicroStation. With today’s computers. but members only provide axial resistance. All loads and deformations are parallel to the global Yaxis.STAAD. Coordinate system follows right-hand rule.

but you should be aware that many options of the program will not work with Set Z Up . and a plan view is represented by the XZ plane. To change the button. The Location field provides a default path. Base unit selection controls the units used to display results in tables and reports. rather than using Set Z Up . Pro ’s default global coordinate system. while working within STAAD. Pro .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-9 • In STAAD. STAAD. Notes about the unit system: • • Two base unit systems are available: English and Metric.). Pro provides a Set Z Up option for CAD users. Pro also provides tools for re-orienting the coordinate axis when importing or exporting to a CAD program. and point to the location where Location click the you wish to save the file. the wind load generator is one example. etc.STAAD. • • . A default base unit setting was chosen at the time of installation. the Y axis points in the vertical direction. Density. Base unit selection also dictates what type of default values the program will use when material constants are assigned based on material types (Modulus of Elasticity. Pro . It is probably a better idea to reorient the coordinate system when importing or exporting and to use STAAD. • • • • • Enter My Dataset 2_1 in the File Name field. STAAD.

Sets the program up with the Snap Node/Plate dialog to construct a structure made of plates. Sets the program up with the Snap Node/Solid dialog to construct a structure made of solids. Select Foot {Meter} for Length Units and KiloPound {KiloNewton} for Force Units . • • A second dialog appears offering quick access to a variety of common “next steps”. including: • Add Beam Sets the program up with the Snap Node/Beam dialog and a snap grid to begin constructing a structure made of beams and columns. Click the Next button. Click File | Configure from the Start Page. but can be modified on a model by model basis by selecting the desired units using the radio buttons in the Length Units and Force Units categories on the New dialog. Choose the desired unit system from the Select Base Unit drop-down combo box. and then click Accept . • The base unit system for a new project is based on the default base unit setting at the time the new project file is created. Select the Base Unit tab in the Configure Program dialog.STAAD. or click Configuration… in the Project Tasks section of the Start Page.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-10 Module 2 • The default base unit setting can be changed after installation by following the steps in the commentary below. • Add Plate • Add Solid .

etc.STAAD. • Select the Edit Job Information option and click Finish .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-11 • Open Structure Wizard • Open STAAD Editor • Edit Job Information Opens a library of ready-made structure templates which can be extracted and modified parametrically to generate the model geometry or some of its parts. Allows you to build your model using the STAAD syntax commands in the STAAD editor (non-graphical interface). . job number. such as client name. Automatically opens the Job Information dialog where you can enter information relative to the job. comments.

Pro Screen The elements of the STAAD. Gives access to all of the STAAD.STAAD. . Status Bar Figure 2.4 Elements of the STAAD. 5 Menu Bar • • • Near the top of the screen. Pro menu functions. Pro Graphical User Interface (GUI) screen are identified in the figure below. Many of the same functions are also available from the Toolbar and from the Page Control.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-12 Module 2 2. Tool Bar • • Near the top of the screen. Gives access to the most frequently used commands.

Main Window • Large central area of screen where the model and graphical results are displayed. Each tab allows you to perform specific tasks. Organization of the Pages.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-13 • • • Tool Bar is dockable – layout can be reconfigured. current input units. Displays cursor position. etc. • • • . Pro . Generally progress through the pages from top to bottom and enter all the data that are relevant to your project. Presents helpful information regarding the status of the program. hints for using the program. Hover the mouse over any icon for Tool Tip Help. current program operating mode. represents the logical sequence of operations in STAAD. Customized tool bars can be created. Page Control can also be closed from within the Mode menu to free the screen area for other uses. • Page Control • • A set of tabs to the left of the Main Window.STAAD. Background color can be set to either white or black using the File | Configure menu on the Start Page. from top to bottom. • Status Bar • • Displayed at the bottom of the screen.

• • Data Area • • • Generally appears on the right side of the screen. Context-sensitive to the type of operation being performed. but the icons on the Page Control tabs always appear. Each page has some sub-pages.STAAD. which can be set from the Mode menu in the Menu bar. The Pages that display depend on the current Mode of operation. etc. tables. Displays dialogs. Pro window. .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-14 Module 2 • Page names may or may not appear on Page tabs depending on screen resolution and size of STAAD. lists.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-15 2. comments. To see how this information appears on output reports. When the Job sub-page is selected. engineer’s and checker’s initials and dates. Provides facility for defining job name. the Job Info dialog is displayed in the Data Area. enter the following sample information now: Job : Job Client : Client Job No.STAAD. client’s name. and on the Start Page. Rev : Rev Part : Part Ref : Ref • • • • • • • • • • • . The use of this dialog is optional. job number. etc. Information entered in the Job Info dialog will be printed in the output reports and shown in the Recent Files section of the Start Page.5 Job Setup • Setup is the top page in the Page Control area when in Modeling mode. : Job No.

Pro by either the Plates Cursor or the Geometry Cursor. • Nodes: • • • Points of connectivity between structural entities. Pro provides five types of elements to use in modeling structures: Beams: • • • Linear structural members. Pro Structural Elements STAAD. The terms “joint” and “node” are synonymous. Plates: • Finite element commonly used to model “surface structures” such as walls. Selected in STAAD. plates or shells. Pro by either the Beams Cursor or the Geometry Cursor. Pro by either the Nodes Cursor or the Geometry Cursor.6 STAAD. Use of the term “beam” should not be taken to imply that the member cannot take an axial load. • • . May be either 3-noded (triangular) or 4-noded (quadrilateral). Selected in STAAD. slabs. Selected in STAAD.STAAD. The terms “member” and “beam” are synonymous.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-16 Module 2 2.

it will automatically subdivide the surface into elements. Solids most commonly take the form of cubes.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-17 Solids: • Finite element enables the solution of structural problems involving three dimensional stresses. Similar to plate elements in terms of structural behavior. When the program goes through the analysis phase. Selected in STAAD. but. Solid elements consist of 8 nodes. Selected in STAAD. soil and rock strata. but faster and easier to model. • • • • . an 8-noded solid element can be degenerated into forms with 5 to 7 nodes. etc. Solids are useful for solving problems such as stress distribution in concrete dams. Pro by either the Surface Cursor or the Geometry Cursor. The entire wall or slab can be modeled with just a few "Surface" entities. • • • • Surfaces: • Useful in the rapid modeling of walls. by collapsing various nodes together.STAAD. Pro by either the Solids Cursor or the Geometry Cursor. slabs and planar surfaces.

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-18 Module 2 Guideline for selection of Plate elements or Solid elements: If the ratio of the width of the shortest side to the thickness is less than 10. use solid elements. 6 <10t Use Solid Element t . t >10t Use Plate Element Figure 2.

• • • Types of grid systems: • Linear • Two-dimensional system of regularly spaced linear (but not necessarily orthogonal) construction lines creating a plane of snap points. and Z coordinate system.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-19 2. • . or at an angle skewed with respect to the global planes. Radial and Irregular. • • • Radial • Two-dimensional system of regularly spaced radial and circumferential construction lines creating a plane of snap points.7 Working with Grids • Grids assist with model construction by providing dimensional control and snap points. Plane is defined as being coincident with the global XY. Location of the origin can be defined with respect to the global X. Three types of grids can be defined: Linear. XZ. or YZ planes. or YZ planes. Plane is defined as being coincident with the global XY. Only one grid system can be displayed at a time. or at an angle skewed with respect to the global planes. Multiple grid systems can be created and saved in one model. Y. XZ.

and Z coordinate system. XZ. or at an arbitrary plane. An arbitrary plane can be specified by checking the Use Arbitrary Plane box and entering the two points that define the normal vectors of the X and Y directions of the • .STAAD. Well-suited for drawing circular models using piece-wise linear techniques. Plane is defined as being coincident with the global XY. The following diagram shows an example of a radial grid system defined in the XY plane: • • Figure 2. or at an angle skewed with respect to the global planes. Y. 7 • Irregular • Two-dimensional system of regularly or irregularly spaced linear (but not necessarily orthogonal) construction lines creating a plane of snap points. or YZ planes.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-20 Module 2 • Location of the origin can be defined with respect to the global X.

8 Spacing of the gridlines can vary in both directions. 9 Useful in creating openings in shear walls using the surface element.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-21 plane. To set up grids: • Ensure that the model named MY Dataset 2_1. (The other point to establish the X and Y normally is the origin.std is open.STAAD. Figure 2. . Spacing between successive gridlines is specified in the Relative gridline distances group box as shown below.) The following diagram shows an example of defining an arbitrary plane by defining the X and Y normal vectors. Figure 2.

This is the place we would have come if we had chosen the Add Beam option in the Where do you want to go? dialog when first starting the model. Options are available to coordinate the new grid with any of the global axis planes. Grid layout is controlled by this dialog. and Irregular grid type options. • • • Click Create… in the Snap Node/Beam dialog. Type Training Grid in the Name field. • . because we are editing a different grid system. The Snap Node/Beam dialog appears in the Data Area. • • • Click the X-X radio button in the Angle of Plane ° category and enter a value of 45 in the field. or by clicking on the Snap Node/Beam toolbar button . Note that the list at the top of this secondary dialog is currently set to Linear . Close the Snap Node/Beam dialog. • • A default grid appears in the Main Window. Note that you will not see any changes taking effect on the grid system currently displayed on the screen. and note that it can be reopened by clicking Geometry | Snap Grid/Node | Beam . Click the X-Y radio button in the Plane category. This rotates the grid plane 45 ° about the X axis. Click the Beam sub-page tab. but also offers the Radial . the active grid system.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-22 Module 2 • • Click the Geometry page tab in the Page Control area. Keep it set to Linear for this example.

10. Note that the Grid Origin can also be changed from the default location of (0. 0)} in the grid origin fields. 3. The Spacing value is not measured perpendicular to the grid lines it applies to.25) ft {m} in both the X and Y directions.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-23 • Enter (10. Default Grid (Linear) is automatically deselected. . 0. and the Main Window now displays the new grid. • Set the number of Construction Lines to 12 in both the X and Y directions by clicking the up arrow in the column labeled Right . 0) by using the icon to select an existing node in the model to represent the new origin. Click the checkbox in front of Training Grid (Linear) to make it the active grid system. Keep the Skew ° set to 0 in both the X and Y directions. Training Grid (Linear) now appears in the list of available grid systems in the Snap Node/Beam dialog. they can be set differently for each grid system in the model. Since these settings are specific to individual grid systems. 0) {(3. • • • • Click OK . Set the Spacing field to 1 {0. • • The Active Grid Labels Setup category in the Snap Node/Beam dialog controls how the labels will appear for the currently selected grid system whenever it is the active grid. but Default Grid (Linear) is still the active grid system. A note about skewed grid lines: use caution to set the correct Spacing value when using skewed grids.STAAD.

Pro Standard Training Manual 2-24 Module 2 • The End(s) lists offer different options for labeling the ends of the gridlines. The X-axis labels now read in whole numbers instead of fractional values in decimal format.Coords checkbox. and Z coordinate labels at all Y grid lines. 0. Keep them set to Start .) This displays X. . and note the difference. column corresponding to the Y grid lines to increase the number to 2 . This alters the display so that coordinates are reported in terms of a coordinate system that is local to the current grid. This reduces the labeling frequency of the Y grids to every other grid line. • The labels are currently showing coordinate values in the global coordinate system with respect to the global origin located at (0. 0)} ). 3. Y. The origin of the local coordinate system is located at the origin of the grid system (global coordinate (10.STAAD. 0) {(3. the X coordinate now reads 0 instead of 10 {3}. 10. and with X and Y vectors lying in the plane of the grid. Click the Local Coordinate checkbox. Looking at the Y grid line labels. • • • • Click the Local Coordinate checkbox again to deselect. • Click the up arrow in the Freq. and note the difference. Click the Rel. • Click the X and the Z buttons in the row corresponding to the Y grid lines. (Y should already be selected. 0).

• • Click the Rel. 10. 0) {(3. Click the X and the Z buttons in the row corresponding to the Y grids lines. Now only the Y coordinate labels should be displayed at every other Y grid line. • Click the down arrow in the Freq. • Click the Axis Ids checkbox. • • Click the Axis Ids checkbox again to deselect. and Z directions. Looking at the Y grid line labels.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-25 • Coordinates are now shown as relative offsets from the local origin of the grid system (global coordinate (10. 3. but they start at 0 instead of 10 {3}. Click Font… and note the options that are available to change the font and color of the labels. • . The X grid line labels read in fractional values in decimal format. especially in radically rotated grid systems. Coords checkbox again to deselect. 0)}) measured in the global X. and note how it displays an axis prefix on each grid label. to deselect both. the X coordinate reads 0 instead of 10 {3}. Click Cancel to close the Font dialog and return to the Snap Node/Beam dialog.STAAD. column corresponding to the Y grid lines to decrease the number to 1 . This sets the labeling frequency back to labeling every Y grid line. This can be helpful to establish orientation. Y.

Training Grid (Linear) is automatically deselected. Click the Default Grid (Linear) checkbox to make it the active grid system. . Click No when asked if you want to save the file. • • • Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-26 Module 2 • Click the Delete button in the Snap Node/Beam dialog to delete Training Grid (Linear) .STAAD.

STAAD. • • Click Geometry | Snap Grid/Node | Beam . Select Dataset 2_2.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-27 2. The Beam sub-page tab will be active by default. Metric Grid (Linear) should be the active grid. Click on the Geometry page tab in the Page Control area. If working in metric. The default grid appears in the Main Window. Follow the steps outlined below to construct this simple portal frame: • • • Figure 2. click Open Project… and point to the location of the dataset installation.std and click Open . 10 .8 Entering Structure Geometry Drawing beams: • On the Start Page.

(If not click the Snap Node/Beam button. Move to (7. 8. 0. 0)} to draw the first member.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-28 Module 2 • The Snap Node/Beam button in the Snap Node/Beam dialog should be automatically activated. indicating that it is the starting point for the next member. and 8 lines {10 lines} above the origin. 0)} and click one more time. 2. the other end is called End B or Node B. Hold CTRL key down to reset. The coordinates of the current cursor position are always provided in the Status Bar at the lower right corner of the screen. 0) {(0. 0) to create the first node. 0) {(2.STAAD. 0. 0. Click at the origin (0.) Notice the text prompt in the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen that says. The “hot spot” appears and a line will start “rubber-banding” from the origin. “Add nodes/beams to line intersections using cursor. 0)} and click again. This would eliminate having to constantly check . 8.5. Move to (7. so that the “hot spot” follows the cursor and snaps to grid intersections. Note that the grid could have been set up with 7 lines {8 lines} to the right of the origin. 0) {(2. The starting end of a member is also referred to as End A or Node A.5. Move up the grid and click again at (0.” Notice that the cursor only snaps to grid intersections. • • • • • • Now the “hot spot” appears at the end of the first member. • • • Click the Snap Node/Beam button to stop drawing beams. 2.

To demonstrate this.35} and press the tab key. and 1 line above the origin in the positive Y direction.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-29 cursor location by counting grid lines or looking at the coordinate readout. • • • • • • • . • • Grids can be adjusted on the fly. Edit the Spacing of the X grid lines back to 1 {0. and then click the Edit… button. Nodes that have already been placed will NOT move with the grid. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Another good way to set the grid for this example would have been to set the grid to 1 line to the right of the origin in the positive X direction.std.STAAD. but the existing nodes did not move with the grid. Click No when asked if you want to save the changes.5 meters} in the Y direction. Edit the Spacing of the X grid lines to 1. then set the spacing to 7 feet {2 meters} in the X direction and 8 feet {2. They maintain their coordinates once they have been placed. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. make sure Default Grid (Linear) {Metric Grid (Linear)} is still the active grid system. Note that the grid changed in the Main Window. Use the grid to its best advantage. and is named Dataset 2_3.25} . and then click OK .5 {0.

so that the “hot spot” follows the cursor and snaps to grid intersections. Ensure that Default Grid (Linear) {Metric Grid (Linear)} is activated (has a check in the checkbox). Click on the node at (0. 2. The last node will no longer be considered the starting point of the next member. Click on the Beam sub-page tab. Click Geometry | Snap/Grid Node | Beam to open the Snap Node/Beam dialog. 8. 0. Release the Control (Ctrl) key. Click on the Geometry page tab in the Page Control area. click on the node at (7. 0)} and note that the cursor is “rubberbanding” from that location. While holding the Control (Ctrl) key. 0) {(2.STAAD. 8. click the Snap Node/Beam button. Move the cursor around and notice that the line is no longer “rubber-banding” from the previous click location. 0) {(2. 0)}. • • • • . (If not.5. and note that the cursor is now “rubber-banding” from the node at (7. 0) to draw the first diagonal. 0. 2. 0. 0) {(2. 0)} .std .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-30 Module 2 How to move the “Hot Spot”: • • • • Open the file named Dataset 2_3. • • Press and hold the Control (Ctrl) key.5. This is where the cursor was when the last node of the portal frame was placed.) • Click at (7. The Snap Node/Beam button in the Snap Node/Beam dialog should be automatically activated.

0) {(0. Click the Snap Node/Beam button once more to stop drawing beams. click on the node at (0. Remember to check this area any time you are in doubt about what response the program expects from you. 0)} to add the second diagonal.” • • Press and hold the Control (Ctrl) key. For demonstration purposes. 2. While holding the Control (Ctrl) key. and click on the node at (7. 0) {(2. . Or.5.std is still the active model. 0. 8. Keep this model open for use in the next section. the Undo command could be used in this case. 0)} . click the Redo icon twice. it provides a hint regarding use of the Control (Ctrl) key to move the “hot spot. 0. Right now. Release the Control (Ctrl) key. or click Edit | Undo Add • • • • The diagonals are deleted.STAAD. Click the Undo icon Beam twice. • • • How to “Undo” an operation: • • • Ensure that Dataset 2_3. twice. Assume that the diagonal members were just added in error. They could be deleted by methods that will be illustrated in a later section.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-31 The Status Bar in the lower left corner of the screen displays some instructions for the currently active command or program mode.

This function provides the ability to Undo multiple commands at one time.STAAD. The diagonal members are deleted. There is an Undo feature in the command file editor.std. . and is named Dataset 2_4. that cache is purged as well. The Undo command from the Main Window cannot undo changes made in the command file editor. Pro will purge the Undo cache if changes are made in the command file editor and the Save command is issued. Double click the second Add Beam item in the list to undo the most recent two steps. • • • • . A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. • A list of modeling steps is presented with the most recent step on top. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click the pulldown arrow to the right of the Undo icon . Click No when asked if you want to save the changes. but once changes are saved and the editor is closed. • • Click the pulldown arrow to the right of the Redo icon Double click the second Add Beam item in the list to restore the diagonal members.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-32 Module 2 • • The diagonals are restored. The Redo icon also has this feature. Nothing that was done before the command file was changed and saved will be available to Undo. STAAD.

• • • • Note that the black triangle in the lower right corner of this icon indicates that there are additional tools available “beneath” the visible icon. without the use of a grid. The Add Beams tool members to a model.std . The model automatically opens to the Job sub-page of the Setup page in the Page Control area. Click the Add Beams tool on the Geometry toolbar. . Note that no grid is currently displayed.STAAD. provides another way to add • • • • It will automatically snap to existing nodes in the structure and allow a beam to be added between two existing nodes. This returns us to a version of the portal frame model that does not already have the cross braces. Does not use the last node as the beginning for the next beam. The Add Beams tool is also accessible from the Menu Bar by clicking Geometry | Add Beam | Add Beam from Point to Point. Only adds one beam at a time.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-33 Using the “Add Beams” Tool: • • Reopen the file named Dataset 2_3. • • The mouse cursor changes to the Add Beams cursor. To display the other tools associated with this icon. click and hold the left mouse button while pointing to one of these icons.

The Insert Nodes into Beam dialog offers many ways to specify the location of new nodes to be added. Click near the middle of the vertical member on the right .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-34 Module 2 • Click at the lower left node in the portal frame. Click on the node that was just created .STAAD. A value of 3. The Add Beam tool can also be used to add a beam where there is no node. A line starts “rubber-banding” between that node and the cursor location. Note no “rubberbanding”. and the text prompt in the lower left corner of the screen indicates “Click on node at start of beam”. A single member has now been created between those two nodes. and note that a line starts “rubber-banding” between that node and the cursor location. and click the Add New Point button. Note that these members were drawn without the use of grids. Click near the middle of the horizontal member .5000 {1. Click at the upper right node . Draw the other diagonal in a similar manner.5 in the Proportion field. Click Yes to the prompt about adding a new node. • • • • . A new node is created at the specified location.0000} appears in the Insertion Points box. • • • • • • • Enter 0. Click OK . Click Yes in response to the prompt asking if you want to add a node.

The message in the Status Bar says “Select First Beam”. Click on the left-hand member of the top horizontal beam. • • The Add Beam between Mid-Points tool now remains the visible icon. Note that this is a faster method of adding a node at the midpoint than the method used on the horizontal member. and then release the mouse button. An even faster method would be to use the Add Beam between . When the sub-toolbar pops up. and the line starts “rubber-banding” from the mid-point of the vertical member. The message in the Status Bar now says “Select Second Beam”. Another diagonal member is created as shown below: • • • • . Click the Add Beam between Mid-Points tool. and then click OK . • Click and hold the left mouse button while pointing to the Add Beams tool. Click on the vertical member on the left . keep the left mouse button depressed and point the cursor to the Add Beam between MidPoints tool . This is one of the additional tools Mid-Points tool available “beneath” the Add Beams icon. • • Click on this new node to finish adding the new member.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-35 • This time. click the Add Mid Point button.

click Open Project… and point to the location of the dataset installation.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-36 Module 2 Figure 2. • • Creating geometry using the spreadsheet: • On the Start Page. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.std. 11 • Click the Add Beam between Mid-Points toolbar button again to turn the tool off. Select Dataset 2_2. Click No when asked if you want to save the changes. • . An alternate method to turn the tool off would be to click Geometry | Add Beam | Add Beam between Mid-Points from the Menu Bar. • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.std and click Open . and is named Dataset 2_5.

0)} (7. • Node 1 has already been entered. 2. 0) {(2. In the Nodes spreadsheet in the Data Area. using the tab or arrow keys to move between cells: Node 1 2 3 4 (X. • . input the following coordinate values. 0) (0. Click the Beam sub-page tab. In the Beams spreadsheet.5.STAAD. using the tab key to move between cells: Beam 1 2 3 4 5 Node A 1 2 3 1 2 Node B 2 3 4 3 4 • • The beams appear in the Main Window as their end nodes are entered in the spreadsheet.0)} (7. 0. 2. Z) (0. 0) {(2. Y. 0)} • The nodes appear in the Main Window as their coordinates are entered in the spreadsheet. Grids will intentionally be left off to illustrate that this method of entering geometry is completely independent of grid systems. input the following node numbers.5. 8.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-37 • • Click the Geometry page tab in the Page Control area. 0. 0. Note that this portal frame has been created completely independently of any grid systems. 8. 0) {(0.

The dataset already contains a file in this state named Dataset 2_4. Structure Wizard will be used to build a model of the structure shown in the figure below: • Figure 2. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save the changes.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-38 Module 2 • It is not necessary to save this model. • • How to use the Structure Wizard: • Structure Wizard is a powerful and useful utility for creating structures from a built-in library of standard prototype structures. For a demonstration of some of its capabilities.STAAD.std. 12 • The general procedure will be to create the structure geometry in three steps: .

Creating the Truss: • Click New Project… from the Project Tasks section of the Start Page. Pro will automatically append the . Click the Next button.STAAD. Click the Open Structure Wizard checkbox in the Where do you want to go? dialog. Enter STRUCTURE WIZARD for the File Name . Use the Mirror command to create the left side.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-39 • • • Get the basic truss unit from Structure Wizard . and then click the Finish button.std extension. Note the radio button options to toggle between Prototype Models and Saved User Models . and the Structure Wizard window opens. STAAD. • The STAAD. • Select Foot {meter} for Length Units and KiloPound {KiloNewton} for Force Units . This will be demonstrated in a later section. Pro graphic environment now appears. • • • • . Add a column. The Structure Wizard can also be accessed from within STAAD. Click Space type structure in the New dialog. Pro at any time by using the Geometry | Run Structure Wizard command.

and click OK . where the coordinate axes tripod is displayed. Another option to select the North Light prototype is to drag and drop the North Light structure type icon over to the right side of the Structure Wizard window. Pro model. Structure Wizard displays six types of truss prototype models on the left side of the window. Click the Model Type list in the upper left corner and note the built-in categories of structure prototype models that are already available. • The Select Parameters dialog contains fields for entering parametric dimensions for the structure. Pro provides the ability to save user models in a parametric format that allows them to be recalled and modified quickly.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-40 Module 2 STAAD. as expected. • • Ensure that the units are set to Feet {Meters} . Select Truss Models in the Model Type list. This makes it possible to create a prototype in one unit system and then merge it into a model with a different unit system. • • Select Prototype Models . • Double-click the North Light truss icon to create the right half of the truss structure. • . The Select Units dialog opens and allows a choice of unit systems to use in the definition of the prototype structure. Note that the units are in feet {meters}. This does not necessarily have to be set to the same units as the main STAAD. Click File | Select Units in the Structure Wizard’s Menu Bar .STAAD.

By default. • just to the right of the Click the button with 3 dots in it No. 133 In this example. set the Length dimension to 7. not multiple units in the third direction. . A dialog is displayed showing the current breakdown of bay lengths. Click the Apply button in the Select Parameters dialog. For this example. • • Click OK or Cancel to dismiss this dialog. of bays along length field. leave the bay lengths set to their default values. but it enforces the constraint that the sum of the bay lengths must remain the same as the overall length of the truss.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-41 • Enter values as shown in the figure below: Figure 2. the program sets the bay lengths equal. This dialog permits the individual bay lengths to be revised manually.STAAD.5 meters and the Height to 3 meters}. {For metric units. the Width is set to 0 . because only a planar model is desired. The structure now appears on the right side of the Structure Wizard window.

Now. Pro ’s Main Window. If you do not see the Merge Model with STAAD. After rotating the structure in either the Shift key or Control (Ctrl) key modes.Pro Model . Pro project. The coordinate axis tripod shows that the origin is located at the lower left corner of the truss. Pro model.Pro Model command. . not the File menu in STAAD. and think of it as being encapsulated in a transparent sphere. pull down Structure Wizard’s File menu and select Merge Model with STAAD. • • • • • • Click Yes in the next dialog to confirm the intent to transfer the prototype structure into the STAAD. check to be sure that you have pulled down Structure Wizard’s File menu. and note how it locks the structure so that it only rotates about one of the three local axes indicated by the tripod. Press and hold the Control (Ctrl) key. Note the location of the origin and the orientation of the local coordinate axes.STAAD. The axis of rotation is controlled by where the structure is grabbed with respect to the three reference circles shown on the screen. and note how it locks the structure so that it only rotates about one of the two orthogonal axes in the plane of the screen. just click the mouse anywhere in the right side of the Structure Wizard window to return to “clear sphere” rotation mode. It will be useful to know where the local origin is when importing the structure into the STAAD. Press and hold the Shift key. The structure can be viewed from various angles by dragging it with the mouse.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-42 Module 2 • The local origin for the structure is indicated by a colored coordinate axis tripod. It helps to grab the structure near the top of the view.

Pro model that already contained some elements. 0) in the STAAD. Pro model.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-43 • Some discussion about units… • The purpose of the Paste Prototype Model dialog is to adjust the position of the prototype model when it is placed in the STAAD. Pro main menu . a prototype model will be placed into a STAAD. Therefore. For this reason. it is possible that the units that come up in the Paste Prototype Model dialog could be different than the units that come up in the Select Parameters dialog. This option uses a Reference Pt button to allow the prototype model to be . Therefore. • • • By default. ( Tools | Set Current Display Unit… ) By contrast. Pro model: • By distance between following two nodes and specifying two reference nodes. a third option to locate the prototype model would be available. the units provided in the Select Parameters dialog are controlled by the Select Units setting in the Structure Wizard main menu. ( File | Select Unit ). The Paste Prototype Model dialog currently provides two methods to shift the insertion point of the prototype model to a location other than (0. and Z values and entering the desired coordinate location. Pro model. Y.STAAD. Pro model so that the origin of the prototype model coincides with the origin of the STAAD. • • If the prototype model were being merged into a STAAD. the purpose of the Select Parameters dialog is to create the geometry of the prototype within the Structure Wizard . or By the following X. the units provided in the Paste Prototype Model dialog are controlled by the Set Current Display Unit… setting in the STAAD. 0.

Pro origin. In the Nodes table in the Data Area.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-44 Module 2 inserted at any existing point on the STAAD. {5 m}. The newly created node 11 appears in the diagram in the Main Window. then the truss should be inserted 15 feet {5 meters} in the positive Y direction from the origin of the global coordinate system.5. The structure is transferred into the STAAD. This option will be demonstrated in a later section. But first.Pro model. and enter a value of 15 ft { 5 meters} in the Y field. 0. Click OK . Select By the following X. In the Nodes table of the Data Area. input the coordinates (25. Y. and Z values in the Paste Prototype Model dialog. • • . Pro Main Window is now visible. • The truss is to be supported by 15-foot {5-meter} columns. 0. note that the Y coordinate for nodes 1 through 5 is 15 ft. indicating that the truss was indeed inserted 15 feet {5 meters} above the STAAD. 0} on the line for node 11. • • Click the Geometry | Beam page in the Page Control.STAAD. • • Adding the column: • The next step in creating this model is to add the column at the shallow end of the truss. the node at the base of the column must be created. 0) {7. The Structure Wizard is dismissed. If the coordinate location of the bottom of the columns is to be at Y = 0. and the STAAD. Pro model.

• • • • The remaining steps for completing this model will be demonstrated in a later section. and is named Dataset 2_STRUCTURE WIZARD.STAAD. . Click No when asked if you want to save. • Click the node on the shallow end of the truss and click again at the new node .std. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. icon to turn the Add Beams tool • This tool remains active until it is turned off. Click the Add Beams off.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-45 • Click Geometry | Add Beam | Add Beam from Point to Point . The cursor changes to the Add Beams cursor.

9 Modeling Exercise 1 Create this model by applying the modeling techniques that have been presented up to this point. Foot {Meters} . Beam Sub-page. Add Beam .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-46 Module 2 2. 14 Tips: • • New Project… from the Start Page. KiloPound {KiloNewton} . Some abbreviated notes are provided below for general guidance if necessary. adjust grid to suit. Snap Node/Beam dialog. My Exercise 1 . Figure 2. Geometry Page.STAAD. Edit… . Space . Project Tasks category. • .

Snap Node/Beam to stop adding members. Yes to save. Close button to dismiss the Snap Node/Beam dialog. File | Close .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-47 • • • • • Note the order of the node numbers in the figure. Press and hold Control (Ctrl) to move the “hot spot”.STAAD. .

Twelve different cursors are available for selecting the various types of STAAD. • • • • • Cursor Nodes Cursor Beams Cursor Plates Cursor Surface Cursor Solids Cursor Geometry Cursor Selects Nodes only Members only Plate elements only Surface entities only Solid elements only All types of entities . Having specific cursors can be very convenient when assigning properties where various types of entities are crowded together.STAAD. Pro Selection toolbar: • In the Project Tasks section of the Start Page.10 Editing Structure Geometry How to use the cursors in the STAAD.std . The Selection toolbar is normally docked vertically on the left side of your screen. click Open Project… and open the model called Dataset 2_5. Hover the cursor over any of the toolbar buttons and a tooltip help label pops up with the function of the toolbar button. Pro entities.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-48 Module 2 2. Each cursor selects specific types of objects for editing or manipulation.

In addition to using the toolbars. The Geometry Cursor selects all entities in a certain area. • • • • • • . no matter what type of entities they are.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-49 Select Text Load Edit Cursor Support Edit Cursor Member Release Edit Cursor Filtered Selection Cursor Select Joints Cursor Facts: • Text labels only Loads only Supports only Member releases only Multiple types of geometric entities with specific attributes Connections defined in the RAM Connection module The Nodes Cursor selects the nearest node when you click anywhere in the drawing area. Multiple members are selected by pressing Control (Ctrl) and clicking. The Select Text Cursor is disabled or “grayed out” if there are no text objects in the model. (This cursor type will be easier to demonstrate once the model has properties assigned to the members.STAAD. The Filtered Selection Cursor helps quickly identify the location of entities with certain attributes. The Beams Cursor selects/deselects individual members by clicking on them. you can also choose cursors from the Select menu on the Menu Bar.) The Select Joints cursor is disabled or “grayed out” unless you are in the RAM Connection module and at least one connection has been defined.

right to left. Region: • • Creates a selection polygon of any shape. This holds true regardless of which direction the box is placed (left to right. • • Drag Box: • • Creates a rectangular selection box. When the Beams Cursor is used in the Drag Line mode.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-50 Module 2 • Another related toolbar. Click Select | Selection Mode . the Labels toolbar. and left-clicking with the mouse inserts additional vertices. and note that three options are available: Drag Box . Can be used to create very irregular shapes to selectively include and exclude various items. This works hand-in-hand with the cursor choice. contains more cursors that are used to turn individual labels on and off. • . It is explained in more detail in the Module 5 – The Post Processor. Drag Line . The cursor choice controls WHAT items will be selected. The polygon is always closed. top to bottom. When the Beams Cursor is used in the Drag Box mode. the rule is that a member will be selected if the box includes the mid-point of the member. or bottom to top). and Region . Drag Line: • • Creates a selection line.STAAD. any beam crossed by the Drag Line will be selected. The Selection Mode controls HOW those items will be selected.

Click the Select Listed Entities button followed by the Close button.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-51 • Double-click to stop creating more vertices and execute the selection. Selected beams become deselected and vice versa. Similar to Drag Box . Click Select | By Inverse | Inverse Beam Selection from the Menu Bar to invert the current selection status of all beams in the model. enter 1 To 3 in the Enter list field.STAAD. a member will be selected if the region includes the mid-point of the member. • • . Another option is to type the desired beam numbers in the Enter list field. To demonstrate the use of the “To” command to select a range of members. Control (Ctrl) + click will select multiple beams. Shift + click will select a contiguous group of beam numbers. • • • • Click Select | By All | All Beams from the Menu Bar to quickly select all beams in a model. separated by spaces. • Additional options for member selection: • • Click Select | By List | Beams… from the Menu Bar . Click Select | Entity at Node | Beams from the Menu Bar to select all beams that connect to a particular node to be chosen from a list. • One option is to select from the list of all beams in the model by clicking individual beam numbers in the list. The Select Beams dialog will open with a list box listing all the beams in the model.

Sometimes deleting members leaves nodes without structural element attachment. And others.STAAD. known as Orphan Nodes. • Hold Control (Ctrl) and click on the two highlighted members in the view below. • How to delete members graphically: • Ensure that the cursor type is the Beams Cursor .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-52 Module 2 • Click Select | Beams Parallel To | (X or Y or Z) from the Menu Bar to select all beams that are parallel to the selected axis. Figure 2. Click OK to confirm. 155 • Press the Delete key on the keyboard. or click Edit | Delete . Check the Selection toolbar in the upper left corner of the screen or pull down the Select menu to see which cursor is active. • • . or click the Delete icon on the Menu Bar.

Click on the Beam sub-page tab. make their windows wider. Pro . select the first row in the STAAD. This method may be useful if the beams to be deleted are in sequential numerical order. Use the column mapping table to map the data into the appropriate columns. STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-53 • If Orphan Nodes are created when members are deleted graphically. They can be copied and pasted into Microsoft Excel. If the table names are not visible.STAAD. Pro table. • . • • • Click the Geometry page tab in the Page Control area. Pro . • Table data can also be copied and pasted from RAM Advanse into STAAD. Notice the Nodes and Beams tables in the Data Area that resemble spreadsheets. These tables are completely interactive with the graphics display. When pasting from Excel. right mouse click. and choose Paste . Using the spreadsheets to delete or modify geometry: • It is also possible to delete beams (one at a time or many at once) from the Beams spreadsheet. The structure geometry can also be created in a spreadsheet and then copied and pasted into STAAD. making them easy to select from a list. • These tables are actually compatible with Microsoft Excel worksheets. Pro will prompt for a decision as to whether to delete these nodes or not.

and click on any member . • • .STAAD. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. and is named Dataset 2_6.std. Select the Nodes Cursor and fence around any node . The corresponding member in the table is highlighted. then change it back to its original value . Change one of the coordinates in the Nodes table and watch the display change. Click Undo to get the beam back. If Orphan Nodes are created when members are deleted from the spreadsheet. Delete any line from the Beams spreadsheet and note the effect in the graphic display. or they can be automatically deleted with Tools | Orphan Nodes | Delete . STAAD. The line in the Nodes table corresponding to that node becomes highlighted. they can be automatically detected with Tools | Orphan Nodes | Highlight . However. Click No when asked if you want to save. • • • • • • • • A copy of this model is already saved in the dataset. Click any row in the Beams or Nodes tables and the corresponding beam or node is highlighted in the graphic display.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-54 Module 2 • Ensure that the Beams Cursor is active. Pro does not automatically prompt for a decision as to whether to delete them or not.

The STAAD. Pro converts your actions into a command language and stores them in a command file. and then open the command file to see what the equivalent command language is. Open Dataset 2_6. Pro input file. std . Pro Editor to modify structure geometry: • Click Open Project… in the Project Tasks section of the Start Page . Pro command files. a simple text file in ASCII format. All program input had to be performed by writing statements in a command file. Pro Examples manual contains twenty-nine example problems and fourteen verification problems created using the input file as the primary input method. .std .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-55 Using the STAAD. rather than modifying it with the graphic interface. • • • • Any standard text editor can actually be used to create or edit the STAAD. it is easier to edit the value in the command file. Early releases of STAAD did not include a graphical user interface (GUI). You can also issue a command using the graphic interface. Experienced STAAD. • Open the editor by clicking Edit | Edit Input Command File or by clicking the • icon on the File toolbar. Pro users often find that if they just want to make a quick change to a value. STAAD. Pro appends the command file with the extension . You can study these examples if you wish to learn how to write or interpret STAAD. As you create your structure using the graphic interface. STAAD.STAAD.

.). The node table in the Data Area now shows a value of 12 {4} for the Y coordinate of node number 3. Pro editor. From the Joint Coordinates statement. • • • • • • . etc. Note that node number 3 in the graphic display has moved. STAAD. Click the Geometry tab. Click File | Save and then File | Exit in the STAAD Editor’s menu bar. Pro keywords. comments.5 to 4 }. you can see that the node definitions consist of node numbers followed by the XYZ coordinates.5}. In the STAAD.STAAD. Go back into the editor and change the Y coordinate for node 3 back to 8 {2. Pro command file editor offers the advantage of syntax checking. numeric data. are displayed in distinct colors: • • • • Red Black Blue = Commands = User-defined text labels and names = Numerical values • Green = Remarks and comments • The command language syntax resembles ordinary English. Pro menu bar). Node data fields are separated (delimited) by semicolons (. and edit the Y coordinate from 8 to 12 {from 2. Find the coordinates of node number 3. Click File | Save and then File | Exit in the STAAD Editor’s menu bar (not the STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-56 Module 2 • The STAAD.

• • • How to merge members: • • • • Open Dataset 2_7. Click Geometry | Merge Selected Members .std . • Since there is no longer a reason to maintain those particular intermediate nodes. and select the three horizontal members .STAAD. Ensure that the Beams Cursor is active. Notice that the top horizontal beam is segmented into three individual members of various lengths. Click No when asked if you want to save. and then click OK .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-57 • Remember to never make changes in the command file and in the graphics input mode simultaneously. Always be sure to save and close the command file before going back to working on the model in the graphic interface. and the individual members can be merged into one. Click View | Structure Diagrams… from the Menu Bar. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. they can be removed. Click the Labels tab. • • • . This was caused by the diagonal members that were modeled and then subsequently deleted. with two intermediate nodes. Click the checkboxes to view Beam Numbers and Node Points .

The top horizontal member has been consolidated into one member with number 10. Add Mid Point .std is still open. Click Geometry | Split Beam . this dialog also provides the ability to specify which to keep as multiple members are merged into one. Add n Points . If materials and properties had already been assigned. The Insert Nodes into Beam dialog displays the member number and length. Add New Point: • Distance from the starting node to the new node can be entered in the Distance field.STAAD. choose 10 . • • • Click Merge and Close . equal-length segments. to Keep list. How to split a beam into two or more members: • • Ensure that Dataset 2_7. and the three member numbers are listed. or A ratio can be entered in the Proportion field. Assume that the top horizontal member needs to be segmented into three. where the value represents distance from the starting end of the • • • • . In the Beam No. Select the top horizontal member . It contains three options for specifying where to insert new nodes along the beam: Add New Point .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-58 Module 2 • The Merge Selected Beams dialog opens.

Add n Points: • Enter the number of nodes to insert into a beam in the “n =” field. Add Mid Point: • Creates an insertion point at the midpoint of the member. Enter a value of 2 in the n = field. separated by n nodes.STAAD. Note that the Insert Node command will not appear in the popup menu unless at least one member has been selected. Click OK . The program divides the beam into n+1 equal segments. to add a node ¼ the distance from the starting end to the ending end. For example. . • • • Geometry | Insert Node… and Geometry | Split Beam are identical commands provided for convenience. Click Add n Points .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-59 member to the new node divided by the total length. expressed as a decimal value. type 0. The Insert Node command is also accessible through the menu that pops up from a right-click of the mouse in the Main Window.25 in the Proportion field.

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How to create a connection between two intersecting members: • • Ensure that Dataset 2_7.std is still open. The two diagonal members form a cross-brace, but there is currently no connection between them. The cross braces are independent members, and cannot transfer any load to each other. Assume that the intent is for the bracing members to be connected and to transfer load at their intersection. This condition can be achieved easily in STAAD. Pro by splitting and connecting these members at their intersection. To highlight the two diagonal members, ensure that the Beams Cursor is active. Click on one of the cross-braces , hold down the Control (Ctrl) key, and then click on the other cross-brace . Click Geometry | Intersect Selected Members | Intersect . The Enter Tolerance field in the Intersect Members dialog is an option through which to tell the program to find the point of closest approach between 2 lines even when they do not intersect each other. It is useful in a case when a mathematical precision related error in the respective node coordinates causes the 2 lines to be in different planes. For lines which truly intersect each other, the tolerance can be set to zero, and the intersect members command will function properly. • • Leave the Tolerance set to 0 and click OK . Click OK to acknowledge the message box indicating that two new beams have been created.

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Both diagonal members have been split into two, and a new node now exists at the intersection point. In the Intersect Selected Members sub-menu, there is another option called Highlight . The Highlight function also requests a tolerance value like the Intersect function. The Highlight function then graphically highlights all intersecting members in the structure that satisfy the tolerance. This is a useful tool in models with many crossing but unattached members. The highlighted conditions can be graphically examined and selectively split or left as-is.

A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset, and is named Dataset 2_8.std. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save.

• •

How to renumber beams and nodes: • • • • Open Dataset 2_8.std . Click on the Geometry page tab in the Page Control area. Click on the Beam sub-page tab. Click on the Symbols and Labels icon toolbar. in the Structure

Click Beam Numbers on the Labels tab, Beams category, and then click OK .

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Module 2

Looking at the Beams spreadsheet and Nodes spreadsheet, note that the member numbers and node numbers are not in consecutive numerical order due to editing. Having members and nodes in numerical order can be a convenience in interpreting results output.

Click Select | By All | All Beams . All the members in the model are highlighted. Click Geometry | Renumber | Members… . Click Yes in the next dialog to proceed by confirming that renumbering is an irreversible operation. Keep the value set to 1 in the Start numbering from field of the Renumber dialog. This dialog provides multiple criteria for renumbering and allows the assignment of a hierarchy, or “sorting order”, during the renumbering process.

• •

Click Member No. from the Available Sort Criteria column and move it to the right by clicking appears under Selected Sort Criteria . so Member No.

• • •

Click the Accept button. Click OK to acknowledge. The Beams table shows that beam numbers now run from 1 to 11. Click Select | By All | All Nodes . All nodes in the model are highlighted. Click Geometry | Renumber | Nodes… .

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Click Yes in the next dialog to proceed by confirming that renumbering is an irreversible operation. Keep the value set to 1 in the Start numbering from field of the Renumber dialog. Click Joint No. from the Available Sort Criteria column and move it to the right by clicking Selected Sort Criteria . so it appears under

• • •

Click the Accept button. Click OK to acknowledge. The Nodes table shows that node (joint) numbers now run from 1 to 9. Note: If the program fails to renumber, or if it leaves gaps in the numbering sequence, closing the model and reopening it may reinitialize the renumbering process.

Beams and nodes can also be renumbered by editing the command file. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset, and is named Dataset 2_9.std. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save.

• •

How to copy and paste nodes: • • • Open Dataset 2_9.std . Click View | Structure Diagrams . Click the Labels tab, select Node Numbers , and click OK .

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Module 2

Assume that the goal is to add a 2.5 foot {0.75 meter} long horizontal cantilever on the left side of node 6. Click Geometry | Snap/Grid Node | Beam . Note that there is no existing grid defined that would help with this cantilever. One option is to create a new grid system. Another option is to edit the existing grid system. A third option is to edit the Nodes spreadsheet in the Data Area. To demonstrate a fourth option, start by activating the Nodes Cursor . Click node number 6 . Click Edit | Copy . Note that next to the Copy command, the corresponding shortcut key Ctrl+C is shown on the right side of the Edit menu. This is a standard Windows shortcut to the Copy command. Instead of selecting Edit | Copy , you can also hold down the Control (Ctrl) key and press the C key.

• •

• • •

• •

Click Edit | Paste Nodes . Another alternative is to right-click and choose Paste Nodes , or simply use the standard shortcut key, Control (Ctrl)+V .

Enter a value of -2.5 {-0.75} in the X field of the Paste with Move dialog, and then click OK .

