Martin Walsh working draft, 21 July 2007

STRONG WIND (n.): *kißuto (7/8) ~ *lußuto (11/10) GIR kivuto (7) ‘at great speed’; luvuto (11/10) ‘high wind, storm’; rivuto (5/6) ‘hurricane’ [D] ?DUR kimfudo (7/8) ‘a storm’ [KR] N.DIG phuto (5/6) ‘wind, storm’ [G]; phuto (9/10) ‘wind’ [MNNZ] = the root in KAB –vutũkya (v.) ‘to blow’ [M] ROAR; GROWL (v.): *-ruruma GIR –ruruma (v.) ‘to roar’ [T] RAB –ruruma (v.) ‘to growl’ [KR] N.DIG -rurumika (v.) ‘to complain, grumble’ [MNNZ] = KAB –luluma (v.) ‘to roar, thunder’ [A]; GIK –ruruma (v.) ‘to roar’ [B] RUMBLE (OF THUNDER) (n.): *mururumo (3/4) GIR mururumo (3/4) ‘rumble (of thunder) [T] = GIK mũrurumo (3/4) ‘a rumbling, roaring, booming sound’ [B] BE MOIST, DAMP (SOIL) (v.): *-dhidha GIR –dhidha (v.) ‘to be damp’ [T], ‘to be moist – of earth’ [D] = KAB -thitha (v.) ‘to be cold, damp’ [A] MOISTURE, DAMPNESS (OF SOIL); WATERLOGGED SOIL (n.): *kidhidha (7/8) GIR kidhidha (7/8) ‘bog’ [T], ‘moisture from the earth, dampness of soil’ [D] N.DIG. chirirwa (7/8) ‘a stand or group of trees growing near a permanent water source’ [MNNZ] = KAB kĩthitha (7) ‘cold’ [A] HOLLOW IN OUTCROP OF ROCK (n.): *ngurunga (9/10) RAB ngurunga (9/10) ‘large rock’; kangurunga (13/?) ~ kingurunga (7/8) (diminutive) [KR] [place name] = GIK ngurunga (9/10) ‘cave, cavern’ [B] SILT, FINE SAND (n.): *dhangadhi (5) GIR dhangadhi (5) ‘fine sand’ [D] = KAB kĩthangathĩ (7/8) ‘sand’ [A]; GIK thangathĩ (9/10) ‘accumulation of sand as at bend in river, sandy mud washed up by river, sandspit’; gĩthangathĩ (7/8) ‘coarse alluvial soil, grit, sand, fine gravel’; ‘sand, silt’ [B] ROUGH, UNEVEN-SURFACED ROCK (n.): *dhadha (5/6) 1

RAB thatha ‘roughness; a rough uneven surface’; iwe ra thatha (untranslated, ‘rough, uneven rock’) [KR] = GIK ithaatha (5/6) ‘hard lava full of bubble holes; any heavy, hard, stone used for burnishing spears; pumice-stone’; gĩthaatha (7/8) ‘hard, sponge-like volcanic clinker’ [B] QUARTZ (n.): *kißudhi (7/8) GIR kiwudhi (7/8) ‘quartz’ [T] = KAB kĩvũthi kya mavia (7/8) ‘sharp black stones which cut the feet’ [A] RED OCHRE (n.): *mbuu (9) GIR mbuu (9) ‘red dye, red ochre’ [T] RAB mbu (9) ‘red ochre’ [KR] E.DUR mbuu (9) ‘type of red colour’ [NN] = KAB mbu (9) ‘red ochre’ [Lindblom 1920: 389]; mbũũ (9) ‘red clay, mixed with butter and rubbed on the head’ [A]; GIK -buu (adj.) ‘grey, of ash-grey colour’ [B] RED (COLOUR) (adj.): *-tune GIR –tune (adj.) ‘red’ [T, H]; -t’une with class 9/10 nominals [T] CHO –tune (adj.) ‘red’ [H] RAB –tune ~ -dune (adj.) ‘red’ [KR] = DAI –tuné (adj.) ‘red’ [N]; KAB –tune (adj.) ‘red’ [M]; GIK –tune (adj.) ‘red’ [B]. SODA ASH (n.): *ati (5/6) GIR ati (5/6) ‘one piece’ of maati ‘Chili saltpetre, natron’ [T]; gadi (5) ‘soda (Kinyika)’ [D], ‘soda ash’ [NH] RAB adi ‘magadi, rough soda?’ [KR] = GIK igata ~ igati (5/6) ‘piece of Magadi soda (sodium sesquicarbonate, yielding sodium carbonate or soda ash)’ [B]. The second GIR form, gadi, is either a reflex of possible PSA ?*igadi [NH] or a loan from another source.

TREE-RESIN, GUM; SAP (n.): *kidhana (7) GIR kidhana (7) ‘sap’ [T]; ‘sap, vegetable gum’, e.g. kidhana cha mongolo ‘gum of copal’ [D] RAB kithana ~ kirana (7) ‘sap’ [KR] W.DUR kiryana (7) ‘gum produced by mbambara and mutunga [a mistake for mutanga or mudhungu?] trees and burnt as incense’ [W] = KAB kĩthana (7) ‘tree-gum; milk from a cow that has just given birth, and which does not taste good’ [A]; GIK gĩthana (7) ‘first milk drawn from a cow after calving’, iria rĩa gĩthana ‘beestings’ [B] The cognate N.GIK term (by metathesis) is kĩnatha [B] GNIDIA LATIFOLIA (n.): *kadhini-kapala (12/13)


GIR kathini kapala (?12/13) ‘Gnidia latifolia’, provides medicine for stomach ache [M] ?= KAB -thĩna (v.) ‘to be tormented, to be troubled, to suffer; mũthĩni (1/2) ‘a suffering one’ [A]; GIK -thĩna (v.) ‘to be poor, destitute; to be in distress, trouble’; mũthĩni (1/2) ‘poor person’ [B]. Gnidia latifolia (Oliv.) Gilg. (family Thymeleaceae) is a shrub or small tree found in wooded or bushed grassland, deciduous bushland, and semi-evergreen bushland. The leaves and stem are poisonous, and the grass underneath these plants avoided by livestock (Beentje 1994: 96). The toxicity of this plant may provide a clue to the meaning of the GIR name: GIR kapala (12/13) is a name (< PSA *mpala < CB –pádá [NH]) for the Suni, Neotragus moschatus (Costich 1977: 12). This suggests the literal translation ‘the plant that troubles the suni’. DRYPETES RETICULATA (n.): *mudhyale (3/4) GIR mudhiale (3/4) ‘Drypetes reticulata’ [GS] ?= GIK thiarĩ (14/6) ‘cudgel, bludgeon, wooden club’ [B] Drypetes reticulata Pax (family Euphorbiaceae) is a tree, found only on the coast, in evergreen or semideciduous forest or on exposed coral (Beentje 1994: 195). EUPHORBIA CANDELABRUM (n.): *kidhongodhongo ~ *kidhangodhango (7/8) GIR kidhongodhongo (7/8) ‘species of Euphorbia’ [D]; kithangothango (7/8) ‘Euphorbia candelabrum’, used as a medicine for stomach ache [M] ?= KAB kĩthongo (7/8) ‘painting in red or white, under and to the sides of the eyes’ [A]; GIK thongo (9/10) ‘empty eye socket; useless eye, wall-eye’; gĩthongo (7/8) ‘wall-eyed person’; ornamental pattern made with red ochre round the eyes; a straight line down the forehead, nose, and chin [B] Euphorbia candelabrum Kotschy (family Euphorbiaceae) is a distinctive tree with succulent candelabra-like branches, found on rocky areas of bushland, in thickets, wooded grassland and dry evergreen forest. Like other members of the genus, it produces a poisonous white latex which can cause blindness (Beentje 1994: 201). A possible literal meaning of the GIR name is ‘the plant that blinds’. SPIROSTACHYS VENENIFERA (n.): *mutanga (3/4) GIR mtanga (3/4) ‘”incense tree”, producing the gum used for fumigation by Giriama’ [T] W.DUR mutanga (3/4) ‘tree sp., not eaten by white ants. When burned keeps mosquitoes away, medicine used as a laxative like Phillips’ [NN] DUR mtanga (3/4) ‘Spirostachys venenifera’ [B] = KAB mũtanga (3/4) ‘a tree which has sweet smelling wood, used for making neck ornaments’ [A]; GIK mũtanga (3/4) ‘Elaeodendron buchananii’ [Gachathi 1989: 109]. E.buchananii, which is not found on the coast (for other Elaeodendron spp. which are, see below), has poisonous leaves and fruit and a fairly durable wood (Beentje 1994: 337). Spirostachys venenifera (Pax) Pax (family Euphorbiaceae), which is found thoughout eastern Kenya, has a poisonous latex and termiteresistant wood (Beentje 1994: 223). ABRUS PRECATORIUS (n.): *mudhuridhuri (3/4)


GIR muthurithuri (3/4) ‘Phyllanthus aff. amarus’ [GS]; mthurithuri (3/4) ‘Abrus precatorius’, used as medicine for eye complaints and venereal disease [M]; mturituri (3/4) ‘Abrus precatorius’ [Beentje 1994: 281] ?= KAB kĩthũi (7/8) ‘a cactus like tree, the sap is sticky and leaves a burning sensation’ [A]; kithui (7/8) ‘Euphorbia bussei’ [Beentje 1994: 201]; MBE kithuri (7/8) ~ ithuri (?9/10) ‘Euphorbia spp.’ [Riley and Brokensha 1988: 297]; thuuri (?9/10) ‘Rhynchosia minima’ [Riley and Brokensha 1988: 298]; GIK gĩthũri (7/8) ~ mũthũri (3/4) ‘Euphorbia candelabrum’ [Gachathi 1989: 31, 121] Phyllanthus spp. (family Euphorbiaceae) have other GIR and MK names, and the first identification above should probably be treated with some caution. According to Beentje, Abrus precatorius L. ssp. africana Verdc. (family Papilionaceae) is a climber found in rocky bushland, bushed grassland, woodland and secondary bushland. A leaf decoction is emetic and a root decoction is used by the Boni to treat gonorrhoea (1994: 281). The distinctive scarlet and black seeds are poisonous (Verdcourt and Trump 1969: 79-80). Riley and Brokensha describe Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. (also in the family Papilionaceae) as a ‘creeper’ (1988: 298), and it is possible that the GIR term is cognate with MBE thuuri. This seems more likely than a connection with the widespread CKB term for Euphorbia spp. ELAEODENDRON SPP. (n.): *mukibudhi (3/4) GIR mkibudhi (3/4) ‘Elaeodendron schlechteranum’ [GS]; mkibuthi (3/4) ‘Elaeodendron schweinfurthianum’, used as medicine for anaemia [M]; kibuthi (?) ‘Elaeodendron aquifolium’ [B] ?= KAB kĩvũthĩ (7/8) ‘a species of tree, the fruit is used by witch-doctors in divining’ [A]; MBE mubuthi (3/4) ‘Caesalpinia bonduc’ [Riley and Brokensha 1988: 32]; GIK mũbũthĩ ~ mũcũthĩ (3/4) ‘Caesalpinia volkensii’ [Gachathi 1989: 54, 61]. This etymology suggests that the original CKB prefix kĩ- has been treated as part of the word stem by GIR (see also *mukidhunya). The above Caesalpinia species are called mburuga (?3/4) in GIR and DIG (Beentje 1994: 237-239). Elaeodendron schlechteranum (Loes.) Loes (family Celastraceae) is an evergreen tree or shrub found in deciduous woodland or riverine contexts. It is found in central Kenya as well as on the coast, whereas E.schweinfurthianum (Loes.) Loes. is restricted to the coast, on bushland or thicket on sand or coral, and in dry or moist evergreen forest. E.aquifolium (Fiori) Chiov. is also restricted to areas near the coast, where it is found in Acacia-Terminalia bushland (Beentje 1994: 337-338). DALBERGIA BOEHMII (n.): *mudhandze (3/4) GIR mudhandze (3/4) ‘roots used for pains in the head’ [T]; mranze (3/4) ‘Dalbergia boehmii’ [Beentje 1994: 292] RAB muthanse ~ muranse (3/4) ‘tree sp. with odoriferous root’ [KR] = KAB kĩthanze (7/8) ‘a kind of coarse grass, not eaten a great deal by cattle’; ĩthanze (5/6) ‘stubble’ [A]; MBE ithanje (5/6) ~ kithanje (7/8) ‘Reeds = In general reeds for mats for varying purposes and including Papyrus spp.’ (Riley and Brokensha 1988: 274); GIK mũthanjĩ (3/4) ‘reed-plant’; ithanjĩ (5/6) ‘reed growing in swamps’ [B]; ithanjĩ (5/6) ‘Cyperus immensus’, a perennial sedge used for thatching [Gachathi 1989: 34]


According to Beentje, Dalbergia boehmii Taub. ssp. boehmii (family Papilionaceae) is a deciduous shrub or tree found only in Kwale District, north to Rabai (1994: 292). In Rabai the roots of *mudhandze are reported to have been mixed with the wood of *mudhungu (Zanthoxylum chalybeum) and pounded to produce a women’s perfume (see below). ZANTHOXYLUM CHALYBEUM (n.): *mudhungu (3/4) GIR mdungu (3/4) ‘Zanthoxylum chalybeum’ [Beentje 1994: 373] RAB muthungu, pl. mithungu ~ murungu (3/4) ‘thorny tree sp: wood used for perfuming, mixed with the root of the muthanse and pounded, it is used by the women as perfume’; nthungu ~ ndungu (9/10) ‘fruit’ [KR] N.DIG mundungu (3/4) ~ ndungu (9/10) ‘Fagara chalybea’ [Glover et al. 1969: 214]; mdungu (3/4) ‘Knobwood tree, Zanthoxylum chalybeum’ [N]; mrungurungu (3/4) ‘a tall forest tree (probably Diospyros sp.) used for building poles’ [MNNZ] ?= GIK thũngũyũ (9/10) ‘aromatic plant, Mimulopsis sp.’ [B]; thunguya (9/10) ‘Mimulopsis alpina’ [Gachathi 1989: 145]. Three Mimulopsis spp. are found in central and western Kenya, but not on the coast. They all flower at long intervals (Beentje 1994: 605). Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. var. chalybeum (family Rutaceae) is an evergreen tree or shrub with corky knobs or ridges crowned with spines; it is found in semi-evergreen or dry bushland, in wooded grassland, and in dry forest and closed thicket on the coast (Beentje 1994: 373). It is interesting to note that both of the trees *mudhungu and *mudhandze – which provided the ingredients for the Rabai perfume have borrowed names, suggesting that the production of this perfume may also have been a borrowed practice. HARRISONIA ABYSSINICA (n.): *mukidhunya (3/4) GIR mkidhunya (3/4) ‘Harrisonia abyssinica’ [GS]; mkindhunga (3/4) ‘Harrisonia abyssinica’ [Beentje 1994: 375] No CKB cognates found. Like *mukibudhi, an original CKB prefix (kĩ-) may have been fossilised in this name. Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. (family Simaroubaceae) is a shrub or tree found in dry bushland, wooded grassland, riverine contexts, and (on the coast) in forest margins (Beentje 1994: 375). DIOSPYROS CONSOLATAE (n.): *mudhu-tsaka (3/4) GIR m’thutsaka (3/4) ‘Diospyros consolatae’ [M] ?= KAB mũthulu (3/4) ‘a large variety of tree, having very hard wood’ [A] GIR tsaka (5/6), ‘forest’, is an inherited term from PSA *icaka (< CB *-càká [NH]). It is often added to plant names to distinguish a species which is wild from a similar one which is domesticated or has domestic associations. Diospyros consolatae Chiov. (family Ebenaceae) is a shrub or tree found in dry forest, thicket, woodland, wooded grassland and moister types of bushland (Beentje 1994: 446). AGATHISANTHEMUM BOJERI (n.): *kaidhima (12/13) GIR kaithima (12/13) ‘Agathisanthemum bojeri’, provides medicine for fever [M]


?= GIK mũthima (3/4) ~ gĩthima (7/8) ‘small common annual plant (Compositae sp.)’ [B]. The GIR name may include a fossilised class 5 prefix (CKB ĩ-). Agathisanthemum bojeri (family Rubiaceae) is a perennial branched herb or shrub found in grassland, forest edges, bushland, open woodland, and as a weed in cultivation, especially in coastal areas (Blundell 19xx: 150). TREE SP. (UNIDENTIFIED) (n.): *mundeßeße (3/4) GIR mundeveve (3/4) ‘a tree with an edible fruit’; ndeveve (9/10) ‘edible fruit of the mudeveve [sic]’; ‘a stringed musical instrument’ [D] No CKB cognates found. The second of Deed’s GIR glosses probably represents a confusion with *mbeßeße (9/10) (see below). REED OF MOUNTAIN BAMBOO, ARUNDINARIA ALPINA (n.): *murangi (3/4) ~ rangi (5/6) GIR iangi, pl. mangi (5/6) ‘a kind of reed’ [KR]; murangi (3/4) ‘large bamboo reed’; rangi (5/6) ‘small bamboo reed’; marangi (6) ‘bamboos’ [T] RAB rangi, pl. marangi (5/6) ‘a kind of reed; doesn’t grow in Rabai, only Ukambani’ [KR] = DAI mrangi (3/4) ‘reed’ [N2]; KAB mũangi (3/4) ‘a hollow reed; pipe made of a reed; bamboo’ [A]; GIK mũrangi (3/4) ‘bamboo, Arundinaria alpina’ [B]. Cf. Taita mrangi ‘bamboo’. The CKB term seems to have originally referred to the Mountain Bamboo, A.alpina K.Schum. (family Gramineae), a species which is not found on the coast (Beentje 1994: 646-647). The original MK referent may have been to reeds of this species brought from central Kenya, a pointer to ongoing contacts with the interior. Cf. PSA *mulanzi (3/4) ‘bamboo’ < CB *-dangi [NH]. /r/-loss in the GIR form recorded by Krapf and Rebmann suggests a KAB source or influence; forms with /r/, however, cannot be recent loans from KAB. PLANT SP. (UNIDENTIFIED) PROVIDING A LAXATIVE (n.): *mußuu (3/4) GIR muvuu (3/4) ‘a plant whose leaves are used as an aperient’ [D] = KAB mũvũũ (3/4) ‘a species of tree used for weeding sticks, string, and building’; a tree, the seeds of which (mbũũ) are used by the witch doctors’; mũvũũvũ (3/4) ‘a species of tree used for building and weeding sticks’ [A]; muvuuvu (3/4) ‘Brachylaena huillensis’ [Beentje 1994: 556]; mũvu (3/4) ‘a tree used for doctoring sick people’ [A]; muvu (3/4) ‘Zanthoxylum usambarense’ [Beentje 1994: 374]; GIK mũhũgũ (3/4) ‘tall forest tree, Bastard Sandalwood, Brachylaena huillensis, that provides excellent firewood’ [B]; mũhũgũ (3/4) ‘Bracylaena huillensis’ [Gachathi 1989: 73] According to Beentje, Zanthoxylum usambarense (Engl.) Kokwaro (family Ruraceae) is a tree found in dry forest or its remnants. It does not occur on the coast (1994: 374). Brachylaena huillensis O.Hoffm. (family Compositae) is found in both central and coastal Kenya, and used for timber, woodcarving and firewood (1994: 556-557). DRY GRASS USED FOR BINDING OR POLISHING (n.): *mbudha (9/10) GIR mbudha (9/10) ‘fine dry grass used as a binder or for polishing’ [D] No CKB cognates found.


