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physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes
Rysical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes
GDRESSELElAUS & M S DRBSELMUS
MZT
Imperial College Press
recording or any information storage and retrieval system ROW known or fo be invented..Published by Imperial College Press 203 Electrical Engineering Building Imprial College London SW7 2BT Distributed by World Scientific Publishing Co. Printed in Singapore by UtePrint .~ b ~ ~ ~ o n A catalogue record for this book is available f r o m the British Library. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTWES Copyright 0 1998 by Imperial College Press All rig& reserved. 222 Rosewood Drive. In this case permission to photocopy is not required f r o m the publisher. P 0 Box 128. This book or parts thereof. elecironic or mechanical. River Edge. including photocopying. Inc. MA 01923. Pte.Ltd. please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center. Covent Garden. withmf writfen~ e ~ i s s i o n ~ the om Publishm For photocopying of material in this volume. ISBN 1860940935 This book is printed on acidfree paper. N J 07661 WK oflce: 57 Shelton Street. Farrer Road. USA. 1060 Main Street. m y not be reproduced in anyform or by any means. London WC2H 9HE! British Library C a ~ o g ~ ~ ~Data . Danvers. Singapore912805 USA oflce: Suite lB.
we can explain the electronic structure and phonon dispersion relations based on simple physical models. The nanotube diameter is much smaller in size than the most advanced semiconductor devices obtained so far. From our definition of the structure of carbon nanotubes. starting from basic physics and chemistry. The diameter of a carbon nanotube is of nanometer size and the length of the nanotube can be more than l p m . this volume provides background information about the structure and properties of graphite and related carbon materials. This is actually the V . which the reader can follow with a pen and paper. Since the uniqueness in the electronic structure comes directly from the uniqueness of the electronic structure of graphite. carbon nanotubes provide a family of structures with different diameters and chiralities. The purpose of this book is t o define the structure of carbon nanotubes as clearly as possible. One of the most significant physical properties of carbon nanotubes is their electronic structure which depends only on their geometry.Preface A carbon nanotube is a honeycomb lattice rolled into a cylinder. Further. in principle. depending on its diameter and chirality. Thus. Specifically. Thus we can imagine that the smallest possible semiconductor devices are likely to be based on carbon nanotubes. the electronic structure of a singlewall carbon nanotube is either metallic or semiconducting. the energy gap of semiconducting carbon nanotubes can be varied continuously from 1 eV to 0 eV. by varying the nanotube diameter. and does not requiring any doping. it may be possible to specify the desired semiconducting properties using only carbon atoms with a specified geometric structure. and is unique to solid state physics. Thus the contents of the book are rather theoretically oriented. and experimental results are used primarily t o provide evidence for the validity of the theory. Thus the availability of carbon nanotubes may have a large impact on semiconductor physics because of its very small size and the special electronic properties that are unique to carbon nanotubes. Because of the large variety of possible helical geometries known as chirality.
So please enjoy the book and please communicate to the authors any comments you might have about this book. which are commonly used as a strong lightweight material. and is moving forward so rapidly at the present time. The authors hope that readers from any field of science can read this book without any special background requirements. Thus the physical properties of carbon nanotubes provide a new dimension for solid state physics. Although progress in the field is still at an early stage. we will find many new friends in this field. At an early stage. Thus future progress is beyond our imagination. Since quantum effects are prominent in nanotube physics. The direct evidence provided by electron microscopy for the existence of carbon nanotubes was sensational to many physicists and chemists. the physical properties are discussed in the terminology of carbon nanotubes. Another unique property of a carbon nanotube is its st. We hope that through this book. When this book was started three years ago. The early experiments were made through electron microscope observation. The special properties of carbon nanotubes are explained in the various chapters in this book. since obtaining sufficient quantities of pure carbon nanotubes has been difficult in practice. the field of carbon nanotubes has grown explosively.iffness. m) consists of a set of integers which specify each carbon nanotube uniquely. which are characterized by the chiral index (n.vi PREFACE way that the field of carbon nanotubes developed. with many active research groups worldwide working independently or in collaborative research projects. corresponding to the upper limit of the best carbon fibers. based on the great variety of possible geometries that are available for carbon nanotubes. and because of this fascination. The authors also thank the New Energy Development Organization (NEDO) of the Japanese Ministry for . The authors would like to acknowledge many carbon nanotube researchers who have contributed t o the contents of the book. electronic and phonon structures. the book focuses on the basic principles behind the physical properties.rn). the present status of the field could not have been anticipated. many researchers in different fields of science should contribute to this field. The chiral index (n. the theory stimulated experiments in carbon nanotube physics. using basic ideas of the lattice. the magnetic and transport quantum effects are very significant. In order to expand this field into the future. In this book. This book is not intended to be a collection of all activities on carbon nanotubes worldwide because this field is already so extensive.
Junko Yamamoto and Ms.” R. Cambridge. and their generous support for international collaboration which made the writing of this book possible. Dresselhaus. The authors especially thank Ms. Tokyo M . Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). Massachusetts . Dresselhaus. Massachusetts G. Finally the authors wish to say to readers: “Welcome to Carbon Nanotube Physics.S. Cambridge. Saito. Laura Doughty for their help in preparing the indexes and figures of the book.PREFA CE vii International Trade and Industry (MITI).
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. . . . .2 Chiral Vector: C h . . . .2 Procedure for obtaining the energy dispersion .. . . . . .4 Carbon Is Core Orbitals . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hybridization in A Carbon Atom . . . . .7 Experimental evidence for nanotube structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .. . . . . (CH4) . . .3 sp3 Hybridization: Methane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 1 Carbon Materials 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.7 Vapor Grown Fibers . . (HC=CH). . . . . . . . . .6 Carbynes . . . . 13 1. . . . . TwoDimensional Graphite . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1 Tight Binding Method for a Crystalline Solid . . . . . . . 9 1. . . . . 3. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 sp2 Hybridization: Polyacetylene. . . . . .6 Group Theory of Carbon Nanotubes . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 Classification of carbon nanotubes . . . . . . . . .2. .2. 1 1. . . . . 2. . . . . . . 5 1. . . . . Electronic Structure of Polyacetylene . .4 Symmetry Vector: R . .3 Translational Vector: T . . . .3 . HCECH . . 7 1. . .. . . . . . . 11 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 sp Hybridization: Acetylene. .2 2. . . .5 Unit Cells and Brillouin Zones . . .1 x Bands of TwoDimensional Graphite . . . .2. . ... . . . . ix . .5 Isomers of Carbon . . 2. . 4 1. . . . . .2 B Bands of TwoDimensional Graphite . . . . . . 3. . . . . . 2.1. 3.1 History . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 Tight Binding Calculation of Molecules and Solids 2. . . . . . . .1 Secular Equation .3. 17 17 17 21 22 25 26 29 35 35 37 39 41 45 48 53 3 Structure of a SingleWall Carbon Nanotube 3. . . . . . .
. 5. . . . . . .1. . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . .1 Oneelectron dispersion relations . . . . Wetting.7 Nanotube Doping.. . . .4 Alignment of Nanotubes . . . 5. . . . 5. . . . Filling and Alignment . . . . . 6. . . . . .. 4. . . . . . . . .5 Landau Energy Bands: AharonovBohm . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .X CONTENTS 59 59 59 61 65 66 70 4 Electronic Structure of SingleWall Nanotubes 4. 5. . . 5. . . . . .9 Growth Mechanisms . . . . . .2 Other Synthesis Methods . .. .3 Effects of Peierls distortion and nanotube curvature . 5 synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes 5. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nanotube Wetting . .. . . . . . . .4.1.1 Vapor Growth Method . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .. . .3 Arc Method of Synthesizing Carbon Nanotubes . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Nanotube Opening. . . . . . . . . Intercalation. . 6. . . .4 Vapor Growth and Other Synthesis Methods . . .. . . 115 115 119 . . . . . . .4. 7. . . . 5. . . . . . 73 73 74 77 79 80 82 83 84 84 85 85 86 86 87 89 95 95 98 100 104 108 111 7 Connecting Carbon Nanotubes 7. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 6 Landau Energy Bands of Carbon Nanotubes 6. .. . . . .. 6. . . . . . . . 4. . . .6. ... .1 ZoneFolding of Energy Dispersion Relations . . . .6. . . . . . .6 Landau Energy Bands: QuantumOscillation . . and BN/C Composites . . .2 Tight Binding in a Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .1 Free Electron in a Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Density of States. 5. . . . . 5. .1 SingleWall Nanotube Synthesis . .3 Dispersion of chiral nanotubes .2 Energy Dispersion of Armchair and Zigzag Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Energy gap . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .4 Landau Energy Bands . . . . . . . . . . .1 Net Diagrams of a Junction . . .1. . . .6. . . . . . . 4.. . . . .. . . 5. . .6. . .. . 5. . . . . . . .5 Purification . .3 Nanotube Filling . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .2 The Rule for Connecting Two Nanotubes .1 Nanotube Opening . . . . . . . . .2 Laser Vaporization Synthesis Method . 4. . . . . . . . .8 Temperature Regimes for Carbonization and Graphitization . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cosine Band in a Magnetic Field . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . xi . .. .2. . . .. 203 . . . . .. . . .. ..2 Raman experiments on singlewall nanotubes . .CONTENTS 7. 201 10. .. . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 An Individual SingleWall Nanotube . . . . . . .2 Phonon dispersion relations for twodimensional graphite .1. . . . .. .. . . . . << L ) . . . . . .2.4 Universal Conductance Fluctuations . 198 10. .. .. . 152 153 8. << L. . . 7. . . . .5 Sample Orientation Dependence . . 148 8.. . . .1 A ballistic conductor ( L << L. . . . 144 8. . . << L . 171 9. . . .4. .3 Bond Polarizability Theory of Raman Intensity for Carbon Nanotubes .1 Raman or infrared active modes of carbon nanotubes . . . . . . .1.. . . . . . 183 10. . . . . . . .2 Force constant tensor of a carbon nanotube . . . 173 9. . . . . . .. L . .. . . . . . . . .3 Localization. . 154 8. . . . .3 Force constant corrections due to curvature of 1D nanotubesl78 183 10 Raman Spectra of Carbon Nanotubes 10.1 Zone folding method . . . . . . . 158 8. . . .. . . . . ( L . . . .1. . . L . . . . . ) . . . . . . ... .. . .4 Raman Spectra of Nanotubes with Random Orientations . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . 192 10. . . . 151 8. . . . . .4. . . . . . .. . .5 Negative Magnetoresistance . . .4 MagnetoTransport in MultiWall Nanotubes . . . . .1 Attaching Contacts . .1 Lower Frequency Raman Spectra . . .. . 145 8. .1 Dynamical matrix for phonon dispersion relations . . . . . << L . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .2 Higher Frequency Raman Modes . . . . .. . . . . . . 142 8. . 171 9. .. . . . .. .3 Medium Frequency Raman Modes . .2 Tkansport experiments on carbon nanotubes . . . . 165 9. . .1. . . . 120 123 130 8 Transport Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 137 8. . .4 Tunneling Conductance of a Junction . . . . . . . .3. .1 Quantum transport in a onedimensional wire . . .1. . . 163 9. . . . .3 Shape of a Junction .3. . . . . . .2 Classic transport. . .5 Coiled Carbon Nanotubes . .4. .3 An Individual Rope of SingleWall Nanotubes . .3 Phonon dispersion relations for nanotubes . . . .2.. . 8. . . . .3. . 187 10. . . . . . . . . 159 9 Phonon Modes of Carbon Nanotubes 163 9. . .. . . . . .2.. . 196 10. . . . . . . . . . . . 195 10. . . 137 8. . . . . .
. . ..... .xii 1 1 Elastic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 11... .. .2 Strain Energy of Carbon Nanotubes ... . . . . . . . ...2 Peierls Distortion of graphite and carbon nanotubes 11. .. ... . .... .3. . . . .. . .. .. . .1 Bond Alternation .. . References Index 239 253 . . 210 11. . 213 11. CONTENTS 207 . ... . .. . . . . 207 .1 Overview of Elastic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 11. .3 The Peierls Instability of Nanotubes .. . .4 Properties of MultiWall Nanotubes . . . . . . . .3. 213 217 221 11. . .
Their efforts were mostly directed toward the study of vapor grown carbon filaments. Edison to provide a filament for an early model of an electric light bulb.CHAPTER 1. fullerenes. Carbon Materials Carbon materials are found in variety forms such as graphite. further research on carbon filaments proceeded more slowly. since carbon filaments were soon replaced by a more sturdy tungsten filament in the electric light bulb. diamond. which are the macroscopic analog of carbon nanotubes. carbon fibers. and others. and carbon nanotubes. The reason why carbon assumes many structural forms is that a carbon atom can form several distinct types of valence bonds. Specially selected Japanese Kyoto bamboo filaments were used to wind a spiral coil that was then pyrolyzed to produce a coiled carbon resistor. 1. The first carbon fiber was prepared by Thomas A .ls with special properties. The second applicationsdriven stimulus t o carbon fiber research came in 1 . Nevertheless research on carbon fibers and filaments proceeded steadily over a long time frame. Following this initial pioneering work by Edison. The early history of carbon fibers was stimulated by needs for materia. which could be heated ohmically t o provide a satisfactory filament for use in an early model of an incandescent light bulb [l].1 History We provide here a brief review of the history of carbon fibers. This chapter introduces the history of carbon materials and describes the atomic nature of carbon. where the chemical bonds refer t o the hybridization of orbitals by physicists. showing filament growth from the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. both in the l g t h century and more recently after World War 11. Pelabon [3]. through the work of Schutzenberger and Schiitzenberger (1890) [2].
polymerbased carbon fiber research has continued worldwide. The growth of carbon whiskers was also inspired by the successful growth of single crystal whisker filaments at that time for many metals such as iron.[l0][13] leading to current commercialization of vapor grown carbon fibers in the 1990’s for various applications. This stimulation also led to the growth of a carbon whisker [4]. New research directions were introduced because of the difficulty in improving the structure and microstructure of polymerbased carbon fibers for high strength and high modulus applications. it was soon realized that long term effort would be needed to reduce fiber defects and to enhance structures resistive to crack propagation. Parallel efforts to develop new bulk synthetic carbon materials with properties approaching single crystal graphite led to the development of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in 1962 by Ubbelohde and coworkers [7. and HOPG has since been used as one of the benchmarks for the characterization of carbon fibers. laying the scientific basis for the mechanism and thermodynamics for the vapor phase growth of carbon fibers in the 1960’s and early 197O’s. including rayon. other research studies focused on control of the process for the synthesis of vapor grown carbon fibers. and oxides such as Alz03. This stimulation led to great advances in the preparation of continuous carbon fibers based on polymer precursors. and by theoretical studies [5]. Because of the desire to synthesize more crystalline filamentous carbons under more controlled conditions. stiff lightweight fibers that could be used for building lightweight composite materials with superior mechanical properties. and in developing graphitizable carbons for ultrahigh modulus fibers. fibers with special characteristics. While intense effort continued toward perfecting synthetic filamentary carbon materials] and great progress was indeed made in the early ~ O ’ S .8]. mostly in industry. the Aerospace Corporation and many other laboratories worldwide. showing superior mechanical properties for whisker structures [6]. polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and later mesophase pitch. Concurrently. which has become a benchmark for the discussion of the mechanical and elastic properties of carbon fibers. synthesis of carbon fibers by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process proceeded. with emphasis on greater control of processing steps to achieve carbon fibers with everincreasing modulus and strength. nonmetals such as Si. while decreasing costs .2 CHAPTER 1.[9] In parallel to these scientific studies. CARBON MATERIALS the 1950’s from the needs of the space and aircraft industry for strong. The late 1950’s and 1960’s was a period of intense activity at the Union Carbide Corporation.