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• •

A node number 10 is added to the model. Press Shift+K to switch on the Node Points option if it is not clearly visible. Click Geometry | Add Beam | Add Beam from Point to Point . Click on node 6 and then click on node 10 to create the cantilever. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset, and is named Dataset 2_10.std. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save.

• •

How to copy and paste members: • • • • Open Dataset 2_10.std . Click View | Structure Diagrams . Click the Labels tab, select Node Numbers , and click OK . Now assume that a cantilever is to be added at the top of this portal frame, to align with the cantilever at mid-height. Click on the Geometry page tab in the Page Control area. Click on the Beam sub-page tab. Note that the Nodes spreadsheet indicates that there are currently 10 nodes in the model. Select the cantilever on the left side of the portal frame using the Beams Cursor .

• • •

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• •

Click Edit | Copy . Click Edit | Paste Beams . If the distance between node 6 and node 2 is known, then it could be entered in the field for the Y move value in the Paste with Move dialog. In this case, it is easier to use the other option.

Check the By distance between following two nodes radio button. Enter 6 for Node 1 and 2 for Node 2 , and then click OK . A new cantilever is added at the level of the top of the portal frame. Note that the Nodes spreadsheet now indicates that there are 11 nodes in the model. The significance of this is that STAAD. Pro automatically handles the condition at node 2, and does not allow the Paste with Move command to create a duplicate node at that location.

• •

The Copy and Paste Beams commands can also be used to copy and paste a group of members all at one time. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset, and is named Dataset 2_11.std. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save.

• •

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Mirroring Structure Geometry: • The Mirror command will be used to complete the model that was started earlier in the How to Use the Structure Wizard section. Open the file named Dataset 2_STRUCTURE WIZARD.std . With the Beams Cursor active, place a drag box around the entire structure to select all beams in the model. Click Geometry | Mirror… . This command can also be accessed by using the Generate Mirror icon, • • • , on the Generate toolbar.

• • •

The Mirror dialog opens. This dialog contains a schematic diagram to help explain the use of the control options. Click the Y-Z radio button in the Mirror Plane category, to indicate that the mirror plane will be parallel to the Y-Z plane. Leave the Plane Position at its present setting of Plane at X = 0. In this case the mirror plane goes through the origin, so it is located correctly by the default value. Note that the Plane Position category also provides the ability to locate the mirror plane graphically by clicking on a node that lies in the plane using the Highlight Nodes icon, .

Click Copy in the Generate Mode category. In this case the intent is to create the full truss by mirroring and copying the first half.

Leave the Mirror Member Orientation option deselected. This option is discussed in detail in another Module.

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• • •

Click OK . The other half of the truss is mirrored, and the display returns to the Main Window. Click inside the Main Window to deselect all members. Note that the Mirror command does not create a duplicate member or duplicate nodes at the center of the truss. STAAD. Pro will not duplicate any members that lie in the mirror plane. To have STAAD. Pro prove this for you, follow the step-bystep instructions in the commentary below. • • • • • • • Click Tools | Check Duplicate | Nodes . Leave 0 in the Enter Tolerance field in the Remove Duplicate Nodes dialog, and click OK . A message box appears confirming that no duplicate nodes were found. Click OK to dismiss the message. Click Tools | Check Duplicate | Members . A message box appears confirming that no duplicate members were found. Click OK to dismiss the message.

• • •

A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset, and is named Dataset 2_16.std. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save.

STAAD. a dialog similar to the following will be displayed when the OK button is clicked: Figure 2. Note that a very common mistake in STAAD. and the members to be selected without closing the Translational Repeat dialog. Click Select | By All | All Beams .std . Click Geometry | Translational Repeat… . or click on the Translational Repeat icon • on the Generate toolbar. Translational Repeat is another way of copying and pasting a group of members. without first selecting any members. and it has some advantages over simply copying and pasting the members. Pro allows the warning message box to be dismissed. or any other command that does something to selected members. . If no members are selected initially. Always start by selecting the members to be operated on before selecting Translational Repeat . 166 STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-69 How to use “Translational Repeat”: • • • Open Dataset 2_11. Pro is to open a dialog like the 3D Repeat dialog that acts on a member or group of members.

5 meters} apart. • Toggle on the Open Base checkbox.5} in the Default Step Spacing field. connecting all nodes on the portal frames. Geometry Only . • • • • Toggle on the Link Steps checkbox. • The Generation Flags category controls the items that are copied when the Translational Repeat command is used. • . The following table indicates which items do and do not get copied in a Translational Repeat based on the Generation Flags setting. Enter 15 {4. and the intermediate nodes along the roof member. This prevents the generation of members connecting the bases of the portal frame columns. There are three options for Generation Flags : All . of Steps list. This causes the program to create transverse members in the Z direction.STAAD. and press the Tab key to see the change reflected in the Step/Spacing table. Click the Z radio button in the Global Direction category of the 3D Repeat dialog. but we do not want any grade beams linking the portal frames at the bases of the columns. if variable step spacings were required. and to link the portal frames with members connecting the columns.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-70 Module 2 • Suppose the goal is to model two additional portal frames. or Geometry and Property Only . 15 feet {4. Set the value to 2 in the No. Notice that the Open Base checkbox becomes active when the Link Steps checkbox is toggled on. the free ends of the cantilevers. Note that the spacing values listed in the table could be edited individually.

Note that no linking members were generated at the base due to the Open Base option. This is a way of providing a user-specified starting number for the members generated in each of the steps. section and beta angle) Member Specifications (ex. The additional copies are created along with the horizontal linking members as requested by the Link Steps option. Click the Renumber Bay checkbox. Steel) Properties (ex. truss and member releases) Supports Loads • Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Geometry Only Yes No No No No No Geometry and Property Only Yes Yes Yes No No No Keep the default setting of All in the Generation Flags category. A new column labeled Number From appears in the table. Enter a value of 101 in the Number From column for Step 1. • • • • • . and enter 201 for Step 2.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-71 All Members and Nodes Materials (ex.STAAD. Click Yes to acknowledge the dialog warning that this is an irreversible operation. Click OK.

and note that horizontal Click the Rotate Up icon members were generated between the intersections of the diagonal bracing. turn on Node Points .STAAD. and is named Dataset 2_12. • • • • • • • • • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. Use the Beams Cursor to select and delete these two members . • • . Note that the member numbers range from 1 through 13 in the original portal frame. 101 through 113 in the first copy. Click the Labels tab. Note that Translational Repeat has two advantages over the simple Copy-Paste Beams technique: • It allows more than one copy to be created in a single operation. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. and click OK .std. The newly created members can be automatically linked to each other with new members. Click View | Structure Diagrams . and 201 through 213 in the second copy as requested by the renumber bay option. Note that nodes were automatically copied. turn on Beam Numbers .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-72 Module 2 • twice. turn off Node Points . even though only beams were selected. Click View | Structure Diagrams . Click No when asked if you want to save. and click OK . Click the Labels tab.

The number 11 appears in the Node field. • Activate the Use this as Reference Point for Beta angle generation checkbox. and click OK . Click the Labels tab. Click Select | By Inverse | Inverse Beam Selection to select everything EXCEPT member 13. Click member 13 (the tallest column) with the Beams Cursor . Open Dataset 2_14. • • • • • • • • • . Click Geometry | Circular Repeat… . Click View | Structure Diagrams . Leave the Axis of Rotation set to the (global) Y axis in the 3D Circular dialog. . and the Z Coordinate field reports a value of 0. Its function and usage are similar to the Translational Repeat command.std . turn on Beam Numbers . This option is explained in the commentary below. The X Coordinate field reports a value of 20 {6}.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-73 How to use “Circular Repeat” • The Circular Repeat command is useful for creating structures that are radially symmetrical. The Through category provides three methods to specify a point through which the Axis of Rotation must pass: by clicking on a node. by entering a node number. then click on node #11 Click the Highlight Node icon (the node at the bottom of the tallest column). or by providing the coordinates.

18 • Leave the Total Angle set to its default value of 360 degrees.STAAD. Resulting column orientations when Use this as Reference Point for Beta angle generation IS activated Figure 2. 177 Resulting column orientations when Use this as Reference Point for Beta angle generation is NOT activated Figure 2. .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-74 Module 2 • Assume that the web of a column (in a structure to be copied with Circular Repeat ) is oriented so that it points through the Axis of Rotation . so that the webs of the columns in all of the copies also point through the Axis of Rotation . If the checkbox for Use this as Reference Point for Beta angle generation is activated. then the web of that column will be rotated as copies are generated.

0)}. Note that the program does not create duplicate members at the 8 th step of the 360 degree Total Angle we specified. Pro creates eight frames arranged symmetrically about (20. the resulting structure would have been identical. of Steps to 8 . except that the Link Steps option would not have linked the 7 th step at 315 degrees to the original frame at 0 degrees. A positive angle value rotates the copies in the positive direction of the chosen axis (right hand rule). and click OK . If the Total Angle had been set to 315 degrees and only 7 steps had been requested.STAAD. • Set the No. 0) {(6. turn off Beam Numbers . 0. See the section on the Translational Repeat command for detailed explanations of these options. since the original members are already there. STAAD. and leave the Geometry Only checkbox deselected. • Toggle on the Link Steps and Open Base checkboxes. The program actually created only 7 copies of the selected geometry rather than 8. Pro will generate. • • Click OK . and places copies of the selected geometry at the division points.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-75 Total Angle is the angle subtended by the arc through which the copies are rotated. No. of Steps is the number of copies of the selected geometry that STAAD. Click the Labels tab. • • • • . The program divides the total angle by the number of steps you specify. Click View | Structure Diagrams . 0.

This node is referred to as an Orphan Node .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-76 Module 2 • The selection to be copied included every member except for the tallest column at the center of the circular repeat. including the tallest column. turn on Beam Numbers . Click on the Beam sub-page tab.STAAD. Pro would not have generated duplicate members at that center column location A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. Select the line corresponding to member 13 in the Beams spreadsheet. Click on the Geometry page tab in the Page Control area. • • • • . Click OK in the dialog confirming the delete.std . and is named Dataset 2_15. Note that node 11 is not connected to any member. and click OK . STAAD. Turn off Beam Numbers . • • • How to identify and remove “Orphan Nodes”: • • • • • • Reopen Dataset 2_11. Click View | Structure Diagrams . and press the Delete key. Click View | Structure Diagrams . turn on Node Numbers and Node Points . Click the Labels tab. and click OK . Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click the Labels tab. Click No when asked if you want to save.std. Note that even if the entire frame had been selected.

A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.STAAD. Pro models by copy and paste: • STAAD. In a simple model like this. so they are easier to evaluate and act on individually. you could highlight node 11 with the Nodes Cursor and press the Delete key to delete it. and is named Dataset 2_13. Click No when asked if you want to save. . Pro offers the ability to simultaneously run two separate instances of the program. This highlights any orphan nodes in the model. • • How to combine two STAAD. Pro provides two options for addressing Orphan Nodes. It is possible that this node may be needed for upcoming modeling steps. This makes it possible to combine two STAAD. The Highlight option makes orphan nodes stand out graphically. Click Tools | Orphan Nodes | Highlight . But in a more complex model. • STAAD. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.std.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-77 • The presence of orphan nodes may cause the program to fail to analyze the structure successfully. • • • • • Click Tools | Orphan Nodes | Remove . Pro files by copy and paste methods. orphan nodes created by modeling changes might not be so obvious. The Orphan Node 11 is deleted.

Open the file named Dataset 2_TOP. Pro files open concurrently. Pro is open. When the second instance of STAAD. Select all the members in the structure titled TOP by dragging a fence around the structure.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-78 Module 2 • The following steps outline a procedure to combine the two simple frame models shown below from separate STAAD.STAAD. 199 • • Ensure that one instance of STAAD. Start a second instance of STAAD. note that there are now two instances of STAAD. • • • • • • • . Pro models. Pro opens. There are now two separate STAAD.std . Open the file named Dataset 2_BOTTOM.std . They can be differentiated by the filenames shown in the Title Bars of the two windows. Pro . Click Open Project… in the Project Tasks section of the Start Page. Figure 2. Click Open Project… in the Project Tasks section of the Start Page. Pro running on the Windows task bar at the bottom of the screen.

The procedure described here can also be used for inserting a Structure Wizard model into an existing STAAD.STAAD. the origin of the braced frame needs to be inserted at the top of the left-hand column. • • • • With the Reference Pt button. and then pick an Insertion Point on the existing model. Pro on the Windows taskbar. • • • • . Click Reference Pt in the Paste with Move dialog. Pro model. The process is to pick a Reference Pt on the structure being copied. Pro will insert the second structure so that the Reference Pt coincides with the Insertion Point in the model. which is 10 feet {3 meters} in the positive Y-direction from the origin of the project’s global axis system. However. it might not be so easy to mentally calculate where to insert a copied structure into an existing model. Click Edit | Paste Beams to open the Paste with Move dialog. Switch back to the model titled BOTTOM by clicking the button for the other instance of STAAD. STAAD. This is a good application for the Reference Pt option in the Paste with Move dialog. in more complicated situations involving 3-D structures. To insert the braced structure so that it sits atop the two columns of the portal frame. The Specify Reference Point dialog opens showing a graphic of the model titled TOP (the model to be copied and pasted).Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-79 • • Click Edit | Copy . the graphic interface can be used to tell the program where to insert the copied structure without needing to know the actual coordinates of the desired insertion point.

The node in the lower left-hand corner is currently selected. confirming the new Y coordinate value of 10 feet {3 meters}. etc… .Pro Standard Training Manual 2-80 Module 2 • A prompt in the dialog indicates “click on the node to act as the reference point”. A prompt in the lower left-hand corner of the screen indicates. but it is hidden by the coordinate axis tripod. and click OK . The STAAD. Click OK . and can be changed by clicking on any node in the view. The mouse cursor changes to the Connection Point Cursor . which could be further edited. Pro will not create duplicate nodes at the tops of the two columns. • • • • • • • • The two models are merged at the defined connection point. Pro Main Window now displays the model titled BOTTOM (the model that will receive the paste). Click OK again to acknowledge the Duplicate nodes ignored message. The current Reference Point is highlighted. saved. Pro highlights the selected insertion point. “Click on node to move reference point to. They now both exist in the new model. Click on any other node in the frame to see how STAAD.” Click on the top of the left-hand column . The Paste with Move dialog reappears. This message box indicates that STAAD.STAAD. Use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate the structure until the node at the lower left-hand corner of the frame is visible. Then click back on the node in the lower left-hand corner of the frame .

Pro files are generated based on the original grid. Click File | Close . Click No when asked if you want to save. This example obviously uses very simple models to demonstrate the copy and paste function. so… Multiple STAAD. Click File | Close . until… Individual files are combined into one single model using copy and paste methods. Pro on the Windows task bar to make it active. Allow the program to close without saving the model. Click on the second instance of STAAD.std. and… The entire structure is analyzed and designed. and is named Dataset 2_COMBINED.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-81 • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. and… Multiple engineers work on different areas or different floors simultaneously in separate files. where… A common grid is established and shared by using Save As… or by exporting the grid file.STAAD. • • • • • • • • • . but a more realistic real-world application for this function might be: • • A complex structure or building. Click File | Exit .

The structural tool tip help pops up to display the beam number. so 500 = ½ second delay. Click View | Structural Tool Tip Options… again. Additional information such as member length. Make sure the Beams Cursor is active.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-82 Module 2 2. Make sure that Node Number . Coordinate . Note the other options that are available to display for beams. Hover the cursor over the horizontal member again. and then click OK . and Support are all selected in the Options category. and note that the tool tip now provides the beam number and the member length as requested. • • • • • • . Click View | Structural Tool Tip Options… . Click Node in the Tool category. Make sure that Number and Length are selected in the Options category. incidences.11 Viewing Structure Geometry How to control the display of beam and node numbers: • • • • • • • • Re-open the file named Dataset 2_3. may also be displayed. Click the Nodes Cursor icon to activate it. Click Beam in the Tool category.std . Displacement . Note that Tip Delay can be adjusted to control the delay time before the tool tip is displayed. etc.STAAD. and then click OK . The Tip Delay is in units of milliseconds. Hover the cursor over the horizontal member .

and note that only node number and coordinates are displayed. Note that the Tables category in the Node dialog provides direct access to several tables pertaining to nodes in general: • The Nodes button opens the Nodes table. The current node is highlighted in the table. bending and deflection diagrams. shear. This is because supports have not yet been assigned in this model and displacements have not been calculated. Notice that the node number and coordinates update in the Node dialog for each node.STAAD. if any have been defined. which provides the coordinates of all the nodes in the model. the current node is shown highlighted in the table. Double-click on the horizontal member with the Beams Cursor . etc… The Query feature can also be used to get a node number or other information about a node by activating the Nodes Cursor and double-clicking on the node of interest. • • • • • • • • • . Double-click various nodes in the model with the Nodes Cursor .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-83 • Hover the cursor over the node in the lower left corner . this dialog will be filled with information on the member including properties. Another way to display beam or node numbers is with the Query function. Again. which indicates the magnitudes and directions of any loads applied to the nodes. analysis results. After properties have been defined and an analysis has been run. The Loads button opens the Load Values table. Right now there is not much information in this dialog because only member geometry has been defined so far. A dialog opens providing the beam number and other information about the beam.

if any have been defined. Both the Reactions button and the Displacements button trigger the Results Setup dialog to open. as explained in the following section. because no loads have been applied and the model has not been analyzed. Pro . in order to select which loads and nodes will be reported on. right-click in the Main Window . .STAAD. The Reactions button leads to the Support Reactions table. The Diagrams dialog opens with the Labels page active. A pop-up menu appears with some of the most frequently used commands in STAAD. directly on the structure diagram in the Main Window. It is also possible to display beam and node number labels.std still open. as well as many other types of labels. which provides information about supports. Select the Labels… command. The Displacements button leads to the Node Displacements table.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-84 Module 2 • The Supports button opens the Supported Nodes table. The Labels page can also be accessed quickly from the Symbols and Labels icon on the Structure toolbar. • • • • Click the Close button in the Nodes dialog. Neither table is available for this model in its current state. How to display structure labels: • • • With the file named Dataset 2_3.

” For example. .STAAD. • • Click OK to close the Diagrams dialog. General display information.. their graphic appearance can be modified individually. next to the corresponding beam or node. simply hold down the Shift key and press the N key without leaving the Main Window. to display node numbers. Properties. Beams (Members). Click the Node Numbers checkbox in the Nodes category and the Beam Numbers checkbox in the Beams category. This will be covered in an upcoming section on “How to control label appearance”. press Shift + the letter shown in brackets. Click OK . Notice that the node and beam numbers now appear in the Main Window. “For quick access to the labels using keyboard hotkeys. If it is difficult to differentiate between the node labels and the beam labels. Loads.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-85 • • The Labels page is an extremely useful page that is used frequently. etc. Note that the node numbers are toggling on and off without having to leave the Main Window. Surfaces. • • • • • Click the Symbols and Labels icon toolbar to return to the Labels page.. Solids. It provides options for labeling Nodes. A reminder is shown at the bottom of the Labels page indicating. on the Structure “Hotkeys” are shown in parentheses following the various label names. Plates. These hotkeys are available for most of the labeling options. Physical Members. Hold down the Shift key and press the N key repeatedly.

By default the starting end is green and the ending end is blue. as it establishes the orientation of Beam members. It is particularly useful while modeling and interpreting results. Beam Ends labeling identifies the starting end (also called End A) and the ending end (End B) of each beam by showing each end in a characteristic color. for instance. two colored squares labeled Start Color and End Color identify the color used to denote each end of a beam. and choosing new color(s) from the color selection palette.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-86 Module 2 • • • Click the Symbols and Labels icon toolbar again. These can be changed by clicking on the colored squares. select the radio button labeled Always Use Current Label Settings located at the bottom of the Labels page. To override this default. when you are assigning member releases to only one end of the beam.STAAD. on the Structure By default. Another commonly used option on the Labels page is Beam Ends labeling in the Beams category. For example. • • • • The assignment of starting and ending ends is based on the direction the beam was originally drawn. On the Labels page. if a column is drawn starting at the bottom. • . It is often important to know which end is the starting end and which end is the ending end. the bottom end will be the starting end. For example. certain labels will only appear when particular pages are active in the Page Control area. items under Loading Display Options will only appear when the Load sub-page of the General page is active.

all the time. Select the Node Labels tab. • • .std still open. the beam end colors will be displayed on an individual beam when the Beams Cursor is hovered over that beam. until the feature is toggled off again. any model geometry that tends to interfere with the node number labels will be “whitedout” to clarify the labeling. the beam end colors will be displayed on all beams in the model. and click OK . select Blue for the Color . Select Arial Black for the Font . press the Shift + N “hotkey” to turn on all node numbers if necessary. Click View | Options… . If the Beam Ends checkbox is toggled on.STAAD. To differentiate between node numbers and beam numbers. and note the various built-in styles that are available for node numbering. Pull down the Style list on the Node Labels page. Bold for the Font Style . Hover the cursor over the horizontal beam at the top of the frame to see the Beam Ends colors displayed. • • • How to control label appearance: • • • • • • • With the file named Dataset 2_3. Click on the Font… button in the lower left corner of the dialog.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-87 • If the Beam Ends checkbox is toggled off. The Options dialog opens. If the Opaque option is selected. Leave this file open for use in the next section. the appearance of these labels can be modified. The alignment (positioning) of the labels can be controlled in both the vertical and horizontal directions.

Pro Standard Training Manual 2-88 Module 2 • • • • • • Click OK in the Options dialog. making it even easier to associate the members and the numbers. It is not necessary to save this version of the model. so the settings affect all STAAD. Click OK to dismiss the Options dialog. To see another helpful labeling option.ini. Toggle on the checkbox labeled Angle Text . One method is to use the Dimension Beams tool. It should now be very easy to distinguish node numbers from beam numbers. How to display member lengths and the distance between two nodes: • • • • • Open the file named Dataset 2_9. The beam labels will now be oriented parallel to the members they correspond to. • Click File | Close .STAAD. Assume the goal is to determine the lengths of the diagonal members of the frame. These settings are saved in a text file named StaadPro20070. and 11 . Press the Shift + B hotkey to turn on beam numbers. Click Tools | Dimension Beams… . . click Tools | Options .std . which is saved in the Windows (or WINNT) folder. Hold Control (Ctrl) and click the four diagonal members. 4 . Pro models that are opened on a particular computer. and select the Beam Labels page. with the Beams Cursor . 10 . numbered 3 .

for structural elements consisting of multiple segments.) • • • • • • • • For these kinds of conditions. the Dimension Beams tool is inconvenient because it reports the individual member lengths rather than the overall length. • Click Display . Click Close . the Dimension Beams tool only works on members. It cannot be used to measure the distance between two nodes like node 1 and node 4 that do not have a member modeled between them. in the Structure . Click Tools | Display Node to Node Distance . All dimensions in the view are removed. Click the Remove radio button in the Display/Remove Dimension dialog to clean up the display.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 2-89 • • Ensure that the Display radio button is selected in the Display/Remove Dimension dialog. there is a more appropriate tool. Note that the Dimension to Selected Beams option will be “grayed out” if no members are selected. Click Dimension to Selected Beams in the Options category. Second. and drag the Display/Remove Dimension dialog out of the way. An alternate method of accessing this tool is to click the Display Node to Node Distance icon toolbar.STAAD. Click Remove . Two limitations to this tool should now be obvious: • First. The dimensions for the four selected members are displayed. Click Dimension to View in the Options category. (Remember that Shift + N is the hotkey to show node numbers.

• • Click node 2 . The dimension 10. Click the Angle Text checkbox.STAAD. The command and the icon act as a toggle.20 meters} is displayed for the overall length of the brace.Pro Standard Training Manual 2-90 Module 2 • All existing nodes in the model become bold. The dimensions are now rotated parallel to the members they reference.63ft {3. and then click OK to clarify these dimensions. ensure that the dimensioning mode is active. Pro is in the node to node distance measuring mode. then click node 3 . and then click the end nodes of the dimension to be removed. Click node 1 . use the Display Node to Node Distance tool to click between the two nodes again. Click Tools | Remove Node Dimension to remove all dimensions at once. To remove one dimension. making the display much easier to interpret. and the cursor changes to indicate that STAAD. It is not necessary to save this version of the model. and choose the Dimension page. then click node 4 . Both cross braces are now dimensioned. but the labels may be overlapping and difficult to read. • • Click View | Options… . so selecting it the first time turns the mode on. Click Tools | Display Node to Node Distance again to stop adding or removing dimensions. • • • To remove one dimension at a time. Click File | Close . • • • . selecting it a second time turns the mode off.

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How to control the view: • • Open the file named Dataset 2_15.std to experiment with the view control tools. STAAD. Pro provides a variety of View Management options for viewing the structure. There are tools for changing the perspective of the Main Window, and also for creating separate view windows of all or part of the structure. STAAD. Pro provides two toolbars for changing the viewing aspect: the Rotate toolbar and the View toolbar. The Rotate toolbar is docked in the upper left corner of the STAAD. Pro screen by default, but can be dragged to any desired location. It contains fourteen buttons for changing the viewing angle. The functions of the Rotate tools are generally evident from their names. Click on each tool and observe its effect. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • View From +Z View From -Z View From +X View From -X View From +Y View From -Y Isometric View Rotate Up Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Spin Left Spin Right Toggle View Rotation Mode is used to select a node to serve as the center of view rotation.

• •

The View toolbar is docked in the top middle of the STAAD. Pro screen by default. It, too, can be dragged to any desired location.

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The View toolbar contains twelve buttons for changing the viewing distance and location: Display Whole Structure • Turns on all members in the structure • Returns structure to the Isometric View orientation • Resizes the structure to the maximum size that will fit within the Main Window. Dynamic Zoom • Provides a fence to select a portion of the model to be magnified in a separate Zoom window. • The extent of the fence remains visible as a heavy rectangle in the Whole Structure window as long as the Zoom window remains open. • The fence can be repositioned by dragging the fence with the cursor in the Whole Structure window to view different parts of the structure in the Zoom window. • Scroll bars are provided to move side to side, and up and down. • Plus (+), minus (-) and extents (E) buttons are provided in the lower right corner of the window to adjust the zoom level. • Several Dynamic Zoom windows can be opened at the same time. Each of their respective fence rectangles remains visible in the Whole Structure window as long as the Zoom window remains open.

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Zoom Extents • Performs similar to Display Whole Structure with the exception that Zoom Extents does not turn on elements that are not currently displayed. • For example, if some elements have been turned off in a view by using View | View Selected Objects Only , those particular elements will remain invisible when Zoom Extents is used. • Returns structure to the Isometric View orientation. • Resizes the structure to the maximum size that will fit within the Main Window. Zoom In • Zooms in on the model a set amount with each click. Zoom Out • Zooms out a set amount with each click. Zoom Factor • Zooms in or out based on the factor entered in pop-up dialog. • Factors greater than 1 will zoom in. • Factors less than 1 will zoom out. Zoom Previous • Restores the view to the previous zoom level. • Only retains one previous zoom step set by Zoom Factor or Zoom Window .

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Module 2

Zoom Window • Provides a fence to select a portion of the model to be magnified in the current window. Previous Selection • Returns the selection state to the condition it was in one step prior to the current state. Pan • Allows the model to be repositioned within the current view. • Zoom level remains unchanged. • Pan remains active until it is toggled off. Magnifying Glass • Provides a quick way to temporarily enlarge a portion of the structure for closer inspection. • Click this tool , and then click and hold left mouse button to see how the magnifying glass works. 3D Rendered View • Displays the model in a new window with its assigned sections. • Provides controls for adjusting lighting. • Dynamic panning is enabled. Click and rotate with cursor. • All functions in the View toolbar are available in the View pull-down menu.

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All functions in the Rotate toolbar are also available in the View pull-down menu under the Orientation item, although they are in a slightly different format. In addition to these tools, note that often the mouse itself is all that is necessary. Roll the wheel on the mouse to see how it zooms in and out. Click and hold the wheel to grab the model and pan. Another way to change the view is with the arrow keys . Click in the Main Window to make it active. Then use the arrow keys to rotate the model up, down, left or right.

• • • •

How to display only selected objects in the Main Window: • With the file named Dataset 2_15.std still open, assume the goal is to turn off the display of the hip rafters and central column. Click the View From +Z icon.

• • • • • • •

Click Select | Selection Mode | Drag Line . Drag a horizontal line across all rafters , just below the vertex. All rafters and the central column are selected. Click Select | By Inverse | Inverse Beam Selection . The selection inverts. Click View | View Selected Objects Only . All unselected objects become invisible. Click the Isometric View icon.

The structure is displayed without the hip rafters and central column.

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Click View again, and note the check mark next to the View Selected Objects Only command, indicating that the command is toggled on. Click View | View Selected Objects Only once again to restore the entire structure to the Main Window. Another option is to click the Display Whole Structure icon.

How to isolate a portion of the structure into its own view: • With the file named Dataset 2_15.std still open, assume the goal is to isolate the framing members in the horizontal plane at the eave of the hip roof. Click the View From +Z icon.

• • •

Click Select | Selection Mode | Drag Box . Click and drag a fence around the framing members at the elevation of the eave. Make the box large enough to completely include the members in the horizontal plane, but small enough not to include the mid-points of any of the other members. Click View | New View . Choose the option to Create a new window for the view in the New View dialog, and then click OK . A new window is created in which only the members in the horizontal plane at the eave elevation are visible.

• •

• •

Click the Isometric View

icon.

Click View | View Management | Save View… . The Save View As dialog opens.

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Enter the name Eave , and click OK . This isometric view has now been saved. Click the View From +Z icon.

• • •

Click View | View Management | Save View… . The Save View As dialog opens. Enter the name Edge , and click OK . This side view has now been saved. Click the View From +Y icon.

• • • • • • •

Click View | View Management | Save View… . The Save View As dialog opens. Enter the name Plan , and click OK . This plan view has now been saved. Click Tools | Cut Section… . The Section dialog opens. On the Range By Joint tab, click the X-Y Plane radio button. Click the arrow on the With Node # list, and select node #10 , which is the node at the peak. Click OK , and the Main Window displays a section view of the structure showing the members that lie on the X-Y plane that cuts through node #10. Click View | View Management | Save View… . The Save View As dialog opens. Enter the name Section , and click OK . This section view has now been saved. To access the saved views, click View | Open View… . The Open View dialog opens. Select Eave in the Views category, select Display the view in the active window , and click OK .

• • •

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The Main Window and any other views that have been created can be moved, resized, minimized, maximized, closed, etc. Three standard window controls (Minimize, Maximize, and Close) appear in the upper right corner of each window. To move a window, hover the mouse over the window’s title bar , hold down the left mouse button , then drag the window to the desired location. Windows can be resized by dragging the sides or corners in or out. Grids can be displayed in any window, not just in the Main Window. Click Geometry | Snap/Grid Node | Beam and then activate the desired grid system in the Snap Node/Beam dialog. Note that Views are saved in an auxiliary file named modelname.REI_SPRO_Auxilary_Data and not in the .std file itself. Click File | Close . It is not necessary to save this version of the model.

• • • •

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2.12

Modeling Exercise 2
Create this model by applying the modeling techniques that have been presented up to this point.

Figure 2. 200 Tips: • • • Open Dataset 2_COMBINED.std . Create connection between cross members at intersection. Translational Repeat once in the Z direction at Z = 15 feet {4.5 meters}. Link steps, open base. Delete the horizontal beam that connects the cross-braces at their intersection points. Use arrow keys to rotate model to match the figure above. Click File | Save As , and name the model MY EXERCISE 2 . Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.

• •

• • •

Pro Standard Training Manual 2-100 Module 2 -End of Module- .STAAD.

......................... 60  3........2 Working with Groups .............................. 2  3..5 Assigning Member Specifications ...............................4 Member Beta Angle .............................................................. 85  3 ............. 45  3.....................3 Assigning Member Properties ...............................................6 Assigning Supports ................................. 11  3..............................................................................7 Assigning Loads. 3........................1 Steel Design Model Geometry ........ 69  3........................... 4  3...........8 The Material Page ...................3-1 Property Assignment Module The following topics are included in this module............................... 32  3..................................................................................

1 Steel Design Model Geometry This section uses the model shown below to demonstrate the assignment of member properties. an option called Mirror Member Orientation was left unselected. and loads to the structure. Figure 3.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-2 Module 3 3. In the Mirror dialog. in addition to the member geometry. 1 • There is one aspect of the model geometry that should be reviewed before proceeding.STAAD. as shown below: • • • . supports. material constants. If the Mirror Member Orientation feature is turned on. the program attempts to mirror the member orientation. This model was created using the Mirror command.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-3 Figure 3. 2 • The implications of this selection will be explained in detail later in this section. .STAAD.

the two columns. When working with structural models. it helps to be able to refer to all of them as a group. rather than working with all of the rafter members individually • • This process of clustering is referred to in STAAD. For instance. as presented in a different module. Pro entities. and the truss webs will make the process of assigning data to these members a lot easier.STAAD. For example. If there are many rafters. If we cluster these members into a group. assigning group names to the members comprising the top chord. This can save a lot of time when assigning attributes to members of the structure. we will not have to select eight members individually in order to assign properties to them. it sometimes helps to cluster a set of entities under a single umbrella for ease of handling the data associated with those entities. Pro as the formation of groups. Pro allows properties to be assigned to a group using a single instruction. in the STEEL DESIGN example project. . Similarly. Creating New Views is another method of filtering STAAD. the bottom chord of the truss consists of eight members. one may wish to have all the principal rafters of a warehouse structure made of a common structural section such as a C10x15 channel. rather than having to repeatedly select the individual members in order to assign various properties to them.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-4 Module 3 3. STAAD.std .2 Working with Groups • • Open the file named Dataset 3_1.

The Define Group Name dialog opens. Pro input file.16 of the Technical Reference manual for additional information on forming group names). However. they will be able to use the groups you created. because groups actually become part of the STAAD.STAAD. Four groups will be created for the STEEL DESIGN example: Group name _BOTC _TOPC _COL _WEB Description Truss bottom chord Truss top chord Columns Truss webs • • • Click Tools | Create New Group… . if you provide your input file to another STAAD. .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-5 However. Pro group names must start with an underscore character (refer to Section 5. when the intent is to group beams. Pro user. STAAD. Pro will add it automatically when the dialog is closed. • • • Enter _BOTC in the Group Name field. creating Groups has an advantage over creating a new view. A common mistake is to leave the Select Type option set to Node . Pro session is closed. if the underscore is not entered manually in the Define Group Name dialog. and click OK . So. • Groups remain part of the model after the current STAAD. STAAD. Choose the Beam option in the Select Type list.

Leave the Create Group dialog open. Click the Associate button at the bottom of the Create Group dialog. The bottom chord members (and only the bottom chord members) will be selected.STAAD. Associate to Selected Geometry – associates the highlighted group name with all of the currently selected members. It also displays the member numbers in the List field and changes the 1:_BOTC listing in the Create Group dialog to say .) Associate to List – associates the highlighted group name with all of the members whose numbers are entered in the List field. • • • • The goal is now to associate the group name _BOTC with the bottom chord members of the truss. Pro associates the bottom chord members with the group named _ BOTC. (Currently “grayed out” because no members are selected.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-6 Module 3 • The Create Group dialog lists the group names that are currently available to assign to (or associate to) members in the model. In the Assign methods category. Currently. there are three options available to associate group names with members. then click Select | Beams Parallel To | X from the main menu. STAAD. • • Notice that the Associate to Selected Geometry radio button in the Create Group dialog is now active. the only available group name is _BOTC. See the commentary below for a description of each option: • • Associate to View – associates the highlighted group name with all of the members in the view.

The Assignment Method is set to Associate to Selected Geometry by default. Pro automatically inserted the required leading underscore in _TOPC in the Create Group dialog. • • • • • • Click the Create button.STAAD. Choose the Beam option in the Select Type list. Choose the Beam option in the Select Type list. and their member numbers appear in the List field. • Click the Associate button.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-7 (Beam Assigned). The top chord members are assigned to the _TOPC group. Choose the Beam option in the Select Type list. . Hold the Control (Ctrl) key and click the top chord members one at a time using the Beams Cursor to select them. Enter TOPC (this time. Click OK . implying that the group name has been assigned to at least some beams in the model. Note that STAAD. • • • • • • Click the Create button in the Create Group dialog again. 2:_TOPC (Beam Unassigned) is currently highlighted in the Create Group dialog by default. Click the Create button. Enter _COL in the Group Name field. without the leading underscore) in the Group Name field. and click OK . Click inside the Main Window to deselect all members. Due to the inclined orientation of these members. there is no easier method to select them.

They could be selected using the tedious method of clicking on them one at a time. Choose the Associate to Selected Geometry Assign Method . Pro allows more than one group to be selected without having to hold down any keys. The group names _COL and _WEB remain unassigned at this time. • • Click on _COL .STAAD.) Also note that the list of group names in the Create Group dialog provides an indication as to which of the group names have been assigned to at least some members in the model and which group names are currently unassigned. then press and hold Control (Ctrl) and click on the column at the right side of the model . Click on the column at the left side of the model . . The remaining members are the truss webs. Click on all three group names in the Select Groups dialog. (All four of our groups can only be assigned to beams. and then click Associate . • • • Click Select | By Group Name… .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-8 Module 3 • • Enter _WEB in the Group Name field. Note that the list of group names in the Create Group dialog provides an indication as to which type of elements can be included in each group. and then use an Inverse Selection command to select the remaining members not included in the three existing groups. Note that STAAD. A more efficient method would be to use the groups we have created to select all of the members in the three existing groups. Click OK .

The members of the selected group should be highlighted in the Main Window. or they can be added to the list in the Input File using the STAAD. If no members are highlighted after selecting a group name and clicking the Highlight button.STAAD. they will need to be deleted and recreated as Beam type groups. they can be added to the group using the Create Group dialog. If any of the groups accidentally got created as Node type groups. . • • If any members were unintentionally omitted from a group. before the members of this model can be correctly assigned their group name. bottom chord and columns will be highlighted in the Main Window indicating that they are all selected. The selection is inverted so only the truss web members are selected. Pro Editor. Verify by selecting each group name one at a time and clicking Highlight . check to make sure that the group is indicated as a Beam group type in the list of groups in the Create Group dialog.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-9 • Click Close . The top chord. The webs are now assigned to the _WEB group. • Click Select | By Inverse | Inverse Beam Selection . Click Associate. The Assign Method defaults to Associate to Selected Geometry . • • • Click the _WEB group in the Create Group dialog. • Select _BOTC and click on the Highlight button.

because they only appear if the model contains plates or solids. Pro also allows groups of plate or solid elements to be created. later on. and is named Dataset 3_2. • • • • Click the Close button to dismiss the Create Group dialog. Pro will remove the member number from the group automatically.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-10 Module 3 • If. a member is removed from the model. and if that member was part of one of the defined groups. Note that STAAD. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.STAAD. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. Click No when asked if you want to save. However.std. these options weren’t offered in the list box of the Define Group Name dialog. . STAAD.

density. concrete or aluminum members. Click the General page tab in the Page Control area. • The General page has five sub-pages: • • • • • • • Property Spec Support Load & Definition Material The Property sub-page will be active or “in focus. Note: if the Properties dialog is ever closed.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-11 3. The Data Area on the right side now contains a dialog labeled Properties . Note that the general progression is to work from top to bottom of the Page Control area to complete the steel design example. Standard cross sections can be chosen from tables or custom sections can be defined.STAAD. • The Properties dialog is used to assign properties: cross section. and thermal coefficient for steel. Poisson’s ratio.std .” when the General tab is selected.Whole Structure (referred to from here on as the Properties dialog). The following standard sections from the American steel table database will be used in the current model: • • . modulus of elasticity. it can be recalled by clicking on the Property sub-page of the General page.3 Assigning Member Properties • • Open the file named Dataset 3_2.

use the list to assign the sections/materials to selected members. Also includes properties for Glued-Laminated material. • • • Steel .STAAD.W Shape table from the Steel tab is active by default. grades. Webs • Assigning properties is a two-step process. First.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-12 Module 3 Columns Bottom chord Top chord Wide flange: W 18 x 35 Channel: C 12 x 30 Rectangular HSS: 7 in.provides access to an extensive list of wood sections comprised of various combinations of species.provides access to a list of tables from various manufacturers of cold-formed steel products. Note the tabs across the top of the Section Profile Tables dialog for access to section tables for different materials. Then. • Click American Steel Joist . • • • The American . and sawn lumber sizes.provides access to a list of steel tables of more than fifteen different countries. Coldformed Steel . Aluminum . pick the sections/materials to assign to the structure. . x 4 in. x 3 in. and note that many common joist designations are available. x 3/16 in.provides access to the American Aluminum table. The program maintains the list of these sections in the Properties dialog. Timber . x ½ in. Click the Section Database button in the Properties dialog. Angle: 3 in.

. not the width of the beam – see Technical Reference manual Section 5. T is used to indicate a T-shaped section formed by cutting through the middle of the web of a standard W section. FC and CW edit boxes become active.1 of the Technical Reference manual. When this radio button is selected. p. Information on all these specifications is available in Section 5.20. the American W-Shapes). • • • CT is the thickness of the concrete FC is the strength of the concrete CW is the width of the concrete (as defined by code.1.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-13 Click on any of the other country names to see the libraries that are available for use with international codes. Note 1. • • • ST specifies a single section from the standard table. and click on W18x35 . the CT. Note the radio buttons on the right side of the dialog under the Type Specification heading. This button accesses a section properties table for the section type selected (in this case.20. Below the Select Beam list is the View Table button.STAAD. • • • • Three more radio buttons allow the specification of top and/or bottom cover plates. • • • Click American | W Shape . Scroll down through the shapes listed in the Select Beam category. CM is used to specify a composite section comprised of a concrete slab on top of a wide flange steel shape. 5-64). Make sure the ST radio button is selected.

Leave the Type Specification set to ST (Single Section from Table) . in addition to the selected section properties. density. There are also options to specify Double Channels in the Backto-Back and Front-to-Front configuration. . and the material list is set to STEEL . Leave the Material checkbox toggled on and the material set to STEEL .STAAD.2 of the Technical Reference manual provides standard values assigned if the Material checkbox is toggled on. This will associate steel material properties with the W18x35 once it is added to the list of available sections. W18x35 appears as an available section in the Properties dialog. default material constants such as the Modulus of Elasticity (E). If the Material checkbox is toggled off. Material constants are determined based on the material selected in the Material list. Section 5. the material constant values can be assigned later using Commands | Material Constants .26. Click Add . • • • • • • • • • Click on the Channel tab. Scroll down to the C12 sections. The Material list is currently set to STEEL based on the selection of a W18x35 from the Steel tab. and click on C12X30 . This checkbox is toggled on by default. When it is on.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-14 Module 3 • Below the View Table button is the Material checkbox. Poisson’s ratio and the coefficient of thermal expansion (alpha) are also assigned to the members. The Material checkbox is checked by default.

x 3/16 in. This example problem requires a 7 in.188 . In STAAD. the length of the shorter leg in tenths of an inch. from the Technical Reference manual (Section 2. Pro Figure 3. The Material checkbox should remain checked. and the material list should be set to STEEL . 3 • The angle code L is followed by numbers representing the length of the longer leg in tenths of an inch. Pro nomenclature. The following figure. Click on the HSS Rectangle tab. The section is added to the list in the Properties dialog. and the thickness of the steel in sixteenths of an inch.1) illustrates how angles are specified in STAAD. • Scroll through the list of HSS sections and click on HSST7X4X0. with the wall thickness being a decimal value instead of a fraction.188. . Click the Angle tab.2. • • • Click the Add button. rectangular hollow structural section (HSS7x4x3/16).Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-15 • • Click the Add button. this will be listed as HSST7x4x0. The C12X30 section is added to the list of sections in the Properties dialog. x 4 in.STAAD.

the 3 in. x 3 in.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-16 Module 3 • • • Therefore. • • Click the Define button in the Properties dialog. This table is provided for quick reference only. including: • • • • • • • • Circle Rectangle Tee Trapezoidal General Tapered I Tapered Tube Assign Profile • Each page contains a schematic representation of the cross section and fields to parametrically define the cross section dimensions. angle section for the truss webs would be specified as L30308. Click the Close button to dismiss the Section Profile Tables dialog. and the material list should be set to STEEL . The Material checkbox should remain checked. Leave the Type Specification set to ST (Single Section from Table) . Click on L30308 to highlight it. x ½ in. The L30308 section is added to the list of sections in the Properties dialog. The Property dialog includes various types of cross sections.STAAD. The Values button in the Properties dialog accesses a table listing only the sections that appear in the Properties dialog and their properties. • • • Click the Add button. Properties may not be edited in this table. .

Click the User Table… button.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-17 • • • The General tab can be used to define the cross section dimensions of any irregular-shaped section. either Angle . Click the Materials… button in the Properties dialog.STAAD. but the dialog provides access to the table for convenient viewing. Column or Channel . The User Table button provides access to user-defined section properties tables. The values cannot be edited in this table. Poisson’s ratio. • • • • The Material checkbox and associated list provide a connection between section properties and materials. Tapered I and Tapered Tubes are for creating sections whose dimensions vary from one end of the member to the other. Pro assigns a hard-coded section size without any attempt to design or optimize the section. . Beam . • • • Click the X in the upper right corner of the Materials window to close it. The Materials dialog lists the currently defined materials and their values for modulus of elasticity E. density. Double Angle . The Assign Profile tab provides a way to specify only a category of cross section. Materials are defined in another area of the program. Click Close to dismiss the Property dialog. The Thickness button can be used to assign thickness to surfaces or plates if the model contains any. if any exist. STAAD. Based on the profile that is selected. and alpha coefficient. It just provides a starting point for analysis.