CORD (n.): *mudhao (3/4) GIR mudhao (3/4) ‘band of a faggot’ [T], ‘ligature, cord’ [D] No CKB cognates found. FIBRE BAG OR SACK (n.): *chondo (7/8) GIR chondo ‘sack of native fibre’ [T], ‘a kind of bag, made of the fibres of some plant or tree’ [KR] = KAB kyondo (7/8) ‘a native bag made of string’ [A]; GIK kĩondo (7/8) ‘string bag’ [B] Cf. RAB ondo ‘sp. of high grass’, muondo ‘when small’, ‘used for thatching, but decays quickly’ [KR] SMALL BASKET (n.): *kititi (7/8) RAB kiditi (7/8) ‘a kind of small basket’ [KR] = KAB kĩtiti (7/8) ‘a small gourd in which divining dice are kept and from which they are shaken’ [A]; GIK gĩtiti (7/8) ~ gatiti (12/13) ‘tray or basket made from rope or split lianas lapped with bast, used as a dish for storing cooked food’ [B] TUBE (USED AS A LEAF WHISTLE) (n.): *choße (7/8) GIR –piga chowe ‘to whistle by blowing into a tube’ [T] = KAB kyove (7/8) ‘a binding together of fragrant roots of certain grasses and worn on the neck; things bound together into a bundle’ [A]; GIK kĩohe (7/8) ‘bundle, bunch; parcel, package, packet’ [B] The semantic link here can be tentatively reconstructed as ‘bundle’ > ‘rolled-up leaf’ > ‘leaf whistle’. CARVE WOOD (v.): *-kaßa GIR –kava (v.) ‘to carve wood’ [D] = KAB -kava (v.) ‘to dress a tree trunk smoothly by cutting off the branches; to hew wood’ [A]; GIK –kaha (v.) ‘trim, smooth out (boards split from log) with axe or long knife’ [B] SPLINTER (n.): *kaßanyu (12/13) GIR kavanyu (12/13) ‘a splinter’ [D] ?= KAB kavanyũa (12/13) ~ vanyũa (14/6) ‘a very tiny bead’ [A]; GIK hanya (9/10) ‘fork on branch or in a tree’; kĩhanya (7/8) ‘multi-forked pole or stick’; – hanya (v.) ‘scratch, lacerate with nails, claws’; -hanyũra (v.) ‘scratch off, tear off’ [B] WALKING STICK (n.): *ndata (9/10) GIR ndata ~ ndhata (9/10) ‘staff’ [T] RAB ndada (9/10) ‘walking stick; Orion’s Belt’; kadada (12/13) (diminutive); mudada (3/4) (augmentative) [KR] E.DUR ndat’a (9/10) ‘walking stick’ [NN] N.DIG ndata (9/10) ‘walking stick, staff’ [MNNZ] = DAI ndata (9/10) ‘stick’ [N]; KAB ndata (9/10) ‘walking stick, cane’ [A] COMB (n.): *kißunyo (7/8)


GIR kivunyo (7/8) ‘comb’ [D] RAB kimfugnio (7/8) ‘a comb made of wood’ [KR] ?= KAB -vũnya (v.) ‘to scratch or pinch with the finger-nails’ [A]; GIK -hũnya (v.) ‘to scratch, claw’; hũnyo (10) ‘ragged ends; frayed edges as on a hide after being pegged out’; or -hunya (v.) ‘to weed haphazardly’; -hunyũra (v.) ‘to make the skin dry and rough; scrape free of hair; peel off (the layer of dry lamb-skin on which the hair grows)’ [B]

COWRIE SHELL (n.): *ngutu (9/10) GIR ngutu (9/10) ‘larger cowrie shells, used as ornaments’ [T] RAB ngudu (9/10) ‘cowrie-shell, bought by Kamba to ornament calabashes and the skin in which women carry their children’ [KR] E.DUR ngutu (9/10) ‘shell’ [NN] = KAB ngũũtũ (9/10) ‘white shells worn around the waist by women; one shell tied around the neck of a girl at the second circumcision’ [A]; GIK ngũgũtũ (9/10) ‘white variety of cowrie-shell, about ½ inch long, used as a charm’ [B] This could be a relatively recent loanword from Kamba, though its widespread occurrence in MK suggests that it may be an older borrowing. TICK SP. (n.): ?*kivußa (7/8) GIR kivuwa (7/8) ‘tick infesting houses’ [T] No CKB cognates found. Cf. DAI ngova (9/10) ‘tick’ [N]; GIK ngũha (9/10) ‘cattle tick’ [B]. Contrast GIR k’uha ‘tick’ < PSA *nkupa < CB *-kúpá [NH] Note */g/ > /ß/? TICK SP. (ON POULTRY) (n.): *kißaßani (7/8) RAB kimfamfani (7/8) ‘= DIG pahasi’ [KR] No CKB cognates found. Cf. N.DIG pahazi (9/10) ‘a kind of insect like a cattle-tick but smaller which affects chickens’ [MNNZ] GRUB (INSECT SP. DESTRUCTIVE TO CROPS) (n.): ?*ßunyo GIR vunyo (?) ‘a grub that spoils maize’ [D] No CKB cognates found. Cf. GIK kagunyũ (12/13) ~ kĩgunyũ (7/8) ‘caterpillar. maggot; worm, grub’ [B]. Note */g/ > /ß/. This may be a reflex of PSA ?*ivunyo (5/6) ‘caterpillar sp.’; U.POK vunyo; L.POK mvunyo ‘grub that spoils maize’ [NH] DRAGONFLY (n.): ?*mwaßußu (3/4) N.DIG mwamvuvu (3/4) ‘dragonfly’ [MNNZ] = GIK rũhuhu (11/10) ‘bat’ [B] SNAKE (ADDER) SP. (n.): *kißußa (7/8) GIR kiwuwa (7/8) ‘adder – small snake, very active and poisonous’ [T]; kivuva (7/8) ‘a small poisonous snake’ [D] E.DUR chimbupha (7/8) ‘poisonous small snake’ [NN] 8

= KAB kĩmbuva (7/8) ‘puff-adder’ [A]; GIK itahuha (5/6) ‘puff-adder’ [B] The underlying root is seen in DAI –vuva (v.) ‘blow on, up’ [N]; KAB -vuva (v.) ‘to blow a horn, blow on a fire’ [A]; GIK –huha (v.) ‘blow, blow upon’ [B] LIZARD SP. (n.): ?*ßaraßara (7/8) GIR kiwalewale (7/8) ‘lizard sp.’ [T] RAB mfaramfara (5/6) ‘lizard sp., somewhat larger than the gahe’ [KR] DUR ßalaßala (5/6) ‘lizard sp.’ [N] N.DIG phalaphala ~ phalephale ~ valavala (5/6) ‘rainbow lizard, Agama agama’; phalaphala machende (5/6) ‘gecko, Hemidactylus mabouia’ [MNNZ] No CKB cognates found. Cf. DAI –vara (v.) ‘scrape’ [N]; KAB -valavala (v.) ‘to scrape off with a knife’ [A]; GIK –hara ~ -harahara (v.) ‘scratch, abrade, scrape; remove by scraping with a knife or rubbing with a rough object’ [B] OSTRICH, STRUTHIO CAMELUS (n.): *nyaa (9/10) GIR nyaa (9/10) ‘ostrich’ [T] RAB nia (9/10) ‘ostrich’ [KR] W.DUR nyaa (9/10) ‘ostrich’ [W] E.DUR nyaa (9/10) ‘ostrich’ [NN] = KAB nyaa (9/10) ‘ostrich’ [A]; GIK nyaga (9/10) ‘ostrich’ [B]. Cf. Taita (and Kaisgau) nyagha (9/10) ‘ostrich’. ABDIM’S STORK, CICONIA ABDIMII (n.): *madhio (9/10) KAU mario ‘the rain-birds’ [Muumba 1987: 88] RAB mathio ~ mario ‘large bird sp. – rarely seen except in flights’ [KR] W.DUR mario ‘bird sp., large and seen in large flocks; an omen that rain is imminent’ [W] N.DIG mariro (9/10) ‘kind of bird whose presence is believed to be a sign that the rains are about to start (black in colour, often flying high in a group)’ [MNNZ] No CKB cognates found. In his novel, The Wrath of Koma, Muumba provides a fuller description of the appearance of this bird: ‘One evening, a flock of mario – the rain-birds – were seen gliding gracefully across the sky. They were coming from north but their direction and destination were not definite but tended towards south; they hovered, flapped their wings and glided lazily in circles, making a slow but sure progress under the captainship of one of them. Their message was clear to the people: the birds were harbingers of the rains. Children in all villages sang excitedly to the birds, acknowledging the good tidings: “Mario dengereka, / Upige pendu za lungo. / Mario dengereka, / Upige pendu za lungo.” The chanting continued until the beloved birds were swallowed by the horizon into oblivion. And on the following day, the rain fell in torrents’ (1987: 88). This description fits Abdim’s Stork, Ciconia abdimii, a passage migrant in OctoberDecember and late-February-May, around the time of both the short and long rains on the coast (Britton (ed.) 1980: 20). WHITE-BROWED ROBIN CHAT, COSSYPHA HEUGLENI (n.): *chußi (7/8) GIR ch’uvi ‘a singing bird’ [T]; chuvi (7/8) ‘a bird which has many different notes’, maneno ga chuvi ‘too many words’ [D]; chußi ‘bird sp. identified by its beautiful song at dusk as a bird with red chest and underparts and white stripes


running over its eyes, almost certainly the White-browed Robin Chat, Cossypha heuglini’ [W] E.DUR chußi ‘parrot, Red-winged Bush Lark’ [NN] = KAB kyũvĩ (7/8) ‘a song sung by one person; a solo’ [A] Cf. Bukusu enyekuße (9/10) ‘White-browed Robin Chat, Cossypha heugleni’ [W]. Bukusu, one of the Luyia dialects, is a Lacustrine Bantu language, suggesting that the name of the bird may have a longer genealogy than the KAB form of what looks like the same root. The GIR expression for loquaciousness (maneno ga chußi) parallels the common Swahili phrase anaongea kama kasuku, ‘he talks like a parrot’ (and variants thereof), and a similar E.DUR usage may have motivated the gloss ‘parrot’. Otherwise it should be noted that the bird identifications in this source [NN] are generally poor. The Red-winged Bush Lark, Mirafra collaris, is not noted as a song-bird, but only has a ‘loud two-note whistle and a brief whistled song’ (Williams and Arlott 1980: 256). The Red-winged Robin Chat, Cossypha heuglini, however, is described as ‘one of the best avian singers in the world’ (Maclean 1988: 524). Its dusk and dawn song comprises ‘a series of sustained flute-like whistles of great beauty’ and it also often mimics other birds’ calls (Williams and Arlott 1980: 296): a bird both seductive and loquacious. LION, PANTHERA LEO (EUPHEMISM) (n.): *munyambo GIR muniambo (?) ‘lion – only used in superstitious dread. The proper word in Giriama and Rabai is dzimba’ [KR] = KAB mũnyambũ (?3/4) ‘lion’ [A]; GIK mũnyambũ (3/4) ‘lion; any dangerous beast’ [B] KIRK’S DIKDIK, MADOQUA KIRKII (n.): *kaßii (12/13) GIR kawii (12/13) ‘antelope about the size of the gazelle, p’ala’ [T]; kavii (12/13) ‘a very small antelope’ [D] W.DUR kißii (7/8) ‘dikdik’ [W] E.DUR chiphii (7/8) ‘dikdik’ [NN] N.DIG chiphii (7/8) ‘dik-dik (Madoqua kirkii) or bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus)’ [MNNZ] = KAB mbii (9/10) ~ kavii (12/13) ‘a small antelope’ [A]; mbii ~ kavii ‘dikdik’ [M] The only dikdik known to occur in the MK-speaking area is Kirk’s Dikdik, Madoqua kirkii (Kingdon 1997: 396). Although the primary referent of the name in N.DIG and both variants of DUR appears to be to this species, in GIR it has been recorded for two species of duiker. Working in Gedi Forest, Costich (1977: 13) was given the name kavii for the Blue Duiker, Cephalophus monticola. In the nearby Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Mogaka (n.d.: 8) recorded kavii as the name of the rare Ader’s Duiker, Cepahlophus adersii. One possibility is that what was originally a name for the dikdik – a small antelope which thrives in dry country - was later extended to these two species of duiker when they were encountered in the coastal forests. Whether such an extension of meaning took place before or after *kaßii was borrowed into GIR is difficult to tell. It may be that the unidentified GIR ts’esi [T] is an inherited name for the Blue Duiker (= Unguja and Pemba SW chesi ~ paa chesi ‘Blue Duiker’), suggesting that the transfer of kaßii to both the Blue and Ader’s Duikers is a localised and late development.


HUET’S BUSH SQUIRREL, PARAXERUS OCHRACEUS (n.): *kaßare (12/13) GIR kavare (12/?) ‘squirrel, small kind’ [T]; ‘Bush Squirrel, Paraxerus ochraceus’ [C] RAB mfare (?9/10) ‘The name of a species of squirrel’ [KR] = KAB mbae (9/10) ~ kaßale (12/13) ‘a tree squirrel; small squirrel’ [A]; GIK kahare (12/13) ‘tree squirrel’ [B] Paraxerus ochraceus, which Kingdon calls the Ochre Bush Squirrel, is widely distributed in eastern East Africa. It is found in dry forests and thickets at different altitudes; also in wooded riverine strips in very arid country (Kingdon 1997: 169-170). Costich recorded its presence and GIR name in Gedi Forest. She recorded a different GIR name (kindi) for both the Red Bush Squirrel, Paraxerus palliatus, and the Red-legged Sun Squirrel, Heliosciurus rufobrachium, also found at Gedi (Costich 1977: 12). ROAR; GROWL (v.): *-ruruma (see under THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND ITS PRODUCTS) MANE (WORN BY MEN ACROSS THE BREAST) (n.): *lwera (11/10) RAB luera (11/10) ‘mane, e.g. of giraffe, sometimes worn by men as an ornament across the breast’ [KR] = GIK mũrera (3/4) ‘mane’ [B] SPOTS (MARKING ON ANIMALS) (n.): ?*maramara (6) RAB maramara (?) ‘spots somewhat smaller than the mabamaba’ [KR] = GIK maara (6) ‘spots (of an animal), blotches’ [B]

BEEHIVE (n.): *mwato (3/4) GIR mwato, pl. myato (3/4) ‘beehive’ [T] RAB muado, pl. miado (3/4) [undefined] [KR] W.DUR mwato (3/4) ‘beehive’ [W] E.DUR mwato, pl. myato (3/4) ‘beehive’ [NN] N.DIG mwato (3/4) ‘beehive’ [MNNZ] = KAB mwatũ (3/4) ‘beehive’ [A]; GIK mwatũ (3/4) ‘beehive’ [B]. Cf. ILW mwatu (3/4); UPK mwarhu (3/4); LPK mwahu (3/4) ‘beehive’. BEESWAX (SMEARED INSIDE HIVE TO ATTRACT BEES) (n.): *kidhingo (7/8) GIR kidhingo (7/8) ‘teat, nipple’; ‘tar’ [D] = KAB kĩthingo (7/8) ‘a lump of beeswax to rub over the hive on the inside to draw the bees to it’ [A]; GIK gĩthingo (7) ‘wax pounded together with sweetsmelling leaves (kept by bee-keeper for attracting bees to empty hive, burnt inside barrel)’ [B] There is no apparent connection between the two GIR meanings [see under THE BODY AND ITS FUNCTIONS] HONEY BARREL; DRUM (n.): *kidhembe (7/8)


GIR kidhembe (7/8) ‘honey box, cask’ [T], ‘honey barrel’ [D]; -piga kidhembe (v.) ‘to sound an alarm’ [D] RAB kithembe (7/8) [not defined] [KR] W.DUR kirembe (7/8) ‘honey barrel, with a skin at either end; filled and sent as a gift to a bride’s father’ [W] E.DUR chirembe (7/8) ‘buffalo horn, instrument used to sound alarm’ [NN] = KAB kĩthembe (7/8) ‘a large native drum used at the dances by women; a receptacle for honey in the village’ [A] The original meaning of this term, ‘drum’, appears to have developed in two directions: > ‘honey drum’, and > ‘musical instrument’. WAX, EMPTY HONEYCOMB (n.): *ußua (14) GIR uwua (14) ‘wax, empty honeycomb’ [T] = KAB ĩwa, pl. mawa (5/6) ‘honeycomb; white ant’s nest’ [A]; GIK igua (5/6) ‘honeycomb; honey cells, a section of comb’ [B] Note */g/ > /ß/.

TEND LIVESTOCK (v.): *-dhorima RAB –thorima (v.) ‘to look after – only used for cattle’ [KR] E.DUR –roroma (v.) ‘to tend’ [NN] N.DIG -roroma (v.) ‘to care for someone’ [MNNZ] = GIK –thũrima (v.) ‘scrutinize, check up (goats); survey, inspect (men, livestock) [B] The E.DUR and N.DIG forms are skewed, possibly by vowel harmony. PASTURE, PLACE WHERE LIVESTOCK ARE KEPT BY ANOTHER HERDER; STORE OF WEALTH, SAVINGS (n.): *mbidhyo (9) GIR mbidhyo (9) ‘savings: treasure: store put by (money, goats etc.)’ [D] KAM mbirio (9) ‘the place where a cow is put in charge of another’ [KR] = KAB ndĩthya (9) ‘the herding of animals; a herd of animals’; -ĩthya (v.) ‘to herd or pasture cattle; nurture children’ [A]; maĩthyo (6) ~ ndĩthya (9) ‘pasture’ [M]; GIK ũrĩithio (14) ‘grazing’, ‘pasture’; -rĩithia (v.) ‘graze (feed cattle)’ [B] The semantic development of this term is shown in the heading: ‘pasture’ > ‘place where livestock are kept by another herder’ > ‘store of wealth (of any kind)’. This exemplifies the common saying that ‘cattle (and other livestock) are the bank’; evidently the case among the early Segeju and the MK who borrowed this term from them. BRAND LIVESTOCK, ESPECIALLY GOATS BY CUTTING THEIR EARS (v.): *-ßana GIR –vana (v.) ‘to cut off the tips of the ears of goats, supposed to improve their beauty’ [KR]; -vana (v.) ‘to mark, brand’; -vana na matso (v.) ‘to make special note of’ [D] RAB –mfana (v.) ‘to cut off the tips of the ears of goats, supposed to improve their beauty’ [KR]


N.DIG -phana (v.) ‘to brand; to make marks on an animal to indicate ownership’ [MNNZ] = KAB –vana (v.) ‘to mark; to brand cattle or goats by cutting the ears’ [A] SIGN, MARK; LIVESTOCK BRAND (n.): *mußano (3/4) GIR muwano (3/4) ‘mark, character, letter, sign (token)’ [T]; muvano (3/4) ‘sign, mark’ [D] RAB mumfano, pl. mimfano (3/4) ‘shape, form, characteristic’ [KR] = KAB ũvano, pl. movano (14/6) ‘a mark; a sign; a brand to signify the owner of a thing’ [A]; GIK mũhaano (3/4) ‘sign (emblem)’ [B] This is a nominal derived from the root of the preceding entry. COPULATE, COVER (ANIMALS) (v.): *-ßeka GIR –weka (v.) ‘to cover (animals)’ [T] N.DIG -pheka (v.) ‘to be on heat (used of a male goat)’ [MNNZ] =? GIK –haica (v.) ‘to climb up, ascend; mount; serve, cover (of animals)’ [B] This appears to be etymologically distinct from RAB –veka (v.) ‘to bark, roar’ [KR]; E.DUR –phek’a (v.) ‘to bark’ [NN]; N.DIG -pheka (v.) ‘to bark (of dogs)’ [MNNZ]; SWA –bweka (v.) ‘to bark’. BECOME BAD; LEAN (AN ANIMAL) (v.): *-dhuga GIR –thuka (v.) ‘to become bad’ (contrasted with RAB –dzukirua) [KR]; -dhuga (v.) ‘to rinse out a narrow necked vessel’; to get thin – chiefly of animals’ [D] = KAB -thũka (v.) ‘to be evil; to be bad; to become bad’ [A]; GIK –thũka (v.) ‘to be or become bad, inferior, ugly, unbecoming; dirty repulsive; spoiled, useless; bad-tempered, fierce, violent, dangerous, harmful’ [B] The alternative GIR meaning recorded is explained by the fact that original *-dhũga, ‘become bad, lean’, and *-dhuga, rinse out a gourd’ (=GIK –thuka, see below), have become homonymous on transfer from the 7-vowel CKB language to the 5-vowel MK language. BULL; CALF (n.): *ndzao (9/10) ~ *katsao (12/14) GIR ndzao (9/10) ‘bull, older male’; katsao, pl. utsao (12/14) ‘young male or female calf’ [T] RAB ndzao (9/10) ‘bullock’; kadzao (12/14) ~ kidzao (7/8) (diminutive); dzao ~ ridzao (5/6) (augmentative) [KR] W.DUR ndzao ‘bull’ [W] E.DUR nzao (9/10) ‘male calf’; nzao ya mukuruto (9/10) ‘male calf to be slaughtered’ [NN] N.DIG ndzau (9/10) ‘bull’ [MNNZ] SEG sau (9/10) ‘bull’ [N] = KAB nzaũ (9/10) ‘bull’ [A]; GIK njaũ (9/10) ‘calf, full-grown beast’; gacaũ (12/13) ‘small calf’; gĩcaũ (7/8) ‘large calf, calf of large animal’ [B]. Cf. Taita (including Kasigau) njau ‘bull’; Pare nthao ~ nzao (9/10) ‘bull’; kandhao ~ kanzao (12/13) ‘bullock’ [N]. OX, CASTRATED ANIMAL (n.): *ndewa (9/10)


GIR ndewa (9/10) ‘ox; eunuch’; kadewa (12/13) (diminutive); dewa ~ ridewa (5/6) (augmentative) [KR]; ndewa (9/10) ‘bullock, castrated ox’; ndewa ya ng’ombe (9/10) ‘ox’ [T] W.DUR ndewa wa ng’ombe (9/10) ‘ox, castrated bull’; ndewa wa mbuzi (9/10) ‘castrated goat’ [W] E.DUR ndewa (9/10) ‘castrated bull’ [NN] N.DIG ndewa (9/10) ‘castrated bull’ [MNNZ] = KAB ndewa (9/10) ‘ox; steer; sterile man’ [A]; ndewa ya ng’ombe (9/10) ‘ox’ [M]; GIK ndegwa (9/10) ‘bull, ox’ [B]. Cf. Pare njekwa-na (9/10) ‘steer’ [N] RAM (n.): *turume (9/10) GIR t’urume (9/10) ‘ram’ [T] RAB turume ~ durume (9/10) ‘ram’ [KR] W.DUR turume wa ng’onzi (9/10) ‘ram’ [W] E.DUR t’urume, pl. maturume (5/6) ‘ram’ [NN] N.DIG turume (5/6) ‘male sheep, ram’ [MNNZ] = KAB ndũũme (9/10) ‘ram’ [A]; GIK ndũrũme (9/10), pl. also matũrũme (6) ‘male sheep, ram’ [B]. Cf. Pare ndorome (9/10) ‘ram’. IMMATURE MALE SHEEP (n.): *katurume (12/?) ~ *kiturume (7/8) GIR katurume (12/?) ‘older male lamb’ [T] RAB kadurume (12/?) ~ kidurume (7/8) (diminutive) [KR] = KAB katũlũme (12/13) ‘small ram’ [A]; GIK gatũrũme (12/13) ‘young or small ram’ [B] From the same root as the preceding item. IMMATURE FEMALE SHEEP (EWE) (n.): *mwati (3/4) GIR kadzati (13/14?) ‘older female lamb’ [T]; mwati ‘ewe lamb’ [N] RAB muadi wa gnonsi ~ muachi wa gnonzi ‘ewe, young female (sheep) before becoming a mother’ [KR] W.DUR mwati ‘ewe not yet produced offspring’ [W] E.DUR mwati, pl. myati (3/4) ‘female lamb’ [NN] N.DIG mwati (3/4) ‘female sheep that has not yet given birth’ [MNNZ] = DAI mwate (3/4) ‘young domestic animal’ [N]; KAB mwatĩ (3/4) ‘ewe that has not yet given birth’; kamwatĩ (12/13) ‘small ewe’ [A]; GIK mwatĩ ‘young female sheep, ewe that has not yet lambed’; kamwatĩ ~ gaatĩ (12/13) (diminutive) [B]. Cf. Pare mwihati ‘young sheep not yet bearing’ [N]. IMMATURE FEMALE GOAT (n.): *ßarika (9/10) GIR varika (9/10) ‘young she-goat’ [D] RAB mfarika (9/10) ‘young female animal before becoming a mother, virgin’, e.g. mfarika ya gnombe (9/10) ‘heifer’, mfarika ya mbuzi (9/10) ‘immature female goat’ [KR] ?DUR mfarika ya gnonsi (9/10) ‘young female (sheep) before becoming a mother’ – muadi wa gnonsi (9/10) in RAB [KR] W.DUR mvarika (9/10) ‘she goat not yet produced offspring’ E.DUR mvarika (9/10) ‘female goat’ [NN] N.DIG mvarika (9/10) ‘she-goat that has not yet given birth’ [MNNZ] = KAB mbaika ~ mbaĩka (9/10) ‘young female goat, not having borne a kind’; kavalĩka (12/13) ‘small female goat’ [A]; mbarika (9/10) ‘young she-goat’ [M];


