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Math Dossier University of Calgary EDUC 509 Nicole Neutzling 00257807

Fraction Quilting
Numbers - Grade 4

General and Specic Outcomes: Demonstrate an understanding of fractions less than or equal to one by using concrete, pictorial and symbolic representations to: name and record fractions for the parts of a whole or a set compare and order fractions provide examples of where fractions are used. Other Math Outcomes Addressed: The quilt lesson can be adapted to address other outcomes by changing the constraints. This lesson can also be connected to different grades through the general focus of shape and space and pattern and relations as found in the Alberta Program of Study for Mathematics. Patterns and Relations - Grade 2/3 Specic Outcomes: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of repeating patterns (three to ve elements) by: describing extending comparing creating patterns using manipulatives, diagrams, sounds and actions. Shape and Space - Grade 6 ! Specic Outcomes: Perform a combination of successive transformations of 2-D shapes to create a design, and identify and describe the transformations.! Perform a combination of translations, rotations and/or reections on a single 2-D shape, with and without technology, and draw and describe the image. Cross Curricular Connection: Art: ( elements: line, shape/form, colour) (principles: pattern, balance).

Social Studies: life reected in quilt designs Materials: coloured construction paper (3 x 3 squares, 9 x 9 squares) , black construction paper (3 x 3 squares, 3 x 14 , 12 x 14), glue sticks, scissors, 3 x 9 straight edge. Task: Students learn about the extensive and interesting history of quilt making. They then cut shapes from squares using fractions and design the center and boarder squares using vertical, horizontal, and diagonal symmetry. Full set of lesson plans can be found using the link below. Is it worthwhile? This task is worth using based on its ability to be manipulated across a large range of ages and grades in order to target specic outcomes. It is easily differentiated and provides a variety of access points. It is also a cross curricular activity in which Art and Social Studies can be brought in to build connections and enhance learning. The task of making the quilt also satises the needs of a variety of learning styles. Kinesthetic learners will benet from the hands on portion of the lesson and visual learners will appreciate being able to visually represent and see the concepts of fractions and symmetry (or rotation and translation) in action. Assessment: The quilt can be used as a work sample and assessed formatively or summatively for specic outcomes. A checklist or rubric could also be generated using the specic outcomes that generate the constraints on the quilt to assess understanding. In the sample lesson students demonstrate their understanding of fractions and symmetry by successfully cutting out their paper in the correction fraction and by creating a symmetrical pattern for their quilt. Source: http://www.juneauschools.org/uploads/elementaryart/ThirdGrade/lessonplans/ quiltingWithFractionsAndSymmetrylesplan.pdf ART project ARTiculate Quilting with Fractions and Symmetry Fairbanks North Star Borough School District Art Center Art Activity Kit. Developed by Linda Psterer

Beasts of Burden
Numbers - Grade 4 General and Specic Outcomes: Demonstrate an understanding of fractions less than or equal to one by using concrete, pictorial and symbolic representations to: name and record fractions for the parts of a whole or a set compare and order fractions provide examples of where fractions are used. Cross Curricular Connections: English Language Arts General and Specic Outcomes: Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. ask questions, paraphrase and discuss to explore ideas and understand new concepts
Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts. retell events of stories in another form or medium identify various ways that information can be recorded and presented visually ! produce oral, print and other media texts that follow a logical sequence, and demonstrate ! clear !relationships between character and plot produce narratives that describe experiences and reect personal responses

Materials: Beasts of Burden [The Man Who Counted: A Collection of Mathematical Adventures (Tahan, 1993), paper, felt pens Task: Read the story Beasts of Burden as a class. This story is about a wise mathematician, Beremiz, and the narrator, who are traveling together on one camel. They are asked by three brothers to solve an argument. Their father has left them 35 camels to divide between them in this way; one half to one brother, one third to another, and one ninth to the third. Have the students ponder this situation to try to come up with a solution. Discuss students approaches and their conjectures before changing the number of camels. Try to choose the number of camels based on the students conjectures so they have an opportunity to test their ideas. For example, if students claim that they cannot divide an odd number of camels in half they may state that the starting number has to be even. So, start with an even number of camels, say 34 or 36. Or students may claim that the starting number is must be divisible by three

