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DMAIC

Copyright © TreQna Six Sigma Nanual

M

2

DMAIC

Copyright © TreQna Six Sigma Nanual

2

DNA!C

DEFINE

MEASURE

ANALYZE

IMPROVE

CONTROL

Nap project

CTQ Characteristics and standards

Neasurement System Analysis

Baseline process

Screen for vital X's

Defined !mprove Process

NSA on X's

Approve project

Data collection

Performance objective

!dentify drivers of variation

Study interaction between X's

!mproved Process capability

Establish control plan

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Neasure Phase

DEF!NE NEASURE ANALYZE !NPROvE CONTROL

Continuous Gage R8R, Short

Form Gage, Testf Retest Study,

Attribute Gage R8R

- !dentify gage error

Neasurement system analysis

Step M.2

Tools

Activities

Deliverables

Objective

Step M.3 Step M.1

Process Nap, QFD, FNEA,

Pareto

- Sampling Strategy

- Segmentation factors

- !dentify project Y metric

- Establish performance

standards

Data collection CTQ characteristics and

standards

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Objectives of Step N.1 (CTQ Characteristics 8 Standards)

- Narrow project focus to actionable(s)

- !dentify project Y metric

- Determine specification limits for project Y metric

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!dentifying project Y metric

To select CTQ characteristics following tools can help us:

- Process mapping

- QFD

- FNEA

- Pareto (will be discussed in Analyze)

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Process mapping

Process Napping:

- !s a graphical representation of activities, steps, information, resources and

their interactions.

- Process Nap is also called a flowchart.

- Process Napping is a first step in understanding how and why a process

behaves the way it does.

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Customer

Output

Input

Supplier

Process

A process is a series of logical steps that transform inputs (raw materials) in to customer defined

outputs.

A process may be largely affected by one or more of the following factors:

- personnel who operate the processes;

- materials which are used as inputs (including information);

- machines or equipment being used in the process (in process execution or monitoring f

measurement;

- methods (including criteria and various documentations used along the process);

- work environment

Understanding a process

x

1

, x

2

, x

3

... Y

1

, Y

2

, Y

3

...

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Process Boundary

Process Boundary

Process Controls

Netrics and Neasurements

- Process Boundary defines the process limit. !t helps understand the scope of the process and

its constraints.

- Process controls help ensure the process is consistent in behavior

- Metrics and Measurements are the means to measure conformance with requirements placed

by customers on outputs and processes on inputs.

Components of a process

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Why map process?

Napping a process has many uses:

- Compare actual vs. assumed (designed) flow

- !dentify redundant, duplicate or non value add steps

- !dentify data collection points in the process

- Study interaction and interdependencies between different departments

(highlight hand off points)

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How to map a process?

To map a process:

- Understand the process boundaries and scope

- Observe the process and identify its steps

- Arrange the process steps in a logical order

- !dentify the outputs, the customers, and their key requirements

- !dentify the inputs, the suppliers, and the process's key requirements

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Process mapping - Frequently used symbols

Process step

Process step

Decision box

Decision box

Process

Start f End

Process

Start f End

Off page

connector

Off page

connector

Document

Document

Nulti-document

Nulti-document

Process steps

connector

!nput to a

process

!nput to a

process

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Types of process maps

Three frequently used process maps are:

- Basic Process map: used when the process is small and simple

- Alternate path process map: used for complex andfor large process. Alternate paths replace decision

boxes in the map. The percentage depiction of alternate paths makes this map more informative.

- Cross functional process map: used when the process has many handoffs between different

departments. !t is also known as deployment map.

80%

20%

Human

Resource

Operations

Finance

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Quality Function Deployment

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a structured approach to defining

customer needs or requirements and translating them into specific plans to

produce products to meet those needs.

!t helps to understand:

- What customer wants when the customer requirement is not explicit or

is indirect.

- How important it is to the customer

- What the customer does not want

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Objective

- Understand Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a tool.

- Describe the steps of QFD.

- Analyze output from QFD.

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Definition of QFD

- QFD is a methodology and tool to identify and translate customer needs

and wants into measurable features and requirements - converting the

¨what's" in to ¨how's"

- QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design, development,

manufacturing, and service functions.

- Used to identify Critical to Quality Characteristics (CTQ's)

QFD is also known as the ¨House of Quality"

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1S

9

!

n

g

r

e

d

i

e

n

t

c

o

s

t

4S

3

9

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

c

o

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d

)

42 39 36

9 3 Good service

3 2 Should be reasonably priced

9 + Should taste good

9 3 + Quenches thirst

Q

u

a

n

t

i

t

y

T

i

m

e

t

o

p

r

e

p

a

r

e

!

n

g

r

e

d

i

e

n

t

m

i

x

Customer Needs

Customer's importance

rating

Customer's Expectations

Neasures that capture

customers requirement

!mpact a CTQ

has on the

customer's

expectations

Overall CTQ impact on customer needs

QFD Natrix

×

×

×

Correlation between

measures

Strong Positive Strong Negative Positive Negative

×

×

×

**Elements of QFD matrix:
**

Rows: The rows of the QFD matrix represent the customer needs (VOC)

Columns: The columns of the QFD matrix represent the CTQs that measure the customer’s need.