Reports of such thin filaments inspired Kubo [18] to ask whether there was a minimum dimension for such filaments.1: High resolution TEM micrograph showing carbon nanotubes with diameters less than 10 nm [14171.1. and a review of carbon fiber research by M.. Whereas the outermost layers of the fiber have properties associated with vapor grown carbon fibers. 1. .15] on vapor grown carbon fibers.17] An example of a very thin vapor grown tubules (< 100 A) is shown in the bright field TEM image of Fig.. showed very sharp lattice fringe images for the innermost cylinders corresponding to a vapor grown carbon fiber (diameter < 100 A). the growth of very small diameter filaments.15]. such as shown in Fig.1. Fig. HISTORY 3 . of the commercial products.1. but no detailed systematic studies of such thin filaments were carried out. papers were given on the status of fullerene research by Smalley [21].S. with the innermost tree rings perhaps behaving like carbon nanotubes. there may be a continuum of behavior of the tree rings as a function of diameter. 1. 1.1. . Discussions at the workshop stimulated Smalley to speculate about the existence of carbon nanotubes of dimensions comparable to (360. Direct stimulus to study carbon filaments of very small diameters more systematically [19] came from the discovery of fullerenes by Kroto and Smalley [20]. obtained by thickening filaments such as the fiber denoted by VGCF (vapor grown carbon fiber) in Fig. In December 1990 at a carboncarbon composites workshop. In studies of filamentous carbon fibers.[l6. was occasionally observed and reported [14. Dresselhaus [23]. Early work [14.1 [14171. the discovery of a new synthesis method for the efficient production of fullerenes by Huffman [22]. the growth of the initial hollow tube and the subsequent thickening process were reported. As research on vapor grown carbon fibers on the micrometer scale proceeded. 1. These conjectures were later followed .
up in August 1991 by an oral presentation at a fullerene workshop in Philadelphia by Dresselhaus [24] on the symmetry proposed for carbon nanotubes capped at either end by fullerene hemispheres. In this section we introduce the hybridization in a carbon atom and consider the family of carbon materials. 1 . the real breakthrou~h on carbon nanotube research came with Iijima’s report of experimental observation of carbon nanotubes using transmission electron microscopy (see Fig. It w a s this work which bridged the gap between experimental observation and the theoretical framework of carbon nanotuhes in relation to fullerenes and as theoretical examples of 1 D systems. and numbers of cylindrical shells N : reported by Iijima using TEM: (a) N = 5 . 1. which is known as the hybridization of atomic orbitals. dj and d o . One distinction relates to the many possible configurations of the electronic states of a carbon atom. du=67A.2) [19). di=23A. (b) N = 2. the study of carbon nanotubes has progressed rapidly. However. CARBON MATERIALS Fig. Since the pioneering work of Iijima [19]. and (c) N = 7 .4 CHAPTER I . Carbon is the sixth element of the periodic table and is listed at the top . 2 Hybridization in A Carbon Atom Carbonbased materials. with suggestions on how zone folding could be used t o examine the electron and phonon dispersion relations of such structures. clusters. and molecules are unique in many ways. 1.2: The observation by TEM of multiwall coaxial nanotubes with various inner and outer diameters. du=65k [19]. d0=55A.
thereby changing the occupation of the 2 s and three 2 p atomic orbitals so as to enhance the binding energy of the C atom with its neighboring atoms. 3 t 2 p electrons is called spn hybridization PI. 2 s 2 .. are expressed by the linear combination of 12s) and 12p. Since the energy difference between the upper 2 p energy levels and the lower 2 s level in carbon is small compared with the binding energy of the chemical bonds. ~ Y ~ ~ ~ ~ IN ~ A Z CARBON A T ~ ATOM O N 5 of column IV. $Because of the electronhole duality. and 2p2 atomic orbitals. sp2 and sp3.+ the electronic wave functions for these four electrons can readily mix with each other. denoted by ] s p a ) and Ispa). Ge exhibit primarily sp3 hybridization. Four electrons occupy the 2s22p2 orbitals. and they are called core electrons. 1. for example 2ps. and these more weakly bound electrons are called valence electrons.. . In the crystalline phase the valence electrons give rise to 2 s . is formed. In carbon.’ The ls2 orbital contains two strongly bound electrons.2. Carbon differs from Si and Ge insofar as carbon does not have inner atomic orbitals except for the spherical Is orbitals. two hybridized s p orbitals. 2 . The lack of s p and sp2 hybridization in Si and Ge might be related to the absence of “organic materials” made of Sis and Ge. 2p. 2p. and the absence of nearby inner orbitals facilitates hybridizations involving only valence s and p orbitals for carbon. n = 4 and 5 are identical to IZ = 2 and 1. other group IV elements such as Si. a linear combination of the 2s orbital and one of the 2 p orbitals of a carbon atom. whereas the mixing of a single 2 s electron with n = 1 . respectively. and 2pz orbitals which are important in forming covalent bonds in carbon materials.) wavefunctions of the *The ground state of a free carbon atom is 3P (S = 1. §It should be mentioned that the “organic chemistry” for Si is becoming an active field today. tIn the free carbon atom. 232p3 which is denoted by 5S i s 4. Each carbon atom has six electrons which occupy 1s2.2.1. three possibIe hybridizations occur: s p . the excited state. L = 1) using the general notation for a twoelectron mdtiplet.18 eV above the ground state. From the twoelectron orbitals of a carbon atom.1 sp H ~ ~A c e ~ ~ ~ ~He ~G ~C eH . This mixing of 2s and 2 p atomic orbitals is called hybridization.i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ In s p hybridization.
is the 2p + + . and 2pz orbitals behave like a vector.. the overlap of Ispa) with the wavefunction at x > 0 becomes large compared with the original (2p. It is only when an asymmetric shape of the wavefunction (see Fig.) is elongated in the negative direction of x.) function. 1. where C i C i + C. 1. which gives rise to a higher binding energy. = 1/.)+Cy)2py)+C.(2p.+c. y.Isp. c.) = 1./2 and C 4 = . the wavefunction shows a directed valence in the direction of y axis. 12s) + (2p. = 1. 2p. If we select 12py) for 12p. Thus when nearestneighbor atoms are in the direction of x axis.)2pt). The shading denotes the posihive amditude of the wavefunction.) is elongated in the positive direction of 2 . and (SpbISpb) = 1. 1. The mixing of only 2p orbitals with each other gives rise to the rotation of 2p orbitals. Using the orthonormality conditions (spa(spa) = 0.= c. we obtain the relationship between the coefficients Ci : c 1 c 3 + c 2 c 4= c 3 ” + c4” 0.). The solution of (1. (1.12p.6 CHAPTER 1. The shading denotes a positive amplitude of the wavefunction. ( 2 . The wavefunction of 12s) 12p. (sp. A wavefunction C.” = 1. where Ci are coefficients.12p. while that of 12s) .2) The last equation is given by the fact that the sum of 12s) components in Ispa) and Ispb).) is elongated in the negative direction of 2 (lower panel). while that of (2s).z+c:= 1. is unity.3 we show a schematic view of the directed valence of the Ispa) (upper panel) and Jspb) (lower panel) orbitals.1 / d so that In Fig.3: sp hybridization.3) is desired for forming a chemical bond that a mixing of 2p orbitals with 2s orbitals occurs. 1. CARBON MATERIALS + 12s> 3 12px> + + IsPo> 12s>  12px> bpb> Fig. z ) . since the 2p.) is elongated in the positive direction of (upper panel).2) is C1 = C2 = C.
C z ) . The 2p wavefunctions of Eq. wavefunctions form relatively weak bonds called T bonds with those of the other carbon atom. O ) . one T orbital per carbon atom exists p e r p e n d ~ c u to l ~ the plane. called a u bond. ( f i / 2 .2. the corresponding sp2 hybridized . where carbon atoms form a zigzag chain with an angle of 120O.4.2.f i / 2 .. 1. in addition. All u bonds shown in the figure are in a (xy) plane.) = ( l . wavefunction whose direction of positive amplitude is the direction (Csl C. the 2s orbital and two 2p orbitals. HYBRIDIZATION IN A CARBON ATOM 7 'i' I \ C /"\ C /"\ C/ I I I H H H yL x H Fig. Thus.C. and in addition. where 5 is used by chemists to denote a triple bond between two carbon atoms.1. and 2 q . 1 / 2 .)= (1. (HC=C€I)nl the carbon atoms form a zigzag chain with an angle of 120' . A simple carbonbased material showing s p hybridization is acetylene. 0 ) . through sp2 hybridization.C. An example of sp2 hybridization is polyacetylene. In sp2 hybridization. 3 ) correspond to (C. and the 2p.O). HC=CH. (HC=CH)as is shown in Fig..4 are ( 0 . All u bonds shown in the figure are in the plane.C. and 2% wavefunctions of each carbon atom are perpendicular to the u bond. 1. Since the directions of the three u bonds of the central carbon atom in Fig. The acetylene molecule HCzCH is a linear molecule with each atom having its equilibrium position along a single axis and with each carbon atom exhibiting s p hybridization.. one u bond and two T bonds yields the triple bond of HCzCH.4: transpolyacetylene. a T orbital for each carbon atom exists perpendicular to the plane. 0 ) .O. and ( .l . The hybridized Ispa) orbital of one of the carbon atoms in HCrCH forms a covalent bond with the ISPb) orbital of the other carbon atom. are hybridized. respectively. The 2p. and 2p. 1 / 2 .2 sp2 Hybr2~z~ation: F o ~ y a c e ~ y ~(HC=CH)n e~e. for example 2p..l.) Cy. ( 1 . and.l. O ) and (C. O .
(CH4).l ).J1.4.. 3 ) :  + c. l).5) given by C1 = C 2 = l / f i and C.J1. .8 CHAPTER 1 . the 2s orbital and three 2 p orbitals are mixed with each other.G T 12py) We now determine the coefficients C1. we obtain three equations for determining the coefficients. 12p. but are changed to . 1.. (i = 1. . and orthonormal atomic .3 sp3 Hybridization: Methane. (1. and these threedirected orbitals are denoted by trigonal bonding.) orbitals.2.l). In order to make elongated wavefunctions to these direction.4). = .4) are positive.+c.5) . Ci (i = 1. and 2py orbitals as follows: ISP3 = C112S) . the coefficients of the )2py)terms in Eq. 1. (1. CARBON MATERIALS orbitals Isp:) (i = a . . . For the upper carbon atoms in Fig. Using equations similar to Eq. 1 . 2p... 1.4.C2.l .1 2 ~ ~ for ) the lower carbon atoms in the figure. denoting different directions for the nearestneighbor hydrogen atoms. = c. c ) are made from 2s.l / f i . JCZj =o = 0. (CH4) The carbon atom in methane. . l ) . yielding the solution of Eq. There are two kinds of carbon atoms in polyacetylene. (1. 1. F'rom the orthonormal requirements of the Ispi) and 12s).4) but with the four unknown coefficients. forming an sp3 hybridization.1. provides a simple example of sp3 hybridization through its tetragonal bonding to four nearest neighbor hydrogen atoms which have the maximum spatial separation from each other. The sp2 orbitals thus obtained have a large amplitude in the direction of the three nearestneighbor atoms. . (1. 1.c2 2 ClC3+ 1 (1. and Cs.1 .. (1. as shown in Fig. Ci. The four directions of tetrahedral bonds from the carbon atom can be selected as (l . ( . b .+c.
n 1 electrons belong to the carbon atom occupied in the hybridized u orbital and 4 . since the energy position of the 1s core levels is far from the Fermi energy compared with the valence levels.2.2. The excitation of 2s' and 2p3 in the solid phase from the 2sa2p2 atomic ground state requires an energy approximately equal to the energy difference between the 2s and 2 p (4 eV) Levels. while the remaining fourth direction is determined by orthonormal conditions imposed on the 2p orbitals. f f Y ~ R X ~ X Z A IN TA ~0 CARBON ~ ATOM 9 wavefunctions. we obtain the sp3 hybridized orbitals in these four directions: In general for spn hybridization. It is important to note that the directions of the three wavefunctions in the sp3 hybridization are freely determined. A general sp2+q hybridization is expected to have a higher excitation energy than that of the symmetric sp2 hybridization discussed here because of the electronelectron repulsion which occurs in the hybridized orbital.1. In the case of sp3 hybridization. Using Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).4 Carbon Is Core Orbitals Carbon Is core orbitals do not generally affect the solid state properties of carbon materials. . the energy of the Is core level is measured relative to the position of the *This notation denotes an admixture of sp2 and sp3 hybridization. the four valence electrons occupy 2s' and 2p3 states as u bonding states. This fact gives rise to possible sp2 hybridization of a planar pentagonal (or heptagonal) carbon ring and sp2+q (0 < q < I) hybridization* which is found in fullerenes.( n 1) electrons are in ?r orbital. Because of the small overlap between the Is orbitals on adjacent atomic sites in the solid. + +  1. the energy spectrum of the 1s core levels in carbon materials is sharp and the core level energies lie close to that of an isolated carbon atom. However the covaient bonding energy for u orbitals is larger (3 4 eV per bond) than the 2s2p energy separation.
the 1s core level shifts in energy relative to the vacuum level by an amount depending on the interaction with nearestneighbor atoms.. Fig. 1. c Is 1. while the downshifted features 210 refer t o c 6 0 excitations (see text).65 eV at halfmaximum intensity [25].6 eV I 10 5 0 l I 1 I l L I I 1 1 I I 1 I I J 60 45 30 15 0 Relalive Binding Energy (eV) Fig. For example.5 shows the XPS spectrum for c 6 0 [25]. 1. XPS spectra have been obtained for the unoccupied orbitals for a variety of fullerenes.9 eV hv= 1486. 1. vacuum level. CARBON MATERIALS c. In this spectrum. which has a binding energy of 285. The XPS data are shown on two energy sales to emphasize features near EF (upper spectrum) and features farther away in energy (lower spectrum) "&]. Specifically.0 eV and a very small linewidth of 0. narrow main line (peak #1 in Fig. Furthermore. XPS refers to the photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) process when the excitation photon is in the xray range and the electron excitation is from a core level. The sharp feature 1 is the fundamental XPS line.10 CHAPTER 1. . and this effect is known as the chemical shift of XPS.5: Xray photoelectron spectra (XPS) for the carbon 1sderived satellite structures for c 6 0 films [25].5) identified with the emission of a photoexcited electron from the carbon 1s state. we can see welldefined peaks which show an intense. and this energy difference is especially sensitive to the transfer of electric charge between carbon atoms.
while features 6 and 10 represent intramolecul~ plasmon collective oscillations of the T and cr charge distributions.5 Isomers of Carbon The sp" hybridization discussed in the previous section is essential for determining the dimensionality of not only carbonbased molecules. Features 3. which are closely related t o the sp" hybridization. In sp" hybridization.22.26 N2 1. as is shown in Table 1. HYBRIDIZATION IN A CARBON ATOM Table 1.42(C=C) 1.1: Isomers made of 1D CEO nanotube fullerene carbyne sp2 SP2 (SP) 1.2.13 1. A threedimensional solid is formed by gathering these carbyne chains. which is known as a 'carbyne'.515 23 1. It is interesting that sp2 hybridization which forms a planar structure in twodimensiona1 graphite also forms a planar local structure in + . (n 1) u bonds per carbon atom are formed. but also carbonbased solids.47eV The sharpest sideband feature in the downshifted XPS spectrum (labeled 2) is identified with an onsite molecular excitation across the HOMOLUMO gap at 1.54(CC) insulating E.44(C=C) 1.9eV semiconductor 0D 11 Dimension isomer hybridization density [g/cm31 Bond Length electronic properties carbon 2.1.683. 1.2.40(C=C) 1.46(CC) semiconductor metal or E. these cr bonds making a skeleton for the local structure of the ndimensional structure.0 2.72 1.44(C=C) semimetal 3. Plasma excitations are also prominently featured in core level electron energy loss spectra (EELS). two c bonds make only a onedimensional chain structure. = 1. 4 and 5 are the photoemission counterparts of electric dipole excitations seen in optical absorption.D graphite fiber SP2 3D diamond amorphous SP3 tJ4l 2.1. Here we introducepossible structures of carbon materials in the solid phase. four D bonds defining a regular tetrahedron are sufficient to form a threedimensional structure known as the diamond structure. In s p hybridization. Carbon is the only element in the periodic table that has isomers from 0 dimensions (OD) to 3 dimensions (3D). In sp3 hybridization. = 5.9 eV [ZS].
Other phases shown in the diagram include hexagonal diamond and a high temperaturehigh pressure phase. randomly. Amorphous graphite. 1. 1.6: One version of the phase diagram of carbon suggested by Bundy [26]. Under ambient conditions and in bulk form. CARBON MATERIALS Fig. LllUlD 400 OUMONO ’ the closed polyhedra (0dimensional) of the fullerene family and in the cylinders (1dimensional) called carbon nanotubes.6 [26281. which has been studied at low pressures and high temperatures. Under the application of high pressure and high temperature (both of which are somewhat reduced when catalyst particles like iron or nickel . . Closely related to carbon nanotubes are carbon fibers which are macroscopic onedimensional materials. be related to carbynes. Amorphous carbon is a disordered. and an unexplored high pressure phase. consists of many graphitic planes and microscopically exhibits electronic properties that are predominantly twodimensional. The diamond (Di) and graphite (Gr) phases are emphasized in this figure. thereby forming a solid lubricant. because of their characteristic high length to diameter ratio. denoted in the diagram by du Pont. which has not been studied in much detail and may. amorphous graphite can behave like a twodimensional material. meteorites and shockquench. threedimensional material in which sp2 and sp3 hybridization are both present. Liquid carbon. 1400 OlPUOND \ . which consists mainly of sp2 hybridization.12 CHAPTER 1 . the graphite phase with strong inplane trigonal bonding is the stable phase. A carbon fiber. is a graphite with random stacking of graphitic layer segments. in part. Because of the weak interplanar interaction between two graphitic planes. these planes can move easily relative to each other. as indicated by the phase diagram of Fig. however. . In this sense. which may be metallic. are also indicated on the figure.
The carbynes have been characterized by xray diffraction. both being hexagonal and with lattice constants a. 1.. two poIymorphs of carbynes (labeled Q and /3) have been identified. diamond will quickly transform back t o the equilibrium graphite phase.2. * C=C. Once the pressure is released. as the subject of the following chapters. which is graphite. diamond remains essentially stable under ambient conditions although.37].94 A. Carbynes were first identified in sampfes found in the Ries crater in Bavaria [36] and were later synthesized by the dehydrogenation of acetylene I31.36 A. near the surface of the solidified droplets formed upon solidification [32]. a@= 8. and spectroscopic measurements which show some characteristic features that identify carbynes in general and specific carbyne polymorphs in particular. it will very slowly transform back to the thermodynamically stable form of solid carbon. ~ Y ~ ~ I ~ ~ Z A INT A IC O AN ~BON A T O ~ 13 are used). such as irradiation and heat. transformation to the diamond structure takes place. in principle.68 A [31].” This carbon structure is stable at high temperature and pressure as indicated phases. Some researchers [31351 have reported evidence that these linearly bonded carbon phases are stable at temperatures in the range 2700 < T < 4500 K.24 A. Hereafter we introduce the ‘onedimensional’ isomers. The crystal structure of carbynes has been studied by xray diffraction through identification of the Bragg peaks with those of synthetic carbynes produced from the sublimation of pyrolytic graphite [33. * Itp for la > 10 has been reported in rapidly quenched carbons and is referred to as “carbynes. In fact. which are related to nanotubes. 1. It has been reported that carbynes are formed during very rapid solidification of liquid carbon.6 as shockq~enched white in color and are found in meteoritic carbon deposits.6 Carbynes Linear chains of carbon which have s p bonding have been the subject of research for many years [29]. = 8. Synthetic carbynes have also been prepared by sublimation of pyrolytic graphite [30. Application of pressure converts the  . carbynes and carbon fibers. ca = 15.I . ion micromass analysis.37]. scanning electron microscopy (TEM) . cp = 7.2. A polymeric form of carbon consisting of chains [. Carbynes are silverin the phase diagram of Fig. When exposed to various perturbations.31]. where the carbynes are mixed with graphite particles.