since there are three brothers. In this case, start with a number such as 33. Students should share what they think they have discovered as each number is tested. No matter how many camels are involved, the problem of the indicated shares cannot be resolved. (Why does this happen?) Assessment: Focused observation and questioning could be used to assess understanding in this task. If students are able to come up with conjectures about the problem, text them, and come to the conclusion that the problem cannot be solve and why it cannot then they have demonstrated an understanding of the concept of fractions as the sharing of items. If the task is expanded into the ELA curriculum and the nal project is a story book again this could be assessed summatively using a rubric. Is it Worthwhile? This problem can be expanded upon and used to connect the ELA curriculum to the Math curriculum. Students could continue the problem by writing a short narrative using on of their conjectures. This narrative could be written into a story book; the problem cannot be solved mathematically and therefore the students could come up with creative endings to their story to solve the camel problem. The Math and ELA outcomes include pictorially representing understandings. Combining these two in a story book is a good way to bridge the gap between the two subjects. This activity also has a range of entry points which makes it ideal to use in an inclusive classroom. Students are not restricted on the ways in which they can choose to solve the problem. This task can also be endlessly expanded through new conjectures which provides opportunity for the students that grasp it quickly to extend their thinking.

Source: Van de Walle, J.A. & Lovin, L.H. (2006). Teaching Student Centered Mathematics Grade 5-8. Pearson Education Inc: Boston Activity 3.3 page 73

Egyptian Fractions
Numbers- Grade 4

General and Specic Outcomes: Demonstrate an understanding of fractions less than or equal to one by using concrete, pictorial and symbolic representations to: name and record fractions for the parts of a whole or a set compare and order fractions Cross Curricular Connections: Social Studies: Global Perspective and Historical Thinking Art: Hieroglyphics (line, shape and forms) Materials: NRICH website (interactive Egyptian Fraction calculator), examples of Egyptian Fractions, examples of Egyptian hieroglyphics for numbers Task: Egyptian Fractions The ancient Egyptians didn't write fractions with a numerator greater than 1 - they wouldn't, for example, write 2/7, 5/9, 123/467..... Instead they wrote fractions like these as a sum of different unit fractions. The problems for the task deal all with writing fractions into Egyptian Fractions: Start by considering how the Egyptians might have written fractions with a numerator of 2 (i.e. of the form 2n). For example 2/3 = 1/3+1/3 (but since these are the same, this wasn't allowed.) or 2/3 = 1/3 + 1/4 + 1/12 or 2/3 = 1/3 + 1/5 + 1/20 + 1/12 or 2/3 = 1/3 + 1/6 + 1/30 + 1/20 + 1/12 or 2/3 = 1/4 + 1/12 + 1/7 + 1/42 + 1/31 + 1/930 + 1/21 + 1/420 + 1/13 + 1/156 and so on, and so on!! But is it always so easy? Try some other fractions with a numerator of 2. Can they also be written as the sum of just two different unit fractions?

Can all fractions with a numerator of 2 (i.e. of the form 2n) be written as the sum of just two different unit fractions? Can you nd an efcient method for doing this? You might want to explore fractions of the form 3n, 4n, 5n Assessment: Focused observation and questioning can be used to formatively assess understanding in this task. Students who are able to grasp the concept of Egyptian fractions will be able to complete the examples given. Those that can transfer this understanding to creating Egyptian numbers for 2n, 3n etc... and explain it when questioned have developed a more complete understanding. The teacher may choose to embed checks (for example, each student could have a small white board, when the teacher gives an example they write the answer on the white board and hold it up. This provides the teacher with the ability to quickly scan the room to check to see who has got it and who need further exploration). Is it Worthwhile? This task provides students with a deeper understanding of fractions and common fractions and allows for a range of entry points. The problem can be extended into 3n, 4n, 5n etc... for students who need more of a challenge. Students who are just beginning to grasp the concept are still challenged with creating one way of writing an Egyptian fraction, those who wish to move further can create different egyptian fraction combinations. This task is also useful for bringing the history of mathematics and connecting mathematics to different cultures in the world. The task could also be expanding into an inquiry project on Egypt and its hieroglyphics which can draw on components from the Art curriculum. The NRICH website also offers a variety of extension lessons to continue moving through the concept of fractions using Egyptian fractions as a base. Source: University of Cambridge (2012). NRICH enriching mathematics:Egyptian Fractions.Retrieved from: http://nrich.maths.org/1173