GIK harika (9/10) ‘she-goat which has not borne a kid’ [B]. Cf. Pare mbarika (9/10) ‘young she-goat’. MALE GOAT (n.): *ndenge (9/10) RAB ndenge (9/10) ‘he-goat’; kadenge (12/13) ~ kidenge (7/8) (diminutive); denge ~ ridenge (5/6) (augmentative) [KR] W.DUR ndenge (9/10) ~ dzidenge ~ denge (?5/6) ‘he-goat’ [W] E.DUR ndenge (9/10) ‘male goat’ [NN] N.DIG ndenje (9/10) ‘male goat, billy goat’ [MNNZ] = KAB nthenge (9/10) ‘male goat’; kathenge (12/13) ‘small male goat’ [A]; GIK thenge (9/10) ‘he-goat’ [B]. Cf. Pare ndhenge ~ nzenge (9/10) ‘he-goat’; kandhenge ~ kanzenge (12/13) ‘young he-goat’ [N]. The phonology of this item and its absence from GIR (and other NMK) suggest that it may be a relatively recent loan in SMK from DAI or KAB. HORNLESS (GOAT) (n.): *kidhia (7) RAB kithia ~ kiria (7) [not defined]; mbusi ya kithia ‘hornless goat’ [KR] = GIK gĩthia (7) ‘blunt; flat end, extremity, top’ [B] DOG (n.): *nguro (9/10) GIR k’uro (9/10) ‘dog’ [T, H] CHO kuro (9/10) ‘dog’ [H] RAB kuro (9/10) ‘dog’; kakuro (12/13) ‘small dog’ [KR] = DAI ngurũ ~ ngurø (9/10) ‘dog’ [N]; MER kurũ (9/10) ‘dog’ [N]. Cf. Pare nguro ~ iguro (9/10) ‘dog’. LARGE BONE (OF AN ANIMAL) (n.): *ßende (?9/10) GIR vende (?9/10) ‘large bone of an ox etc.’ [D] = DAI mvende (3/4) ‘bone’ [N]; KAB ĩvĩndĩ (5/6) ‘a bone’ [A]; GIK ihĩndĩ (5/6) ‘bone’ [B] The more widespread MK reflex of this CKB root is *vwindi (5/6) ‘knee’ (see under THE BODY AND ITS FUNCTIONS). It is not clear why this GIR item should have /e/ instead of regular /i/. BONE MARROW (n.): *mudhetso (3/4) GIR mudhetso (3/4) ‘marrow’ [T], ‘marrow of bones’ [D] W.DUR mretso (3/4) ‘bone marrow’ [W] No CKB cognates found. Cf. DAI –desa (v.) ‘slaughter’ [N]; GIK -theca (v.) ‘to stab, prick, pierce, transfix’ [B] GNAW; PICK A BONE (v.): *-dhuna GIR –dhuna (v.) ‘to gnaw; pick a bone’ [D] = KAB -thũũna’ (v.) ‘to gnaw at a bone with little meat on it; gnaw like rats’ [A]; GIK –thũgũna (v.) ‘gnaw; pick a bone’ [B] HIDE (PREPARED FOR SLEEPING ON, WEARING, OR CARRYING LOADS IN) (n.): *kidhuma (7/8) GIR kidhuma (7/8) ‘leather cloak’ [T], ‘half cow hide or goat skin used as sleeping mat’ [D]


KAM kithuma (7/8) ‘half of the hide of a cow cut into an oval shape, used to carry loads in, and to lie on when travelling’ [KR] = KAB kĩthuma (7/8) ‘the hide of any large animal’ [A]; GIK gĩthuma (7/8) ‘piece of leather or bark placed under a grindstone to catch flour as it is ground; piece of hide used as a mattress by old men; war shield, large shield, large skin back-flap; small leather apron hung by Masai below a ram’s belly to prevent it from serving sheep’ [B] RUMEN; TRIPE (n.): *kitaßira (7/8) GIR kitavira (7/8) ‘first stomach of the sheep’, containing ‘semi-digested grass or chyme’ [Parkin 1991: 148] RAB kidamfira (7/8) ‘the chitterlings’: kidamfira ni mulomo wa ifu [‘the kitamvira is the mouth of the second stomach’ [KR] W.DUR kitamvira (7/8) rough textured edible lining of ifu, one of the stomachs of a cow or goat [W] No CKB equivalents found. Perhaps cognate with KAB -tavĩka (v.) ‘to vomit’ [A]; GIK -tahĩka (v.) ‘to be sick, vomit’ [B] FAT (OF ANIMALS, MEAT) (n.): *dhunya (5/6) GIR madhunyo (6) ‘fat, about body generally’ [T]; madhunya (6) ‘fat of meat’ [D] RAB thunia, pl. mathunia ~ thugnia ~ runia ~ rugnia (5/6) ‘fat, a piece of fat’, e.g. thunia ra gnonzi ‘the fat of a sheep, also medicine for earache’; kithunia ~ kithugnia (7/8) ~ kathunia (12/13) ‘small piece of fat; white spot on the breast of an infant – spoken of as a complaint incidental to them, and which is cured by scarifying it’ [KR] = GIK ithunya (5/6) ‘covering flesh; fat on a beast; piece of raw meat’ [B] CLOT (OF BLOOD) (n.): *dhing’a (5/6) GIR dhing’a (5/6) ‘clot of blood’ [T], ‘clot – chiefly of blood’ [D] No CKB equivalents found. The primary reference of this term is (or was) presumably to the blood of animals, especially cattle. STAUNCH, STOP THE FLOW (OF BLOOD) (v.): *-tuma [check other languages] N.DIG -tuma (v.) ‘to stop bleeding or clotting of blood’ [MNNZ] = GIK -tuma (v.) ‘to sew, knit, weave; (of blood) be staunched; (of a wound) unite, close up’ [B] EGG (n.): *tumbi (5/6) ?D dumbi (5/6) ‘egg’ [KR] W.DUR tumbi (5/6) ‘egg’ [H, W] E.DUR tumbi (5/6) ‘egg’ [NN] N.DIG t’umbi (5/6) ‘egg’ [H]; tumbi (5/6) ‘egg’ [MNNZ] = DAI tumbe (5/6) ‘egg’ [N]; KAB ĩtumbĩ (5/6) ‘egg’ [A]; GIK itumbĩ (5/6) ‘egg’ [B] The restricted southern distribution of this term suggests that it is a relatively recent loan from DAI or KAB.


SHAKE (THE BODY); CHURN (MILK AND CREAM) (v.): *-dhingidhya GIR –dhingidhya (v.) ‘to shake the body in dancing, jazz’; ‘to shake, churn gently when butter is coming’ [D] KAM –thingiria (v.) ‘to shake, churn – used only of milk and cream, when making butter. Put into a calabash and shaken’ [KR] E.DUR –ringirya (v.) ‘to shake (old term), to churn’ [NN] = KAB –thingitha (v.) ‘to shake’ [A]; GIK –thingithia (v.trans.), -thingitha (v.) ‘to tremble, shake, quiver, quake’ [B] The semantic development here is transparent: ‘to shake’ > ‘to churn’. The only MK nominal derivative recorded, GIR kidhingidhyo, refers to shaking of the body in fever (see under THE BODY AND ITS FUNCTIONS). At least one dialect, however, KAM, appears to have restricted use of the verb to its secondary meaning. RINSE OUT A GOURD (v.): *-dhuga GIR –dhuga (v.) ‘to rinse out a narrow necked vessel’; to get thin – chiefly of animals’ [D] = KAB -thuka ĩia (v.) ‘to churn milk’ [A]; GIK –thuka (v.) ‘to clear completely (of crops); swill out, rinse a vessel; jerk, jolt, shake hard (as milk) to make butter; masturbate’ [B] The second GIR meaning of this verb almost certainly derives from a quite different CKB root (= GIK –thũka, ‘to be bad’, see above). However, because GIR (and MK in general) no longer has distinct ‘super-close’ high vowels (which can be reconstructed for PSA), the two borrowed verbs have become homonyms. RINSINGS OF A (MILK) GOURD (n.): *ndhujo (?) ~ *madhujo (6) GIR ndhujo (?) ‘rinsings of a gourd’; madhujo (6) ‘rinsings (of a gourd which contained milk)’ [D] = GIK mathuko ~ mathũco (6) ‘rinsings from gruel calabash, milk bottle, etc.’ [B] This is a nominal form from the verb –dhuga (see above). CALABASH FOR CHURNING (n.): *kidhuki (7/8) GIR kidhuki (7/8) ‘calabash for churning’ [T], ‘large calabash for churning’ [D] = KAB kĩthukĩ (7/8) ‘a large gourd for churning milk’; -thuka ĩia (v.) ‘to churn milk’ [A]; GIK –thuka (v.) ‘to clear completely (of crops); swill out, rinse a vessel; jerk, jolt, shake hard (as milk) to make butter; masturbate’ [B]

FORKED POST (FOR STACKING HARVESTED SORGHUM) (n.): *kidhama (7/8) RAB kithama (7/8) ‘a forked post on which the stalks of Guinea-corn are lodged during harvest’ [KR] ?= KAB -thama (v.) ‘to move from one place to another’; mũthamo (3/4) ‘a removal’ [A]; GIK -thama (v.) ‘to move to a fresh building site; change one’s abode, move from a place; thama (9/10) ‘house-moving, exodus, group of people on move with possessions and herds’ [B]


The semantic development suggested by this etymology is ‘to move, e.g. harvested grain’ > ‘(temporary) place moved to’ > ‘post for lodging harvested grain’. PORRIDGE-LIKE (IN CONSISTENCY) (adj.): *-dhurudhuru GIR dhurudhuru (adj.) ‘of the consistency of gruel’ [D] No CKB equivalents found. CALABASH (WITH A LONG NECK) (n.): *kitete (7/8) GIR kitete (7/8) ‘calabash with a long neck to carry water on a journey’ [T] W.DUR kitete (7/8) ‘first gift of beer to a bride’s father in marriage negotiations’ [W] E.DUR chitete (7/8) ‘small calabash of liquor used in marriage ceremony’ [NN] = KAB kĩtete (7/8) ‘a small gourd used for a journey’ [A]; GIK gĩtete (7/8) ‘long, narrow gourd, used for holding milk, gruel, beer, etc.’; gatete (12/13) (diminutive) [B] HALF-CALABASH (n.): *kidhua (7/8) ~ *ludhua (11/10) GIR kidhuwa (7/8) ‘a half calabash’; ludhuwa (11/10) ‘half calabash (large) used as a basin’ [D]; lulua (11/10) ‘half-calabash’ [NH] = GIK gĩthuga (7/8) ~ gathuga (12/13) ‘split calabash; half calabash used as a food dish’ [B] The term recorded by Nurse and Hinnebusch may be a variant of *lurua, a regular reflex of *ludhua, and therefore not derived from a possible PSA item ? *lulua < CB –dùdùè ~ dúdùè ‘gall bladder’ (1993: 671). BROKEN PIECE OF CALABASH; SKULL (n.): *bebe (5/6) W.DUR kibebe (7/8) ‘calabash sherd’ [W] E.DUR bebe (5/6) ‘broken piece of calabash, gourd’ [NN] N.DIG bebe (5/6) ‘something broken, e.g. calabash’ [W]; bebe (5/6) ‘empty shell of a gourd, husk, broken piece of calabash’ [MNNZ] S.DIG bebe ra chitswa (5/6) ‘skull’ [H] = GIK –beba (v.) ‘to break, snap, break into bits by treading’; -bebera (v.) ‘to break, crush up into pieces’; bebe ~ bebebebe (ideophone) ‘describing the sound of sticks being trodden on and broken’; bebere (ideophone) ‘expressing the idea of being broken into splinters, shivered into fragments’ [B] The probable semantic development of this item is ‘to break’ > ‘broken object’, e.g. calabash > ‘brittle object’, e.g. skull. Contrast GIR kibambaya (7/8) ‘sherd, of a calabash’ [T], and RAB kibambaya (7/8) ‘a small fragment, of calabashes only’ [KR]. FASTEN A CARRYING-CORD TO A CALABASH (v.): *-dhaa GIR –dhaa (v.) ‘to fasten string round a calabash to carry it’, -dhaiwa (v.) ‘of a calabash, to have string or rope fastened round it symmetrically to carry it by’ [D] = KAB -thaa (v.) ‘to tie a strap on a gourd in order to carry it; to snatch anything from another’ [A] –dhaiwa is a passive form of the GIR verb.


SMITHY (n.): *chanda (7/8) GIR chanda ‘smithy’ [T] RAB chanda ‘smithy’ [KR] W.DUR chanda ‘smithy’ [W] E.DUR chanda ‘smithy’ [NN] N.DIG chanda, pl. vyanda (7/8) ‘smithy, blacksmith’s work place’ [MNNZ] = KAB kĩanda (7/8) ‘a blacksmith’s anvil stone; a forge; a portion; a part; a lot’ [A]; GIK kĩganda ‘blacksmith’s or wire-drawer’s shed or working hut; forge; temporary hut for initiates; factory, workshop’ [B] IRON IMPLEMENT; WEAPON (n.): *ki(y)era ~ *chera (7/8) GIR kiyera (7/8) ‘weapon’, pl. viyera ‘arms’ [T] RAB chera, pl. viera (7/8) ‘weapon’ [KR] E.DUR chera (7/8) ‘tool to cut with’ [NN] = DAI kiréa (7/8) ‘iron’ [N]; KAB kĩaa (7/8) ‘iron’ [A]; GIK kĩgera (7/8) ‘iron, piece of iron; metal in general’ [B]. Cf. LPK kera (7/8) ‘iron’. The unconfirmed DAI item is taken from Baumann (1891): if not mistranscribed, it may be the product of metathesis. The sematic development of this item can be reconstructed as ‘iron’ > ‘iron implement’ > ‘weapon’. AWL (n.): *kidhekedho (7/8) GIR kidhekedho (7/8) ‘awl’ [T, D] = KAB kĩtheketho (7/8) ‘an auger; a gimlet; an instrument for taking out teeth or boring a hole in arrows in which to insert the points’; kĩthekethi (7/8) ‘an eggbeater; a twirling stick for starting a fire’; -theketha (v.) ‘to beat blood or eggs, etc.; to twirl, as in making fire; to bore’ [A]; GIK gĩthegethi (7/8) ‘drill’; -thegetha (v.) ‘to drill with a tool’. PERSONAL ORNAMENT (n.): *dhaa (5/6) GIR dhaa ‘personal ornament’; -funga dhaa (v.) ‘to dress with ornaments; adorn’ [D] = KAB ĩthaa (5/6) ‘anything that is very nice; neck ornament’ [A]; GIK ithaga (5/6) ‘article of personal adornment, trinket’ [B] NECK ORNAMENT (OF COPPER CHAIN STITCHED ON LEATHER) (n.): *ngudhi (?5/6) GIR ngudhi (?5/6) ‘neck ornament of ndale stitched on leather’; (9/10) ‘a lot of people, bands of people’ [D] ?= GIK nguthi (9/10) ‘(of persons) ostentatiousness, display, swagger, jauntiness, self-conceit, vainglory; (of things) show, state, pomp, pride’ [B] The two meanings recorded by Deed appear to be from unrelated sources. CROWD OF PEOPLE (n.): *ngudhi (9/10) GIR ngudhi (9/10) ‘a lot of people, bands of people’; (?5/6) ‘neck ornament of ndale stitched on leather’ [D] = KAB nguthu (9/10) ‘ a crowd’ [A] The two meanings recorded by Deed appear to be from unrelated sources.


FLAT METAL BRACELET (OF BRASS) (n.): *kidanga (7/8) GIR kidanga (7/8) ‘flat brass bracelet’ [T] RAB kidanga (7/8) ‘a bracelet, of flat workmanship’ [KR] = KAB kĩtanga ~ kĩtang’a (7/8) ‘a bracelet’ [A]; kĩtanga kya kw’oko ‘bracelet’ [M]; GIK ndanga ‘a kind of bracelet’; matanga (6) ~ itanga (8) ‘brass spirals worn suspended from ears by a woman who has had a child circumcised.’ [B] METAL BEADS (OF IRON AND BRASS) (n.): ?*mudhanga (3/4) RAB muthanga, pl. mithanga (3/4) ‘iron and brass beads as made by the Kamba’ [KR] ?= KAB mũthanga (3/4) ‘ground, dirt, country’ [A]; GIK mũthanga (3/4) ‘sand; iron ore, murrum’; -thanga (v.) ‘to rust, tarnish’ [B] The dictionary entry suggests that this may be a relatively recent loanword from KAB and/or mistranscribed and from the same root as the preceding item. LEAD (METAL) (n.): *ßuro (?) GIR wuro (?) ‘lead (metal)’ [T]; vuro (?) ‘lead’ [D] ?= KAB -vũa (v.) ‘to beat’ [A]; GIK hũro (9/10) ‘beating’; -hũra (v.) ‘to beat, hit, strike, pound, tap’ [B] The suggested semantic development is ‘to beat’ > ‘beaten metal’ > ‘lead’.

VISIT, GO AND STAY AT (v.): *-dhoka GIR –dhoka (v.) ‘to go to visit, go and stay at’ (e.g. ‘mudzi udhokwao – a village always full of visitors’) [D], ‘to visit’ [N] = DAI –doka ~ -doka (v.) ‘travel’ [N]; KAB -thoka (v.) ‘to stop at a place; to visit a friend’ [A]; GIK –thoka (v.) ‘to go to somebody to ask for his daughter in marriage’ [B]. Cf. Pare –dhoka ~ -zoka (v.) ‘to travel’. The GIR expression mudzi udhokwao, literally ‘a village / homestead cluster which is visited’, uses the passive form of the verb, -dhokwa. GO OUT TO MEET AND WELCOME (v.): *-dhana GIR –thana (v.) ‘to go to meet’ [KR]; –dhana (v.) ‘to go out to meet’ [T], ‘to go out to meet; welcome on the way’ [D] RAB –muthana (v.) ‘to go to meet’ [K] = GIK -thaagaana (v.) ‘to go out to meet somebody in order to help him bring something home’ [B] ESCORT, ACCOMPANY A DEPARTING VISITOR (v.): *-rumarya GIR –rumarya (v.) ‘to accompany a person who has visited you a part of the way, by way of courtesy’ [T] RAB –rumaria (v.) ‘to see one off’, e.g. kurumaria charo (undefined) [KR] = KAB –umaasya (v.) ‘to escort one on a journey a little way’; -umaala (v.) ‘to come out; to go out’ [A]; GIK -umagaria (v.) ‘take away from home, conduct out by village exit-way; see off a departing guest or relative going on a long journey; give a send-off to; attend a departing guest a short way; drive livestock 20

to pasture’; -umagara (v.) ‘to leave home, village, by the entrance path, gate; go outside home or village, start on a journey from home’ [B]. The stem-initial /r/ in this item is anomalous, as is retention of the older CKB causative extension. GUIDE, LEAD, ADVANCE (v.): *-tongodhya GIR –tongodhya ~ -tonodhya (v.) ‘to advance, guide, precede’; -tongozha (v.) ‘to make to advance’ [T] RAB –dongoria (v.) ‘to precede, take the lead’ [KR] N.DIG -tongorya (v.) ‘to precede, to go before, take the lead’; -tongoya (v.) ‘to precede’ [MNNZ] = KAB -tongoesya (v.) ‘to lead; to go before’ [A]; –tongosya ~ -tongoesya (v.) ‘to guide, lead’ [M]; GIK –tongoria (v.) ‘to lead, go first, go in front of, lead off, lead the way; be a chosen leader’ [B]. Cf. SWA –tongoza (v.) ‘to seduce’. In GIR the ‘fossilised’ (functionally inactive) CKB causative extension in this verb, /dhy/, has been replaced by the GIR causative extension, /zh/, to make its functional causative form. This may well be the source of the SWA verb. GUIDE (n.): *mutongodhyi (1/2) GIR mutongodhyi ~ mutongozhi (1/2) ‘guide’ [T] = KAB mũtongoi (1/2) ‘a leader’ [A]; mũtongoi (1/2) ‘guide’ [M]; GIK mũtongoria (1/2) ‘leader, guide’ [B]. This is a nominal derived from the preceding item and not from its CKB equivalents. RESTING-PLACE (ON JOURNEY) (n.): *kidhumuo (7/8) GIR kidhumuwo (7/8) ‘halting-place in a journey; rest, resting-place by the way’ [T]; kidhumuo (7/8) ‘resting place on a journey, stage of a journey’ [D] = KAB kĩthũmũo (7/8) ‘a resting-place’; ũthũmũo, pl. mothũmũo (14/6) ‘a rest’; -thũmũa (v.) ‘to rest’ [A] APPOINTMENT (n.): *mbadha (9/10) GIR mbadha ~ m’badha (9) ‘appointment, time, covenant’ [T]; mbadha (9) ‘appointment, appointed time’; -ika mbadha (v.) ‘to make an appointment’ [D] RAB mbatha (9) ‘a day specified, an appointed time’; mbathambatha (adv.) ‘very little’ [KR] E.DUR mbara (9) ‘appointment, appointed day’ [NN] N.DIG mbara (9/10) ‘promise, appointment’ [MNNZ] = KAB kyathĩ (7/8) ‘an appointed time; a gathering’; -atha (v.) ‘to promise; to point out’ [A]; GIK gĩathĩ (7/8) ‘appointment, prearranged meeting; any gathering together of people for social purposes, at a market, feast, etc.’; -atha gĩathĩ (v. +) ‘to make an appointment’; -atha (v.) ‘to command, order, rule, discipline, control’ [B]. Cf. SWA miadi (4) ‘a promise, esp. with reference to a particular time or date’; ahadi (9) ‘promise, covenant, agreement, engagement’ (< Arabic). See also the following item. MEETING-PLACE (AND TIME) (n.): *chadhe ~ *chadhi (7/8) GIR chadhe (7/8) ‘trysting-place’ [D] RAB chathi, pl. viathi (7/8) ‘an appointment, time specified and fixed, direction’ [KR]