The cross section matrix cells are filled with values 1,3 and 9 depending on the correlation between the customer needs and the CTQs. 1 represents

low correlation, 3 medium correlation, and 9 high correlation. The cell is left blank where no correlation exists.

The column next to needs contains the relative importance given to needs by customer.

The roof of the house is used to depict correlation between various measures

When the matrix is complete, to prioritize the CTQs or requirement:

Multiply the strength of each relationship (1 for weak, 3 for moderate and 9 for strong) by the priority number (1 to 5) for each corresponding

customer expectation.

Add the results and enter the sum for each requirement at the bottom of the matrix. This is the output of the QFD exercise.

It is not necessary to complete every cell of the QFD matrix. Typically, a QFD matrix would have 30-50% of the cells filled.

Caution: An empty row indicates that the need is not captured by any measure. An empty column indicates that the measure does not fulfill any need

and is redundant.

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Analyzing QFD matrix

- Look for blank rows and columns- blank row means that we don't have

any measure to satisfy customer requirement and a blank column means

that we have a measure that does cater to any customer requirement.

- !dentify processesfmeasures which have high impact on customer CTQ's

- Resolve negative correlations between measuresf processes

QFD can be used in iteration to translate customer needs to process CTQs.

For instance - customer needs can be translated to functional requirements using a QFD. A second

level of QFD drill down can translate these requirements to product characteristics. A third level QFD

can then translate the characteristics to process output measures.

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FNEA objective

- Understand and use FNEA tool

- Learn steps involved in making of FNEA

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Failure Nodes and Effects Analysis

FNEA is a structured tool to:

- !dentify failure modes for a process

- Estimate its effect and the risk associated with it

- !dentify and prioritize probable causes of failure

- Evaluate and develop control plan to contain the risk

FMEA can be used at different phases for different purpose.

Measure – CTQ’s identification

Improve – Risk analysis on solution

Control – To develop process control plan

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Types of FNEA

- System FNEA: Used to analyze potential failure modes in systems during

the design or concept stage.

- Design FNEA: Used to analyze potential failure modes in products before

they are released to production.

- Process FNEA: Used to analyze assembly line, manufacturing,

transactional or other such processes.

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When is FNEA useful?

- Evaluate and control potential risk associated with product, systems in

there design phase

- Evaluate potential risk when existing systems, processes or products are

changed

- Proactive tool to evaluate and contain risk associated with any process or

change in the process.

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Preparing FNEA

- !dentify process and map the process.

- !dentify input and output of the process

- Understand the effect of inputs (process variables) on output of the

process

- Rank inputs according to importance

- List ways in which inputs can vary and the associated failure modes and

effects on outputs

- Assign severity, occurrence and detection to each of the items and

calculate risk priority number

- Prioritize causes with high RPN and develop control plan to minimize risk

FMEA:

•Is a team exercise

•Living document and should be updated regularly to evaluate risk and make control plans

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Definition of terms

Failure Mode

- Way in which a process can fail to meet expectation

- Any fluctuation which can cause break down in process

- Any fluctuation in process variable which can result in defect or non conformance

Potential Cause

- A deficiency leading to a Failure Node

- Any source of variation in inputs or process variables

Potential Effect

- The impact on customer if the failure mode in not contained or avoided

- Customer could be internal or external. The impact could be on the business or

employees also (which is internal customer)

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!dentifying causes

Causes can be identified using:

- Brainstorming

- Cause and effect diagram

- Ask the question - ¨What can cause process to fail or what can cause a

failure to impact the customer?"

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Rating and Calculating RPN

Severity

- How severe is the impact of failure mode on customer?

Occurrence

- How frequent the cause leading to failure mode can occur?

Detection

- What is the possibility of detecting the failure mode if it occurs?

Risk Priority Number

- RPN signifies the amount of risk associated with failure mode

- RPN = Severance * Occurrence * Detection

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Rating Scale

Nany scales are available for rating severity, occurrence and detection. For

simplicity one can use the following scale:

Low- e.g. not detectable High- e.g. almost assured

failure

High- e.g. affecting

customer

9

Medium Medium- Medium 3

High- e.g.. always

detectable

Low – e.g. remote

likelihood

Low- e.g. does not affect

customer

1

Detection Occurrence Severity Rating

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Failure Modes and Effects analysis {FMEA)

Date Prepared By:

Process Step

Potential

failure mode

Potential

failure effect

S

E

V.

Potential

Causes

O

C

C

Current

Controls

D

E

T

R

P

N

Recommendations

S

E

V.

O

C

C

D

E

T

R

P

N

How does it look?