An example of an application for user tables would be premanufactured building design where steel sections of I-shapes are used. angle . • • Section 5. and therefore are not standard sections listed in the steel tables. The Select Section Type list is used to define the section type: wide flange . and offering to create one. If it is checked. toggle on the External Table checkbox. the new table will be available for use on future models. and provide a file name and path in the File Name field. Click Yes to the warning box. Click the Close button to return to the Main Window. We will not actually create a new user table at this time.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-18 Module 3 • • • • • A warning box pops up indicating that no user tables were found.STAAD. • • • . channel . etc… The External Table checkbox is unchecked.19 of the Technical Reference manual provides instructions for specifying a user steel table. so the new table will be specific to (and contained within) the current model. Pro Examples manual. A sample project illustrating the application of user tables is provided in Example Problem 17 of the STAAD. If the intent is to reuse the table in other projects. Click the Cancel button to return to the Create User Provided Table dialog. Click the New Table button on the C reate User Provided Table dialog. but they may be fabricated out of plates to optimize a design.

Pro model is later sent to another STAAD. It is accessible from the Tools pull-down menu. 4 For example. the modified steel table database file will also need to be provided to run the model correctly. It opens the SectionDBManager window. and if the STAAD. Pro user. For the American steel table.mdb. and some of the sections that are listed may not be available from local steel mills. and it is typically located in \SPro2007\STAAD\Sections\. Editing the American steel table with the SectionDBManager is a way to introduce an older section in order to analyze an existing structure.STAAD. Figure 3. • We are now ready to assign the selected sections to members of the structure. or to delete sections that are not in production.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-19 • The Modify Section Database command provides another way to access and modify the steel tables. which provides an interface for editing the existing section tables if necessary. Older steel sections many not be listed. Pro is based on current AISC tables. the file you need to include is AISCSections. . the American steel table provided with STAAD. Note that if the standard section table is edited.

without actually assigning sections to any of the members. follow the steps below: • • • • Right-click in the Main Window . In the Assignment Method area. indicating that we are now in an active assignment mode.188 and L30308) WOULD BE REMOVED from the list in the Properties dialog when the model is reopened. Note that the name of this button changes to Assigning . and it appears just to the left of the section name in the Properties dialog. C12X30. To display the full section name on the members instead of the reference number. • • • . Click the Sections radio button under the Properties category on the Labels page of the Diagrams dialog. The label “R1” appears near the center of both columns.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-20 Module 3 Note: if the model was saved and closed at this point. Click the Assigning button in lower left corner of the Properties dialog to exit the active assignment mode. This is a reference number that corresponds to the W18X35 section. select the Use Cursor To Assign option. Select Labels from the pop-up menu. • The cursor changes to a steel beam shape with a triangle in the upper left corner. ALL OF THE SECTIONS (W18X35. • • • Click on the W18X35 section from the list in the Properties dialog. HSST7X4X0. Click on each of the two columns with the cursor to assign the W18x35 section to the columns. Click OK .STAAD. Click the Assign button in the lower left corner of the Properties dialog. in a column labeled “Ref”.

During this process of assigning member properties. Click the line that says G1: _BOTC and leave the dialog open.188 section in the Properties dialog to highlight it. • Click the Assign button. The label “C12X30” appears near each bottom chord segment. The top chord of the structure is highlighted in the Main Window. Click G2: _TOPC in the Select Groups dialog. The Select Groups dialog opens. Click Select | By Group Name… . Click on the HSST7X4X0. Check that the Assignment Method option in the Properties dialog is properly set to Assign To Selected Beams .STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-21 • • • Select the C12X30 section from the list in the Properties dialog. Take the time to review the settings in the dialogs and to carefully note which members have been selected before assigning properties. If properties get mistakenly assigned. take care to: • • • • • Check that only the intended members have been selected. and click Yes in the pop-up message box to confirm. • • . Always use extra care when assigning member properties. it can be very difficult to detect. The bottom chord is highlighted in the Main Window and the Assignment Method automatically changes to Assign To Selected Beams .

• . the channel (R2) to the bottom chord members. • Note that all members in the model are labeled with a reference number. and then click Yes to confirm. confirming that all the members now have section properties assigned to them. The Assignment Method defaults to Assign To Selected Beams . • Click the Assign button. The webs are highlighted in the Main Window. The display is neatened up by removing the section labels and replacing them with references to the sections. The label “L30308” appears near each web member.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-22 Module 3 • Again. and then click OK . and then click Yes to confirm.188” appears near each top chord segment. the rectangular HSS (R3) to the top chord members and the angle (R4) to the webs. leave this dialog open. The Assignment Method defaults to Assign To Selected Beams . and click Labels… from the pop-up menu. • Click the Assign button. • Click the Close button.STAAD. Click References in the Properties category on the Labels page of the Diagrams dialog. A quick comparison of the reference numbers in the model to the corresponding sections listed in the Properties dialog confirms that the W section (R1) is assigned to the columns. The label “HSST7X4X0. • • Click on the L30308 section in the Properties dialog. Click G4: _WEB in the Select Groups dialog. • • Right-click in the Main Window .

• • • • Click Close to dismiss the Member Query screen. This launches the Query function as demonstrated previously. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. or in a three-dimensional model. Click on the Property tab in the dialog that appears. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. • • • • • • Double-click on the column at the right end of the structure. Click No when asked if you want to save.std. this command would have highlighted those members in the Main Window. The pop-up dialog indicates that there are no entities with missing properties in this model. If any member in the structure did not have a cross section assigned to it. .STAAD. Click OK .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-23 • In a more complicated model. and note that the dialog is now fully populated with the member properties. Click Select | By Missing Attributes | Missing Property . Click in the Main Window to ensure that no members are currently selected. it may not be so easy to observe that all members have been assigned a section. STAAD. The Member Query screens are gradually able to present more and more useful information as additional parameters are assigned to the members. Pro provides a tool to confirm that every member in the structure has been assigned member properties. and is named Dataset 3_3.

5 . the local axis system is required in order to define the radial orientation of the columns as shown in the figure below. we have been considering the components of the model with respect to a global axis system. with wide flange column sections around the perimeter to provide support for the sides of the tank. Why have a local axis system? First consider a cylindrical structure.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-24 Module 3 Local Axis System: • • • • • • Open the file named Dataset 3_3.STAAD. In this case. Figure 3. Pro also contains a local axis system for each member of the model. Up to this point. STAAD. The location of the nodes was defined with reference to a single point of origin in three-dimensional space.std . such as a tank.

6 • Next.STAAD. the load would have to be broken down into its X.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-25 • Without a local axis system. and STAAD. Figure 3. there would be no way to describe the orientation of the columns. consider modeling wind load on the roof of the structure in the diagram below: Figure 3. Pro would have no choice but to assume they are all oriented in the same direction as shown in the figure below. 7 • To express the wind load on the inclined roof with respect to the global coordinate system. it would be very easy and convenient to express the wind load on the inclined members with respect to • . On the other hand. Y and Z components in the global directions.

• • • • . click Help | Contents… | Technical Reference | General Description | Structure Geometry and Coordinate Systems | Local Coordinate System to see Section 1. The online version of the Technical Reference manual is accessible from Help menu.2.2. The figure shows the default orientations of the local axes when the global Y-axis is oriented in the vertical (gravity) direction (which is the default in STAAD.5.5. Refer to the figure below. explains the orientation of the local coordinate system for an individual member. Section 1. Pro Technical Reference manual.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-26 Module 3 a local coordinate system oriented along one of the axes of the members. For demonstration purposes. Local Coordinate System. Click the X in the upper right corner of the Help window titled STAAD. It is a reprint of Figure 1.Pro 2007 to close it. Pro ).STAAD. • The STAAD.6a from the Technical Reference manual.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-27 Figure 3.STAAD. 8 .

Toggle on the Beam Orientation checkbox in the Beams category.” The local x-axis is a line defined by the two ends of the member. then click OK . This is because the columns were drawn from top to bottom. Local y = red Local x = blue Local z = green The blue arrow representing the local x-axis always points along the axis of each member in the structure. A labeled.STAAD. see the commentary below: • • • • • . Its purpose is to provide a key to the colors of the local coordinate axis symbols. Notice that the blue arrow (local x-axis) points downwards in the case of the two columns. For a refresher on how to confirm the direction that the columns were drawn. • • Symbols indicating the orientation of the local coordinate system and showing the cross section shape will appear in the Main Window. To display the axes for the local coordinate system of all the members in the structure. follow the steps below: • • • Right-click in the Main Window and select Labels… from the pop-up menu. Toggle on the Show Axes At Org checkbox in the General category. “The local x-axis of the above sections is going into the paper. The positive direction of the local x-axis is defined by a line going from the starting end (node A) to the ending end (node B) of the member. color-coded local coordinate axis system also appears in the Main Window.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-28 Module 3 • • • The note at the bottom of the figure says.

this method provides instant confirmation of the member direction. Hover the Beams Cursor over the left-hand column until the Beam Ends colors appear. and into the screen on the left side. This means member 35 starts at node 15 and ends at node 20. This was a good review. and to the left on the left side of the structure.000 ft. but if the intent was to orient all of the segments of the bottom chord the same way. and that Node A is node 15. The Nodes table indicates that the Y-coordinate of node 15 is 15. • Note that the local x-axis for the channels along the bottom chord point to the right on the right side of the structure.000 meters} and the Y-coordinate of node 20 is 0.STAAD. By knowing that green signifies the Node A or starting end and blue signifies Node B or the ending end. A consequence of this situation is that the flanges of the channels are pointing out of the screen on the right side.000 ft {5. Click the Geometry page. • We will make use of this mirrored orientation later in the training. but remember that in practice the member direction can be confirmed much more easily. The Beam sub-page should automatically be active. confirming that the column starts at the top and ends at the bottom. Pro . This orientation is due to the fact that the Mirror command was used to create the second half of the structure. there are at least two different ways to accomplish this is STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-29 Click on the left-hand column with the Beams Cursor . and Node B is node 20. Note that the line corresponding to the selected column (Beam 35) is highlighted in the Beams table. • .

Choose Switch Incidence of Selected Beams and click OK . . and then click OK . • • • For now… a few more aspects of the local axis system.STAAD. shear force along the local y-axis.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-30 Module 3 Method 1: • • • • Hold down Control (Ctrl) and click the four members of the bottom chord on the left half of the truss . Select the option to Switch Incidence of Selected Beams in the Redefine Incidence dialog. while the four members are still selected. This will return the four members to their original “mirrored” orientation. • • Method 2: • The second method to orient all of the segments of the bottom chord the same way is to use a parameter called the beta angle . These enable us to obtain results such as major axis bending moment. Click Tools | Redefine Incidence again. In addition to the local x-axis. Note that the four selected members are reoriented so that their x-axis direction and their flanges coordinate with the other bottom chord members. Click Tools | Redefine Incidence . Beta angle is explained thoroughly in the next section. there is also a local y-axis and a local z-axis.. etc..

The statement above says “normally”. and because of the limitations it puts on other program options. Keep this model open for use in the next section. Angles have local axes that point in awkward directions. and the local z-axis is normally the major axis. Pro ’s advanced program options will not be available.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-31 • • The local y-axis is the one that is normally parallel to the web. • • • • • • . By default.STAAD. STAAD. The next section provides a better understanding of what this means. The main use for this command would be to adopt a global axis system akin to that used by CAD programs such as MicroStation. Pro orients angle members so that the beta angle is equal to zero. because there is a variant to the local axis system. it is generally recommended to avoid using “ SET Z UP” unless absolutely necessary. Note that when using “SET Z UP” . many of STAAD. The only other cross section in the steel design model that requires consideration in terms of the orientation of its local axis system is the single angle section used in the webs. The “ SET Z UP” option will not be used in this training exercise. It occurs when the “ SET Z UP ” command is specified.

Pro orients a member according to a set of mathematical rules which are best described using the name the “beta equals zero condition”. Click View | 3D Rendering . A member’s beta angle is the angle through which the cross section must be rotated about its local x-axis from its beta = 0 position to arrive at the desired orientation.5. Pro Technical Reference manual describes the relationship between the local and global coordinate systems. The Property sub-page should be active. Section 1. Pan and zoom in to observe the orientations of the channel flanges and the angle legs.5. In the absence of any explicit instruction from the user. • The beta angle is just a term that indicates how the member is oriented about its local x-axis with respect to the global coordinate system.std is still open.4 Member Beta Angle • • • • • Ensure that the file named Dataset 3_3. Members have a beta angle of zero by default. unless and until it is set differently. STAAD.STAAD. Stretch the Beams spreadsheet far enough to be able to see that the Beta column has all zero values at this time. • • • • .3 of the Technical Reference manual to quickly determine the beta angle to apply for commonly encountered cases. Figures are provided in Section 1.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-32 Module 3 3.3 of the STAAD. A rendered 3D view opens. Click the General page.

the channel flanges point in the negative Z direction. Notice that when the member incidence (direction from end A to end B) is defined in the positive global X direction. and when the member incidence is defined along the negative global X direction.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-33 • In the case of a channel. 9 • • The upper left corner of the figure above shows the local axis system for a channel member. • .STAAD. for beta = 0. Figure 3. 180 and 270 degrees for members whose longitudinal axes are aligned with the positive and negative global axis directions. 90. The lower portion of the figure shows member orientation of the channel for beta angles of 0. the following figure from the Technical Reference manual shows the member orientation for various beta angles. the flanges of the channel point in the positive global Z direction.

Pro Standard Training Manual 3-34 Module 3 • • • • This situation corresponds exactly to the condition of the bottom chord in the current model.STAAD. Press and hold the Shift key and click inside the Rendered View window . Note that the orientations of the channels in the bottom chord of the model coordinate with the orientations shown in the figure below. The “orbit paths” appear representing a path of travel for rotating about each of the three global axes. Place the cursor near one of the orbit paths. Press and hold the Shift key again. Click near the orbit path and hold the mouse button to rotate the Rendered View about one particular axis at a time. Rotate the model and zoom in to the location where the bottom chord member orientations change. • • Figure 3. 10 .

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-35 • • • • Close the Rendered View window. Right-click in the Main Window . The Geometry page is active by default. The Query dialog opens. Remember that the “hotkey” for turning on beam numbers without having to open the Labels… dialog is Shift + B. Ensure that the Angle in Degrees option is selected in the Beta Angle dialog. and click OK . Enter 90 in the input field.STAAD. Close the Query dialog. and then click OK . The beta angle is listed in the lower left corner of the dialog under the Additional Info category. and select Labels… from the pop-up menu. Double-click on the column at the left end of the truss . Click the Create Beta Angle button. • Click on Beta 90 on the Beta Angle tab in the Properties dialog. Another way to confirm a member’s beta angle is through the use of Query . Select Beam Numbers in the Beams category. Other Beta Angle definitions can be defined now if they are required. Note that “Beta 90” now appears in the Beta Angle window indicating that it is an available definition that can be assigned to members. • • • • • • • Click the Beta Angle tab on the Properties dialog. .

The beam label indicates β 90. Zoom in to observe the orientation of the channel flanges for beam number 1. but it was done here because it will be instructive when we look at analysis results later on. • Click on beam number 1 .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-36 Module 3 • • Click Use Cursor To Assign in the Assignment Method category. Figure 3.STAAD. Click the Assign button. • While the 3D Rendering window is still open. in the bottom chord. 11 • • • Click the Assign button again to exit the assignment mode. just to the right of center. there would be no reason to orient one member of a chord differently from the others.00. Click View | 3D Rendering . The cursor changes to the special Assign Beta Angle Cursor . note that the angle sections used for the truss web members are also not oriented in a realistic direction. They now point straight down. . In a real structure.

Close the 3D Rendering window. In other words. α. For fabrication reasons. that relates the section’s principal axis system and geometric axis system. The Angle option rotates a section (90 . With both commands. Pro provides two built in commands to automatically orient one angle leg parallel to the global Y-axis. the fingers of the right hand curl in the direction of the resulting rotation. Click the Beta Angle tab on the Properties dialog.α ). the direction of the resulting rotation about the local x-axis is in the positive direction with respect to the right-hand rule.) • • • • . The options labeled Angle and RAngle in the Beta Angle dialog both result in an angle orientation with the legs parallel to the global axis.α ). Click the Create Beta Angle button. STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-37 • • • • • • • The beta equals zero condition for the web members orients the local z-axis parallel to the global Z-axis. it is preferable that one of the angle legs be oriented in the XY plane in the real structure.STAAD. The RAngle option rotates a section (180 . (See figure below. Each steel angle section has a characteristic parameter. when the thumb of the right hand points in the positive direction of the member’s local x-axis.

STAAD. 12 .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-38 Module 3 Figure 3.

Click Select | By Group Name… . The line in the Beam Table corresponding to the selected member is highlighted. and click OK . • • Click on any web member to select it. Click on that Beta Angle line of text. Drag the Beams table open wide enough to view the column labeled “Beta”.45 ° = 45 ° for equalleg angles. Click Select | By Group Name… . Click on the _WEB group . and then click Close . Note that STAAD. Click View | 3D Rendering . • • Click the Assign button. . This corresponds to 90 ° . now appears in the Beta Angle window. The beta angle for this web member could also be verified by double-clicking it to use the Query function. “Beta Angle”. The Assignment Method in the Properties dialog will now default to Assign To Selected Beams .STAAD. Notice that the Beta Angle for the selected web member is indicated to be 45 ° . Pro places a new entry in the Beta Angle tab: “Beta 45”. Note how the legs are now aligned with the XY plane. and then click Close . and click Yes in the pop-up dialog to confirm. A new line of text. Click in the Main Window to deselect the web members. Zoom in to observe the orientation of the angle legs.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-39 • • • • • Click the Angle option. • • • • • Click in the Main Window to deselect all members. Click on the _WEB group .

3 of the Technical Reference manual can be used. Note that assigning beta angles by this method does not populate the Beta Angle tab with the values that are assigned.STAAD. The rules stated in Section 1. Determine the orientation of the member that corresponds to the “beta equals zero condition”. Then from the Main Menu.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-40 Module 3 • Click the X in the upper right corner of the Rendered View window to close it. This is something to keep in mind if it is important to have the value available to assign easily at a later stage. . If this is the case click the Cancel button and try again. Determine the orientation of the member that corresponds to the “beta equals zero condition”: • Either use the diagrams in the Technical Reference manual. click Commands | Geometric Constants | Beta Angle… . 2.5. But here is an alternative method that involves two steps: 1. If the To Selection radio button is “grayed out. • • • Sometimes it is not obvious what beta angle is necessary to orient a member in a certain direction. An alternate method of assigning a beta angle is to select the member in the Main Window. The Beta Angle dialog opens. Remember that the beta angle will rotate the member in a positive direction with respect to the right-hand rule.” it probably means that no members have been selected in the Main Window. or apply the following method.

establish the local y-axis by applying the rule that the cross product of the local z-axis and the local x-axis results in the local y-axis. Finally. as in the case of a vertical member such as a column or truss vertical. In this case. • . Pro adopts the convention that the local z-axis will be oriented parallel to the global Z-axis. Establish the local z-axis by applying the rule that the cross product of the local x-axis and the global Y-axis will result in the local z-axis as shown in the figure below.STAAD. STAAD. Figure 3.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-41 • • Establish the local x-axis by knowing the starting and ending nodes of the member. because it is not possible to obtain a cross product of two vectors that are parallel. 13 • The only time that this rule cannot be used is when the local x-axis is parallel to the global Y-axis. See the figure below for a refresher on cross product rules of operation.

Note the direction of movement with respect to the sign convention arrows indicated on the graphic. Example 1: X x Y = Z Example 2: Y x X = -Z Figure 3. To • • • • • • • use the graphic given a cross product in generic format A x B: Find A on the graphic. and Z.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-42 Module 3 Cross Product Rules of Operation: Cross product rules of operation are cyclical in nature: XxY=Z Y x X = -Z YxZ=X and ZxX=Y Z x Y = -X X x Z = -Y The following figure is a graphical representation of the cross product relationships among the three axes. Thus A x B = C in its generic form.STAAD. Continue in the same direction past B and read the next value as the result. X. Move around the circle toward B. 14 . Y. Clockwise movement indicates that the result will have a positive algebraic sign. say C.

Click Beam Orientation in the Beams category. Click Show Axes At Org . and then click OK . • • • • • • • • • .STAAD. Based on the Beam Ends colors. in the General category.) Right-click in the Main Window . Click the Spec sub-page of the General page. Cross the local z-axis with the local x-axis to establish that the local y-axis points straight up (in the positive global Y-direction). • • • Place the cursor on the bottom chord member just to the left of the truss centerline. Zoom in on the bottom chord member just to the left of the truss centerline. the member local x-axis is established as pointing to the left (in the negative global X-direction).Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-43 • Now apply this procedure to the channel sections assigned to the bottom chord of the model. Now graphically verify what has just been determined. The member orientation has now been completely determined by nothing more than knowing the A and B ends and applying the rules discussed above. The Beam Ends colors light up. Cross the local x-axis with the global Y-axis to establish that the local z-axis points into the page (in the negative global Z-direction). showing green at the righthand end of the member and blue at the left-hand end. and click Labels… in the pop-up menu. (This clarifies the view by eliminating the beta angle labels.

and is named Dataset 3_4. as determined above. point your thumb in the direction of the member’s x-axis. z points into the page (in the negative global Z-direction).STAAD. we will leave the bottom chord members oriented as-is. and y points up. The natural curl of your fingers indicates the direction of rotation for a positive beta angle . • • • . A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. With your right hand.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-44 Module 3 • Compare the local axes of the member with the colored axis system key at the origin to confirm that the member’s x points left. a beta angle of 180 ° is appropriate. a beta angle of 90 ° is appropriate. because it sets the model up to observe some interesting results later when an analysis is performed. Click No when asked if you want to save. Remember that the beta angle rotates the member in a positive direction with respect to the right-hand rule. it is easy to determine appropriate beta angles for the member. To orient the member with flanges pointing in the positive global Z-direction. Therefore. • • • • • • For the purposes of this exercise. to orient the member with flanges pointing down to coordinate with its adjoining neighbor on the right side of the truss centerline. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Now that the full orientation of the member is understood and confirmed.std.

The Specifications – Whole Structure dialog is used to define member conditions such as: • • • • • • Released or partially-released degrees of freedom at either end of the member Member offsets Truss member.STAAD. we are ready to move to the next item in the Page Control. • Clicking the Add button adds the specification to the model. Click on the Beam button in the Specifications-Whole Structure dialog (from here on we will refer to it simply as the Specifications dialog).std . and then click the Spec sub-page. The Member Specification dialog opens. tension-only member or compression-only member Inactive member Reduced section properties due to cracking in concrete members. cable member. Now that we have defined member cross sections and member orientation.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-45 3.5 Assigning Member Specifications • Open the file named Dataset 3_4. The operation of the Member Specification dialog remains consistent regardless of which page is being displayed. and the Release tab is active by default. • • Click the General page. • • .

and θ z). θ y. Member releases are specified about the local axis system. • • • • • • FX = axial force FY = shear force along the local y-axis FZ = shear force along the local z-axis MX = torsion MY = moment about the local y-axis (the weak axis of a wide flange beam) MZ = moment about the local z-axis (the strong axis of a wide flange beam) .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-46 Module 3 • Clicking the Assign button adds the specification to the model AND assigns the specification to the selected members. Unless one or more members is selected before opening the Member Specification dialog. and Three rotational degrees of freedom .( θ x.” • How to specify member releases: • There are six degrees of freedom in a structural connection or support: • • • Three translational degrees of freedom .STAAD. the Assign button remains inactive or “grayed out. δ y and δ z).( δ x.

and enter the spring constants for the selected degrees of freedom. The first step in setting a release is to select either Partial Moment Release or Release in the Release Type category. the options become active in either the Partial Moment Release category or the Release category. Any of the six degrees of freedom at either end of the beam can be fully or partially-released using the Release page. the force or moment can be released at the appropriate end of the member in the model. Based on the setting in the Release Type category. Then estimate what • • • • • • • . To specify a Partial Moment Release . To specify a full release. 15 • By default. KFY . and toggle the checkboxes labeled FX . so initially all connections are considered to be moment-resisting connections.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-47 Figure 3. set the Release Type category to Partial Moment Release . MX . all six degrees of freedom are fixed. FZ . set the Release Type category to Release . To specify a spring release. KFZ . KMY and KMZ in the Release category. FY . set the Release Type category to Release . If one or more of those forces or moments cannot be transferred by a connection. and the options in the other category are grayed out. toggle the checkboxes labeled KFX . MY and MZ in the Release category. KMX .STAAD.

In the mathematical model.0 and 1. the MP option is a means of specifying a partial release for all the 3 moment degrees of freedom ( MX . STAAD.STAAD. For example. • Note that at any end of a member. Note that a Partial Moment Release specifies the percentage to be released.e. MY and MZ ). not the percentage to be resisted. MPY .0 means a full release. Pro only allows one of the following: full release. A value of 1. full moment restraint. It is not permitted to apply more than one simultaneously for a given degree of freedom at a given member end. • Enter a decimal value between 0. a value of zero means no release. Offset conditions at the ends of members are specified on the Offset tab in the Member Specification dialog. assumptions are made about the structure that do not necessarily reflect the actual conditions on the physical structure.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-48 Module 3 percentage of the full-moment capacity can be resisted by the connection. i. • How to specify member offsets: • • Click the Offset tab. and/or MPZ fields to specify the fraction of the full moment capacity on the connection that is to be released for the indicated rotational degrees of freedom.0 in the MPX . a single factor is applicable to all three. or spring release. partial release. One of these assumptions is . no moment restraint. Alternatively.e. for any particular degree of freedom. i. Using this option. A note to this extent has been placed on the Release tab as a reminder.

• In the figure below. However. Figure 3.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-49 regarding where the START and END locations of members are. in the mathematical model the length of the beam is treated as though it spans to the centerline of the column. If both are wide flange members. modeled as lines. Beams and columns. a beam might be attached at the outer surface of the column flange. a beam is shown framing into a column. are assumed to meet at a point in space. the beam will behave more nearly as though it spans to the column face as opposed to the column centerline.STAAD. This may create a rigid zone at the connection where very little relative deflection will occur between the beam and the column within this zone. • . the beam stops at the column flange. whereas in the physical structure. 16 • Therefore in the physical structure.

since the results will only be marginally affected. The figure below shows an example where there is an offset of 9 inches {225 mm} between the beam working point and the brace working point. this effect may be able to be ignored.STAAD. It is another way of saying that the region shown shaded in the figure above is a rigid zone. If the difference in lengths is small. One way to avoid over-designing the beam is by using the concept of member offsets . The offset is in the direction of the local x-axis of the beam. particularly if the columns have large sections. • • • • • • • • • • . The length of this offset is equal to the distance from the face of the column flange to the centerline of the column. Member offsets may be modeled in any direction relative to either the local or the global coordinate system. Another example of an offset connection is a situation where the centerlines of the connected members do not intersect at a common working point. A member offset is a way to declare that the beam Start and/or End faces are a certain distance away from the column centerline. But in the case of a large difference in lengths.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-50 Module 3 • The difference between these span lengths (the one in the mathematical model versus the one in the physical structure) can be substantial. measured along the column flange. the calculated moment at the midspan of the beam may be significantly higher than what will actually occur.

17 • In this case the offset could be modeled several ways.0 0.0 0.STAAD. but the easiest would probably be to model the brace with an offset of 9 inches {225 mm} in the negative global Y direction.0 • Figure 3. 18 .0 0.0 -6. The member offset dimensions shown in the figure above could be represented in the input file by the following commands: MEMBER OFFSET 1 1 2 START END END 7.0 -9.0 -6.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-51 Figure 3.0 0.0 0.

Pro Technical Reference manual and in Example 7 in the STAAD. which suggests the use of reduction factors for individual members. 19 • This arrangement might be modeled as plates and beams that connect at the same nodal points. Figure 3.11. with the center of gravity of the beam offset to accurately model the true geometry.25 of the STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-52 Module 3 • Another example that could be modeled using the member offset option is a beam supporting a slab as shown in the figure below. This tab provides a method to apply reduced effective section properties to concrete sections to represent the loss of stiffness due to cracking.STAAD. Section 10. Additional information on the Member Offset specification may be found in Section 5. Click the Property Reduction Factors tab. Pro Examples manual. • • • • . • The approach follows recommendations in ACI 318-05.1 of ACI 318-05 provides a list of suggested reduction factors dependent upon the nature of stresses the member is subjected to.

or torsional forces. A T ension-only specification makes a member inactive under conditions where it would tend to experience compressive forces. bending or torsion.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-53 • • Click the Cable tab. The Truss specification requires no additional parameters. • . This tab is used to declare a member as being a cable. These specifications are usually used to overcome certain design-related code restrictions. respectively. • The Truss specification has the effect of stating that the member has no ability to transmit loads through shear. • • • Click the Tension tab or the Compression tab. This tab can be used to declare a member as being a truss member.STAAD. • • Click the Truss tab. • • Cable members can carry no shear. • A Compression-only specification has the effect of making a member inactive under conditions where it would tend to experience tensile forces. they must be explicitly defined as such. Note that the Cable specification does not imply tensiononly. bending. These tabs can be used to create tension-only and compression-only members. This specification requires the user to input either an Initial TENSION or an Unstressed LENGTH. If members are to be considered tension-only .

• • • • Click the Fire Proofing tab. Click the Inactive tab. The Inactive specification requires no additional parameters. This tab provides a way to inactivate selected members.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-54 Module 3 Generally. • • • • A compression-only member will be switched off if it starts to experience tensile axial forces. codes are quite stringent about the KL/r limits of members subjected to compressive forces. This tab provides a method to automatically consider the weight of fireproofing material applied to structural steel. and members may be selectively inactivated to account for their “absence” at particular stages of construction. If members which potentially might fail this requirement are present in the model. Example 4 in the Examples Manual illustrates the usage of this option. they may be “switched off” with the Tensiononly command to accurately portray their failed status under such compressive loads. The tension-only and compression-only specifications require no additional parameters. . • • The Inactive Member specification is ideal for modeling stages of construction of a structure. • Two types of fireproofing configurations are currently supported – Block Fire Proofing and Contour Fire Proofing . The full structure is first defined.

Assume that the goal is to specify a moment release at the left end of the bottom chord of the truss in the model. See the commentary below for four ways to do it: Hover cursor over member and observe green for start at right node and blue for end at left node at column. for that case. for that member.or • . A combination of these terms is calculated and called EPSILON. Respect is a non dimensional constant used to skip the camber imperfection calculation if the compressive load is small or EI is great or length is short. where it joins the column (left end of beam number 22). Works in conjunction with an Imperfection Analysis . select Beam Ends in the Beams category. • • Close the Member Specification dialog. This tab provides a method to apply a camber or drift value to a member to be considered for secondary effects. Determine whether the node attached to the column is at the starting end or the ending end of the beam.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-55 • • Click the Imperfection tab. • • Used to compute an additional loading on the selected imperfect members that are in compression.STAAD. or Click View | Structure Diagrams | Labels . then the imperfection calculation is skipped for that local direction. EPSILONy = Length * SQRT[ (abs(axial load)) / EIz] EPSILONz = Length * SQRT[ (abs(axial load)) / EIy] Member imperfection modifications are only applied to members that are in compression. If EPSILON is less than the specified value of RESPECT. and click Apply .

STAAD. They are listed in order. Click the Geometry tab. click Labels… . • Double-click member number 22 to activate the member query . MX . By observing the X coordinates. Note that the node numbers are listed in the table in the center of the Geometry page. return to the Spec page by clicking on the • • • • • • • • . The line for member number 22 is highlighted in the Beams spreadsheet. and then click the Assign button. Click the MX .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-56 Module 3 Right-click in Main Window . MY and MZ appear next to the End label. Click Change Releases At End . Compare the X coordinates of nodes 14 and 15 in the Nodes spreadsheet to see that member number 22 starts on the left and ends on the right. Make sure that the Release radio button is selected under the Release Type category. Make sure that the End radio button is selected in the Location category of the Member Specification dialog. ending node below it. Note that now under the Releases category. it is easy to see that the member spans from left to right in the view where the global X-axis points to the right.or Click on member number 22 to select it. starting node on top. Click Close . If you changed to the Geometry page to check the beam and node numbers. note that there is a Releases category in the lower right corner. Note that Node A is indicated as node 14 and Node B is node 15. MY and MZ checkboxes under the Release category. With the Beams dialog still open. and click Apply . select Beam Orientation in the Beams category.

By using a combination of Zoom Window and Magnifying Glass . Pro has some tools on the View toolbar to help clarify the release: and then press and hold Click the Magnifying Glass icon the left mouse button to see an enlarged view of an area on the Main Window. and then click the Display Whole Structure icon • • . it should now be possible to verify that the release indicator circle is on the correct member. the Magnifying Glass tool remains active. Click the Magnifying Glass icon again to turn it off. STAAD. The Select Groups dialog opens. Note that a small circle now appears at the ending end of member number 22. Click Select | By Group Name… . Note that after windowing in with the Zoom Window tool. and then use the left mouse Click the Zoom Window icon button to click and drag a rectangular fence around the area to window in on. . A common problem at this stage is that the blue circle representing the release appears on top of more than one member. • • • • • • • Assume that the webs of the truss are to be modeled as truss members.STAAD. This symbol is a graphic cue to let you know that there is a release of some type defined there. then click on the Spec subpage tab. • • Click in the Main Window to deselect all members.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-57 General tab in the Page Control.

Note that the Assign button is active. Also. Click the Truss tab. to alternately toggle the specification on and off the member by clicking it with the mouse. The truss specification is assigned to all web members. When Toggle Specification is enabled and a specification in the list is highlighted. • • • • . and to only turn it on when the function is required. because the webs were already selected. This makes it possible to remove a specification from a member. When the Toggle Specification checkbox is activated. and then click the Close button. Member Truss now appears in the Specification – Whole Structure dialog. that is. This helps to avoid making unintended specification changes if a member is clicked for some other purpose while the Toggle Specification option is still active. It is recommended to generally work with the Toggle Specification option turned off.STAAD. the Assignment Method works as a toggle to alternately apply and remove the assignment of the selected specification. • • Note the checkbox labeled Toggle Specification in the Specifications dialog. Select Toggle Specification . clicking on it again removes the specification. Click the Beam… button on the Specifications dialog. This makes the truss specification available to assign to any other members of the model if necessary. • Click the Assign button.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-58 Module 3 • • • Click the _WEB group. clicking on a member the first time assigns the specification to the member.

and is named Dataset 3_5. Click the Assign button. Click Use Cursor To Assign in the Assignment Method category. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.std. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. Now click on the central vertical web member once more with the special Assign Specification cursor to restore its truss specification. Click on the Highlight Assigned Geometry checkbox in the Specification – Whole Structure dialog. • • • Click the central vertical web member . The cursor changes to the special Assign Specification cursor that looks like the letters “SP” in a circle. Note that the “Truss” label disappears from the member. Turn off the Toggle Specification checkbox when finished using it. • • • • • . Click No when asked if you want to save. Note that the central vertical web member is no longer highlighted. confirming that its truss specification has been removed.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-59 • • • Ensure that MEMBER TRUSS is selected in the S pecification category of the Specification – Whole Structure dialog.STAAD.

STAAD. Click the General page. . At a pinned support. all degrees of freedom are restrained to prevent any translation or any rotation. and then click the Support sub-page. The Supports – Whole Structure dialog (we will refer to it from here on as simply the Supports dialog) is used to define support or boundary conditions for a structure. At a fixed support.6 Assigning Supports • • • Open the file named Dataset 3_5. Click the Create button in the Supports dialog.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-60 Module 3 3. The Create Support dialog offers separate tabs for each type of support that is available. but the three rotational degrees of freedom are not. On the Fixed page of the Create Support dialog.std . Fixed But: • Click the Fixed But tab. the controls for the six degrees of freedom are “grayed out.” Pinned: • • Click the Pinned tab. the three translational degrees of freedom are restrained. • • Types of Supports: Fixed: • • • Click the Fixed tab.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-61 • A Fixed But support provides checkboxes to individually control the fixity or release of the 3 translational and 3 rotational degree of freedom.STAAD. This has the effect of fixing rotation in all directions and fixing translation in all directions except X.e. This type of support is modeled by toggling on the FX checkbox. F stands for “force”. or “grayed out. • • • • Any combination of fully or partially released translational and/or rotational degrees of freedom is permitted. it is released for translation in the X direction. . the associated Define Spring field becomes inactive. Enforced and Enforced But: • • • • Click the Enforced But tab. The Enforced and Enforced But supports were introduced to handle these conditions. i. In this dialog. Perform the same basic functions as the Fixed and Fixed But supports. Note that if a degree of freedom is fully released by toggling the checkbox on. the Fixed and Fixed But supports cannot handle Support Displacement loading if plates and/or solids are present in the model. A Fixed But support provides the ability to assign a spring constant to any of the six degrees of freedom in lieu of full fixity or full release. Different from Fixed and Fixed But in the following ways: First. corresponding to translation and M stands for “moment” corresponding to rotation.” One example of the use of the Fixed But support type would be to model a roller support that slides in the X direction but does not rotate.

Pro Standard Training Manual 3-62 Module 3 • Second. and hence need not be considered). depending on the magnitude of the deflection. If the model is large. It just assigns springs with infinitely high stiffness to the supports that are supposed to be restrained in certain directions.STAAD. If a model does not include any support displacement loads for plates or solids. By contrast. Since the program needs to include only those degrees of freedom that are unrestrained.f is known to have zero displacement. the Enforced and Enforced But supports actually maintain all degrees of freedom as active in the global stiffness matrix. (restrained d. the Fixed and Fixed But supports restrain certain degrees of freedom when the global stiffness matrix is assembled. As an example. the stiffness matrix will be smaller.o. 20 . • • • Multilinear Spring: • • Click the Multilinear Spring tab. consider a cantilever beam that can deflect only a limited distance before it encounters an obstruction. • Figure 3. Provides the ability to model situations where the spring constant varies. there may be significant reduction in time required to perform the analysis. such as another structure or a slab or plate. a Fixed or Fixed But support offers faster calculation speed.

A Foundation type of support is also available to model the effect of soil acting as a spring. once the displacement exceeds δ. • Foundation: • • • Click the Foundation tab. In other words.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-63 • • As load is applied to the end of the cantilever in the negative Y direction. includes a discussion of the Modulus . where K1 represents the amount of force required to displace the “spring” a given unit of length. where the resistance varies in a manner that is not linear with displacement. For a deflection between 0 and δ. it deflects downward.).STAAD. Once the deflection exceeds δ. • • • The Multilinear Spring is defined by entering values of displacement versus spring constant in the Multilinear Spring page of the Create Support dialog. Bowles (McGraw Hill. Up to 10 values of δ vs. the magnitude of the displacement is equal to the applied force divided by some spring stiffness constant K1. the displacement is dictated by some new spring constant K2. Inc. An example of where it would be useful is in modeling the behavior of a slab on grade where the support for the structure is the soil itself. Foundation Analysis and Design by Joseph E. K can be entered in the dialog. where K2 represents the higher stiffness of the supporting material. Another example of a situation that can be modeled effectively with the Multilinear Spring option is a pile. it takes a much larger force to achieve an additional unit of deflection of the beam.

In other words.g. a quantity that specifies the amount of force required to displace a unit area of soil by a unit distance.STAAD. • • .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-64 Module 3 of Subgrade Reaction. the behavior of the soil is analogous to that of a spring. Figure 3. 21 • For irregularly-shaped or large slabs with many nodes. kip/ft 2 /ft {kN/m 2 /m}. STAAD. • • • Modulus of Subgrade Reaction has units of (Force/Area)/Displacement. The Foundation support can also be used to manually apply spring constants to discrete spread footings by entering the dimensions of the footing and the Subgrade Modulus . In a model. e. This is where the Foundation support can be useful. Pro can calculate all the tributary areas and derive the spring constants automatically. the spring constant for the soil at a particular node can be determined by multiplying the subgrade modulus by the influence area of the node in question. computing the influence area by hand for each node can become quite tedious and time-consuming.

there is an option to include in the output file the area that has been used in the calculation of the spring stiffness of each joint used when defining a Plate Mat or Elastic Mat foundation. see examples 23 and 27 in the STAAD. The Inclined Support resists displacements along userdefined directions that are not constrained to be parallel to the global axes. When the cooling tower experiences temperature loads. the force at the supports is radial and circumferential. • • Inclined: • • Click the Inclined tab. The inclined support is well suited for this situation. An example of the application of an Inclined Support would be the cooling tower shown below.STAAD. For more information. Pro provides the ability to have Elastic Mat and Plate Mat foundations behave as compression only springs . and not along a global direction. Pro Examples Manual.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-65 • STAAD. Also. • .

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-66 Module 3 Figure 3. the inclined support is the same as any other support. after any of the cycles of analysis.” In other words. The note in the dialog is a reminder that “This support requires the earlier assignment of a spring support to the node to which this support would be assigned. the direction of the force in the spring is in the “wrong” direction. either tension or compression. If this is detected. then the • • • . As the name suggests. Tension/Compression Only Springs: • • Click the Tension/Compression Only Springs tab. Note that the assignment of Tension/Compression Only Springs triggers an iterative solution if. 22 • In all other respects. in the selected global direction(s). the Tension/Compression Only Springs support assignment can be thought of as a modification to an existing Fixed But support where a spring constant has been defined. the assignment of this type of support permits only one type of reaction force to develop.

and then click the Add button. Add the supports to the Supports dialog. • • Click the Fixed Support (S2) in the Supports dialog. • Click the Add button. Clicking on the Help button in the Supports dialog takes you to the appropriate section in the online help manual. Click the Pinned tab. The Pinned support will now be included as “Support 3” in the list of supports in the Supports dialog. Click the Fixed tab again. • • Click the Create button in the Supports dialog. Click the Use Cursor to Assign radio button under the Assignment Method category. Note that an alternate way to access the Support dialogs is to click Commands | Support Specifications | Fixed… from the Menu Bar.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-67 support will be removed from that direction and a new analysis will be performed. Additional information on the use of the Supports dialog can be found in the STAAD Graphical Environment section of the online help. • . and the support on the right is to receive a Pinned support. This feature is known as contextsensitive help. The method of assigning supports to the structure is very similar to the method used to assign member properties and specifications. and then assign them to the structure. The Fixed support now appears as “Support 2” in the list of supports at the top of the Supports dialog.STAAD. • Assume that the support on the left side of the model is to receive a Fixed support.

Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save. or the Toggle Load option coming up in the next section. The fixed support symbol appears at the bottom of the column.STAAD. and then click on the bottom of the left column . This option is used to remove a support that has already been assigned. It is good practice to turn off assign modes like this to avoid assigning properties to the model unintentionally. there is no Toggle Support command. • • • • . and is named Dataset 3_6. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. Click the bottom of the right column in the model.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-68 Module 3 • Click the Assign button. Unlike the Toggle Specification option discussed earlier. The pinned support symbol appears at the bottom of the column. the No support option is assigned to a particular node by any of the available Assignment Methods . • Click the Assigning button to turn off the assign mode. • • • In addition to the Fixed and Pinned supports.std. there is another item called No support in the Supports dialog. To remove a support from the model. • • Click the Pinned support (S3) in the Supports dialog.

and Load Envelopes . and snow. This tab contains the options used to generate the “DEFINE” block of data in the input file. 4. seismic. • Definitions: • • Click the Definitions tab. Click the General page and then click the Load & Definition sub-page.std . Uniformly distributed live load of 2.0 kip/ft {30 kN/m} acting downward on the bottom chord.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-69 3. Member load (self-weight). The Create New Definitions dialog contains 4 tabs – Definitions . 2. Load Case . The following separate load cases are to be created: 1. This will hereafter be referred to simply as the Create New Definitions dialog.7 Assigning Loads • • • Open the file named Dataset 3_6.STAAD. 3. • . The “DEFINE” block is required to create Code-specified load cases such as wind. The Create New Definitions/Load Cases/Load Items dialog opens. Transverse load due to wind forces in the X direction. Load combination: dead load plus live load plus wind load (LC1 + LC2 + LC3) • • Click on the New button in the Load & Definition dialog. Load Items .

. The command syntax for these cases is explained in section 5. Creating the First Load Case: • • Click the Load Case tab once again. and pushover loads.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-70 Module 3 • It is also required to generate moving load cases. This tab contains the dialogs used to add loading data to load cases. Load Envelopes: • • • Click the Load Envelopes tab.STAAD. or load combination ) and assign it a case number. Load Items: • • Click the Load Items tab. Pro Technical Reference manual. This tab contains the dialog used to create load envelopes. These envelopes can later be used for Post Processing. moving load.31 of the STAAD. Leave the Number field set to 1 on the Primary page. time history load cases. This tab contains the dialog used to initiate a new load case ( primary load. • Load Case: • • Click the Load Case tab.

the automatic load combination generator will not be used. The Loading Type list is used to associate the load case with one of the Building Code definitions of Dead.STAAD. etc. So. • • Click Add followed by the Close button. However.. for the purpose of automatically generating load combinations. in the Title field. For this exercise.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-71 • • Enter Dead Load . there is no need to associate the load case with any of these Loading Types . Live. Note that the load case number and name now appear in the list at the right end of the View toolbar at the top of the screen. . Up until now. The following Loading Types are available: • • • • • • • • • • • Dead Live Roof Live Wind Seismic Snow Fluids Soil Rain Water/Ice Ponding Dust • • • • • • • • • • • Traffic Temperature Imperfection Accidental Flood Ice Wind on Ice Crane Hook Mass Gravity Push • • Select Dead from the Loading Type list. this field has been empty. there is no harm in doing so. either. Wind.

STAAD. all of the parameters necessary to calculate the self-weight have already been defined (density. • • • • . cross-sectional area and the length of each member).Pro Standard Training Manual 3-72 Module 3 Figure 3. Click on 1:Dead Load in the Loads & Definition dialog to select it. At this point. The only load that will be applied to the Dead Load case is the self-weight of all of the members. 23 • Note also that the Dead Load case now appears in the Load Cases Details category of the Load & Definition dialog at the right side of the screen. loads can be applied to the model and assigned to this case. Now that the Dead Load case has been created.