= KAB kyathĩ (7/8) ‘an appointed time; a gathering’; -atha (v.) ‘to promise; to point out’ [A]; GIK gĩathĩ (7/8) ‘appointment, prearranged meeting; any gathering together of people for social purposes, at a market, feast, etc.’; -atha gĩathĩ (v. +) ‘to make an appointment’; -atha (v.) ‘to command, order, rule, discipline, control’ [B] See also the preceding item. MEET (ON THE ROAD) (v.): *-tungana ~ *-tunganana GIR –tunganana (v.) ‘to meet on the road’ [T] W.DUR –tungana (v.) ‘to meet with’ [W] E.DUR –tungana (v.) ‘to meet’ [NN] = GIK -tũngana (v.) ‘to meet one another, hold a meeting’; –tũnga (v.) ‘to meet, go and meet’ [B]. Cf. LPK –tongana (v.) ‘to follow’. MK has borrowed the reciprocal form of the original CKB root. The double reciprocal seen in the GIR form may either have been borrowed as it is or innovated in GIR by adding the second reciprocal extension. This double reciprocal appears to have a more specific meaning which is consistent with the emphasis on travel in other loanwords. MEETING OF PEOPLE; MULTITUDE (n.): *mutunganano (3/4) GIR mutunganano (3/4) ‘multitude’; mutungananoni (3/4) ‘meeting, place of concourse’ [T] = GIK gĩtũngano (7/8) ‘meeting, assembly’ [B]. This is a nominal formed from the double reciprocal form of the CKB verb stem (see above). The locative form *mutungananoni could have been either borrowed or innovated, the locative suffix /-ni/ being common to both CKB and PSA. MAKE PARTNERSHIP (v.): *-kwatanira GIR –kwatanira (v.) ‘to make partnership; associate’ [T] = KAB -kwatana (v.) ‘to take hold of each other’ < -kwata (v.) ‘to take hold of, to hold’ [A]; –kwatan’ya (v.) ‘to join’ [M]; GIK –gwatanĩra (v.) ‘to hold as joint property, be of one mind in a project, share possession of something; associate, co-operate with’ < -gwata (v.) ‘to take hold of, seize, hold (in the hand), grip’ [B] PARTNER (n.): *mukwataniri (1/2) GIR m’kwataniri (1/2) ‘partner’ [T] = KAB mũkwatanĩi (1/2) ‘partner’ [M]; GIK mũgwatanĩri (1/2) ‘partner’ [B] PARTNER (ACTIVE) (n.): *mukwatanira (1/2) GIR m’kwatanira (1/2) ‘partner (active)’ [T] = KAB mũkwatanĩi (1/2) ‘partner’ < –kwatan’ya (v.) ‘to join’ [M]; GIK mũgwatanĩri (1/2) ‘partner’ < –gwatanĩra (v.) ‘to associate, co-operate with’ [B] BARGAIN, PRICE, TRADE (n.): *dhora (5/6) GIR dhora (5/6) ‘bargain, price’ [T], ‘commerce; price; bargain’ [D]; -piga dhora (v.) ‘to bargain’ [D]; -tosa dhora (v.) ‘to finish a bargain’ [T], ‘to finish deal’ [D]; -tana dhora (v.) ‘to fail to effect a bargain’ [T], -tana dhora (v.) ‘to


fail to make a deal’ [D]; -henda dhora (v.) ‘to trade’ [T]; mwenye madhora (1/2) ‘merchant, trader’ [T]; munena-dhora (1/2) ‘go-between’ [T]; kunena dhora (?) ‘the go-between in a deal’ [D]. RAB thora ~ rora (5/6), uthora (14) ‘bargain, commerce, trade’ [KR]; -piga thora (v.) ‘to strike a bargain’ [KR] = DAI –doja (v.) ‘to buy’ [Da], -doja ~ -døja (v.) ‘bargain’, ‘buy’ [N]; KAB thooa (9/10) ‘price, value’; -thooa (v.) ‘to buy’ [A]; GIK thogora (5/6) ‘price, terms of exchange’; thogorano ‘bargaining, business, deal, transaction’; -thogora (v.) ‘barter, bargain for; carry through, purchase, sale; buy’; -thogoranĩra (v.) ‘to bargain for’ [B]. Cf. Pare –dhora ~ -zora (v.), also –zogora (v.) ‘to bargain’; Taita –zogora (v.) ‘to bargain’. MK has only borrowed this CKB root in nominal form, not the verb as seen in DAI –doja. None of the MK compound verbs or nouns used with this nominal form are CKB loans, and can therefore be assumed to have been innovated by MK. MEASURE, FIT (v.): *-era RAB –era (v.) ‘to proportion, make adequate’; -era niuni (v.) ‘to take a bearing of birds, in seeking an omen of them’ [KR] = KAB -ela (v.) ‘to measure food etc.’; -elania (v.) ‘to give each an equal portion, to compare one thing with another by measuring them’ [A]; GIK -gera (v.) ‘to count, measure, reckon’ [B] Contrast GIR –eza, ‘to measure’, which is a regular reflex of the PSA root (*-gezy- < CB *-gèd- [NH]). The RAB compound form –era nyuni is discussed in more detail below (see under OMENS). KIND, SORT (n.): *mudhemba (3/4) GIR mudhemba (3/4) ‘kind (of thing), sort’ [T], ‘kind, sort, variety’ [D] = KAB mũthemba (3/4) ‘kind, species, variety’ [A]; GIK mũthemba (3/4) ‘kind, species, type, quality, sort, category’ [B] WORK; BUSINESS; NEED (n.): *ßata (?9/10) GIR wata ~ wata (?9/10) ‘occupation’ [T]; vata (?9/10) ‘need, want; business’, e.g. nina vata na…, ‘I need…’ [D] = DAI pata (9/10) ‘work’ [N]; KAB vata (9/10) ‘need, necessity’ [A]; ‘business, need, want’ [M]; GIK bata (9/10) ‘need, value, worth, use; something requiring attention, business affair; importance, impressive size, weight; ritual ceremony’ [B] BRIBE, BLACKMAIL (n.): *matußo (6) GIR matuvo (6) ‘blackmail; bribe; hush money’ [D] = KAB ĩtuvi (5/6) ‘wages, reward’ < -tuva (v.) ‘to pay a wage’ [A]; ituvi (5) ‘bribe’ < -tuva (v.) ‘to bribe’ [M]; GIK –tuha (v.) ‘give a customary gift, offering, gratuity (to midwife, medicine-man, etc.); induce a bride (to enter her home) by making gifts’ [B] DEBT (n.): *randu (5/6) GIR randu (5/6) ‘debt’ [T] RAB randu (5/6) ‘debt’ [KR]


= KAB ĩandũ (5/6) ‘a dun; a bill’ [A]; GIK irandũ (5/6) ~ mũrandũ (3/4) ‘demand for payment; (in pl.) debts owing by somebody’ [B]. Cf. LPK rando (5/6) ‘debt’. DEBTOR (n.): *murandu (1/2) RAB murandu (1/2) ‘debtor’ [KR] = KAB ĩandũ (5/6) ‘a dun; a bill’ [A]; GIK irandũ (5/6) ~ mũrandũ (3/4) ‘demand for payment; (in pl.) debts owing by somebody’ [B]. Cf. LPK rando (5/6) ‘debt’. From the same root as the preceding item. POVERTY (n.): *ukia (14) GIR ukiya (14) ‘poverty’ [T] RAB uchia (14) ‘poverty’ [KR] N.DIG uchiya (14) ‘poverty’ [MNNZ] = DAI ũkea ~ uké(y)a (14) ‘grief, sorrow’ [N]; KAB ũkya (14/6) ‘poverty’; ngya (1/2) ‘a poor person’ [A]; GIK ũkĩa (14) ‘poverty’; -kĩa (adj.) ‘poor, poverty-stricken’; ngĩa (1/2) ‘poor person, pauper’ [B] See also the following two items. POOR, UNHAPPY PERSON (n.): *mukia (1/2) GIR mukiya (1/2) ‘abject person’ [T] N.DIG mchiya (1/2) ‘poor person’ [MNNZ] = DAI ũkea (14) ‘grief’ [N]; KAB ũkya (14) ‘poverty’; ngya (1/2) ‘a poor person’ [A]; GIK ũkĩa (14) ‘poverty’; -kĩa (adj.) ‘poor, poverty-stricken’; ngĩa (1/2) ‘poor person, pauper’ [B] GRIEF (n.): *kikia (7) GIR kikiya (7) ‘grief’ [T] RAB kikia (7) [undefined] [KR] = DAI ũkea (14) ‘grief’ [N]; KAB ũkya (14) ‘poverty’; ngya (1/2) ‘a poor person’ [A]; GIK ũkĩa (14) ‘poverty’; -kĩa (adj.) ‘poor, poverty-stricken’; ngĩa (1/2) ‘poor person, pauper’ [B] See also the preceding two items.

SEGEJU (n.): *musagidzu (1/2) GIR asagidzu (1/2) ‘the Segeju’; usagidzuni (14) ‘Segeju-land’ [T] ABORIGINAL1 (n.): *mumadhaka (1/2) RAB mumathaka (1/2) [undefined]; kimathaka (7) ‘belonging to or being of the nature of a Mumathaka. Maneno ga kimathaka, The language of the Amathaka’ [KR] = DAI daka ‘forest’ [N]; KAB kĩtheka (7) ‘bush, forest’ [A]; GIK gĩthaka (7/8) ‘estate, privately owned piece of land; family or clan holding; uncultivated land, bush, scrub’ [B]; < CB *càká The SMK ethnonym evidently means ‘people of the bush’ (cf. GIR dhaka ‘excrement’ < ‘bush’), an apt description of the people referred to. The DUR 24

name ‘Masaka’ given by Krapf in an earlier work (1860: 400) is irregular and probably mistranscribed (it is not otherwise recorded). The name ‘Maraka’, recorded by Hollis in the SMK area (1900: 277), however, shows regular replacement of */dh/ with /r/. Krapf and Rebmann also give Wamataka as a name in the Jomvu dialect of Swahili for the Laa (1887: 282), the name given to aboriginal hunters primarily in NMK traditions. There are good grounds for supposing that the Laa ~ Lawa were the predecessors or ancestors of the modern Waata, before they began speaking an Oromo dialect. It can be assumed that the ethnonym amadhaka was subsequently retained for the Waata and Waata assimilated to the MK. This name is, however, no longer heard: MK speakers now generally refer to the Waata as alangulo (NMK) or aryangulo (SMK), and to different groups of assimilated Waata among the SMK as adegere and avuna (see Walsh 1990 and 1992/93). ABORIGINAL2 (n.): *mumaumba (1/2) = GIK mũgumba (1/2) ‘one of the Gumba people’; Gumba (14) ‘race of diminutive people believed to have been former inhabitants of Kikuyu country, dwelling in holes in the ground covered by a rough shelter; name of an early major age-set, belonging to the time when the Agĩkũyũ met these people’ [B] KASIGAU MOUNTAIN (n.): *kadhiaro RAB kathiaro (proper name) ‘Kasigau’ [KR].

CAPTURE, PLUNDER, LOOT (v.): *-taßa GIR –tawa (v.) ‘to capture, plunder, loot’; -tawira (v.) ‘to ravage’ [T] RAB –tamfa ~ -damfa (v.) ‘to plunder, carry away’; -damfira (v.) (applicative) [KR] E.DUR –taphira (v.) ‘to rob with force’ [NN] = DAI –tava (v.) ‘draw (water)’ [N]; KAB -tava (v.) ‘to scoop up, e.g. water with a gourd; to raid cattle or people’; -tavĩla (v.) ‘to dip for another, as water’ [A]; GIK –taha (v.) ‘to draw (water), draw off, bale (out); to take captive, capture (livestock, people), plunder, impound, confiscate, loot’ [B] As these glosses indicate, the primary reference of the CKB verb is to the drawing of water. The second, extended, meaning (‘take away water’ > ‘take away captives and loot in war’), however, is the one that has been borrowed by MK, together with a number of its derivatives (see below). In E.DUR this second sense has been weakened to refer to (violent) robbery in general. The applicative E.DUR form, *-taßira, does not have the shape expected (*-tamvira, as in RAB), and is possibly either borrowed from or influenced by GIR. CAPTOR (n.): *mutaßi (1/2) GIR mutawi (1/2) ‘captor’ [T]; mutavi (1/2) ‘captor’ [D] DUR mutaphi (1/2) ‘robber’ [NN] A nominal originally derived from the root of the verb *-taßa, ‘to capture, plunder, loot’ (see above). As noted for the verb, the E.DUR form appears to have been borrowed from or influenced by GIR.


CAPTIVE (n.): *mutaßwa ~ *mutaßwi (1/2) GIR mutawwa ~ mutawwi (1/2) ‘captive in war’ [T]; mutavwa (1/2) ‘captive’ [D] A nominal derived from *-taßwa, the passive form of the verb *-taßa (see above). Cf. GIK mũndũ mũtahe (1/2) ‘captive’ [B]. CAPTURE, PLUNDER, LOOTING (n.): *utaßi (14) E.DUR utaphi (14) ‘armed robbery’ [NN] = KAB mũtavo (3/4) ‘robbery, raid’ [A] A nominal derived from the active form of the verb, *-taßa (see above). Again, the E.DUR form may be a later borrowing from GIR, its range of reference extended and subsequently shifted (in relatively peaceful times) to robbery rather than warfare. BOOTY, SPOILS (n.): *mataßo (6) ~ *mataßwa (6) ~ *vitaßwa (8) GIR matawo (6) ~ matawwa (6) ~ vitawwa (8) ‘booty, spoils’ [T]; matavo (6) ~ matavwa (6) ~ vitavwa (8) ‘spoil, booty’ [D] = KAB ĩtava (5/6) ‘one helping of food from a dish; one dipping of water; looting of cattle from enemies’ [A]; GIK ĩtaha ~ ĩtaho (5/6) ~ ndaho (9/10) ‘a drawing of water; (of mashed food) portion scooped up with a small halfcalabash; spoil of a raiding expedition; captive, loot’ [B] The first term in this series of synonyms is derived from the active verb, *-taßa, and the second two terms from its passive form, *-taßwa (see above). CONQUER, DEFEAT IN WAR (v.): *-dhima GIR –dhima (v.) ‘to conquer, overcome’ [T], ‘to conquer, overcome, win’ [D] RAB –thima ~ -rima ‘(sometimes)’ (v.) ‘to surpass in strength, to prevail over, overpower, overcome’ [KR] = KAB -thima (v.) ‘to weigh; to measure; to dig’ [A]; GIK –thima (v.) ‘to measure, weigh; (of a doctor) examine, test, gauge; aim, take an aim at, hit the target’ [B]. Cf. ELW –dhima (v.) ‘to count’ [N]. The semantic connection between the CKB and ELW forms and the MK loan is not immediately obvious, but is perhaps clearer in the reciprocal GIR form, -dhimana (see below). The link between the two senses seems to be that of a contest of strength: ‘to measure’ > ‘to contest’ > ‘to defeat’. The semantics suggest that ELW borrowed this verb root from CKB independently, and probably earlier. VICTOR (n.): *mudhima ~ *mudhimi (1/2) GIR mudhima (1/2) ‘victor’ [T]; mudhimi (1/2) ‘conqueror’ [D] This is a nominal derivative of the active form of the verb root -dhima (see above): = CKB –thima ‘to measure’. ? VICTORY (n.): *dhima (5/6) RAB dima ~ thima ‘a defeat’ [KR] The expected meaning of a nominal *dhima (5/6?) from the active verb form -dhima (= CKB –thima ‘to measure’, see above), would be ‘victory’, not ‘defeat’. These are, of course, two sides of the same coin. VANQUISHED (n.): *mudhimwi (1/2)


GIR adhimwi (1/2) ‘the vanquished’ [T] Evidently a nominal derivative of the passive form (*-dhimwa) of the verb -dhima (see above): = CKB –thima ‘to measure’. COMPETE (v.): *-dhimana GIR –dhimana (v.) ‘to emulate one another’ (e.g. –piga malo ga kudhimana ‘to race for a wager’) [T], ‘to compete’ [D] This is a reciprocal form of the verb –dhima (see above): = CKB –thima ‘to measure’. The semantic connection between measurement and competition (and therefore conquest) is more readily discerned in this form of the GIR verb. DISPUTE; REBELLION (n.): *madhimano (6) GIR madhimano (6) ‘argument, disagreement, dissension, rebellion’ [D] A nominal derived from the reciprocal form, -dhimana, of the verb –dhima (see above): = CKB –thima ‘to compete’. REBEL (n.): *mukedhyanyi (1/2) GIR mukedhyanyi (1/2) ‘rebel’ [D] No CKB cognates found. BE ABLE (v.): *-dhura RAB -thura ~ -dura ~ -rura (v.) ‘to be able’ [KR] ?= DAI –dura (v.) ‘to choose’ [N]; GIK -thuura (v.) ‘to choose, pick out, select, elect; sort out; investigate, discuss, unravel an affair’ [B] The applicative form of this verb (see below) has more obvious martial connotations. It is possible that this verb shares a common origin with RAB -thura ‘to receive the crowing honours on being promoted from a mumondo to a govu’ [KR] (see under AGE-SETS AND INITIATION RITUALS). TEST (ESPECIALLY ONE’S COURAGE) (v.) *-dhurya RAB –duria (v.) ‘to test, to put to the test, especially one’s courage’ [KR] ?= DAI –dura (v.) ‘to choose’ [N]; GIK -thuura (v.) ‘to choose, pick out, select, elect; sort out; investigate, discuss, unravel an affair’ [B] This is the applicative form of –dhura, ‘to be able’ (see above), possibly related to RAB –thuria, ‘to bestow the crowing honours on the mumondo’ [KR] (see under AGE-SETS AND INITIATION RITUALS). APPEAR GLORIOUS (v.): *-kuma RAB –kuma (v.) ‘to appear great’ [KR] = KAB -kumya (v.) ‘to speak well of another; to praise’ [A]; GIK –kumia (v.) ‘praise, extol somebody to others’ [B] FAME, GLORY (n.): *nguma (9) GIR nguma (9) ‘fame’; munguma (1/2) ‘glorious, famous, celebrated’ [T] RAB nguma (9) ‘popularity’ [KR] E.DUR nguma (9) ‘news, information, fame’ [NN] N.DIG nguma (9/10) ‘glory, praise, fame (can be good or bad)’ [MNNZ] = KAB nguma (9) ‘renown; fame; reputation, either good or bad’ [A]; GIK ngumo (9) ‘fame, reputation, praise’ [B]


GIR munguma is presumably a derived form of nguma, itself originally derived from the verb –kuma (see the preceding entry). GLORIFY (v.): *-kumya RAB –kumia (v.) ‘to make appear great, magnify, exaggerate’ [KR] = KAB -kumya (v.) ‘to speak well of another; to praise’ [A]; GIK –kumia (v.) ‘praise, extol somebody to others’ [B] This is the applicative form of –kuma, ‘to appear great’ (see above). GLORIFICATION (n.): *kumya (?9) RAB kumia (?) ‘exaggeration’ [KR] = KAB -kumya (v.) ‘to speak well of another; to praise’ [A]; GIK ũkumio (14) ‘praise, adulation’ < –kumia (v.) ‘praise, extol somebody to others’ [B] This is a nominal derivative of the verb form -kumya, ‘to glorify’ (see above). FRIENDLESS(NESS); LONELINESS (n.): *bweßeße (?) GIR bwewewe (?) ‘friendless(ness)’ [T]; gweveve (?) ‘loneliness: solitude: churlishness: state of being shunned and shunning’ [D] No CKB cognates found. The difference between the two different GIR attestations of this term may be explained by the presence of labiovelarisation: [bw] > [gbw]. ANGER (n.): *ngoro (9) GIR k’oro (9) ‘anger’ [T] RAB koro (9) ‘anger’ [KR] E.DUR ngoro (9) ‘sorrows, bad disposition, bitterness’ [NN] DIG ngoro (9) ‘anger’ [KR] = DAI ngoro ~ ngørø (9/10) ‘heart, soul, spirit’ [N]; KAB ngoo (9/10) ‘the heart (of a person, animal, banana tree’ [A]; GIK ngoro (9/10) ‘heart; spirit, conscience, mind, soul, inner man; upper part of back’; ngũrũ (9/10) ~ rũkũrũ (11/10) ‘arrogance, overbearingness, aggressiveness, arbitrariness’ [B]. Cf. LPK ngoro (9) ‘bad mood’ SAVAGERY (n.): *kißii (7) GIR kiwii (7/8), e.g. yuna kiwii-wii, ‘his temper is savage’ [T] = GIK wĩĩ, pl. mawĩĩ (14/6) ‘surliness, grimness, churlishness, unsociability; irritability, hotheadedness, short temper; hard-heartedness, ill nature, cruelty, severity, ferocity, savageness, ruthlessness, harshness; (pl.) evil traits and acts, malevolence, uncharitablenesses’ [B] REVENGE, VENGEANCE (n.): *udhu (14) GIR udhu (14) ‘revenge, vengeance’, e.g. udzadzirihiza udhu-we, ‘he has taken his revenge’ [T] = KAB ũthũ, pl. mothũ (14/6) ‘long-standing hatred’ [A]; GIK ũthũ (14) ‘enmity, hatred; state of feud, animosity’ [B] BADLY BEHAVED (adj.): *mudhuamudhua RAB muthuamuthua (adj.) ‘impudent; lit. without behaviour, badly behaved’ [KR]


