INTRODUCTION

Jazz Guitar

TO

CONTENTS
Introduction Chapter 1
Tuning .................................................1 Plectrum technique .............................2 Practise tips .........................................2

Chapter 2

Scales .................................................5 Arpeggios ............................................6 Chords .................................................7

Chapter 3

Approach to improvising ..................10 Example solo.....................................13

Chapter 4

Chromaticisms (little fills and commonly used ideas) ......................15 Keeping time .....................................15

Chapter 5

Boom chicking ..................................17 Voice leading.....................................18 Walking bass lines.............................20

Chapter 6 Appendix

Moving on .........................................21

Chord diagrams Notation diagram

I

NTRODUCTION I would start by saying that this book and accompanying CD are not intended as an in depth analysis of jazz guitar playing. Rather they offer the rudimentaries of some of the many facets of the jazz guitar such as technique, improvisation and accompaniment. The reason for this is to assist busy people, who may have little formal musical training, and who want to make quick progress without wading through lengthy and detailed books. The purpose of this book is to help others. Since I had no formal musical training myself and started playing quite late in life, I thought the hurdles faced by myself and how I subsequently overcame them may be useful to others. However, this book is not meant as a substitute for a good teacher, as that would be a bold claim. Neither is it meant to do away with any other educational material. Its main thrust is to provide an easy to follow method for playing, with emphasis on fun. The guitar is a complex instrument and has many roles in jazz, so I have divided the book into these distinct aspects of playing. There is a logical progression to the chapters, but for the more advanced student, the book can be dipped into according to needs and interests. For the absolute beginner I recommend going through chapters one and two. For those wanting to move straight onto improvising move on to chapter 3. For those with only an interest in accompaniment, chapter 5 offers many useful devices. Above all else, remember to have fun.

Chapter 1
The Basics
The basics of playing; tuning, plectrum technique and effective practise, should be covered by all beginners, before moving on to actual playing of scales, or melodic ideas (sometimes referred as “licks”).

Tuning

Tuning a guitar can serve as a useful ear training session. It is always worth remembering that jazz is an aural tradition, that has been passed on down though the generations. Many great players claim they could not read music and instead relied on their ears, grabbing any opportunity to sharpen and hone their aural skills. Electric tuners are essential at a gig because of the background noise of venues. Otherwise you can use a tuning fork pitched to A which is on fret five on the first string. The following method has the advantage that it tunes the guitar in the middle of the neck, where most jazz is played on the guitar. Also, by pegging half the strings to just one, a more even tuning is achieved. This method also allows you to bend strings to test for and obtain optimum tuning. 1 Tune the top string, on the 5th fret to “A” using the tuning fork 2 Tune the “A” on the 2nd string on the 10th fret to the “A” on the 1st string on the 5th fret. 3 Tune the “A” on the 3rd string on the 2nd fret to the “A” on the 1st string on the 5th fret. Note they are an octave apart. 4 Tune the “A” on the 4th string on the 7th fret to the “A” on the 1st string on the 5th fret. Again they are an octave apart. 5 Tune the “E” on the 5th string on the 7th fret to the “E” on the 2nd string on the 5th fret, an octave apart. 6 Tune the “A” on the 6th string on the 5th fret to the “A” on the 4th string on the 7th fret, an octave apart. Confused? See the fret board diagram in the appendices.
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Practise

Practise is the undisputed champion of progress. It lays the foundations of how you play, and how well you play. Its importance cannot be over-emphasized. Practise regularly, within an allotted time frame and with purpose. Do not dismiss doodling, which has a creative role to play, but needs to be kept to a minimum if quick progress is the goal. Repetition is the mother of perfection. Practise is a personal experience and is what many of us probably spend most of our playing time doing. How and when it is done probably varies considerably, but a universal truth is that repetition is the tried and tested method for reinforcing memory. There are many approaches to repetition, but I have always found that continually being aware of even the smallest physical processes, helps to clear the pathways for speeding up the memory process. For example, close your eyes whilst practising and try to visualise your fingers connecting with your strings, being aware of the pressure you apply and the strength of each note played. Always use a metronome when practising. Set the click either to play on every beat or on beats two and four of the bar, known as the ʻback beatʼ. Start on a deliberately slow tempo, gradually increasing the pace by a couple of notches until you have played the phrase at least fifteen times. For difficult fingerings, slow everything down to a snailʼs pace and get it right, before speeding up. If you practise things too quickly to start with, you will programme in scuffs and other unwanted sounds. Remember to practise every day, buildings it into your lifeʼs routine. It is said that ʻlittle and oftʼ is better than long and irregular practise sessions. I would add that consistent practise leads to consistent progress.

always practise with a purpose...