The default Direction parameter is Y and the default Factor is -1 . Click the Close button to dismiss this dialog. These parameters indicate an unfactored load acting in the negative global Y direction. The Add New: Load Items dialog contains all of the available load types that can be defined.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-73 Figure 3. Click the Add button. • • • . The Selfweight Load item is automatically selected.STAAD. 24 • • Click the Add button.

Currently. Click the mouse anywhere in the Main Window to deselect all of the members. Select Live as the Loading Type . Click Yes in the pop-up dialog confirming the assignment. This controls • • • • . Pro is expecting this load to be assigned to specific members. Click the Assign To View option in the Assignment Method category of the Load & Definition dialog. Note that the checkbox below the Loading Type becomes active when the Loading Type is set to Live. This indicates that the load has been applied to at least one member. The load case number automatically increments to 2 in the Add New: Load Cases dialog. • • • • Creating the Second Load Case: • The second load case will consist of a distributed live load of 1. Note that the small graphic in front of the SELFWEIGHT Y -1 expression no longer includes a question mark.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-74 Module 3 • • The Command Tree at the top right hand side should now show the “SELFWEIGHT Y -1” entry under the Dead Load case.5 kips per foot {20 kN/m} applied to the bottom chord of the truss. This is an indication that STAAD. Click on Load Cases Details in the Load & Definition dialog. the small graphic in front of the SELFWEIGHT Y 1 expression includes a question mark. Click on SELFWEIGHT Y -1 in the load list in the Load & Definition dialog. and then click the Assign button.STAAD. and then click the Add… button.

In STAAD. Some things to remember about Live Load Reduction in STAAD. . Pro . STAAD. not the rules for Roofs. Live Load Reduction is only applied to the FLOOR LOAD or ONEWAY LOAD types. So. not the rules for Columns. • • • • • • Leave the live load reduction checkbox unselected for the purposes of this exercise. and then click Close . STAAD.STAAD. and then click Add… . Some codes prevent live load reduction for buildings in Group A occupancies.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-75 whether or not STAAD. in STAAD. Pro . there is no direct method for conveying the occupancy of the structure to the program. Pro does not check this condition by itself. Click on 2:Live Load in the Load & Definition dialog. Click the Add button. Again. The user responsibility to decide when it is or is not appropriate to use the live load reduction feature based on this code provision. Some codes place limits on the amount of reduction that may be applied to structures of certain other use groups such as garages. Pro: • • • Only the rules for live load reduction on Floors have been implemented. it is the user’s responsibility to decide when it is or is not appropriate to use the live load reduction feature based on this code provision. Only the rules for live load reduction on Beams have been implemented. Pro does not check this condition by itself. Pro is to consider the live load reduction permitted by the Building Code. Enter Live Load in the Title field. there is no direct method for conveying to the program that the occupancy type is Group A.

the load will be applied along the full length of the member. Pro Technical Reference manual. PY . the parameters d1 .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-76 Module 3 • Click the Member Load option in the Add New:Load Items dialog. The value is negative because the load should act downward. Enter -2{-30} in the W1 field. d2 and d3 set to their default values of 0 so the load will act at the shear center along the entire length of the beam. If parameters d1 and d2 are left at their default value of zero. • • The W1 parameter is the load intensity. and then select the Uniform Force option.STAAD. that is.32. Z indicate the direction in local coordinates. X . d2 and d3 are still measured along the length of the member and not along the projected length. The parameter d3 can be used to specify a load that is offset from the shear center. The parameters d1 and d2 allow the load to be applied only on a portion of the beam ( d1 and d2 are both distances measured from the starting end of the member). PX . The Direction category is used to specify the direction of the load. • • • • • • • Leave the parameters d1 .2 of the STAAD. GX . Y . . in the negative global Y direction. A diagram is provided within the dialog to graphically describe the meanings of the parameters available to define a Uniform Force . GZ indicate the loads in global coordinates. Additional information is available in Section 5. GY . PZ indicate the loads along the projected length of the member in the corresponding global direction. Note that when loads are indicated to be along the projected length of the member.

STAAD. Click on UNI GY -2 {UNI GY -30} in the load list in the Load & Definition dialog. Click the Loads icon on the Structure toolbar to view the uniformly distributed load on the bottom chord. Click the Add button followed by the Close button. Click Yes in the pop-up dialog confirming the assignment. The expression UNI GY -2 kip/ft {UNI GY -30 kN/m} is listed in the Load & Definition dialog. . The Create New Definitions dialog appears. • • • • • • Creating the Third Load Case: The third load case represents transverse loads caused by wind. Click the Load Case tab. Click Select | By Group Name… . • • Click the New button in the Load & Definition dialog. Click the Assign to Selected Beams option in the Assignment Method category of the Load & Definition dialog. As with the selfweight load earlier. and then click Close . and ensure that the Primary type is selected in the left-hand portion of the dialog. Click _BOTC . The load case number automatically increments to 3. the small graphic in front of the UNI GY -2 kip/f t {UNI GY -30 kN/m} expression includes a question mark indicating that STAAD. and then click the Assign button.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-77 • • • • Click the GY radio button under the Direction category. Pro is expecting this load to be assigned to specific members.

Click the New… button in the Load & Definition dialog. Enter Transverse Wind Load along GX in the Title field. and ensure that the Node option is selected. from eave to ridge. • • • Click on the FX 1. Click Use Cursor to Assign in the Assignment Method .STAAD. The text in the button will change to “ Assigning ” as before. and the cursor graphic will change to the special assign nodal loads cursor. Click on 3: Transverse Wind Load along GX in the Load & Definition dialog. FX 1. Enter 1. and then click Add… .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-78 Module 3 • • • • • • Select Wind as the Loading Type . Click the Assign button. Note that there is a Wind item on the Definitions tab of the Create New Definitions dialog. We did not use this item when we created the “ Transverse Wind Load along GX ” load case.2 kips { 5 kN} in the Fx field.2 kip {FX 5 kN} now appears in the Load & Definition dialog. Click the Add button. . Click the Nodal Load option in the Add New:Load Items dialog. • • • • Click on each of the six nodes on the left (windward) top chord of the truss. and then click Close .2 kip {FX 5 kN} expression in the Load & Definition dialog. then click Add followed by the Close button. Click the Assigning button to toggle the Assign mode off when finished.

To see the load icons on the screen: • • • • Right-click the mouse inside the Main Window and select the Labels… command from the pop-up menu. Temporarily click to the Support sub-page.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-79 • To clarify. assuming that the appropriate load magnitudes had already been calculated by other methods. Click the Loads and Results tab in the Diagrams dialog. Load icons should be visible on the screen because the Load sub-page of the General page is currently active. and then click Apply . When this is the case. Pro to automatically calculate wind pressures according to code. Pro Examples manual). This method of generating wind loads on a structure would be useful in a situation where there are influence areas such as glass panels taking wind pressure and transferring it to the building frame. and ensure that the Show Load Arrow checkbox is also selected in the Loads category. the Wind item on the Definitions tab is used to enter the parameters necessary to calculate code-specified wind pressures. Click the Loads checkbox. • • • • • • • • . and note that the load icons disappear. In the case of the current example. It is possible to view loads while on other pages like this. Click Close to dismiss the Create New Definitions dialog. the Wind item can be used to instruct STAAD.STAAD. and to create the loading condition by applying the pressures to the influence areas on the structure (see Example 15 in the STAAD. Click OK to acknowledge the warning box that Force results are not available. the wind loads were applied as nodal loads.

STAAD. Click the Load Values checkbox in the Loading Display Options category. Click the + symbol in front of 3:Transverse Wind Load along GX . • • • • Click back to the Load sub-page in the Page Control. Click on the node at the ridge of the truss. and then click the Assign button. When Toggle Load is turned on. . Click FX 1.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-80 Module 3 The load arrows for each of the nodal loads should now be displayed.2 kip {FX 5 kN} . • • • • • • Click the Toggle Load checkbox. The load values will be displayed on the structure. • To see the load values: • • Click back to the Labels tab. Click the node again to restore the load. Click Use Cursor To Assign in the Assignment Method area. clicking on an entity will alternately assign and remove the load. and then click OK . and note that the load is removed from that one node. This checkbox enables an option to toggle any of the loads on or off. To see this effect: • • Double-click Load Case Details to expand the tree. Note the Toggle Load checkbox in the Load & Definition dialog just above the Assignment Method area.

The column headed with the check symbol provides a checkbox for every node in the model that has been assigned the particular load. All of these checkboxes are checked by default. Click the Close button. This helps to establish which node is which without having to relate to node numbers. Placing a check in any of the “light bulb” checkboxes will highlight the corresponding node in the Main Window. Removing the check from one of these checkboxes will remove the particular load from the corresponding node.STAAD. Click the Assigning button to exit assignment mode. The Delete… button can be used to delete a selected load. The Edit dialog opens. providing the ability to edit the magnitudes of the components in that particular load. All of these checkboxes are unchecked by default. The column headed with the light bulb symbol also provides a checkbox for every node in the model that has been assigned the particular load. With the expression FX 1. • • • • • .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-81 • • • • • Click the Toggle Load checkbox again to deselect this option.2 kip {FX 5 kN} still selected. click the Edit… button on the Load & Definition dialog.

The Load Number is automatically incremented to 4. enter the appropriate factor in the Default field. with factors of 1. All three of the existing load cases are currently listed in the Available Load Cases box.STAAD. To apply different load factors for each load case. the combination will consist of the sum of the individual load components. live and wind loads. For the Normal Type . Note that load factors could be varied by load case. • • • Enter LC1 + LC2 + LC3 in the Name field. The Define Combinations item is selected by default. each multiplied by a factor. Ensure that the Type category is set to Normal .Pro Standard Training Manual 3-82 Module 3 Creating the Combination Load Case: The next load case is a combination of the three existing primary load cases. select the corresponding • • • . The General Format category shows how the individual components will be combined. Click the double-right arrow button to include each of them with the Default load factor of 1. This will create a load case that combines the analysis results for the dead. • • Click the New… button in the Load & Definition dialog. and then click the Combination option. Click the Load Case tab. which will be acceptable for the purposes of this example. The Default factor is currently set to 1. All three load cases get moved from the Available Load Cases box to the Load Combination Definition box.

and then click the single-right arrow.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-83 load case. there are instances where it may be necessary to use other combination methods. STAAD. When the “ SRSS Component ” checkbox is activated. This method of combining loads is often used in the nuclear power industry.STAAD. • Click the Add button. STAAD. which have a graphic of the letter “L” in a box in the Load Case Details list. Refer back to the Create New Definitions dialog for some additional information on load combination options. the selected load cases are added to the load combination in the Square Root of the Sum of Squares method. Then repeat the process for the remaining load cases in the combination. In fact. Pro actually provides the ability to combine loads in a mixed algebraic and SRSS combination. When the “ SRSS Component ” checkbox is deactivated. Note also that this fourth load case (the newly created load combination) is also available in the load case list on the View toolbar. and then activating and deactivating the checkbox labeled “ SRSS Component ” as necessary. One example of another combination method is the SRSS. It has a blue graphic with the letter “C” for “combination” to differentiate it from the load cases. • • • • • • • • . the selected load cases are added to the load combination in the basic algebraic format. Pro provides the SRSS combination type for these applications. The mixed combination could be created by selecting the SRSS combination type. Normally the analysis results of individual load cases are combined algebraically. However. or Square Root of the Sum of Squares method. and slide the Create New Definitions dialog out of the way to see that the load combination now appears in the Load & Definition dialog with the reference number 4.

35 of the Technical Reference manual.STAAD. Keep the current model open for reference in the next section. These tools allow load combinations such as: • or or • • • • The SRSS or ABS options will not be used for this example problem. the absolute values of the individual load components are multiplied by the factor in the Default field and then combined algebraically.Pro Standard Training Manual 3-84 Module 3 • The last form of Load Combination is the Absolute Value method. . When ABS is the selected combination method. More information on combining load case analysis results is provided in Section 5. Click Close to dismiss the Create New Definitions dialog.

A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. The Material – Whole Structure dialog opens and lists the common materials that are available to assign to members. The Create button in the Material – Whole Structure dialog is available to create a new custom material such as plastic. and is named Dataset 3_7. fiberglass.std. or a composite material when necessary. but it is good to note that it is there in case it is needed in the future. All of the members in the Main Window indicate that they are of the Steel material. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.8 The Material Page • • • • Click the Material sub-page of the General page. Click No when asked if you want to save. • • • • . It won’t be necessary to create any new materials for this example exercise.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3-85 3.

Pro Standard Training Manual 3-86 Module 3 -End of Module- .STAAD.

................. 11  4........4 Viewing the Output File..1 Preparing for the Analysis....... 2  4....4-1 Analyzing the Model Module The following topics are included in this module..................................... 10  4................. 4................................................. 13  4 .....Pro Generate Results?..........................2 Performing the Analysis.............3 How Does STAAD........................................................

Pro to perform a specific type of analysis. displacements. Three sub-page tabs are displayed in the Page Control area: Pre-Print . STAAD. support reactions.1 Preparing for the Analysis • Open the file named Dataset 4_1. A dialog labeled Analysis-Whole Structure appears in the Data Area and the Analysis/Print Commands dialog pops up on the screen. • The Analysis/Print Commands dialog contains the following tabs: • • • Perform Analysis – active by default P-Delta Analysis Perform Cable Analysis .STAAD. The Analysis sub-page is active by default.Pro Standard Training Manual 4-2 Module 4 4. and to provide certain types of output. The next step is to perform the analysis. • Click the Analysis/Print tab. in order to obtain the forces.std . will be performed on this model. The basic type of analysis. The Analysis/Print page is the next page below the General page. The general workflow process continues to move from top to bottom in the Page Control area. moments. etc. Pro offers various types of analysis methods. This Module demonstrates how to instruct STAAD. known as a linear-elastic analysis. Analysis and Post-Print . This Module begins at the point where all of the steps needed to create and load a complete model have been performed.

Y. . Load Data – includes an interpretation of all the load data in the output file. A support reaction summary. and Z directions. Statics Check –includes a report in the output file that will provide. Y and Z directions. The moments about the X. The maximum displacements in the model. The maximum translation in the X. The Perform Analysis page contains various print options. The forces in the X.STAAD. • • • No Print – none of the Print Options will be included in the output file. The other analysis methods are advanced topics that are not covered in this Module. Y and Z axes acting at the origin.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 4 4-3 • • • • • • • • Perform Pushover Analysis Change Perform Direct Analysis Perform Imperfection Analysis Perform Buckling Analysis The Perform Analysis tab provides access to the standard linear-elastic analysis method. for each load case: • • • • • • • The total load acting on the structure. The maximum rotations about the X. Y and Z axes.

STAAD. instead of the concise check for only support reactions versus applied loading. • • • The order of commands in the STAAD. Pro input file is very important. This adds a line at the end of the STAAD. Both – equivalent to selecting Load Data and S tatics Check . and then click the Add button. • • • • Click the Statics Check option. This checkbox influences the location where a new command will be inserted into the STAAD . All –includes all available Print Options in the output file. Pro input file that instructs the program to perform an analysis and to include in the output file the information listed above in the description of the Statics Check option. there is a problem in the analysis. Do not confuse the Statics Check option with the Statics Load option directly below it. Note the checkbox labeled After Current in the lower left-hand corner of the Analysis/Print Commands dialog. The Statics Check output can be used to compare the total loading to the total reactions. These two quantities should be equal in magnitude and opposite in sense. Mode Shapes – includes a report of frequencies and modes when a dynamic analysis is performed. • Statics Load –includes an equilibrium check at every joint in the structure.Pro input file. .Pro Standard Training Manual 4-4 Module 4 In a concise form the Statics Check provides an equilibrium check and a maximum displacement summary. If they are not.

If STAAD. click the Load Data radio button on the Perform Analysis page of the Analysis/Print Commands dialog. Double-click the line that starts with LOAD 2. how could a Perform Analysis command be inserted above the line containing the Check Code command? This is where the After Current checkbox is useful. and then click Add . For instance. • • To demonstrate. in the Analysis – Whole Structure dialog. It becomes highlighted to indicate that this is now the “current” line. That folder expands to reveal its contents. If left unchecked. Now click the Close button to dismiss the dialog. • • • • • Double-click the line that says MEMBER LOAD .. Click the Define Commands button.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 4 4-5 • It refers to the currently selected line in the Command Tree shown in the Analysis – Whole Structure dialog in the Data Area.STAAD. • . a new command will always be added to the end of the STAAD. Pro input file. Pro adds new commands to the end of the input file by default. Note that the new command PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA is inserted just above the FINISH line in the input file by default. a Perform Analysis command must precede a Check Code command in the input file. Click on the line that says UNI GY -2{UNI GY -30} . Assume a Check Code command was inadvertently placed in the input file without a preceding Perform Analysis command..

and then click Add .STAAD. The new command. click the After Current checkbox to activate it. and then click Close . Right-click the line that says PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT BOTH . and then click the Define Commands… button in the Pre Analysis Print – Whole Structure dialog. These commands were only added to demonstrate the function of the After Current option. Leave the command that says PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK. This time. They should not be left in the input file. Click the Pre-Print sub-page tab in the Page Control on the left side of the screen. Note the Analysis/Print Commands dialog has different options when it is accessed from the Pre-Print sub-page than when it is accessed from the Analysis sub-page. Note that the command disappears from the input file. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT BOTH. Click Delete Command in the pop-up menu. • • • • • Right-click the line that says PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA . The Analysis/Print Commands dialog opens. is inserted after the currently selected line in the input file. and then confirm by clicking Yes . . and delete that line. click the Add button. • • This dialog is used to include in the output file certain items related to the input data. followed by Close .Pro Standard Training Manual 4-6 Module 4 • • • • Click the Both radio button. Click the Material Properties tab. too.

and that it has a question mark graphic in front of the command. STAAD. Another Analysis/Print Commands dialog opens with a large number of post-analysis printing options available. and then click Add followed by Close . member section forces (all 6 forces at 1/8th intervals along the member length). Click Yes in the pop-up dialog to confirm the assignment. and then click the Assign button. member forces. This indicates that the command has not yet been assigned to any members. Click the Analysis Results tab. click the Post-Print sub-page tab in the Page Control on the left side of the screen. support reactions. Pro will still echo the input data in the output file. • • • • • . All members in the Main Window become highlighted. Note that even if no Pre Analysis Print commands were issued.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 4 4-7 This places a command in the input file requesting STAAD. • Now. • Some of the available options to place in the output file include analysis results. etc. and then click the Define Commands button. indicating that the command was applied to every member in the model. member stresses. • Note that the command appears in the Pre Analysis Print – Whole Structure dialog. The Pre Analysis Print commands are provided to access information in a nice tabular format.STAAD. Click the PRINT MATERIAL PROPERTIES command in the Pre Analysis Print – Whole Structure dialog. Click the Assign To View radio button in the Assignment Method category. Pro to print the material properties of members in the output file. joint displacements.

most of the commands are “grayed out”. all displacements. It automatically is assigned to every member in the structure. • The PRINT ANALYSIS RESULTS command now appears in the input file in the Post Analysis Print – Whole Structure dialog. Edits to those items require moving to a different page in the Page Control first. • The commands in the Post Analysis-Whole Structure dialog now include: PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK PRINT MATERIAL PROPERTIES PRINT ANALYSIS RESULTS FINISH • Note that when the command list is viewed from the Post Analysis-Whole Structure dialog. and re-run the analysis. • • . For example.Pro Standard Training Manual 4-8 Module 4 The Print Analysis Results command does not need to be assigned to any specific member. forces.STAAD. there are other methods of obtaining analysis results beside the output file. add more analysis/print commands. It is also used to create customized reports that can include information in both tabular and graphical format. and only the PRINT ANALYSIS RESULTS command is in bold text with a green checkmark. which is covered in detail in another module. the Post Processor. By adding this command. offers a variety of ways to view results graphically. Note that it is always possible to come back later. The other items are grayed out to indicate that they cannot be modified from the current location in the Page Control. and reactions will now be included in the output file. In addition.

indicating that it is accessible to modify. .std.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 4 4-9 For example.STAAD. • • • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. if it is necessary to modify the edit list of members for the PRINT MATERIAL PROPERTIES command. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save. and is named Dataset 4_2. Then the PRINT MATERIAL PROPERTIES command would be in bold text. it requires clicking on the Pre-Print sub-page first.

a button labeled Abort is provided in the lower right corner. Keep the STAAD Output Viewer window open for reference in the next section.STAAD. Three options are presented in the lower left corner of the dialog: • • • • • • View Output File Go to Post Processing Mode Stay in Modeling Mode • Click the View Output File radio button. .2 Performing the Analysis • Open the file named Dataset 4_2. While the analysis is in progress.Pro Standard Training Manual 4-10 Module 4 4. the processing time is so short. The STAAD Analysis and Design dialog is dismissed and the output file opens in the STAAD Output Viewer . In the case of this example model. • When the analysis is complete. A dialog labeled STAAD Analysis and Design displays a series of messages as the analysis proceeds. Now it is time to actually perform the analysis. that it may be difficult to see the Abort button before it changes to the Done button.Pro Run…” and reports the total processing time. and then click Done . Pro displays the message: “End STAAD. • • Click Analyze | Run Analysis… .std . It can be used to stop the processing and abort the run. STAAD.

In this particular example.STAAD. However. The stiffness of a structure is a composition of the individual stiffnesses of each member and each degree of freedom in the structure. causing it to deflect a distance δ as shown in the figure above. 1 The weight applies a load to the spring. can be illustrated by considering a weight suspended at the end of a spring of stiffness K. it is easy to solve for the deflection delta. a single member with a single degree of freedom.3 How Does STAAD. • Figure 4. Pro Generate Results? • In a linear elastic analysis.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 4 4-11 4. The simplest case of this concept. a fundamental equation is used to generate the results: [K] {u} = {P} • It states that the stiffness K of the structure multiplied by the displacement vector u must be equal to the applied loading vector P in order to satisfy the requirement that the structure is in a state of equilibrium. even when looking at only a single beam in a .

etc. For instance. the other end moves too. and each degree of freedom has its own stiffness associated with it. The only unknown values are the displacements. and when one end of a beam moves. beta angles. material properties. the second portion pushes back.Pro Standard Training Manual 4-12 Module 4 three-dimensional structure model. The magnitudes of the stiffness factors are known. etc… • All of these stiffnesses must be assembled into a stiffness matrix . three translational degrees of freedom and three rotational degrees of freedom. Each beam has six degrees of freedom at each end of the beam. • • The load values are also known.STAAD. The stiffnesses are a function of member properties. the problem immediately becomes more complicated. There are also coupling effects which have to be taken into account. when one portion of the structure pushes on another portion. • . So there are twelve degrees of freedom for each beam element. member orientation.

STAAD. followed by the input data in a format very similar to the way it appears in the input file. For each primary load case. 0. Below that is a list of PROBLEM STATISTICS: number of joints. etc. Use the scroll bar to scroll down through the report. an output file is produced containing results. warnings and messages associated with errors if any. the Statics Check report provides: • Summary of total applied loads for all 6 degrees of freedom.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 4 4-13 4. Summary of total reactions from the supports of the structure. members and elements. Following the statistics is information associated with the Statics Check requested with the PRINT STATICS CHECK command. Maximum displacements (3 translations and 3 rotations) in the structure induced by this load case. supports. 0. with moments calculated about the origin of the coordinate system (0. with moments calculated about the origin of the coordinate system (0. 0). • • • • • • • To check equilibrium for a given load case. load cases.4 Viewing the Output File • • • • During the analysis. The output file has the extension . The Statics Check was requested in order to verify that the structure is in equilibrium for the various load cases. 0). verify that each of the 3 applied forces and 3 applied moments is equal in .ANL and may be viewed using the STAAD Output Viewer . The first section displays any job information that was entered in the Job Info dialog.

Pro run. to simply verify that the deformations are within tolerable limits. making it difficult to find the desired results. a message is printed indicating the end of the STAAD. • • • Following the statics check is the material properties information for members 1 through 35. The next block of data is the analysis results. an instability. It would be very easy to end up with an output report that is hundreds of pages in length. The output report for this very simple structure is 18 pages long. This underscores the need to be judicious when choosing analysis/print commands. or a drastically disproportionate member stiffness somewhere in the model.STAAD. . Factors such as instability conditions or improperly applied loads can cause the equilibrium check to fail. which includes: • • • Joint displacements for every joint Support reactions for every support Member end forces for every member • Finally. to verify that the displacements seem reasonable and do not indicate extreme deflections that could indicate a modeling error.Pro Standard Training Manual 4-14 Module 4 magnitude and opposite in sign to the 3 reaction forces and 3 reaction moments. • A failure to achieve equilibrium could imply that the analysis results (for a linear elastic analysis) were erroneous. Second. • It is also important to examine the maximum displacements for two reasons: • First.

The Post Processor. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.STAAD.std. which is covered in detail in a different Module. and is named Dataset 4_3. • Close the STAAD Output Viewer window by clicking File | Exit . • • . is specifically for the purpose of observing and reporting analysis results. not the File menu in the STAAD. Pro . A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. Pro main menu. Be careful to select the STAAD Output Viewer ’s File menu.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 4 4-15 Bear in mind that the output file is just one method of obtaining output results from STAAD.

Pro Standard Training Manual 4-16 Module 4 -End of Module- .STAAD.

......................7 Displacement and Reactions Tables..........Pro . 44  5........................................................... 69  5.................. 55  5.......... 65  5.. 12  5..... 5...........................................3 Sign Conventions for Reporting Member End Forces ................................................. 6  5.8 Beam Analysis Results .. 53  5......... 28  5.............6 Displaying the Displacement Diagram ..........................................5-1 The Post Processor Module The following topics are included in this module.........14 Animation ................................................................... 14  5.......................................... 19  5......................................................................9 Verifying the Results ........15 Plotting Output from STAAD...........2 Coordinate Systems for Reporting Results .......................................................................................12 Labeling the Structure Diagram . 2  5......................................... 62  5.............. 72  5 ...... 9  5....................13 Individual Control of Labels .....................................................10 Viewing Results with Member Query.. 48  5.......5 Activating the Post Processor ..1 Introduction to the Post Processor........ 3  5.............................................................4 How to Determine if Results are Available .........11 Using Structural Tool Tips to View Results ....................................16 Simple Query .........

The STAAD Post Processor is designed to assist in interpreting analysis results and creating well organized reports.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-2 Module 5 5. and the analysis has been performed. • • • • • . Pro incorporates a coordinate system and sign conventions typical to structural engineering and they are presented in the next two sections.STAAD. even for relatively small structures. complete with tables and supporting graphics. analysis instructions have been issued. The next step is to view the results of the analysis. Pro ’s Pre Processor. STAAD. An awareness of coordinate systems and sign conventions used by the program is fundamental to understanding the output. Structural analysis software can generate hundreds of pages of output results.1 Introduction to the Post Processor • This module begins at the point where all of the major modeling has been completed using STAAD.

when viewing the results of the analysis. as shown in the table below. and the orientation of a member’s local axis system.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-3 5. The following convention is used: Result Nodal displacements Support reactions Member end forces Reference Global coordinate system Global coordinate system Local coordinate system • • It is logical and convenient to express nodal displacements and support reactions in terms of the global coordinate system. Additional information is available in Chapter 1 of the Technical Reference manual. . Member loads that are skewed with respect to the global axis system are resolved into their global components for the purpose of analysis. Pro produces three major types of output results: • • • nodal displacements support reactions member end forces Other types of results involving stresses on plate and solid elements will be discussed later. However.STAAD. It is usually logical and convenient to express member end forces with respect to a member’s local coordinate system. member end forces are reported with respect to the member’s local coordinate system. • The following is a brief refresher on establishing the starting end and ending end of a member. Pro ’s stiffness matrix is a global stiffness matrix.2 Coordinate Systems for Reporting Results • STAAD. • STAAD.

The local x.and local z-axis. The actual orientation of each member’s local coordinate system (within the global coordinate system of the model) is defined by the order in which the member’s end nodes were selected and by any beta angle that may have been assigned to the member. The positive direction of the local x-axis is defined by a line going from the starting end (node A) to the ending end (node B) of the member. Symbols indicating the orientation of the local coordinate system and showing the cross section shape will appear in the Main Window. Its purpose is to provide a key to the colors of the local coordinate axis symbols. and the local z-axis is normally the major axis. color-coded local coordinate axis system also appears in the Main Window. where local x = blue. then click OK . The axes for the local coordinate systems of all members in model can be displayed as follows: Right-click in the Main Window and select Labels… from the pop-up menu.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-4 Module 5 Refresher on Local Coordinate System: • • The local x-axis is a line defined by the two ends of the member. then toggle on the Beam Orientation checkbox in the Beams category and the Show Axes At Org checkbox in the General category. A labeled. The local y-axis is normally parallel to the web of a wide flange beam section. local y. and local z = green.STAAD. • • • • . so local x cross local y equals local z. Each member also has a local y. and local z axes are always mutually perpendicular. and conform to the right-hand rule. local y = red.

STAAD. . Pro Technical Reference manual contains thorough explanations for the orientation of the local coordinate system for an individual member.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-5 The STAAD.

This would also be a tensile force.STAAD. 1 . An axial force (F x ) at the starting end of a member acting in the negative direction of the local x-axis is considered to be a negative force.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-6 Module 5 5. so therefore it would be a compressive force. An axial force (F x ) at the ending end of a member acting in the positive direction of the local x-axis is considered to be a positive force. as mentioned above. an axial force (F x ) at the ending end of a member acting in the negative direction of the local x-axis is considered to be a negative force. Such a force would be pushing into the member.3 Sign Conventions for Reporting Member End Forces • Results for member end forces are reported with respect to the member’s local coordinate system. Finally. Pro for reporting axial member end forces: An axial force (F x ) at the starting end of a member acting in the positive direction of the local x-axis is considered to be a positive force. This would also be a compressive force. This would be a tensile force. The following statement establishes the sign convention used by STAAD. • The following figure and chart summarize the sign convention for axial member end forces: • Figure 5.

the moment about the local x-axis.STAAD. is considered a positive torsion if the rotation produces a vector having the same sense as the positive local x direction. and similarly for the other moments. 2 • At Ending End of Member Positive Sign Tensile Force Negative Sign Compressive Force Shear forces also conform to the rule that a force in the positive direction of the local axis system is considered to be a positive force. as shown in the figure below. For example. The right-hand rule is used to dictate the positive sense of rotation about each of the local axes. 3 • The moments at each end of a member are treated in a similar way in terms of the sign convention.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-7 Axial Member End Forces: At Starting End of Member Force In Positive Local x Direction Force In Negative Local x Direction Positive Sign Compressive Force Negative Sign Tensile Force Figure 5. • . M x . Figure 5.

since they all coincide with the positive directions of the axes based on the right-hand rule. .Pro Standard Training Manual 5-8 Module 5 • The following figure from Section 1.19 of the Technical Reference manual illustrates the sign convention for moments about a member’s local axis system.STAAD. 4 The moments shown in the figure above all represent positive bending or torsion. Figure 5.

There are two ways to quickly determine if analysis results are available in a model.” meaning it cannot be activated.” it could either be because an analysis has not been performed yet. No Results Available Figure 5.Pro Viewer when current results are available. • Another way to tell whether results are available is to look at the selections in the Mode pull-down menu. Click Mode in the Main Menu.4 How to Determine if Results are Available • • • • • Open the file named Dataset 5_1. or because something has changed since the last analysis was run.std . making the previous results invalid. 5 Results Available If toolbar button is “grayed out. • . If toolbar button is “grayed out. and note that the Post Processing menu option is “grayed out. STAAD Output toolbar button on the File toolbar: Opens the output file in the STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-9 5.STAAD.” current results are not available.

Even seemingly insignificant things such as opening the input file editor to add a carriage return or a comment will be interpreted as changes to the input file and will cause the output results to be deleted. the Post Processing results will no longer be available.STAAD. suppose an analysis is run.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-10 Module 5 No Results Available Figure 5. there are conditions that can cause the Post Processing mode to be unavailable. if the toolbar button is “grayed out. The program will offer a warning that if changes are made. These include: • • Errors encountered during the analysis.” it could either be because an analysis has not been performed yet. or because something has changed since the last analysis was run. making the previous results invalid. For example. . Discrepancies between the input file and the output results. the program will delete the existing analysis results. Even if an analysis has been run on a model. If you confirm that you want to make a change. • • Press the esc key twice to close the Mode menu. and then changes are made to the model. 6 Results Available Again. and the Post Processing mode will not be available. STAAD will try to protect the integrity of the results by deleting the results if any change is made to the input file.

there are two options. This can be especially helpful on a very large model that would require a large amount of time to re-analyze. (The original model and its results file remain intact. • STAAD. and then make revisions as necessary in the original model file. Pro will ignore anything on a line preceded by an asterisk (*) in the input file.) • Keep the current model open for use in the next section. Or. Create a backup copy of the original output file. but you think you might want to keep the original analysis results. This can be useful for: • Creating comments within the input file for record or to help with interpretation. and then make changes to the new model and let STAAD. Pro with an external text editor program such as Notepad or WordPad instead of using the STAAD editor. If you want to make changes to a model after running the analysis. Formatting the input file to offset or draw visual attention to a section of the file.STAAD. so it can be viewed with any text editor. • • • A STAAD. . Pro output file can be identified by the . 2. Pro delete the associated results file created by the Save As operation. Temporarily disabling portions of the input file that may need to be added back in later. Either: 1. Create a copy of the model using File | Save As .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-11 Hint: to add a comment to the input file without causing the results file to be deleted. open the input file outside of STAAD. The output file is just a text file.ANL extension.

Pro Standard Training Manual 5-12 Module 5 5. This page provides access to STAAD. or for nodes and beam numbers that fall within a given range. displacements. When the analysis is complete. This page can be used to specify particular nodes. By default. • Regardless of which load cases are initially selected. The Loads page provides a convenient way to work with results from only selected load cases at one time. Click the Range tab in the Results Setup dialog. Click the Result View Options tab. in a large structure with many load cases. for the members with a given cross sectional property. However. all members are selected. all the load cases in the project are selected. select Analyze | Run Analysis from the main menu. it is always possible to change the selection later by using the Select Load Case command in the Results menu of the Post Processor. • • • . • The Increments option is used to specify the number of segments into which a member is divided for printing section forces.std still open. members and elements for which analysis results are desired.5 Activating the Post Processor • With Dataset 5_1.STAAD. etc. Pro ’s automatic scaling controls. However. it might be very cumbersome to view the results for all load cases at the same time. select the Go to Post Processing Mode radio button in the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog. and then click Done . results can be displayed for just the members of a certain group. The Loads page of the Results Setup dialog is used to select the load cases for which analysis results are to be viewed. By default.

To return to the Results Setup dialog at a later time. the magnitude of the units will vary greatly from member to member. Remember that this option is available. pull down the Results menu and click Select Load Case . but for training purposes.STAAD. moments.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-13 • Scale is the relationship between the magnitude of forces and displacements in the real structure and the units used to represent them on graphs and diagrams. leave the Enable Automatic Scaling checkbox turned off. Click OK to dismiss the dialog and enter the Post Processing mode.) • STAAD. • • • • • • . It is instructional to set the scaling manually in order to demonstrate how to use the scaling commands. Pro has the ability to set the scaling controls automatically. Depending on the type of forces. Keep the current model open for use in the next section. Scaling units are chosen to make diagrams and graphs convey the desired information concisely and in a way that is visually attractive. load intensities and displacements represented. (More to come on this topic. Leave all selections in the Results Setup dialog at their default values.

7 • The current Load Case is also reported in the Status Bar at the bottom right corner of the screen. When the Displacement page is active.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-14 Module 5 5.6 Displaying the Displacement Diagram • Ensure that the file named Dataset 5_1. The appearance of the displacement diagram depends on which load case is active. • The Displacement sub-page of the Node page should currently be active.STAAD. The current Load Case is 1:DEAD LOAD as shown in the Load Case list in the View toolbar. It may not be possible to see any actual displacement of the structure at this time.std is still open. the displacement diagram may appear to be superimposed directly on top of the structure without any apparent deflection. and on how the diagram is scaled. The Post Processing mode presents a new set of page and subpage tabs in the Page Control. a displacement diagram is shown by colored lines superimposed on the structure. • • • • Figure 5. Instead. 8 . Figure 5.

STAAD. • • • • . Click Structure Diagrams… in the pop-up menu.” A setting of 12 means that for every 12 inches {12 mm} of calculated displacement due to the current load case. Note: another way to display the Scales page is by selecting the Scale button on the Structure toolbar (the toolbar names are visible only when the toolbars are floating. • Toggle on the Apply Immediately checkbox to view changes immediately. not when they are docked). • The diagram should be re-scaled to be able to see an exaggerated deflected shape of the structure due to the self weight loading.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-15 This load case was automatically selected by default. Pro will plot it as a scale 1 foot {1 meter} on the diagram. • The Displacement scaling parameter field (under the Result Scales category) is labeled with units of “in per ft {mm per m}. STAAD. A third way to display the Scales page is by pulling down the Results menu and clicking on the Scales command. Drag the Diagrams dialog to one side if it is blocking the view of the structure diagram. Click the Scales tab in the Diagrams dialog. The only force that was applied under this load case was the structure’s own self weight. Right-click the mouse in the Main Window .

Pro Standard Training Manual 5-16 Module 5 • It may be that no deflection is visible on the displacement diagram at the current scale. If the scale is reduced far enough. • • • Set the Displacement scale value to 0. because the Apply Immediately option is turned on. the deflection diagram shows a larger apparent deflection when the scale is “1 inch of deflection per scale foot on the diagram” than when the scale is “12 inches of deflection per scale foot on the diagram”. the exaggeration of the deflected shape increases with each click of the scale arrow buttons.001 inches of deflection look like a scale foot on the drawing set the scale value to 0. click the down arrow to decrease the number in this field. and so on. Remember that the units on the Displacement scale can be thought of as “inches of deflection per scale foot on the diagram”.STAAD. it will be possible to find a scale that makes the deflected shape apparent on the scale of the diagram.01. it can be made to look like a foot of deflection relative to the scale of the diagram by setting the scale value to 0. For a given deflection. to make 0. The concept here is that in order to increase the exaggeration of the deflected shape relative to the scale of the entire structure.01 inch. the scale value should be decreased. .8 mm per m }. To make the deflection more apparent. Another way of looking at it would be to say if a structure actually deflects 0. As the scale value is reduced.01 in per foot { 0. When thought of this way. it may be more intuitive to decrease the scale to emphasize the deflection.001.

• . moment. shears. the deflected shape is wildly exaggerated.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-17 At a scale value of 0. etc. Click on the Loads and Results tab within the Diagrams dialog. but this method requires the Diagrams dialog be closed first.STAAD. • Scaling works the same for all the different types of diagrams: moments. The scale value will have to be increased to make the deflected shape more reasonable. Changing the load case from the Loads and Results page within the Diagrams dialog makes it convenient to quickly return to the Scales page to rescale the view for the new load case. axial forces. axial.8 mm per m}. • For any given type of diagram (deflection.01 inch per foot {0. the deflected shape is definitely apparent. A second method of changing to Load Case 2 would be to select 2:LIVE LOAD from the list in the View toolbar.8 mm per m} on the drawing. • With the Deflection scale still set at 0.) the “ideal” scale value will almost certainly be different. This is because the displacement due to Load Case 2 is so much greater than that for Load Case 1. etc. Select 2:LIVE LOAD from the Load Case list.01 inches of deflection per scale foot {0. The choice of a scale value is arbitrary. • Click back to the Scales tab in the Diagrams dialog. and click Apply . Choose whatever scale value produces a good looking diagram. depending on which load case is active.

2 {20} 0. This is because the deflection is really proportional to the inverse of the scale. and watch the change in the deflected shape with each click. Select 3:TRANSVERSE WIND LOAD ALONG GX from the Load Case list. Click the up arrow for the Displacement scale to increase the value from 0.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-18 Module 5 • Click the up arrow for the Displacement scale to increase the value to 0.STAAD.0 {50 and 100} is not nearly as much as the change from 0.0 in per foot {from 20 mm per m to 100 mm per m}. Click back to the Loads and Results tab of the Diagrams dialog.2 in per foot { 20 mm per m} to adjust the scale for better viewing. The point to note here is that the change in deflected shape between a scale of 0. and click Apply . They do not change the results themselves in any way.02} 1 {0.05} 2 {0. See the following commentary to explore the scaling concept a little further. Keep the current model open for use in the next section.5 {20 to 50}. Scale 0. Note that scaling controls only change the appearance of the structure diagram by scaling the way the results are drawn on the diagram.01} • • • Click the OK button to close the Diagrams dialog. Click back to the Scales tab in the Diagrams dialog.5 {50} 1.0 {100} Inverse 5 {0.2 in per foot to 1. • .2 to 0.5 and 1.

) In the Selected category. The Node Displacements table appears in the Data Area on the right-hand side of the screen. select 1 DEAD LOAD . beams and load cases for which results are displayed at any given time can be very useful.7 Displacement and Reactions Tables • • • • • Ensure that the file named Dataset 5_1. the Node Displacements table is quite extensive. The alternative would have been to specify a limited number of nodes and/or load cases to display. since. and view the Loads tab. (See commentary below for step-by-step instructions. and . Click OK to accept the default settings in the Results Setup dialog. This function is provided by the Results Setup dialog.std is still open. • • Click Results | Select Load Case… . 3 TRANSVERSE WIND LOAD ALONG GX . For even a moderately sized structure. Modify the load list so that only 2 LIVE LOAD remains in the Selected category. Click the Post Processing tab at the top of the Main Window. This is a result of leaving the settings in the Loads page and the Range page of the Results Setup dialog set to All when first entering the Post Processing mode. even with only 20 nodes and 4 load cases.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-19 5. the ability to limit the range of nodes.STAAD. Note that displacements for all the nodes in the model are shown for all four load cases.

The All tab of the Node Displacements table reports translations and rotations for all nodes. The following three columns provide the translational displacements in each of the global X. The next column gives the magnitude of the resultant displacement.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-20 Module 5 4 LC1+LC2+LC3 by holding down the Control (Ctrl) key and clicking on each load case. All and Summary in the Node Displacements table. This magnitude is the square root of the sum of the squares of the X. Note that there are two tabs. but in both tables. . Each presents node displacement results in a different format. Y and Z displacements. Click the < button to remove the selected load cases. The first column grid table gives the node number. • To the right of the Resultant column are three more columns listing the rotational displacements for the three rotational degrees of freedom. Now. The second column lists the load case(s). Y and Z directions. • • • Click OK . The Node Displacements table now only reports displacements for the 2 LIVE LOAD case. the results presented depend upon the selections made in Results | Select Load Case… | Range .STAAD. only the 2 LIVE LOAD case remains in the Selected category. and in Results | Select Load Case… | Loads .

STAAD. To change the number of decimal places shown in the Node Displacements table. >> button to move all load cases to the Selected Click OK . click View | Options . . the translational displacements are shown to a precision of three units to the right of the decimal place. note that Displacement units can be set to a variety of common unit systems. (See commentary below for step-by-step instructions. The Options dialog contains many tabs that provide access to pages of controls used to customize the appearance of the program. Under the Dimensions category. If any changes were made to units or precision.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-21 • By default. Click OK to dismiss the Options dialog. Click the category. An alternate method of changing the units of the displayed numbers is to click Tools | Set Current Display Unit… . they should now be visible in the Node Displacements table. • Click the Summary tab at the top of the Node Displacements table. See the commentary below for instructions to revise the precision and to change the units used in the Node Displacements table. and note that the precision used to report displacements can be adjusted by varying the number of digits to the right of the decimal place. Click the Structure Units tab. and view the Loads tab. • Modify the load list again so that all load cases appear in the Selected category. and then click the Structure Units tab.) Click Results | Select Load Case… .

or Click and drag in the first column to select a subset of the entire table. Values can be copied and pasted from this table directly into an Excel spreadsheet to work with the data in Excel. the extreme values are shown in bold font on the Summary page. either: Click on the top left corner of the table to highlight its entire contents. even if noncontiguous. right-click and select Paste . Pro . Note that the usual Windows selection methods are supported. right-click.STAAD. the Load Case that produced each maximum value and the other displacements associated with that particular node and load case. select Copy .e. • There is a second table below the Node Displacements table. the Summary page reports maximum and minimum translations and rotations for each degree of freedom. . as are all the grid tables in STAAD. Subject to the selections made in Results | Select Load Case… | Range and in Results | Select Load Case… | Loads .Pro Standard Training Manual 5-22 Module 5 • The Summary page reports maximum and minimum translational and rotational displacements. go to Excel . Control (Ctrl) + click can be used to select multiple rows. After the selection is made. the node where each maximum value occurred. i. Shift + click can be used to select multiple contiguous rows. For visual clarity. To select data to copy to a spreadsheet. The other values in normal font are “associated values”. labeled Beam Relative Displacement Detail . • Note that this table is compatible with Microsoft Excel .

But in both tables. and ending end. • The All Relative Displacements tab shows relative displacements for all beams. the Max Relative Displacements table provides results for displacements in the local x. ending end. z and Resultant relative displacements at the beam’s starting end. ¾ point. When the Increments setting is set to 4. midpoint. In the far right-hand column it reports the ratio of member span length to maximum displacement. Relative displacements are reported in terms of the member’s local coordinate system. which can be found at Results | Select Load Case… . the results presented depend upon the selections made in Results | Select Load Case… | Range . Subject to the selections made in Results | Select Load Case… | Range and in Results | Select Load Case… | Loads . and z directions as well as a resultant value. so the relative displacement at the starting end and ending end will always be zero by definition. and in Results | Select Load Case… | Loads . They are measured with respect to a chord through the member endpoints.STAAD. The number of intermediate points to be reported is dictated by the Increments setting. The All Relative Displacements tab shows x. Detail Tables category. displacements are reported at the beam’s starting end. . ¼ point. y. and at a number of intermediate points along the beam’s length.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-23 • This table has two tabs used to view relative displacements of beams in different formats. This table lists maximum relative displacement values and distances from the starting end of the beam to the locations where the maximum displacements occur. y. • • Click the Max Relative Displacements tab. Range tab.