List process steps or

product parts

List Failure Modes

for each process step

Rate the Severity of

the Effect to the

customer

Rate how often a

particular cause or

Failure Mode occurs

List the causes for

each Failure Mode

List the Effects of each

Failure Mode

Rate the detection

based on current

controls

Calculate RPN and give

recommendations for reducing

RPN. Calculate new RPN post

implementation of actions

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Performance Standard

Purpose

- To define the customer boundary f specification on a CTQ

- To determine a measurable definition of defect

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Performance Standard

A Performance Standard defines

- The customer want

- Clearly whether a process is performing well or not

E.g. loan approval within 2+ hours, first call resolution

A Performance Standard is also said to translate the ¨voice of Customer" to the

¨voice of Process"

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Determining performance standard

Characteristics

Translate the customer requirement (vOC) into a measurable CTQ that has:

- An operational definition

- Target and Specification Limits

- Defect Definition

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Operational Definition

A precise description that tells

- What a CTQ is?

- And how to measure it?

Why do we need to have operational definitions?

- !t removes ambiguity in understanding between team members

- !t clearly defines a ¨standard" way to measure a CTQ

- Ensure that CTQ representation is correct and independent of different

times and operators

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Target, Specification limit and Defect

One can understand Target as ¨a reference point to shoot at", however

Specification Limits {SL) define the acceptable tolerance in deviation

from target.

Target and SL are defined using vOC.

E.g. vOC - ¨average call handle time should be 180 seconds but it should

not exceed 270 seconds"

Would translate into :

Target: 180 seconds

Upper SL: 270 seconds (situation where LSL is not required!)

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Target

Specification

Limit

Defect

Defect

Anything that results in customer dissatisfaction. Nonconformance to the

CTQ.

Target, Specification limit and Defect

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CTQ Characteristics and Standard - Takeaways

- !dentify CTQ Characteristics

- Using processing mapping, QFD, FNEA as a tool

- Understanding process

- Types of process maps

- Napping process

- QFD Objectives

- How to prepare QFD matrix

- Diagnosing QFD matrix

- Understanding FNEA

- How to calculate RPN

- What is performance standard

- Understanding characteristics of performance standard

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Neasure Phase

DEF!NE NEASURE ANALYZE !NPROvE CONTROL

Continuous Gage R8R, Short

Form Gage, Testf Retest Study,

Attribute Gage R8R

- !dentify gage error

Neasurement system analysis

(NSA)

Step M.2

Tools

Activities

Deliverables

Objective

Step M.3 Step M.1

Process Nap, QFD, FNEA,

Pareto

- Sampling Strategy

- Segmentation factors

- !dentify project Y metric

- Establish performance

standards

Data collection CTQ characteristics and

standards

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NSA objective

- Understand the terms:

- Precision

- Accuracy

- Resolution

- Stability

- Linearity

- Repeatability

- Reproducibility

- Evaluated the measurement system and established variation induced by it

in process data.

- Project team's consensus on measurement system

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Neasurement System Analysis

- !n this step of Neasure we will conduct

- Gage R8R

- Attribute Gage

- Test Re-test

- Destructive Gage

- Define calibration standards

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Neasurement System and Process variation

Process variation consists of the true variation of process and the variation

due to measurement system.

Total variation = True Process variation + Neasurement System variation

!n this step we try to reduce the variation induced by measurement system. !f

the measurement system is not studied and calibrated:

- Analysis of data may give misleading results

- The variation problem may get fixed by fixing measurement system and

the project may not be required

- One might disturb the process operations without realizing that the cause

of variation is measurement system

Gage study tells us:

•Amount of measurement error

•Source of measurement error

Once the measurement error is quantified using gage study the next step is to minimize to the level

when it becomes acceptable. The gage study is repeated until the level of acceptance is achieved.

Until the problem of measurement variation is fixed the data can not be used for analysis and project

purpose.

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Process variation

Process True variation producing

parts different lengths for parts

!nput Output Process

variation !nduced by

measurement system

True

Process

Variation

Perceived total

Variation

As we have always say that our knowledge about a problem is limited by the data available, it

becomes critical to study variation induced by measurement system because the data is as good as

the measurement system.

+0

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Sources of variation

Observed

Process

Variation

Actual Process

Variation

Measurement

Variation

Long Term

Process

Variation

Short Term

Process

Variation

Sample

Variation

Gage Variation

Operator

Variation

(Repeatability)

Accuracy (Bias)

Precision

(Reproducibility)

Stability Linearity

+1

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Neasurement variation

- Accuracy f Bias - Difference between the standard and observation.

Example - A weighing scale measuring greater than ¨0" in free state

- Repeatability - variation in measurements of the same unit measured by the same

operator using the same equipment.

Example - Observed difference in the length of a pencil measured by the same operator using the same

measuring scale

- Reproducibility - variation in measurements of the same unit measured by different

operators using the same equipment.

Example - Observed difference in the length of a pencil measured by different operators using the

same measuring scale.

- Stability - variation in measurement of the same unit measured by the same

operator using the same equipment over time

Example - Observed difference in the length of a pencil measured by different operators using the

same measuring scale on different days.

- Linearity - Consistency of accuracy across the entire range of measurement system.

Example - Observed difference in the length of a pencil when measured using different ends of the

same measuring scale.

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Neasurement Gage Requirements

Three important aspect of gage which should make it adequate:

Resolution: Resolution as defined is the smallest unit in which the gage can

measure. !deally the gage should be able to resolve the tolerance into

approximately ten levels.

Precision: The variation caused due to gage (noise) should be less than the

process variation otherwise it will be difficult to detect process variation.