Plectrum technique

Holding and using a plectrum correctly is fundamental to accurate and efficient playing, and will hold you in good stead for the rest of your playing years. I have seen many varied and unusual approaches to this, and some from very accomplished players, so while I guard against saying anyone one method is right or better, the fundamentals are going be very similar. The plectrum is held between the forefinger and thumb, at the centre of the pick. Some picks will have a hollow area which provides more grip. Thickness and size of pick is down to preference, but a bulky pick may feel clumsy with very light gauge strings, and visa versa. Unfortunately, plastic is the most common material used to make picks, and sometimes produces a slightly unnatural sound. However, they are cheaper and more durable than many picks made from other materials. If the guitar had just one string, then the up and down stroke would be ideal under all conditions. As we all know the guitar usually has six strings, so the up and down stroke is not always or necessarily the most efficient approach. However, it is the generally accepted method and works well in most situations. Situations where it is less efficient are when playing rapidly across the strings, such as running up or down an arpeggio. Down strokes are generally played on the beat and up strokes off the beat. There are innovators of pick
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technique who offer alternatives to the up-down technique, and I would recommend the serious student to explore this area. Below are some exercises to build the up and down technique.

Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to the exercises, one to six on the accompanying CD 2 Study the fingerings at your own pace 3 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise several times gradually increasing the speed. Symbols: = down stroke, = up stroke

Ex 1 Warm up

Ex 2 Speed exercise

Ex 3 Large intervals

3

Ex 4 Arpeggio (Dm7)

Ex5 Argeggio with triplets (note pick strokes)

Ex 6 Inside strokes

4

CHAPTER 2
Overview
Scales, arpeggios and chords are the ingredients of music. How they are put to together, is what makes music. Jazz explores the relationships between these elements probably more than any other style of music, which is why it fascinates and absorbs the musician. Whilst jazz is an aural tradition passed on through the generations, it has a uniquely expressive language rich in musical dialogue. It is this language, which defines jazz, and gives it its distinctively recognisable sound. It is also an evolving music, and for it to evolve it needs new life, energy and ideas, and these come from the great innovators, such as Charlie Parker and John Coltrane, whose brilliance shifts the momentum up a gear, onto a new and exciting plane.

The Relationship

Chords comprise several notes played in unison. If you separate out the individual notes of a chord in ascending or descending order, you have an arpeggio. Every chord belongs to a family of chords that share the same ʻkeyʼ centre. A key centre is defined by the sharp or flat notes it uses. All the notes common to a key are known as a scale. A mode is simply a scale but starting on a different note. There are many different scales, that fit many different kinds of chords. To learn them all is a gargantuan task, especially for the guitar with its unusual geography. In my view, it is only necessary to learn a few scales that are commonly used in jazz, and to know the theory of their origins, in order to play effectively. Once these have been learnt, acquiring the language is the next step.

Scales

A major scale comprises seven notes, and is associated with the major chord of the same key. For example, the C major scale is directly related to the C major chord. Luckily for guitar players, many scales (and chord shapes) are ʻmoveableʼ i.e. the same scale pattern can be played at a different position up or down the neck, which makes playing in different keys much easier. So if you want to play the E flat major scale, you simply shift up three frets (a minor third) from the C major scale. A common mode in jazz is the dorian scale which starts one note or ʻdegreeʼ above the ʻtonicʼ of the corresponding major scale. For example, the D dorian starts on the second note of the C major scale. Likewise, the G mixolydian scale, which starts five notes above the tonic. The importance of these three modes will become apparent when we look at chord progressions later.

5

Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to exercises, seven to nine on the accompanying CD 2 Study the fingerings at your own pace 3 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise several times gradually increasing the speed.