Pro Standard Training Manual 5-24 Module 5 • • • Click the Reactions tab in the Page Control. . Click the Show Line checkbox again to deselect it. Click Results | View Value… | Reactions tab. The Main Window should now show reactions at the two supports.” This is a result of having a pinned support at the base of the right-hand column. for the current load case. Click the Beams Cursor return to the normal cursor.STAAD. Pro uses this “Free” annotation to specifically indicate that that degree of freedom has been released. but the moment or force for that particular degree of freedom happens to be 0. STAAD. and then click Close . and click Annotate . By default. on the Selection toolbar to • • Note that the reactions for the moments on the right-hand support are listed as “Free. Checkboxes allow individual control over the force and moment reactions to be displayed. Click Select | Text Cursor . reactions for all six degrees of freedom are plotted on the screen. The cursor graphic changes to the special Select Text cursor. Click the Show Line checkbox and click Annotate to toggle the display of the support reactions from tabular to graphical format. • • • • • • Click and drag one of the reaction text boxes on the structure diagram to see how it can be relocated. but the display of reactions can be customized if desired. whereas a 0 value would indicate that the degree of freedom is restrained.

• • • • • . On the Summary table. and/or Results | Select Load Case… | Loads . Fz. if they do not represent extreme values based on the selections made in Results | Select Load Case… | Range . at all nodes. and Envelope . The All tab displays reactions for all six degrees of freedom. The Envelope tab displays results for each node in the model. the moments are listed as “Free” to indicate that there cannot be any moment at that support.STAAD. and the other reactions that are associated with that load case. The extreme value is shown in bold font. along with the load case that caused the extreme value. • The Support Reactions table in the Data Area has three tabs. and Mz. The Summary table will always have twelve lines of data corresponding to max and min of Fx. the column labeled “L/C” indicates the controlling load case for each extreme. In all three tables. The Summary tab displays the extreme reactions (max and min) for all six degrees of freedom. the results presented depend upon the selections made in Results | Select Load Case… | Range . Click the Envelope tab on the Support Reactions table. that allow support reactions to be viewed in different forms. All . for all load cases. regardless of how many nodes or load cases exist in the model or how many nodes are selected in Results | Select Load Case… | Range or in Results | Select Load Case… | Loads . My. Mx. Summary . the Summary table may never report the reactions for some of the supports. and in Results | Select Load Case… | Loads . • For structures with multiple supports. Fy. as opposed to simply indicating that there is no moment at that support. at the right-hand support. Click the Summary tab. and the associated values are shown in regular font.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-25 In other words.

and adjust the precision to show 0 decimal places. where the Envelope view does not provide the associated values. The Envelope view and the Summary view differ in two ways: First. To see how results could be viewed in different unit systems: Click the All tab on the Support Reactions table. Click the Force Units page. can be changed on the fly. See the commentary below for a step-by-step description. where the Summary view only reports on the maxima and minima considering all nodes. the Envelope view reports values for all nodes. the Envelope tab reports the maximum positive and maximum negative reactions for all six degrees of freedom. Second. • Note that the units used to report results such as reactions.STAAD. etc. and observe the change in the Support Reactions table. Change the units in the Force category to lb {N} . the Summary view reports the associated reactions from the other degrees of freedom. Click Tools | Set Current Display Unit… . it reports the load case that causes the extreme. Change the units in the Moment category to lb·ft {N-m} . In addition. • The Statics Check Results table provides a tabular presentation of the equilibrium check on the structure. displacements. . The Force Units page contains controls for the units used to report the various types of force results.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-26 Module 5 • For each reported node. and adjust the precision to show 0 decimal places. Click OK .

STAAD. . However.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-27 This is the same information that can be viewed in the Output File by including PRINT STATICS CHECK in the PERFORM ANALYSIS command. • Keep the current model open for use in the next section. this table just presents the information in a more concise format.

Pro Standard Training Manual 5-28 Module 5 5. Click on any other line in either of the two current tables in the Data Area and note that the corresponding member becomes highlighted in the structure diagram. and click the single right arrow to move it to the Selected list.8 Beam Analysis Results • • • • • Dataset 5_1. Note that the corresponding member information becomes highlighted in the Beam End Forces table and the Beam Force Detail table. Let’s explore the distinction between the Beam End Forces table and the Beam Force Detail table. Click OK . The tables and the structure diagrams are interactive. Click the Post Processing tab at the top of the Main Window. (See commentary below for step-by-step instructions. then click on 2 LIVE LOAD to highlight it.std should still be the current file.) Click Results | Select Load Case… . To illustrate the difference: • Make 2 LIVE LOAD the only selected load case. • • • • • . Click the double left arrow to remove all load cases.STAAD. Click OK to accept the default settings in the Results Setup dialog. The Forces sub-page is used to plot force and moment diagrams on the structure and work with the Beam End Forces grid tables. Click the Beam page. Click on the left-hand column in the structure diagram.

which makes sense for a top chord member under this type of loading. Set the Force item to kip {kN} and the Show dec places value to 0 . • • The magnitude of the force is consistent between the two tables. Member end force Fx at the ending end (node #16) is negative 61 kips {276 kN}. • • Click the top chord member just to the left of the ridge (member #23).Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-29 • Set force units to display zero decimal places. and the magnitude of the compression is 61 kips {276 kN}. This comparison establishes the sign convention used in the Beam Force Detail table for axial forces: Compressive axial forces are considered positive forces in the Beam Force Detail table.STAAD. . (See commentary below for step-by-step instructions. Beam End Forces table: • • • Member end force Fx (axial force) at the starting end (node #6) is positive 61 kips {276 kN}. Therefore the member is in compression. Click OK . • Beam Force Detail table: • The value of Fx (axial force) for member #23 is consistently positive 61 kips {276 kN} at all five stations cut along the length of the member.) Click Tools | Set Current Display Unit… Click Force Units tab. This is as expected.

Click the double right arrow to re-select all load cases. for a simple truss member. Therefore.) Click Results | Select Load Case… . and the associated member end forces for all of the other 5 degrees of freedom for that particular loading condition. Therefore. The All tab displays beam end forces for both ends of all members. Click OK . for a simple truss member. the axial member end forces in the Beam End Forces table at opposite ends of the member should be equal in magnitude and opposite in algebraic sign. (See commentary below for step-bystep instructions.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-30 Module 5 • The Beam End Forces table reports the forces at member ends.STAAD. • • . • There are three tabs in the Beam End Forces grid table: • The results presented on each of the tabs in the Beam End Forces grid tables depend upon the selections made in Results | Select Load Case… | Range . • Reselect all load cases . and in Results | Select Load Case… | Loads . This tab reports exactly twelve different conditions consisting of the maximum and minimum beam end forces for all six degrees of freedom. the axial member forces reported in the Beam Force Detail table are all expected to be of a consistent algebraic sign. Click the Summary tab. in addition to the load condition that generated the controlling values. rather than member end forces. • The Beam Force Detail table reports beam forces at sections.

Adjust the associated precisions as necessary. Ensure that both options are selected and click OK .STAAD. • • • • Note that these settings provide: • A coordinate axis system for reference in the lower left corner of the Main Window. In the General category.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-31 • Click the Envelope tab. Use the list boxes to select the desired units for the different types of forces. note the options to Show Axes Window and Show Diagram Info . This tab reports the envelope of member end forces by providing the maximum positive and maximum negative member end forces for all member ends. Click OK . then select the Labels tab. and note the change in the Data Area. and . As was demonstrated earlier with the Displacement diagrams. • The Main Window is currently showing a bending moment diagram for the entire structure. (See commentary below for step-by-step instructions. The equivalent keyboard “hotkey” to Show Diagram Info without leaving the Main Window is Shift + G.) Click Tools | Set Current Display Unit… . • The units used to display results in the Beam End Forces and Beam Force Detail tables can be modified if desired. the issue here is one of selecting an appropriate scale. Click View | Structure Diagrams… . although it may not be obvious. along with the name of the loading condition that causes the envelope value. Click the Force Units tab in the Options dialog.

Pro Standard Training Manual 5-32 Module 5 • A line of text in the lower right-hand corner that indicates the Active Load case and the force currently being plotted on the Structure Diagram. and click OK .STAAD. Click the Force Units tab in the Options dialog. Pro always draws the bending moment diagram on the tension side of the member. To change the type of diagram that is being displayed: • . Adjust the associated precisions as necessary.) Click Tools | Set Current Display Unit… . • • • Click View | Structure Diagrams… . Select 2: LIVE LOAD in the Load Case category. (If it is necessary to change the current units system. and activate the Apply Immediately checkbox in the upper right-hand corner of the dialog. Note the other forces that are available to be plotted as well. • To properly interpret a bending moment diagram in STAAD. Click OK . The Structure Diagram should now display a diagram of the bending moments about the local z axis at a scale that makes the diagram clearly readable. see the commentary below. • • Click the Scales tab. Use the list boxes to select the desired units for the different types of forces. Set the Bending Z scale to 150 kip·in per ft { 50 kN·m per m}. Select Bending zz in the Beam Forces category. Pro : STAAD. then Loads and Results tab.

select a green color and click OK . Click on the Stresses sub-tab of the Beam page in the Page Control. • • • • • • • To demonstrate. Choose the desired type of diagram by placing a check in any of the options for the common types of force diagrams listed in the Beam Forces category. A standard Windows color palette opens to offer a variety of color options. Click the color palette box labeled “ C ” for Compression . Click the color palette box labeled “ T ” for Tension . . select a blue color and click OK . Click on the Loads and Results tab. just click on the box.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-33 • • • Right-click anywhere in the Main Window and select Structure Diagrams… from the pop-up menu. Click the Diagram radio button. The colored boxes to the right of each item in the Beam Forces category indicate the color that will be used for each type of diagram. and that each diagram can be displayed in a characteristic color on the structure. To change any of these colors. Note that more than one type of diagram can be displayed at one time. Click OK to dismiss the Diagrams dialog. The Structure Diagram should now show a diagram of Axial forces superimposed on Bending Z moments. select the Axial forces checkbox in addition to Bending zz .

Combined stress is the algebraic combination of the stresses resulting from FX. • • Figure 5. and negative values represent tension.STAAD. • . Click on beam number 1 . The topmost window is referred to as a “splitter window”. 9 • • The Select Section Plane dialog opens. MY and MZ. because it has a “splitter” or separator bar that can be moved from side to side. • The location of the section is indicated by the yellow rectangle in the left side of the splitter window.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-34 Module 5 • The view window will be split into four parts. The window in the lower left-hand corner displays the Whole Structure diagram. The right side of the splitter window shows the combined stress of the selected member on a cross section view. The left side of the splitter window displays the selected member in 3D. Positive values represent compression. the bottom chord member immediately to the right of midspan. and can be adjusted by dragging the slider in the Select Section Plane dialog.

Click and drag the slider in the Select Section Plane dialog. . Once a valid Profile Point has been defined. and must fall within the outline of the cross section to be valid. or by clicking on the section with the cursor. click the Add Stress to Table button in the lower right corner of the Select Section Plane dialog. The splitter window can show the stress distribution for only one member at a time.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-35 • Click the Display Corner Stress checkbox in the Select Section Plane dialog. The Display Legend checkbox in the Select Section Plane dialog can be used to display the combined stress range and associated color gradient. • • The Select Profile Point category in the Select Section Plane dialog provides tools to determine combined stresses at specific points on the cross section and to record those values in a table if desired. it appears as a small green dot on the cross section in the right side of the splitter window. A Profile Point is defined by its local y-axis coordinate and local z-axis coordinate. and note that the corner stress values change continually as the slider is moved along the length of the member. The coordinates of the Profile Point and the combined stress value are displayed in the lower left corner of the right side of the splitter window. Profile Points can either be defined by keying in coordinate values in the Y Point and Z Point fields. To save the data for a Profile Point . The data for all saved points is accessible from the Profile Stress Points tab of the Beam Combined Axial and Bending Stresses table.STAAD.

see the following commentary. and the following data is saved: • • • • • • • • Beam number Load case number Location of section along length of member Location of point of interest in y-z plane of section Magnitude of axial force Magnitude of both bending moments Combined stress value at point of interest When the Stresses sub-page is active. Click OK . right-click in the Whole Structure diagram .STAAD. Click the Force Units tab in the Options dialog. Click Tools | Set Current Display Unit… . (If the current unit system is not displaying Beam Stress in units of psi {kPa}. Click OK . Click the Scales tab. a new line is created in the table.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-36 Module 5 For each Profile Point added to the table. and click Structure Diagrams… in the pop-up menu. Use the Stress list to set the units to psi {kPa} . and check the Apply Immediately checkbox in the upper right-hand corner. Then return to the Scales tab of the Diagrams dialog as described above. To adjust the scale of the Beam Stress diagram. close the Diagrams dialog temporarily. Verify that the units for the Beam Stress category are currently set to psi {kPa} . • .) Set the Beam Stress scale value to 8000 psi per ft { 100000 kPa per m}in the Results Scales category. the Whole Structure diagram in the lower left corner displays the structure with the Beam Stress diagram superimposed on it. If the current scale is not set to view the diagram clearly.

MY and MZ. select the desired color and click OK . Click the color palette box labeled “ C ” for Compression . This table reports combined axial and bending stresses as the algebraic combination of the stresses resulting from FX. but these colors can be modified if desired. Click the Loads and Results tab in the Diagrams dialog. • Shifting focus to the Data Area. By default. note the table labeled Beam Combined Axial and Bending Stresses . See the commentary below for step-bystep instructions. • Note that the Beam Stress diagram is displayed in two colors to distinguish compressive stress from tensile stress. and click Structure Diagrams… in the pop-up menu. select the desired color and click OK . To change the colors used to display compressive stress and tensile stress: Right-click in the Whole Structure diagram .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-37 Recall that in order to increase the size of the stress diagram with respect to the structure. the value of the scaling parameter should be decreased. the compressive stress is shown in red and the tensile stress is shown in blue. Click OK to dismiss the Diagrams dialog.STAAD. The layout of this table is similar to other results tables in that: • • • . Click the color palette box labeled “ T ” for Tension . Locate the Stress option in the Beam Forces category.

.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-38 Module 5 • It has different pages to display the combined axial and bending stresses in different formats. • • The stresses are reported at the four corners of the cross section. • • The All page shows the stresses for all members in the model.. .) Click OK . The number of increments used for determining the intermediate data points can be adjusted as follows: Click Results | Select Load Case. Cross sectional stresses are reported at both ends as well as at multiple intermediate points along the length of each beam. Pro uses to identify the corners of various typical cross sections are shown in the following figure. and The results presented on the different tabs depend upon the selections made in Results | Select Load Case… | Range .. The corner numbers STAAD.STAAD. (Valid range is 2 to 12. and in Results | Select Load Case… | Loads . for all load cases. Click the Range tab. Enter the desired number in the Increments field in the Detail Tables category.

10 • The maximum compressive and tensile stresses at each cross section are also reported. and compressive stresses are considered positive. • • Click the Max Stresses tab. please see Section 1. • . Pro Technical Reference manual.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-39 Figure 5.STAAD. This is consistent with the sign convention for axial forces discussed earlier. Tensile stresses are reported as negative values. For more information on the sign conventions used for reporting member stresses. The Max Stresses page reports the magnitude and locations of the maximum tensile and compressive stresses for each load case on every member in the model.19 of the STAAD.

Click the Graphs sub-page. To interpret why they are blank. • • • Figure 5. Select member number 1 . • . Tension makes sense for the bottom chord of a truss subject to 2: LIVE LOAD. Ensure that 2: LIVE LOAD is still selected in the Active Load list in the View toolbar. implying axial load. 11 • The corresponding bending moment diagram.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-40 Module 5 • The third tab called Profile Stress Points reports stresses at user-defined points on the cross-section as demonstrated earlier.3 kips {-261 kN}. • • The top and middle graphs are currently blank.STAAD. The graph indicates a constant value of -57. The bottom graph is labeled “Fx”. which implies tension. For step-by-step instructions see the commentary below. shear diagram and axial force graphs for the selected member are displayed in the Data Area on the right side of the screen. This is the bottom chord member immediately to the right of mid-span. display Beam Orientation and the key to the local axis colors.

Therefore a blank “Mz” graph makes sense. moment about the local z-axis. Note that Bending zz is currently selected. corresponding to the display of the “Mz” graph.) Click Show Axes At Org in the General category. (Red) Local y points out of the screen. Right-click inside the “Mz” graph and click Diagrams… from the pop-up menu. Click Beam Orientation in the Beams category. (Note the keyboard “hotkey” for this option is Shift + I.) Click OK . . implying moment about an axis that points straight down. • • • • • (Blue) Local x points to the right on the screen. (Green) Local z points down. These orientations are the result of the beta angle of 90 ° that was applied to this member in the modeling stage.STAAD. • • • • Click the Bending yy checkbox to view the bending moment in this member due to the applied live load. (Note the keyboard “hotkey” for this option is Shift + O. • Note the orientation of the local axes of member number 1. so there should be no moment about a vertical axis in member number 1 as a result of this load case. 2: LIVE LOAD is a downward-acting load due to gravity.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-41 Right-click in the blank portion of the Main Window and click Labels… from the pop-up menu. Now note that the top graph is labeled “Mz”.

• • • • • • . Back to the concept of superimposing more than one force on a graph at one time. More to come on this topic… Click OK . • • • • Right-click inside the “Fy” graph in the middle window. The horizontal scale is graduated in units of feet {meters}. To view a more appropriate shear diagram for this member and its current loading. The top graph is now labeled “My” and “Mz” as a result of having both options selected. The vertical scale is automatically set to maximize the graph.STAAD. deselect Shear yy . along with magnitudes of maximum moments. This makes it possible to superimpose the graphs of multiple forces at one time. Right-click on the graph in the top window and click Diagrams… from the pop-up window. note that the member’s (green) local z-axis is oriented in the direction of the applied load (downward). Click Shear zz . Leave Bending yy selected. The middle graph now displays a shear force diagram labeled “Fz”. and the x-coordinate of the point of maximum moment is automatically indicated for convenience. which makes sense for the applied loading. Assume that the goal is to view the shear force “Fz” superimposed on the bending moment “My” in the graph in the top window. and click OK . and click Diagrams… from the pop-up menu.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-42 Module 5 • Note that it is not necessary to deselect the Bending zz checkbox in order to select Bending yy. but deselect Bending zz and click Shear zz .

Click the Force Units tab in the Options dialog.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-43 Note that the color swatches indicate the colors that will be used to plot the selected graphs. Set the units for Moment to kip·ft {N·m } then click OK . See the commentary below for step-bystep instructions. To change the colors that will be used. Sometimes the appearance of a graph can be improved by changing the force units used to plot the diagram. Although both the shear and moment diagrams are being graphed. Change the units for the moment graph to kip·ft {N·m} and note the difference. • • Click OK .STAAD. • • Now both the shear and the moment diagrams are clearly visible on the same graph. and choose colors from the palettes as demonstrated earlier. it is immediately obvious that the inconsistency in the unit scales makes for a very flat shear diagram. Click Tools | Set Current Display Unit… . click on the swatches to open color palettes for each of the two selected forces. Click in the Main Window . so that the Tools option will become available in the Main Menu. Keep the current model open for use in the next section. • • .

std is still active.STAAD. etc. based on the input provided: geometry. member properties. Click the Force Units tab. • • • . The corresponding row in the Beam End Forces table is highlighted..Pro Standard Training Manual 5-44 Module 5 5. • Set the units for Force to kips {kN} with three decimal places. Ensure that the Moment list is set to units of kip·ft {kN·m} .9 Verifying the Results • • • • Ensure that the file named Dataset 5_1. Before exploring any more features for displaying tables. Click the Beam page. member specifications. diagrams. Click the left-hand column of the structure (member #35). etc. This is an opportunity to confirm that the output from the program is as expected. beta angles. and use the up and down arrows to show 3 decimal place. Click OK to accept the default settings in the Results Setup dialog. in order to validate the results. and use the up and down arrows to show 3 decimal places . Click the Post Processing tab at the top of the Main Window. let’s take a few minutes to examine some of the results from the steel design project to verify that they make sense. Click Tools | Set Current Display Unit… . See the commentary below for step-by-step instructions. Click OK . Ensure that the Force list is set to units of kip {kN} .

and look at the results for member 35. using only the Beam End Forces table. Recall that the support at the bottom of the right-hand column is a pinned support. for which the moment is always zero. Again. determine which node is at the left end of the member and which is at the right. therefore node 15. Load Case 1 DEAD LOAD. The difference between the two forces is due to the self-weight of the column. Now click the right-hand column with the Beams Cursor . . This relates back to that fact that the load case under consideration is the self-weight of the structure. Notice that the forces at nodes 15 and 20 are not equal and opposite. Therefore node 11 must be the bottom node. for Fx. Another way to distinguish the top node from the bottom using only the Beam End Forces table would be to compare the Fx (axial) forces for the self-weight case as described above. • • • • • • • • • Now click the left-most member of the bottom chord of the truss. The node at the bottom of the column will be the one at which there is no moment. Node 14 indicates at least some non-zero moments. Using only the Beam End Forces table. Recall that all bending moments were released at the left end of this member. determine which node is at the top of the column and which is at the bottom.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-45 • • • Refer to the Beam End Forces table. and also that the force under consideration is the axial force in a verticallyoriented member.STAAD. must be the node at the left end of the member.

• • • • • . • • This is a good way to verify that the program is giving the results we expect. This could also be confirmed just by observing that node 15 is the left-hand node based on the X-Coord values in the table. where other nearby members have moments acting about their Z-axis. The Releases category indicates releases for MX. Notice in the Beam End Forces table that this member has moments acting about its Y-axis. starting node in the first line. Therefore the ending node is node 15. too. and MZ for the End node (which we already know to be the node at the left end). Therefore node 15 is the left node. Now click member number 1 . Press Shift + I to Show Axes At Org (Origin).STAAD. That is because the self-weight does not act in the Fx direction for this member.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-46 Module 5 Verify by double-clicking this member (beam number 22) to open the Member Query dialog. The table of coordinates in the center of the dialog always lists beam nodes in order. which is just to the right of mid-span in the bottom chord of the truss. ending node in the second line. Press Shift + O to turn on Beam Orientation. The reason relates back to the fact that member number 1 was assigned a beta angle of 90 ° for the purpose of seeing how it affected the results. MY. Notice also that the Beam End Forces in the Fx direction do add up to 0 for this member.

. • • Keep the current model open for use in the next section. The bending forces in this planar structure are all about the same global axis.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-47 • Most of the bottom chord members are oriented such that their (green) local z-axes are parallel to the global Z-axis. because its (red) local y-axis is parallel to the global Z-axis.STAAD. but since member forces are reported in terms of the members’ local axis system. The results are consistent. the program reports bending about a different local axis for the one bottom chord member that has been oriented differently from the others. It now makes sense that vertical forces caused by member selfweight or applied live load would cause bending about the local y-axis of member number 1 due to its beta angle. However. member number 1 is unique.

Click the Post Processing tab at the top of the Main Window.10 Viewing Results with Member Query • • • • • • • Ensure that Dataset 5_1. • Now that an analysis has been performed. The Member Query function provides a powerful way to view results for individual members. • . Press Shift + O to turn on Beam Orientation.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-48 Module 5 5. analysis results are now available in the Member Query dialog through two new tabs that were not present before: Shear Bending and Deflection . Press Shift + I to Show Axes At Org (Origin). Member Query is accessed by double-clicking on a member of interest. the bottom chord member just to the right of mid-span.STAAD. The dialog that pops up is the same Member Query that is available in the Pre Processing (Modeling) mode. and then click Tools | Query | Member . • Double-click on member number 1 . The Shear Bending tab doesn’t literally mean “shear bending”. Click OK to accept the default settings in the Results Setup dialog. the Member Query dialog is populated with more information than just the original geometry and property data. An alternate way to access Member Query is to click on the member of interest. In addition. It is just written that way to save “screen real estate”.std is still the active file.

The value of the shear and bending moment at the location of interest is displayed in the boxes labeled Fz and My .STAAD. Based on the beta angle of member number 1. Select 2:LIVE LOAD in the Load Case list. • The Dist field directly above the Selection Type category is linked to the slider bar below the beam diagram. the diagram for bending about the local y-axis should be interesting. • .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-49 • • • • • Click the Shear Bending tab. The type of diagram displayed is controlled with the Selection Type category in the lower right corner of the dialog. This tab provides access to shear and bending results. Four types of diagrams are available from the radio buttons: • • • • Bending about local z axis Bending about local y axis Shear force along the local y axis Shear force along the local z axis • Click the Bending-Y radio button. Note that the bending moment diagram indicates values of bending moment at each end. and it provides x coordinates for the two points of inflection. • The bending moment diagram is now displayed. Both provide a method to enter the distance from the starting end to a point of interest on the beam. The top half of the dialog contains a diagram for the selected beam.

The Deflection page provides access to deflection diagrams and data. • A table of distances vs. The diagram indicates downward deflection at each endpoint of the member. The diagram also indicates some additional deflection near the mid-span of the member. .STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-50 Module 5 Note that the labels of these boxes changes based on the selection made with the radio buttons in the Selection Type category. Pro will calculate the shear and bending at the distances entered. The corresponding shear and bending moment at each location is given in the table. 13 distance values divide the beam into 12 equal-length segments. member forces is provided in the category labeled Section Forces . The Selection Type category offers radio buttons to specify the direction of interest and to differentiate between Global Deflection or Local Deflection . and the operation is very similar to the Shear Bending page. downward • • • • • • • This represents the deflection of this individual member with respect to its own endpoints. and STAAD. The distance values can be edited within this table. Select 2:LIVE LOAD in the Load Case list. This makes sense based on the uniform distributed Live Load in the global –Y direction that causes deflection of the truss as a whole. • • Click on the Deflection tab in the Member Query dialog. Select Global Deflection and Y Dir .

which is downward in the model. and the deflected shape is shown with respect to that straight line. • • • • The deflected shape also implies tangents with nearly zero slope at the two endpoints. The diagram lies entirely above the horizontal line. Due to the beta angle applied to this member. meaning that it reports deflections of the selected member as if the member endpoints had no translation. • • • Click the Z Dir radio button. When interpreted this way. the positive values in the graph imply deflection in the positive local z direction. The deflection diagram This makes sense. This makes sense. This is logical due to the assumed continuity of member number 1 with the adjacent bottom chord members. because the direction is still set to Y Dir . The deflection diagram now indicates a deflected shape that has zero deflection at the endpoints. because it is specifically a Local Deflection diagram.STAAD. In other words the horizontal line in the diagram can be thought of as the straight-line chord that connects the two endpoints of the member. its local y-axis is perpendicular to the gravity direction. disappears. • • . so 2:LIVE LOAD causes no deflection about the member’s local y-axis. Is this contrary to the shape of the Global Deflection diagram? The answer lies in the fact that this diagram is not literally a physical representation of the deflected member.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-51 • Now select Local Deflection . so the results are consistent. The Deflection tab provides the ability to select the load and to specify a point of interest by its distance from the starting end. but rather it is a graph of the deflection in the local z direction.

The Steel Design tab provides access to a page of information on steel design results for the member including critical load. etc. so at present. A steel design has not yet been performed for this structure. a tab labeled Steel Design would be displayed in the Member Query dialog. meaning that it can be left open and its focus can be shifted by doubleclicking on another member. the results are based on an analysis of members whose properties have been explicitly specified. Keep the current model open for use in the next section. after performing a concrete design. design code. • Finally. a Concrete Design tab would appear in the Member Query dialog. design ratio. If the program had been requested to perform a steel design. Press Shift + O and Shift + I to turn off the Beam Orientation indicators and the reference axis at the origin.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-52 Module 5 • A table of displacement results is provided in the form of displacement versus distance from the starting end. Pass/Fail status. at which time it will display the properties and results of the newly selected member. Click Close to dismiss the Member Query dialog. Similarly. the Member Query dialog is modeless . governing clause. • • • .

Now that an analysis has been performed on the model.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-53 5. Structural Tool Tips can be used to display certain analysis results. click the Beam item under the Tool list in the Tool Tip Options dialog. Note that toggling the End Forces checkbox automatically toggles the Starting and Ending checkboxes as well. To do this.std is the currently active model. and all of the options within the Starting category. hover the cursor over the column at the left end of the model to see an example of Structural Tool Tip .STAAD. Click View | Structural Tool Tip Options… . Ensure that the Graphs sub-page of the Beam page is currently active.11 Using Structural Tool Tips to View Results • • • • Ensure that the file named Dataset 5_1. • • • • • • • . Click the + (plus) symbol beside the End Forces option in the Options category to display all of the End Forces options. The model should still be in the Post Processing mode from the previous section. With the Beams Cursor active. Assume the goal is to have member end forces displayed in the Structural Tool Tips. The Structural Tool Tip . the Starting box. Click the End Forces checkbox to get a check mark in the End Forces box. or Bubble Help as it is also called. displays some information about that member.

.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-54 Module 5 • • • • Click OK . Keep the current model open for use in the next section. hover the Beams Cursor over any member. Structural Tool Tips now include the member end forces for the currently active load case. Now.STAAD.

The Ranges tab is used to select which beams and nodes will have their results displayed. the Ranges tab can be used to display results for only: • • Members of a certain group. However.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-55 5. • • • Click Results | View Value… .STAAD. Click Results | Scale… . 2:LIVE LOAD should be the active load case. all the members are selected.2 inches per foot { 20 mm per m} in the Results Scales category. Click the Apply Immediately checkbox in the upper right corner of the Scales page.12 Labeling the Structure Diagram • • • • • • • • Dataset 5_1. Assume the goal is to display the nodal displacements on the structure diagram. Node and Reactions . Beam Results . and then click OK .std should be the currently active model. Post Processing mode should be active. or . Members with a given cross sectional property. This Annotation dialog contains 4 tabs: Ranges . Click the Node page. By default. and then click the Displacement subpage in the Page Control. Set the Displacement scale to 0. The deflected shape of the model should be more apparent at this scale.

then scaling controls are available to adjust the appearance of the graphics. The Diagram category provides the option to view reactions in tabular or graphical format. If graphical format is chosen. Notice the “grayed out” option labeled View . Click the Reactions tab. Click the Global Y checkbox on the Node page.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-56 Module 5 • Nodes and beams with numbers that fall within a given range. If saved views existed in this model (using View | View Management | Save View… ). This tab is used to select the global directions for which nodal displacements will be displayed. This tab is used to select the degrees of freedom for which reactions will be displayed. and then click the Annotate button. the View option would be active. If annotation is not displayed: • Verify that a Node Displacement diagram is currently being shown. offering the ability to select all members in a given view for annotation simply by selecting the name of the saved view. . The Ranges page is almost identical to the Range page in the Results Setup dialog. this tab can be used to select which types of results will be displayed.STAAD. • • • • Click the Beam Results tab. • • • • Click the Node tab. If beam results are desired. Click Close to dismiss the Annotation dialog.

let’s explore the options we have to control how things are displayed. Press Shift + B to turn on beam numbers . This tab can be used to change any of the colors on the diagrams by clicking the color swatch for the function. Now that we have decided what to display. filled with a solid color. . deflections and mode shapes can also be assigned distinctive colors. • • • Press Shift + N to turn on node numbers . or outlined. We have already seen many examples of how the Labels page can be used to affect how things are displayed on the screen. For example: • Shear and bending forces can be assigned their own individual colors for each degree of freedom.STAAD. Right-click the mouse in the Main Window . and click Labels… from the pop-up menu.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-57 • Verify that the None radio button has not been selected on the Ranges page of the Annotation dialog. Tension and compression can be differentiated by colors. • • • • Options are available to specify whether the beam forces diagrams are to be hatched. By specifying characteristic colors for each type of results available. • • • Click the Loads and Results tab of the Diagrams dialog. the user can establish at-a-glance recognition of what type of results are being displayed. Loads.

Pro Standard Training Manual 5-58 Module 5 • Settings such as color options.STAAD. The Options dialog is used to control the appearance of annotation on the structure diagram such as font. The use of this dialog to set the appearance of node and beam labels is covered in depth in a different Module. and font used to display node numbers. size. For example: Click Font . Click OK in the Font dialog. This page offers controls that affect the style. • • • • Click the Cancel button to dismiss the Diagrams dialog. the same settings will be applied to the new file. etc. • • Click the Node Labels tab. Choose Blue in the Color list. alignment. position. Click Apply in the Options dialog. current display units and precision are saved in an INI file and in the Windows Registry. Click View | Options . The display settings on one engineer’s workstation can be completely different from the settings on another engineer’s workstation. . Pro model. Therefore: • When one model is closed and another model is opened. even for the same STAAD.

“results annotation” pertains to the options offered in the tabs of the Annotation dialog as described above. It includes things like reactions. • • Click the Beam Labels tab. This page offers controls that affect the style. remember that results annotation settings are controlled from this separate page within the Options dialog. Choose Bold Italic in the Font Style category.STAAD. There may be a tendency to try to use the Beam Labels and Node Labels tabs to control the annotation of beam and node results . Note that the effect is to change the font style used to display the beam number labels. alignment.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-59 Note that the effect is to change the color used to display the node number labels. . and font used to display all of the different types of results annotation that are available. Instead. This page offers controls that affect the style. Click Apply in the Options dialog. alignment. In this sense. Click OK in the Font dialog. and font used to display beam numbers and section references. and nodal displacements. • • Click the Annotation tab. called the Annotation page. beam shears and moments. For example: Click Font .

STAAD. Click Apply in the Options dialog. Note that the effect is to change the font size used to display the annotation text. since the Diagram Info reports the units. and then click OK . Click OK in the Font dialog. Choose 18 in the Size category.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-60 Module 5 The separation of these controls was provided so that font (and related display settings) could be used to distinguish between results annotation and other labels on the diagrams. which is currently set to display nodal displacement in the Global Y direction.4 . • . The effect of the two Style settings is to either append a units indicator to the end of every results value. • In the upper left corner of the Annotation page is a list box labeled Style . On the other hand. including the units label in the annotation can sometimes cause the structure diagram to become cluttered with too much annotation. In this case it might be preferable to turn the Diagram Info label on. or to not display the units. If the Diagram Info label was turned off in the Labels page. For example: Click Font . and annotate the structure with the result values only. it might be helpful to append the units indicator to all results on the screen. • Set the Style to 123.

STAAD. and the Diagram Info label indicates that the units are inches. Keep the current model open for use in the next section. • .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-61 • The structure diagram now shows nodal displacement values for deflection in the global Y direction.

.STAAD. To neaten up the display. the display can become very cluttered. The program allows individual control for: • • • • • • beam numbers.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-62 Module 5 5. node numbers. These cursors are located on a small toolbar on the left side of the screen called the Labels toolbar. Four cursors are provided for the purpose of selecting individual labels to turn on or off. plate numbers and solid numbers. With the various types of annotation that can be added to the structure diagram. The Displacement sub-page of the Node page will be active by default. certain types of labels can be individually turned on or off. Click the Post Processing tab at the top of the Main Window.13 Individual Control of Labels • • • • • • • Ensure that the file named Dataset 5_1. Click OK to accept the default settings in the Results Setup dialog.std is the currently active model.

right-click in the Main Window . Clicking once turns the beam label off. and then click Labels… from the pop-up menu. the Turn ON/OFF Individual Beam Label cursor. 12 • In order to use the Labels Cursors .STAAD. Click the Use partial labeling mode checkbox even further down on the Diagrams dialog. Click the second cursor on the Labels toolbar. Now click on any individual beam in the model. at least some labels must be turned on. Pro to “Use partial labeling mode” is a two-step process: • • Click the Always Use Current Label Settings radio button near the bottom of the Diagrams dialog. Click the checkbox to display Beam Numbers in the Beams category. • • • Click OK .” To turn labels on. Note that this option is grayed out until Always Use Current Label Settings is selected. and clicking again turns the label back on.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-63 Figure 5. and the program has to be instructed to “Use partial labeling mode. • • • . Instructing STAAD.

Press the esc key to turn the Labels Cursor off.STAAD. • • . Keep the current model open for use in the next section. This forces a quick redraw of the screen by zooming in and back out. If this happens (most notable on vertical members) a shortcut is to roll the wheel on the mouse forward and then backward.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-64 Module 5 • • The normal operation of the Labels cursors may sometimes require redrawing the screen to completely remove a label.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-65 5. The structure diagram is now moving. this will become immediately apparent when animation of the deflections is viewed. • • • • • • • • • • . For example if there is no connection between members at a location where a connection was intended. Click the Scales tab in the Diagrams dialog. Post Processing mode should be active.STAAD. but the deflection may not be visible due to the current scale. Click the Animation tab in the Page Control. Select 1:DEAD LOAD as the active load case. It can be a very effective way of displaying and checking the results of an analysis. Animation can often reveal problems with the model.14 Animation • Ensure that the file named Dataset 5_1. and then click the Apply button. Animation can be used to dynamically display the movement of the structure due to forces acting upon it. Click the Deflection radio button in the Diagram Type category. The Diagrams dialog opens with the Animation page active. Click the Apply Immediately checkbox in the upper right corner of the dialog.std is the currently active model.

but the animation is not smooth. • Click the Animation tab in the Diagrams dialog. but the animation may be moving too fast to interpret easily.” Therefore larger scale values result in smaller graphical deflections on the screen. and then click the Apply button.STAAD. • • Click the Scales tab again.01 inches per foot { 0. Pro is that the scale can be thought of as “number of force units or deflection units per scale unit of length measure on the screen. and adjust the Target FPS to 5 frames per second. • • Set the value of the Extra Frames parameter to 20 . set the value of the Displacement field to 0. Increase the value in the Displacement field to 0. Click Apply and observe the animation. The structure should now deflect and return to its original shape more slowly.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-66 Module 5 • In the Result Scales category.1 inches per foot { 8 mm per m}. The deflection is dramatic at this scale. To review: the concept with scaling in STAAD. The deflection should be easily visible at this scale. • • Click the Loads and Results tab. .8 mm per m} using the arrows beside the field. and then click Apply . The deflection should be more reasonable at this scale. and vice versa. Select 3:TRANSVERSE WIND LOAD ALONG GX in the Load Case list.

Now set the Extra Frames parameter to its maximum value of 99 . and because there is continuity between the top of the column and the top chord member. Now note the difference in the appearance of the deformed columns.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-67 This should make the animation appear more fluid and smooth. the animation will be very smooth. The column on the left displays reverse curvature due to the fact that it was modeled as being fixed at the support. • To stop the animation. • Note that in the current animation. and the Target FPS to its maximum value of 99 frames per second. • • Increase the Target FPS setting to 40 and click Apply . Click the Section Displacement radio button in the Diagram Type category. To reopen the Animation page. but slow to complete a full deflection cycle. select Structure Diagrams… from the pop- • • . Not much of an issue for a model of this size. Another way to access the Animation page is to right-click in the Main Window. but at the expense of processing time. click again on the Animation tab in the Page Control. both columns are rotating as rigid bodies. press the esc key twice. and then click OK . The column on the right displays single curvature because it is pinned at the support but there is continuity between the top of the column and the top and bottom chord members. showing no deformation along their lengths.STAAD. At these settings.

Pro menu. When an icon is displayed next to a menu item in a STAAD. place the cursor over the toolbar’s title bar. A third way to access the Animation page is to pull down the Results menu and select the Animation… command. The Animation toolbar button is located on the Results toolbar. and then click on the Animation tab in the Diagrams dialog. place the cursor over the toolbar at a location where it does not have any buttons. To dock the toolbar again. drag the toolbar back to the location where it was originally docked. click and hold the left mouse button. click and hold down the left mouse button. Note that the toolbar names are not visible when the toolbars are docked. note the icon that looks like a television set to the left of the Animation command in the pull-down menu. Pro toolbars that performs the same function as selecting the command from the menu.STAAD. • Keep the current model open for use in the next section. it indicates that there is a corresponding toolbar button on one of the STAAD. and then drag the toolbar out into the Main Window and release the left mouse button. and it provides another convenient way to quickly open the Animation page. and the toolbar name will be displayed. Using this method. . To find the name of a toolbar. The toolbar will float in the Main Window. and then release the left mouse button.Pro Standard Training Manual 5-68 Module 5 up menu.

• The Take Picture option is available from the Print toolbar. • The Print Current View option is available from the Print toolbar. which is accessible from the Print toolbar as shown below. . • Print Preview Current View is also available from the Print toolbar.STAAD. When images are captured with the Take Picture option. they then get incorporated into printed output through the Report Setup tool. These different options are explored in detail in a different module. Pro • STAAD.15 Plotting Output from STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-69 5. Pro offers a variety of options for plotting output. but the following is a brief list of the plotting options that are available.

Adobe Photoshop. .Pro Standard Training Manual 5-70 Module 5 • The Export View option. etc. provides the ability to export a view or the screen to a graphic image file. Graphic images captured using the Copy Picture option can be pasted into a program capable of handling graphics such as Microsoft Paint.STAAD. • The Copy Picture option is available from the Edit item in the Menu Bar. also available on the Print toolbar.

where they can then be pasted into another graphics program.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 5 5-71 • Finally. it is possible to capture the display on the screen by pressing the "Print Screen" key or “Shift-Print Screen" depending on the keyboard configuration.STAAD. Images captured this way will be copied to the Windows clipboard. .

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Module 5

5.16

Simple Query
• • • • Ensure that the file named Dataset 5_1.std is still the active model. Click the Post Processing tab at the top of the Main Window. Click OK to accept the default settings in the Results Setup dialog. STAAD. Pro has a tool called Simple Query that can be used to search the results for very specific information, such as results that meet a combination of specified criteria. The search results can also be saved so they will be available later if the Report Setup facility is used to prepare a report. • To demonstrate the use of the Simple Query feature, let’s assume that the goal is to study vertical deflections of the truss in Dataset 5_1, and to identify any nodes along the bottom chord that deflect 1/2 inch {12 mm} or more under load condition 4, the combination of dead, live, and wind loads. Select the nodes along the bottom chord . See the commentary below for some options. One option would be to choose the Nodes Cursor , and to use the point and click method to select each node individually while holding down the Control (Ctrl) key. Another option would be to view the model from the +Z or –Z direction, and then drag a fence around the bottom chord with the Nodes Cursor . • • • Click Tools | SQL Query | Simple Query . Click the New Query button. Queries consist of logical or conditional statements that filter for desired information.

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Click on the arrow in the Select Table Type box to see the different types of tables that can be searched with the Simple Query tool. Select Node Tables from the list. This controls what tables will be available to choose from when developing the conditional statement.

Click the Node Displacements checkbox. This identifies the specific table that will be used to develop the conditional statement. The checkboxes listed below Node Displacements represent the individual fields that are in the Node Displacements table.

Click the checkboxes to select Node No. , Load Case , and Y Displacement . This identifies which fields will be included in the results of the query. By default, if no checkboxes are selected, all fields in the table will be included in the results.

Click the radio button labeled Where , under the Select Condition category. Several more options will become activated in the Select Condition category.

• • • • •

Choose the Load Case option in the Select Field list. Choose the

= (equals) symbol in the Operator list.

Enter a value of 4 in the Value field. Click the double-right-arrow button Value field. to the right of the

Select the AND command from the small pop-up sub-menu.

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Module 5

• • •

The Select Field , Operator and Value options will be cleared to allow another conditional statement to be entered. Select the Y Displacement option in the Select Field list. Choose the list.

<= (less than or equal to) symbol in the Operator

Enter a value of -0.5 {-0.012} in the Value field, and then click the Done button. Note the need to use the negative value here, because of the sign convention used on downward displacements in the model. Also note that when metric units are used, the default units for displacement in the Simple Query are meters, thus a value of -0.012 must be entered.

The Select Table and Fields and the Select Condition categories will become gray, indicating that they are now inactive. Click the radio button for Selected Node No. in the Query for category. This indicates that STAAD. Pro is only to consider the currently selected nodes as it processes the query. Currently, the only nodes that are selected are those in the bottom chord of the truss.

• • •

Click the OK button. The query now appears under the Query Statement category in what is known as SEQUEL syntax. The Query Statement could be edited manually at this point if necessary. Even without knowing SEQUEL syntax, it is easy to modify the query by changing the node numbers, displacement values, logical operators, etc….

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• •

Click the Execute Query button. STAAD. Pro runs the query and displays the results in a table in the Query Result section. The results indicate that seven nodes (1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 13 and 14) all experienced downward vertical deflections of 1/2 inch {12 mm} or more under load condition 4.

There is an obvious difference between a Query and the results of a query. STAAD. Pro allows both to be saved. Depending on the stage of design, if there is reason to think that analysis results are likely to change, it might be wise to save the query, so it could be rerun at a later date.

• • •

Click the Save Query button. Edit the title to read Deflections One-Half Inch or Greater {Deflections 12 mm or Greater} , and then click OK . The saved query name now appears in the Query List on the left side of the Simple Query dialog. It will be available to rerun at any time in the future. To save a copy of the results just produced by this query, click the Save Query Result button. Enter Bottom Chord Deflections in the Title field. The text entered in the Title field will appear as a title at the top of the query results if the results are printed in a report.

• •

The Save Report checkbox will be toggled on by default. If it is toggled off, the query results will not be available after the program is closed and reopened at a later date.

Revise the Id to read Bot Chord . The Id is used to assist in identifying the query results if they are to be incorporated into a report.

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Click the OK button. The program will save the query result, and it will appear in a list of available report items if the Report Setup facility is used to prepare and print a report. Note that in order to save query results, the query itself must be saved first. Click the Close button to dismiss the Simple Query dialog. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save.