Accuracy: Ninimal or no difference between an observed reading average

and a standard.

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Understanding Precision and Accuracy

Precise and accurate

==

At target and precise

Accurate but not precise

At target but not precise

Precise but not accurate

Target Precise but away from target

++

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Elements of Neasurement System variability

Nethod

Naterial

Neasurement

Nachine

Environment

People

Fishbone may be used as a tool to identify Sources of variation in the

measurement system

Some other terms associated with gage:

Repeatability– Variation when one operator repeatedly measures the same unit with the same

measuring equipment.

Reproducibility–Variation when two or more people measure the same unit with the same measuring

equipment.

Stability–Variation obtained when the same person measures the same unit with the same equipment

over a large gap of time.

Linearity–The consistency of the accuracy of gage across the entire range of the measurement

system.

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Neasurement System Analysis (NSA)

- Attribute Gage: Done when discrete data is involved

- Gage ANOVA: with continuous data and the most exhaustive gage study.

Requires resource commitment and time. Continuous data can also be run

through short form gage and test-retest.

- Destructive Gage: Done when the event is destructive in nature and can

not be repeated.

Some other terms associated with gage:

Repeatability– Variation when one operator repeatedly measures the same unit with the same

measuring equipment.

Reproducibility–Variation when two or more people measure the same unit with the same measuring

equipment.

Stability–Variation obtained when the same person measures the same unit with the same equipment

over a large gap of time.

Linearity–The consistency of the accuracy of gage across the entire range of the measurement

system.

+6

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!mproving the Neasurement System

NOT Precise and NOT Accurate

At target but not precise

Precise but NOT Accurate

At target but not precise

Precise and Accurate

At target but not precise

+7

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Attribute GAGE

- Check gage for:

- Repeatability

- Reproducibility

- Accuracy

- !mprove gage if required

+8

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Attribute Gage standards

!deally an attribute gage is treated as adequate if:

- Repeatability: 90¾ of repeated measures by an operator match

- Reproducibility: 90¾ of repeated measures across all operators match

- Accuracy: 90¾ of all individual measures by across all operators match

with the standard

+9

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Attribute Gage standards

- Repeatability test is more sensitive if there are greater no. of repeated

measurements of the same unit. For instance, it is better to measure 10

units 9 times, than to measure 30 units 3 times.

- Reproducibility test is more sensitive if the same unit is measured by

more operators. Or instance, it is better to have 10 units measured by

operators than to have 30 units measured by 3 operators.

- Accuracy is calculated by taking each measurement as a data point.

Therefore, whether we have 30 units measured 3 times by 3 operators or

10 units measured 3 times by 9 operators or 10 units measured 9 times by

3 operators, there are 270 data points to calculate accuracy.

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Determining The Sample Size

- Consider the desired resolution to determine the sample size

- Greater the desired resolution, higher is the sample size requirement.

- !f the desired resolution is 0.5¾, will a sample size of 100 be enough?

A desired resolution of 0.5% means that the gage needs to distinguish a difference of half percentage

point. If the sample size is hundred, the gage is good to distinguish a difference of one percentage

point only (1/100), which may not solve the purpose.

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Attribute gage sheet

Repeatability: ¾ times each

operator matches on all three

measures for the same unit. Total

90 opportunity exist in the example.

Accuracy ¾ times each individual

measure matches with the standard.

Since there are total 270 measures,

there are 270 opportunities

Reproducibility: ¾ times all

operators match on all repeated

measures for the same unit. Total

30 opportunities exist in the

example

TRUE First Operator Second Operator Third Operator

Sample Answer Trial1 Trial2 Trial3 Trial1 Trial2 Trial3 Trial1 Trial2 Trial3

1 N N N N N N N Y N N

2 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

3 Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y

4 N N N N Y Y Y N N N

5 N N N N N N N N N N

6 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N

7 Y N Y N Y N Y Y Y Y

S N N N N Y N Y N N N

9 N N N N N N N N N N

10 N N N N N N N Y N Y

11 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

12 Y N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y

13 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

14 N N N N N N N N N N

15 N N N N N N N Y Y Y

16 N N N N N N N N N N

17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

1S N N N N N N N N N N

19 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

20 Y N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y

21 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

22 N N N N Y Y Y N N N

23 N N N N Y Y Y N N N

24 N N N N N N N Y Y Y

25 N N N N N N N N N N

26 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

27 N N N N N N N N N N

2S N N N N N N N N N N

29 N N N N N N N N N N

30 Y N Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y

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Test Re-test study

When to use it?

To check for precision of gage or measurement system. Test re-test is used

when same operator does the measurements. !t is good practice to use it

before opting for complex gage ANOvA.

Remember that if a gage is good on precision, the problem of accuracy can be

solved by calibration (correction).

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Test Re-test standard

Precision: !deally precision should be less than 10¾ of tolerance i.e.

Standard deviation < 10¾ of tolerance

Tolerance is defined by the customer. E.g. +10 seconds of specifications

would translate into tolerance of 20 seconds.

Accuracy: Can be only measured when one knows the standard value.