The thickening of the vaporgrown carbon fiber occurs through an epitaxial growth process whereby the hydrocarbon gas is dehydrogenated and sticks to the surface of the growing fiber. Subsequent heat treatment to w25OO0C results in carbon fibers with a tree ring concentric cylinder morphology [44]. It is expected that other less prevalent carbyne polymorphs should also exist.7(b)]. Vaporgrown carbon fibers with micrometer diameters and lengths of 30 cm provide a close analogy t o carbon nanotubes with diameters of nanometer dimensions and similar length to diameter ratios (see Chapter 5).2. respectively. little is known about their detailed physical properties. they form facets [Fig. each having different crosssectional morphologies [9. Of all carbon fibers [9]. 1.44]. 144 and 2. These densities determined from xray data [31] are in rough agreement with prior estimates [39. the preferred orientation of the graphene planes is parallel t o the fiber axis for all types of carbon fibers. Carbon fibers represent an important class of graphiterelated materials from both a scientific and commercial viewpoint. 1. The numbers of atoms per unit cell and the densities are.68 g/cm3 for the a phase and 72 and 3. CARBON MATERIALS a phase into the . The preparation of these fibers is based on the growth of a thin hollow tube of about 1000 A diameter from a transition metal catalytic particle (100 di diameter) which has been supersaturated with carbon from a hydrocarbon gas present during fiber growth at 1050OC.7 Vapor Grown Fibers Vaporgrown carbon fibers can be prepared over a wide range of diameters (from less than 1000 A to more than 100 prn) and these fibers have hollow cores [9].7(a)].14 CHAPTER 1. these faceted fibers are closest to crystalline graphite in both crystal structure and properties. these carbynes have a hardness intermediate between diamond and graphite. Asprepared vaporgrown fibers have an “onion skin” or “tree ring” morphology [Fig.40].f3 phase. thereby accounting for the high mechanical strength and high modulus of carbon fibers [9]. The commercial pitch and PAN fibers with other . In the solid form.13 g/cm3 for the p phase [38]. 1. Despite the many precursors that can be used to synthesize carbon fibers. Because of the difficulty in isolating carbynes in general. and specific carbyne polymorphs in particular . In fact vaporgrown fibers with diameters less than lOOA were reported many years ago [41431. and after heat treatment to about 30OO0C.
HYBRIDIZATION IN A CARBON ATOM 15 a b Fig. morphologies (not shown). (b) after heat treatment to 30OO0C [9]. These fibers are woven into bundles called tows and are then wound up as a continuous yarn on a spool.1. they can be considered to be infinite in length. and since the fibers are produced in a continuous process.7: Sketch illustrating the morphology of vaporgrown carbon fibers (VGCF): (a) asdeposited at llOO°C [9]. Typical diameters for these individual commercial carbon fibers are 10 pm.2. which inhibit the slippage of adjacent planes relative to each other. The remarkable high strength and modulus of carbon fibers are responsible for most of the commercial interest in these fibers [9. The high modulus of the mesophase pitch fibers is related to the high degree of caxis orientation of adjacent graphene layers.  . while the commercial PAN (polyacrylonitrile) fibers with circumferential texture are widely used for their high strength [9]. 1.44]. while the high strength of the PAN fibers is related to defects in the structure. are exploited for their extremely high bulk modulus and high thermal conductivity.
.
However. should lattice vectors. $. (2. 2. we show some examples of energy bands for carbon materials discussed in the Chapter 1. The reason why plane waves are commonly used is that: (1) the integration of the plane wave wavefunction is easy and can be done analytically.1 Secdur ~ q ~ u ~ ~ o n Because of the translational symmetry of the unit cells in the direction of the . and is the wave vector[45.1). Tight Binding Calculation of Molecules and Solids In carbon materials except for diamond.46]. In the following sections. There are many possible functional forms of 9 which satisfy Eq.CHAPTER 2. a'i. (2) the numerical accuracy only depends on the number of the plane waves used. any wave function of the lattice. + 3). (i = 1. satisfy Bloch's theorem where Tai is a translational operation along the lattice vector 4. 2 . the 7r electrons are valence electrons which are relevant for the transport and other solid state properties.1. A tight binding calculation for the 7r electrons is simple but provides important insights for understanding the electronic structure of the 7~ energy levels or bands for graphite and graphiterelated materials. The most commonly used form for Q is a linear combination of plane waves. the plane wave method also has limitations: (1) the scale of the a 17 . 1 Tight Binding Method for a Crystalline Solid In this section we explain the tight binding method for a crystalline solid.
from which the wave number lC is related by the integer *The limitations of the tight binding method are that: (1) there is no simple rule to improve the numerical accuracy and (2) atomic orbitals do not describe the interatomic region. the 'pj's in the N (. Another functional form which satisfies Eq. A tight binding.2) satisfies exp{ikMui} = 1. (2. and ( 2 ) we can easily derive the formulae for many physical properties using this method. The merits of using atomic orbitals in Bloch functions are as follows: (1) the number of basis functions. the phase factor appearing in Eq. TIGHT BINDING CALCULATION computation is large.* Hereafter we consider the tight binding functions of Eq.2). (2. Here R' is the position of the atom and pj denotes the atomic wavefunction in state j.q is given by. (2. . 1. The number of atomic wavefunctions in the unit cell is denoted by n . From this boundary condition. N1/3 unit vectors consistent with the boundary condition imposed on the translation vector T M ~ =. and we have n Bloch functions in the solid for a given To form @j(c.i direction.he periodic boundary condition for the M in each S. Bloch function @j(z.1) is based on the j. (2. n . and (2) it is difficult to relate the plane wave wavefunction to the atomic orbitals in the solid. can be small compared with the number of plane waves.18 CHAPTER 2.q in Eq. where we use t.1) since z.2) satisfies Eq.th atomic orbital in the unit cell (or atom). It is clear that Eq.2) to represent the Block functions.loz4) unit cells are weighted by the phase factor exp(iz 2 ) and are then summed over the lattice vectors of the whole crystal. (2. (2.
R j j ~ ( 2 and ) S j j t ( i ) are called transfer integral matrices and overlap integral matrices. we obtain the following equation. Thus M 3 = N wave vectors exist in the first Brillouin zone. + The jth eigenvalue Ej(k) (j= 1. * .where n is the number of Bloch wavefunctions.6) into Eq.6) is taken only for the Bfoch orbitals @j/(g.. Sjj.2. Since the functions Sj(Z. (2. n ) as a function of 5 is given by .ji=l j. .j}=l where the integrals over the Block orbitals. .'.(lc'.q should also satisfy Bloch's theorem. which are defined by .3 as follows: q z . Icy and lcz. The eigenfunctions in the solid @ j ( z . j ' = l.7) and making a change of subscripts. (2. n n C CGCijt(@jl@j. the wavevector is defined for the z.. * . where the ki can be considered as continuum variables.(i)CGCij.*. (2. 3.$) = ((ajlay) ( j . the summation in Eq. (2. with the same value of 2. (2. as k. the coefficient C$ is optimized 80 as to minimize &(Z).9) for a given value.6) where C j j ~ ( $ are ) coefficients t o be determined.?Z). respectively. y and z directions.1. are expressed by a h e a r combination of Bloch functions @ji[Z. (2.3( j = 1. n).) C Sjj.9) When we fix the values of the n x n matrices ' ? i j j t ( i ) and Sjji($) in Eq. Substituting Eq. where H is the Hamiltonian of the solid. j. TIGHT BINDING METHOD FOR A CRYSTALLINE SOLID 19 In three dimensions.* Bjj/(lc) = { @ j p i I @ j / ) . q= j'=l c n Cjjl(rC'>@j.
(2.. (2. we obtain ['H E i ( i ) S ] C i = 0. n ) for a given k. and is an equation of degree + n . can be varied independently. . (2.11) j'=l ji=l Defining a column vector. and C:. (2.13) Transposing the right hand side of Eq.E i ( z ) S ] exists. . When we take a partial derivative for Ci.+we obtain zero for the local minimum condition as follows. + N N (2. c i= Eq.10). and therefore Czj is determined for each $. N N (2. TIGHT BINDING CALCULATION It is noted that the coefficient C T j is also a function of i .. is generally a complex variable with t w o degrees of freedom. which means that no wavefunction is obtained. If the inverse of the matrix ['Id . 'Since C. (2. (2.jl=l the expression for E i ( i ) of Eq.10) by Sjji(~)C~C and ij~ substitute j. a real and a complex part.ES] = 0. consistent with the condition given by det[X .8) into the second term of Eq. CGl.14) where Eq.Ei(i)S]' to obtain Ci = 0 (where 0 denotes the null vector).14) is called the secular equation.10) N When we multiply both sides of Eq. both C. (2.. whose solution gives all n eigenvalues of Ei( i) (i = 1. we obtain C Rjji(k)Ciji = Ei(Z)C Sjji(Z)Ciji. .11) is expressed by (c:)l (2. we multiply both sides by [X.13) to the left.12) G N xci = E j ( i ) S C i .and Cij coefficients.20 CHAPTER 2. (2. while fixing the other Ciji. Thus the eigenfunction is given only when the inverse matrix does not exist.
14) and obtain the eigenvalues Ei(2) (i = 1. For the selected $ points. of high symmetry i 2. solve the secular equation. The eigenvalues Ei(g) are a periodic function in the reciprocal lattice. (2. (2. Specify the coordinates of the atoms in the unit cell and select n atomic orbitals which are considered in the calculation. That is. . For the selected $ points.1. *Whenonly the transfer matrix is calculatedand the overlap matrix is taken as the unit matrix.14). In a two or three dimensional solid. Eq. (2.14). 3. In order to obtain the energy dispersion relations we solve the secular equation Eq.7) and (2. Mulliken's gross population analysis [47]. ( l ) are obtained by solving the secular equation Eq. for example. (2. the oneelectron energy eigenvalues E . . 3cij and Sij. n ) and the coefficients Cij($). for given electron occupation.* 4. 2. Select the high symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone. &. When the input and the output of occupation of the electron are equal to each other within the desired accuracy. 4. which can be described within the first Brillouin zone. for a number (or energy bands) E{($)). from which the updated electron occupation is determined using. and points along the high symmetry axes. and thus we plot Ei($) along the high symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone.. it is difficult t o show the energy dispersion relations over the whole range of k values. Specify the unit cell and the unit vectors. calculate the transfer and the overlap matrix element. The actual procedure of the tight binding calculation is as follows: # 1. the eigenvalues are said to have been obtained selfconsistently.Using the expression for Ei(2) in Eqs.2 Procedure for obtaining the energy dispersion In the tight binding method. then the SlaterKoster extrapolationscheme results.11). ' . points. the coefficients Ci as a function of $ are determined. Specify the Bril~ouin zone and the reciprocal lattice vectors. the potential of the Hamiltonian is calculated. Tightbinding calculations are not selfconsistent calculations in which the occupation of an electron in an energy band would be determined selfconsistently.
The lattice unit vector and the reciprocal lattice vector of this onedimensional molecule are given by a'l = (a. ... within the box defined by the dotted lines...2 Electronic Structure of Polyacetylene A simple example of nenergy bands for a onedimensional carbon chain is polyacetylene (see Sect. iH i I \ dp/\ ci c i 1 : H i / H . there is one 7relectron per carbon atom... In Fig...2..... H i I .O) and b l = ( a / 2 ~ .which contains two inequivalent carbon atoms.2. in the unit cell.*. the unit cell for transpolyacetylene (CH)..1 we show. 2.2. for the A or B .2).22 CHAPTER 2.15) where the summation is taken over the atom site coordinate R.. thus giving rise to two nenergy bands called bonding and antibonding nbands in the first Brillouin zone. 2. 0.. 1. 0 ... As discussed in Sect... Both extrapolation methods such as 5 perturbation theory or interpolation methods using the SlaterKoster approach are commonly employed for carbonrelated systems such as a 2D graphene sheet or 3D graphite [9]. The Bloch orbitals consisting of A and B atoms are given by 4 (2.. 1..1: The unit cell of iranspolyacetylene bounded by a box defined by the dotted lines. In applying these calculational approaches t o real systems.. the symmetry of the problem is considered in detail on the basis of a tightbinding approach and the transfer and the overlap matrix elements are often treated as parameters selected to reproduce the band structure of the solid obtained either experimentally or from first principles calculations. TIGHT BINDING CALCULATION . A and B. A and B... 2. in the unit cell.. and showing two inequivalent carbon atoms. The Brillouin zone is the line segment a/n < b < a / a .. C I Fig.. 0 )respectively.
'Note that czP is not simply the atomic energy value for the free atom. +(terms equal to or more distant than R = R' & 2a) = €a. compound. The matrix element X E A ( T ) is obtained from X A B ( Y ) through the Hermitian conjugation relation 3 . Although the distortion of the lattice lowers the energy. tHere we have assumed that all the T bonding orbitals are equal (1. B ) is obtained by substituting Eq. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF POLYACETYLENE 23 carbon atoms in the solid. 11.The largest contribution to X A B ( P ) arises when atoms A and B are nearest neighbors.. because the Hamiltonian contains a crystal potential.17) and denoted byt.5A bonds).2. which will be neglected for also gives cZp for the same order of approximation. Similarly. we obtain X B A = FLAB.. When o = . ~ but since X A B is real. + (terms equal to or more distant than R = R' f a). Next let us consider the matrix element X A B ( T ) . the electronic energy always decreases more than the lattice energy in a onedimensional material. See details in Sect.9).17) me not equal. p . (2. bond alternation occurs. (2. and this gives the orbital energy of the 2p level.3A bonds. The ( 2 x 2) matrix Hamiltonian. and the two atomic integrations in Eq.The * next order contribution t o X A A comes from terms in R = R ' f a .l = ~ X.1 . P = A .7A and 1. in which the bond energy alternates between 1. (2.18) It is stressed that t has a negative value. (2. ( o .15) into Eq.d = A.2.3. and thus the lattice becomes deformed by a process called the Peierls instability.. In Eq. simplicity. X . ~ 2 ~ . t = ('PA(TR)lXIPB(rRf a/2))* (2. In the real (CH). we only consider the cases R' = R f a/2 and neglect more distant terms to obtain = 2t cos(lca/2) where the transfer integral 1 is the integral appearing in Eq.16) the maximum contribution to the matrix element RAAcomes from R = R'. Thus. (2. in the summation over R'.
given by Eq. if we assume that the atomic wavefunction is normalized.sE) COS(LQ/~) ~2~ . except that the intraatomic integral yields the energy for the crystal Hamiltonian Xij.sign defines the other branch. respectively. where s is the overlap integral between the nearest A and B atoms. E + ( k ) and E .5 1. but the overlap matrix rather yields unity for the case of Saj. 2.0 0.20) = (cap .4(t .E 62p (2.are degenerate at La = &T.( k ) are called bonding a and antibonding a* energy bands. as shown in Fig. respectively.] is given by 2(t .2: Th: energy dispersion relation E*(L) for polyacetylene [(CH). yielding the eigenvalues of the energy dispersion relations of Eq. where we use values for the parameters. .< L < ) 1 f 2s cos(ka/2) ’ Q Q (2.R k a/2)). t = 1.21) in which the sign defines one branch and the . . (2. ~2~ = 0.]. (2.0 I .2. each with a different + .s E ) CoS(ka/2) E 2(t .2. Curves E+(L)and E(k)are called bonding a and antibonding a* energy bands.R)l(oB(r .0 ka/n 0.5 0.1 and s = 0.21) with values for the parameters t = . The overlap matrix Sij can be calculated by a similar method as used for Xij.19) S = ( ‘ P A ( r . 1.2. The secular equation for the 2pz orbital of [(CH). (2.s E ) cos2(ka/2) ~ = 0. The levels E+ and E. TIGHT BINDING CALCULATION L J 2. . and the plot is given in units of Itl. Since there are two a electrons per unit cell. 2. and s = 0. SAA = SBB = 1 and SAB = S B A = 2scos(ba/2).E)’.20) given by E*(i) = EZp f 2t cos(Ica/2) a a (.0 Fig.24 CHAPTER 2. .
.. ( i = l . are unit vectors in real space. respectively... In Fig.2. r. respectively.3..3.K < * "L ~ g@$@ .. Fig. respectively. forms a twodimensional (2D) material.35A is much larger than nearestneighbor distance between two carbon atoms.46A is the lattice ~ ~ n s t a of n t twodimensional graphite.22) where Q = 1 2 1 1 = 1221 = 1. .. acc=1.. the interaction between two adjacent layers is small compared with intralayer interactions.. . both electrons occupy the bonding ?r energy band. since the layerlayer separation of 3.. 2.3: (a) The unit cell and (b) Brillouin zone of twodimensional graphite are shown as the dotted rhombus and the shade_d hexagon..3 we show (a) the unit cell and (b) the Brillouin zone of twodimensional graphite as a dotted rhombus and shaded hexagon.... .. and bi. i34.42 x & = 2. called 2D graphite or a graphene layer. 2 . 2.. Correspondingly the unit vectors & and & of the recip . ... where 21 and Za. M .. In the s.. I< and M ..y coordinates shown in the Fig... TWODIMENSIONAL GRAPHITE 25 (b) g$vq@ . &$. 2. which makes the total energy lower than &zp. the real space unit vectors 21 and a'z of the hexagonal lattice are expressed as 4  (2.. and b1 and bz are reciprocal lattice vectors. 2 ) are unit vectors and reciprocal lattice vectors. Energy dispersion relations are obtained along the perimeter of the dotted triangle connecting the high symmetry points. . Thus the electronic structure of 2D graphite is a first approximation of that for 3D graphite. Even in 3D graphite. A single layer of graphite.428L. 3 TwoDimensional Graphite Graphite is a threedimensional (3D) layered hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms.... spin orientation.
and the center of the edge.3.&. because we know that the x energy bands are covalent and are the most important for determining the solid state properties of graphite.23) corresponding to a lattice constant of 47rlfia in reciprocal space. When we consider only nearestneighbor interactions.3(b).1 T Bands of TwoDimensional Graphate Two Bloch functions.16).22. and I&. Here we define the three high symmetry points. makes 7r covalent bonds.17) from 21.3. and thus X A A = X B B = c a p . as shown in Fig. the highest symmetry is obtained for the Brillouin zone of 2D graphite. K and M as the center. which are denoted by the vectors l?1.26 rocal lattice are given by: CHAPTER 2.2. which is perpendicular to the graphene plane. 2. We then consider the contribution t o as follows: Eq. For the offdiagonal matrix element X A B .3(b).9. 2.3. and the other 2p. orbital.1 we consider only x energy bands for 2D graphite. TIGHT BINDING CALCULATION (2. 2. (2. the corner. (2. constructed from atomic orbitals for the two inequivalent carbon atoms at A and B in Fig. provide the basis functions for 2D graphite. 2. 2. 2. while. three u bonds for 2D graphite hybridize in a sp2 configuration. r. we must consider the three nearestneighbor B atoms relative to an A atom. then there is only an integration over a single atom in X A A and X B B . In Sect. as is shown in Eq. The direction of the unit vectors & and of the reciprocal hexagonal lattice are rotated by 90' from the unit vectors a'l and 2 2 of the hexagonal lattice in real space. As discussed in Sect. 2. respectively.3.24) . By selecting the first Brillouin zone as the shaded hexagon shown in Fig. The energy dispersion relations are calculated for the triangle I'Mli' shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and (2.