Ex 7 C major scale

Ex 8 D dorian scale

Ex 9 G mixolydian scale

Arpeggios

Arpeggios are the notes of a chord is ascending or descending order. These notes are often referred to as ʻchord tonesʼ. They are generally a bit more difficult to play than scales because the notes are spaced further apart. These spaces are referred to as ʻintervalsʼ. Their importance in jazz needs to be understood. During an improvised solo, a player will be referring to, or outlining the chords as they occur, and one of the simplest ways to do this is with arpeggios. Of course an experienced player is not playing just arpeggios, but as with scales, they are the building blocks of the jazz language and therefore need to be learned.
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Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to exercises, ten to twelve on the accompanying CD 2 Study the fingerings at your own pace 3 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise and gradually increasing the speed.

Ex 10 C major arpeggio

Ex 11 D minor arpeggio

Ex 12 G dominant arpeggio

Chords

Chords, sometimes referred to as ʻharmonyʼ provides the springboard for musical ideas in a solo. This means that the notes of a solo will have a strong relationship to the chords. The basic chord is comprised of the root, 3rd, 5th, and 7th notes of the scale. For example, C major 7, is spelt C, E, G, and B. These are referred to as the ʻchord tonesʼ. There are
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three main chord types; major, minor and dominant. The differences between them are the sizes of intervals (number of notes) between the chord tones. The easiest way to demonstrate this is by taking a major chord and then showing how the minor and dominant are formed from it. Starting with the C major 7, lower the seventh note B to Bb, to form the C dominant 7. If you lower, the third note as well, E to Eb, you form the C minor 7. See the illustration below. C major 7 = C E E G B

C dominant 7 = C C minor 7

G Bb G Bb

= C Eb

Chord Progressions

A song will comprise several chords, which are strung together into a ʻprogressionʼ, and the task of the improviser is to create a solo that flows and integrates with the progression. As the chords change, or the key modulates so the improviser adapts by playing notes to reflect the changes. Understanding, and recognizing commonly used chord progressions is key to fluid improvising. A common progression in jazz, which demonstrates this idea, is the II V I progression. The numbers in a chord progression simply represent the notes of the scale. If you take the C major scale (C, D, E, F, G, A and B), and form separate chords within the same key from each note, you arrive at the ʻharmonisedʼ C major scale. As you can see from the example below, the II V I of C major is Dm7, G7, Cmaj7. Harmonised C Major Scale: I II Cmaj7 Dm7 III Em7 IV Fmaj7 V G7 VI Am7 VII Bm7b5

If you take each chord in the II V I progression in isolation, you can improvise using the relevant scale and mode. Starting with the Dm7, you can play the D dorian scale (see chapter on scales), then progressing to the G7, apply the G mixolydian and so on. You can of course simply play the C major scale over all the chords and it will work fine. However, a more interesting or melodic approach might be to ʻoutlineʼ the changes as they occur by paying attention to the notes which change with the chords. This will create a distinctly stronger sound. For example, a common device is the seventh degree, falling to the third. Look at the exercises below to understand how this works, then create a backing track to hear how it works.

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Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to exercises 13 to 15 on the accompanying CD 2 Study the fingerings at your own pace 3 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise several times gradually increasing the speed. 4 Create a backing track using the chords below, and play the exercises over the changes.

Ex 13
lop a deve or f e s sen g n i y a pl bar ’ r ‘ove .. lines.

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

Ex 14

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

Ex 15

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

9

CHAPTER 3
Approach to Improvising
How you approach improvising may be determined by how you define improvisation. To help explain this a useful analogy is between learning a language and learning jazz. If a musical note is a word, then a sentence is a musical phrase, and a story is a solo. Languages have rules, such as grammar, which may determine word order for example, which helps create meaning. Jazz has similar conventions, which also make statements, sometimes quite literally, such as the last phrase of a solo expressing finality. When we respond verbally, the process seems automated. However, it is our training in how to speak as children that allows us to articulate a response. The rules of language are burnt into the synaptic pathways, from the earliest age, which allows us to speak with apparent spontaneity. Learning jazz is a similar process. It has grammer, spelling, phrases and it is interactive. Like a language, there are many approaches to its acquirement, but imitation would seem to be a universally accepted method. Learning licks or phrases by great artists is a good starting point to develop a feel for the language.