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Test re-test gage

Let us take an example where we have readings for diameter of a ball. The

tolerance given is 16 mm (+8mm) and the standard diameter of ball is 98mm .

104, 95, 101, 99, 95, 97, 96, 105, 101,

106, 94, 100, 98, 103, 98, 96, 100, 98,

95, 103

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Test re-test gage

Nake Run chart to find out if the data is stable

Observation

C

1

20 18 16 1+ 12 10 8 6 + 2

107.5

105.0

102.5

100.0

97.5

95.0

Number of runs about median:

0.17906

13

Expected number of runs: 11.00000

Longest run about median: 3

Approx P-value for Clustering: 0.8209+

Approx P-value for Nixtures:

Number of runs up or down:

0.0+762

16

Expected number of runs: 13.00000

Longest run up or down: 2

Approx P-value for Trends: 0.95238

Approx P-value for Oscillation:

Run Chart of C1

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Test re-test gage

Run Descriptive test to calculate mean and standard deviation

Nean=99.2, S=3.6

S=3.6 > 10¾ of 16 = 1.6

The inaccuracy or bias can be calculated as 99.2-98=1.2

106 10+ 102 100 98 96 9+

Nedian

Nean

101 100 99 98 97 96

A nderson-Darling Normality Test

v ariance 13.116

Skewness 0.367278

Kurtosis -0.95932+

N 20

Ninimum 9+.000

A -Squared

1st Q uartile 96.000

Nedian 98.500

3rd Q uartile 102.500

Naximum 106.000

95¾ C onfidence !nterv al for Nean

97.505

0.36

100.895

95¾ C onfidence !nterv al for Nedian

96.235 101.000

95¾ C onfidence !nterv al for StDev

2.75+ 5.290

P-v alue 0.+25

Nean 99.200

StDev 3.622

95% Confidence Inter vals

Summary for C1

Therefore, the measurement device has inadequate precision.

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Nore about Neasurement variation- Ev and Av

Total variation (R8R) in a measurement system is further classified as:

-Equipment variation:

The variation within operator, within equipment or gage, within the method. This

variation comes from the parts of measurement system or process. This is also

termed as Repeatability variation.

-Appraiser variation:

The variation introduced between different operators, different parts, and different

methods. This is also termed as Reproducibility variation.

Total variation (R8R) = Ev + Av

The mathematical equation used for representing the relationship between total variation, EV and AV

is

(Std. Dev (R&R))

2

= (Std. Dev (Repeatability))

2

+ (Std. Dev. (Reproducibility))

2

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Nore about Neasurement variation- Gage R8R 8 SL

What is the challenge with having high R8R error ?

Following scenario explains why..

Centre circle is the true data point and the limits on left and right show the measurement variation

The gage variation might cause

this data to pass on lower

specification limit

The gage variation might cause

this data to fail on the upper

specification limit

The gage variation might cause

this data to fail on the lower

specification limit

The gage variation might cause

this data to pass on upper

specification limit

LSL USL

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Gage ANOvA Study

Gage ANOvA study:

- Quantify amount of measurement variability

- !dentify amount of measurement variation from different sources

Data Used: Continuous

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Gage ANOvA Study - Data Format

The data should be arranged in columns as in the following example. The

recommended numbers of operators, parts and trials are 3, 10 and 3

respectively. Which would give one 90 data points. (3*10*3=90)

Operator Part Trial Response

1 1 1 20.0

2 1 1 19.1

3 1 1 19.5

+ 1 1 18.2

1 1 2 21.2

2 1 2 20.0

3 1 2 19.0

+ 1 2 22.0

1 2 1 17.0

2 2 1 19.5

3 2 1 19.6

+ 2 1 18.0

1 2 2 19.5

2 2 2 20.1

3 2 2 21.0

+ 2 2 18.9

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Gage ANOvA Study - Nenu

Choose Stat> Quality Tools> Gage Study> Gage R8R Study (Crossed).

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Gage ANOvA Study - !nput Window

Operator Part Trial Response

1 1 1 20.0

2 1 1 19.1

3 1 1 19.5

+ 1 1 18.2

1 1 2 21.2

2 1 2 20.0

3 1 2 19.0

+ 1 2 22.0

1 2 1 17.0

2 2 1 19.5

3 2 1 19.6

+ 2 1 18.0

1 2 2 19.5

2 2 2 20.1

3 2 2 21.0

+ 2 2 18.9

Select method of analysis as

ANOvA

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Gage ANOvA Study - Session Output

Gage R&R Study - ANOVA Method

Two-Way ANOVA Table With Interaction

Source DF SS MS F P

Part 9 18343.8 2038.20 31.5583 0.000

Operator 2 530.8 265.40 4.1093 0.034

Part * Operator 18 1162.5 64.59 3.9663 0.000

Repeatability 30 488.5 16.28

Total 59 20525.7

Gage R&R

%Contribution

Source VarComp (of VarComp)

Total Gage R&R 50.475 13.30

Repeatability 16.283 4.29

Reproducibility 34.192 9.01

Operator 10.041 2.65

Operator*Part 24.151 6.37

Part-To-Part 328.936 86.70

Total Variation 379.411 100.00

Study Var %Study Var

Source StdDev (SD) (6 * SD) (%SV)