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-End of Module-

6-1

Steel Design
Module
The following topics are included in this module. 6.1 Introduction to STAAD.Pro Steel Design ....................................... 2  6.2 How to Specify Steel Design Parameters ........................................ 4  6.3 How to Use the Check Code Command....................................... 18  6.4 Checking Steel Design Results ....................................................... 25  6.5 Optimizing Steel Designs................................................................. 30  6.6 Statically Indeterminate Structures .................................................. 34  6.7 Finalizing the Design ....................................................................... 39  6.8 Additional Comments Regarding Design Commands ................... 51 

6

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Module 6

6.1

Introduction to STAAD. Pro Steel Design
• Steel design in STAAD. Pro involves two basic kinds of activities: Code Checking and Member Selection.

Code Checking: • Check Code is a request to determine if the member properties that the user has provided are adequate to carry the forces that are applied to the members. Used when the user has provided member properties and presumes that those properties are fairly close to what they should be. If members are found to be inadequate in a code check, the user is responsible for finding a new set of members to replace the inadequate ones.

Member Selection • By contrast, Member Selection is a request to provide an optimum set of members, that is, to indicate what minimum weight cross sections are sufficient to safely carry the design loads. In a Member Selection the program finds the lightest acceptable section, incorporating the specified constraints, such as minimum depth, or sections of a particular profile. For example, if STAAD. Pro is restricted to choose from among W12 sections, it will not look for any W8 sections that might be sufficient. • The actual optimization process is to start with the lightest possible section within the specified constraints, and verify whether or not that section is adequate.

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6-3

If it is not adequate, the program goes to the next heavier section and keeps going until it finds the first one that satisfies the code requirements and the specified constraints. If it is unable to find any section that satisfies both the specified constraints and the code requirements, the program will report the last section it tried, and the results of that check, including why that section failed the code check. The sequence of commands for performing a Check Code and those for performing a Member Selection are similar.

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Module 6

6.2 How to Specify Steel Design Parameters
• • Open the file named Dataset 6_1.std . This model has been constructed and loaded using the STAAD. Pro Pre Processor. Preliminary member sizes have been assigned, and the model is prepared for the design/code checking process. The commands related to design and code checking are added to the input file in the modeling mode of the program. Before adding these commands, let’s first introduce an additional command that is quite useful in certain situations: the Load List command. In the Main Menu bar, select Commands | Loading | Load List . In the Load List dialog, note that the four load cases that are present in this model are listed. The load cases consist of the three primary load cases: Dead, Live, and Wind. The fourth load case is the load combination case: LC1 + LC2 + LC3. It is common to only consider the load combinations, instead of the primary load cases, when performing member design or code checking operations. We can instruct STAAD.Pro to only consider Load Case 4 when performing the design and code check operations by using the Load List command. As another example, assume that we have a model containing both unfactored and factored load combinations.

• Next. and Shearwall appear beneath the Design page. • In the Load Cases window of the Load List dialog. and then issue all of the commands related to member design or code checking using LRFD procedures.STAAD. just above the FINISH command. Note that the Design tab logically follows the Analysis/Print tab. • Load Case 4 will now be the only load case considered for any commands that are issued hereafter. The Design page is activated. . View the Input file. then issue a PRINT SUPPORT REACTIONS command to view the unfactored reactions for foundation design. • . Aluminum. and note that the command LOAD LIST 4 has been added at the end of the file.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-5 We could use the Load List command to select the unfactored load combinations. select 4: LC1 + LC2 + LC3 . Click OK . we could use a second Load List command to select the factored load combinations. This follows the program methodology of suggesting a logical workflow process by the order in which the Page Control tabs are organized. • • Five sub-page tabs labeled Steel . Move this load to the Load List window by selecting the single right arrow button. Timber . Then. click on the Design tab at the bottom of the Page Control. until another Load List command is issued. Concrete .

Click the Current Code list at the top of the Steel Design dialog to view the available codes for steel design. • • • • . • • • Some general discussion about parameters: • In the lower portion of the Steel Design dialog note the three buttons labeled Select Parameters . Access to the different codes depends on which codes were requested when the software was purchased.STAAD. This dialog is used to control the variables and to set values for the different design parameters. Select the AISC 360-05 code. This dialog will be referred to from here on as simply the Steel Design dialog. The category window on the left side of the Design Parameters dialog lists all of the available parameters from which to choose. In the Data Area on the right. • STAAD. a dialog with the title Steel Design – Whole Structure is displayed. Define Parameters and Commands . The parameters listed in this dialog are those that are referenced in the various sections of the currently selected design codes.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-6 Module 6 The Steel page is active by default. Pro offers the choice of designing using many different codes from numerous countries. Click the Define Parameters button.

Scroll down through the list of parameters on the left side of the Design Parameters dialog to find the FYLD parameter. and set the Force Units to KiloPound {Newton} . • • • • . Many tubes come in 46 ksi {320 N/mm 2 or MPa} steel. and that it represents the Yield strength of steel. For instance. change the Length Units to Inch { Millimeter} . • • • The yield strength affects many of the design equations when solving for section capacities. Click Close to dismiss the Design Parameters dialog. Click on FYLD . Click Inch {Millimeter} in the Length Units category. and it provides the default value for the variable.STAAD. the structure has tubes as the top chord members. The right side of the dialog indicates that FYLD is the current parameter. Click Tools | Set Current Input Units . STAAD. See the step-by-step instructions in the following commentary. Pro will use the default parameter values shown. in the steel design example. while the majority of wide flanges are 50 ksi {345 N/mm 2 or MPa}. One common example of the use of parameters is to correctly set the yield strength of the different members in the model.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-7 • All the parameters displayed in this dialog are initially set to default values. If the Yield strength of steel is shown in some units other than kip/in 2 {N/mm 2 }. The FYLD parameter can be used to specify different values of yield strengths for different members. In the absence of any other instruction.

• . • Some other commonly used parameters are the ones which affect slenderness checking.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-8 Module 6 Click KiloPound {Newton} in the Force Units category. represents the distance between two points at which the member is braced against lateral buckling. for the Zaxis. Since r is a function of the member cross section. Click the Define Parameters button once again.STAAD. • For the Y-axis the parameter names are K y and l y . The user does have influence over the values used for K and l . The radius of gyration. K.213}.0 and the l values are assigned to be equal to the node-to-node member length. the K values are assigned a default value of 1.e. i. Effective length factor. Pro has this value already. addresses the end conditions of the columns. Scroll down the list of parameters on the left and find the FYLD parameter. In the absence of any user input. Kl/r ratio. and then click OK . STAAD. expressed as the square root of the moment of inertia divided by the area. is a property of the cross section. and r is not a user-input value. r. and note that the value is now reported in units of kip/in 2 {N/mm 2 } with a default value of 36 {248. Click FYLD . l . they are called K z and l z . The unsupported length.

For example. • • . and UNB is the unbraced length for the bottom flange. For example. • • Two parameters called UNT and UNB are used to define these unbraced lengths for bending. A similar set of parameters affects the capacities in bending by specifying unbraced lengths for bending members. between points of bracing. either local buckling or lateral torsional buckling. the other in compression. the value for l could be smaller than the overall length of the member. one flange is in tension. “Top flange” and “bottom flange” are defined with reference to the orientation of the local axis system. it may be necessary to modify the default value of 1. Under these conditions.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-9 • It is up to the user to assign the correct K and l values to the members. when a beam bends. UNT is the unbraced length for the top flange of the beam. Pro has a third parameter called Kx which affects the slenderness calculation for Flexural Torsional Buckling (failure by twisting).STAAD.0 for K in one of the directions. a member that is braced at a point against buckling in one plane may not necessarily be braced for buckling in the orthogonal plane at that point. in which case. Under normal conditions. Compression flanges can buckle. • STAAD. It is important that the user understand the system of bracing in the model. the columns supporting the truss in the current model might be braced by wall girts at intermediate points.

These parameters require the application of engineering judgment on the part of the user. i. For this reason. is the top flange. in the direction in which the local y-axis points.e. precluding any kind of buckling of the top flange. and the unsupported length for the bottom flange will be another value. whereas. 1 There may be instances where the top flange of a wide flange beam is braced by a deck or slab of some type. Under this condition. and are not considered when the Member Selection is used.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-10 Module 6 • The flange on the positive side of the major (local x) axis. the bottom flange may be supported at discrete distances. • • . the flange on the negative side is the bottom flange. • Parameters can also be applied to assist with deflection checking .. deflections are not automatically investigated when the Check Code command is used. the unsupported length for the top flange will be one value. Figure 6. The deflection limits in most codes are considered serviceability requirements as opposed to strength or life safety requirements.STAAD.

Select Parameters is really just a convenience feature. It can’t determine the length automatically. to help configure the display to individual preferences. The details of all of these parameters are explained in Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference manual. the Parameter Selection dialog can be used to remove any parameters that will not be used. • • • . Pro . Items can be moved back and forth between the two sides by using the left and right arrow and double-arrow buttons that are familiar from other similar selection dialogs in STAAD. To reduce the clutter in the Design Parameters dialog. Click the Select Parameters button. the variables Dff . because those structural elements are represented by a series of individual member segments connected at nodes. It does not control any type of program function. It simply offers control over which parameters will be displayed in the Design Parameters dialog.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-11 • To specifically instruct STAAD. Pro to perform deflection checking. • • • Click Close to dismiss the Design Parameters dialog for now. STAAD. if a deflection check were to be performed. There are also several examples in the Examples manual that illustrate the use of parameters to control the design. The Parameter Selection dialog is divided into two sides: Available Parameters and Selected Parameters . In the case of the current steel design example. Pro would need input from the user as to what to consider as the “length” of the top and bottom chords of the truss. Dj1 and Dj2 can be specified.STAAD.

• Click FYLD in the short list of parameters. This makes it more convenient to locate the parameters that will be used on a regular basis. . • to move it to the Selected • Repeat for the Ky . and click the single-right arrow side. then click OK .Pro Standard Training Manual 6-12 Module 6 • Only parameters that are in the Selected Parameters list will be listed in the Design Parameters dialog and will be accessible for use in the model. • Selecting specific parameters for the steel design model: The example problem will make use of just a few parameters for illustration purposes. The list of available parameters is now reduced to just the four we specifically selected in the step above. Method . Scroll down through the Available list. and Track parameters. click on FYLD .STAAD. Defining specific parameters for the steel design model: • Click the Define Parameters button once again. • Click the double-left arrow to move all parameters from the Selected side to the Available side.

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The model contains wide flanges, channels, angles, and tubes with yield strengths shown in the following table. Member Columns Bottom chord Top chord Webs • Section Wide flange: W 18 x 35 Channel: C 12 x 30 HSS: 7 in. x 4 in. x 3/16 in. Angle: 3 in. x 3 in. x ½ in. Fy ksi {350} ksi {250} ksi {320} ksi {250}

50 36 46 36

Enter 50 {350} in the Yield strength of steel field and click Add . Some new lines are added to the input file, and can be seen in the Command Tree in the Steel Design dialog. The new lines include the units change to UNIT INCHES KIP {UNIT MILLIMETER NEWTON}, the reference to the selected AISC code, and a line referring to FYLD 50 {FYLD 350} with a question mark icon. The question mark icon indicates that this particular parameter has not yet been assigned to any members.

Enter 46 {320} in the Yield strength of steel field and click Add . It is not necessary to add a value of 36 {250} in the Yield strength of steel field for the channel and angle sections, since this is the default STAAD. Pro value that will be assigned to those members automatically absent any instructions to the contrary.

Click the KY parameter tab. (Assume that we have already determined that a value of Ky = 1.2 is appropriate for the columns in this model.) Enter a value of 1.2 in this field, and click Add . Click the METHOD parameter.

• •

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Module 6

For steel design using the American AISC 360-05 code, it is necessary to specify the design method to be used, LRFD or ASD. The default value is LRFD. • • For this example, select ASD from the list, and click Add . Click on the Track parameter tab. The Track parameter is used to control the amount of detail that is printed in the design output. • Click the radio button corresponding to level 1 , i.e. maximum detail level, then click Add . Click the Close button. Note that all of these new lines have been added to the end of the input file by default. If there is ever a need to insert a parameter at a location other than the default end-of-file location, this can be done using the After Current checkbox as described in the commentary below. First, click on the line in the Command Tree that immediately precedes the desired insertion point of the new command. Next, use the Design Parameters dialog to select the new parameter and set its value. Finally, click the After Current checkbox in the Design Parameters dialog and click Add or Assign . The newly added parameter should appear in the Command Tree immediately after the currently selected command.

• •

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Assigning specific parameters for the steel design model: • The question marks displayed to the left of some of the parameters in the Command Tree indicate that those parameters have not yet been assigned to any members in the model. If the model was analyzed at this point, the parameters with the question marks would have no influence on the model. In fact, those lines get skipped, and don’t even get echoed in the output file. • In order to make use of these parameters, they must be Assigned to the members to which they apply. FYLD 50 {FYLD 350} applies to wide flange members, which are the columns in the model. In the Steel Design dialog, click FYLD 50 {FYLD 350} . Click Select | By Group Name… | _COL , and then click Close to dismiss the Select Groups dialog. Back in the Steel Design dialog, confirm that the Assignment Method has automatically changed to Assign To Selected Beams , and then click Assign . Click Yes in the pop-up dialog confirming the assignment. Note that the question mark corresponding to the FYLD 50 {FYLD 350} parameter has been replaced with a green check mark in the Command Tree, indicating that this parameter has been assigned to at least one member. FYLD 46 {FYLD 320} applies to tube members, which are the top chord members in the model. In the Steel Design dialog, click FYLD 46 {FYLD 320} .

• •

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Module 6

Click Select | By Group Name… | _TOPC , and then click Close to dismiss the Select Groups dialog. Back in the Steel Design dialog, confirm that the Assignment Method has automatically changed to Assign To Selected Beams , and then click Assign . Click Yes in the pop-up dialog confirming the assignment. The KY factor will be assigned to the two columns. Click in a blank area of the Main Window to deselect all members. Click on KY 1.2 in the Command Tree. Click on one of the columns . Press and hold down the Control (Ctrl) key, and then click on the other column . Release the Control (Ctrl) key. Both columns should now be selected. Confirm that the Assignment Method has automatically changed to Assign To Selected Beams , and then click Assign . Click Yes in the pop-up dialog confirming the assignment. The yellow question mark to the left of KY 1.2 in the Command Tree changes to a green check mark. Note that the METHOD ASD item already has a green check mark. This indicates that this parameter was automatically assigned to every member of the model and no further assignment is necessary for this parameter. Finally, the Track parameter will be assigned to all members in the structure.

• • •

• • •

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• •

Click on the TRACK 1 item in the Command Tree list. Click the Assign To View radio button in the Assignment Method category. Click the Assign button. Click Yes in the pop-up dialog confirming the assignment. All the members in the structure are highlighted and the yellow question mark to the left of the TRACK 1 item changes to a green check mark, indicating that the TRACK 1 design parameter has been assigned. Notice the checkbox labeled Highlight Assigned Geometry immediately below the Command Tree in the Steel Design dialog. This is a useful option for checking that items like parameters, properties, etc. have actually been assigned to the intended members. To demonstrate, make sure the Highlight Assigned Geometry checkbox is toggled on, and then click on FYLD 50 {FYLD 350} and FYLD 46 {FYLD 320} in succession. The member geometry will be highlighted appropriately as the different parameters are selected in the Command Tree. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset, and is named Dataset 6_2.std. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save.

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Module 6

6.3

How to Use the Check Code Command
• • • • • • Open the file named Dataset 6_2.std . Click the Design tab in the Page Control. Assume the intent is to do a code check for all of the members in the structure. Click Select | By All | All Beams . Click the Commands… button in the lower portion of the Steel Design dialog. The CHECK CODE tab is currently the active tab in the Design Commands dialog. The Assign button will be available, because members are presently selected in the Main Window. The Assign button is convenient because it adds the command of the currently active page to the command list, and it simultaneously assigns the command to all of the currently selected members. This is more convenient than the two-step process demonstrated in the previous section where design parameters were first added to the input file and then assigned to specific members in a separate step. Note that the Assign button would not have been available if the members had not been selected first. This behavior is typical of many dialogs in STAAD. Pro . For these reasons, it is good practice to select the members to be operated on first, and then perform the operation.

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Click the Assign button to add the Check Code command to the command list and simultaneously assign it to all the members in the model. Click the Close button to dismiss the Design Commands dialog. Click Analyze | Run Analysis… . Click the Save button. The STAAD Analysis and Design dialog opens, and a series of messages scroll down the screen as the program runs the analysis. While the analysis is running, the button in the lower righthand corner of the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog is labeled Abort . After the analysis is complete, the label on that button changes to Done . There will now be some new messages in the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog that were not present the first time the analysis was run. These indicate additional operations that were performed, like Performing Steel Design , Finished Design , Creating Design Information File (DGN) , etc.

• • • •

The indications that the run was successful are: • • • The message **Output Written to File. The presence of an option to Go to Post Processing Mode. The absence of any error messages at the bottom of the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog.

If the program is ever unsuccessful in analyzing the input file and generating results, the Post Processing mode will not be available, as shown in Figure 6. 2 below.

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Module 6

Figure 6. 2 The program might also display a message like ERROR in Analysis, check Output (ANL) File , if the analysis concludes prematurely, without generating any results. If this ever occurs, open the output file and look for error and/or warning messages that will help to locate the problem.

Figure 6. 3

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The STAAD Output Viewer has two panes. If there is any kind of problem in the file, the left pane will display horizontal bars labeled Error or Warning . There may also be a Results bar if the program was able to proceed through the analysis far enough to generate some results. What is the difference between an error message and a warning message? An Error message indicates a condition which must be corrected in order for a successful analysis to be performed. A Warning message indicates that the program encountered an unexpected or abnormal condition, but it was still able to perform an analysis while warning that the output results should be checked carefully. • Click the View Output File radio button in the lower left corner of the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog, then click the Done button. The Results bar will appear at the top of the left pane of the STAAD Output Viewer . Click on the STEEL DESIGN item under the RESULTS bar in the left pane. It is a link directly to the beginning of the steel design results in the output file. STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING – (UNIFIED ASD) – indicates the design code selected. The next line indicates the units that are being used to report the results. The results of the code check are reported in this table for each member in the model. The level of detail shown in this table is a function of the Track parameter, which was set to a value of 1.

• •

• • • •

In this case the member fails. In this example. RATIO is the term on the left-hand side of AISC 360-05 equation H1-1a or H1-1b.STAAD. the CRITICAL CONDITION is created by Clause H1 (axial force plus bending) in AISC 36005. The column headed CRITICAL COND reports the code reference to the expression that produces the highest ratio for the member.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-22 Module 6 • • • • • Note the asterisk beside member 1. In this case. The column headed RATIO provides the controlling utilization ratio for the member (this is essentially a demand/capacity ratio). The column headed FX (directly beneath RESULT) indicates the axial force in the member under the controlling Load Case . it is a tensile force. The column headed RESULT provides the overall design result for the member in PASS/FAIL format. The column headings provide the key to determining what the data represents. Each of the remaining columns reports two pieces of data. The column headed LOADING indicates the Load Case that produced the controlling ratio. This is actually a graphical flag used to denote members that fail the code check. First read the top line from left to right. The ST notation indicates that it is a standard section. The column headed TABLE lists the name of the cross section (a C12 x 30 channel in this case). • • • • • • . indicated by the “T” after the force magnitude. as opposed to a user-defined section. The column headed MEMBER displays the member number. In this case.

The columns headed MY and MZ indicate the bending moments about the local y.and local z-axes. The model is a planar structure with no out-of-plane forces acting on it. Click File | Exit in the STAAD Output Viewer window to return to the STAAD. The box below the table data provides some additional information regarding member slenderness checks and capacities. In this case the value is 0. because the beta angle is 90 degrees. just the axial force associated with the load case indicated in the LOADING column. Pro environment. For Member 1.STAAD. we would expect that bending will take place about their local z-axes since their local z-axes are oriented parallel to the global Z-axis. indicating that the critical loading takes place at the starting node of the member. We would expect no bending about Member 1’s local z-axis. The last column headed LOCATION provides the location along the beam where the RATIO is the highest. and we expect no out-ofplane bending to take place about their local y-axes. Recall that Member 1 is the only member in the model with a beta angle equal to 90 degrees. For the remaining members. that are associated with the load case indicated in the LOADING column. Based on the applied gravity loading. respectively. • • • • • • • • • . since no out-of-plane forces are acting on the structure. the local y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Z-axis. we would expect bending to take place about this member’s local y-axis.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-23 • Note that this is not necessarily the largest axial force.00.

Pro Standard Training Manual 6-24 Module 6 • • • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.std. Click No when asked if you want to save. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. . and is named Dataset 6_3.STAAD.

• • . no steel design will be performed and no steel design results will be generated.4 Checking Steel Design Results • • • • Open the file named Dataset 6_3. This command warrants a bit of caution. or if an analysis has not yet been run. When the analysis is complete. So. In addition to reviewing the output file.STAAD. the program will not be able to correctly identify failed members. there are other facilities available for checking steel design results.std . Click Analyze | Run Analysis… to be sure analysis results are available and current. and then click Done . click the Stay in Modeling Mode radio button. If the input file does not include any steel design commands. Searching for Failed members in Modeling Mode : • • • Click Select | By Specification | All Failed Beams . This message can be misleading. then executing the command Select | By Specification | All Failed Beams may produce a message indicating that no beams failed. If no Check Code command was included in the input file.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-25 6. All of the members that are highlighted failed the code check. no beams will fail! If that is the case.

• The members in the structure diagram will be color coded and annotated with their controlling ratio values. Radio buttons allow the user to choose between basing the diagram on Actual Ratios or Normalized Ratios . Click the Unity Check tab.STAAD. (The Normalized Ratio is calculated by dividing the Actual Ratio by the specified value of the RATIO parameter. • • . Click the Beam tab in the Page Control. Click the Design Results tab in the Diagrams dialog.) Click the Show Diagram (Based on Actual Ratio) radio button. and then click Structure Diagrams… from the pop-up menu. a member with a ratio greater than 1 is considered to have failed. Click OK in the Results Setup dialog to display results for all load cases. and the ratios will also appear in the Design Results table. Any member with a ratio value less than or equal to 1 is considered to have passed the code check. The next set of radio buttons allows a choice between a Basic Diagram and a Detailed Diagram . • • • • Right-click the mouse in the Main Window . The Design Results page provides a way to adjust the colorcoding of members based on the value of their design ratio. hence the term Unity Check .Pro Standard Training Manual 6-26 Module 6 Observing Design Results on the Unity Check page in the Post Processor : • • • • Click Mode | Post Processing . The Unity Check sub-page was not present until the Check Code command was added.

By default. Fail if the ratio is between 1 and 1.STAAD. Colors can be changed if desired by double-clicking on them. The default values define Pass as a ratio less than 1. or Extreme Failure . Fail .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-27 • • Click the Basic Diagram radio button. It is important to understand that the categories of Pass and Fail on this diagram can be set to have different ranges of values than those used in the calculation engine during the steel design process. and Extreme Fail if the ratio is greater than 1. Pass . In the Basic Diagram option: • • Members are displayed in 4 distinct colors to indicate Not Designed . • • .5. the range consists of an equally distributed set of values between the lowest ratio and the highest ratio.5.0 multiplied by the value of the RATIO parameter and multiplied by the OVR parameter (both of whose default values are 1. In the calculation engine. In the Detailed Diagram option: • Ranges of values can be created for interpreting the design status. These ranges can be customized as desired.0). a Fail status will be reported on any member whose Unity Check value exceeds 1. The Use Custom Limits checkbox provides a way to create an equally distributed set of values between a user-defined minimum and maximum ratio limit. • • • • • • Click the Detailed Diagram radio button.

• Observing Design Results using the member query feature: • • Double-click on Member No. Click the Steel Design tab in the Beam dialog. • • • • • . Click Cancel in the Diagrams dialog to return to the Unity Check page. This is an easy way to obtain basic design results for a particular member. the scroll box is available for increasing or decreasing the No. Now that the analysis has been re-run using some steel design commands. properties get assigned. unity ratio. This Steel Design page displays the same information that was just reviewed in the output file in the previous section. pass / fail status. and as analysis and design results become available.STAAD. 1 (bottom chord member just to the right of midspan). The colors used to represent the different ranges can be changed as desired by double-clicking on them. The Steel Design page presents the design strength.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-28 Module 6 • The Use Custom Divisions checkbox makes it possible to specify ranges that are not necessarily equally distributed. • • • The Show Values checkbox controls whether or not ratio values appear on the diagram. etc. of values (number of color-coded value ranges) that are displayed. In all cases. a new page is present. This dialog continues to get populated with more information as the model is constructed. critical loads. Kl/r ratio. governing clause of the design code.

the message. From the current cursor location. • • • Type the word Fail into the field labeled Find What at the top of the dialog. • • • • • . the direction of the search can be specified in the Direction category as either Up or Down . Continue to click the Find Next button to find successive occurrences of the word “Fail”. then click on the Find Next button.STAAD. Keep the current model open for use in the next section. or use the shortcut key method of pressing the F key while holding down the Control (Ctrl) key. Another way to open the Search dialog is to pull down the viewer’s Edit menu and select the Find command. Click the Find toolbar button in the upper left corner of the STAAD Output Viewer (it looks like a pair of binoculars). Click Cancel to dismiss the Search dialog. The viewer moves to the first instance of the word “Fail” in the output file and highlights it. Searching the Output File for Failed Members: • • Click the STAAD Output icon on the File toolbar. “SproView has finished searching” is displayed. If the search does not find any instance of the word “Fail” in the output file.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-29 • Click the Close button to dismiss the member query dialog. Click File | Exit in the STAAD Output Viewer .

rather than to just check and report on the assigned sizes. Ensure that the file named Dataset 6_3. STAAD. Pro optimize the design.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-30 Module 6 6. Drag a rubber band line around the entire model with the Beams Cursor .5 Optimizing Steel Designs • • The next logical step after obtaining the results of the code check is to have STAAD. Pro to select members that satisfy the code requirements. See commentary below for options. Click the Select option in the Design Commands dialog. • • • • • • . Pro has the ability to select the most economical section in terms of weight that will satisfy the code requirements. Select all members using any preferred method. then select Delete Command from the pop-up menu.std is still the active model. • • • Click the Commands button at the bottom of the Steel Design dialog. Click the Assign button to simultaneously add the SELECT command to the command list and assign it to all members in the model. since the goal is now to allow STAAD. Click the Close button. The Check Code command that appears in the Steel Design dialog is no longer appropriate.STAAD. Click the Design page tab in the Page Control. Click Yes to confirm. Right-click on the CHECK CODE command. or choose Select | By All | All Beams .

. 4 • Click Yes . Click Edit | Edit Input Command File .STAAD. • • • • • Figure 6. The meaning of this warning will be discussed in detail in an upcoming section titled “Statically Indeterminate Structures”. A dialog pops up with the warning message shown below. Scroll down through the input file in the STAAD. The icon would appear as a yellow question mark instead of a green check mark if the Add button was clicked instead of the Assign button. • Click File | Save and then click Save in the pop-up warning dialog box to confirm the intent to save the input file with the recent changes. the Assign To View option could be used to assign the SELECT command to all members in the model. Note that the CHECK CODE ALL command has been replaced by the SELECT ALL command. Click File | Exit in the editor’s menu bar to return to the Main Window. Click Analyze | Run Analysis… . If this was the case. Pro Editor.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-31 • The green check mark to the left of the SELECT command indicates that the command has been assigned to members in the model.

Click File | Exit in the STAAD Output Viewer . Scroll through the steel design results. This is a link to go straight to the steel design pages in the output file. Press Shift + X . Don’t be deceived by the fact that the optimized member sizes were just viewed in the STEEL DESIGN section of the output file. Note also that nearly every member now has a unique cross section.STAAD. the hotkey to show member sections on the structure diagram. and note that every member has passed. The question mark icon is used to indicate that they have not yet been assigned to the model. The new entries in the list (the ones with the question marks) represent the sections that were determined to be the optimized sizes by the SELECT command. Note that the sections shown on the structure diagram are still the original sizes that were assigned to the members. In the Steel Design dialog. A more sophisticated optimization technique will be presented in an upcoming section titled “Finalizing the Design”. Click the words STEEL DESIGN under the RESULTS bar. because no control was provided for the program as it optimized individual members.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-32 Module 6 • When the analysis concludes. note that the MEMBER PROPERTIES AMERICAN folder icon has been expanded in the Command Tree. click the View Output File radio button. and then click the Done button at the bottom of the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog. • • • • • • • • • • • .

and is named Dataset 6_4. This command will not be used here. Click No when asked if you want to save.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-33 • There is one additional step to instruct STAAD.std. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. It is accessible from the Post Processing mode. • • • . but it will be covered in the upcoming section titled “Statically Indeterminate Structures”.STAAD. and the command is Results | Update Properties . Pro to update the model with the optimized member sections. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.

” a warning message was encountered in the beginning of the analysis. which are the member sizes chosen using the Select command. This table also shows the Design Property sections.6 Statically Indeterminate Structures • In a previous section titled “Optimizing Steel Designs. When the analysis concludes. Open the file named Dataset 6_4. Click the Beam tab in the Page Control.std . Click Yes to acknowledge the warning dialog and allow the analysis to run. click the Go To Post Processing radio button. • • • • • • • • • • .STAAD. The Design Results table shows the Analysis Property cross sections that were used in the analysis to obtain the member forces. and then click the Unity Check tab. These are the member sections that we initially assigned to the members of the model. Click Analyze | Run Analysis… . The message indicated that the model contained instructions for Member Selection/Optimization and/or Grouping but that these commands were not followed by an instruction to reanalyze the model. and the ratios for each of the Design Property sections. and then click the Done button. It goes on to say in effect that the analysis results will not be consistent with the new member properties. Click OK in the Results Setup dialog to select all four load cases.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-34 Module 6 6.

This is because that angle size is the smallest angle available. all of the internal forces in a determinate structure can be solved.9. say.) has a ratio of approximately 0. 0. x 2 in. Note: there is a provision in some codes that permits members to be designated as secondary members that are not subject to slenderness limits.0. Occasionally there might be a member with a very low ratio. first consider the difference between a determinate structure and an indeterminate structure. Simply by setting the sum of the forces and moments equal to zero. the member might appear to be underutilized in terms of its ultimate strength.52 {0. For example. If many members were far below. • • . an L20202 (2 in.63}. but that larger cross section is needed to resist buckling effects. In such cases. In other cases. • To understand the warning message that appeared when the Analyze | Run Analysis command was issued. the efficiency of the design might be governed by the slenderness ratio Kl/r.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-35 • Most of the Actual Ratio values are all less than but very close to 1. economical design. In that case. the parameter called Main can be used to designate certain members as secondary members. it would not be considered to be an efficient. An example might be a member that is designed to perform in tension. one of the angles. A determinate structure is one in which all the forces and reactions in the structure can be found using equations of static equilibrium.STAAD. x 1/8 in. and waive the slenderness check. but which might also experience some compression loading. This is an indication of the efficiency of the selection process.

Moment Distribution methods for solving indeterminate structures rely on equations that involve the fixed end moments and quantities like E. In order to have a sufficient number of equations to solve for the unknown quantities. These Equations of Compatibility use relationships between the forces and the displacements. additional equations known as Equations of Compatibility must be relied upon. For example. at a point of connection between a vertical column and a horizontal beam. but the member properties are different.STAAD. there are more unknowns than there are equations of static equilibrium. • • • Consider the portal frames shown in the figure below. I. and they depend upon the section properties of the members. the displacement of the vertical member must be equal to that of the horizontal member. support conditions and external loading. . and L.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-36 Module 6 • • In an indeterminate structure on the other hand. it could be said that. Both frames have identical geometry.

This points up the other difference between determinate and indeterminate structures.STAAD. due to their differences in stiffness. What does all this have to do with the member selection process and the warning message that appeared during the analysis? • • .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-37 Figure 6. the nature of force distribution and redistribution in an indeterminate structure depends on the section properties of the members. 5 • These two frames would not be expected to have the same distribution of forces and reactions.

it obtained a set of forces and displacements. From that analysis. because those forces were based upon a completely different set of member properties.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-38 Module 6 • • • • When the model was first analyzed. In the case of this particular model. In a statically indeterminate model. once the properties are changed. STAAD. Pro used the section properties of the members that were initially specified. However. it also needs to be reanalyzed for another reason. Keep the current model open for use in the next section. Pro the command to reanalyze the model to incorporate the effects of the changes in stiffness as a result of the newly-selected member sizes. Since the self-weight of the new members is likely to be different than the self-weight of the original members. Those forces and displacements were then used to select some new members that satisfied Code requirements. If the intent is to use these new members in the final design.STAAD. we have not yet given STAAD. it must be reanalyzed. Load Case 1 is based on the self-weight of the members. • • • • . the analysis must be re-run to incorporate this change as well. the forces that were used to select the members will no longer be valid. in order to make the loading consistent with the properties.

the bottom chord members should probably have a uniform cross section.7 Finalizing the Design • • • Ensure that Dataset 6_4. so practically every member in the model has a unique cross section. certain parts of the structure should be comprised of members of a uniform cross section. For example. • • • • • • • • . At present. the top chord members should have a uniform cross section.std is still the current file. With the new force values.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-39 6. The other issue we have to address is the consistency of the analysis results and the member section properties. It is obviously not practical to construct a real-world structure this way. to confirm that the new members are able to safely bear the forces on the structure. once the program has selected optimum members of a uniform size. the Select command has optimized the size of each member individually. and similarly for the two columns and the webs. The forces found in the first analysis will not be valid anymore because of the differences in stiffness and self-weight associated with the member size changes. one more code check can be performed.STAAD. the member sizes should be fairly uniform. the model should be re-analyzed. Based on the discussion in the previous section. A second analysis will determine the distribution of the forces in the new members. Instead. To make this design more realistic.

etc. select by group. The command to make the member sizes uniform is called the Group command (see Section 5. Re-analyze the structure for the new member sizes. Ensure that the program is in Modeling mode. the program needs to perform multiple analyses.48 in the Technical Reference manual). (see Section 5. As noted above. Click the Design tab in the Page Control. The steel design Group command tells the program to use the same cross section for a given set of members. • The commands to perform the analysis and the member selection have already been defined. Design page. the command to make the member sizes uniform must always be preceded by a member selection. the general procedure is: • • • • • Analyze the structure using the initial properties.STAAD. re-analyze the structure and perform a code check. to tell the program to make the sizes uniform. Make the sizes uniform – the command to do this must always be preceded by a member selection. switch to Modeling mode by clicking Mode | Modeling . So.16 in the Technical Reference manual). Perform a Code Check. • • • • • • • . The next step will be to go back to the Modeling mode. This command should not be confused with commands used in other Modules to create groups. If not. to meet these objectives.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-40 Module 6 • In other words. Perform a Member Selection to optimize the design.

But members can be grouped using other criteria as well.or z. Options include Ax . For some codes. The use of After Current ensures that the next command will be added immediately beneath the command that is currently selected in the Command Tree. there is a fourth option called None . instead of defaulting to the position at the very end of the Command Tree. and then click the Commands button in the Steel Design dialog. the selected Property .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-41 • Highlight the Select command in the Command Tree of the Steel Design dialog. • • • Click the Group item. Normally members would be grouped according to the member in the group with the highest weight (i. Sy or Sz (area or section moduli about the y. Another modifying option is to toggle on the Same As Beam # checkbox. If this option is used.axes). Toggle on the After Current checkbox at the bottom of the Design Commands dialog. Selecting None is the same as selecting Ax as the controlling parameter. The section with the highest weight may not be the one with the largest section modulus. STAAD. largest cross sectional area). • The Property Specification list on the Group page offers control over what property to use in identifying the controlling member. Pro needs direction as to what parameter to use when evaluating a list of members and identifying a “controlling” section.STAAD.e.

• • • • • • • • • . Click on the Assigning button to turn the Assign mode off. which is to determine the cross sectional area of the largest member in the group and then assign that size to all members in the group.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-42 Module 6 Specification from the selected beam will be used as the governing property for the group. then the other . bottom chord. columns and webs. The first GROUP MEMB command will be assigned to the columns. • Click on the first Group Memb command in the Command Tree. Click anywhere in the Main Window to deselect all members. Select Ax in the Property Specification list. Again. click the Add button four times . Click the Assign button to activate the Assign mode. Click on one column . The second GROUP MEMB command will be assigned to the truss bottom chord. click anywhere in the Main Window to deselect all members. and then click the Close button to dismiss the Design Commands dialog. The current model lends itself to four groups: top chord.STAAD. Ensure that the After Current checkbox is toggled on. Toggle on the Use Cursor To Assign radio button in the Assignment Method category. • If no selection is made in the Property Specification list the default group method will be used.

and then click Yes to confirm. Assign the fourth GROUP MEMB command to the _WEBS group using this same procedure. and then click Yes to confirm. • • • • . The Assignment Method in the Steel Design dialog is now automatically set to Assign To Selected Beams . Select G2:_TOPC from the Select Groups dialog. • • • Click on the third Group Memb command in the list. click anywhere in the Main Window to deselect all members. • • Click the Assign button. Again. then Close . Click the Analysis/Print page in the Page Control area. with the Perform Analysis tab active. Again.STAAD. The Analysis/Print Commands dialog opens. click anywhere in the Main Window to deselect all members. Click Select | By Group Name . The third GROUP MEMB command will be assigned to the top chord. Click Select | Beams Parallel To | X . Click Add . The Assignment Method in the Steel Design dialog is now automatically set to Assign To Selected Beams .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-43 • • Click on the second Group Memb command in the list. and then click the Close button. • • Click the Assign button.

then Close . In the Assignment Method category. and then click the Done button. select the Assign to View radio button. The Design Commands dialog opens with the CHECK CODE page active. FYLD values. Click the Commands button in the Steel Design dialog. The program will continue to use the ASD provisions of the AISC 360-05 code. Click the Assign button. Select the CHECK CODE line in the Command Tree of the Steel Design dialog. the K values.STAAD. until they are re-specified or until the program reaches the FINISH command. • • • • • • • • • • Click Analyze | Run Analysis… .. The parameters that were specified previously will remain valid until they are re-specified. • . Click Add . etc.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-44 Module 6 • This adds a second PERFORM ANALYSIS command in the Command Tree of the Analysis dialog. If the analysis ran successfully. Click the Design page in the Page Control. Click Save in the Warning dialog that pops up. the Track parameter. Note that it is not necessary to re-specify the design parameters. Check for any error messages in the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog. click the Go to Post Processing Mode radio button.

940). with an Actual Ratio value of 1. Click Mode | Modeling to return to Modeling mode. Look in the Design Results table and note that all of the channels now have the same cross section specified in the Design Property column. The same is true for all of the tube sections.STAAD. the largest Actual Ratio value is 0. Pro converges on a solution. and the member forces get completely redistributed when the model is re-analyzed.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-45 • • Click OK in the Results Setup dialog. this is due to the fact that the member selection process causes significant changes in relative stiffness. etc. Now click the Beam page tab. Also note that Member 27 failed the Unity Check. and then click the Unity Check page tab. more design iterations may be required in order to converge on a solution. (Note: This is only true if the English dataset is being used. In larger and more complex models. regroup. angle sections. Pro design parameter called the Ratio parameter. What options are available in situations where some members have failed after the Check Code command? One option is to perform another design iteration: reselect. There are no failed members at this point if the Metric dataset is used.110. • • • • • • • • • . For the Metric example. and reanalyze. As discussed above. This process can be iterated over and over until STAAD. There is a quick way to reduce the number of iterations that may be required by using a STAAD.

• Click on the “+” sign to the left of the Parameter 1 folder in the Command Tree. Click the Assign button.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-46 Module 6 • • Click the Design page tab. Select all of the members in the model . Toggle on the After Current checkbox. This builds in a margin of additional strength in the structure that allows it to tolerate the inevitable redistribution of loads that occurs when member stiffnesses change. • • • • • • • Enter a value of 0. The Ratio parameter can be used to specify an upper limit for the ratio of the applied forces to the capacity of the section. Scroll down through the list of available parameters. Pro to select members with some additional capacity with respect to the code design (or allowable) strength. One quick way to select all members is to click inside the Main Window and use the standard Windows shortcut key combination of Control (Ctrl) + A. Click the TRACK 1 parameter to make it the current location.0 directs STAAD. and click on the Ratio tab. . Setting this value to something less than 1. In this way.STAAD.75 in the field labeled Permissible ratio of actual load to section capacity . Click the Define Parameters button. an acceptable design will be found with fewer design iterations required. The resulting design is less sensitive to subtle shifts in load.

the analysis could be run again to see if STAAD. This time. Click the Ratio item. Re-select all members in the model . Locate the PARAMETER 2 command. Click the Assign button. Toggle on the After Current checkbox. Scroll down through the list of commands in the Steel Design dialog. • • • • • • • • • • If any member still fails.0. Click the Close button. • . the Select command will use a ratio of 0.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-47 • • Click the Close button. Select the CODE AISC UNIFIED command to highlight it. Pro will correct the failure based on the redistribution of forces. leave it at its default value. just before the CHECK CODE command at the very bottom of the list. Click the Define Parameters button. Click on the + symbol adjacent to the PARAMETER 2 item to expand the tree. Another approach would be to go back and change the value used in the Ratio command to something slightly more conservative.STAAD. Now when an analysis is run. The value in the edit box labeled Permissible ratio of actual load to section capacity should have defaulted back to 1 .75 and the Check Code command will use a ratio of 1.

901}.STAAD. Click OK to select all load cases if the Results Setup dialog is displayed. Click the Actual Ratio column heading to sort all members by their ratio values. Note that the highest ratio is now 0. • • • Click Analyze | Run Analysis… . It is interesting to note that not all of the members ended up with a ratio less than 0.7. This is a good demonstration of how stresses can “creep” after member sizes change and forces redistribute. Click Save to acknowledge that the model has changed. Of primary importance is that the parameters must be set and other operations must be performed in the correct sequence. and then click Done . STAAD. click the radio button to Go to Post Processing Mode .75.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-48 Module 6 The Ratio command can also be applied selectively. which was the limit used in the SELECT command. the ratio for member selection of channels could be set to 0.6. Click the Beam page tab followed by the Unity Check sub-tab in the Page Control. Pro offers quite a bit of flexibility in this regard. and for selection of angles it could be set to 0. For example. When the analysis is complete. • • • • • • . The recent changes to the input file have corrected the fact that some members were actually very slightly overstressed.895 {0. Several different Ratio commands could be used to specify different ratio values for different members.

0 with the RATIO parameter. but makes it technically incorrect if used with values greater than 1. In addition to modifying the allowable stresses. • .0 to account for allowable stress increases. Note that members 1 and 4 fail during the member selection routine. • Click the first STEEL DESIGN line under the RESULTS bar to go straight to the steel design pages in the output file. • A few notes on the use of the RATIO parameter: • Good practice is to use values between zero and 1.0 to check). 1.75 to select. If there is a need to acknowledge allowable overstresses (other than what is already built into modern load combinations).0.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-49 • It is also a good demonstration of wise use of the Ratio values (0. the output file. Good practice would be to use the OVR parameter with values greater than 1. Pro provides the OVR parameter. then STAAD. to eliminate the need to run multiple iterations. . from the toolbar to view • • • • • Select the STAAD Output icon. Resist the temptation to use RATIO to account for increases in allowable stresses that may be permitted in some codes. This makes RATIO very effective in building some conservatism into a design when it is used with values less than 1. RATIO has the effect of acting as a multiplier on allowable KL/r slenderness ratios.

Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. the last section tried (i. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. The warning message. “TRIAL FAILS FOR MEMBER x. and is named Dataset 6_5. FOLLOWING IS LAST RESULT OF TRIAL”.75 limit placed by the RATIO command.STAAD. • • • • . In this case.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-50 Module 6 • They “fail” because their unity check values exceed the 0. Click No when asked if you want to save. and none were satisfactory. indicates that STAAD. The results that are reported are for the last section that was tried. Pro performed a code check for all channel sections in the database.std.e. the heaviest channel section) is a C15x50.

The commentary below describes the Select Optimized command in greater detail. then modify ratios. as it may have an application under special circumstances. It is good to be aware that the command exists.8 Additional Comments Regarding Design Commands Additional design commands available: • • • • • Open the file named Dataset 6_5. for example a file that includes specifications such as Member Tension . Pro may report that it is unable to optimize the model. Tension-only springs . Also. Note the option labeled Select Optimized . followed by the Steel sub-tab in the Page Control. then SELECT ALL. Member Cable .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 6 6-51 6.. Multilinear springs . then SELECT ALL. then PERFORM ANALYSIS. It does not cause the program to iterate • . the Select Optimized command only executes one additional iteration. without the need for the user to manually specify the repetitions with Select and Perform Analysis commands. In a file with a lot of difficult conditions. When the Select Optimized command is issued the following steps are taken: CHECK CODE ALL. STAAD. However. Click the Design tab.std . Click the Commands button in the Steel Design dialog. “Optimized” in this context means that the program will automatically iterate twice. good practice generally dictates manually specifying an iterative “analyze-design-reanalyzecheck” process as described above.STAAD. etc. There are some limitations to what the Select Optimized command can handle.

Fixed Group is used with the Select Optimized command. Click No when asked if you want to save.Pro Standard Training Manual 6-52 Module 6 endlessly. The Select Weld Truss command should be used for pure axial conditions where STAAD. in the same way that Group is used with the Select command.STAAD. • • • • • • -End of Module- . Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. • The Select Weld command instructs STAAD.std. but the Member Take Off command provides a higher level of detail in the output file. No changes have been made to the model named Dataset 6_5. The Fixed Group command is an alternate to the Group command. including a report of the weight of each member. Pro to pick a weld size for moment resisting connections (frame connections). until it converges to a solution to some n th degree of precision. Pro does not have to design for shears and moments. Both commands perform the same basic function. Take Off and Member Take Off commands can be used to generate a Bill of Materials for a model.