Licks?

Just as in the ʻcutʼ and ʻpasteʼ commands of a computer, licks can be applied to music. The best way to apply them is directly to a tune. Start with a simple tune such as a blues. The internet is a good source for licks. There are also many books devoted to the subject. Use a metronome, starting with a slow tempo and play the lick twice, increasing the speed by just a couple of notches until your have played the phrase ten times. Make sure it is thoroughly learnt before applying it. Put any notes that are causing difficulty under the ʻmicroscopeʼ, and play with slow deliberation. Create your own backing track of the blues with a tape recorder, using a metronome. Start with just the first four bars, repeating the phrases until they sit comfortably under the fingers. As explained in Chapter 2 with the II V I examples, try to find a chord tone (root, 3rd, 5th, or 7th) within the lick that leads up or down to a chord tone in the next chord. See if you can apply the principle of sevenths falling to thirds. For example, if you are playing Bb7 going to Eb7, the note Ab descends to the note G. These exercises need to be practised everyday in an even and methodical fashion, until they can be applied instantaneously. When choosing licks that will become part of your repertoire, Joe Pass used to say, if you donʼt like it your wonʼt remember it. So where is the creativity in that, you ask? Well, over a period of time, your skills in
10

applying the language will become so automated, it will leave more room to begin developing more interesting ways of self-expression and articulation. Also, spontaneity will become more apparent. It should always be in the back of your mind that spontaneity and creativity is the ultimate goal.Try the exercises below.

Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to exercise 1 on the accompanying CD 2 Study the fingerings at your own pace 3 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise several times gradually increasing the speed. 4 Create a backing track using the chords below, and play the exercises over the changes.

Ex 16

Bb7

Eb7

Bb7

Eb7

Ex 17

Eb7

Bb7

Eb7

Bb7

11

Ex 18

Eb7

./.

Bb7

Ex 19

Bb7

./.

Eb7

12

Example Solo

Solo transcription is a very important part of learning jazz for three main reasons; it strengthens your musical ʻearʼ, is a great resource for licks or ʻchopsʼ, and shows you how great improvisers construct solos, thereby offering an insight into their thought processes. Every jazz player should be encouraged to transcribe solos from a CD or tape of their favourite players. The benefits cannot be over-emphasized. Below is a constructed solo, which incorporates some of the ideas already discussed. Learn the solo thoroughly, singing the notes as you play, then create a backing track and play over the changes.

Exercise20
s learn solo r u o of y favourite players...

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CHAPTER 4
Fills and Frills (Chromaticisms)
The geography of all instruments is different. This tends to give each type of instrument a unique vocabulary. The guitar is particularly guilty of note duplication, which alters the fingering of scales or arpeggios in different positions on the neck. This makes the task of learning the fret board a daunting one. However, the upside is that the guitar is well suited to playing chromatically (all the notes including the ones in between scale notes). Playing chromatically over changes requires skill, and itʼs probably a good idea not to over do it. One of the great proponents of this kind of playing is Pat Martino, who takes full advantage of the guitarʼs geography, by playing the guitar in the most physically efficient way. The result is a very effective, flowing and unique sound. There are many standard fills or phrases which illustrate how chromaticisms can be incorporated into oneʼs playing. They provide a useful device for starting, ending or filling in between ideas. The beauty of them is that they are easy to play, and can often be used spontaneously. Below are some examples of some of them, and how they can be incorporated into licks. Learn them and then incorporate them into a few of your own ideas.

Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to exercises 20 to 26 on the accompanying CD 2 Study the fingerings at your own pace 3 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise several times gradually increasing the speed. 4 Create a backing track using the chords below, and play the exercises over the changes.

14

Ex 20-24 Fmaj7 (Dm7)

./.

./.

./.

Ex 25

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7 (C6)

Ex 26

F7

./.

Bb7

./.