?= KAB mũthũo (3/4) ‘hatred’ < -thũa (v.) ‘to scratch a person; to hate a person’ [A]; GIK thũ (9/10) ‘enemy, adversary’; ũthũ (14) ‘enmity, hatred; state of feud, animosity’ < -thũa (v.) ‘to scratch (body with nails); burnish (with hard stone); rub; put edge on spear, sword. etc. after forging; hunt for’ [B] BECOME PEACEFUL (v.): *-dhera GIR mudzadherwa ‘(God) has saved ye! Old language, in salutations’ [T]; na-hudherwe! ‘God save us! (in modern dialect would be ni-hurerwe!)’ [T]; -dherwa (v.) ‘used in old persons’ greeting’ [D]. D? –rera (v.) ‘to subside, yield, repose’ [KR] N.DIG -rere (v.) ‘to be asleep’; kurere ‘there is peace (in a place)’ [MNNZ] = KAB -thea (v.) ‘to be clean; to be pure; to be holy’ [A]; GIK -thera (v.) ‘to be bright, shine, sparkle; be clean, transparent, pure, innocent; be wise’ [B] This verb evidently shares its root with the noun udheri (> reri) ‘peace’ (see below). The active form (seen in D? –rera, < *-dhera) probably had the original meaning ‘to become peaceful, stop fighting a war’, and the passive form (as in GIR *-dherwa) ‘to be peaceful’. Whereas the missionary Taylor gave the old GIR greetings monotheistic glosses, better translations of them would be ‘Peace be with you!’ (mudzadherwa) and ‘Peace be with us!’ (nahudherwe). PEACE (n.): *dheri (5) ~ *udheri (14) GIR udheri (14) ‘peace after a war’ [T]; -rya udheri (v.) ‘to accept peace’ [T], ‘ceremony of peacemaking [D]; -risa dheri (v.) ‘to make peace between two or more tribes (at war)’ [T]; RAB theri ~ rere ‘quietness, peace’ [KR]; reri ‘safety, peace’ [KR] E.DUR reri ‘peace’ [NN] N.DIG kurere ‘there is peace (in a place)’ [MNNZ] = KAB -thei (adj.) ‘bare; empty; naked’ [A]; GIK ĩtheri (5/6) ‘an open space’; ũtheri, pl. motheri (14/6) ‘light, radiance, brightness; state of emptiness, nakedness’; -theri (adj.) ‘unmixed, plain, of one kind; bare, empty’ [B] Evidently from the same root as the verb *-dhera (> -rera) (see above). SPY, SCOUT (v.): *-dhyana GIR –dhyana ~ -dhiana (v.) ‘to scout, spy out’ [T]; -dhyana (v.) ‘to spy, look about’ [D] RAB –thiana (v.) (undefined) [KR] = KAB –thiana (v.) ‘to spy out; to scout for the enemy’ [A]; GIK –thigana (v.) ‘to spy out, reconnoitre, explore enemy’s dispositions, whereabouts of cattle etc., territory’ [B]. Cf. Pare and Taita -zigana (v.) ‘to spy’ [N] SPY, SCOUT (n.): *mudhyani (1/2) GIR mudhyani ~ ndiani (1/2) ‘a spy’ [T]; mudhiani (plural ndiani) (1/2) ‘scout, spy’ [D]. RAB muthiani (plural athiani or ndiani – ‘irregular’) (1/2) ‘a spy’ [KR] = KAB mũthiani (1/2) ‘a spy’ [A]; GIK mũthigani (1/2) ‘scout, spy, member of reconnaisance patrol, tracker’ [B] This noun shares its stem with the verb –dhyana (see above). Why does it have an irregular plural form?


SUSPECT; WATCH CLOSELY (v.): *-elelia RAB –elelia (v.) ‘to keep an eye upon, watch one’s conduct; suspect’ [KR] = KAB -elela (v.) ‘to measure, as a patch or a door, etc.’ < -ela (v.) ‘to measure food etc.; to go toward a place’ [A]; GIK –ĩgereria (v.) ‘to test oneself’ < -gera (v.) ‘to count, measure, reckon’ [B] /l/ < */r/ suggests that this may be a relatively recent loan from KAB. Cf. RAB –era nyuni (v.) from the same underlying verb root. WATCH (A SUSPICIOUS PERSON); STALK (AN ANIMAL) (v.): *-dhutsa GIR –dhutsa (v.) ‘to watch a suspected person; to stalk an animal in hunting’ [D] No CKB cognates found. WATCHER (OF A SUSPICIOUS PERSON) (n.): *mudhutsi (1/2) GIR mudhutsi (1/2) ‘one who watches a suspicious person, a detective’ [D] No CKB cognates found. A nominal form from the same root as the verb –dhutsa (see above). BIVOUAC (n.): *kißuu (7) GIR –lala kiwuu (v.) ‘to bivouack without fires near a place where it is intended to attack (= to lie without precaution?)’ [T]; kivuu (7) ‘rendezvous, bivouac’ [D]; -lala kivuu (v.) ‘to sleep in readiness for battle next day; to camp before…’ [D] ?= GIK -hũga (v.) ‘to be active, busy; move about; (of ears) be alert, erect’ [B] GO OUT TO ATTACK (v.): *-ramuka GIR –ramuka (v.) ‘to go out to attack’ [T] RAB –ramuka (v.) ‘to start, set out, especially for war’; kuramuka wiha(ni) ‘to start for a battle’; -ramukira (v.) (applicative); -ramusha (v.) (causative) [KR] = DAI –ramuka (v.) ‘awaken’ [N]; KAB –amũka (v.) ‘to awake from sleep’ [A]; GIK –ramũka (v.) ‘(of eyes) be, become, open; (of flowers) open up, open out, blossom; (of plants beaten to ground by heavy rains) stand up again’ [B] The CKB forms are from the same CB root (*-dàmuk-) as PSA *-lamuk- ‘wake up’ [NH]. The regular reflexes of this item in MK have retained their original meaning, e.g. GIR –lamuka (v.) ‘wake up’, -lamusa (v.) ‘awaken’, whereas the loanword took on a special military connotation: ‘wake up’ > ‘wake up and go out’ > ‘go out to attack’. The implication is that the historical Segeju were in the habit of attacking and surprising their enemies early in the morning. The same is implied by the glosses of GIR kißuu (7/8) ‘bivouac’. LINE; LINE OF BATTLE, TROOP (n.): *mudhia (3/4) GIR mudhia, pl. midhiya (3/4) ‘troop’, pl. ‘divisions (of army)’ [T]; mudhia (3/4) ‘band of people’ [D] RAB muthia, pl. mithia (3/4) ‘partition in a hut, line, stripe’; ‘line, row in fighting a war / battle, line of battle’ [KR] = KAB mũthia (3/4) ‘row (of ants, berries, people, etc.)’ [A]; GIK mũthia (3/4) ‘tip, point, peak, end, extremity’ [B] ENEMY (n.): *mumaidha (1/2)


GIR m’maidha (1/2) ‘adversary, esp. in war’ [T]; mumaidha (1/2) ‘enemy, nastily disposed person’ [D] = KAB mũmaitha (1/2) ‘an enemy’ [A]; GIK mũmaitha (1/2) ‘a Maasai; an enemy; a valiant strong man’; maitha (2) ‘old name for Maasai; hostile people, enemies; strangers, strange people, pygmies’ [B] Cf. Jomvu dialect of SWA mumaitha ~ mumeitha (1/2) ‘robber’ [KR]: possibly a mistaken attribution. BE FULLY ARMED; INHERIT HOUSEHOLD GOODS (v.): *-dhya kura GIR –dhya kura ‘to inherit household goods’ (dhora); ‘wear full arms’ (e.g. udzadhya kura ‘he is armed cap-à-pie’ (head to foot)) [T], ‘to be armed’ [D] ?= GIK -thiga (v.) ‘to dye (cloth), clothes, by smearing on ochre, oil, or paint); (of initiates) end novitiate (by redyeing clothes after being healed); carry a load; rub breasts’; -ĩthiga (v.) ‘to assume, take on oneself (a burden, duty, or responsibility), bear the consequences of one’s own actions; be up in arms, aroused’ [B] The separate constituents of this compound are semantically opaque. IRON IMPLEMENT; WEAPON (n.) (see under METAL-WORKING AND ITS PRODUCTS) SWORD HANDLE (n.): *ßurya (?) GIR wurya (?) ‘handle of sword’ [T]; vurya (?) ‘sword handle’ [D] ?= KAB -vulya (v.) ‘to scratch around in something with a stick in order to find something which is lost; to scratch as chickens do, amongst rubbish, hunting for food; to poke at a snake, partly hidden, with a stick, so that it will come out into the open’ [A]; –vulya (v.) ‘to seize’ [M]; GIK -huria (v.) ‘to snatch, snatch away, whistle away; pluck, seize violently; scratch, scatter (earth by scratching, etc.)’ [B] QUIVER (OF SKIN, LEATHER) (n.): *dhyaka (5/6) GIR dhyaka (5/6) ‘quiver’ [T, D]. RAB thiaka ~ riaka (5/6) ~ muthiaka ~ muriaka (3/4) ‘quiver –formerly meant merely a skin in which bows and arrows were wrapped’ [KR] W.DUR ryaka (5/6) ‘quiver’ [W] E.DUR ryaka (5/6) ‘quiver’ [NN] N.DIG ryaka (5/6) ‘quiver in which arrows are kept’ [MNNZ] = KAB thyaka (?5/6) ‘an arrow quiver’ [A]; GIK thiaka (14/6) ‘quiver’ [B] Cf. SWA zaka (?9/10) ‘quiver for arrows’. This is also the origin of the place name Mariakani, ‘the place of the quivers’, now on the main Mombasa-Voi road. COVER (OF A QUIVER) (n.): *nguniko (9/10) GIR nguniko ya dhyaka (9/10) ‘cover of a quiver’ [T] = KAB ngunĩko (9/10) ‘lid; cover; cork’ [A]; GIK ngunĩko (9/10) ‘cover, lid, stopper’ [B] AVOID (A PROJECTILE) (v.): *-dhumba RAB –thumba (v.) ‘to leap aside as an arrow’ (sic.) [KR]


?= GIK -thũmbũya (v.) ‘to toss a spear, club, in the air with a spinning motion while dancing’ [B] SCRAPE, SCRATCH (v.): *-ßara GIR –varya (v.) ‘to scoop out the inside of calabash’ [D] RAB –mfara (v.) ‘to scratch’; -mfarua (v.) ‘to be scratched’; -mfarana (v.) ‘to scratch one another’; -mfarura (v.) (undefined) [KR] = DAI –vara (v.) ‘scrape’ [N]; KAB -vaa (v.) ‘to scrape the hair off a skin’ [A]; GIK –hara (v.) ‘to scratch, abrade, scrape; remove (the charred portion of roast food, etc.) by scraping with a knife or rubbing with a rough object’; -harana (v.) (reciprocal); -harũra (v.) ‘to lacerate, scratch, tear off, remove violently (the surface layer of something)’ [B]. BE IN A VIOLENT RAGE, COMMIT ATROCITIES (v.): *-ßaruka GIR –waruka (v.) ‘to rave, commit atrocities’ [T] = KAB –valũka (v.) ‘to fall; to be very loquacious’; -valũkya (v.) ‘cause to fall; to drop something’ < -vaa (v.) ‘to scrape the hair off a skin’ [A]; GIK -harũka (v.) ‘to slip, dip, go down, descend, into; go into with a gliding, sliding, motion’; -harũra (v.) ‘to lacerate, scratch, tear off, remove violently (the surface layer of something)’ < –hara (v.) ‘to scratch, abrade, scrape; remove (the charred portion of roast food, etc.) by scraping with a knife or rubbing with a rough object’ [B] CRUEL, FIERCE (adj.): *-ßara GIR –vara (adj.) ‘cruel, fierce’ [D] This adjectival form is evidently derived from the same root as the preceding item. CRUEL, FIERCE PERSON (n.): *mußara (1/2) GIR muvara (1/2) ‘fierce person’ [KR]; muwara (1/2) ‘fierce’, mut’u muwara (1/2) ‘cruel person’ [T] A nominal from the same root as the preceding item. CRUELTY, FEROCITY, FURY (n.): *ußara (14) GIR uvara (14) ‘fierceness’ [KR]; uwara (14) ‘cruelty, fury’ [T] A nominal from the same root as the preceding items. RAGE, FIERCE TEMPER (n.): *maßara-maßara (6) GIR mawara-mawara (6) ‘fierce temper, rage’ [T] A nominal from the same root as the preceding items. SLAP (n.): *ßĩ ~ *ßi (5/6) RAB ivi (plural mavi) (5/6) ‘a slap’; -piga ivi (v.) ‘to give a slap’ [KR] = KAB ũvĩ, pl. mbĩ (11/10) ‘the palm of the hand; a handful’ [A]; GIK rũhĩ, pl. hĩ (11/10) ‘palm of hand’; –hũra hĩ (v.) ‘to clap hands’; -hũra na rũhi (v.) ‘to smack, slap’ [B] BECOME CONTUSED (SKIN AFTER A BLOW) (v.): *-dhunyuka GIR –dhunyuka (v.) ‘to become contused, of broken skin after a blow’ [D]


= KAB -thũna (v.) ‘to form a raised scar, either on a person or a tree’ [A]; GIK -thũna (v.) ‘to be blotchy; (of wounds) swell up with pus; form kelloid’; -thũnũka (v.) ‘(of blotch) disappear’; ‘to protrude; be, become naughty, depraved, vicious’ [B] TEAR, REND; BURST (v.): *-tarura GIR –tarura (v.) ‘to burst, rend, rip (transitive)’ [T] RAB –darura (v.) ‘to tear, rend’ [KR] = KAB -taũa (v.) ‘to split open an animal; to form in line; to sit in a circle; to draw water from a marshy place so that it will dry up’ [A]; GIK –tarũra (v.) ‘to pull (plants, root crops, etc.) up by the roots; uproot, tear up; tear (clothes) apart; tear (human, animal, body) to pieces, wound, rend, lacerate; flay, strip (animal carcass)’ [B] See also the following item. BE TORN, RENT; BURST (v.): *-taruka GIR –taruka (v.) ‘to burst, rend, rip (intransitive)’ [T] RAB –daruka (v.) ‘to tear, get torn’ [KR] = KAB -taũa (v.) ‘to split open an animal; to form in line; to sit in a circle; to draw water from a marshy place so that it will dry up’ [A]; GIK -tarũka (v.) ‘split; be, get, torn, split, ripped, shredded up’; –tarũra (v.) ‘to pull (plants, root crops, etc.) up by the roots; uproot, tear up; tear (clothes) apart; tear (human, animal, body) to pieces, wound, rend, lacerate; flay, strip (animal carcass)’ [B] This is the stative form of the preceding item.

SCALP (n.): *kikonde (7/8) GIR kikonde (7/8) ‘scalp’ [T] RAB kikonde (7/8) ‘the skin’ [KR] = GIK gĩkonde kĩa mũtwe (7/8) ‘scalp’. Cf. GIR konde (5/6) ‘fist’ < PSA *ikonde ‘fist’ [NH]. BALD PATCH, BALDNESS (n.): *kißara (7/8) ~ *lußara (11/10) GIR kiwara (7/8) ‘shaven patch’; luwara (11/10) ‘bald patch in middle through old age [T]; luvara (11/10) ‘natural baldness, bald head’; mivara-yo! (4) ‘bald head! abusive expression’ [D] RAB mfara, pl. mamfara (5/6) ‘bald head’; kivala (7/8) ‘bald head’; luvala, pl. pala (11/10) ‘bald patch’ [KR] E.DUR chiphala (7/8) ‘bald’ [NN] N.DIG chiphala (7/8) ‘shaved or bald head’ [MNNZ] = KAB kĩvala (7/8) ‘a bald spot on the head; white spot on a crow’; ũvaa, pl. maũvaa (14/6) ‘baldness’ [A]; GIK kĩhara (7/8) ‘bald patch, baldness, bald pate; ram, he-goat, or ox with white blaze’; rũhara, pl. hara (11/10) ‘hairless, bare, patch or scar on head; blaze on tree; she-goat, ewe, or cow with prominent white patch or streak on face; rump of ox’ [B] Cf. GIR luhala, pl. pala (11/10) ‘clear place’ < PSA *lupala (11/10) ‘baldness’ < CB *-pádá [NH]. The last two RAB items and the E.DUR and N.DIG items may well be regular reflexes of the same PSA root. 33

FOREHEAD (n.): *kidhangu (7/8) GIR kidhangu (7/8) ‘bump, forehead’ [T], ‘brow, forehead’ [D]; kidangu (7/8) ‘forehead’ [H] KAU chirangu (7/8) ‘forehead’ [?] CHO chirangu (7/8) ‘forehead’ [H] RAB kithangu ~ kirangu (7/8) ‘forehead; lock’ [KR] W.DUR kirangu (7/8) ‘forehead’ [W] E.DUR chirangu (7/8) ‘face (old word)’ [NN] N.DIG chirangu (7/8) ‘forehead’ [W]; chilangu (7/8) ‘forehead’; chirangbwi cha uso (7/8) ‘forehead’ [MNNZ] S.DIG chiraŋmgbwi (7/8) ‘forehead’ [H] = DAI kidangu ~ kidangu ~ kidango (7/8) ‘face’ [N] Cf. also Chaga kisangu ~ kishangu ‘face’, a loan via Pare/Gweno according to Nurse. LOWER CHEEK (n.): *ukai (14/?11) GIR ukai, pl. k’ai (14/?11) ‘lower cheek’ [T] = KAB ũkai, pl. ngai (11/10) ‘jawbone’ [A]; GIK ikai (5/6) ‘cheek; mouthful of food; broad sweep of bend of river in flood’ [B] JAW, JAWBONE (n.): *ludhea (11/10) GIR ludhea, pl. ndhea (11/10) ‘jaw, one side / half’ [T]; ‘jaw’; -kota ndhea (v.) ‘to gag’ [D]; ludea (11/10) ‘jaw’ [H] CHO ndeya (11/10) ‘jaw’ [H] RAB luthea, pl. nthea ~ ndea (11/10) ‘jawbone’ [KR] DUR nzeya (11/10) ‘jaw’ [H] W.DUR nzeya (11/10) ‘jawbone’ [W] N.DIG ndzeya (9/10) ‘cheek’ [MNNZ] = DAI rũdea ~ ludea, pl. ndea (11/10) ‘jaw, cheek’ [N]; GIK rũthĩa (11/10) ‘jaw’. Cf. DUR nzekeya (?10) ‘jaw’ [H]; E.DUR nzekeya (?10) ‘temple (of head)’ [NN]. GAP LEFT BY REMOVAL OF FRONT LOWER TEETH (n.): *nzaume (9/10) W.DUR nzaume (9/10) ‘gap left by cosmetic removal of two front lower teeth’ [W] = KAB nzaũmi (9/10) ‘teeth that are far apart especially used if chipped with a wide space between’ [A]; GIK njarũmi (9/10) ‘gap between the middle top incisors (esteemed as a mark of beauty in women)’ [B] The limited distribution of this item and its lack of /r/ suggest that it is a recent loanword from KAB. GUMS (n.): *mudheko (3/4) GIR mudheko (3/4) ‘gums’ [T], ‘the gums’ [D] RAB mutheko ~ muthego, pl. mithego ~ murego (3/4) ‘gums’ [KR] W.DUR mreko (3/4) ‘gums’ [W] E.DUR mureko (3/4) ‘gums’ [NN] N.DIG mreko (3/4) ‘toothpaste, dental formula’ [MNNZ]


= KAB ĩtheka (5/6) ‘laughter’ < -theka (v.) ‘to laugh’ [A]; GIK mũtheko (3/4) ‘laughter, laughing’, magego ma mũtheko ‘front teeth, incisors’ < -theka (v.) ‘laugh, laugh at, smile’ [B] UVULA (n.): *kidhimi (7/8) GIR kidhimi (7/8) ‘uvula’ [D] = GIK -thima (v.) ‘to talk’, -thima thimo ‘speak in riddles, proverbially’ [B] GIK has kirimi, regularly derived from CB *-dìmí ‘tongue’. The reconstructed PSA term for ‘uvula’ is *kilimi [NH]. DIG chirimi [NH] is ambiguous: it can be interpreted either as a regular reflex of the PSA form or as a derivative of *kidhimi in which /dh/ has been replaced by /r/. SHOULDER (n.): *kituro (7/8) GIR kituro (7/8) ‘shoulder’ [T, H] CHO chituro (7/8) ‘shoulder’ [H] RAB kiduro (7/8) ‘shoulder’ [KR] = DAI kĩturo ~ kituro (7/8) ‘shoulder’ [N]; KAB kĩtuo (7/8) ‘shoulder’ [A] Cf. also UPK and LPK kituro (7/8) ‘shoulder’ [H]; Pare kituro (7/8) ‘shoulder’. ELBOW (n.): *kikokora (7/8) GIR kikokora (7/8) ‘elbow’ [T] = DAI kikøkøra (7/8) ‘elbow’ [N]; KAB kĩkokoa (7/8) ‘the elbow’ [A]; ngokolwa (9/10) ‘elbow’ [M]; GIK kĩgokora ‘elbow’ [B] KNEE (n.): *vwindi (5/6) GIR vwindi (5/6) ‘knee’ [T]; vindi (5/6) ‘knee’ [H] CHO vindi (5/6) ‘knee’ [H] W.DUR vwindi (5/6) ‘knee’ [H]; vindi (5/6) ‘knee’ [W] N.DIG vwindi (5/6) ‘knee’ [H]; vwindi (5/6) ‘knee, knee cap’ [MNNZ] S.DIG vwindi (5/6) ‘knee’ [H] = DAI mvende (3/4) ‘bone’ [N]; KAB ĩvĩndĩ (5/6) ‘a bone’ [A]; GIK ihĩndĩ (5/6) ‘bone’ [B]. The semantic development is transparent: ‘bone’ > ‘knee bone’. Compare GIR *ßende (?9/10) ‘large bone (of an animal)’, which appears to derive (irregularly) from the same CKB root (see under LIVESTOCK-KEEPING AND ITS PRODUCTS) JOINT, KNUCKLE (n.): *ßungu (5/6) GIR vungu (5/6) ‘knuckle; small joint or section as of cane’; vungu-vungu (5/6) ‘joints of body’ [D] E.DUR mvungu (?) ‘joint’ [NN] N.DIG phungo (5/6) ‘branch with leaves’; liphungo (5/6) ‘twig, cutting’ [MNNZ] = KAB ĩvũngũ 5/6) ‘front part of the hoof of animals’ [A]; GIK ĩhũngũ (5/6) ‘hoof’ [B] TEAT, NIPPLE (n.): *kidhingo (7/8) GIR kidhingo (7/8) ‘teat, nipple’; ‘tar’ [D] No CKB cognates found.