TWODIMENSIONAL GRAPHITE 27 where t is given by Eq. (2. the overlap integral matrix is given by SAA= SBB = 1.48]. (1 5f(k)* 5 ~ ( ~ ) ) (2. .033eVl and s = 0. 3).26). (2. and likewise for the . The upper half of the energy dispersion curves describes the R*energy antibonding band. the eigenvalues E(Z) are obtained as a function w($). Using Eq.129 in order to reproduce the first principles calculation of the graphite energy bands [9.4. so that the explicit forms for %! and S can be written as: 3c= (E2P ~ f ( ~ )S )= . +yo is defined by a positive value. and the Iower half is the renergy bonding band.2.25). f(k) is given by: + 1 f(k) = eik=a/&f + 2eiksa/2flcos (k.3(a).3. which give the antibonding x* band.18)* and f ( k ) is a function of the sum of the phase factors of esE’Aj (j= 1. k. and SAB = s f ( k ) = SSA.t = 3. 2. . in which * denotes the complex conjugate.26) tfW* E2p 1 Solving the secular equation det(% ES) = 0 and using ‘ E and S as given in Eq.a) I _ (2.19). 2. the energy dispersion relations of twodimensiona~ shown throughout the Brillouin zone and the inset shows the energy dispersion relations along the high symmetry axes along the perimeter of the triangle shown in Fig. Here we use the parameters ezp = 0. (2. 2. while the function w [ c ) is given by: graphite are In Fig. The upper R* band and the lower T band are degenerate at the K points through which *We often use the symbol 70 for the nearest neighbor transfer integral. and ky: (2.25) * Since f ( k ) is a complex function. (2. and the H a ~ l t o n i a n forms a Hermitian matrix. Using the 2. we write %!BA = % ! > .y coordinates of Fig.signs.27)  where the + signs in the numerator and denominator go together giving the bonding x energy band.3(b). Here s has the same definition as in Eq.
. When the overlap integral s becomes zero.3(b) (see text). Since a detailed calculation of the density of states shows that the density of states at the Fermi level is zero. Since there are two ?r electrons per unit cell. these two A electrons fully occupy the lower T band. The inset shows the energy dispersion along the high symmetry directions of the triangle I'MK shown in Fig.t The existence of a zero gap at the A ' points gives rise to quantum effects in the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes. the Fermi energy passes. (2. The energy dispersion relations in the case of s = 0 (i.27). the site energy ~2~ would be different for B and N . 2. 2.28 CHAPTER 2. the A and ?r* bands become symmetrical around E = cap which can be understood from Eq. TIGHT BINDING CALCULATION Fig. and therefore the calculated energy dispersion would show an energy gap between the n and T * bands.e. The existence of a zero gap at the K points comes from the symmetry requirement that the two carbon sites A and B in the hexagonal lattice are equivalent to each 0ther. in the SlaterKoster scheme) are commonly lased as a simple approximation for the electronic structure of a graphene layer: tIf the A and B sites had different atoms such as B and N.4: The energy dispersion relations for 2D graphite are shown throughout the whole region of the Brillouin zone.. as shown in Chapter 3. twodimensional graphite is a zerogap semiconductor.
We will calculate these six u bands using a 6 x 6 Hamiltonian and overlap matrix. . Hereafter we arrange the matrix elements in accordance with their atomic identity for the free atom. Thus the band width gives I6t1. TWODIMENSIONAL GRAPHITE 29 In this case. 2. 2sA. yielding six u bands. and the other three u bands are antibonding u* bands above the Fermi energy. In Fig. upon mirror reflection about the zy plane.30) where ezp is defined by Eq.”.5.16) and e2s is the orbital energy of the 2s levels. 2pp.16). For the eigenvalues thus obtained. which is consistent with the three connected n bonds. and the odd symmetry of 2pz.bes. and 2p. (2. using a small number of parameters. 2sB. Within the nearest neighbor site approximation given by Eq. and we will then solve the secular equation* for each point. r. The matrix element for the Bloch orbitals between the A and B atoms can be obtained by taking the components of 2p. Zp. 2s. because matrix elements of different symmetry types do not couple in the Hamiltonian.1. Then the matrix elements coupling the same atoms (for example A and A ) can be expressed by a 3 x 3 small matrix which is a subblock of the 6 x 6 matrix.2. at the high symmetry points. M and I< in the Brillouin zone.2 u Bands of TwoDimensional Graphiie Finally let us consider the IT bands of twodimensional graphite.29) is used in Sect. The simple approximation given by Eq.3. s A A = ( i0 i :0) 1 .3. (2. the small Hamiltonian and overlap matrices are diagonal matrices as follows. three of the six c bands are bonding u bands which appear below the Fermi energy. f t and 0. 4. The calculation of the Hamiltonian and overlap matrix is performed analytically. we show how to rotate the 2px atomic orbital and how t o obtain the u and n components for the rightmost ‘Since the planar geometry of graphite satisfies the even symmetry of the Hamiltonian li and of 23. % A A = ( S0 s:2p 0: E2p ). 2px and 2py. respectively. and 2py in the directions parallel or perpendicdar to the u bond. 2 p t . (2. the energies have the values of f3t. the 0 and 7r energy bands can be solved separately. We thus have six Bloch orbitals in the 2 atom unit cell. 2pf.2 to obtain a simple approximation for the electronic dispersion relations for carbon nanotu. 2. 2p:. There are three atomic orbitals of sp2 covalent bonding per carbon atom. (2.
2. orbital. where shaded and notshaded regions denote positive and negative amplitudes of the wavefunctions. when we consider the curvature of their surfaces. 1 .) is decomposed into its and T components as follows: This type of decomposition can be used t o describe a bond in any general direction..7 (a). 6 : The band parameters for u bands. 2 .6.30 CHAPTER 2. bond of this figure.6 correspond to nonvanishing matrix elements and the remaining four cases from (5) t o (8) correspond t o matrix elements which vanish because of symmetry. orbitals in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the desired bonds.. TIGHT BINDING CALCULATION \&=+\ . The four cases from (1) to (4) in Fig.5: The rotation of 2p. Fig. 2. 2 . which is discussed in Sect. By rotating the 2 p . respectively. 2. This method is valid only for p orbitals. This procedure is also useful for fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. < . obtained by the methods described above. and this .s:. the matrix elements appear in only 8 patterns it9 shown in Fig.7(a) and (b) we show examples of the matrix elements of ( 2 s A I ' H [ 2 p f ) and (2p$ 171(2pf). In Figs. and 2p. respectively.y.. 2 . In Fig. 2. The corresponding parameters for both the Hamiltonian and the overlap matrix elements are shown in Fig. 2P # 2 2~ a Fig.5 the wavefunction of ]2p.. x . The figure shows how t o project the u and T components along the indicated bond starting with the 2p. 2. 6 . there is only one nonvanishing contribution. The four cases from (1) to (4)correspond to matrix elements having nonvanishing values and the remaining four cases from (5) to (8) correspond to vanishing matrix elements. 2. In the case of Fig.
(2.B) = + ( X u + '.)eikXa/2asin&$ *! (2. comes from Fig. (2. in the case of Fig. (a) (2sA17iF1(2pf)and (b) ( 2 p t ( N ( 2 p f ) .6 ( 3 ) and (4).6 ( 2 ) . Multiplying the phase factors for the three nearest neighbor B atoms with the matrix elements. 2.lfn)eik=a/26eikva/2. (2P.7 (b).+(xu + 3tT).3.14). we get the following result: ( 2 s ~ l z 1 2 p : )= x. (2.6 (5) or ( 6 ) give matrix elements that vanish by symmetry. the 6 x 6 Hamiltonian matrix is obtained as a function of t .2.33) The resulting matrix element in Eq. 2. yielding a fit of the functional form of the energy bands imposed by symmetry to the energy values obtained for the first principles band calculations at the high symmetry points [48]. 2. TWODIMENSIONAL GRAPHITE 31 (2sJ I#I 2pXJ) (~P~AI#~ZP. the nonzero matrix elements correspond to the cases of Fig. The other pertinent cases of Fig. (2.7: Examples of the Hamiltonian matrix elements of r orbitals. 2. Here we have used the parameters listed in Table 2.. (2. By rotating the 2p orbitals.(eiksa/fi + eik=a/2fiCOs Y .33).AlWP. respectively. we get the matrix elements in Eq.8.33) is a pure imaginary. . When all the matrix elements of the 6 x 6 Hamiltonian and overlap matrices are calculated in a similar way. 2.5iksa/2fieikva/2 = q(7iu +xFl.J) Fig. and k. For given points we then calculate the energy dispersion of the r bands from the secular equation of Eq. However.1. 2. the calculated results for the energy eigenvalues give real values. . The results thus obtained for the calculated u and ?r energy bands are shown in Fig.32) ):' Similarly.32) and Eq.
.1. 2.8. have different symmetries). Zt 3. no band separation occurs at the crossing points.1: Values for the coupling parameters for carbon atoms in the Hamiltonian for T and cr bands in 2D graphite. the formu~ation can be used to describe the sp3 diamond system and s p carbyne materials. 2. if the parameters are only slightly changed. 0. 31. In the absence of more detailed experimental or theoretical information.32 Fig. because of the different group theoretical symmetries between u and r bands.3.769 S. E s 0. as do the T* and the two cr* bands. However. the 7r and the two u bands cross each other (i. Further.580 Ssp 0. As is shown in Fig. Here we used the parameters listed in Table 2.212 5. 1. The relative positions of these crossings are known to be important for: (1) phototransitions from u to ?r* bands and . % 5.129 8.868 (")The value for ~2~ is given relative to setting czp = 0.037 s .42A..033 S . value (eV) S value %a 6.102 31.146 H ' .8: The energy dispersion relations for u and r bands of twodimensional graphite. these parameters can be used as a first approximation in describing the matrix elements for most sp2 carbon materials for which the carboncarbon distance is close to that of graphite.e. 0. Table 2.
which satisfy the selection rule for electric dipole transitions. and (2) charge transfer from alkali metal ions to graphene sheets in graphite intercalation compounds. respectively. .3. Using the basic concepts of twodimensional graphite presented in Chapter 2.2. we next discuss the structure and electronic properties of singlewall carbon nanotubes in Chapters 3 and 4. TWODIMENSIONAL GRAPHITE 33 from ?r to c* bands.
.
1.0 nm.1 Classification of carbon nanotubes A singlewall nanotube is defined by a cylindrical graphene sheet with a diameter of about 0. If we neglect the two ends of a carbon nanotube and focus on the large aspect ratio of the cylinder (i. Three examples of singlewall carbon nanotubes ( SWCN’s) are shown in Fig. To specify the structure of carbon nanotubes. is given by a single vector called the chiral vector. we define several important vectors. these nanotubes can be considered as onedimensional nanostructures. it can be seen that the direction of the sixmembered ring in the honeycomb lattice can be taken almost arbitrarily. The synthesis of singlewall carbon nanotubes is discussed in Chapter 5. 3. The chirality. without any distortion of the hexagons except for the distortion due to the curvature of the carbon nanotube. which are derived from the chiral vector.7 . 35 . as defined in this chapter.CHAPTER 3. From this figure.. even though the basic *Many carbon nanotubes that are observed experimentally are multiwall structures which are discussed in Chapter 11. This fact provides many possible structures for carbon nanotubes.10.e. length/diameter which can be as large as 104105). An interesting and essential fact about the structure of a carbon nanotube is the orientation of the sixmembered carbon ring (hereafter called a hexagon) in the honeycomb lattice relative to the axis of the nanotube.* though most of the observed singlewall nanotubes have diameters <2 nm. Structure of a SingleWal! Carbon Nanotube A singlewall carbon nanotube can be described as a graphene sheet rolled into a cylindrical shape so that the structure is onedimensional with axial symmetry. 3. called chirality. and in general exhibiting a spiral conformation.
6. We have thus a variety of geometries in carbon nanotubes which can change diameter. 3. and (c) chiral nanotubes. armchair and zigzag nanotubes. as is shown at the edge of the nanotubes in Fig.36 CHAPTER 3. . respectively. The primary symmetry classification of a carbon nanotube is as either being achiral (symmorphic) or chiral (nonsymmorphic). (b) zigzag. There are only two cases of achiral nanotubes. respectively. 3. In this chapter we focus on the periodic structure along the nanotube axis. Each cap contains six pentagons and an appropriate number and placement of hexagons that are selected to fit perfectly to the long cylindrical section. chirality and cap structures. We call this tube a chiral nanotube. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE bon nanotubes: (a) armchair. From the figure it can be seen that the orientat~onof the sixmembered ring in the honeycomb lattice relative to the axis of the nanotube can be taken dmost arbitrarily. 3.1 we show the terminations of each of the three nanotubes.2 and Sect.1 (a) and (b). An achiral carbon nanotube is defined by a carbon nanotube whose mirror image has an identical structure to the original one. shape of the carbon nanotube wall is a cylinder. 3. Axial chirality is commonly discussed in connection with optical activity. The terminations are often called caps or end caps and consist of a “hemisphere” of a fullerene. 3. as are shown in Fig. Chiral nanotubes exhibit a spiral symmetry whose mirror image cannot be superposed on to the original one. In Fig. The names of armchair and zigzag arise from the shape of the crosssectional ring.1 (a) and (b).1 and is further discussed in Sect. since such structures are called axially chiral in the chemical nomenclature. A classification of carbon nanotubes is given in Table 3.
0) transtype 0' < 101 < 30' ( n . in which O B is the direction of the nanotube axis. where n . (b) (9.m are integers. 0 5 Iml I n). In + Fig. B .2. a paper model of a carbon nanotube can be and 6%define the chiral vector C h and the constructed. we need to consider only 0 < Iml < n in c h = ( n .1.* The vectors translational vector T of a carbon nanotube. Because of the hexagonal symmetry of the honeycomb lattice.1: Classification of carbon nanotubes.0). 3. 3.m) mixture of cis and trans + Syml.m ) . 3. respectively. as further explained below. The chiral vector is defined by Eq. n ) cistype O0 ( n . 3. the unrolled honeycomb lattice of the nanotube is shown. By considering the crystallographically equivalent sites 0. n ) . and the chiral vector shown in Fig.2.2 and then construct a paper model of a carbon nanotube. .1 are.5). (XI).4). (2. (3. (a) (5.6.2 Chiral Vector: Ch * The structure of a singlewall carbon nanotube is specified by the vector ( O A in Fig. The group theory of carbon nanotubes is discussed in Sect.netryc) Dn 8 Ci Dn CZI Ci c d 8 CNfd ') The chiral angle 0 is defined by Eq. and by rolling the honeycomb sheet so that points 0 and A coincide (and points B and B' coincide). CHIRAL VECTOR: CH 37 Type armchair zigzag chiral a) b. m are integers n # m. that is C h = ( n . respectively. This construction exercise is very useful for understanding the nanotube structure. 3. 3.2) which corresponds to a section of the nanotube perpendicular to the nanotube axis (hereafter we call this section the equator of the nanotube). The chiral vector C h can be expressed by the real space unit vectors a1 and a2 (see Fig.m ) chiral vectors correspond to chiral nanotubes. *The authors recommend that the readers copy Fig. 3. ( n .22): Ch = no1 62 + ma2 ( n . (3. and a zigzag nanotube corresponds to the case of m = 0. an armchair nanotube corresponds to the case of n = m.O) and (c) (10.2) of the hexagonal lattice defined in Eq.3. As is shown in Table 3. A .2 is ( 4 . and B'. 2 ) . or c h = ( n . and the direction of O A corresponds to the equator. 3.1) The specific chiral vectors c h shown in Fig. 00) Ci) Shape of cross section 30' ( n . All other ( n . 5). Table 3. m )for chiral nanotubes.
and B and B'. O A and O B define the chiral vector C h and the translational vector T of the nanotube. The vector R denotes a symmetry vector (see Sect. d = dR = 2.44A x f i = 2. R = (1.44A. in which L is the circumferential length of the carbon nanotube: dt = L I T . SINGLE. a nanotube can be 4 + constructed.4). The rectangle OAB'B defines the unit cell for the nanotube. respectively. N = 28.1). When we connect sites 0 and A . d l . (34 It is noted here that a 1 and a 2 are not orthogonal to each other and that the inner products between a 1 and a2 yield: where the lattice constant a = 1.t For example. The diameter of the carbon nanotube.22). 3. L = l c h l = d== adn2 + m2 + nm. . In the case of carbon nanotubes.5).WALL CARBON NANOTUBE Fig. the diameter of the armchair nanotube (5. The figure corresponds to c h = (4. ! ! ' = (4. the CC bond length is known to be slightly larger than graphite: 1. is dt = 6.38 CHAPTER 3. 3. 5).2: The unrolled honeycomb lattice of a nanotube.8SA. tThe CC bond length of graphite is l.42A. (2.2). whose end cap is a hemisphere of the fullerene CSO.49A of the honeycomb lattice is given in Eq. is given by L I T .
4) thus relating 0 to the integers ( n . The vector T is parallel to the nanotube axis and is normal to the chiral vector C h in the unrolled honeycomb lattice in Fig.t2 areintegers). we obtain expressions for tl and t2 given by: tl = 2nz ~ dR +n. (3. (3. (3. by introducing d as the greatest common divisor of n and m. The chiral angle 0 denotes the tilt angle of the hexagons with respect to the direction of the nanotube axis.5). (3. Also. with values of 0 in the range 0 5 101 5 30°. t2= 2n+m dR where d R is the greatest common divisor (gcd) of (2m n ) and (273 m). The chiral angle 0 is defined by taking the inner product of C h and a1 . and (3. 3.m) defined in Eq.1). 3. 3 . it is clear that t l and t2 do not have a common divisor except for unity.2) is defined as the angle between the vectors C h and a1 . In particular.5) The translation vector T corresponds to the first lattice point of the 2D graphene + sheet through which the vector O B (normal to the chiral vector C h ) passes. From this fact.1).t2). 3 Translational Vector: T The translation vector T is defined t o be the unit vector of a 1D carbon nanotube. T = 0 and Eqs. respectively.2.3). (wheretl. 3. The lattice vector T * shown as O B in Fig. Using C h .3. then d~ can be + + . because of the hexagonal symmetry of the honeycomb lattice. and the angle 0 specifies the spiral symmetry. TRANSLATIONAL VECTOR: T 39 The chiral angle 0 (see Fig. zigzag and armchair nanotubes correspond to 0 = 0’ and 0 = 30°. to yield an expression for cos 6 : (3.2 can be expressed in terms of the basis vectors a1 and a 2 as: T = t l a l +tzaz (tI.3.