Total Gage R&R 7.1046 42.627 36.47

Repeatability 4.0353 24.212 20.72

Reproducibility 5.8474 35.084 30.02

Operator 3.1687 19.012 16.27

Operator*Part 4.9144 29.486 25.23

Part-To-Part 18.1366 108.820 93.11

Total Variation 19.4785 116.871 100.00

Number of Distinct Categories = 3

P-value < 0.05 says significant variation. In the

example Parts, operator and the interaction all

are significant factors

Look for percentage contribution for Total Gage

R&R, which is addition of Repeatability and

Reproducibility percentage contribution. In the

example it is 13.3% which is more than

acceptable 10%

Percentage contribution:

It represents the percentage of variation contributed by gage in the process.

Recommended percentage contribution from Total Gage R&R should ideally be less than 10%. However one should

consult with BB/MBB if the value is between 10-15%, where one might accept the gage error and gets go ahead with the

project. Project should be evaluated by the mentor and acceptance would depend on the process, business and the project

champion.

If tolerance is beyond 15% it is recommended that the gage be corrected before repeating the gage study.

No. of Distinct Categories:

This number represents the number of distinct groups in the data. For example if you have 20 part being evaluated and the

number of distinct categories are 2. This means that the most of the parts are not different enough, and the data can be

divided into two groups. In such a case the precision of the gage is not enough for the process. Minimum number of distinct

categories should be at least 5.

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Gage ANOvA Study - Graph Output

P

e

r

c

e

n

t

Part-to-Part Repr od Repeat Gage R8R

100

50

0

¾ Contribut ion

¾ St udy var

S

a

m

p

l

e

R

a

n

g

e

16

8

0

_

R=+.7

UCL=15.36

LCL=0

1 2 3

S

a

m

p

l

e

M

e

a

n

100

75

50

_

_

X=80.85

UCL=89.69

LCL=72.01

1 2 3

Part

10 9 8 7 6 5 + 3 2 1

100

75

50

Operator

3 2 1

100

75

50

Part

A

v

e

r

a

g

e

10 9 8 7 6 5 + 3 2 1

100

75

50

Operat or

1

2

3

Gage name:

Date of study :

Reported by :

Tolerance:

Nisc:

Components of Variation

R Chart by Operator

Xbar Chart by Operator

Weight by Part

Weight by Operator

Operator * Part Interaction

Gage R&R {ANOVA) for Weight

In By part graph, there are large differences

between different parts.

Components of variation graph shows percent

contribution by category

In by operator graph, there isn't much difference

between operators

X bar graph by operator shows most of the

points out of control, which says most of the

variation is due to parts

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Destructive Testing

Destructive testing is unique in the sense that the measured characteristic is

different after the measurement process. Few examples of destructive

events are:

- Call quality evaluation in in-bound (unless it is done on recorded call)

- Crash testing

- Tensile strength of material

- Call quality evaluation for call centre (unless it is done on recorded call)

This is a unique case since operator could measure a part multiple times in the

earlier case where we used Gage ANOvA (Crossed).

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Destructive Testing and Gage

Assumptions and restrictions:

- !n such a setup the event happens once and can not be repeated. However

if the event is recorded than the measurement can be done multiple times.

E.g. call quality check done on recorded calls in call centers.

- Each operator measures unique batch.

- One must be able to assume that all parts in one batch are identical. The

reason it is necessary is otherwise the part to part variation will mask the

measurement variation.

- This means that none of the part is measured by multiple operators

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Destructive Testing - Neasurement setup

Should one use Crossed gage or Nested gage in destructive testing?

The only way one can answer this question is by looking at the measurement

set up.

- !f all operators measure unique parts use Gage R8R (Nested)

- !f all operators measure all parts than use Gage R8R (Crossed)

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Gage R8R Nested

Gage R8R (Nested) is done the same way as Gage R8R (Crossed). The data

would look like:

Choose to Stat > Quality Tools > Gage Study > Gage R8R Nested

to do the test. The input and output interpretation is similar to crossed gage

discussed before.

Operator Part Measurement

1 1

1 2

1 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

3 7

3 8

3 9

Each operator has

unique parts

Parts in each batch

are assumed as

identical. E.g. parts

1, 2 and 3 are

identical

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Neasurement System Analysis -Takeaways

-Understand Accuracy and Precision and their components.

-Understand sources of variation

- Perceived vs. True process variation

- Equipment vs. appraiser variation

-Why gage error is a challenge

-Gage standards

-Types of gage studies:

- Attribute gage

- Test retest

- Gage R8R - Crossed and Nested

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Neasure Phase

DEF!NE NEASURE ANALYZE !NPROvE CONTROL

Continuous Gage R8R, Short

Form Gage, Testf Retest Study,

Attribute Gage R8R

- !dentify gage error

Neasurement system analysis

(NSA)

Step M.2

Tools

Activities

Deliverables

Objective

Step M.3 Step M.1

Process Nap, QFD, FNEA,

Pareto

- Sampling Strategy

- Segmentation factors

- !dentify project Y metric

- Establish performance

standards

Data collection CTQ characteristics and

standards

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Data Collection Plan

Following are the steps involved in data collection plan

1.