The first of these meanings, for which no CKB correlates have been found, appears to be unconnected to the second, which does have a transparent CKB etymology [== KAB kĩthingo (7/8); GIK gĩthingo (7/8): see under BEEKEEPING] MENSTRUAL BLOOD (n.): *ndakame (9/10) DUR ndakame ‘menstruation (old term)’ [NN] = DAI ndakame ~ ndakamé (9/10) ‘blood’ [N]; KAB (9/10) nthakame (9/10) ‘blood’ [A]; GIK thakame (9/10) ‘blood’ [B] CLOT (OF BLOOD) (n.) [see under LIVESTOCK-KEEPING] GAS; FLUID FROM THE STOMACH (n.): *kidhungurira (7) GIR kidhungurira ~ kirungurira (7) ‘water brash [eruption of fluid from the stomach]; wind when the stomach is full of air’ [D] N.DIG chirungurira (7) ‘heartburn’ [MNNZ] ?= GIK -thungũra (v.) ‘to unfasten, let free’ < -thunga (v.) ‘to fasten, tie up well, tighten, make strong, straighten; be compact, closed, complete; be fat, sleek, full-rounded (without wrinkles or hollows)’ [B] The suggested semantic development is: ‘to release’ > ‘to release wind or fluid from the bowels’ > ‘to have indigestion and heartburn’. EXCREMENT; (BUSH) (n.): *dhaka (5/6) GIR kwenda dhaka (v.) ‘to ease one’s self’ [T]; dhaka stool, evacuations; -dhaku (v.) ‘to evacuate’ [D] = DAI daka (5/6) ‘forest’ [N]; KAB kĩtheka (7/8) ‘brush, forest’ [A]; GIK gĩthaka (7/8) ‘estate, privately owned piece of land; family or clan holding; uncultivated land, bush, scrub’ [B]; < CB *càká The semantic development is ‘go into the bush’ > ‘go to the toilet’ > ‘excrement’. GIR also has an inherited synonym for ‘going to the toilet’, kwenda tsakani [D]. tsaka also means ‘bush’ or ‘forest’, and is a regular reflex of the same CB root (via PSA *icaka ‘thicket, brush’ [NH]). Given that the DAI source of the GIR term still means ‘bush’, and the improbability of any language retaining a term which simultaneously meant ‘bush’ and ‘excrement’, it is likely that the latter meaning was innovated by GIR –dhaka being relatively opaque in meaning and obviously distinct from GIR tsaka. HAVE DIARRHOEA (v.): *-ßarwa GIR –warwa (v.) ‘to have diarrhoea’; -warwa milatso (v.) ‘to have dysentery’; -wazya (v.) ‘to purge’ [T]; -varwa (v.) ‘to be purged, to suffer from diarrhoea’; -vazha (v.) ‘to purge’ [D] = GIK –harũo (v.) ‘to have diarrhoea, be purged’; rũharo (11/10) ‘diarrhoea, faeces from diarrhoea’ [B] SHAKE (THE BODY); CHURN (MILK AND CREAM) (v.) [see under LIVESTOCKKEEPING] SHIVERING (OF FEVER) (n.): *kidhingidhyo (7) GIR kidhingidhyo (7) ‘ague, fever, cold’ [T], ‘ague of fever’ [D] E.DUR chiringiryo (7) ‘shivering’ [NN]


= KAB –thingitha (v.) ‘to shake’ [A]; GIK –thingithia (v.trans.), -thingitha (v.) ‘to tremble, shake, quiver, quake’ [B] Derived from the verb –dhingidhya (> -ringirya) in its primary sense of ‘to shake the body’ (see under LIVESTOCK-KEEPING). PNEUMONIA (n.): *kißuti (7) GIR kivuti (7) ‘pneumonia’ [D] E.DUR chiphuti (7/8) ‘disease where there is difficulty breathing, cough’ [NN] = KAB kĩvuti (7/8) ‘a foreign body in the eye; an illness like pneumonia in which the tongue is spotted black’ [A]; GIK kĩhuti (7/8) ‘common cold; feverish cold; hay fever’ [B] DEATH RATTLE (n.): *ßungandzera (?) GIR vungandzera (?) ‘death rattle’ ,e.g. yunariza vungandzera, ‘he is causing to cry the death rattle’ [D] No CKB cognates found. TASTE (v.): *-tata GIR –tata (v.) ‘to taste food’ [T] RAB –dada (v.) ‘to taste’ [KR] W.DUR –tata (v.) ‘to taste’ [W] N.DIG -tata (v.) ‘to taste’ [MNNZ] = KAB –tata (v.) ‘to try; to prove; to tempt’ [A]; GIK –tata (v.) ‘to dare, venture’ [B] Cf. LPK -tata (v.) ‘to taste’. EAT GREEDILY (v.): *-koßora GIR –kovora (v.) ‘to eat greedily’ [D] = KAB -kovoa (v.) ‘to spoil something; to purposely destroy something; to make another feel ashamed’ [A]; GIK -kohora (v.) ‘to snap, break off (maize cobs, big things)’; also –kobora (v.) ‘to cause to break by caving in’; -koboria (v.) ‘to break off short; gulp down (piece of banana, tea, etc.) in one swallow’; -koboka (v.) ‘(of hungry animal) be short of food or water; (of roof of house, mine, etc.) cave in’ [B] BE SATISFIED, SATIATED (v.): *-ßuna E.DUR –mvuna (v.) ‘to be satisfied’ [NN] ?DIG –mfuna (v.) ‘to be satisfied’ [KR] N.DIG -mvuna (v.) ‘to be satisfied’ [MNNZ] = KAB -vũna (v.) ‘to be satisfied with food; to have had enough’ [A]; GIK -hũna (v.) ‘to be satisfied, take one’s fill; be filled out (as a bag)’ [B] SATIETY, PLENTY (n.): *ßuno (?9/10) ? mfuno (?) ‘plenty, satiety’ [KR] N.DIG mvuno (9/10) ‘fullness’ [MNNZ] = KAB -vũna (v.) ‘to be satisfied with food; to have had enough’ [A]; kũvũna (?) ‘satisfaction’ [M]; GIK –hũna (v.) ‘to be satisfied, take one’s fill; be filled out (as a bag)’; hũna (9/10) ‘repletion’; hũni (9/10) ‘sufficiency of food; surfeit; overeating’; kĩhũno (7) ‘deep sleep, sleep of repletion’ [B] From the same root as the preceding item. 37

SEEK CAREFULLY AND FIND WITH DIFFICULTY (v.): *-dhea-dhea GIR –dhea-dhea (v.) ‘to seek carefully and find with difficulty, e.g. one here and there’ [D] = KAB -thea (v.) ‘to seek; to torment a person with no reason for doing so; to bloom; to hunt for the best amongst a number of anything’ [A] GROPE AFTER, FEEL FOR (v.): *-ßaßata GIR –wawata (v.) ‘to feel for, as in the dark or dirty water’ [T]; -vavata (v.) ‘to grope after, feel for in the dark’ [D] RAB –vavata (v.) (undefined) [KR] = GIK –hahaata (v.) ‘to feel, feel about with hands or feet, search blindly, grope’ [B] Cf. N.DIG -phaphasa (v.) ‘to touch in order to feel the shape, to grope’ < SWA -papasa (v.). See also the following item. SEARCH FOR SOMETHING BY BENDING DOWN GRASS (v.): *-ßaßuka GIR –vavuka (v.) ‘to bend down grass in searching for something’; -vavukira (v.) ‘to be searchable’ [D] = GIK –hahaata (v.) ‘to feel, feel about with hands or feet, search blindly, grope’ [B] This verb, with a stative extension, is probably related to the root in the preceding item, the underlying idea being that of searching. BURROW, SCRATCH OUT; TAKE ADVANTAGE OF; SCOLD (v.): *-ßura GIR –wura (v.) ‘to burrow, e.g. a rat’ [T]; -vura (v.) ‘to burrow’; -vura malo (v.) ‘to run’ [D] RAB –mfura (v.) ‘to scratch so as to leave marks behind, to scratch out from a bag etc.; to take advantage of; to scold, revile’ [KR] = KAB -vua (v.) ‘to prepare soil for planting small seeds’ [A]; GIK –hura (v.) ‘to broadcast, scatter, throw’; -huria (v.) ‘to snatch, snatch away, whistle away; pluck, seize violently; scratch, scatter (earth by scratching, etc.)’ [B] Cf. Pare –fora (v.) ‘to dig up, burrow’. DRAG ALONG THE GROUND (v.): *-ßurura GIR –wurura (v.) ‘to drag’; -wurura-wurura (v.) ‘to move backwards and forwards from and to one’s self’ [T]; -vurura (v.) ‘to drag along the ground’; -vururika (v.) ‘to drag oneself along’ [D] = GIK -hurũra (v.) ‘to make slide, down, out; to clear out, drive out, sweep away’; -hurũrũka (v.) ‘to rush, slide, down, skid, slip on mud; descend, fall sheer down’ [B] DRAGGING (NOISE AND TRACKS OF) (n.): *mußururo (3/4) GIR muwururo (3/4) ‘dragging, noise of dragging’ [T]; muvururo (3/4) ‘noise of dragging, track of something dragged along’ [D] = GIK -hurũra (v.) ‘to make slide, down, out; to clear out, drive out, sweep away’; -hurũrũka (v.) ‘to rush, slide, down, skid, slip on mud; descend, fall sheer down’ [B] A nominal derived from the preceding verb.


DRAGGING (NOISE OF) (n.): *mukururyo (3/4) GIR mukururyo (3/4) ‘dragging, noise of dragging’ [T] = KAB -kulula (v.) ‘to make a straight line, as on a gourd before cutting it’ [A]; GIK -kururia (v.) ‘to drag, draw along the ground; make lines in the ground’ < -kurura (v.) ‘to draw a line; scratch a line, circle, on the ground, draw a diagram’; gĩkururio (7/8) ‘a dragging away’; mũkururio (3/4) ‘long strip of land, boundary line of clan land’; mũkurura ~ mũkururo (3/4) ‘scratch, score, line, band of colour, stripe’ [B] Cf. SWA mkururo (3/4) ‘a following, i.e. of people’. MIX, STIR UP (v.): *-ßilanya GIR –vilanya (v.) ‘to stir up, mix’ [D] = KAB -vĩlania (v.) ‘to cross (the arms, legs)’ < -vĩlana (v.) ‘to wrestle; to twist one thing over another as string, rope, etc.’ < -vĩla (v.) ‘to make a mat; to make the rope part of a native bed; to repair a hedge’ [A]; GIK -hĩĩrania (v.) ‘to crisscross’ < -hĩĩrana (v.) ‘to become intertwined; (of fingers, branches in a hedge, locks of hair, etc.) become interlocked; (of animal horns, etc.) be crossed’ < -hĩĩra (v.) ‘to intertwine, interlock (as when making a fence, hurdle, wicker door, granary); twist (a strip of hide to strengthen it)’ [B] FASTEN LOOSELY, TIE LOOSELY (v.): *-ßatya GIR –vatya (v.) ‘to fasten loosely, to tie loosely’ [D] = GIK -hata (v.) ‘to be stuck, stopped temporarily, jammed, impeded, hampered’ [B] This is a causative form of the verb. BREAK (IN HAND OR UNDER FOOT) (v.): *-ßanguka GIR –vanguka (v.) ‘to break in one’s hand, or as a branch under foot’ [D] = KAB -vangũla (v.) ‘to wipe or scrape off, as dust or mud; to cut off branches from a tree’ [A]; GIK -hangũka (v.) ‘(of handle of machine, tool, etc.) become loose; (of animals) be gluttonous, wander away from the herd < -hangĩra (v.) ‘to haft, put handle on; plug hole; fit, install, machinery or part of machine; fit arrow to bow string; insert wedge in crack (to split a log of wood)’ [B] TUCK UP CLOTHES (v.): *-ßorya GIR –vorya (v.) ‘to tuck up clothes’ [D] No CKB cognates found. This item is interesting in view of the legend that the Segeju derive their name from tucking up their clothes. This is evidently a folk etymology.

ORATOR (n.): *mwari (1/2) RAB muari, pl. aari (1/2) ‘an orator (becoming obsolete and superseded by mulumbi)’ [KR] = GIK mwaria (1/2) ‘speaker; one who speaks’; -aria (v.) ‘to speak, converse, talk; discuss; reveal (something confidential)’ [B]. PRESERVE (v.): *-dhera 39

GIR –dhera (v.) ‘to preserve (old root)’ [T] RAB –therua (v.) (undefined) [KR] ?= KAB -thea (v.) ‘to be clean; to be pure; to be holy’ [A]; GIK -thera (v.) ‘to be bright, shine, sparkle; be clean, transparent, pure, innocent; be wise’ [B] A possible sematic derivation is ‘be bright’ > ‘be in good condition (clean)’ > ‘keep in good condition (preserve)’. See also the following items. WITNESS (n.): *chodherwa (7/8) GIR chodherwa (< chaudherwa) (7/8) ~ zhodherwa (?) ‘witness – person and words’ [T]; chodherwa (7/8) ‘witness (person)’; -kala chodherwa (v.) ‘to witness’ [D] RAB chotherua, pl. viotherua (7/8) ‘eye-witness, one who has been on the spot’ [KR] No CKB equivalent found. This item appears to be an innovation (possibly in MK) from the passive form of the root in the preceding item: ‘be preserved’ > ‘be remembered’ > ‘person who has remembered, seen (witness)’. See also the following item. FULFILMENT OF A WISH (n.): *mbodherwa (?9/10) RAB mbotherua (?) ‘the falling in with a something previously wished for; literally the being present with’ [KR] No CKB equivalent found. This may be a RAB innovation, evidently related to the previous items. Despite the (somewhat opaque) RAB gloss, a better semantic interpretation might be ‘be remembered’ > ‘witness’ > ‘the witnessing of something (previously wished for)’. TALK NONSENSE (v.): *-ßangaßa GIR –vangava (v.) ‘to talk without meaning’ [D] ?= GIK -hangara (v.) ‘to be habitually careless, slapdash’ [B] Possibly related to *ßanga (?5/6) ‘bad luck’ (see under OMENS). SPEAK IN A FOREIGN ACCENT; SPEAK ARGUMENTATIVELY (v.): *-dhyoma GIR –thioma (v.) ‘to break, to mangle a language’ [KR]; -dhyoma (v.) ‘to speak with a foreign accent; to speak in a quarrelsome manner (from Kikamba)’ DUR –ryomana (v.) ‘to quarrel’ [NN] = KAB -thyoma (v.) ‘to speak incorrectly; to speak in a foreign tongue; to speak unintelligibly’ [A]; GIK –thioma (v.) ‘to stammer, speak in a peculiar manner, have difficulties in speech; speak in a foreign language; speak like a foreigner’ [B] DUR –ryomana is a reciprocal form (*-dhyomana) of the verb. Cf. SWA -soma (v.) ‘to read’. ACCENT (LANGUAGE); FOREIGN ACCENT (n.): *kidhyomo (7) GIR kidhyomo (7) ‘accent, foreign accent’ [D] E.DUR chiryomo (7) ‘language’ [NN] = KAB kĩthyomo (7) ‘language, speech, dialect; unintelligible speech’ [A]; GIK rũthiomi (11/10) ‘speech, language; unintelligible speech, foreign language, language other than Kikuyu, especially Maasai’ [B] This is a nominal form of the simple verb root in –dhyoma (see above).


INFORM, EXPLAIN (v.): *-dhangadzya GIR dhangadzya (v.) ‘to give information, explain’ [D] No CKB cognates found. Possibly from the same root as the following item. CUNNING, CLEVER PERSON (n.): *mudhangau (1/2) GIR mudhangau (1/2) ‘cunning, clever person’ [D] N.DIG mrangau (1/2) ‘craft [person]’ [MNNZ] = KAB mũthangaau (1/2) ‘a very industrious person’ < -thangaa (v.) ‘to be energetic; to be diligent or industrious’ [A] INFORMATION, NEWS (n.): *ußoro (14/?6) GIR uworo (14) ‘information, news’; maworo (6) ‘history’; voro! – voro! muzima? ‘lesser salutations, suitable for adults at any hour (not aged)’; kala uworo! ‘farewell!’ [T]; mavoro (6) ‘an abundance of news’ [D] RAB umvoro (14) (undefined) [KR] = DAI uvørø (14) ‘thing, matter’ [N]; KAB ũvoo, pl. maũvoo (14/6) ‘news; tidings; peace; matter’ [A]; GIK ũhoro, pl. mohoro (14/6) ‘matter, affair; business concerns, interests; subject of talk; utterance, speech, word, news, communication, report, statement, account, message; peace, well-being’ [B] CONFUTE, DISPROVE (v.): *-ßota GIR –vota (v.) ‘to show plainly, speak up plainly’ [D] RAB –mvoda ~ mfoda (v.) ‘to confute, disprove’ [KR] = DAI –vøta (v.) ‘overcome’ [N]; GIK –hoota (v.) ‘to defeat, overcome, conquer; beat somebody in a debate, case, game; gain a point against, convince’ [B] DERISION (n.): *kißoto (7) RAB kivodo ~ kimvode (7/8) ‘derision’ [KR] = DAI –vøta (v.) ‘overcome’ [N]; GIK kĩhooto (7/8) ‘that which convinces, an unanswerable argument, a powerful plea; proof, right, reason, justice; equity, fairness’ < –hoota (v.) ‘to defeat, overcome, conquer; beat somebody in a debate, case, game; gain a point against, convince’ [B] From the same root as the preceding item. SCORN, DESPISE (v.): *-ßudhya GIR –wudhya (v.) ‘to depreciate, despise, scorn, sneer’ [T]; -vudhya (v.) ‘to scorn, despise’ [D] = KAB –vũthya (v.) ‘to despise’ < -vũtha (v.) ‘to become few; to become light in weight; to run; to be weak’ [A]; GIK –hũthia (v.) ‘to make light, easy, thin; make little of, belittle (a person)’ < -hũtha (v.) ‘to be light in weight; be thin, light in texture; be easy to perform; (of a problem) be easy to solve’ [B] SCORN (n.): *ßudhyo (?9/10) GIR vudhyo (?) ‘scorn, derision’ [D] = KAB ũvũthyo (14) ‘contempt’ < –vũthya (v.) ‘to despise’ < -vũtha (v.) ‘to become few; to become light in weight; to run; to be weak’ [A]; GIK –hũthia (v.) ‘to make light, easy, thin; make little of, belittle (a person)’ < -hũtha (v.) ‘to


be light in weight; be thin, light in texture; be easy to perform; (of a problem) be easy to solve’ [B] A nominal from the same root as the preceding item. DISRESPECT (n.): *kaßudhye (12/?) GIR kavudhye (12/?) ‘disrespect’ [D] = KAB ũvũthyo (14) ‘contempt’ < –vũthya (v.) ‘to despise’ < -vũtha (v.) ‘to become few; to become light in weight; to run; to be weak’ [A]; GIK mũhũthia (3/4) ‘dilatoriness, slackness, carelessness; lack of interest, trifling’ < –hũthia (v.) ‘to make light, easy, thin; make little of, belittle (a person)’ < -hũtha (v.) ‘to be light in weight; be thin, light in texture; be easy to perform; (of a problem) be easy to solve’ [B] A nominal from the same root as the preceding items. RIDICULE (v.): *-tenda ?DUR –tenda ~ -denda (v.) ‘to ridicule’; -dendana (v.) ‘to ridicule one another’ [KR] N.DIG -tenda (v.) ‘to make fun of someone by comparing him to something amusing’ [MNNZ] = KAB -tenda (v.) ‘to despise; to have contempt for; to have no desire for either persons or things; to refuse to do something’ [A]; GIK –tenda (v.) ‘to scoff (at), deride; gibe, sneer, jeer, nag at, speak slightingly of’ [B] The restricted distribution of this item suggests that it may be a relatively recent loan from DAI or KAB. SECRETLY (adv.): *kißwißwi RAB kimfuimfui (adv.) ‘secretly, privately’ [KR] = GIK hui ~ hui-hui (14/6) ‘malicious whispering, tittle-tattle in undertones’ [B] SO-AND-SO (REFERRING TO A PERSON UNNAMED) (n.?): *ng’anya (?1) GIR nganya (?1) ‘so-and-so’ [T] RAB gnania (?1) ‘so-and-so’ [KR] E.DUR benganya (1) ‘father of so and so’ [NN] = DAI ng’anya (1) ‘so-and-so’ [N]; KAB ngania (1) ‘an unnamed person’; GIK ng’ania (1) ‘so-and-so, anyone not named’ [B] In his DAI lexicon (ms.) Nurse implies that this may be a loan from Shambala. Its presence in GIK, however, suggests that it is an inherited CKB item. SUCH-AND-SUCH (REFERRING TO AN UNSPECIFIED TIME) (adj.): *dhidha GIR dhidha (adj.), e.g. siku dhidha ‘a certain future day’ [T], ‘such and such a day’ [D] No CKB cognates found. BEG, ASK FOR; PRAY (v.): *-voya GIR –hvoya (v.) ‘to beg, pray’; -(h)voyera (v.) ‘to beg for, intercede’ [T]; -voya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg’ [H] CHO –voya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg’ [H] W.DUR –voya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg’ [H], ‘beg, pray’ [W]