The unit cell of the 1D carbon nanotube is the rectangle OAB'B defined by the vectors c h and T (see Fig.2. 3. TI is given by: where the circumferential nanotube length L is given by Eq.l(b)]. The area .2).7) In the case of Fig. When we denote the greatest common divisor as y = gcd(a.m ) = gCd(3m.7). 12 . 1 ) as:t N= Ich l a 1 xT I . ( 3 . have a common divisor. 2 ) and ( 3 . 2 ) .2~~ a2dR ' (3.2(m2 n2 x a21 dR + + nm) . 3. for the c h = (5. In fact.m ) . since the vector products of the unit vectors are: a 1xa 1 =a 2 x a2 =o and J ux~ a21 = 6 a 2 / 2 where (a1x a 2 1 corresponds to the area of the rhombus generated by of the rhombus is equal to that of the hexagon. 7 ) .m) is a multiple of 3d.5).1) [Fig. 3. When the area of the nanotube unit cell (chx T I (where the symbol x denotes the vector product operator) is divided by the area of a hexagon (la1 x azl). 'This relation is obtained by repeated use of the fact that when two integers.1(a)]. y . (3. a 1 and a2. ?Z which gives Eq. while the vectors a1 and a2 define the area of the unit cell of 2D graphite. .40 CHAPTER 3. then y is also the common divisor of (a p ) and p (Euclid's law). tFor nonorthogonal unit vectors. (3. and we note that each hexagon contains two carbon atoms.27Z + m ) = gCd(2m + 12. T = (1.m ) = gCd(3d. We note that the length T is greatly reduced when ( n . The length of the translation vector. we have d = dR = 2 . 7Z . we have dR = 3d = 15. T = (4. a and p (a> p).rn is a multiple of 3 d .while for the c h = (9. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE related to d by* dR= { d if n .2).5) armchair nanotube.m is not a multiple of 3d 3d if n . and T = (1. 2) [Fig. ( 3 . ( 3 .P).9) where L and dR are given by Eqs. m ) have a common divisor or when ( n . the number of hexagons per unit cell N is obtained as a function of n and m in Eq. the calculation using the vector product is easier than using the inner product. where c h = (4. we get  dR = gCd(2m + 12.O)zigzag nanotube we have dR = d = 9. 3. Thus there are 2 N carbon atoms (or 2pZ orbitals) in each unit cell of the carbon nanotube.respectively.
3.. in which $ denotes the angle of rotation around the nanotube axis and T is the translation in the direction of T as specified by the symmetry vector R in Eq..3: Space group symmetry operation. 3. iR. R lies ..17.. ( p . The symmetry vector R is then defined as the site vector (shown by O R in Fig... q are integers) (3. R.3..* The C h component of R....4 Symmetry Vector: R We denote the carbon atom site vectors within the 1D nanotube unit cell by i times the vector R . Here we assume that between C h and T. rl then. . Note that N $ = 2~ and N r = M T .2) and (3. as shown in Fig..16). S Y M M E T R Y VECTOR: R 41 Fig..3. 3.. (3. R/r would have a smaller component in the direction of Ch than does R... using periodic boundary conditions. R = )$1(. 3.q ) . When i R goes out of the unit cell.8)... tHereafter we frequently use the relation between the inner product and vector product of a vector R with the two orthogonal vectors and TIto obtain: c h Ch. 3. and R is expressed in terms of a1 and a 2 as:  R =pal + qa2 ( p . 5Ch 2n 3.. The vector R is used for generating the coordinates of carbon atoms in the nanotube.18.2) having the smallest component in the direction of c h ..16..t z p ) (a1 x az).. respectively.. or c h ..11) *If p and q were to have a common divisor.3. It is convenient to express the R vector in terms of its projections on the orthogonal vectors c h and T of the nanotube unit cell..4.. that is. we shift it to lie within the unit cell through translation by an integral number of c h or T vectors. as in Fig. T Or T*R T  IChXRI L ’ where L and T are given by Eqs.. (3. which follow from Eqs. is proportional to the value of T x R given by:t T x R = (tiq . and 3..R L  IRxTI.. (3.. 3..10) where p and q do not have a common divisor except for unity.. N ) . where i is an integer (i = 1 .
The largest defined by Jishi et al. 3.(i = 1 N ) . §It is noted that the definition of R is different from that by Jishi et al. 0 < mp . so that 1. (3. (3. [49].8).12) satisfies Eq.9). we obtain another necessary condition arising from R being within the 1D unit cell: RT O < F = JC.( = L . The definition of NR.42 CHAPTER 3.nq _< N ) . we use the expression i ( t l q . (3. LT N using Eqs.14). To determine all N site location vectors iR. (3.6) and (3. (i = 1 . 0 <tlq tap 5 N. . and (3. N ) of the nanotube unit cell.mp. [49].Ch  This fact can be shown as follows: R given here is independent of whether or not d = 1.12) The solution of Eq. .15) Since the first condition of Eq.t z p ) = i for each i.9). If Q and N would have a common divisor. such that t l q . Here we use the notation possible value of Q corresponds to the for the symmetry vector R defined in Eq. to Further. using Eqs. (3.N J Rx T L T dRa2 2 f i L where w e made use of Eqs.14). uniquely generates N different atom sites in the unit cell of the nan0tube. we get the condition.12). and note that the maximum value of i ( t 1 q .n q < N .s + I .L . (3. Similarly. d g .2L2 f i a 2 d R . Therefore iR. We select p and q of R to form the smallest site vector (i = l). The second condition in Eq. (3. and will thus have different values for their projections along the direction of C h .nq (3. (3. (3.11 is an integer. (3. (3.12).x RJ.t z p ) becomes N . as explained below. (3. then ( N / d ) R would become a site equivalent to 0.  . (1 5 Q 5 N ) where the integers Q and N do not have a common divisor except for unity.13) (3.9). arises from the fact that R exists within the 1D nanotube unit cell. (3.5) do not have a common divisor except for unity.12) can be generalized t l q t z p = 9 . the vectors iR define N inequivalent sites in the nanotube unit cell. (0 < mp.t 2 p = 1. (3.12) for p and q is uniquely determined if t l and t z of Eq. it is not necessary to add this condition to the definition of R.8) and (3. Using the factt that the C h component of N R is always equal to IC. Eq.t z p ) on the right hand side of Eq.14) and from Eq.2). SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE where ( t l q .
SYMMETRY VECTOR: R 43 From a physical standpoint. ($1~)(0~0) = ( p . i.O). . . The integers ( p . we obtain the expressions for the length of T and the rotation angle $. and reflects the basic space group symmetry operation of a chiral nanotube. Taking the indicated vector products R X c h and R x T and using Eqs. The physical significance of the vector R is that the projection of R on the chiral vector c h gives the angle $I scaled by L / d t [see Eq. 3.12). where and where Msmpnq (3.2). denoted by R = ($17) and shown in Fig. then ( $ 1 ~ ) ~ IT)^. (3.9). Referring t o Fig. If ( $ 1 ~ ) is a symmetry operation for the nanotube. q ) .18) is an integer which denotes the number of T vectors that are necessary for reaching the distance from 0 to N R . 3.16) and using these definitions. where ( $ 1 ~ ) ~= E is the identity operation. (3. as follows: # .3. the vector €2 consists of a rotation around the nanotube axis by an angle $ combined with a translation T in the direction of T . where N is the number of hexagons in the 1D unit cell of the nanotube given by Eq.e. acts on an atom at (O.3. (3. ~ ($1~)~ are all distinct symmetry operations of an Abelian group denoted by CN.4. the symmetry operator ( $ 1 ~ ) ~brings the lattice point 0 to an equivalent lattice point C as shown in Fig.q ) denote the coordinates reached when the symmetry operation $ (1).. while the projection of R on T gives the translation T of the basic symmetry operation of the 1D space group of the carbon nanotube.4. (3. the rotation angle $ becomes 2 n f N .3. (3. (3. 3.9). and (3.2)].8).
4: The vector N R = cal surface.0) fi n (1.4.nq indicates how many T translations are necessary for going from 0 to N R in Fig. d is the greatest common divisor of n and m. 3.~) a) C h 182 62 194 20 2n 2n (1. T = ( t l .44 CHAPTER 3. t z ) .1) (1.8) in u n i t s of a = 4 a c . but separated from 0 by the vector MT.5) whose length T is given by Eq. m ) . which are given by Eq.05 7. (3. (3. (3.78 7.22).5) (9.47 7. is given by Eq.7). M = m p .2: Values for characterization parametersa) for selected carbon nanotubes labeled by the chiral vector c h = ( n . (2. the symmetry vector R . (3.c for a 2D graphene sheet).2 are the nanotube diameters dt in units of A. and the related quantity dR which is given by Eq. (3. d t and L = I c h l are the diameter and equatorial length of a carbon nanotube. which is given by Eq.1) (3.2) where M = 6. In the figure we show the case C h = (4. the greatest common divisor of n and m.l) (1.2 we list the characteristic parameters of carbon nanotubes specified by ( n . In Table 3.2) 1 28 10 18 (l.15 6.l) (1.1) (1.lO) (n. Also listed in Table 3. q ) is the symmetry vector defined in Eq.4) (873) 2 5 9 1 1 2 15 9 1 3 4.17) (5.9). (3.19) (1.O) (l. respectively. R = ( p . The translational vector.l) fi 6 5 9 a &in n 1 10 n n 1 30 3n n a 1 & 1 (10.5) fi (l.5) (7.56 &na/?r na/?r I/% 9 (4.2).including d. N is the number of hexagons in the 1D unit cell of the carbon nanotube.1) (1.2) (5.55 7.10).C given by Eq.1). Table 3.O) (1. m ) is given by Eq. ( $ 1 ~ ) ~is shown on the cylindri 3.2) (16. After rotating by 27r around the tube.4) 11 11 41 10 (1. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE Fig. C h d d~ dt (A) L/a 1 ' Tla N R M (4.72 13.m).n) (n. = ( n . the vector N R reaches a lattice point C equivalent to point 0. the lengths of the chiral vector L and of the translation repeat distance T of the 1D lattice (both in units of the lattice constant a = f i a c . the number N of hexagons per unit cell of the 1D nanotube.6) (14.1) n (3. the translation vector T .O) (6.
q ) .m = 3 [49. Eq. Thus we obtain L = f l u . where R. The basic symmetry operation R = $ (1).2. 3. In Appendix we show programs which generate the parameters and the coordinates for given ( n . As a final example.5 Unit Cells and Brillouin Zones The unit cell for a carbon nanotube in real space is given by the rectangle generated by the chiral vector Ch and the translational vector T. 3. we have d = dR = 9. Similarly the phonon dispersion relations will consist of 6 N branches resulting from a vector displacement of each carbon atom in the unit cell. yielding N = 10. N = 18.m = 3. we have dR = 3. which has T = (4. and M = 11 translations of the vector T. 3.2) nanotube shown in Fig. the lattice vectors in real and reciprocal *Since nanotubes are onedimensional materials.2 we refer to the c h = (4. 5). For this nanotube.4. and M = 5. K 2 is a reciprocal lattice vector. z along the nanotube axis and Expressions for the reciprocal lattice vectors K Kl in the circumferential direction* are obtained from the relation R. we have dR = 3 x 5 = 15. as is shown in OAB’B in Fig. which has half a C60 fullerene t o form its end caps.m ) values.16) and values for T = ( t l .2. of the chiral vectors c h .50]. so d = 1 . only gives discrete k values in the direction of c h . L = m a .3. T = m a . d = dR = 2 . there are no common divisors. r = T / 2 . K 1 . and Kj are. 3. (3.5. l).2. n and m. we consider the case of the nanotube c h = (7. All parameters defined in this section are summarized in Table 3. and for this nanotube. The values of all the parameters listed here depend on the two integers. can be obtained from Table 3. = T/2. 1c. Since there are 2N carbon atoms in this unit cell. we give the smallest observed zigzag nanotube (9. respectively. T = m u . = 2 ~ 1 1 0 r . For the armchair nanotube (5. As a second example.O)also having end caps consisting of c 6 0 hemispheres. we will have N pairs of bonding A and antibonding A* electronic energy bands.)I = 2x118. r = 6T/28 and M = 6 translations of the vector T to reach the point C in Fig. Kj = 2n&j. the highest common divisor is 5 .m = 0. To illustrate use of Table 3.4) which is a chiral nanotube for which n . and since n .5). t z ) and R = ( p . R = (1. UNIT CELLS A N D BRILLOUIN ZONES 45 and the integer M .3. and M = 9. N = 62. but since n . . N = 28.
= L/ . ( 0 I Iml 5 n ) L = l C h l = a J n 2 + m2 + nm dr .) & l a .n e d dR sin0 = + m2 + nm 272 + m case = . *) gcd(n.m) gcd(2n +:.nq)T .N N 2% 4J=y NR=C.c = 2.y coordinate a' C'h = nai + maz G ( n .3: Parameters for Carbon Nanotubes. 2dn3 + m2 + nm 2Jn2 dR = A m 0 I I4 I 6 fim 2n m ?r tane= + gcd(n.. m.m ) is not multiple of 3 d gcd(ti I t 2 ) I*) length of T N R 7 Number of hexagons in the nanotube unit cell. ($. y coordinate (y. t 2 = T= if ( n .c = 1.a2 bi. d R N and M are integer functions of these integers.49 A. ~~ R = pai t q a 2 3 9) t l q . (0 < mp .2m tn)b) T T translational vector T = tlai + t 2 a 2 ( t i . m ) .I) 2" x.MT 7 = .nq S ( m p . m ) denotes the greatest common divisor o f the two integers n and m. p. t 2 ) 2m+n 2n+m tl = .t z p = 1. b2 c h L dt x .m ) is multiple of 3d { 3d d if ( n .+MT ~ ~~ gcd(p. value a C .44 A a 1 . t z . .) & I a (2 1) ?. symmetry vector pitch of & I T 1= = 2(n2+dJ3 m +nm) dR dR dR R R $ rotation angle of number of ~~ M a) T in NR. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE Table 3. (TI. 4 ) = l b ) N) in radians ~~ In this table n.a) symbol a name length of unit vector unit vectors reciprocal lattice vectors chiral vector length of C h diameter chiral angle formula a = 4 3 a c . 11.46 CHAPTER 3. q are integers and d.
3.5. UNIT CELLS A N D BRILLOUIN ZONES
47
Fig. 3.5: The Brillouin zone of a carbon nanotube is represented by the line segment WW’ which is parallel to Kz. The vectors K1 and K2 are reciprocal lattice vectors corresponding to c h and T , respectively. The figure corresponds to C h = ( 4 , 2 ) , T = (4,5), N = 28, K1 = (5bl 462)/28, K2 = (4bl  2b2)/28. space. Then, using Eqs. ( 3 . 6 ) ,(3.9), and the relations
Ch.K1 = 2 C h . K2 = 0,
+
~ , T.Ki=O, T K2 = 2 ~ ,
(3.19)
we get expressions for K1 and K2:
 nbz), (3.20) N where 61 and b2 are the reciprocal lattice vectors of twodimensional graphite given by Eq. (2.23). In Fig. 3.5, we show the reciprocal lattice vectors, K1 and K z , for a C h = ( 4 , 2 ) chiral nanotube. The first Brillouin zone of this onedimensional material is the line segment WW’. Since N K 1 =  t 2 b l + tlb2 corresponds to a reciprocal lattice vector of twedimensional graphite, two wave vectors which differ by N K 1 are equivalent. Since t l and t 2 do not have a common divisor except for unity (see Sect. 3.3), none of the N  1 vectors p K l (where , u = 1, . ,N  1) are reciprocal lattice vectors of twodimensional graphite. Thus the N wave vectors p K 1 ( p = 0 , . . . , N1) give rise to N discrete Ic vectors, as indicated by the N = 28 parallel line segments in Fig. 3.5,which arise from the quantized wave vectors associated with the periodic boundary conditions on c h . The length of all the parallel lines in Fig. 3.5 is 2 n / T which is the length of the onedimensional first Brillouin zone. For the N discrete values of the k vectors, N onedimensional energy bands will appear (see Chapter 4 ) . Because of the translational symmetry of T , we have continuous wave vectors in the direction of K2 for a carbon nanotube of infinite length. However, for a nanotube of finite length L t , the spacing between wave vectors is 2 n l L t ; this spacing between wave vectors has been observed experimentally [51].
K2 =  ( d l
1 K1 = T (  t z b l
+ tlba),
1

48
CHAPTER 3. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE
Fig. 3.6: Symmetry of armchair (a,b) and zigzag (c,d) nanotubes with odd (a,c) and even (b,d) numbers of unit cells around the circumferential direction: (a) (5,5) armchair, (b) (6,6) armchair (c) (9,O) zigzag and (d) (10,O) zigzag nanotubes. Here we show the inversion centers i. Dot circles show carbon atoms in part of the neighboring unit cell.
3.6
Group Theory of Carbon Nanotubes
Here we discuss of the symmetry of carbon nanotubes which are classified in Sect. 3.1. The symmetry of the carbon nanotubes is used in the interpretation of the Raman spectra in Chapter lo.* Here we only consider the point group of the unit cell and we do not discuss the space group of the lattice. Since many of the the physical properties of solids depend on the dispersion relations near k = 0, the symmetry of the unit cell gives sufficient information for the interpretation of many physical properties. Hereafter we define the horizontal or vertical directions as those that are perpendicular or parallel to the nanotube axis, respectively. In the achiral nanotubes, armchair ( n ,n) and zigzag (n, 0) nanotubes (see Fig. 3.1 and Table 3.1) have (1) a vertical, nfold rotational axis, C,, and (2) n horizontal, %fold axes, nCz. Each horizontal C2 axis intersects the center of a CC bond or the center of a hexagon which are located at opposite sides of the nanotube from each other.+ Thus the achiral nanotubes belong to the point group D,. The D, group has a different group structure, depending on whether n is even ( n = 2j) or odd (n = 2 j l ) , as can be seen in the character tables, shown in Tables 3.4 and 3.5, respectively. The horizontal nC2 operations are either divided into the two
+
‘The reader who is not familiar with group theory may skip this section, which is necessary, however, to understand the group theory for the Raman spectra observed in singlewall carbon nanotubes. tSince we now have ‘up’ and ‘down’ directions in a nanotube, the center of the hexagon has only 2fold symmetry.