...................................1 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis .............4 Using the Editor to Create a Mesh ............................... 37  7 ...................4............2 How to Create Finite Elements ................................. 26  7........ 7..... 21  7.4.............................4 Mesh Generation .........3 How to Use the Mesh Generation Cursor ............. 20  7.............. 2  7........ 12  7...........7-1 Finite Element Modeling Module The following topics are included in this module...........................................2 Creating a Mesh From a “Super-Element” ........ 18  7.........3 How to Create Plates with Nodes Off-Grid ..........................1 Using Structure Wizard to Generate a Mesh ..................... 29  7..4.......4....

roofs. A load that is applied to a beam can really go in only two directions. . The difference between a beam and a plate relates to their abilities to distribute loads.Pro documentation uses the terms “finite elements” and “plates” interchangeably. in a plate. 1 below. 2 below. In a finite element analysis. Modeling walls. there is more than one path for the load to flow as indicated graphically in Figure 7. slabs and other surface components requires an area-type entity capable of distributing load in more than one direction.STAAD. a wall or a slab is modeled by an assemblage of small parts consisting of triangles or quadrilaterals. or the other as indicated graphically in Figure 7. This entity is known as a finite element . 1 • By contrast.1 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis • • Beams and columns are modeled with line-type entities. STAAD .Pro Standard Training Manual 7-2 Module 7 7. towards one end. • • • • • Figure 7.

is shown in Figure 7. STAAD. Pro is a solid element. All nodes of a 4-noded plate must lie in the same plane. Solid elements will not be used in this training. If four nodes do not lie on one plane. or cube. 2 • • A plate can be 3-noded (triangular) or 4-noded (quadrilateral). 3 below.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-3 Figure 7. 3 . The thickness of a plate may be different from one node to another. The eight-noded solid element. • • • Figure 7. which inherently is a mesh of plate elements. use two triangular elements. Pro includes another type of entity called a Surface element . Another finite element available in STAAD. or cube. Surface elements are not covered in detail in this Module.STAAD.

.STAAD. the displacements at intermediate points can be determined using secondary analysis techniques like the moment-area method. if the displacements at the ends are known. By collapsing various nodes together. Figure 7. Figure 7. 4 • In a structure where the ratio of the smallest lateral dimension to the thickness is less than 10. as shown in Figure 7. 5 Why Use a Mesh? • When analyzing a beam.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-4 Module 7 Solid elements are normally used only in situations where the thickness of the object being modeled is large in proportion to the lateral dimensions. an eight-noded solid element can be degenerated to forms with four to seven nodes. it is generally advisable to model that structure using solid elements. as indicated graphically in Figure 7. 4 below. 5 below.

So. 7 . 7 below. and stresses can only be accurately determined at the center of an element.STAAD. 6 • In a plate. one must interpolate values between the centers of adjacent elements. the slab must be modeled using a series of plate elements.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-5 Figure 7. Displacements can only be determined at the nodes (corners) of finite elements. Consider a slab supported by a frame. or to determine the deformed shape along the edges of a slab. to solve for displacements at interior points of a slab. such that the points of interest become nodes of the elements. It is impossible to accurately model the behavior of a slab using just a single element. and assume that under load it had a deflected shape similar to the shape shown in Figure 7. there are no equations to determine the displacement at some arbitrary point within the 3 or 4 corners of the element. • • • • • Figure 7. To determine stresses at points of interest.

On the other hand. rather than just a single element or a few elements. At points of application of concentrated loads. it can be difficult to go back later and change the size (i. So. the ‘density’) of the mesh. it would be necessary to know the deflections at the points of maximum deflection. incorporated into a model and used as a basis for further developing the model. it would be undesirable to have too many points. and envision the number of nodes that would be required to . • • • • • • • • Some suggestions that may help determine required mesh size: • Try to predict the approximate deflected shape of the structure. a series or matrix of finite elements is often needed to accurately model the behavior of a wall or slab. Once a mesh has been created. at the end points.e. Judgment must be exercised in selecting the number of elements used to model a slab in order to balance accuracy with modeling efficiency. Another situation in which more than one plate element would be needed to model a slab would be when the stresses are to be determined in a slab subject to some type of point loading. as shown by the X’s in the figure. This series of elements is commonly referred to as a mesh . since it would make the structure too cumbersome to analyze. The more data points there are. and at a few intermediate points.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-6 Module 7 • In order to obtain deflection information along the indicated edge.STAAD. it is typically desirable to model many elements in order to determine the stress distribution in the slab caused by the concentrated load. the more accurately the deflected shape can be modeled.

One rule of thumb for determining the number of nodes to be modeled around a point load is to start by envisioning a circular area around the concentrated load. Envision the deflected shape that would be revealed if longitudinal and transverse sections were cut through the point of maximum deflection. If the edges of the element are fixed or monolithic with a concrete beam. Seven points would imply six elements along the length of the beam. For example. How many points does it take to accurately represent a deflected shape of that type? Probably a total of seven points would be a minimum.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-7 provide a reasonably accurate indication of that deflected shape. • A finer mesh should be considered around any holes in a plate. based on engineering judgment.STAAD. similar to the deflected shape of a beam. Divide that circle into 30 ° pie-shaped segments. This implies 12 triangular elements around a circle whose center is the location of the point load. a simply supported plate deflects like a bowl. That would imply eight or more elements in that direction. Again. there are no hard-and-fast rules for how many elements to use. In this case. • . nine or more points may be required to accurately represent the deflected shape. • Finer meshes may be needed in the vicinity of any concentrated forces in order to visualize the deflected shape or the stresses at that location. the deflected shape is more like an inverted hat. Thus a six-by-six grid of elements seems like a minimum for this plate. The shape would be parabolic.

The same effect holds true as the corner angles of a quadrilateral plate deviate from 90 degrees. The best results are obtained when the ratio of the element’s longest side to its shortest side is no greater than 2:1. internal angles of plate elements should be kept between 60 and 120 degrees.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-8 Module 7 Guidelines for Element Shape: • The shape of the individual elements is important in order to obtain good results from the finite element analysis. Pro Technical Reference manual. taken from Section 1. shows examples of well-formed and poorly-formed plates. internal angles should be kept as close to 60 degrees as possible. Optimum shape for a quadrilateral element is a square. • Figure 7. As a general rule for quadrilateral plates.6 of the STAAD. • • • • • In the case of triangular elements. • As a general rule for triangular plates. the less accurate the results become. the ideal shape is an equilateral triangle.STAAD. . In no case should the ratio exceed 4:1. Internal angles in excess of 180 degrees are not allowed. 8 below. • The more a quad plate deviates from a square towards a rectangular shape.

STAAD. Pro . 8 How to address poorly shaped plates in a model: • The problem can usually be solved by breaking a badly shaped plate into two or more plates that have a better shape. 9 • Since plates cannot have curved sides in STAAD. • • . it is possible to end up with elements near the outer edges that are very long and narrow as shown in the figure below. Pro is to draw them using a radial grid .e.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-9 Figure 7. For example. Because the distance between grid points gets larger toward the outside of a radial grid. mesh ) of triangles or quadrilaterals. circular structures must be modeled using a series (i. • Figure 7. a badly shaped quadrilateral plate can often be broken into two triangular plates that will have better shapes. One way to model circular plates in STAAD.

the results of a finite element analysis become questionable.STAAD. The figure below shows a method of creating elements so they get smaller towards the center but retain the same approximate proportions between the sides. This is a recommended procedure to avoid receiving error messages or inaccurate results when performing an analysis on a radial structure.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-10 Module 7 Figure 7. 10 • When the ratio of the element’s longest side to its shortest side exceeds 4:1. 11 . or even impossible to obtain. • Figure 7.

.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-11 • Consider all of these things when estimating how many divisions a mesh should have to generate a successful finite element model.

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-12 Module 7 7. • Click the cursor at 4 successive points in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction to experiment with drawing a quadrilateral plate. browse to the desired location. • • . and drawing on the grid produces plates instead of beams.2 How to Create Finite Elements • • Click File | New from the Start Page. Use the following settings in the New dialog: Space frame Length Units: Foot {Meter} Force Units : KiloPound {KiloNewton} File Name: My Dataset 7_0 In the Location field. To change the location. and then click Finish . STAAD. and click OK. Toggle off the Snap Node/Plate button in the Snap Node/Plate dialog. STAAD. This environment looks similar to the grid used earlier to draw beams. Pro draws a 4-noded element. Pro indicates the location where a new file is to be saved. The controls for the grid are identical. • • Click Next .STAAD. Select Add Plate . automatically closing the polygon from the last node you picked back to the first node. The only difference is that the Plates Cursor is active. click the button with three dots in it. Pro opens the Main Window with a grid and the Snap Node/Plate dialog active.

a plate defined in this manner will be “warped” and will cause errors when the analysis is run. . 12 below represents an attempt to draw a plate without drawing the nodes in consecutive order. clockwise or counterclockwise. because there is no node where the diagonal lines cross. • Double-click on the plate just drawn .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-13 • The hot spot concept is the same for plates as it is for drawing beams. Notice that the Plates Cursor is now automatically activated by STAAD. even though the program does not prohibit nodes from being selected this way. 12 • Plates should not be defined in this manner. The geometry shown in Figure 7. based on our decision to Add a Plate . It is essential to draw the nodes of a plate element in either a clockwise or counterclockwise sequence. The ending node for the last plate becomes the beginning node for the next plate. • • • Figure 7. Instead it is a folded or “warped” rectangular plate. Although STAAD. unless the Control (Ctrl) key is pressed to move the hot spot . Pro . Pro will allow a plate to be drawn in a sequence that is not clockwise or counterclockwise.STAAD. The figure shown below is not two triangular plates.

Click Close to dismiss the dialog. or “bubble help”. If this happens.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-14 Module 7 • An element query dialog opens. • Click Geometry | Plate in the Page Control. etc. etc. This can be caused by the amount of calculation required by the program. The Plates Cursor can be used to select plates. Sometimes there is a noticeable delay when trying to select a plate. just as it does for beams and nodes. is also available for plates. to determine if the click point is a point on the surface of a particular element. copy and paste them. additional tabs will appear in this dialog for displaying results such as stresses. A window displaying some information about the plate will pop up next to the Plates Cursor . More information will appear in the element query dialog as the model is constructed. When the model is completed and the analysis has been run. because properties have not yet been defined. It provides: • • • Node coordinates Lengths of the sides Plate area • The Property Constants page does not contain any information at this point. • • • • • Tool tip help. Hover the Plates Cursor over the plate. . try clicking another location within the same plate.STAAD. The amount and type of information displayed by the tool tip help is controlled by selecting the Structural Tool Tip Options command from the View pull-down menu. displacements.

B. C and C as shown in Figure 7. The orientation of the local coordinate system axes for plates is determined as follows: 1) The local x-axis is defined to be parallel to the vector pointing from node A to node B. and their incidences. Z = AB x AC .) • • • • • .. 13 below. This local coordinate system makes it possible to discuss the stresses on an individual element without having to resolve those stresses with respect to the global coordinate system. C and D. i. 2) The cross-product of vectors AB and AC defines a vector parallel to the local z-axis of the plate.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-15 • Two tables labeled Nodes and Plates are displayed in the Data Area on the right side of the screen. B. 3) The cross-product of vectors Z and X defines a vector parallel to the local y-axis. Consider the plates with nodes at the corners labeled A. The significance of this order is that it establishes the local coordinate system for the plate. • The Nodes table provides the XYZ coordinates for each node in the model. the nodes at their corners A.e.STAAD. The local z-axis is always normal to the plate surface. (Both the X and Y axes lie in the plane of the plate.e. i. These tables are analogous to the Nodes and Beams tables for structures composed of linear elements. The order in which the nodes are listed follows the order in which they were added to the grid. Y = Z x X . The Plates table contains a listing of the plates in the model.. that is.

Pro provides a tool called Commands | Geometric Constants | Plate Reference Point… This tool can be used to reorient plates as desired. Orientation of the plate’s local z-axis determines which surface of the plate is considered the “top” and which is the “bottom. Pro finite elements are • • .Pro Standard Training Manual 7-16 Module 7 4) The origin of the axes is at the center (average) of the 4 node locations (3 node locations for a triangle). it is common to end up with plates in various orientations. Therefore. Figure 7. The locations of nodes A.” Note that in the normal process of modeling with plates. 13 • The side of the plate from which the z-axis points in the positive direction is considered to be the “top” of the plate. C and D are dependent solely on the order they are picked (or typed in the editor) when defining the plate element. and provide some consistency to the orientation of logical groups of plates.STAAD. B. and details on the theoretical basis of STAAD. • Additional information on creating plate elements. STAAD. the orientation of the local axis system is also solely dependent on the order in which the plate corners are selected. To address this.

Click at three locations on the grid to create a three-noded plate element. • . Pro Technical Reference manual. click on the triangular plate • • • Notice that triangular plates can be selected just like rectangular plates.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-17 provided in Section 1. Creating Triangular Plates: • • Click Geometry | Snap Grid/Node | Plate | Triangle . Using the Plates Cursor just drawn .1 of the STAAD. Click Snap Node/Plate to toggle it off.STAAD. .6. Keep the current model open for use in the next section.

e. Click Yes in the pop-up dialog offering the option to split members if the moved node happens to fall on an existing member.7 feet {0. and then click OK .3 How to Create Plates with Nodes Off-Grid Suppose the goal is to create a plate with a node that is not located at a grid point. Release the Control (Ctrl) key.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-18 Module 7 7. Click the Snap Node/Plate button to toggle it off. click Geometry | Snap Grid/Node | Plate | Quad . in the positive X direction) of an existing grid point. How can this be done? • Ensure that the Snap Node/Plate button is toggled on. Suppose for example that one of the plate corners must be 0. Click the checkbox to Snap to existing nodes too in the Snap Node/Plate dialog. • • • • • . Select the Nodes Cursor . If the Snap Node/Plate dialog is not still open. • • • • Click at the four corners of a new plate using the grid.STAAD. This method allows nodes to be placed without connecting them with plate edges. Click Geometry | Move… | Joint .7 in the X field. • Press and hold the Control (Ctrl) key. Click Geometry | Snap Grid/Node | Plate | Quad . and then click on the node in the upper right corner to select it.7 meters} to the right (i. Enter 0.

Click the Snap Node/Plate button to toggle it off. • • • Click on the four newly added nodes to draw the plate.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-19 This is necessary in order to snap to the node that was just shifted off the grid. . Keep the current model open for use in the next section.

and the process of creating a series or matrix of elements is known as mesh generation or meshing .Pro Standard Training Manual 7-20 Module 7 7. Such a series or matrix of coplanar finite elements is often referred to as a mesh . Fortunately STAAD. An earlier section demonstrated how to create additional nodes between existing grid points. then draw in the plates from node to node. • • • • • Structure Wizard method Super-element method Mesh Generator method STAAD. That is what one might call a “brute force” method for generating a mesh. .STAAD.4 Mesh Generation • Suppose a model contains some nodes that define the corners of a wall that is to be represented with a series of finite elements. Pro Input Editor method. • • • These methods will be discussed in detail in the following sections to illustrate four different methods to create a 20 ft x 40 ft {6 m x 12 m} rectangular mesh. Pro offers four alternative methods that are much more convenient and much less labor-intensive.

OK to confirm intent to delete all members.STAAD. Three prototype structures at the top of the left pane may be used for generating a planar mesh: • Polygonal Plate With Holes . Verify that the Prototype Models option is selected.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-21 7. The Structure Wizard can be used to generate plate elements by selecting from several available prototypes.1 • Using Structure Wizard to Generate a Mesh The Structure Wizard offers a library of numerous prototype models whose dimensions can be specified parametrically to quickly create a variety of structures. including: • • • • • • • • Polygonal Plate With Holes Circular Plate With Holes Quad Plate Cylindrical Surface Spherical Surface Cooling Tower Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shell Delete any elements in the current model by using the following sequence: Plates Cursor Control (Ctrl) + A to select all members. Yes to confirm intent to delete all orphan nodes. Select Surface/Plate Models in the Model Type list. • • • Click Geometry | Run Structure Wizard .4. Icons representing the available prototype models for plate-type structures appear in the left pane of the Structure Wizard window. Delete key to delete all selected members.

C and D of the plate. • Divn. then triangular elements would probably be the best choice to obtain plates that are properly shaped for the best finite element analysis results. Two opposite sides may have a different number of divisions.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-22 Module 7 • • Circular Plate With Holes Quad Plate The Quad Plate prototype is well-suited to parametrically define a mesh for a 4-sided plate. column: to specify the number of divisions to create along the AB. BC. then the sum of all divisions must be an even number. and Z coordinates of the four corners A. • Element Type category: to choose whether to mesh the quadrilateral surface using triangular elements or quadrilateral elements. The Select Meshing Parameters dialog provides the following parameters to control the mesh generation: • Corners category: to input the X. if the number of divisions for two opposite sides is different. If the internal angles of the plate or the length of its opposite sides varies significantly. • • Double-click the Quad Plate icon. CD and DA sides. Y. However. and if Quadrilateral elements are being used. B. • Bias column: to create divisions of varying lengths if desired. . The minimum and maximum limits of number of divisions on each side are 1 and 100 respectively. Quadrilateral elements would probably be preferred if the plate takes the form of a square or rectangle.STAAD.

the divisions vary from 1 unit long to 5 units long. Figure 7. the side is divided so that the first division length is the value of the biasing times the last division length. 15 below. Figure 7. When negative biasing is specified. keep the Bias parameter set to its default value of 1. • The current example is to create a 20 ft x 40 ft {6 m x 12 m} rectangular mesh as shown in Figure 7.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-23 If the goal is to create equal divisions along the length of a side. 14 Note that the Bias value may also be negative. 15 . The geometry must be defined either in clockwise or counterclockwise order to avoid a warped plate. • Figure 7.STAAD. Moving from B toward C. A mesh with this spacing could be created by specifying the Bias for that side as 5. 14 below shows an example with 5 divisions along line BC.

6-meter} square plate elements. or by right-clicking on the graphic and selecting Change Property from the pop-up menu. click Yes to confirm and OK to finish. 16 • • Leave the Element Type category set to Quadrilateral . .Pro Model . Click Apply . By using any combination of the available prototype models. A graphical representation of the plate appears in the right pane of the Structure Wizard window. Pro model. Figure 7.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-24 Module 7 • Enter the values in the Select Meshing Parameters dialog as shown below to produce a 10 x 20 mesh of 2-foot {0.STAAD. • Select File | Merge Model with STAAD. The effect of changing various parameters can quickly be viewed and evaluated by observing the resulting prototype model in the right pane of the Structure Wizard . Note that any of the parameters can be revised by doubleclicking on the graphic to re-open the Select Meshing Parameters dialog. a wide range of structure geometry can quickly be modeled and transferred into the main STAAD.

• Keep the current model open for use in the next section.3.6. Pro Graphical Environment manual.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-25 Additional information on using the Structure Wizard to model slabs may be found in Section 2. .16 of the STAAD.

• Click OK .STAAD.4. 0. 6 . which will be appropriate for modeling a wall.2 • Creating a Mesh From a “Super-Element” Delete any elements in the current model by using the following sequence: Plates Cursor Control (Ctrl) + A to select all members. that is. The grid and the Snap Node/Plate dialog are displayed. Click the Edit… button in the Snap Node/Plate dialog to modify the settings for the Default Grid . 40. 0 . 12. set the parameters as follows: X lines: 20 on the Right with 2 ft. and the Plates Cursor is activated. The Default Grid dialog is dismissed. 20 . 0 {0. 20 . OK to confirm intent to delete all members. 6 . that the Snap mode is active. 0} • Snap Node/Plate button to toggle it off. 0 . select the X-Y radio button. { 0. and the grid is displayed in the Main Window. Yes to confirm intent to delete all orphan nodes. 12. In the Construction Lines category. Check to be sure that the Snap Node/Plate button is still turned on. 0. Y lines: 10 on the Right with 2 ft. Click on grid locations in the following order: 0. • • • • • .Pro Standard Training Manual 7-26 Module 7 7. 40. The grid changes to the orientation of the X-Y plane.6 meter} spacing. • Click Geometry | Snap/Grid Node | Plate | Quad . Delete key to delete all selected members. In the Plane category of the Default Grid pop-up dialog.6 meter} spacing. { 0.

to select it.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-27 • The resulting 20 ft. Node B is the second one. Click on Generate Plate Mesh . The coordinates for the corners automatically appear in the Select Meshing Parameters dialog.STAAD. Choose the Quadrilateral Meshing option and click OK . etc. by 2 ft. {6 m x 12 m} plate is a “superelement” that represents the overall size of the mesh. Click on the toolbar button that looks like a question mark as shown in the figure below. so that each side will be divided into equal proportions creating equal length elements. by 40 ft. Leave the Bias parameter in all four fields set to its default value of 1 . Node A is the first node that was clicked to define the plate. When Click the plate with the Plates Cursor the edges highlight to confirm that it is selected. .6 m} elements: AB: 10 BC: 20 CD: 10 DA: 20 • • • • • • • • Apply to mesh the plate. A pop-up menu is displayed. {0. Set the Division parameters as follows to produce a 10 x 20 mesh of 2 ft. click the right mouse button anywhere in the Main Window .6 m x 0.

but it cannot be used for figures with five or more sides. • • . Keep the current model open for use in the next section.STAAD. it is useful to confirm that a total of 200 plates exist in the model. In this case. • The Generate Mesh command is an excellent way to generate a mesh from a triangular or quadrilateral surface. 17 The Structural Diagram Info dialog opens and displays statistical information about the model. The next section presents another method for generating meshes that allows a mesh to be created from a super-element of any shape.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-28 Module 7 Figure 7.

4. 0. 0. OK to confirm intent to delete all members. Select Geometry | Snap/Grid Node | Plate | Quad Select Edit… in the Snap Node/Plate dialog to modify settings for Default Grid as follows: X-Y plane X Constr.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-29 7. 6 . 0 {0.6 m} spacing. Lines : 20 on the Right with 2 ft. Press and hold Control (Ctrl) key while clicking on grid locations in the following order: 0.e. 0 . 0 . 12.STAAD. Click back in the Main Window and then press Shift + K to highlight nodes. 20 . 40. {6 m x 12 m} mesh as we created above. • First we will demonstrate how the Mesh Generation Cursor can be used to create exactly the same 20 ft.6 m} spacing. Then release the Control (Ctrl) key. 20 . snap mode is active. Y Constr. Yes to confirm intent to delete all orphan nodes. Snap Node/Plate button to toggle off snap mode. 6 . • • Be sure that the Snap Node/Plate button is still turned on. Delete key to delete all selected members.3 • How to Use the Mesh Generation Cursor Delete any elements in the current model by using the following sequence: Plates Cursor Control (Ctrl) + A to select all members. Then we will explore how the Mesh Generation Cursor can be used to generate meshes in figures with five or more sides. { 0. { 0. by 40 ft. i. 12. 40. OK . 0} to create nodes only. Lines : 10 on the Right with 2 ft. • • • • .

• Geometry | Generate Surface Meshing to activate the Mesh Generation Cursor . Click the cursor on nodes in the following order: 0. OK The Select Meshing Parameters dialog opens with the coordinates for the corners already filled in.7. Another option is to click the four nodes at the corners of the plate and then right-click the mouse instead of clicking back on the starting node. 20 . 0 .6 m} elements: AB: 10 BC: 20 CD: 10 DA: 20 • . 0 . nodes can also be highlighted by the following sequence: Right-click on the screen. A bias value of 1 results in equal-length divisions. Select the Labels command from the pop-up menu. 0 {0. etc. Toggle on the Node Points checkbox from the Labels page of the Diagrams dialog. 0 . Clicking back on the starting node instructs STAAD. 0 . 6 . • Quadrilateral Meshing . Node B is the second one. 0. Node A is the first node that was clicked to define the plate. 40. 40. 12. 0} . by 2 ft.1 above.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-30 Module 7 As an alternative to the SHIFT + K “hotkey”. 0. 12. Pro to close the figure designating the boundary of the mesh. The Bias parameter is available if the divisions to be created are NOT all equal.6 m x 0.STAAD. • Set the Division parameters as follows to produce a 10 x 20 mesh of 2 ft. 0. See the example in section 7. 20 . 6 . Then click OK. {0. 0.

by 2 ft. OK to confirm intent to delete all members.STAAD.6 m} elements identical to the mesh created in the previous section. Delete any elements in the current model by using the following sequence: Plates Cursor Control (Ctrl) + A to select all members. and then click Apply to mesh the plate. The result is a 10 x 20 mesh of 2 ft. Hold down Control (Ctrl) and click on 6 different grid locations to place 6 unconnected nodes to serve as the vertices for a new plate.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-31 • Set Element Type to Quadrilateral . Right-click the mouse after the 6 th node to close the polygon. Now let’s explore STAAD. Select Geometry | Generate Surface Meshing to activate the Mesh Generation Cursor . Delete key to delete all selected members. {0. Yes to confirm intent to delete all orphan nodes. Release Control (Ctrl) and toggle off Snap Node/Plate button. Click back in the Main Window and then press Shift + K to highlight nodes. • • • • • • .6 m x 0. Pro ’s ability to generate meshes in figures with five or more sides using the Mesh Generation Cursor . • • • • Ensure that the Snap Node/Plate dialog is still open and that the Snap Node/Plate mode is active. Click each of the 6 nodes in a clockwise or counterclockwise order.

no holes will be added. For this exercise. i.7. the number of elements to be created along each side of the polygon. that is. This is used to enter the data to create holes in the plate. It also shows the number of divisions.STAAD. the procedure is as follows: Click on the item labeled HOLES beneath Boundary item in the tree view. • Note the HOLES item in the tree in the Define Mesh Region dialog.1. . the process would be as outlined in the following commentary. Click the Add New Hole icon . but if holes were required. as well as the Bias value as described in section 7. A new item labeled Hole 1 appears beneath the HOLES item in the tree view.e. Additional tabs will appear for each new hole that is added.Pro Standard Training Manual 7-32 Module 7 Notice that the Define Mesh Region dialog is similar to the dialog that Structure Wizard displays when the Polygonal Plate With Holes option is selected. These numbers can be edited directly in this table. The upper right cell of the Define Mesh Region dialog contains a list to select the Region Type . the shape of the hole to add. If holes are to be added. Two new icons appear just above the tree view. The Boundary item in the tree view shows the corner nodes and associated XYZ coordinates of the super-element.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-33 Figure 7. to offer context-appropriate options for defining holes with different geometries.STAAD. To add new rows to the table. Each row in the table is used to enter the coordinates of one vertex of the current hole. 18 The input cells change based on the selected Region Type . click on the Add New Row icon . For the purposes of the example. . leave the Region Type set to its default of Polygon .

moving around the hole in a clockwise or counterclockwise order. Finish the hole definition by reentering the starting vertex coordinate to form a closed boundary for the hole. . in case it becomes necessary. There is also a tool to Delete Holes as shown below. Once all of the vertices of a given hole have been entered in coordinate form. 19 If it becomes necessary to delete a row. use the Delete Row icon .Pro Standard Training Manual 7-34 Module 7 Figure 7. Enter coordinates for each vertex of the hole. click back on the item in the tree view labeled HOLES . The Add New Hole tool becomes available if it is necessary to enter data for additional holes.STAAD.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-35 Figure 7. However. but this method can only be used after the elements have actually been generated. With this 6-sided shape the program did not display an option to generate either a polygonal mesh or a quadrilateral mesh. even if those 4 nodes did not define a rectangular shape.STAAD. That is because STAAD. Pro automatically determined that this 6-sided shape was not a good candidate for quadrilateral meshing. • Click OK . . if only 4 nodes had been picked with the Mesh Generation Cursor before clicking back on the starting node. therefore it did not offer that option. 20 Once the data for all of the holes has been entered. the workflow process continues as described below this commentary. Note that holes can also be created in the mesh simply by selecting elements with the Plates Cursor and deleting them.

STAAD. Suppose that the current mesh represents a mat foundation. .Pro Standard Training Manual 7-36 Module 7 STAAD. Imagine how tedious it would be to calculate the spring constant for each one of these! In that situation. All that is required is to provide the Modulus of Subgrade Reaction. • Keep the current model open for use in the next section. the Elastic Mat or Plate Mat Support command comes in very handy.STAAD. Pro calculates the tributary areas and K values automatically. Pro would have offered the option of either a polygonal mesh or a quadrilateral mesh. and that the next step is to generate spring supports for all nodes.

9. Pro Examples manual. 20. Pro . • • • • • • • • • • . Notice the JOINT COORDINATES and ELEMENT INCIDENCES SHELL sections that have been automatically generated by the use of the Mesh Generation Cursor in the previous section. No.4.STAAD. Click No when asked if you want to save.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 7 7-37 7. It is also possible to modify the input file directly. Users who are familiar with the command syntax may find that this is the fastest and easiest way to create meshes. See Example Problem No. Click Edit | Edit Input Command File and then click Save . The STAAD. Pro Technical Reference manual.4 • Using the Editor to Create a Mesh Actions performed in the GUI to build a model have the effect of adding new commands to the STAAD. Several examples illustrating how to create meshes using the Input File Editor are presented in the STAAD. This concept holds true for meshes also.14 contains a complete description of the commands available for generating meshes. Click File | Close to return to the new Start Page. Click File | Exit in the STAAD Editor window to return to STAAD. this may be the easiest and most efficient way to add commands or geometry to the input file. 19 and No. In some situations. Pro input file. rather than doing it indirectly through the GUI. Section 5.

Pro Standard Training Manual 7-38 Module 7 -End of Module- .STAAD.

.......................................... 20  8.......................................... 11  8...............1 Concrete Design Example Problem .....4 Adding the Supports .... 2  8................ 45  8........................14 Running the Analysis .................................................... 27  8......8 Plate Orientation and Local Coordinate System ........................................................................16 Reinforced Concrete Design ..................... 4  8....10 Plate Element Specifications .................................. 65  8 . 16  8...............................................................3 Defining Element Properties .. 8.. 6  8................................ 46  8............................................9 Defining Plate Properties ...................... 43  8....... 49  8..............15 Viewing the Results ................ 37  8... 59  8....................................................2 Defining Model Geometry ...8-1 Concrete Design Module The following topics are included in this module.....12 P – Delta Analysis ...............................13 Providing Analysis Instructions ........................................... 13  8.......................18 Additional Concrete Modeling Examples ........................... 21  8................................................6 Defining the Slab .......................... 29  8.......................11 Assigning the Loads ...........5 Defining Beam – Slab Monolithic Action.......................17 Understanding Concrete Design Results ............................................................................................................ 32  8...............................................................................7 Tools for Viewing Plates.............................

STAAD. For illustration purposes. • . columns and a slab.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-2 Module 8 8.1 Concrete Design Example Problem • The kind of entity used to model a beam or a column is a linetype entity that cannot be used to model a slab. Pro offers an array of tools for creating plate elements. • • Figure 8. 1 • This structure will consist of a combination of beams. The beams are in turn supported by four 12-foot {4-meter} tall columns at each corner. STAAD. for example. The structure will be a 16-foot by 20-foot {5-meter by 6meter} rectangular slab supported by beams on all four sides. such as one that might be used for a bus shelter. various types of cross sections will be used for the columns to show how different concrete cross sections can be created. This module will explore how these tools can be used to effectively model the behavior of a real-world structure. A simple table-like concrete structure will be modeled.

and the slab will be 8 inches {200 mm} thick. 2 • Two columns will be 18-inch {450 mm} diameter circular sections. and two will be 16-inch {400 mm} deep by 20-inch {500 mm} wide rectangular sections. The beams will be 20 inches {500 mm} square.STAAD. • .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-3 Figure 8.

Click File | Select Units in the Structure Wizard main menu.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-4 Module 8 8. Click the Open Structure Wizard checkbox. Select Frame Models from the Model Type list. and click OK . Set Length Units to Foot {Meter} and Force Units to KiloPound {KiloNewton} . Double-click on the Bay Frame icon. Select Space frame. Click the Next button. Ensure that the units are set to Feet {Meters} .2 Defining Model Geometry • • • • Click New Project in the Project Tasks area on the Start Page. enter the values as shown in the following figure {For metric units. Height = 4 m. 3 . Length = 5 m. Name the file My Concrete Example . In the Select Parameters dialog.STAAD. Click the Finish button. and Width = 6 m}: • • • • • • • Figure 8.

if nothing is done to change this location. Click Yes to confirm the intent to merge. Pro model. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-5 • • Click the Apply button. For this exercise. Note the location of the coordinate axis tripod in the righthand pane of the Structure Wizard window. Pro model.std.Pro Model in Structure Wizard’s main menu. This is the reference location on the prototype model. the prototype will be placed in the STAAD. and is named Dataset 8_1. leave the values in this dialog set to 0 to insert the reference point of the prototype model at the origin of the global coordinate system. Pro model such that this reference location coincides with the origin of the global coordinate system. • • • • • Click the OK button to complete the merge. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. The Paste Prototype Model dialog is used to specify the location in the global coordinate system at which the prototype model is to be inserted into the STAAD. • • . Click File | Merge Model with STAAD. Click No when asked if you want to save. When the prototype is merged with the STAAD.

Since the current input units are set to inches {millimeters}. and leave the Material list item set to Concrete . 18 inches {450 mm} in diameter. Click the Define button in the Properties-Whole Structure dialog. it is more convenient to set the input units to inches {millimeters} . Two of the columns will be rectangular in cross section. The other two columns will be of circular cross section. The Property sub-page is active by default. 16 inches {400 mm} wide by 20 inches {500 mm} deep. The diagram on the Circle page indicates that the value YD represents the diameter of the circular section. Click the Inch {Millimeter} radio button in the Length Units category. See commentary below for step-by-step instructions. The next step is to assign properties to the beam and column elements in the model.std . Leave the Material checkbox toggled on. • • Click the General page tab in the Page Control.3 Defining Element Properties • Open the file named Dataset 8_1. . • Since the dimensions of all beam and column properties are defined in units of inches {millimeters}. All beams in this model will have square cross sections with the depth and width equal to 20 inches {500 mm}. Click OK . • • Enter 18 {450} in the YD field. Click Tools | Set Current Input Unit… .STAAD. the label “ in {mm}” is shown just to the right of the YD field.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-6 Module 8 8.

Click in the Main Window . A Rect 20.00 Concrete {Rect 0. Keep the Material checkbox toggled on. Click the Add button. • Click the Add button. • • • Enter 20 {500} in the YD field and 20 {500} in the ZD field on the Rectangular page to define the section for the beams. A Rect 20. The last section to be added is for the beams.00x16. and then press Shift + B to turn on the Beam Numbers .40 Concrete} section is added to the list in the Properties-Whole Structure dialog. Click the Add button. and keep the Material list item set to Concrete . Keep the Material checkbox checked.00x20. • Click the Rectangle tab.50x0. • • Click the Close button. Pro assigns default material constants for concrete to these members. • • • Enter 20 {500} in the YD field and 16 {400} in the ZD field. The diagram shows that YD represents the depth of the member. that is. . The 18-inch {450 mm} circular concrete section is added to the list in the Properties-Whole Structure dialog. members number 2 and 3. and ZD is the width.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-7 This will ensure that STAAD.50 Concrete} section is added to the list in the Properties-Whole Structure dialog.STAAD. and leave the Material list item set to Concrete .50x0.00 Concrete {Rect 0. The circular cross-section applies to the two columns in the rear of the structure.

They correspond to the cross section property reference numbers listed in the Ref column in the Properties – Whole Structure dialog. • • • • • .45 CONCRETE} item in the section list in the Properties . Click Yes to confirm the assignment of the column section to the selected members. Note that the Assignment Method in the Properties – Whole Structure dialog automatically changes to Assign To Selected Beams . Reference numbers should now be visible on all four columns. If reference numbers are not visible on the columns.40 CONCRETE} item in the section list.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-8 Module 8 • Click the Cir 18.00x16. Locate the Properties category on the Labels page of the Diagrams dialog. Right-click in the Main Window .Whole Structure dialog.STAAD. they can be turned on by following the steps in the commentary below. Click the Assign button. • • • • Click the Assign button.50x0. and then click on members number 2 and 3 to select both rear columns. Select the Labels command from the pop-up menu. press and hold the Control Using the Beams Cursor (Ctrl) key. Using the Beams Cursor . Click the Rect 20. Click Yes in the pop-up dialog to confirm the assignment. . press and hold the Control (Ctrl) key and then click on members 5 and 6 to select both front columns.00 CONCRETE {Rect 0.00 CONCRETE {Cir 0.

Ensure that the Highlight Assigned Geometry checkbox is checked. .00 {1 Cir 0. A quick alternative way of switching to the Front view is to click the View from +Z toolbar button toolbar. and then click OK . Set the view to the Front view to make it easy to select all beams at once. The next step is to assign the square cross section to the perimeter beams. The main view changes to the Front view. • • • Click on 1 Cir 18. See step-by-step-instructions in the commentary below. and then click Apply . Click the Front button.00x20.45} in the first line of the Section list on the Properties . • When this checkbox is toggled on. It is located just beneath the Properties list in the Properties – Whole Structure dialog.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-9 Toggle on the References checkbox.STAAD.Whole Structure dialog.50 CONCRETE item in the properties list. Click View | Orientation… . the members that have been assigned that property are highlighted in the Main Window. • on the Rotate Click and drag a rubber band line around the horizontal members in the Front view using the Beams Cursor . Click Close . • • Click the Rect 20.50x0. and a property is selected in the Properties list. The member numbers of the members to which that property is assigned are shown in the field at the bottom of the dialog.00 CONCRETE {Rect 0.

• Click the Assign button.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-10 Module 8 • to switch back to the Click the Isometric View button isometric view and confirm that all beams are selected. and then click Yes to confirm. The square concrete cross section property is assigned to all beams. and is named Dataset 8_2.STAAD. Note that the Assignment Method in the Properties – Whole Structure dialog has automatically set itself to Assign To Selected Beams . Click No when asked if you want to save. . Now all beams and columns have properties assigned to them. • • • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.std.

or Add. Click on Support 2 in the Supports-Whole Structure dialog to highlight it. and then Assign it to the bases of each of the columns. All four columns in the model are to have fixed supports at their bases. • • • • • • Click on the Support sub-page tab of the General page in the Page Control. and the Support Cursor is activated. Click the Create button in the Supports – Whole Structure dialog. The fixed support is added to the list in the Supports-Whole Structure dialog.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-11 8. The general process here is to create. . • • Click at the bases of the four columns to assign the fixed support to each one.4 Adding the Supports • Open the file named Dataset 8_2.std . The Assign button in the dialog changes from an inactive (“grayed-out”) status to an active status. Click the Assign button. Click the Add button. a fixed support to the model. The Fixed page is active by default. • • Confirm that the Assignment Method category is automatically set to Use Cursor To Assign . Click the Assigning button once again to turn off the support assigning mode and deactivate the Support Cursor .STAAD. It turns white and changes to say Assigning .

and is named Dataset 8_3.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-12 Module 8 • • • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.STAAD. . Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click No when asked if you want to save.std.

In order to guarantee monolithic behavior. and through the beams into the columns. then the beams and the slab would only be connected at the four corners. and those nodes must be common to the incidences of the beams and the slab elements.STAAD. This will ensure that a load from the slab will be transmitted from the slab into the beams. It appears in the View | Options… | Tolerance menu in the form of the checkbox titled Split member if new node is added on the member as shown in the figure below. STAAD. When a plate shares a boundary with a beam. then there will be sharing of loads and stiffness at those points. the beams must be subdivided at exactly the same points as the slab. how can the condition be modeled to ensure that the beam and the plate behave monolithically in the model? If the beams were defined as going between the columns. and the slab was meshed on top of them. If this is done correctly. Pro has a feature that will facilitate this process.5 Defining Beam – Slab Monolithic Action • This example raises an important aspect of modeling with plates.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-13 8. • • • • .

This feature can save a considerable amount of work. if a super-element is created and meshed on top of an existing beam element. Note that the beam must be created first.STAAD. the beam will automatically be split when the meshing takes place. since it relieves the user of having to perform these repetitive steps. 4 • When this checkbox is selected.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-14 Module 8 Figure 8. • • • . another feature called Break Beams at Selected Nodes can be used. • Similarly. the beam will not be split automatically. In this instance. and then the beam is added afterwards. If a plate mesh is created first. Pro will automatically split the beam and create a node at any location where a slab node falls directly on the beam. if a meshed slab is modeled on top of a beam model. and then the mesh dropped onto it in order for STAAD. Pro to be able to split the member and coordinate the nodes. STAAD.

It can be located by clicking Geometry | Break Beams at Selected Nodes .STAAD. • . the Break Beams at Selected Nodes feature can still significantly reduce the effort involved in manually breaking up beams when the intent is to model beam – slab composite action.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-15 • While not as powerful as the method described above.

Pro Standard Training Manual 8-16 Module 8 8.6 Defining the Slab • Open the file named Dataset 8_3. it is more convenient to present the material in the order outlined in this Module.Pro.std . the mesh generation cursor can be used to define the slab. The sequence of operations presented in this Module does not necessarily follow the recommended workflow process in STAAD. • Since the four corner points along the top are already defined. • . For the following exercise. The instructions in this section will add the plate elements to the model. the creation of the plate elements would typically occur immediately after the creation of the beam and column elements. for training purposes. Click Geometry | Generate Surface meshing . Click OK . Click the Foot {Meter} radio button in the Length Units category. In reality. and before the assignment of section properties.STAAD. • Note in the lower right-hand corner of the Status Bar that the current input units are set to kip-in {kN-mm}. it may be more convenient to set the input units to Foot {Meter} . See commentary below for step-bystep instructions. Click Tools | Set Current Input Unit… . However.

and then click on the other three corner points B. • Click the Quadrilateral Meshing radio button. • . it is a good candidate for a quadrilateral mesh.STAAD. Pro that the “loop has been closed” and that the area to be meshed has been completely defined. and then click the OK button. An alternative would be to right-click the mouse to signify that the boundary is complete. Pro recognizes that a figure with four sides has been defined. click again on the starting point A . it indicates to STAAD. • STAAD. Select the nodes in clockwise order around the perimeter of the slab to stay consistent with the dataset model. Pro opens a dialog labeled Choose Meshing Type . Since the figure is rectangular. When the starting point is clicked the second time. C and D with the Mesh Generation Cursor . STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-17 Figure 8. so it offers the choice of either Polygonal or Quadrilateral meshing. 3 • Click on the first corner point A . Finally.

the resulting mesh consists of 4-foot square {1. By specifying only 4 divisions for the 16-foot {5 meter} sides and 5 divisions for the 20-foot {6 meter} sides. the model would probably warrant more divisions. parameters as indicated in the figure below: • • Figure 8. Press the escape key to deactivate the Mesh Generation Cursor . etc… Set the Divn. B is the second corner clicked.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-18 Module 8 • The corner labels A. It is hard to obtain an accurate picture of the . Press Shift + K to turn on node point labels. 4 • • • • • Click the Apply button. Press SHIFT + N to turn on node numbers. For more accurate results. The mesh is automatically generated and displayed in the Main Window. C and D in the Select Meshing Parameters dialog correspond to the successive points used to define the extent of the slab.STAAD.25 meter by 1. Corner A is the first corner that was clicked when the mesh was defined.2 meter rectangular} elements. B.

2 meter} lengths. The beam segments can be selected in individual 4-foot {1. and the beam segments start and end at the plate corners. This confirms that they have been meshed. • • Click on one of the beams with the Beams Cursor . that they have been broken into segments that coincide with the nodes of the plate elements. as a learning exercise. Click No when asked if you want to save. and is named Dataset 8_4. that is. • • • . It will keep the screen from getting cluttered and make the model easy to work with.25 or 1. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-19 deflected shape of the model with only 5 or six data points on a side.STAAD.std. However. this simple model will suffice. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.

and verify that the value in the associated field is 10 %. This can be a handy way to clearly display just one element.STAAD. and makes it easier to view the connectivity more clearly.7 Tools for Viewing Plates • • Open the file named Dataset 8_4. • In addition. Click the Geometry page tab. Right-click anywhere in the Main Window and select Structure Diagrams… from the pop-up menu. The Diagrams dialog opens with the Structure page active.std . and then click the Plate subpage tab. making them easier to read graphically. Click on any one of the rows in the Plates table and notice that the corresponding element becomes highlighted. This will reduce the size of the plates and beams with respect to the nodes to which they connect. • • • • • • Click OK . The single element that was highlighted in the Plates table is displayed in the new window. toggle on the checkbox labeled Shrink . This will “paint over” the surface of the plate elements. and then click OK . Toggle on the checkbox labeled Fill Plates/Solids/Surface under the View category. Right-click in the Main Window . and then select New View… from the pop-up menu.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-20 Module 8 8. Select the Create a new window for the view radio button. Doing this distinguishes the plates from the beams. • . • Keep the current model open for use in the next section.

e.) 4) The origin of the axes is at the center (average) of the 4 node locations (3 node locations for a triangle).. toggle on the Plate Orientation checkbox. Under the Plates category on the Labels page.8 Plate Orientation and Local Coordinate System • With the model named Dataset 8_4. i. and then click OK . Y = Z x X .6.) Consider the plates as shown in the figure below with nodes at the corners labeled A. Pro Technical Reference manual. right-click inside the new view window showing the single plate element. 2) The cross-product of vectors AB and AC defines a vector parallel to the local z-axis. The local x.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-21 8.1 of the STAAD. Why is the local axis system oriented with the z-axis pointing downward? The answer relates to STAAD. (See also Section 1. B. C and D. 3) The cross-product of vectors Z and X defines a vector parallel to the local y-axis.std still open.STAAD. • • • • . y and z axes are drawn on the plate. i.. Pro ’s convention for orienting the axes of a plate element as reviewed in the commentary below. Select the Labels command from the pop-up menu. Z = AB x AC . The z-axis is normal to the plate surface.e. (Both the X and the Y axes lie in the plane of the plate. The orientation of the local coordinate system axes for plates is determined as follows: 1) The local x-axis is defined to be parallel to the vector pointing from A to B.