N.DIG –voya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg’ [H]; -voya (v.) ‘to request, to ask, to pray’; -voya-voya (v.) ‘to be in the habit of begging’; -voyera (v.) ‘to pary for, to ask for’ [MNNZ] S.DIG –voya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg’ [H] = DAI –vøya (v.) ‘ask for, pray to’ [N]; KAB –voya (v.) ‘to beg; to pray’ [A]; GIK –hoya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg, pray’; -hoera (v.) ‘pray for, at’ [B] The CKB series suggests that the expected MK initial consonant should be /ß/ > /mv/. However, Taylor’s notation of the GIR consonant and other records of initial /v/ imply a different underlying form, perhaps */vw/, i.e. *-vwoya. BEGGAR; PRIEST (RAINMAKER) (n.): *muvoyi (1/2) GIR muhvoyi (1/2) ‘beggar’; muhvoyi wa wula (1/2) ‘rainmaker’ [T] = DAI –vøya (v.) ‘ask for, pray to’ [N]; KAB mũvoyi (1/2) ‘a beggar; one who prays’ < –voya (v.) ‘to beg; to pray’ [A]; GIK –hoya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg, pray’ [B] A nominal derivative of the stem in *-voya (v.) ‘beg, ask for; pray’ (see above). PRAYING (n.): *uvoyi (14) GIR uhvoyi (14) ‘habit of praying, prayerfulness’ [T] = DAI –vøya (v.) ‘ask for, pray to’ [N]; KAB –voya (v.) ‘to beg; to pray’ [A]; GIK ũhoyo (14) ‘begging, borrowing’ < –hoya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg, pray’ [B] From the same root as the preceding item. PRAYER (n.): *voyo (5/6) GIR hvoyo, pl. ma(h)voyo (5/6) ‘prayer’ [T] = DAI –vøya (v.) ‘ask for, pray to’ [N]; KAB ũvoyo, pl. movoyo (14/6) ‘prayer’ < –voya (v.) ‘to beg; to pray’ [A]; GIK ihoya ~ ihoi (5/6) ‘prayer, request’ < – hoya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg, pray’ [B] From the same root as the preceding items. BEGGING (n.): *luvoyo (11) GIR luhvoyo (11) ‘begging’ [T] = DAI –vøya (v.) ‘ask for, pray to’ [N]; KAB mboya (?9/10) ‘prayers; begging’ < –voya (v.) ‘to beg; to pray’ [A]; GIK rũhoyo, pl. hoyo (11/12) ‘importunism, repeated request, petition’ < –hoya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg, pray’ [B] From the same root as the preceding items. BLESSING (n.): *mavoyero (6) GIR mavoyero (6) ‘blessing’ [T] = DAI –vøya (v.) ‘ask for, pray to’ [N]; KAB –voya (v.) ‘to beg; to pray’ [A]; GIK -hoera (v.) ‘pray for, at’ < –hoya (v.) ‘to ask for, beg, pray’ [B] A nominal derived from *-voyera, the applicative form of the verb *-voya (see above). ENTREAT, SOLICIT (v.): *-dhedheja GIR –dhedheja (v.) ‘to beseech, conjúre, entreat (God and men), solicit, supplicate’ [T], ‘to entreat, beg; coax; beseech’ [D] = KAB -thethesya (v.) ‘to persevere; to put forth great effort in doing a piece of work; to stir up another to do something’ < -thetha (v.) ‘to be peevish; to cry


like a spoilt child, used of both children and grown people’ [A]; GIK -thaitha (v.) ‘to implore, beg for mercy, beseech, persuade’ [B] The following two entries (dhedhejo, udhedheji) are nominal forms of the same root. ENTREATY, SOLICITATION (n.): *dhedhejo (5/6) GIR dhedhejo (5/6) ‘a solicitation’, pl. madhedhejo ‘supplications’ [T], ‘entreaties’ [D] = KAB kĩthethesyo (7/8) ‘perseverance; persistency; doing something again and again’ < -thethesya (v.) ‘to persevere; to put forth great effort in doing a piece of work; to stir up another to do something’ < -thetha (v.) ‘to be peevish; to cry like a spoilt child, used of both children and grown people’ [A]; GIK -thaitha (v.) ‘to implore, beg for mercy, beseech, persuade’ [B] A nominal derivative of the verb –dhedheja (see above). HABIT OF SOLICITING (n.): *-udhedheji (14) GIR udhedheji (14) ‘a habit of soliciting’ [T] = KAB kĩthethesyo (7/8) ‘perseverance; persistency; doing something again and again’ < -thethesya (v.) ‘to persevere; to put forth great effort in doing a piece of work; to stir up another to do something’ < -thetha (v.) ‘to be peevish; to cry like a spoilt child, used of both children and grown people’ [A]; GIK -thaitha (v.) ‘to implore, beg for mercy, beseech, persuade’ [B] Another nominal derivative of –dhedheja (see above). CADGE (A DRINK) (v.): *-dhenga GIR –thenga (v.) ‘to drink toddy’ [KR]; -dhenga (v.) ‘to cadge – esp. of tembo [palm wine]’; -dhenga-dhenga (v.) ‘to coax, try little by little’ [D] E.DUR –renga (v.) ‘to beg silently, to take advantage’ [NN] = KAB –thenga (v.) ‘to drink beer at a drinking bout’ [A] CADGER (n.): *mudhengi (1/2) GIR mudhengi (1/2) ‘cadger’ [D] = KAB mũthengi (1/2) ‘a drunkard’ < –thenga (v.) ‘to drink beer at a drinking bout’ [A] A nominal derived from the verb stem in the preceding item. [APPROACH (v.) separate entry?] Cf. *-sengera ~ *-sengerera (v.) ‘to approach’, an independent (earlier) borrowing from the same CKB root. N.DIG -sengera (v.) ‘to approach, to close to’; -sengeza (v.) ‘to bring something near’ [MNNZ] = KAB -thengea (v.) ‘to draw near; to approach’; -thengelela (v.) ‘to draw near to’; -thengelelya (v.) ‘to cause to draw near’ [A]; GIK -thengera (v.) ‘to make away, move aside; avoid’; -thengerera (v.) ‘to draw near (to), approach, cautiously, stalk up to’ < -thenga (v.) ‘to move aside, move, shift, give way, get out of the way’ [B] ?ORDER, COMMAND (v.): *-adha RAB –atha (undefined), e.g. kumuatha maneno (untranslated, but evidently relating to language use, maneno, ‘words’) [KR]


?= KAB -atha (v.) ‘to promise; to point out’ [A]; GIK –atha (v.) ‘to command, order, rule; discipline, control’ [B] REFUSE, RESIST (v.): *-rema W.DUR –rema (v.) ‘to refuse’ [W] E.DUR –rema (v.) ‘to refuse’ [NN] N.DIG –rema (v.) ‘to refuse, resist’ [KR]; -rema (v.) ‘to disagree, to refuse, to reject’ [MNNZ] = DAI –réma (v.) (undefined), e.g. ngurémwa ‘I am tired’ [N]; KAB -ema (v.) ‘to refuse some proposed course; to overcome’ [A]; GIK –rema (v.) ‘to resist’. The limited southern distribution of this item suggests that it may be a relatively recent loan from DAI. SHOUT, CRY OUT (v.): *-kaya GIR –kaya (v.) ‘to shout – of an inarticulate cry’ [T] = KAB –kaya (v.) ‘to cry with pain’ [A]; GIK –kaya (v.) ‘to scream, yell, howl; cry out, bewail, moan, protest noisily’ [B] SHOUT, OUTCRY (n.): *ngemi (9/10) RAB ngemi ~ nchemi (9/10) ‘shout, yell, cry’; -chema (v.) ‘to crack, make a cracking noise; to throb, used of pain; to cry out, shriek’ [KR] N.DIG -chema (v.) ‘to shout’ [also GIR entries in NH] = DAI ngémi (9/10) ‘sound, cry’ [N]; KAB ũkemi, pl. ngemi (11/10) ‘noise; alarm; loud cry’ [A]; GIK ngemi (9/10) ‘ululation’; rũkemi, pl. ngemi (11/10) ‘single trill of joy, applause’ [B] The RAB verb is of uncertain status: it may be a derivative of the noun. FUN, HUMOUR (n.): *madhe (?6) GIR madhe ‘fun’, e.g. madhege ‘his fun’ [T]; madhe ‘fun, nonsense, humour’ [D] RAB mathe ~ mare ‘joking, a joke’ [KR] E.DUR mare ‘jokes’ [NN] = GIK mathe (6) ‘humour’; -a mathe ‘funny’; mathekania ~ mothekania (6) ‘laughter-producing speech or actions, jokes, anything funny’ < -theka (v.) ‘to laugh, laugh at, smile’ [B] GRATITUDE, CONTENTMENT (n.): *mußera (3) GIR muvera (3) ‘gratification, attraction’ [KR]; muvera ~ m’vera (3) ‘contentment, gratification’ [T] RAB mumfera (3) ‘gratitude, a sense of obligation, gratification’ [KR] E.DUR mumvera (3) ‘much thanks’ [NN] = KAB mũvea (3) ‘gratitude, appreciation’ [A]; GIK mũhera (3/4) ‘penitence, repentance’ [B] SUPPOSE; RECOLLECT (v.): *-ririkana GIR –ririkana (v.) ‘to suppose, of future things; recollect, after reflection’ [T] RAB –ririkana (v.) (undefined) [KR] = DAI –irikanya (v.) ‘remember’ [N]; KAB –lilikana (v.) ‘to remember’ [A]; GIK –ririkana (v.) ‘to remember, recall, recollect’ [B]


Cf. Pare –ririkana (v.); also Taita and Langi. DUR –lilikana (v.) ‘think’ [NN] is evidently a more recent loan from KAB. See also the following item. REMIND (v.): *-ririkanya GIR –ririkanya (v.) ‘to remind, by causing to take thought’ [T] = DAI –irikanya (v.) ‘remember’ [N]; KAB –lilikania (v.) ‘to remind’ < -lilikana (v.) ‘to remember’ [A]; GIK -ririkania (v.) ‘to remind somebody’ < -ririkana (v.) ‘to remember, recall, recollect’ [B] This is the causative form of the preceding item, apparently borrowed separately with its CKB shape. THINK (v.): *-lilikana E.DUR –lilikana (v.) ‘to think’ [NN] N.DIG -lilikana (v.) ‘to think about (person or idea)’ [MNNZ] = DAI –irikanya (v.) ‘remember’ [N]; KAB –lilikana (v.) ‘to remember’ [A]; GIK –ririkana (v.) ‘to remember, recall, recollect’ [B] This is evidently a loanword from KAB, whereas GIR and RAB -ririkana (v.), ‘suppose; recollect’ [T, KR], was borrowed from earlier Dhaicho (cf. the causative form in contemporary DAI, -irikanya (v.) ‘remember’ [N] BE FIT, SUIT (v.): *-agira GIR –agira (v.) ‘to be fit’; -agirwa ni, ‘(he) ought’ [T] RAB –agira ~ -ajira ~ -ayira (v.) ‘to suit’ [KR] = KAB –aĩla (v.) ‘to be suitable, right, fitting’ [A]; GIK –agĩrĩra (v.) ‘to be fitting, suitable, seemly; suit, fit (somebody, something); be suitable to, for; be convenient, becoming to (somebody, something)’; -agĩrĩrũo ‘ought’ < -agĩra (v.) ‘to be good, nice, becoming (in quality or appearance), be good-looking, look well, be suitable; be in order’ [B] This item does not show expected /g/-loss, except in one of the RAB variants.

DANCE, SONG (n.): *wira (5/6) GIR wira, pl. maira (5/6) ‘song, dance (formal)’ [T] RAB uira (?) ‘a dance, dancing; a song, the words sung at a dance’ [KR] W.DUR wira (?) ‘song’ [W] E.DUR wira, pl. mawira ~ mira (5/6) ‘song’ [NN] N.DIG wira (5/6) ‘song’ [MNNZ] = DAI wira (?) ‘song’ [N]; KAB wĩa, pl. mawĩa (5/6) ‘work’ [A]; GIK wĩra (14/6) ‘work, task, occupation’ [B] Cf. Shambala ‘dance’. Nurse (ms.) implies that this is a loanword in DAI (from MK or Shambala). However, a CKB derivation seems most likely: ‘activity in general’ > ‘the activity of dancing and singing’. The latter meaning appears to be a Dhaicho innovation, borrowed by MK and retained in modern DAI. COMPOSER, SONG-LEADER (n.): *ngui (1/2) GIR ngui (1/2) ‘a leader in singing, who composes the words as he sings’ [KR] RAB ngoi (1/2) ‘a leader in singing, who composes the words as he sings’ [KR] 46

E.DUR ngui (1/2) ‘song composer, poet’ [NN] N.DIG ngui (?/6) ‘vocalist’ [MNNZ] = KAB ngũi (?9/10) ‘leader in song; a person who intimidates others by naming them in song, sometimes good and sometimes evil being sung of them’ [A]; GIK ngũi (9/10) ~ mũkũi (1/2) ‘soloist, leader in a dance whose function is to sing the recitative to which the other dancers respond in chorus’ [B] STRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT (n.): *mbeßeße (9/10) GIR mbewewe (9/10) ‘stringed instruments’ [T]; ndeveve (9/10) ‘edible fruit of the mudeveve’; ‘a stringed musical instrument’; [D] E.DUR mbephephe (9/10) ‘type of musical instrument’ [NN] N.DIG ngephephe (9/10) ‘type of stringed instrument’ [MNNZ] = KAB mbeve (9/10) ‘a native wind instrument; an organ; a piano’ [A] This is described by Lindblom (1920: 403-405). The second of Deed’s glosses of GIR ndeveve probably represents a confusion, and should be deleted (see the separate entry for *mundeßeße above). MANKALA BOARD GAME (n.): *chudhi (7/8) GIR chudhi ‘board for play’ [T] DUR curi ‘mankala’ [Townshend 1979: 120] W.DUR churi ‘mankala’ [W] DIG udi ~ curi ‘mankala’ [Townshend 1979: 117] = KAB kyũthĩ (7/8) ‘a game with stones or cards; beer-making in which a number pound the sugar-cane at the same time’ < -ũtha kyũthĩ (v.) ‘to play a certain game sometimes in gambling, and sometimes just for fun. It is played with holes in the ground and stones, or a board with holes’ [A]; GIK gĩũthi (7/8) ‘game (especially one in which chance predominates’ < -ũtha (v.) ‘to play (draughts, cards, counters, marbles, lottery, etc.); (of bees) fly in and out of the beehive on a hot day (bringing in nectar and pollen)’ [B] Townshend (1979: 124) collated the following CKB names for mankala (different vowels not distinguished): GIK giuthi; EMB uthi; MER kiuthi; KAB kiusi. He also recorded PK mbothe ‘(?)’ and the following MK names: NMK (GIR ‘etc.’) kigogo (1979: 124); DUR curi (1979: 120); DIG udi ‘or’ curi (1979: 117). Of particular interest is his classification of the CKB, PK and NMK versions of mankala in the same sub-group of two-row games, with a distinctive rule of capture (1979: 124). This suggests that not only did the GIR (and other NMK?) adopt the CKB name for mankala, but also the type of game played. The DUR two-row game, however, is grouped together with that of a number of other southern Kenyan and northern Tanzania peoples (1979: 119-121). The DIG four-row game is a variant of the intricate Swahili game, played on Zanzibar as well as by many other Bantu speaking peoples (1979: 117-118). In the case of DUR and DIG, then, it is apparent that although the CKB name for mankala was adopted, CKB rules for playing the game were not.

PATRILINEAGE (n.): *mbari (9/10) GIR mbari (9/10) ‘kin’ [T, H] CHO mbari (9/10) ‘clan’ [H] 47

RAB mbari (9/10) ‘kindred’; kibari (7/8) [diminutive] [KR] ?DUR mbari (9/10) ‘clan’ [H] E.DUR mbari (9/10) ‘clan, relatives’ [NN] N.DIG mbari (9/10) ‘clan’ [H]; mbari (9/10) ‘clan on father’s side’ [MNNZ] = KAB mbaĩ (9/10) ‘race; species; clan; nation; family’ [A]; GIK mbarĩ (9/10) ‘side; family group, sub-clan, exogamous group’ [B] Cf. SWA mbari (9/10) ‘clan’. BIER (n.): *lutara (11/10) GIR lutara (11/10) ‘bier’ [T] RAB ludara, pl. tara (11/10) ‘bier, litter for carrying a disabled person or corpse’ [KR] = KAB ĩtaa (5/6) ‘native bed’; kĩtala (7/8) ‘a little platform in a garden; a roof of a house or grain hut’; mũtala (3/4) ‘a high place where a person stays when hunting animals, waiting for them to come to drink or to eat salt’ [A]; GIK rũtara, pl. ndara (11/10) ‘one stick of a platform on which meat is roasted; piece of expanded metal used for roasting meat; platform for bird-scaring on which a small domed shelter has been erected’; itara (5/6) ‘platform built high over a fireplace in a hut (used for keeping firewood)’; gĩtara (7/8) ‘bird’s nest’ [B] Cf. PSA *kitala (7/8) ~ *lutala (11/10) ‘grain platform’ < CB *-tádà [NH]. GRAVE (n.): *mbira (9/10) GIR mbira (9/10) ‘grave’ [T, H] CHO mbira (9/10) ‘grave’ [H] RAB mbira (9/10) ‘grave, graves’ [KR] ?DUR mbira (9/10) ‘grave’ [H] E.DUR mbira (9/10) ‘grave’ [NN] N.DIG mbira (9/10) ‘grave’ [H]; mbira (9/10) ‘grave’ [MNNZ] = KAB mbĩĩa (9/10) ‘grave; also an abandoned hut in which the wife has died but she is buried outside the hut, opposite the door’ [A]; GIK mbĩrĩra (9/10) ‘grave, resting-place of corpse, buried or unburied’ [B] Cf. LPK mbeera (9/10) ‘grave’ [H].