3.6. GROUP THEORY OF CARBON NANOTUBES
49
classes for groups with n = 2 j , or are in a single class in the case of n = 2 j + 1. In the case of n = 2 j , a Cz operation in one class bisects the angle between two adjacent C2 axes in the other class. Table 3.4: Character Table for Group D(zj)
A2 B1
B 2 El E z
1 1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2
1
1 1
2 cos q5j 2 cos 245
2cos(j
1 1 1 2~0~245 2cos4q$
...
... ...
. . I
...
1 1 1 2cos(j1)4, 2c0s2(jl)$~
1 1 1 0 0
.
*
1 1 1 0 0
.
E3i 2 (1)3'2
O)

2cos2(j

... 2cos(j  1)24, o
.
0
.
.
Where
d3 = 2 ~ / ( 2 j ) .
Table 3.5: Character table for point group D ( z j + l ) . R E 2C; a) 2 c $ , ... 2C$ (2j+i)C;
A1 1 1 1 A2 1 1 1 El 2 2cos4j 2cos24j E 2 2 2cos245j 2 ~ 0 ~ 4 4 ,
... ... ...
. . *
. . .
.. .
1 1 2cosj4j 2cos2j4j
1 1
0
0
a)
E, 2 2cosjdj 2cos2j$j Where 4j = Z?r/(Zj + 1).
... 2cosj2$j
0
Further it is clear from Fig. 3.6 that for both zigzag and armchair nanotubes, there is an inversion center for both even and odd number n achiral nanotubes. In Fig. 3.6 (b) and (d) we show part of the nearest unit cell by dotted lines and circles. We can choose the unit cell so that the inversion operation transforms the carbon atoms in the unit cell to the other carbon atoms within the same unit cell.$ The total symmetry of an achiral nanotube is expressed by the direct product of the groups D, 8 Ci, where the group Ci consists of the identity and inversion operators, E and i. Group theory tells us that the direct product
:In the case of the (6,6) armchair nanotube, the corresponding unit cell is such that half of the carbon atoms lie on the boundary of the unit cell. For the boundary atoms, we consider the half bails for operations. In this case, a symmetry operation from an upperhalf ball to a lowerhalf ball for the same atom is different from the identity operation.
50
CHAPTER 3. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE
D , 8 Ci depends on whether n is an even or an odd number, as follows: Dn
@
ci=
{
D,h when n = 2 j (even) Dnd when n = 2 j + 1 (odd)
(3.21)
’
If n in D , is even ( n = 2 j ) , there is a class of ?r (CZm,= Cz) rotations along Z m , rotation with the the principal C, axis. Since the product of the vertical C inversion operation gives a mirror operation on the ‘horizontal’ plane, which is perpendicular to the principal axis,
m x i = bh C,,
(3.22)
we have an element of uh in the direct product of Dn @ Ci, which corresponds to Dnh. The product of a horizontal C2 axis and the inversion center i gives a ‘vertical’ mirror plane nu,,which are the elements of Dnh. Here we take the horizontal Cz axes t o include the inversion center in the axes. If n in D , is odd (n = 2 j l), there is no C2 rotation along the principal C, axis. Thus in the direct product of D(zj+l)@ Cj = D(Zj+l)d,there is no U h , operation but there is rather a ‘diagonal’ vertical mirror plane between two horizontal C2 axes. The vertical mirror planes are given by the product of a horizontal Cz rotation and the inversion center i. These symmetry issues are clarified in Fig. 3.6. It is very confusing in the case of odd n numbers ( n = 2 j 1) that we can visually see the mirror symmetry on a horizontal plane, through the horizontal C  C bonds of the armchair tubes or through the centers of the vertical C  C bonds of the zigzag tubes. However, there is no U h operation in the D(2j+l)d group. This might raise a question about whether there might be higher symmetry in achiral carbon nanotubes. The answer to this question is no, so far as we consider the symmetry of the unit cell, since the uh operation for ( n = 2 j 1) is used only for the space group.§ Let us consider this question in the case of the armchair tube with n = 5 , ( 5 , 5 ) . There is 20 atoms in the unit cell as shown in Fig. 3.6 (a). When
+
+
+
§The following is the reason why we need these statements in the text. All horizontal lines which intersect the nanotube axis and the center of CC bond can be Cz axes, thus giving rise to 2n C 2 axes in the unit cell for achiral (n,n) or (n,O)nanotubes. We will select only n CZ axes of the 2n C 2 axes which can be elements of the point group. The other n Cz axes are operators for the space group of the lattice, because these other n Cz axes require a trmslation along the nanotube axis.
3.6. GROUP THEORY OF CARBON NANOTUBES
51
we keep the chemical bonds between two carbon atoms rigid, we have only 20 inequivalent operations that do not change the unit cell. Ten of the 20 operations are operations which change the A atom to an equivalent A atom, and the other 10 are operations which change the A atom into a B atom. Here A and B atoms denote inequivalent carbon atoms of the hexagonal network as shown in Fig. 2.3. Furthermore, 5 of the 10 A+A operations are given by proper C5 operations, and the other 5 require the inversion operation, which changes an A atom on one horizontal plane to an A atom on the other horizontal plane. When we consider the inversion center, as shown in Fig. 3.6 (a), the symmetry corresponds to the D5d point group. In D 5 d symmetry, we have 20 symmetry elements which are sufficient to describe 20 possible operations for the 20 atoms in the unit cell.
D5d
Ai, Azs El,
~2~
AiU Azu
E +1 +1 +2 +2 +1 +1
+2 +2
ZC5 r 1
+1 +1
ZC: +1
+1
5ci +1 1
0
i
2 s ; ’
2510
5ad
( h = 20)
(2“
+1
+1
r
+1
+1 r  1 r
r
1
+1 +1
7
7
+Z
+2 1 1
2 2
r
1
7
+1 +1
+1
+1
7
+1
1
0
fY’),z’
o
41
1
0 0
1
1
r
R,
s ( z + i y , z  iy) [ ( z + i y I 2 , ( z iy12]
o
1

ElU Ez,,
71
1 1 I+ +r
1
+1
0 0
+r
17
(r+iy,z  i y )
D5h
E
Zcs
+1 +1 r 1
2c:;!
+1 +1
7
5c;
+1 1
2i
E;
t1
+1
+:,
ah +1 +1
E:
A;’ A”
+2
E! E;
+1 +1 +2
+2
r +1 +1 r 1 r
71 $1
o o
+1
+z
+Z 1
1 2
255 +1 +I
7 7
1
2s; 50, + 1 ’ i1 $1 1
7
( h = 20)
zr+y2,z2
7  1
o o o o
Rz
( z , y ) , (zz2,yz2)
(z2y2,zy) z , z3,z(z2+y2)
+1
7
1
o
o
1 1 1r
1 1
1 +1
+r
1r
71
2
+r
(~,,~~),(zz,yz) [zyz,z(z2 y2)1

Let us show that D5h is not the proper point group symmetry of the ( 5 , 5 ) armchair nanotube. D5h is given by direct product 0 5 x c h , where Ch is the point group which has only the symmetry elements E and c h . In Tables 3.6
...8: The character table for the Abelian group CN for chiral nanotubes .. 1 (1)l €2 €*f €22 . N ) on a carbon atom. and N / d ) denotes any one of the three Abelian groups in ..*22 ..1 ) When the common divisor of n and m. . SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE and 3. .. Achiral nanotubes are the only nanotube types that have the vertical (or horizontal) mirror operation.1 ) } ..23) where C.. 3.. d in not unity. Thus D 5 h is not sufficient for describing the 20 distinct operations in the unit cell. d = 1.* €r2( N . we show the character tables of D 5 d and D 5 h l both having the same structure. ( p = N . As discussed in Sect. CN1 c1 c 2 CN E A B 1 1 1 1 1 1 €2 €*Z €4 €14 . d . . the nanotube is invariant under a pure rotation of c d around the nanotube axis. . However.rn) have no common divisor except for unity..    + Table 3. in the D 5 h point group there is no operation which changes an A atom in one horizontal plane to an A atom in the other plane. In this case the symmetry group of such a chiral vector is the direct product of the two Abelian gr'oUPs1 CN = c d 8CN/d (3. which does not belong to either the armchair or zigzag nanotube categories. *: €2 .. N ) form an Abelian group.. has no mirror plane.52 CHAPTER 3.7. and thus both symmetries seem to be applicable. . . the lattice belongs to a nonsymmorphic translational group which only has pure spiral symmetry operations. we either go over all N A atoms or all N B atoms in the unit cell by operating with Ri (i = 1. 1 1 €Nl €*(Nl) €2( N . Thus the operations Ri (i = 1..* . .. that are given by the symmetry vector R and repeated operations of R.. When n and m in a chiral vector (n. An Abelian group is a group in which all symmetry operations commute with each other. {. The chiral nanotube.. c e .4..
. whose characters for each operation are complex conjugates of each other. 3.8 we show the character table for C . 5.3. or onedimensional A or B irreducible representations.. Because of the sensitivity of the electronic. All characters in this table are N t h roots of unity. showing singlewall carbon nanotubes in a triangular lattice. as described by the integers ( $ 2 . 3.. E .3). These techniques are especially useful for the structural characterization of the nanotubes. 8). In Table 3.. each having p elements.8).7.7) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) (see Fig. the structural characterization of carbon nanotubes on which physical measurements are made is very important. 3. and the low atomic number 2 of carbon which gives rise to low cross sections for xrays and electrons. The irreducible representations are either twodimensional En representations. Each bundle in the micrograph consists of about 20 aligned singlewall nanotubes which are selforganized into a triangular lattice [52]. and other physical properties of carbon nanotubes to their geometrical structure.7 Experimental evidence for nanotube structure The existence of singlewall carbon nanotubes has been confirmed experimentally through high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (see Fig. the two more commonly used conventional structural characterization probes.4 nm and an average intertube distance of 1. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR NANOTUBE STRUCTURE 53 Fig.7: High resolution TEM micrograph of the top view of one bundle of singlewall nanotubes from the collarette of the cathode of a carbon arc apparatus (see Sect. 3. vibrational. C. with a tube diameter of 1. m > or their characteristic parameters (d.7 nm. .23. The nanotube bundle is bent in such a way that it is seen edgeon in the image plane. Eq. for chiral nanotubes. Structura~ chara~terizati~ m ne ~ u r e m e n t s of dt and 6 are d i ~ c u to ~ tmake because of the small physical size of the nanotubes.. C2. .0 ' " ' and C P = E . 3.
54 CHAPTER 3. The singlewall nanotubes shown in Fig. 3. and the nanotubes were collected from a collarette located around the cathode electrode [52].2 K. resulting in a crosssectionlike view. Similar arrays of nanotube bundles were first reported using the laser vaporization technique [55].46 ti 'L'hc lattice sites show that this nanotubc is not a zigzag nanotube.7 nrn [52. held together by weak intertube interactions. there is considerable difficulty associated with the manipulation of individual singlewall nanotubes. Some progress has been made in developing sensitive tools for the structural characterization of nanotubes. 3. The dark spots indicate thc hexagons which are spaced by 2. Thc periodic packing of these nanotubes is confirmed by electron diffraction patterns obtained from an assembly of such nanotube bundles. showing individual singlewall nanotubes. the tube ends can be imaged in a transmissio~electron microscope. and progress has also been made with the manipulation of individual nanotubes 1531.2 at% Ni catalyst contained in the anode.7 shows the tendency for the singlewall nanotubes t o grow in bundles containing 1050 aligned nanotubes.8: Atomic resolution STM topographic image of a singlewall nanotube on an Au (111) substrate at 4. indicating that it could be either an armchair (chiral angle 30') or a general chiral nanot ubc. it has been possible to obtain good TEM measurements of lattice . The bundles typically are 520 nm in diameter and exhibit a triangular lattice with an intertube distance of 1. The TEM micrograph of Fig. By taking precautions to use low electron beam currents. Since the bundles of nanotubes are frequently bent. The very weak electron scattering from nm diameter carbon nanotubes (atomic number 2 = 6) and their high susceptibility to damage by the 100200 keV electron beam of the TEM instrument make it difficult to carry out electron diffraction studies.55]. particularly using the STM and TEM techniques. 3.7 were grown in an electric arc discharge apparatus using a 1at% Y and 4. so that some portions of the nanotubes are oriented parallel to the electron beam. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE Fig. Image size is 51 x 26 A' [54]. In addition.
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR NANOTUBE STRUCTURE 55 Electron beam Fig.59621.e.3.. with fewer structural defects. These computer simulations are based on an analysis carried out by Cochran. chiral angle of an individual nanotube) as is. 3. done with the LEED technique in surface science. TEM experiments on singlewall (and even double wall) nanotubes remain an experimental challenge. Nevertheless. we see.9: This sketch indicates how the interference pattern for the electron beam that is incident radially on the planes with the H orientation is used t o determine the chiral angle 0 . Whereas nanotubes with diameters > 2 nm tend to show many structural defects. for example. obtained when the lattice planes are in the orientation V with respect to the electron beam and the nanotube shells. while the V geometry can be used to determine the intertube spacing in the case of multiwall nanotubes. 3. in principle. Transmission electron microscopy has been widely used to characterize the many defect structures that have been observed in multiwall nanotubes [57. m ) nanotube [63]. However. Referring t o Fig. very small diameter nanotubes tend t o be more perfect.7. The interference pattern. determines the intershell distances in the case of multiwall carbon nanotubes [19]. how the electron diffraction techniques can be used in the H geometry to measure the orientation (i. fringe images and electron diffraction patterns on singlewall nanotubes [56] and multiwall nanotubes [57]. Crick and Vand in 1952 [64] in connection with their elucidation of the structure of the .9. which is the angle between the nanotube axis and the nearest zigzag axis. TEM evidence has been presented to show that the walls of singlewall nanotubes have the local structure of a graphene sheet [58]. The interpretation of TEM electron diffraction patterns on singlewall carbon nanotubes should be greatly aided by the use of computer simulations which give the diffraction pattern expected for an ( n .
.10: Left: Atomic structure of the (17. rn) for the atomic sites within the 1D unit cell..10 for a (17.. .56 CHAPTER 3.. 3..... .... . . the experimentalist would have to compare the observed patterns to available simulations..... By calculating the structure factor for all the atoms in the 1D unit cell of a general singlewall nanotube. . DNA molecule from Xray diffraction experiments.. which was made at 4... The tube diameter is continuously measured by the STM technique in terms .. At present. At present..2 K [54].. 299. Right: Corresponding electrondiffraction pattern in which the most intense features appear the darkest.  . IJO ...8. where 28 is the scattering angle (see list of numbers) and 4 = 0 is at the center of the pattern.. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE Fig. .... . The dimensions of the diffraction pattern scale linearly with sinB. Measurements of the crosssectional STM profile shows direct evidence for the curved surface of the nanotube [66].3) singlewall carbon nanotube. .. . An example of an STM to~ographic pattern of a singlewall carbon nanotube ~1 nm in diameter is shown in Fig.. the computer simulation [63] is not yet able to carry out the inverse process of converting an observed diffraction pattern into a real space structure ( n .... the expected diffraction spots (and streaks) and their relative intensities are found 1631. a@ . 3. ..3) carbon nanotube projected on a plane normal to the incident wave vector. and such experiments can be done successfully on singlewall nanotubes...... such as the diffraction pattern shown in Fig.. . .. .. 3... . . especially at low temperature. Rather detailed information on the site location and the periodic arrangement of the carbon atoms within the nanotube is found from atomic resolution STM micrographs. The vertical direction is parallel to the nanotube axis ~31.. Combined STM measurements to monitor dl and 4 and STS (scanning tunneling spectroscopy) t o give the 1D density of states provides a powerful technique for studying the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes [65].
6 0.95A.. ’:.8). .2 0. . Recent experimental studies of the lattice structure of arrays of singlewall carbon nanot.68]. These calculation considered the stabilization of a nanotube array of (6. .0 1. Curve c show analysis of the form factor used t o obtain the lattice constant of the triangular lattice [55]. It is expected that improvements in the techniques for characterizing and manipulating carbon nanotubes will be forthcoming and that these techniques will enhance our general capabilities for the characterization of carbon nanotubes.0 0.*.11: XRD profile of SWNT material prepared by the laser vaporization method [55]..6 1..6) nanotubes.8 2.ubes [55] using Xray diffraction techniques . Vertical tick marks on curve b are the calculated Bragg positions.* ... With the STM it is also been possible to measure the nearest neighbor carbon distance and to show that its value is essentially the same as that for graphite (1.9A.I . ..8 1. The possibility of forming arrays of singlewall carbon nanotubes. . . 3. p0. . with a lattice constant of 16. It is further expected that carbon nanotubes will be widely used for the manipulation of nanostructures more generally because of their excellent mechanical properties (see Chapter 11). Fig. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR NANOTUBE STRUCTURE 57 4 I * .1.. .7.2. while the chiral angle determination can be made from the site positions of the carbon atoms relative to the nanotube axis (see Fig. 3..68]. of the height difference between a substrate and the maximum height of the nanotube relative t o the substrate.4 1. ..42A) [66]. weakly interacting through a van der Waals interaction. has been treated theoretically [67.3. and showed the most stable configuration to be that of a triangular lattice with the space group PG/mcc where the nearestneighbor carbon atoms on adjacent nanotubes are oriented in the ABAB stacking arrangement of 3D graphite [67.. Datafitted background (curve a) compared with a model profile (curve b) that assumes a 2D triangular lattice of uniformly charged cylinders.. and a circle radius 6.0 0 (k’) ‘L _ .4 0.
58
CHAPTER 3. SINGLEWALL CARBON NANOTUBE
confirm that the 3D structure is that of a triangular lattice with alattice constant of 17A for nanotubes of 1 . 3 8 f 0 . 0 2 nm diameters and an intertube separation of 0.315 nm (see Fig. 3.11). Variation in the mean nanotube diameter and the diameter distribution can be achieved by using different catalysts and growth conditions (see Chapter 5). Many of the early quantitative experiments relevant t o singlewall nanotubes have thus far been carried out on nanotube arrays that were prepared in the same way as the material yielding the diffraction pattern of Fig. 3.11.
CHAPTER 4.
Electronic Structure of SingleWall Nanotubea
Using the definition of the structure of carbon nanotubes discussed in Chapter 3, the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes is derived by a simple tightbinding calculation for the nelectrons of carbon atoms. Of special interest is the prediction that the calculated electronic structure of a carbon nanotube can be either metallic or semiconducting, depending on its diameter and chirality. This onedimensional metal is stable under the socalled Peierls instability. Th e energy gap for a semiconductor nanotube, which is inversely proportional t o its diameters, is directly observed by scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.