Keeping Time

Losing oneʼs place is a common problem when improvising. You can be playing happily one minute and the next, panic sets in as you realize that you are no longer in ʻsyncʼ with other band members. I have yet to find any educational material that focuses on this problem, which is surprising given its prevalence among novices. When you are playing, there are two processes which help in keeping your place; the pulse or beat, and the accompaniment. The beat is a precise record of time and accompaniment plays the supporting role. There are therefore two main areas to focus on to improve time
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keeping. Perhaps the first thing to focus on is aural training. A lengthy discussion of it is beyond the scope of this book. There are several aural training books and CDs, and many adult colleges offer evening classes. A simple exerciseyou can do on your own is to sing the notes of arpeggios, and licks when you play them. Fit in a few minutes at the beginning of each practise session. Apart from the importance of aural training, time keeping can be improved by practising to ʻfeelʼ beat one of each bar, to develop a sense of where bar lines fall. There are metronomes that will beep differently on beat one, and this can be very useful. Clap on beat one while listening to your backing track. Record a two bar backing track that ends on the first beat of the third bar. Now play and try to land on a note on that beat. This will help develop a sense of bar length. Finally, listen intently while trying to keep time. Donʼt play busily, just enough to concentrate on the music as it flows past. Try to visualise each bar line as it approaches and passes. Eventually you will develop an inner sense of time keeping.

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CHAPTER 5
Accompaniment
This is a big area, and to do it justice, it would be necessary to devote a book on the subject. The art of accompaniment is a much under-rated and overlooked area of playing. To be an effective accompanist requires quite a lot of dedication, and its value to your overall musicianship should make it an essential item in your daily practise routine. I am going to focus on three types of accompaniment; the old style four-in-a-bar, often referred to as “boom-chickʼ and a trade mark of the gypsy jazz guitarists, voice leading typically used in a small jazz ensemble, and walking bass lines, used in duo settings, or chord melody (solo) playing.

Boom-chicking

This style, although little used in modern jazz, is something every professional jazz guitarist knows how to do. In its most basic form, it involves strumming with down strokes on each beat of every bar. A very slight emphasis can be played on beats two and four, which seems to make it ʻswingʼ more. By releasing the fingers of the left hand, the sustain on beats two and four are shortened, the effect of which is to produce a long-short syncopated sound, hence the expression ʻboom-chickʼ. Usually, block chords are used which comprise four or more notes, including the root. There are a few proponents of this style who use mostly three note chords, making abundant use of substitutions, in order to keep the bass moving. Apart from the gypsy jazz guitarists, many mainstream guitarists still use this style of playing, especially during a bass solo, and in the absence of a drummer. It is also widely used in a big band setting. Below are some examples of chord progressions to help develop this style.

Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to exercises 27 to 29 on the accompanying CD 2 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise several times gradually increasing the speed.
17

Ex 27

Dm7

G13

Cmaj7

Cmaj9

Ex 28 Gm7 C7

Fm7 Bb7 Ebmaj7 ...9 Eb6 Ebmaj7

Ex 29 Bbmaj7 Gm7 Cm7 F9 Bbmaj9 Gm7 Cm7 F7

Voice Leading

Voice leading is the smooth transition from one chord to the next. This usually entails maintaining one or two notes common between chords while changing the other notes by small intervals in the same or contrary directions to a resolution. This involves the use of altered (not common to the scale) or extensions (scale notes other than chord tones). These chords are useful in a small band situation and should be played in a punchy or stabbing fashion. They are usually easy to finger and very effective.
18

Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to exercises 30 to 32 on the accompanying CD 2 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise several times gradually increasing the speed.

Ex 30

Fm9

Bb7#5b9

Eb6/9

Ex 31

Am7

D7#9#5

Gmaj7

Ex 32

Fm11

Bb7#9#5

Eb6

19

Walking Bass Lines

Walking bass lines played on a six string guitar are usually played together with chord stabs, to provide an effective accompaniment in a duo or while playing solo. This means that the bass lines have to be kept fairly simple and on the lower two strings. Once the basics have been mastered it is quite an easy technique and will come in very handy. It is best played finger style but with a bit of dedication can also be played with a pick, the latter having the advantage of being able to change without a pause between single lines, bass lines and so on. Try the examples below.

Exercises

Study, play and learn the exercises below, using the following method: 1 Listen to exercises 20 to 26 on the accompanying CD 2 Study the fingerings at your own pace 3 Set your metronome at a slow tempo, play the exercise several times gradually increasing the speed.