Data Collection

Goals

2.

Data definition and

procedures

3.

validate

measurement

system

4.

Collect data and

monitor

-Why collect data?

-What data to collect?

-Establish operational

definitions

-Establish data

collection procedures

-Pilot operational

definitions and

procedures and refine

-Establish sampling

strategy

-Conduct NSA and

validate measurement

system

-Collect data

-Nonitor for data

consistency and make

final adjustments

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Data Collection Plan

Till now we have established:

- Netric for the project - What is it that we are trying to measure? E.g. !f the

metric is idle time in inbound call centre. One might have to collect data

items like - ACD time, Hold Time, ACW time etc..

- Operational Definitions - We know how to define operational definition. Also

we know that operational definition needs to be piloted so that we can fix

loose ends in the definition.

- Neasurement system validation - Depending on the type of data and

measurement system setup we know what type of gage to use.

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Data Collection Plan

Still to be covered.

- Data Segmentation

- Data Sampling

- Data collection sheet

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Data Segmentation

What is Data Segmentation?

Segmentation involves dividing data into logical categories for analyzing data.

For instance, while recording the errors made by a data entry process, the

project manager may choose to capture the step at which the error occurred,

the operator who made the error and so on.

Tools Used for Data Segmentation:

-Brainstorming- Nembers of the process and project team

-SNE- Subject matter expert for the process can give valuable inputs

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Data Segmentation

Example:

A project is being done on Call Quality, the possible segmentation factors are

These segmentation factors are logical groups that may point to be significant

x's during the analyze phase.

Call Quality

Vintage of agents

Type of call

Hold time

Time of the call

Day

Agents

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Sampling Objectives

- Understand sampling and why is it required

- Advantages of sampling

- Different sampling techniques

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Population vs. Sample

Population:

- The entire set of data, the universal set.

- Symbol used is N

- The population mean represented by µ

- Standard deviation is represented by σ

Sample:

- The part or subset of a population, the universal subset

- signifies the sample mean

- s signifies standard deviation of a sample

X

Sampling tries to answer few critical questions asked while doing a project:

How much data is required?

How and when to collect data?

Sampling also reduces the cost involved in collecting data by reducing the amount of data required.

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Sampling

Sampling is the process of collecting subset or portion of data from population

and predicting population characteristics

Population

N=1000

Sample

N=50

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Why Sample ?

When to sample

- The cost associated with data is very high

- We are measuring a high volume process

When not to sample

When the subset of data may not be able to predict population

characteristics. E.g.. !f each unit of data is unique

Apart from other reasons to do sampling, one of the critical reasons is the time required to collect

population data. Sampling is an efficient way to collect data for any kind of project or analysis.

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Representative Sample

Sample is Representative:

- When the sample has same statistics as of the population

How to guarantee a representative sample:

- Suitable sampling strategy based on the process

- Understand the nature of process

- Understand the characteristics of population

Sample must be ¨representative" of the population, as the data collected otherwise would not deliver

any results and might give misleading inferences about the population.

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Sampling Bias

Bias occurs when systematic differences are introduced into the sample as a

result of the selection process.

- A sample that is biased will not be representative of the population

- A sample that is biased will lead to incorrect conclusions about the

population

A biased sample would have incorrect information about the population and will lead to biased

conclusions. A bias in the sample can not be eliminated with increasing the sample size.

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Sampling Bias Types - !

Convenience sampling:

This is also called as accidental bias. !t occurs we use the data what is

available instead of making as effort to collect data. E.g. interviewing the

first person you met, pick friends and neighbors for survey.

Systematic sampling:

Collecting data at a particular time, or following a pattern in collecting

data which has interference with underlying process. E.g. sampling process

on Sunday when only one person works in the process.

Judgmental sampling:

When the data collector or surveyor collects data using his judgment or

opinion.

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Sampling Bias Types - !!

Bias by Environment:

This type of bias is introduced when the environmental conditions

surrounding process have changed since the sample was collected. E.g.

When the call handle time data was collected it was tax season.

Neasurement Bias:

Neasurement bias could arise if the operational definitions are not correct

or the data collectors have interpreted the operational definition

differently.

Non-Response Bias:

Non-response bias happens when the respondents to a survey tend to

differ systematically from respondents to the survey.

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Sampling Strategy - Random Sampling

Random Sampling:

Samples picked up from assembly line

without any order or system. Each

item has equal probability of getting

selected in the sample.

Production Line

Sample

This is the most commonly used method of sampling. Use random sampling when information about

stratification is unknown.

Random sampling is a population approach and so care must be taken when the process is cyclical or

if the data can be stratified.

!n random sampling each unit has equal probability of being selected in the sample. Using random

sampling method avoids bias being introduced in the sampling process.

For practical purpose one can number the data coming out of process and generate random list in

excel or on minitab and accordingly sample data.