4.1
Oneelectron dispersion relations
4.1.1 ZoneFolding of Energy Dispersion Relations
The electronic structure of a singlewall nanotube can be obtained simply from that of twodimensional graphite. By using periodic boundary conditions in the circumferential direction denoted by the chiral vector Ch, the wave vector associated with the Ch direction becomes quantized, while the wave vector associated with the direction of the translational vector T (or along the nanotube axis) remains continuous for a nanotube of infinite length.* Thus the energy bands consist of a set of onedimensional energy dispersion relations which are cross sections of those for twodimensional graphite (see Fig. 2.4). When the energy dispersion relations of twodimensional graphite, EgaD(k) [see Eqs. (2.27) and/or (2.29)] at line segments shifted from WW’ by pK1 ( p =
*For real carbon nanotubes, since the length of a nanotube ( L c N )is on the order of pm, discrete k vectors (Ak = 2 7 ~ / L c can ~ ) be expected. In low temperature transport experiments [51], this discreteness becomes important. See further details in Sect. 8.2.
59
60
CHAPTER 4. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF NANOTUBES
K ‘
L
k.
Fig. 4.1: The condition for metallic energy bands: if the ratio of the length of the vector Y K to that of K1 is an integer, metallic energy bands are obtained.

, N  1) are folded so that the wave vectors parallel to Kz coincide with WW’ as shown in Fig:3.5, N pairs of 1D energy dispersion relations E,(lc) are obtained, where N is given by Eq. (3.9). These 1D energy dispersion relations are given by
O,...
corresponding to the energy dispersion relations of a singlewall carbon nanotube. The N pairs of energy dispersion curves given by Eq. (4.1) correspond to the cross sections of the twodimensional energy dispersion surface shown in Fig. 2.4, where cuts are made on the lines of lcKz/lK21 pK1. If for a particular ( n , m ) nanotube, the cutting line passes through a K point of the 2D Brillouin zone (Fig. 2.3), where the ?r and ?r* energy bands of twodimensional graphite are degenerate by symmetry, the onedimensional energy bands have a zero energy gap. Further, as will be shown in Sect. 4.2, the density of states at the Fermi level has a finite value for these carbon nanotubes, and they therefore are metallic. If, however, the cutting line does not pass through a I( point, then the carbon nanotube is expected to show semiconducting behavior, with a finite energy gap between the valence and conduction bands. The condition for obtaining a metallic energy band is that the ratio of the length of the vector Y K to that of K1 in Fig. 4.1 is an integerj Since the vector
+
t
tThere are two inequivalent K and K’ points in the Brillouin zone of graphite as is shown in Fig. 4.1 and thus the metallic condition can also be obtained in terms of A”. However, the results in that case are identical to the case specified by Y K .
4.1, ONEELECTRON DISPERSION RELATIONS
61
0 : metal 0 : semiconductor
...
Fig. 4.2: The carbon nanotubes ( n , m ) that are metallic and semiconducting, respectively, are denoted by open a.nd solid circles on the map of chiral vectors ( n ,m).
+
Y K is given by
yri=
*
2n+m K 1 3
I
(4.2)
the condition for metallic nanotubes is that (2n 4 rn) or equivalently ( n  m) is a multiple of 3.i In particular, the armchair nanotubes denoted by (n,n)are always metallic, and the zigzag nanotubes (n,O) are only metallic when n is a multiple of 3. In Fig. 4.2, we show which carbon nanotubes are metallic and which are semiconducting, denoted by open and solid circles, respectively, From Fig. 4.2, it follows that approximately one third of the carbon nanotubes are metallic and the other two thirds are semicondu~ting.
4.1.2
Energy Dispersion of Armchair and Zigzag Nanotubes
To obtain explicit expressions for the dispersion relations, the simplest cases to
consider are the nanotubes having the highest symmetry. Referring to Fig. 4.3, we see the unit cells and Brillouin zones for the highly symmetric (achiral) nanotubes, namely for (a) an armchair nanotube and (b) a zigzag nanotube. The appropriate periodic boundary conditions used to obtain the energy n) armchair nanotube define the small number of allowed eigenvalues for the (a, wave vectors km,g in the circumferential direction
n&t,,,a
= 2xq,
(g = I,. . . , 2 n ) .
(4.3)
Substitution of the discrete allowed values for k,,, given by
!Since 3% is a multiple of 3, the remainders of (2n
Eq. (4.3) into
+ m ) / 3 and (n m ) / 3 are identical.
Fig. 4.3: Part of the unit cell and extended Brillouin zone of (a) armchair and (b) zigzag carbon nanotubes. a i and bi are unit vectors and reciprocal lattice vectors of twodim~nsiona1 graphite [see Eqs. (2.22) and (2.23) and Fig. 2.31, respectively. In the figure, the translationai vector T [Eq. (3.5)] and the eorresponding reciprocal lattice vector Kz [Eq. (3.20)] of the nanotube are shown.
Eq. (2.29) yields the energy dispersion relations E:(L) for the armchair nanotube, Ch = ( n , n ) [69],
(T
< kU < T ) ,
(4
= 1,.. .,272.)
in which the superscript a refers to armchair and k is a onedimensional vector in t o the the direction of the vector K2 I= (bl  bz)/Z. This direction co~responds I? t o K point vector in the twodimensional Brillouin zone of graphite* (see the top of Fig. 4.3). The resulting calculated 1D dispersion relations E:(E) for the (5,5) armchair nanotube are shown in Fig. 4.4(a), where we see six dispersion relations for the conduction bandst and an equal number for the valence bands. In each case, two bands are non~egenerate labeled by “a” and the four labeled by “e” are doubly degenerate, leading to 10 levels in each case, consistent with the 10 hexagons around the circumference of the (5,5) nanotube. For all armchair nanotubes, the energy bands show a farge degeneracy a t the zone boundary, where ka = T , so that Eq. (2.29) becomes
*Note that K z vector is not a reciprocal lattice vector of 2D graphite. tThe Fermi energy corresponds to Eft = 0. The upper half of Fig. 4.4 corresponds to the unoccupied conduction bands.
5 ) . independent of zone folding and independent of a. The valence and conduction bands in Fig. The abands are nondegenerate and the ebands are doubly degenerate at a general kpoint [70]. Because of the degeneracy point between the valence and conduction bands tThe large degeneracy comes from the equienergy lines of the energy bands of 2D graphite which connect the two nearest M points (See Fig.) for the 2D graphene sheet. a large degeneracy of Eq.4). we have dispersionless energy bands with an energy of ft. 4. 4.3 2 3 k k k Fig. The latter case corresponds to zigzag nanotubes ( n . 2. When Kz is parallel to the equienergy line. respectively.4) and (4.3(a) for the real space lattice. (4. depending on whether there are even or odd numbers of bands n at the I? point ( k = 0). 4.5) occurs. (See Eqs. (4. The crossing takes place at the Fermi level and the energy bands are symmetric for f l c values. (b) zigzag (9. the two carbon atoms on the same sublattice of a graphene sheet are symmetrically equivalent. which causes a degeneracy of the energy bands at the boundary of the Brillouin zone. X points for armchair and zigzag nanotubes correspond t o k = f n / a and k = f n / f i a .63 3 3 2 2 1 2 1 I 0 1 0 1 1 2 3 2 .4: Onedimensional energy dispersion relations for (a) armchair ( 5 .* Although there are four carbon atoms in the unit cell of Fig.0). O ) with an even number of n. When is perpendicular to the equienergy line. and (c) zigzag (l0.7).O) carbon nanotubes labeled by the irreducible representations of the point group Dnd or Dnh. x z .4(a) for the armchair n a n o t u b ~ cross at a k point that is two thirds of the distance from k = 0 to the zone boundary at k = n / a .
The symbols u and g in Fig. when n is not . 4. show that dl ( n . Similar calculations. .. respectively.4(b) and (c). the energy gap at k = 0 becomes zero. and (4.O) nanotube indeed shows an energy gap.O) nanotube.4) and the integers ( 1 . For a general (n. Dispersionless energy bands occur at q / n = 112 in Eq.3).1) are doubly degenerate. there is a dispersionless energy band a t E / t = f l . when n is a multiple of 3. 5 ) armchair nanotube is thus a zerogap semiconductor which will exhibit metallic conduction a t finite temperatures.a t the band crossing.0) zigzag nanotube Eq(L)can be obtained likewise from Eq.O) zigzag nanotube. . . because only infinitesimal excitations are needed to excite carriers into the conduction band. however. all armchair nanotubes are expected to exhibit metallic conduction. (2.4).4) with 2n conduction and 2n valence bands. which gives a singular density of states at that energy. Especially in the case of the (10.n ) armchair nanotubes yield 4n energy subbands analogoiis to Eq.71761. 4.29).. Thus. and of these 2n bands.O) zigzag nanotubes are shown in Figs. two are nondegenerate and ( n .O) nanotube at k = 0. 2 . where the bands cross the Fermi level. (4. (4. the ( 5 . whereas the (10.O) zigzag nanotube (denoted by the superscript z ) The resulting calculated 1D dispersion relations Eg((1)for the (9.4(a) indicate the even and odd behavior of these states regarding inversion symmetry. (2. similar to the behavior of 2D graphene sheets [69.O) and (10. (4. .a = 2nq. as given by Eqs.2n). All ( n .29) by writing the periodic boundary condition on L.. (q = 1. which gives E ( n / a ) = ft.) are used to distinguish energy bands with the same symmetry from one another. The energy bands for the C h = ( a .6) to yield the 10 dispersion relations for the 4n states for the (n. (4. (4... There is no energy gap for the (9. the f signs refer to the corresponding signs in Eq.41. as: nk. n ) armchair nanotubes have a band degeneracy between the highest valence band and the lowest conduction band at L = f2a/(3a).
6) and (7. Ch = ( n . an energy gap opens at k = 0.5 and 4. Since the highest degeneracy of irreducible representations of the group of the wave vector at k = 0 is two. since d~ = d. The three cases are summarized in Table 4. dispersionless energy bands appear. As is pointed out in Sect. respectively. respectively. Since 91 .7) and m is one of the integers of the chiral vector. (3. which is given by where IK. m ) . Since the metallic condition Eq.1.1 is folded into the Y point. the Y point becomes the I ' point since the K2vector becomes a reciprocal lattice vector in this case. The same k values also denote the positions of the energy gaps (incfuding zero energy gaps) for the general case of chiral tubes.m is a multiple of 3 in the both cases. respectively. Further when m / d ~ is an integer.1. the point K in Fig. The situation of metal1 in Table 4. these two chiral nanotubes are metallic. and d is the highest common divisor of n and m.1) shows that. In this case. 3. Here d is the highest common divisor of n and m in Ch = ( n . and that these kvalues are also the locations of the band gaps for the semiconducting zigzag nanotubes. Dnd and D n h .1 corresponds to this case.m is a multiple of 3.6. the crossing of the four energy bands a t k = 0 in the case of the (9. the band degeneracy at the Fermi level . depending on: (1) whether or not n .4) chiral nanotubes. 4.6. 4. d R is given by Eq. 4.5 and 4. but not in the case when n is an odd number.6) nanotube in Fig.m). (4. occur for odd and even numbers of n.6. the L values a t the Fermi level band crossings are at k = 0 and f2n/3T for Figs. 4. Further.l is along the nanotube axis. A more detailed analysis of the E ( k ) relations for chiral nanotubes which is generally given by Eq. and (2) whether or not nm is multiple of 3 4 whenever n. 4 5 is an accidental degeneracy. The cl~sification in this table can be understood in terms of the length rY shown in Fig. respectively. when n is an even number. we show dispersion relations for the (9.1. (4.78].a multiple of 3.3 Dispersion of chiral ~ a ~ o ~ ~ b ~ s It should be noted that the L values for the band degeneracies for metallic nanotubes are L = &2n/3T or Ic = 0 for armchair or zigzag nanotubes.m is a multiple of 3. In Figs. the nanotubes can be classified into three general categories [77. different symmetries. Further.2) is satisfied in these cases. 4.
n) are in the category metal2. This corresponds t o the case of metal2 and the degeneracy occurs at k = f2n/3T. but rather m / d R = vf 113. a value of It1 = 2.13 eV.80] must be considered for the case of orbitally degenerate bands. (') Degeneracy at the Fermi energy.1 Metal2 gcd(n . (3. ('1 d R is given by Eq. When dR = 3d.7 eV has been estimated by the Delft group .1:Classification of solid state properties of nanotubes. 4 at k = O . Properties Semiconductor Metal.66 CHAPTER 4. then m / d R is not an integer. (v is an integer). it follows that the density of states per unit length along the nanotube axis is a constant given by where u is the lattice constant of the graphene layer and It1 is the nearestneighbor CC tight binding overlap energy usually denoted by yo in the graphite literature [78].5 eV is obtained for this overlap energy in the 2D case when the asymmetry in the bonding and antibonding states is averaged out. and this 2D value has been found to yield good agreement with first principles calculations [Sl]. Since the inequivalent K and Ii" points are folded into different points in the Brillouin zone.rn. Armchair nanotubes (n. Metallic zigzag nanotubes. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF NANOTUBES Table 4. When the spin of the electron is included.7). the effect of spinorbit interaction in carbon [79.* ~ *While the value of yo for 3D graphite is 3.m)  d 3d Degeneracy(") 0 (Energy gap oc l/dt).3 ) ( a ) 1 3 3 dg) d C h = (n. gcd denotes the greatest common divisor. (a) occurs at k = 0 and involves a 4fold accidental band degeneracy.Experimentally the value It1 = 2. the fourfold degeneracy is accidental. Energy gap For all metallic nanotubes. always fall into the category of metal1.2 Density of States. as discussed above. ( d ) 2 at k = rt2n/3T. 0). denoted by ( 3 q . Since group theory allows only one and twodimensional irreducible representations. 4. the & signs occur in both cases for the dispersion relations near k = f2n/3T. independent of their diameter and chirality.
0 0.5 1.G) is d = 3. ENERGY GAP 1. G ) for values of the energy between t and t . m ) = (7.allic 1D chiral nanotube ( n . and the value of d R is d R = 3. 0 Fig.rn) = (9. The Fermi level is at E = 0.6: Plot of the tight binding energy bands E( k) for the met.o 0.5: Plot of the energy bands E ( k ) for the metallic 1D nanotube ( n . [SZ] in fitting S T M density of states data. 4. 4.5 1 .5 0 .5 0. The largest common divisor of (9. The general behavior of the four energy bands intersecting at k = 0 is typical of the case where d R = d (Metal 1) [77].2. T h i s S T M value may be about the best experjment~ . respectively. in dimensionless units E(k)/til. DENSITY OF STATES. The values of d and d~ are d = 1 and d R = 3.0 kT/rc 0.4) for values of the energy between t and t in dimensionle~units E(k)/ltf. 0 0.o 1. kT/n Fig. The general behavior of the two band degeneracies at Ic 2 f(2/3)(n/T) is typical of the case where dR = 3d (Metal 2)[77].4.
0 1. shows value we have €or Jtl 80 far. Of particular interest is the density of states near the Fermi level EF located a t E = 0. Of particular interest has been the energy dependence of the nanotube density of states.0 1.0) zigzag n a n ~ t u b ~ (a) : the (9.0 2. Another important result.0 1. 80'04.lO) nanotube.0 EnergYlYo Fig.0 0. l .0 0 Energy40 7 T r 3. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF NANOTUBES .0 2. these data have been extensively used for the analysis of various experimental data.= L 1. J . Of equal interest are the singularities in the 1D density of states corresponding to extrema in the E ( k ) relations.0 3. .7 which compares the density of states for metallic (9. The comparison between the 1D density of states for the nanotubes and the 2D density of states for a graphene layer is included in the figure. l . 2. 4. . We also show in Fig.O) nanotube which has metallic behavior.= % 0. .O) nanotube which has semiconducting behavior.O) and semiconducting (l0.68 CHAPTER 4.0 3. 4. (b) the (10.0 5 m C . % '.O) zigzag nanotubes. This density of states has a value of zero for semiconducting nanotubes.0 P 0.0 2. i .7: Electronic 1 D density of states per unit cell of a 2D graphene sheet for two ( n .8 the 1D density of states for a (10. which is within 15% of the 3D value.0 1. .0 3. . Also shown in the figure is the density of states for the 2D graphene sheet [76].5 5 cn r . but is nonzero (and small) for metallic nanotubes. pertaining to semiconducting nanotubes. 4.0 1 i l . as shown in Fig.
that their energy gap depends upon the reciprocal nanotube diameter dr. Furthermore.10) and (11111) armchair nanotubes.10) suggests that the band gap exceeds thermal energy at room temperature for nanotube diameters dt 5 140 A. ENERGY GAP 69 2 0 2 Energy [eV] Fig. 4. 4. (4. 2tl + c1 and v2 t c2 as indicted for the case of the (8. l / d t is shown in Fig.9 are important for testing the 1D model for the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes. such as the electrical ~ o ~ d u c t i v of ~ tn ya n o t u ~ e will ~ . A plot of Es vs. certain electronic proper tie^. be d o ~ i n a t e d by the contributions from the conducting constituents. Using a value of It1 = 2. by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) Density of states m e ~ u r e m e n t s provide a powerful tool for probing the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes . since about one third of the cylinders of a multiwall nanotube are conducting..8) nanotube. where acc = a/& is the nearestneighbor CC distance on a graphene sheet.DENSITY OF STATES. The energies (in eV) for various optical transitions are indicated on the figure [83].5 eV.10) ~ndependent of the chiral angle of the semiconducting nanotube. which are characte~izedonly with regard to nanotube diameter without regard to their chiral angles.8: Electronic density of states (DOS) calculated in a tight binding model for (V). (4. because this result allows measurements to be made on individual semiconducting nanotubes. Wavevector conserving optical transitions can occur between mirror image spikes.(9191. and the nonconducting constituents will play almost no role. Eq. (10. i. The results in Fig. as given by the local density functional calculation [Sl].e.9 for the graphite overlap integral taken as It1 = 3. 4.13 eV.