19 and 17 to be A. the incidence order of the nodes can be determined by looking at the corresponding row in the Plates table. 6 Consider nodes 10. Pro has drawn the local x-axis parallel to vector AB. 5 • The orientation of a plate’s local axis system is dictated solely by the order in which the corner nodes for the plate are specified. the nodes are specified in the order 10. . 19 and 17. B. Figure 8. 13. C and D respectively. For the single plate currently being displayed in the new view.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-22 Module 8 Figure 8. 13.STAAD. It is now easy to confirm that STAAD. The vector AC points from node 10 to node 19. In the example below.

Alternatively. z . 7 • In STAAD.STAAD. the side of the plate from which the z-axis points in the positive direction is considered to be the “top” of the plate. The z-axis is normal to the plate surface. vector z . consider closing vector AB into vector AC with the fingers of the right hand. Therefore. Figure 8. The right thumb will point downward. it would move downwards. If the screw was rotated in the direction from vector AB to AC . . the local z-axis for this plate.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-23 Use the right-hand rule to take the cross product of vector AB and vector AC to define a vector parallel to the local z-axis. Envision a screw with right-hand threads. points downward. confirming the direction of the resulting crossproduct vector. Pro . oriented perpendicular to the plane defined by the vectors AB and AC.

it is easy to understand which direction the load is acting with respect to the plates’ local coordinate system. • To avoid confusion. when a vertical loading is applied. Pro .STAAD. to have the local z-axis for all (horizontal) plates pointing upward (parallel to global Y-axis). many people find it desirable to coordinate the local top with a global top. This situation could lead to a lot of confusion if a reinforced concrete design was being performed. • Right-click in the Main Window . • That way. • There is a simple way to do this in STAAD. and then click OK . and the “bottom” surface is facing up. • Click the Labels tab. Select Structure Diagrams… from the pop-up menu. • It is now clear that the local z-axis is oriented downward for all plates in the current model. • Toggle on the Plate Orientation checkbox. With an “upside-down” orientation of a plate like this. • Click the X in the upper right corner of the window with the single plate to close that window and return to the Main Window with the entire structure.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-24 Module 8 The “top” surface of the plate in the figure above is actually facing downward. . as STAAD. Pro reports the steel reinforcement required with respect to the local top and local bottom of the element. • Toggle off the Fill Plates/Solids/Surface and Shrink checkboxes. The Diagrams dialog opens with the Structure page active. it would be very easy to lose track of the actual orientation. In other words. and place reinforcing steel on the wrong face.

This can be done by entering the coordinates of a reference point and then specifying whether the local z-axes are to point toward or away from the reference point. Pro revises the incidences in the Plates table. To see this effect. the node numbers and orientations would be no different. It is worth noting that if the same plate was viewed again. • Click OK . 6 above.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-25 • Activate the Plates Cursor if it is not already active. The change in the “top” orientation of the plate is affected by altering the order in which the nodes are listed in the Plates table. A new view was created earlier with just a single plate. compare the figure below with Figure 8. • Enter a value of 1000 in the Y field of the Point category.STAAD. Select all plates in the structure . • Select Towards Ref. The plate orientation symbols now indicate that the local z-axis of all plates is pointing up. Since the plates were selected before entering this dialog. • STAAD. The Plate Reference Point tool can be used to rearrange the incidences of plates such that their local z-axes point in the general direction of some point above the top of the structure. the Assign category defaults to the To Selection option. • Click Commands | Geometric Constants | Plate Reference Point… . Point in the Local Z Axis category. .

Pro Standard Training Manual 8-26 Module 8 Figure 8. Now they are listed in counterclockwise order. Click No when asked if you want to save.std. and is named Dataset 8_5.STAAD. the nodes were listed in clockwise order from Node A to Node D. • • • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. . 8 Before the Plate Reference Point command was used. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. As a result. the zaxis points upward instead of downward.

Click the Thickness button in the Properties – Whole Structure dialog.9 Defining Plate Properties • Open the file named Dataset 8_5. This will ensure that STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-27 8. and then click Close . . • Click the Add button. Pro automatically populates the other three node thickness fields with the same value. The Property sub-page is active by default. Click Tools | Set Current Input Unit… . Click the Inch {Millimeter} radio button in the Length Units category. The next step is to assign properties to the plate elements in the model.std . Note that STAAD. • Since the plate thickness is defined in units of inches {millimeters}. The Plate Element Thickness page allows the flexibility of defining a different thickness at each node. See commentary below for step-by-step instructions. Pro ’s default material constants for concrete are assigned to the plate elements. Click OK . • Enter a value of 8 inches { 200 mm} in the Node 1 field. • • Click the General page tab in the Page Control.STAAD. and leave the Material list item set to Concrete . • Leave the Material checkbox toggled on. if necessary. The slab will be 8 inches {200 mm} thick. it is more convenient to set the input units to inches {millimeters} .

Pro Standard Training Manual 8-28 Module 8 • Highlight the Plate Thickness CONCRETE property in the structure properties list. Click Yes in the pop-up dialog to confirm. . • • Toggle on the Assign To View radio button in the Assignment Method category.std. and is named Dataset 8_6. there is no need to use a cursor to assign the thickness property to the plates.STAAD. Click No when asked if you want to save. Since every plate in the model is going to receive the 8-inch {200 mm} plate thickness. The reference number shown on all plates confirms that the 8inch {200 mm} thickness property has been assigned. and then click Assign . Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. • • • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.

and then click the Spec sub-page tab. • Click the Ignore Inplane Rotation tab.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-29 8. Click the Plate button in the Specifications – Whole Structure dialog. • Figure 8. The Release tab (active by default) can be used to specify releases for nodes that define plates in the same way that releases can be assigned to beams. Click the General page tab. • STAAD. 9 .std . Pro normally takes into consideration in-plane rotation of plate elements.10 Plate Element Specifications • • • • Open the file named Dataset 8_6. This tab can be used to add the specification called Ignore Inplane Rotation . In other words. Releases can be applied to one or more of the six degrees of freedom at any node. This is not a feature that is needed very often.STAAD. This means that the length of the diagonals connecting opposite corners of a wall would change slightly as a force is applied to the corner of the wall as shown in the figure below. but it is there in case it is needed. plates are assumed to have some inherent flexibility.

Normally a steel or concrete plate has some amount of stiffness to carry bending loads. It cannot resist any component of force acting perpendicular to the plane of the plate.STAAD. the out-of-plane shear action and the bending degrees of freedom are switched off. If the goal is to model the wall to behave as a rigid body. • . • The Ignore Stiffness specification is provided to handle special types of load situations such as pressures over zones. This tab can be used to add another specification called Ignore Stiffness . • • Click the Plane Stress tab. One application of this specification is for modeling some soft material like cloth or a balloon skin. the Ignore Inplane Rotation specification can be used. However.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-30 Module 8 • If the wall was considered a rigid body. however. Pro ’s analysis results with those of another structural analysis program that ignores in-plane rotation by default. One potential use would be to compare STAAD. because. • • • Click the Ignore Stiffness tab. but not for any contribution of stiffness to the model. Bear in mind that using the Plane Stress specification on a structure like the slab in the current model can lead to “loss” of loads such as self-weight. This feature is not used very often. the length of the diagonals connecting opposite corners of the wall would remain the same. The Ignore Stiffness specification enables entities to be modeled purely for the purpose of transmitting loads. This tab can be used to add another specification called Plane Stress . • A Plane Stress specification means that a plate can only carry an axial force. Pro can be instructed to completely ignore the bending stiffness by specifying the plate as a Plane Stress element. for “ Plane Stress ” elements. STAAD.

The stiffness of such panels is typically ignored in a structural analysis. Glass panels are usually present over such regions. • • • None of these additional specifications will be used in the current model. Click Close to dismiss the Plate Specs dialog. without considering any stiffness from those particular plates when the analysis is run. .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-31 One application of this specification is for the facade of a building. Keep the current model open for use in the next section. and to use them as a convenience for applying wind loads to the structural frame.STAAD. and bear the brunt of wind forces. The Ignore Stiffness specification makes it possible to model plates that represent the facade.

and then click the Load & Definition sub-page tab in the Page Control. Click OK .11 Assigning the Loads • Ensure that the file named Dataset 8_6.STAAD. Load Items . Click Tools | Set Current Input Unit… .std is the active model. The commentary below presents some review on terms related to loads in STAAD. Definitions: • Click the Definitions tab. Click the New button in the Load & Definition dialog. Pro window. • . Step-by-step instructions are provided in the commentary below.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-32 Module 8 8. • • • Click the General page tab. Pro . and note that the current input units are set to kip-in {kN-mm} . Input units of inches {millimeters} are not very convenient for specifying loads. The next step is to assign loads to the structure. Click the Foot {Meter} radio button in the Length Units category of the Set Current Input Units dialog. • Look at the right end of the Status Bar at the bottom of the STAAD. and Load Envelopes . The Create New Definitions/Load Cases/Load Items dialog contains 4 tabs – Definitions . • Set the length input units back to feet {meter}. Load Case .

Load Envelopes: • • • Click the Load Envelopes tab. seismic. Pro Technical Reference manual. It is also required to generate moving load cases. moving load. • • • Load Case: • • Click the Load Case tab.STAAD. or load combination ) and assign it a case number. The “DEFINE” block is required to create Code-specified load cases such as wind. and pushover loads. The command syntax for these cases is explained in section 5. These envelopes can later be used for Post Processing.31 of the STAAD. This tab contains the dialogs used to add loading data to load cases. . This tab contains the dialog used to initiate a new load case ( primary load.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-33 • This tab contains the options used to generate the “DEFINE” block of data in the input file. and snow. time history load cases. This tab contains the dialog used to create load envelopes. Load Items: • • Click the Load Items tab.

This is the way to tell STAAD. Click the Add button. • Click the Add button. (Note the minus sign. because the automatic load combination generation facility will not be used. choosing Local Z or GY (global Y) has the same effect. The magnitude of the load is 400 lb. • • • Click the Plate Loads category tab. acting downward. All the available load types are displayed here. There is no need to associate this load case with any load types. In this particular case. Enter a value of -0. • • • Click the Load Case tab.4 kip/ft 2 { -20 kN/m 2 } in the Load category. Pro that the next load item will be added to the load case entitled 1: Pressure Load .) The Local Z radio button is selected by default in the Direction category. but do not close this dialog yet. • Click the Load Items tab in the Create New Definitions/Load Cases/Load Items dialog. The Pressure on Full Plate tab is selected by default. Click on 1: Pressure Load in the Load & Definition dialog. The Loading Type category can be left at the default value of None for this exercise. per square foot {20 kiloNewtons per square meter}. since Local Z points in the global Y-direction.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-34 Module 8 Load Case 1 Load Case 1 consists of a vertical load over the full surface of the slab. • • . Type the name Pressure Load in the Title field.STAAD.

• • • • • • • Type the name Lateral Load in the Title field. Click the Load Items tab in the Create New Definitions/Load Cases/Load Items dialog. • Click the Close button to dismiss the Create New Definitions/Load Cases/Load Items dialog. Click on 2: Lateral Load in the Load & Definition dialog. The Node tab is selected by default. and then click the Add button. Enter a value of 0. The question mark in front of the expression indicates that it has not been assigned to any elements yet. Click the Nodal Load category tab. . Note that STAAD. Click the Add button.STAAD. This load case will be assigned to specific entities after all the load cases have been created.ft {FX 3 kN. Pro automatically increments the Number of the load case.4 kip/ft2 {PR -20 kN/m2} appears under 1: Pressure Load in the Load & Definition dialog. • Click the Load Case tab in the Create New Definitions/Load Cases/Load Items dialog. The expression FX 0.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-35 • The expression PR –0.6 kip. • Load Case 2 Load Case 2 consists of a 600 pound {3 kN} horizontal load that might cause the structure to sway.6 kips { 3 kN} in the Fx field.m} appears under 2: Lateral Load in the Load & Definition dialog. Leave the Loading Type box set to None since there is no need to associate this load case with any code-based load types.

and the structure will twist in plan view. It is important to remember to turn off the Assigning mode after assigning loads. and then click Assign . • • Click the expression FX 0. Click the Assign To View radio button.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-36 Module 8 The next step will be to assign the two new load cases with specific entities. The next step is to assign the second load case to just a single node on the structure. • Keep the current model open for use in the next section.STAAD. indicating that the Loads Assignment Cursor has been activated. so that the load will create a torsional deflection pattern. . • • • Press Shift + N to display node numbers .m} in the Load & Definition dialog.ft {FX 3 kN.6 kip. Click on node 3 to assign the 0. Click Yes in the pop-up dialog to confirm. Click the Use Cursor To Assign radio button followed by the Assign button. Click the Assigning button to toggle off the Loads Cursor .4 kip/ft2 {PR -20 kN/m2} in the Load & Definition dialog. to avoid unintentionally assigning loads by clicking in the structure for some other purpose later on. • • • Click the expression PR -0. and the label changes to say Assigning .6 kip {3 kN} load to the top of the column. The Assign button becomes active.

12 P – Delta Analysis • Consider a column of length L that has two concentrated loads applied at the top of the column: a vertical load P and a horizontal load H. • Figure 8.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-37 8. According to a linear elastic analysis.STAAD. the reactions at the base of the column for these two loads will be a vertical reaction of magnitude P. 10 . a horizontal reaction of magnitude H and a moment equal to H*L as shown in the figure below.

the greater the distance Δ for a given force H. It simply instructs the program to combine the results of multiple load cases. This may or may not be a valid assumption. in reality. these load cases would act simultaneously. causing the column to deflect a distance Δ . • . not independent of each other. In a real structure. now induces a moment reaction at the base of the column equal to P * Δ . There is an extra effect called the P – Delta effect which must be taken into account when designing according to the ACI code.STAAD. while the column is deflecting due to the action of the horizontal load. Pro using the Define Combinations tab. instead of acting axially along the column. the position of the vertical load P shifts a distance Δ so that the vertical load. This method of load combination could be more accurately termed “result combination”. because it does not truly analyze a combined load case. which can be created in STAAD. the horizontal force H might be caused by a wind load or earthquake load. including the ACI code. The implicit assumption with this type of load combination is that the effect of the combined loading is equivalent to the sum of the effects of the individual loads. During this simultaneous action of the two loads. So. • • • • • • • The vertical force P might represent a dead load or a live load. The taller the column.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-38 Module 8 • This is to say that the result of Loads A and B acting simultaneously is equivalent to the result of Load A plus the result of Load B. and it warrants consideration on the part of the design professional. The linear-elastic type of analysis is not permitted with some design codes. This logic represents a linear combination.

STAAD. but appears in the reaction side of the equation. The results of Load A just give a reaction P. it is not correct to simply take the combination of the results of Load A plus the results of Load B. However. The results of Load B just gives a reaction H * L. P * Δ . is not apparent in a linear –elastic analysis. the quantity (P * Δ ) is not actually seen in the “applied load” side of the equation. It is only when these two load cases act simultaneously that the P – Delta effect is produced. This is a linear – inelastic analysis. the traditional • • • • • . 11 • When considering the equations of static equilibrium.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-39 • The total moment reaction at the base of the column is now (H * L) + (P * Δ ) as shown in the figure below. the additional component of moment. In this type of analysis. Figure 8. Looking at these two load cases in isolation. Consequently. the P – Delta effect never becomes apparent.

One way would be to put both loads in a single load case. Combining multiple forces into each load case would make this evaluation impossible. The other method is to perform a P – Delta Analysis. an alternate method of combining loads will be used. Although it is possible. Pro provides another type of primary load that “looks like” a load combination. One method is called the moment magnifier approach. this is not a very convenient method. which uses some code-based equations to approximate these second order effects. Instead of requiring all the loads on the structure to be jumbled into a single load case in order to carry out a P – Delta Analysis. • • • • • • • • • . The next step in the example model will be to create a third load case that is a combination of the first two load cases .STAAD. because of all the different load cases that would be required to correctly model all of the required load combinations. instead of creating separate load cases for the horizontal and vertical loads. is not going to reveal the P – Delta value. In this example. one that correctly accounts for the P-Delta effect by applying the horizontal and vertical loads simultaneously. STAAD. Pro . as was done in this model. where results are just added up. This method would also be undesirable from the standpoint that it is often necessary to evaluate a structure for individual load cases as part of the overall structural evaluation/design.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-40 Module 8 linear-elastic load combination. • The ACI code indicates that in the design of a column. There are actually a couple of ways to achieve this in STAAD. the slenderness effect can be accounted for using two different methods.

Click the Add button. and the Primary tab is active by default in the Add New:Load Cases dialog. Click on Load Cases Details in the Load & Definition dialog. Click on the expression 3: Loads 1 + 2 in the Load & Definition dialog. Type the name Loads 1 + 2 in the Title field. Using the Repeat Load command is a two-step process. Pro that the next component is to be added to this load case. a new Repeat load case must be created. The right side displays the Repeated Load Definition . • • • • • • • • Click the Repeat Load tab in the Add New:Load Items dialog. since this new load case will not be associated with any code-based load types. The Repeat Load item is active by default. A Repeat Load is actually a primary load . Note that the Add New:Load Cases dialog automatically changes to the Add New:Load Items dialog.STAAD. This is the way to tell STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-41 • It is called a Repeat Load . Leave the Loading Type set to None by default. The left side of this dialog lists the existing Available Load Cases . First. . and it is a primary load where the program is instructed to create a new load case whose constituents are derived from the various existing load cases with any necessary load factors applied to them. and then click the Add button. and then the constituent load cases and their respective factors must be identified and associated with the new Repeat Load case. The Repeat Load tab contains two items: Repeat Load and Reference Load . but do not close this dialog yet.

6 . and click the Add button.std. • Remember to always use the Repeat Load specification. Since the design will be based on the ACI code. The syntax is load case 1 with a factor of 1. and is named Dataset 8_7. The new Repeat Load case is shown in the Load & Defintions dialog. • • • • • • • • Click on 1: Pressure Load in the Available Load Cases list. the loads should be factored. Click the single right arrow button . Click the Close button. rather than the Load Combination specification. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. Click on 2: Lateral Load in the Available Load Cases list.2 in the Factor field. Enter a Factor of 1.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-42 Module 8 Loads can be moved back and forth between the Available Load Cases on the left and the Repeated Load Definition on the right using the arrow buttons. The Factor field is available to apply factors to individual load cases that comprise the Repeated Load Definition . A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.STAAD. any time a P – Delta analysis is to be performed. Click No when asked if you want to save. • • • .2 load case 2 with a factor of 1.6. Apply a dead load factor of 1. Click the single right arrow button to move the load to the Repeated Load Definition list .

std . STAAD. n is specified. Pro will continue to iterate and compare joint displacements with a convergence displacement tolerance. When the Converge checkbox is selected. The default convergence displacement tolerance is equal to the maximum span of the structure divided by 120. To specify a different value for the convergence displacement tolerance. Click on the PDelta Analysis tab in the Analysis/Print Commands dialog. If “ m ” is specified. It was merely put in place to allow the engineer to apply his or her own value based on engineering judgment.5 of the Technical Reference manual. Refer to section 5. The next step is to issue the analysis instructions.STAAD. An alternative to specifying a Number of Iterations is to use the Converge option. See the following commentary for additional information about the Converge option. STAAD. and a field labeled Converge . the analysis will stop after that iteration even if convergence has . Note that this default value was not intended to suggest an “optimum” value. The PDelta Analysis page includes a field labeled Number of Iterations . The Converge command has the option of specifying a maximum number of iterations.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-43 8. If a Number of Iterations. use the SET DISPLACEMENT f command in the input file. Pro will iterate n times. • • • • • Click on the Analysis/Print tab in the Page Control. but take special note of the “word of caution” below.13 Providing Analysis Instructions • Open the file named Dataset 8_7. “ m ”.

and is named Dataset 8_8. Click the Close button to dismiss the Analysis/Print Commands dialog. the analysis is terminated. good practice dictates avoiding the use of the CONVERGE feature and instead using the option to set the Number of Iterations high enough to prove that the structure is stable for a given load case. Leave all other options at their default settings. • • • • • • . • A word of caution about the use of the CONVERGE option: it is possible that a model using the CONVERGE option may have 2 early iterations with results close enough to be deemed converged.std. If convergence is achieved in less than “ m ” iterations. if the same analysis was changed to not use CONVERGE but instead to specify many more iterations. Click No when asked if you want to save. Enter 35 in the Number of Iterations field. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. occasionally buckling would be detected. and click the Add button to add the P – Delta Analysis command to the input instructions. A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.STAAD. So in this day and age where computing power and speed is so abundant.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-44 Module 8 not been achieved. However. Experience shows that it generally takes 5 to 35 iterations to reach buckling failure.

The model is now ready to analyze.14 Running the Analysis • • • • Open the file named Dataset 8_8. Click the Go to Post Processing Mode radio button. Click Analyze | Run Analysis… . • • • . The program should be able to run the analysis and generate results.std . followed by some messages indicating that the program created some results files. and then click Done .STAAD. The message Analysis Successfully Completed should appear in the lower portion of the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-45 8. Keep the current model open for use in the next section. Click OK to accept the three load cases shown in the Selected list on the Results Setup dialog.

SQY . The Stress Type list can be used to select the type of stress contour to display. It provides options for viewing various types of stress results for plates.std is the active model. Pro Technical Reference manual. Stress Type Max Absolute Description Larger of the absolute values of SMAX & SMIN (Force/unit area) Shear stresses (Force/unit length/thickness) SQX.6. A description of the different types of plate stresses reported by STAAD. This dialog is used to display a plate stress contour diagram on the structure. • • • Plate stress results tables are displayed in the Data Area.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-46 Module 8 8. A stress contour is a diagram which shows the variation of stress – for a selected stress type – over the selected set of elements.STAAD. Click on the Plate page tab in the Page Control.1 of the STAAD.15 Viewing the Results • • Ensure that the file named Dataset 8_8. • • • The Load Case list can be used to select the load case for the stress contour. This tab is only present in models that contain plates. The Diagrams dialog opens with the Plate Stress Contour page active. Set the Load Case field to 1: PRESSURE LOAD . Pro appears in Section 1.

SMIN TMAX VON TRESCA Tresca stress. SY. Pro Technical Reference manual for additional information. and the Tresca stress (TRESCA) are available for the top and bottom surfaces of the elements.STAAD. the Von Mises stress (VON). • Click the Stress Type list.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-47 SX. |(Smin)| ] Global Moment (or Stress) Base Pressure Moment (or stress) about a specified global axis Base pressure for a mat-type foundation (Force/unit area) The in-plane Principal stresses (SMAX and SMIN). |(Smax)| . Also. . This is the larger of the absolute values of SMAX and SMIN. then select Max Absolute stress and click OK . SXY Membrane stresses (Force/unit length/thickness) Bending moments per unit width (Moment/unit length) In-plane principal stresses (Force/unit area) Maximum in-plane shear stress (Force/unit area) Von Mises stress MX. Please refer to Section 1 of the STAAD. MXY SMAX. the maximum Von Mises stresses and Tresca stresses can be plotted. the maximum in-plane shear stress (TMAX). where: TRESCA = MAX[ |(Smax-Smin)| . MY.

A summary page lists the maximum stresses for each load case.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-48 Module 8 • • The stress contour is plotted on the structure. element by element. There is also a page for Global Moments . Keep the current model open for use in the next section. for each load case. The tables contain a list of stresses. The various types of plate stress values are also available in tabular format in the Plate Centre Stress table and the Plate Corner Stress table in the Data Area.STAAD. • • • .

These are all of the parameters associated with a standard reinforced concrete design. such as: compressive strength of concrete.STAAD. Click Mode | Modeling to return to STAAD. Click the Select Parameters button. • The Parameter Selection dialog is a convenience to control which concrete design parameters will be listed and available for use when the Define Parameters button is used. Click the Design page tab in the Page Control. It offers the choice of designing using many different codes. This follows the program methodology of suggesting a logical workflow process by the order in which the Page Control tabs are organized. • • • . Since we will only need a small subset of the available parameters. we can reduce the length of the list of parameters in the Design Parameters list. Note that the Design tab logically follows the Analysis/Print tab. sides and top of beams. clear cover along the bottom. Note that all of the concrete design parameters currently appear in the Selected Parameters list on the right-hand side of the Parameter Selection dialog. yield strength of reinforcing steel. Pro ’s Modeling mode. Note the Current Code list in the top right corner of the Concrete Design – Whole Structure dialog. etc.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-49 8. Make sure that Current Code is set to ACI .std is the active model.16 Reinforced Concrete Design • • • Ensure that the file named Dataset 8_8. • • Click on the Concrete sub-page in the Page Control.

the yield strength parameters for main and secondary reinforcing were not selected. • The DEPTH tab is active by default.STAAD.Pro default value of 4. click the single-right arrow to move all four selected parameters to the Selected Parameters list. The default value of 60 ksi {413. and then Assign the parameter to the appropriate elements. • . Release the Control (Ctrl) key. The STAAD. The general procedure is to select a tab to define the desired parameter.Pro will just use the default value. It would be preferable to use units of inches {mm} when specifying parameters of this type. It is only necessary to assign a parameter to a member(s) if the value of the parameter differs from the default value. Maxmain . Likewise. Note that Fc – Compressive strength of concrete was not one of the selected parameters.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-50 Module 8 • • Click the double-left arrow to temporarily move all parameters to the Available Parameters list. Note that the units are currently set to ft {m} .58 MPa} will be used for this example. STAAD. enter the appropriate value in the field. Reinf . Press and hold the Control (Ctrl) key. • • • Click the Define Parameters button. The Design Parameters dialog lists only the four parameters we selected in the previous step. and then click on the following parameters in the Available Parameters list: Depth . Otherwise. Add that parameter to the model. This is the tab that is used to specify the Depth of cross section to be used in beam design.69 MPa} will be used for these parameters. and Track .000 psi {27. and then click OK .

The Depth command could be used in a case like this to indicate to STAAD. For instance. a beam may be deeper than structurally necessary due to architectural or detailing reasons. Click the Close button to dismiss the Design Parameters subdialog. and note that the units for the DEPTH parameter are now in inches {mm} . but the actual dimensions may not be representative of the actual rebar location for a beam like this. and then click Add . • • Click the Define Parameters button once again. . not “d”. Click MAXMAIN . if the rebar is not in the default location assumed by the program. or from the depth specified by the Depth command. and then click OK . Note that this parameter specifies the value that is traditionally referred to as “h” in concrete design. Click the Inch {Millimeter} radio button.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-51 • Change the length input units to inches {millimeters}. Pro that it should consider the depth to be shallower than the overall dimensions when the design is performed.STAAD. The “d” value will be calculated by deducting the clear cover (and stirrup rebar size if applicable) from the YD dimension of a concrete beam. In this case. it is convenient to specify the actual beam dimensions so that the self-weight is calculated correctly. Click Tools | Set Current Input Unit… . • • Enter a value of 16 inches { 400 millimeters} in the DEPTH field. The DEPTH parameter can be used to specify the rebar location in a beam. Refer to the following commentary for step-by-step instructions. if it is used.

Pro Standard Training Manual 8-52 Module 8 • • • • This parameter defines the maximum permissible rebar size for main reinforcement. implying that they have been Added . The newly added parameters appear in the Concrete Design – Whole Structure dialog (simply referred to as the Concrete Design dialog from this point forward). but not yet Assigned .STAAD. and then click Add . followed by Close . Click Select | Beams Parallel to | Z . Click the (2) radio button corresponding to the highest level of output detail. Click the DEPTH 16 {DEPTH 400} parameter. Click the REINF tab. The default is Tied . Note that the Assignment Method is automatically set to Assign To Selected Beams. Click the TRACK tab. Enter a value of 8 {25} in this field to limit the maximum bar size to #8 {25 mm}. The beam segments on two sides of the model are selected. but the current model has both rectangular (tied) and round (spirally reinforced) columns. and then click Add . • • • • • Click the Spiral Column radio button. • • • . This parameter is used to select the level of detail to be provided in the output. They are preceded by question marks in the list. and then click Add . This is intended to apply to all beams around the perimeter of the slab. The beam segments on the other two sides of the model are added to the selection. This parameter is used to distinguish between Tied and Spiral column reinforcing. Click Select | Beams Parallel to | X .

• • Click the REINF 1 parameter. and then click inside the Main Window . because the perimeter beams were segmented into many elements. Note also that the DEPTH 16 {DEPTH 400} parameter no longer has a question mark in the Concrete Design dialog. All beam and column elements in the model are highlighted. This is intended to apply to all members in the model. Click Yes to confirm the assignment. • • • Click the MAXMAIN 8 {MAXMAIN 25} parameter. and then click Assign . Verify that the Assignment Method is set to Use Cursor To Assign by default. Press Shift + X . indicating that all have been assigned the MAXMAIN 8 {MAXMAIN 25} parameter.00 {Cir 0. The parameter is assigned to the four perimeter beams. Click the Assign To View radio button. and then click Assign . • • Click on the two circular columns with the Cir 18.STAAD. Click Yes to confirm the assignment. . the hotkey to turn on member sections. because the parameter has now been Assigned to some members in the model. This helps to identify the two circular columns in the rear of the structure. The cursor changes to the special “SP” in a circle to indicate that it is in ready to assign the parameter.45} labels. Note that the Edit List in the Concrete Design dialog contains more than just four beam numbers.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-53 • • Click the Assign button.

Click the Design Column tab. Fy and Mx). Click Yes to confirm the assignment. • • Click the Add button. • Click the Add button. shear and torsion (Mz. Click the Assign To View radio button. Design Slab/Element and Take Off . The output will consist of the reinforcing steel requirement and bar arrangement where applicable. and the member numbers 2 and 3 should appear in the Edit List at the bottom of the Concrete Design dialog.STAAD. The Design Commands sub-dialog contains tabs labeled Design Beam . The Design Beam tab is active by default. This is intended to apply to all members in the model. The next step is to add the actual concrete design commands to the model. This completes the assignment of Design Parameters . The Design Column tab is used to add the command for designing for biaxial bending moments and axial force (My. All beam and column elements in the model are highlighted again. The Design Beam tab is used to add the command for performing reinforcement calculations for flexure. • • • Click the TRACK 2 parameter. • • Click the Commands button in the Concrete Design dialog. and then click Assign . • . Design Column . Mz and Fx).Pro Standard Training Manual 8-54 Module 8 They become highlighted as they are clicked. indicating that all have been assigned the TRACK 2 parameter.

Click Close to dismiss the Design Commands dialog. Enter beam number 4 in the Edit List . and to limit the quantity of output. • • Click the Add button. Click the TAKE OFF tab. • • • Click the Add button. column.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-55 • Click the Design Slab/Element tab. The next step is to Assign the appropriate design commands to the appropriate members/elements. . For the purposes of this example. The TAKE OFF tab is used to add the command to tabulate and print the total volume of concrete and weight of reinforcing steel for beams. and slab element. This selects the beam segment highlighted in the figure below for design. columns and elements that are designed. and then click Assign . Note that the four new commands appear in the Command Tree in the Concrete Design dialog.STAAD. • • • Click the DESIGN BEAM command in the Concrete Design dialog. the Design commands will only be Assign ed to one representative beam. The Design Slab/Element tab is used to add the command for designing individual plate elements for two-way flexural moments (Mx and My). Click the Assign To Edit List radio button in the Assignment Method category.

Click Assign . and the question mark changes to a checkmark in front of the DESIGN COLUMN command. 13 Member number 2 is highlighted. 12 • • • Click the DESIGN COLUMN command. Verify that the Assignment Method category is set to Use Cursor To Assign . Figure 8.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-56 Module 8 Figure 8. and then click on member number 2 as shown in the figure below. .

Verify that the Highlight Assigned Geometry checkbox is checked on the Concrete Design dialog. Verify that the Assignment Method category is set to Use Cursor To Assign . Figure 8. . When this checkbox is selected. • • • Click the DESIGN ELEMENT command in the Concrete Design dialog. and then click on plate number 37 . STAAD. Click Assign . the element in the front corner as shown in the figure below.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-57 • Click the Assigning button once again to turn it off. 14 Plate number 37 is highlighted. This button says Assigning when it is active and Assign when it is inactive. • • Click the Assigning button once again to turn it off.Pro highlights all members/elements that have been assigned the currently selected parameter. indicating that the Design Element command has been Assign ed to it.

DESIGN COLUMN .STAAD.std. Click No when asked if you want to save. and DESIGN ELEMENT commands in the Concrete Design dialog one at a time. and is named Dataset 8_9. because it automatically applies to all concrete members. Click File | Close to return to the Start Page. The CONCRETE TAKE command is a little different.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-58 Module 8 This provides a quick visual way to verify that the recent assignments have been made correctly. . the corresponding members in the model are highlighted in the Main Window. no members are highlighted in the Main Window if the CONCRETE TAKE command is clicked. • • • A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset. • Click on DESIGN BEAM . It had a checkmark in the Command Tree as soon as it was Add ed. Because it is not explicitly Assign ed. It cannot be Assign ed to specific members. As each command is highlighted in the list.

This is evidence of the 35 iterations requested by the PDELTA 35 ANALYSIS command. “++ Adjusting Displacements”.STAAD. and scrolls through several messages indicating the status of the analysis. • . “PROBLEM STATISTICS”. and then click Done . The STAAD Analysis and Design dialog appears.” The design of beam number 4 starts on this page and continues to the next. 4 DESIGN RESULTS – FLEXURE PER CODE ACI 318-05. One of the last lines in the list of messages indicates “Creating Design information File (DGN)…” This is the indication that STAAD. Click Analyze | Run Analysis… .17 Understanding Concrete Design Results • • Open the file named Dataset 8_9.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-59 8. Continue to scroll down in the Output File and locate the line that says. “BEAM NO. Scroll down in the Output File and locate the line that says.std . Pro has actually performed design calculations as requested by the recently added DESIGN commands. • • • Click the View Output File radio button. Just below this is a block of 35 lines of text that say.

STAAD. Figure 8. measured from the starting node of the beam. . 4 – Starting location of the rebar at this level. 15 • The next section provides geometric information about the layer of rebar that occurs near the bottom of the beam. 2 – Height from the bottom of the beam to the centroid of the rebar at this level. See the itemized descriptions corresponding to the numbered items in the figure below. 3 – Number and size of rebar required by design. 16 1 – Rebar Level number – starting with bottom layer first. Figure 8.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-60 Module 8 • The first line of data in the beam design output echoes the beam dimensions and material properties.

6 – Indication as to whether or not the rebar at this level is considered to be fully-developed (as with a standard hook or full development length projection) at the start (STA) and end (END) of the rebar. Figure 8. measured from the starting node of the beam. there is negative moment at the starting end.STAAD. so there is a second level of rebar required near the top of the beam as shown in the figure below.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-61 5 – Ending location of the rebar at this level.18 kip-ft {34. • Below the line of geometric data pertaining to the first layer of rebar is a dashed box. It contains the design information for the first layer or rebar including: • • • • • • • Magnitude and location of design moment Critical load case Rebar area requirements Rebar spacing data Development length A single line of text below the dashed box reports the cracked moment of inertia at the location of the design moment. which . Subsequent levels of rebar are described in the same manner. In this beam. 17 Note that this second level of rebar is being designed for a critical negative moment of 24.99 Kn-m}.

followed by diagrams of the elevation view and three sections through the beam. 19 • And finally the interaction diagram and data.00 ft {0 mm} from the starting end. • The next section of output presents the shear design for the starting end and the ending end. • • • Figure 8. Material and geometric properties are listed first. The next section provides design output for the column. Figure 8. The diagrams schematically show the top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement and the stirrups. 18 • This is followed by bar configuration details. This negative moment drops off quickly. because the rebar is terminated approximately 3’-7” {1113 mm} from the starting end of this segment of the beam. .STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-62 Module 8 occurs at 0.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-63 Figure 8.STAAD. 20 • The design summary for the plate element follows next. 21 . Figure 8.

Click File | Close to return to the Start Page.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-64 Module 8 • And the final piece of output is the concrete take-off. Figure 8. No changes have been made to the current file in this section. so it can be closed without saving. Click No when asked if you want to save. .STAAD. 22 • • • • Click File | Exit in the STAAD Output Viewer main menu to return to the Main Window.

Pro Examples manual contains several example models that illustrate finite element analysis applied to various real-world reinforced concrete structures. 9 is another space frame structure that includes frame members and finite elements (plates). Tutorial problem 2 provides step by step instructions on creating. Example No. 23 illustrates how to generate spring supports for a slab on grade. Double-click American Examples . 8 illustrates concrete design performed on a space frame structure. Double-click Application Examples on the Contents tab. analyzing and performing concrete design for a portal frame. Example No. • • • • • • • • . Example No. Secondary moments on the columns are obtained through the means of a P – Delta analysis.18 Additional Concrete Modeling Examples • • • • Click Help | Contents in the Menu Bar. The plates are used to model floor slabs and a shear wall. Double-click Getting Started on the Contents tab. 18 demonstrates the calculation of principal stresses on a finite element. Example No.STAAD. Example No. including computation of reinforcement for the beams and columns.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 8 8-65 8. Double-click Tutorial 2 . 10 shows how to model a water tank which is subjected to hydrostatic pressure as the tank is filled. The STAAD. Concrete design is performed on one of the elements.

They provide an in-depth understanding of how the program operates.Pro Standard Training Manual 8-66 Module 8 • • Example No. Its purpose is not to illustrate the use of the graphic interface. The STAAD. each example explains. actions that took many pages of text and numerous pictures and diagrams to describe could very easily be replicated with two or three lines of input command language.” Developing an understanding of the relationship between these two aspects of the program will lead to a real mastery of STAAD. Instead. Many times in this training course. the input file commands that are needed to correctly model the proposed scenario. These examples also illustrate the most economical. The graphic interface is STAAD. Pro Examples manual is written in a very concise format. Pro . line by line. 27 deals with a mat foundation subjected to loads that cause a partial uplift. This format thoroughly explains the purpose for each command.STAAD. step by step. • • • • -End of Module- . Pro ’s “front end. while presenting the entire example scenario in only a few pages of text. efficient use of the input command language.” The input command file is its “backbone.

.......... 9.................................5 Exercise Problem Five ........... 6  9....................... 4  9............ 23  9 ........................9-1 Exercise Problems Module The following topics are included in this module...........................................................................................2 Exercise Problem Two ...... 2  9........ 17  9......6 Exercise Problem Six ...............................3 Exercise Problem Three ..........................4 Exercise Problem Four ..................................................... 11  9......................1 Exercise Problem One.........................................................................

.1 Exercise Problem One Create the geometry of the structure shown in the figures below.STAAD. Isometric View of entire structure The supports and dimension lines are shown for information only.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-2 Module 9 9.

create a Pratt Truss with the overall dimensions shown above. and connect them at the split points. . Delete the unwanted members. Bring it into the main drawing.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-3 Dimensions of one of the side trusses Hints: • • • • In the Run Structure Wizard option of the Geometry menu. Split the cross members at the bottom.STAAD.

select Snap/Grid Node – Beam .Pro Standard Training Manual 9-4 Module 9 9. . Set the plane of the grid to XZ . and add a beam between the 2 new points. Draw the outer triangle of the bottom level. Isometric View of entire structure The supports and dimension lines are shown for information only.STAAD.2 Exercise Problem Two Create the geometry of the structure shown in the figure below. Split the 2 members at their midpoints. Hints: Method 1: • • In the Geometry menu.

Draw one of the vertical side faces of the structure. • • . draw the diagonals.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-5 • Use Geometry | Translational Repeat to create the upper triangle. select Snap/Grid Node – Beam . Use Geometry | Circular Repeat – Copy mode to create the other face. Using Geometry | Add Beam . Remember to switch on Link Steps to connect the 2 levels using vertical members. Remember to switch on Link steps while circular repeating. Using Geometry | Add Beam . • • • Method 2: • In the Geometry menu. draw the remaining members. Calculate the angle of the vertex of the bottom triangle.STAAD. and set the angle of the plane to be half that value about YY. Set the plane of the grid to XY . and split and connect as necessary. Add the rest of the members. Split the diagonals and connect them at the split points.

Density. Poisson – Default value for steel Fixed supports as shown 2 primary load cases as shown. Load case 3 should combine 1 & 2. • • • Support Reactions for load 3. Linear Static (PERFORM ANALYSIS) Produce a report containing the following items. Bending Moment Diagram for load 3 with the maximum values annotated. . Node deflection diagram for load 3 with the resultant values annotated.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-6 Module 9 9.STAAD. BASIC DATA FOR THE STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTE Member Properties Material Constants Supports Loads Analysis Type Results DATA W12x26 for all members E. with a factor of 1.3 Exercise Problem Three Create the model of the structure shown in the figures below. and assign the following data.

50m 5.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-7 5.00m 5.50m 5.00m 4.00m Y X 5.50m 5.50m Z Isometric View of structure .50m 3.00m 6.50m 5.00m 5.50m 3.00m 5.50m 5.00m 4.STAAD.

STAAD. . verticals and bracing members meet.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-8 Module 9 Connection data: Moments MY and MZ released Note: At junction points where horizontals. it is sufficient for this exercise to apply the releases only on the horizontal members.

05 kN/m 1.6 kN/m Load 1: Distributed Member Loads .6 kN/m 3.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-9 1.19 kN/m 3.05 kN/m 3.

50 kN/m 3.50 kN/m Y 1.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-10 Module 9 1.50 kN/m Z Load 2: Lateral forces along global X .00 kN/m 1.50 kN/m X 3.00 kN/m 1.STAAD.

and a code check on the members to determine if they pass the AISC ASD code requirements. Perform the analysis.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-11 9.STAAD. re-analysis.4 Exercise Problem Four Create the model of the steel tower shown in the figures below. followed by a member selection. .

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-12 Module 9 Components of the structure in detached views .

Poisson : Default value for steel Additional Member Specifications Supports Bracing members to be declared TRUSS type. _HORIZONTAL.STAAD. Pinned Supports as shown in earlier figure . _BRACING Member properties Vertical Members: W10x49 Horizontal Members: W8x28 Bracing Members: L3x3x1/4 Single Angle Material Constants Modulus of Elasticity: 30 000 ksi {207 000 MPa} Density.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-13 BASIC DATA FOR THE STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTE Groups DATA 3 groups to be formed. _VERTICAL.

Pro Standard Training Manual 9-14 Module 9 ATTRIBUTE Load Case 1 Equipment Load DATA 2 kips {9 kN} concentrated force at midpoint of roof-level beams. Use the Member Load – Concentrated force option to do this. .STAAD.

4 kN/m} distributed load on intermediate level beams .Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-15 ATTRIBUTE Load Case 2 Walkway Live Load DATA 300 pounds/ft {4.STAAD.

Pro Standard Training Manual 9-16 Module 9 ATTRIBUTE Load Case 3 1.STAAD.2 kips {5 kN} as shown DATA Load in X direction on windward face Load Case 4 Analysis Type Steel Design Parameters Steel Design Operation Grouping Reanalyze Check Code Case 1 + Case 2 + Case 3 (LOAD COMBINATION type) Linear Elastic (PERFORM ANALYSIS) Yield strength of steel : 40 ksi {275 MPa} Perform a member selection for the entire structure Group members after selection according to their group names Perform a code check for the entire structure .

5 Exercise Problem Five The concrete frame shown in the figures below should be modeled and analyzed.STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-17 9. Following the analysis. perform a concrete design for the beams. Isometric View . columns and slab per the ACI 318 code as explained below.

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-18 Module 9 Y X Z Beams and Columns in the Structure (Dark lines) .

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-19 Y X Z Roof slab as 5ft X 5ft {1.5m x 1.STAAD.5m} finite elements (shaded region) .

Offsets.) Supports Loads Modulus of Elasticity.ft {9.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-20 Module 9 BASIC DATA FOR THE STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTE Cross Section Properties DATA Interior Columns (30 ft {9 m} tall): Circular.ft {9. 36 inch {900 mm} (YD) x 24 inch {600 mm} (ZD) Plate Thickness: 8 inches {200 mm} Material Constants Additional Member Specifications (Releases. 200 lbs/sq. 28 in {700 mm} diameter Exterior Columns (20 ft {6 m} tall): Rectangular.5 kN/m 2 } acting in positive global X direction (on both slopes) Load Case 4: Combination Case – Case 1 + Case 2 + Case 3 (Use REPEAT LOAD) Analysis Type PDelta .5 kN/m 2 }acting globally downward Load Case 3: Wind Load in X direction on roof – 200 lbs/sq. Density.STAAD. Poisson : Default value for concrete None (Program defaults) Fixed Supports as shown in earlier figure Load Case 1: Dead Load – Selfweight Load Case 2: Live Load – Pressure load on plates. 36 inch {900 mm} (YD) x 30 inch {750 mm} (ZD) Beams: Rectangular. etc.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-21 Concrete Design: • Design the beam shown • Design the columns shown .STAAD.

Pro Standard Training Manual 9-22 Module 9 • Design the element shown .STAAD.

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-23 9. Isometric View . as explained.STAAD. Analyze the structure for 3 load cases.6 Exercise Problem Six The tower shown below is supported by six cables.

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-24 Module 9 Cable Connection levels .

Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-25 Typical segment in elevation Typical segment in isometric view .STAAD.

Pro Standard Training Manual 9-26 Module 9 Plan view of typical level Details of typical level .STAAD.

3 kN} Load Case 1: Wind Load – 100 lbs {445 N} at each node on windward face Load Case 2: Ice Load – 50 lbs per foot {730 N/m} on each horizontal member Load Case 3: Load 1 + Load 2 Analysis Type Linear Static .STAAD.in {650 mm 2 } cross section area Material Properties Cable Initial Tension Loads Default values for steel 3000 lbs {13. 22 in {550 mm} ID Cables : 1 sq.Pro Standard Training Manual Module 9 9-27 BASIC DATA FOR THE STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTE Member Properties DATA All components of tower : Pipe section 24 in {600 mm} OD.

STAAD.Pro Standard Training Manual 9-28 Module 9 -End of Module- .

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