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Sampling Strategy - Stratified Random Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Production Line

Sample 1.1

Sample 1.2

Assembly data stratified in to two categories and

random samples collected for both

Stratified random sampling is used when the population has different groups (strata). !n such

situation it is necessary that both groups are represented in the sample and samples are collected

from each group (it is like doing random sampling for each group).

The size of the sample depends on population size of each the group.

E.g. To sample from a assembly line preparing nuts of two sizes A and B respectively. The two

sample sizes for nuts sized A and B would be calculated based on production of size A and size B nuts

respectively.

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Sampling Strategy - Systematic Sampling

Systematic Sampling:

Production Line

Sample

Every fourth item

selected for sample

Random sampling and stratified sampling are done with historical data. When we have real time data

coming in systematic sampling is done.

Unlike random sampling the frequency of collecting data is fixed in systematic sampling.

E.g. selecting every fourth call in the call centre for call barging, selecting 2 application every

alternate hour for quality check.

Care must be taken and process must be studied for any underlying structures.

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Sampling Strategy - Rational Sub grouping

Random Sampling:

Production Line

Sample

Three items selected with a

frequency of one hour. !n this case

sample has subgroup size of three.

1

st

hour 2

nd

hour 3

rd

hour

Rational sub-grouping is a process based sampling strategy. The rational subgroups depend on the

nature and type of process from where the data is being selected.

Rational sub-grouping assists us to understand the shift, which is the difference between the long

term variability and short term variability of the process. We will study this in capability analysis

under Analyze phase.

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Sampling Strategy

Use following pointers for sampling strategy for a given process:

!t is always better to collect small sample spread over longer time period

than one large sample over a shorter time period.

Sample more frequently for unstable process and less frequently for

stable process

Sample more frequently for process with short cycle time and less

frequently for process with long cycle time

To understand the sampling frequency one should understand the objective of data collection

The most important issue to remember when considering sample frequency is the data

collection objective. The sampling frequency is driven by the objective of data collection, e.g.

if the data collected is for monitoring process one might want to sample data daily. However

if the objective is to collect data for the same process to study capability one might want to

collect data for few months by sampling few data points each week or month.

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Sample Size- Continuous Data

Sample represents population characteristics. We can use confidence interval

formula and solve it for n to get sample size:

As standard error is also represented by delta, hence:

Solving for n we get:

The equation for 95¾ confidence becomes (using Z table):

Standard error

X

CI

n

X *

2 /

Z

± ±± ±

n

/2

Z

= == = ∆

2

2

Z

n

∆

∗

=

/

x 1.96

n

2

=

Where

∆ error or precision required from sample in representing the population

σ is standard deviation

N is sample size

The value of Z

α/2

depends on confidence level we choose, the corresponding value can taken out from Z table.

Finite Population Correction

The central limit theorem and the standard errors of the mean and of the proportion are based on the premise that the samples

selected are chosen with replacement. However, virtually in all scenarios finite population sampling is conducted without replacement

from populations that are of a finite size N.

When sample is more than 5¾ of population size we use Finite population correction factor which is:

The sample size is than:

N (finite) = n(1 + nfN)

1 −

−

=

N

n N

FPC

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Estimate σ When !t !s Unknown

- Use control limits from an existing X chart

= (UCL - X) f 3 or (X - LCL) f 3

- Collect some data from population and calculate σ (recommended -

30 data points)

- Get realistic estimate from business (based on past experience)

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Estimate ∆

Take estimate from business. !t may be based on the resolution of

measurement. For instance, if the business can measure cycle time in

days, do not set ∆ in minutes or hours

Collect some data from population and calculate ∆ using the sample

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Calculating Sample Size for Proportions Data

The formula to calculate sample for proportions data is:

Z is the Z score (normal data) and P represents proportionate defective and a

represents confidence required from sample. Zaf2 is 1.96 for 95¾ confidence.

This uses the confidence interval formula for attribute (discrete) data:

Again if the sample is more than 5¾ of population finite population correction

should be used

n

P 1 P

Z P

/2

−

±

= − P 1 P

Z

n

2

/2

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Estimating P And ∆ when Unknown

Estimate P

- Calculate proportionate defective using small sample

- Use historical control charts to estimate

- Use subject matter expertise to estimate

Estimate ∆

- Use subject matter expertise to estimate

- Estimate using formula:

( (( ( ) )) )

n

P 1 P

Z

B B

/2

− −− −

= == =

∆

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Data Collection Sheet

What should one capture while collecting data?

- Data - Project metric Y or segmentation factor X

- Data Type - Continuous vs. Discrete

- Data Source - Sourcefs of data. E.g. Application, process step

- Data Range - Possible set of values data can take

- Segmentation Factors - All the factors which come out of brainstorming

- Time Period - For what time period data is collected

- One should also capture if there are any special changes in process during

the time period. Such reasons might produce outliers in the data.

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Nonitor Data Collection

- Question collectors for the understanding of operations definitions.

- verify collected data with source, use sampling or ad hoc QC

- Ensure that the procedures are followed.

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Data Collection - Takeaways

-Segmentation

- What is segmentation?

- Why segment?

-Sampling

- What is sampling?

- Why sample?

- Sampling challenges - Types of Bias

- Types of Sampling

-What does data collection sheets have.

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