ELDER, OLD PERSON (n.): *mutumia (1/2) GIR mutumia (1/2) ‘elder’ [T], ‘old man’ [H]; muzhere mutumia (1/2) ‘old man or woman’ [T] CHO mutumia (1/2) ‘old man’ [H] RAB mudumia (1/2) ‘an old man. Originally Kig.’ [i.e. GIR] [KR] W.DUR mutumia (1/2) ‘old man’ [H]; mtumia (1/2) ‘elder, old man’ [W] E.DUR mutumia (1/2) ‘elder’; mutumiangwa (1/2) ‘sir, title of respect’ [NN] N.DIG mtumia (1/2) ‘old man’ [H]; mtumiya (1/2) ‘old man, elder’ [MNNZ] = KAB mũtumĩa (1/2) ‘an old man; an elder’ [A]; mũtumia (1/2) ‘elder’ [M]; GIK mũtumia ~ mũtimia (1/2) ‘married woman’ [B] The RAB record provides evidence of the 19th century diffusion of this term (from GIR). My own N.DIG informants recognised the term as a borrowing from DUR. 48

OLD AGE, EXPERIENCE, ADVICE (n.): *utumia (14) GIR utumia (14) ‘advice, experience of the aged, old age’ [T] N.DIG utumiya (14) ‘old age’ [A] = KAB ũtumĩa, pl. motumĩa (14/6) ‘old age; Kikamba heathen rites and practices’; mũtumĩa (1/2) ‘an old man; an elder’ [A]; mũtumia (1/2) ‘elder’ [M]; GIK mũtumia ~ mũtimia (1/2) ‘married woman’ [B] From the same root as the preceding item. GROW OLD (v.): *-tumia ~ *tumika GIR –tumika (v.) ‘to be aged, decay, grow old’ [T] W.DUR –tumia (v.) ‘to grow old’ [W] E.DUR –tumia (v.) ‘to use, to be old’ [NN] = KAB -tumĩa (v.) ‘to grow old’ [A] In E.DUR this verb has evidently merged with SW -tumia (v.) ‘use a person or thing, make use of, employ’ [J], the applicative form of SW –tuma (v.) ‘employ (a person), send (a person), give work to…, set a person to work’ [J]. Cf. E.DUR –huma (v.) ‘to send’ [NN], which is the inherited reflex of PSA *-tum‘send’ < CB *-túm- [NH]. ELDER (OF THE INNER CIRCLE) (n.): *ßaya (1/2) GIR waya (1/2) ‘elder’ [T]; vaya (1/2) ‘circle of elders in tribal freemasonry; secret place where the mwandza drum is kept and the old men perform secret rites’ [D] RAB mfaya (1/2) (undefined) [KR] No CKB cognates found. ?< proto-Kalenjin *p :a- ‘elder’ (Ehret 1971: 105); Maasai l-payian ‘elder’ < proto-Kalenjin *p :aiy (:n) (Ehret 1971: 168) Cf. *-ßayaßaya (v.) ‘to babble’ (see under LANGUAGE USE). ELDERS’ CLEARING AND DISCUSSION PLACE (n.): *dhome (5/6) GIR dhome (5/6) ‘clear space in front of town where folk sit’ [D] E.DUR rome (5/6) ‘place where old men talk around fire in the evening’ [NN] N.DIG rome (5/6) ‘place where men meet to teach the young how to behave’ [MNNZ] = DAI dømé ‘toilet’ [N]; KAB thome (?5/6) ‘squatting place for men, outside the village, a little distance away’ [A]; GIK thome (5/6) ‘path leading up to a homestead’; N.GIK. ‘grass patch adjacent to the entrance of a homestead’ [B] ENTERTAIN WITH FOOD; BRIBE WITH GIFTS (v.): *-ßinga GIR –vinga (v.) ‘to entertain with food, bribe with gifts’ [D] No CKB equivalents found. BRING CONCILIATORY GIFTS TO THE ELDERS (v.): *-ßaka GIR –vaka (v.) ‘to bring gifts to the elders: used of the custom of bringing conciliatory gifts’; -vakira (v., applicative); -vakirwa (v., applicative + passive) [D] RAB –mfaka (v.) ‘to bribe’ [KR] = DAI –vaka (v.) ‘spread, smear on’ [N]; KAB -vaka (v.) ‘to apply grease, medicine, paint and rub it in’ [A]; GIK –haka (v.) ‘to paint, smear with; (of 49

women married before performance of necessary preliminary ceremonies) be ceremonially purified; perform sacrificial ceremony for a young wife who remains barren; perform sacrificial lustration ceremony for an ailing child or one’s family’; ‘to bribe; influence, pervert, the actions, judgements, of somebody by gifts or other inducements’; -hakira (v.) (applicative) [B] It is possible that the two senses of this item seen in GIK were originally semantically related, and that the second sense was (is) figurative. GIFTS FOR RECONCILIATION, PEACE OFFERING (n.): *ßako (?5/6) GIR vako (?5/6) ‘gifts for reconciliation: peace offering’ [D] = KAB ĩvaki (5/6) ‘a bribe’ [M] < -vaka (v.) ‘to apply grease, medicine, paint and rub it in’ [A]; GIK ihaki (5/6) ‘offering, bribe, sacrifice’ < –haka (v.) ‘to paint, smear with; (of women married before performance of necessary preliminary ceremonies) be ceremonially purified; perform sacrificial ceremony for a young wife who remains barren; perform sacrificial lustration ceremony for an ailing child or one’s family’; ‘to bribe; influence, pervert, the actions, judgements, of somebody by gifts or other inducements’ [B] This is a nominal derived from the root of the preceding item. FINE PAID TO THE ELDERS (n.): *kirurumo (7/8) RAB kirurumo (7/8) ‘a fine paid to the kambi or mfaya, e.g. for killing a man or other great offences’ [KR] = KAB kĩlumo (7/8) ‘the groan of a sick person; the grunt of one who is tired; the roar of a lion’ < –luluma (v.) ‘to roar, thunder’ [A]; GIK kĩrurumo (7/8) ‘roaring of waters, rapids, waterfall’ < -ruruma (v.) ‘to roar’ [B] Literally ‘the roar’ or ‘roaring’, from the root in *-ruruma (v.) ‘to roar, growl’ (see under THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND ITS PRODUCTS, above). GATHERING OF PEOPLE (n.): *kitundu (7/8) GIR kitundu (7/8) ‘company of people standing’ [T]; ritundu (5/6) ‘large company, e.g. army’ [T] E.DUR chirundu (7/8) ‘gathering of people’ [NN] No CKB cognates found. The /r/ in the E.DUR form is anomalous. BAND OF PEOPLE (n.) (see under NECK ORNAMENT (OF COPPER CHAIN STITCHED ON LEATHER)) GATE OF A KAYA (n.): *mußirya (3/4) GIR muwirya (3/4) ‘gate of town’ [T]; muvirya (3/4) ‘entrance (gateway) to a village’ [D] RAB mumfiria, pl. mimfiria (3/4) ‘gate of a kaya’ [KR] = KAB mũvĩa (3/4) ‘a gateway; entrance’ [A]; GIK mũhĩrĩga (3/4) ‘clan; one of the ten clans named after the daughters of Gĩkũyũ and Mũũmbi’; N.GIK ‘entrance, entrance way to a village or homestead compound’ [B] Cf. the Meru definition in Fadiman.


AGE-SET (n.): *rika (5/6) GIR rika (5/6) ‘age, age-group’ [T] RAB rika (5/6) ‘peer, equal, fellow’ [KR] E.DUR rika (5/6) ‘contemporaries, in past those who participated in same initiation, agemate’ [NN] N.DIG rika (5/6) ‘agemate’ [MNNZ] = KAB ĩika (5/6) ‘those of the same generation, born about the same time’ [A]; GIK rika (5/6) ‘a single initiation- or age-set (usually named after an outstanding event of the season, the names varying from district to district’ [B] Cf. ILW rika (5/6) ‘age-set’; SWA rika (5/6) ‘age-group’. ‘THE POOR’: MAXIMAL AGE-SET NAME (n.): *kaßuta (12) GIR kavuta ‘name given to the full cycle of the ‘marika’’ [D] = GIK -hũta (v.) ‘to be, become, hungry, empty, hollow’ [B] Both Brantley (1978: 251) and Spear (1978: 65) give ‘Kavuta’ as the name of the last ruling maximal age-set (rika) of the GIR, and translate it as meaning ‘the poor’. According to Spear this rika was in power from c.1870 to the 1930s, and was called so ‘because of the series of famines and epidemics which were endemic in the late 19th century’. Spear also recorded ‘Kavuta’ as the name of earlier KAU, CHO, KAM, and RIB maximal age-sets, which he dates to c. 1714-1766. The RAB ‘Kambuta’ (undated) which he recorded may well be cognate, < *kamvuta (Spear 1978: 64). DANCE (PERFORMED BY AGE-SET INITIATES AND WOMEN POSSESSED BY SPIRITS) (n.): *kidhumo (7) RAB kithumo (7) ‘the name of a dance or play peculiar to the Agnaro. By others it is only performed on the occasion of a woman having a revelation from the koma (spirit)’ [KR] ?= GIK mũthũmũ (3/4) ‘dance of old men and women, replaced, after 1898, by mũthũngũci’, in turn described as an ‘orgiastic dance of elderly men and women (formerly performed once in seven years)’ [B] OSTRICH-FEATHER HEAD-DRESS (WORN BY THE LEADER OF THE MAXIMAL AGE-SET) (n.): *kidhumbiri (7/8) GIR kidhumbiri (7/8) ‘crown: head-dress of white ostrich tail feathers. Given to a member of the ‘Vula mbere’ cycle of elders (rika) when they chose him to be ‘mwenye-tsi’ – chosen for wisdom and uprightness’ [D] = GIK thũmbĩ (9/10) ‘feathery end of branch, topmost branch; head-dress of ostrich-feathers; lion’s or baboon’s mane, colobus-monkey skin worn in war to denote rank’; gĩthũmbĩ (7/8) ‘the round unshaven patch on the back of a woman’s head’; ĩthũmbĩ (5/6) ‘top of tree; blade of spear’ [B] RECEIVE INITIATION HONOURS; BE AT AN END (WAR) (v.): *-dhura RAB –thura (v.) ‘to receive the crowning honours on being promoted from a mumondo to a govu. The individual concerned wears for a few days a crown made of clay, but highly decorated, and, as the completion of the honours bestowed on him, receives on his right arm the lumfo, which he wears ever afterwards’; ‘figurative – to be at an end, only used of war. Refers to the 51

circumstance that, after the kuthura, a man ceases to make contributions to the govu.’ [KR] = DAI –dura (v.) ‘to choose’ [N]; GIK -thuura (v.) ‘to choose, pick out, select, elect; sort out; investigate, discuss, unravel an affair’; mũthuuri (1/2) ‘elder, married man with children or of an age to have children, councillor’ [B] The semantic development would be ‘appoint’ > ‘be appointed (as a gohu / goßu)’. RAB –thura ~ -dura ~ -rura, ‘to be able’, may represent a further extension of meaning (see under WARFARE AND CONFLICT). BESTOW INITIATION HONOURS (v.): *-dhurya RAB –thuria (v.) ‘to bestow the crowning honours on the mumondo’; -thuriua (passive form) [KR] = DAI –dura (v.) ‘to choose’ [N]; GIK -thuura (v.) ‘to choose, pick out, select, elect; sort out; investigate, discuss, unravel an affair’; mũthuuri (1/2) ‘elder, married man with children or of an age to have children, councillor’ [B] This is the applicative form of *-dhura (see above), possibly related to RAB -duria, ‘to test, to put to the test, especially one’s courage’ [KR] (see under WARFARE AND CONFLICT). CEREMONIAL FEAST OF THE GOHU / GOßU SOCIETY; WEDDING-FEAST (n.): *nyambura (9/10) GIR nyambura (9/10) ‘solemn feast, especially that at which the luwoo is assumed; but the word may be used of any large entertainment’ [T] RAB niambura (9/10) ‘festival – during which men and women of the govu company have enclosures for exclusion’ [KR] E.DUR nyambura (9/10) ‘wedding’ [NN] = DAI nyambura (9/10) ‘wedding’ [N]; MER/THA nyambura ‘aftercircumcision feast’ [source?] ARMLET WORN BY SENIOR MEMBERS OF THE GOHU / GOßU SOCIETY (n.): *lußoo (11/10) GIR luwoo, pl. woo ~ voo (11/10) ‘armlet worn as a mark of status, assumed at the ritual feast called nyambura’ [T]; luvoo (11/10) ‘buffalo horn armlet worn after paying special fees’ [D] RAB lumvo ~ lumfo, pl. mfo (11/10) [undefined], e.g. uganga wa lumfo [KR] No CKB cognates found.

PROTECTIVE CHARM (TO TREAT WOUNDS) (n.): *mudhea (3/4) KAM muthea (3/4) ‘a charm, consisting of a kind of powder’ [KR] E.DUR mureya (3/4) ‘black magic using ashes of Munyala tree to rub into wounds’ [NN] = KAB mũthea (3/4) ‘magic; medicine’; mũthea wa nzevũ ‘magic medicine put on the hand and blown in the direction in which there is danger, or where there are wild animals in order to drive them away’ [A] In N.DIG munyala (3/4) is recorded as the name of Cussonia zimmermannii Harms (family Araliaceae), while the cognate munyaa (3/4) is given as a name for Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (family Mimosaceae) (Glover et al. 1969: 49, 52

156). The latter, renamed as L.latisiliqua (L.) Gillis, is a cultivated shrub or tree which has gone wild on the coast (Beentje 1994: 275), and there seems to be no doubt that this is the tree referred to. Glover et al. report: ‘A decoction of the roots is taken as a remedy for chest pains. It is also used for magical purposes. The roots are burnt and the ash is called “kago”; when the ash is rubbed into cuts on the hands and face to protect them’ (1969: 156). PROTECTIVE CHARM (TO AVERT FEAR) (n.): *dhuma (5/6) GIR dhuma (5/6) ‘feathers, grains of corn and beads, given by person who inflicts injury to avert fear’; tembe ya dhuma ‘bracelet of string’ [D] No CKB cognates found. BEND (IN A BURROW); CHARM-STICK (n.): *kißeto (7/8) RAB kimfedo (7/8) ‘(1) A turn, a winding. Used of burrows. (2) A charm-stick; the name of some particular spells or charms; radically, something that turns aside or prevents mischief. (a) A charm buried in the doorway or in the centre of an enclosure for cattle, and therefore more generally called Pingu ya cha. (b) A charm-stick, at the top of which a creeping plant is wound round; used in travelling and war. The one for travelling is also called Pingu ya charo (ya ku enendera Daida), while that for war goes by the name Kimfedo cha Kaya; also Kimfedo cha ku ramukira viha. The kimfedo with which to set out for war is laid up in the rungu. In the old town (Vokera, or, Kaya bomu) it is kept in the niumba ya vizuka’ [KR] = KAB -veta (v.) ‘to put to one side; to put something out of one’s way’ [A]; GIK kĩheto (7/8) ‘doubled-up sword - or spear-blade’; kaheta (12/13) ‘space against inside of house wall; recess, nook’; < –heta (v.) ‘shorten, tuck up (clothes); cut trim, set back (on the side); fold back’ [B] One possible etymological connection between the first and second senses of this word is explained above. An alternative explanation would be that the second sense derived from the winding of a plant around the top of a charm-stick, the name of which was subsequently extended to other similar charms. SACRIFICE, ACT OF PROPITIATION (AND REVELATION OR REQUIREMENT OF ITS NECESSITY) (n.): *kidhangaona ~ *kidhangaono (7/8) GIR kidhangaono (7/8) ‘direction given to avert evil, according to native customs’ [D] KAM kithangaona (7/8) ‘a sacrifice, a prediction’ [KR] RAB kithangaona ~ kirangaona (7/8) ‘a sacrifice, a prediction’ [KR] E.DUR chiryangona (7/8) ‘sacrifice, requirement to meet to aid recovery from illness or trouble’ [NN] N.DIG chiryangona (7/8) ‘substitutionary sacrifice, offering made by a mgbwanga [doctor] during a healing ceremony’ [MNNZ] = KAB kĩthangona (7/8) ‘an offering; a sacrifice; a selected bull or goat, kept to be used as kĩthangona’ [A]; GIK kĩgongona (7/8) ‘place of offering, altar, place at which village sacrificial ritual is performed; place where any sacrifice or propitiatory offering is made’; igongona (5/6) ‘sacrifice, blood sacrifice; ritual use of beer, gruel, or honey; customary ceremony presided over by the head of the community, father of family, or medicine man, directed to the spirits of the


ancestors, sometimes to God (the commonest cause being removal or avoidance of ritual pollution’ < -gongona (v.) ‘to sacrifice’ [B]

MARVEL, UNUSUAL OCCURRENCE (n.): *dhedhu (5/6) GIR dhedhu (5/6) ‘extraordinary occurrence’, ‘strange things’ [T]; ‘a wonderful occurrence, marvel’ [D] From the same CKB root as the following item. OMINOUS OCCURRENCE (n.): *kidhedha (7) GIR kidhedha (7) ‘evil happenings etc.’ [D] = KAB kĩthetha ~ kĩthetho (7/8) ‘a whiney cry, as of a child that continually cries for what it wants; the hoot of an owl - when an owl hoots people say it is “kĩthetha” and someone will die; when it comes, if a person does not die, the goats begin to die; a crying dog; an evil omen’ < -thetha (v.) ‘to be peevish; to cry like a spoilt child, used of both children and grown people’ [A]; GIK gĩtheetha (7/8) ‘spell-binding; something of ill omen (e.g. a domestic animal with some abnormal physical appearance or behaviour); a spell-binder; somebody with peculiarity of manner causing him to be regarded as unlucky’ < -theetha (v.) ‘to do something which causes ceremonial uncleanliness to fall on somebody; bring evil, exert baneful influence on; cause to be a victim of baneful force; act as a bearer of ill omen’ [B] DO SOMETHING UNLUCKY, INVITE BAD LUCK (v.): *-dhia GIR –dhia (v.) ‘to do an unlucky thing, ask for trouble’ [D] No CKB cognates found. Possibly related to the following item. BAD NEWS (n.): *madhii (6) GIR madhii (6) ‘bad tidings’ [D] ?= KAB ĩthĩĩ (5/6) ‘grave; place where an animal died and was eaten, either by people, animals or vultures’ [A]; ithĩgĩ (5/6) ‘branch of tree cut off and left (used for fire-fighting); light branch or stick with the leaves still on it (stuck in the ground to warn people off, or placed on land held by a tenant as a token of eviction)’ < -thĩga (v.) ‘to chop, lop; cut meat, etc., into pieces’ [B] The possible chain of semantic development is ‘tree branch’ > ‘branch used as a warning sign’ > ‘unlucky place’ ~ ‘bad news’. BAD LUCK (n.): *ßanga (?5/6) GIR vanga (?5/6) ‘bad luck, ill fortune’, e.g. vanga ii ichere kumutuwa, ‘said of a run of bad luck’ [D] RAB mfanga (?5/6) ‘ill luck’ [KR] E.DUR mvanga (?5/6) ‘bad happenings which are removed by witchcraft ceremonies’ [NN] = KAB mbanga (9/10) ‘an accident; a small striped rat with a long mouth’ [A] ?LOCATE A BIRD CALL (IN SEEKING AN OMEN) (v.): ?*-dhenja


GIR –thenja (v.) ‘in observing birds, seeking an omen, the Giriama word – thenja is more frequently used’ [KR] ?= KAB -thengea (v.) ‘to draw near; to approach’ [A]; GIK -thenga (v.) ‘to move aside, move, shift, give way, get out of the way’; -thengera (v.) ‘to make way, move aside; avoid’ [B] A possible semantic development is ‘to avoid’ > ‘to approach’ > ‘to observe birds to seek an omen’. Otherwise this may be a mistranscription of or otherwise related to GIR –dheja (v.) ‘to meet with a good omen, prosper, be lucky’ (see below). LOCATE A BIRD CALL (IN SEEKING AN OMEN) (v.): *-era nyuni RAB –era niuni (v.) ‘to take a bearing of birds, in seeking an omen from them. If the bird consulted cries at the right or left hand, the omen is good; if before you, it is bad’ [KR] = KAB -ela (v.) ‘to measure food etc.’; -elania (v.) ‘to give each an equal portion, to compare one thing with another by measuring them’ [A]; GIK -gera (v.) ‘to count, measure, reckon’ [B] This is a compound derived from the loanwords –era (v.) ‘to measure’, and nyuni (9/10) ‘bird’ (see above). OMEN, BAD OMEN (AT THE START OF A JOURNEY) (n.): *mudhana (3/4) GIR mudhana ~ m’dhana (3/4) ‘obstacle, something unexpected that prevents a man from taking a journey, etc., as he had proposed doing, as the sight of katsumbakazi’; -keta mudhana ~ -pata mudhana (v.) ‘to be prevented from doing anything one was intending to do’; -ketezha mudhana (v.) ‘to prevent from doing anything one was intending to do’ [T]; mudhana (3/4) ‘omen, met with on a journey’; ‘old name for mugiryama, “Ni mwana mudhana mwenye, ni wa mbalazi na podzo”, boast of being a pure blooded Giryama’ [D] RAB muthana, pl. mithana (3/4) ‘omen, generally an ill omen’; ‘luck’: ‘The word principally refers to the first meeting with an odd number of persons, when setting out on a journey, though it also includes the omen obtained by observing birds’ [KR] E.DUR murana (3/4) ‘omen’, e.g. murana ui ‘bad omen’, murana udzo ‘good omen’ [NN] = KAB mũthaana (3/4) ‘an evil omen; a superstition, as a certain bird singing, or as when one starts out on an important errand, if the eldest child is a male, and he meets a female, this is a bad omen, and vice versa. Or, if going to divine [consult a medicine man] for a male child, and he meets a female, he returns to his village, and vice versa’; -thaanwa nĩ mũtĩ (v. +) ‘to be hurt by a stick springing up in the path and hitting one’ [A] Cf. SWA mdhana (3/4) ‘bad luck, a bad omen, anything which brings bad luck or misfortune’. MEET WITH A GOOD OMEN, PROSPER, BE LUCKY (v.): *-dheja GIR -theja ~ -thecha (v) ‘to meet with a good omen’ – contrasted with RAB -piga ni niuni [KR]; -dheja (v.) ‘to find without difficulty’; ‘to prosper, have good luck’ [D] = KAB -thesya (v.) ‘to have a good omen, as to meet with two people or with a man and wife early in the morning’; also ‘to cleanse; to purify’ < -thea (v.) ‘to be clean; to be pure; to be holy’ [A]; GIK -thea (v.) ‘(of a sore) get bigger,


spread, suppurate; grow big, fat; (of plants sending out shoots) spread; (of a herd) increase in size’; –thegea ~ -thagaya (v.) ‘(of livestock) increase, multiply, have large offspring; (of fire) burn up, spread’; also -thera (v.) ‘to be bright, shine, sparkle; be clean, transparent, pure, innocent; be wise’ [B] The most likely semantic development is ‘to prosper’ > ‘to be lucky’ > ‘to meet with a good omen’. An alternative is ‘to purify’ > ‘to be lucky (avoid pollution) < ‘to meet with a good omen’. BE READY TO GO TO MEET (v.): *-dhauja GIR –thauja (v.) ‘to be ready to, i.e. to go to meet’ [KR] = KAB -thaũsya (v.) ‘to cause to meet another’ < -thaũa (v.) ‘to go and meet one who is coming’ [A]; -thauthia (v.) ‘to make ready’ [B] [move to another section? check Krapf] BE READY TO GO TO MEET (v.): *-radhira RAB –rathira ~ -radira (v.) ‘to be ready to go, i.e. to go to meet’ [KR] S.DIG -raphiya (v.) ‘to remove’ [MNNZ] = DAI –radima (v.) ‘make offerings to the dead’ [N]; KAB -athana (v.) ‘to prophecy; to proclaim things, either past, present or future’ [A]; GIK -rathĩra (v.) ‘consult a diviner’; -rathia (v.) ‘to seek an augury, consult oracles’ < -ratha (v.) ‘to foretell’ [B] The original or underlying meaning of this item is presumably ‘to be ready to go to meet someone having received favourable omens’.


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