Ex 33

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

./.

Ex 34

Bb7

Eb9

Bb7

Bb13

20

Ex 35 Bbmaj7 Gm7 Cm7

F7

Bbmaj7 Gm7 Cm7 F7 Bbmaj7

Moving on

Striving towards freedom on your instrument is the ultimate goal of any improviser. Learning and playing licks over chord changes is an important step in becoming an improviser, but without spontaneous creative expression, your solo may sound a little contrived after a while. The next step is to add interest with other devices, which should become part of your practise routine. Continuing our analogy of jazz improvisation and the spoken language, a solo is similar to a story. It has an introduction, a structure, and expression. Solos often start with a few introductory notes, which build to a climax and then taper off. Subtlety, contrast, colour, boldness, expressiveness are all devises used to engage an audience. In a solo, these elements can be enhanced by the use of dynamics and rhythm. Dynamics adds greater depth and feeling by changing the volume of what is being played. For example, you may wish to emphasise a particular note, say on beat one as the chord sequence resolves to the tonic. Playing lightly while approaching that note will create greater dynamic effect.Rhythm adds spacial interest and contrasts with long flowing lines. It improves the creative aspect of your playing, as well as providing you with a breathing space. Record a backing track of a simple chord sequence, or a few bars of the same chord and play just one or two notes per bar, creating very simple rhythmic ideas. Try the following examples:

Ex 36

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

./.

21

Ex 37

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

./.

Ex 38

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

./.

That concludes the book and CD, and I hope it has been useful. I set out to give a broad brush stroke to the many aspects of playing jazz on the guitar. The idea is to whet the appetite for developing those areas which are of more interest to you. Hopefully, there is enough material here to keep you busy for a while. The book is also designed for just dipping into once in a while along the journey. There is a wealth of other material available in other books and on the internet to follow up on all the subjects I have touched on. Good luck!

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Appendices
Chord diagrams
The chords below are often referred to as block chords. They are nearly all moveable which means that you can play them in all keys simply by shifting them up or down. For example, to play Ebmaj7, shift Cmaj7 up three frets to the sixth fret and so on.

Cmaj7
X X 3 1 3 2 4 3

X

Cm7
1 2 3 1 3

X

C7
1 2 3 4

X

Cmaj9
X X X 1 3 2 4 3 3 2

Cm9
X 1 3 4

X

C9
1 2 3 4

X

3

Cmaj7
X X 8 1 3 4 2 8 1

X

Cm7
2 3 4

X

X

C7
2 4 3

X

X

Cmaj9
X 1 3 4 8 2

X

Cm9
81 3 4 3

X

C9/13
2 3 4

81

(

8 2

(
4

X

Cmaj7
X 1 1 3 2 4

X

C6
1 2 4 3

X

X

C6
1 3 4

X

X

C6/9
(
1 1 3 4 82 2

X

C6/9

CmMaj7*
X X 3 1 2 4 3

(

3

1 3

1

8 2

3

C7#9
X X X 1 3 2 3 4 3 2

C7b9
X X 1

Cm6
X 1 3 2 4 3 8 2

X

Cm6
1 3 4

X

X

Cm11
X 1 2 3 4 8 2

X

Cm11
1 3 4

X

(
1 3 3

X

C13
X

C13
X X 81 2 3 4 3 2

Cdim
(
1 3 4 1 82

Cdim
X 1

Cm7b5
X X 3 1 3 2 4 82

Cm7b5
X X 1 3 4

(

1 3 2

1 3

3

* minor seventh chord with a major third

(
3 4

Fret Board

Below is a diagram of the notes on a guitar fret board up to the twelfth fret. Flat (b) notes are situated one fret below, and sharp (#) notes are one note above the note in question. For example, on the sixth string, F# is on fret 2, and Gb is also situated on the second fret. They are the same note. What determines whether it is a F# or Gb is the original key signature the tune was written in.

E A

D G B

E

F B 3G C E F B 5A D G C 7 B E C F 9 D G 12 E A D A

C

F

D G E F B G C D E A

B C

E F A B

A D G

Notes on the Stave

tuning guides

E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G AB C D E

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