It is noted that the relationship be [G5. chiral carbon nanotube EW a function of 100 Ah.7) have been observed on metallic and semiconducting nanotubes whose diameters and chiral angIes were determined by operating the instrument in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) mode 1821. Resonances in the density of states (see Fig. more wave vectors become allowed for the circumferential direction. Such measurements confirm that some nanotubes (about 113) are conducting.0' ' ' t .3 Effects of Peierls distortion and nanotube curvature energy bands are generally unstable under a Peierls distortion. i ' i .82]. the nanotubes become more twodimensional.9: The energy gap Eg scaled by It[ for a semiconducting. Detailed discussion is presented in Sect. 4. 4.82].3. How~ e t ~ l1D i c ever. I .71]. Thus if we consider finite temperatures or fluctuation effects. ' ' " t Fig.9) [G5. where dt is the nanotube diameter in and a value of It1 = 2. b . and some (about 213) are semiconducting (see Fig. Thus the main 1D q u a n t u ~ features predicted theoreticalIy for carbon nanotubes have now been observed experimentally. so that the Peierls gap quickly approaches the zeroenergy gap of 2D graphite [G9. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF NANOTUBES .2). As the nanotube diameter increases. 41 t CHAPTER 4 . M e ~ u r e m e n t s on semiconducting nanotubes confirm that the band gap is proportional to I/& (see Fig. The STS results confirm the theoretical model that the energy between the lowestlying resonance in the conduction band and the highestlying resonance in the valence band is smaller for semiconducting nanotubes and larger for metallic nanotubes. 0 0 9 & 0. 4.2 dfw 80 ' 0.5 eV is taken for the transfer integral. the Peierls energy gap obtained for the metallic nanotubes is found to be greatly suppressed by increasing the nanotube diameter. but zero for semiconducting nanotubes [82]. 4.ll.70 0. and .ldt. it is believed that such a small Peierls gap can be neglected. and that the density of states at the Fermi level is nonzero for metallic nanotubes.6 0 . 4.
VJpa = 4. instead of the single tight binding parameter Vppr= 2. which has been used to describe carbon nanotubes when their curvature is neglected. . In armchair nanotubes.. that one third of the nanotubes are metallic and two thirds are semiconducting. The inclusion of curvature effects complicates the calculation considerably. except for armchair nanotubes. However. by introducing four tight binding parameters.90] show that the large curvature of small singlewall carbon nanotubes leads to a hybridization of u* and 7r* orbitals.86]. It should be mentioned that for both the armchair and zigzag nanotubes. has a symmetry basis which is discussed in *When we see unfolded energy bands of carbon nanotubes in the t w ~ ~ m e n s i o Brillouin n~ ' point by zone of graphite. since the shift of the k vector at the Fermi energy by the curvature effect is along the onedimensional Brillouin zone. Some first principles calculations for the electronic structure have been carried out for carbon nanotubes [72.77 eV.) Thus no interaction or band splitting would be expected at E F . since the hybridieation effect does not change the equivalence between the A and B atoms.4. yielding results in substantial agreement with the simple tight binding results which are described in this section. and VpPD = 4.3 P ~~ I S ~ T ~~ AND ~ T CURVATURE ~ ~ O ~S 71 as illustrated in Fig. Thus.7 nm). resulting in a small energy gap (on the order of meV) for nanotubes with small diameters.. the band crossings at EF are between energy bands of different symmetry. the degeneracy o f the conduction and taking account of the hybridi~tion valence bands is not affected by the hybridization. the range that has been observed experimentally. = 4.* The effect of this hybridization is large for nanotubes of diameter less than that of CSO but is not so great for nanotubes in the range (dt > 0.p theory near the IC point [84]. we get a metallic condition for armchair nanotubes even when curvature effects are taken into account.notube curvature is considered the bands that cross will have different symmetries. 4.87891. V.33 eV. the degenerate point at the K point moves away from the A effect.9. Tightbinding calculations which consider 2s electrons 1731 and other local density approximation (LDA) calculations [87. This degeneracy comes from the symmetry that A and 3 atoms are equivalent to each other in the unit cell of graphite.81.37 eV [85. this symmetry holds. From the figure we clearly see that the energy gap is inversely proportional to the diameter. (Even when na. the semiconducting band gap decreases. The effect of curvature of the carbon nanotubes has been considered within the tight binding approximation [81]. The dependence of Eg on d t l is obtained analytically from k: . The simple tight binding result for singlewall nanotubes which considers only x orbitals. with values given by VppT = 2.76 eV.5 eV.
However. so that BN nanotubes on either the inside or outside of carbon nanotubes can be used to provide insulation to carbon nanotubes.5 eV. compared with carbon nanotubes.72 CHAPTER 4 . hence suggesting that all very smalldiameter nanotubes should be metallic. There are several physical processes that tend to modify these simple considerations. and the band gap of crystalline BN is of about the same magnitude throughout the Brillouin zone. a relatively large energy gap is expected. Thus no quantum effects as are observed in carbon nanotubes are expected for B N nanotubes. Electron energy loss spectroscopy studies on individual nanotubes confirmed the BN stoichiometry [92. The B N nanotubes are produced in a carbonfree plasma discharge between a BNpacked tungsten rod and a cooled copper electrode. These calculations for the electronic structure of BN nanotubes stimulated experimental work.1.1. A first principles LDA calculation [go] has determined that for very smalldiameter nanotubes the curvature of the graphene sheet results in band shifts which move their band edges into the semiconducting energy gap. and the results suggest that BN nanotubes should be stable and should have a band gap of 5. independent of diameter [90.91].93]. leading to the successful synthesis of pure BN multiwall nanotubes [92]. 4. with inner diameters of 13 nm and lengths up to 200 nm. . A contrary conclusion could be reached if a Peierls distortion of the 1D conductor produced an energy gap at the Fermi level. LDAbased calculations have also been carried out for BN nanotubes. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF NANOTUBES Sect.
with primary emphasis on singlewall nanotubes. and the doping of carbon nanotubes with alkali metals. offered major new opportunities for quantitative experi73 . involving laser vaporization of graphite [55] t o prepare arrays or “ropes” of ordered singlewall nanotubes. This report stimulated a large number of theoretical works on the structure and properties of the simpler and more fundamental singlewall carbon nanotubes.1). Also discussed in this chapter are the synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotubes. at first. as explained below. 941 further stimulated work in the field. carbon nanoparticles and other carbonbased materials.1 SingleWall Nanotube Synthesis The first experimental identification in 1991 of carbon nanotubes was on multiwall nanotubes[l9]. These singlewall nanotubes were generally found along with very much larger concentrations of amorphous carbon. 3. 5. though. Other techniques such as vapor growth are also reviewed. only small quantities of singlewall nanotubes were available experimentally for systematic studies. one atomic layer in thickness in the radial direction (see Fig. the purification of carbon nanotubes. and both methods depend on the use of catalysts. The recent discovery in 1996 of a much more efficient synthesis route. Two relatively efficient methods to synthesize singlewall carbon nanotubes have been identified: laser vaporization and carbon arc synthesis. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes This chapter describes synthesis methods for carbon nanotubes.CHAPTER 5. For these reasons most of the experimental studies continued to be done on multiwall nanotubes. and the singlewall constituents contained a distribution of diameters and chiral angles. the insertion of metals into the hollow core of carbon nanotubes. The experimental discovery of singlewall carbon nanotubes in 1993[58.
another synthesis route was found for the synthesis of gram quantities of singlewall carbon nanotubes.8). there is also interest in developing continuous synthesis methods more appropriate for scaleup and low cost. 5. nanotube opening. Therefore we can expect extensive research to be carried out on the growth mechanism and on the development of new growth techniques that provide more controlled growth of nanotubes. and more than one catalytic species seem t o be necessary t o grow ropes of singlewall nanotubes.6). nanotube doping (Sect. Because of the potential interest of carbon nanotubes for practical applications. progress was made for the first time in quantitative measurements of the physical properties of singlewall carbon nanotubes.Two sequenced laser pulses were used to evaporate a target containing carbon mixed with a small amount of transition metal from the target (see .2 Laser Vaporization Synthesis Method An efficient route for the synthesis of bundles of singlewall carbon nanotubes with a narrow diameter distribution employs the laser vaporization of a graphite target. 5. wetting. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES mental studies of carbon nanotubes.51. 5. A CoNi/graphite composite laser vaporization target was used. 5. filling and alignment (Sect. Soon after the publication of the laser vaporization method for the . temperature regimes for carbonization and graphitization (Sect. using the carbon arc method [52].synthesis of singlewall carbon nanotube ropes.2 atom 3 ' % CoNi alloy with equal amounts of Co and Ni added to the graphite (98.8 atom %) [55]. In the early reports of the laser synthesis technique [55]. Whereas multiwall nanotubes require no catalyst for their growth. The remaining sections of the chapter briefly deal with the purification of nanotube samples (Sect. The detailed mechanisms responsible for the growth of these nanotubes are not yet well understood.CHAPTER 5. 5. high yields with >70%90% conversion of graphite to singlewall nanotubes were reported in the condensing vapor of the heated flow tube (operating at 12OOOC).4. and this may perhaps be accomplished by vapor growth methods discussed in Sect. 5. 5. By making the singlewall nanotubes available to many research groups worldwide. consisting of 1. and growth mechanics (Sect. catalyst species are necessary for the growth of the singlewall nanotubes.9).7).
2.02 nm. each rope is found to consist primarily of a bundle of singlewall carbon nanotubes aligned along a common axis. Xray diffraction (which views many ropes at once) and transmission electron microscopy experiments (which view a single rope) show I551 that the diameters of the singlewall nanotubes have a strongly peaked distribution at 1. Under transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination [see Fig. 5.2(a)].200’ Celsius 75 \ LL watercooled copper collector argon neodymiumyttfiumalumlnumgarnet laser 1 graphite target Fig. just outside the furnace [55 961. 5.1).2(b)]. The material thus produced appears in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image as a mat of “ropes” 1020 nm in diameter and up to 100 pm or more in length [see Fig. very close to . using a graphite target and a cooled collector for nanotubes [95].38ir0.5. 5.1: Singlewalled nanotubes produced in a quartz tube heated to 1200°C by the laser vaporization method. 5. Fig. Flowing argon gas sweeps the entrained nanotubes from the high temperature zone to the watercooled Cu collector downstream. LASER VAPORIZATION SYNTHESIS METHOD furnace at 1.
2: (a) Ropes of singlewall carbon nanotubes observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). the TEM image shows that each rope contains a bundle of singlewall nanotubes with diameters of 1.lO) (44%).8) [97]. presumably using different growth conditions.3O [56.7 nm. l l ) armchair nanotubes.8) to ( 1 1 .315 nm at closest approach within a rope [55]. (b) At higher magnification.2. Thus for nanotube diameters ranging from that for the (8. arranged in a triangular lattice (with lattice constant 1. while others.rn) are mainly (10.lO) nanotube which is defined in Eq. By varying the growth temperature. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig.76 CHAPTER 5. 3. the catalyst . The singlewall nanotubes are held together by weak van der Waals internanotube bonds to form a twodimensional triangular lattice with a lattice constant of 1. and an intertube separation of 0. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes prepared by the laser vaporization method [55] has shown that the carbon nanotube chiral indices (n.9) (20%).4 nm. have reported chiral angles in the range A0 = 7. Such an image is seen when the rope bends through the image plane of the microscope [55I* the diameter of an ideal (10. 5.98]. and some (12.7 nm). The ropes are 1020 nm thick and 100 p m long. there are only 17 possible nanotubes [97]. (9.
Although the details of the diameter (and chirality) distribution of the singlewall carbon nanotubes depend on the synthesis conditions.3) [ l o l l1041. while the nanotubes are contained i n a deposit on the cathode. 3 Arc Method of Synthesizing Carbon Nanotubes The carbon arc provides a simple and traditional tool for generating the high temperatures needed for the vaporization of carbon atoms into a plasma (>3O0O0C) [loo1021. no catalyst need be used and the nanotubes are found in bundles in the inner region of the cathode deposit where the temperature is a maximum (25003000°C). The nanotube bundles are roughly aligned in the direction of the electric current flow (see Fig.3. 5 . while mixed catalysts such as Fe/Ni. fullerenes and amorphous carbon [1051071. It is found that the spread in nanotube diameters within a single rope is smaller than between ropes grown at the same time and under the same nominal growth conditions. . The arc is typically operated in 500 torr He with a flow rate of 515ml/s for cooling purposes. ARC METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING CARBON NANOTUBES 77 composition and other growth parameters. Surrounding the nanotubes is a hard grey shell consisting of nanoparticles. Catalysts used t o prepare isolated singlewall carbon nanotubes include transition metals such as Co. Once the arc is in operation. the length of the positive electrode (anode) decreases (see Fig. As the carbon nanotubes form. the average nanotube diameter and diameter distribution can be varied [99]. The growth of carbon nanotubes appears to be unfavorable under the conditions that are optimized t o synthesize fullerene molecules.5. This technique has been used for the synthesis of singlewall and multiwall carbon nanotubes. 5. Fe and rare earths such as Y and Gd. 5. Co/Ni and Co/Pt have been used to synthesize ropes of singlewall nanotubes. a carbon deposit forms on the negative electrode.3). Typical conditions for operating a carbon arc for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes include the use of carbon rod electrodes of 520 mm diameter separated by 1 mm with a voltage of 2025 V across the electrodes and a dc electric current of 50120 A flowing between the electrodes. and ropes of singlewall nanotubes [52].' Adequate cooling of the growth chamber is necessary to maximize the nanotube yield in the arc growth process. Ni. For the multiwall carbon nanotube synthesis. 'During arc synthesis fullerenes are predominantly found in the soot produced by the arc and removed by the helium gas flow.
5. It is interesting t o note that the minimum nanotube diameter that has been observed for singlewall carbon nanotubes is 0. the average nanotube diameter is usually small (51. Since the length of a carbon nanotube is typically on the order of 1 pm. and the growth rate of a 1 pm carbon nanotube is estimated to be less than 0. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES to Pump Gas Inlet Window Fig.1 second. This time scale is much shorter than the time needed for the direct obser . An efficient method for the synthesis of gram quantities of bundles of singlewall carbon nanotubes using the carbon arc technique has been achieved [52].4.5 nm) and the diameter distribution is usually narrow. 5.78 CHAPTER 5. the smallest fullerene to obey the isolated pentagon rule [108]. as illustrated in Fig. The greatest mass of singlewall carbon nanotubes is found in a collarette around the cathode. temperature of the arc and the catalyst that is used. with ~ 2 0 % of the consumed carbon being converted into singlewall carbon nanotubes in the collarette.7 nm.3: Crosssectional view of a carbon arc generator that can be used t o synthesize carbon nanotubes [103]. the time for the growth of a single circumferential carbon ring is second. corresponding to the diameter of c60.
electric current and arc voltage. and Ni particles are known to be catalysts for vapor grown carbon fiber synthesis [9.t Carbon nanocapsules consist of multiwall polyhedra of graphene sheets with interlayer separations of 0. Go.94].8 0. Co.7 0. carbon nanocapsules are often obtained in the deposit on the negative electrode [109]. catalysts.17.a Fe catalyst [581.34 nm inside which are contained metals (Fe.0 1.VAPOR GROWTH AND O T H E R SYNTHESIS METHODS 79 0. Nil Cu and Au) or metal carbides M. W.1 1. Co. .)..4 1. Lu). The iron or cobalt catalyst in the arc process forms both singlewall carbon nanotubes and nanometersize carbide particles surrounded by graphene layers..2 1.3 1. Mo. Co.6 Nanolube diameters (nm) Fig. and Ni. Thus the growth of carbon nanotubes occurs under stable conditions but over a limited range of He (or Ar) pressure.4 Vapor Growth and Other Synthesis Methods Fe. When certain transition metals (Fe.44]. Pb. GdTm. Cu. C6H6) and Hz gases are reacted in the presence of Fe.C (M = transition metal such as LazC (La = rare earth metal). a s well as metal clusters encapsulated within graphene layers [58. or Ni particles in a reaction tube at llOO°C. CH4. Ni. tIn the case of Fe. 5. singlewall nanotubes are observed at the surface of the deposit and nanocapsules are observed in other regions.9 1.. in which hydrocarbons (e. rareearth metals (LaNd.g. Au. Thus purification is necessary to separate out a pure singlewall nanotube sample. 5. Co.4: Diameter distribution of isolated singlewall carbon nanotubes prepared by the arc method using . . vation of the carbon arc electrodes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) but is much longer than the phonon frequency 1015 Hz. or their oxides are packed into a hole in the central region of the positive electrode.5 1.
5. catalysts and catalyst supports have been used successfully by various groups worldwide to synthesize carbon nanotubes. (b) HRTEM image showing the broken part of a very thin vapor grown carbon fiber. Thus the vapor growth method . cut in liquid nitrogen and showing (white arrow) a carbon nanotube emerging from the center of the fiber. The nanotube is clearly observed. One big advantage of the vapor growth approach is that carbon nanotubes can be made continuously and thus if the optimum conditions for growing pure carbon nanotubes could be found. A variety of other hydrocarbons.1 Vapor Growth Method The synthesis of carbon nanotubes from the vapor phase utilizes equipment similar to that used for the preparation of vaporgrown carbon fibers [17. but using a low benzene gas pressure [59. 5. indicating that thin vapor grown carbon fibers grow from a nanotube core by thickening [59]. 5.80 CHAPTER 5. 5. this could be a very good way to synthesize large quantihes of carbon nanotubes under relatively controlled conditions. Growth of carbon nanotubes from the vapor phase has also been demonstrated [59]. as shown in Fig.44]. The innermost tubes of vapor grown carbon fibers are considered to be carbon nanotubes.4.110]. with the furnace temperature held at llOO°C and using Fe catalyst particles. (a) An SEM image of a broken vapor grown carbon fiber. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig.5: Carbon nanotubes appear after breakage of the vaporgrown carbon fiber.
thereby increasing the nanotube diameter. 5. The crystallinity. Most of these nanotubes are multiwall. however.4. Many presently identified applications of carbon nanotubes can be met with vapor grown carbon nanotubes. The asgrown nanotubes generally show poor crystallinity. a s seen in highresolution TEM studies [110]. V A P O R G R O W T H A N D O T H E R SYNTHESIS METHODS 81 Fig. (b) an exposed nanotube and a nanotube that had been pyrolytically coated.5. Endo [110] argues that the capping of an inner layer terminates its growth. as is seen in Fig.6: Two kinds of vaporgrown carbon fibers (VGCF) observed in an asgrown sample: (a) a thick hollow fiber formed by a catalytic metal particle. Vaporgrown carbon nanotubes have been studied by highresolution TEM in both their asgrown form and after heat treatment.6.5. Carbon nanotubes can grow at the same time as conventional vaporgrown carbon fibers. The frequentlyobserved bending of the growth axis of the nanotubes is related to the introduction of a heptagonal defect at the bend location. as shown in Fig. 5. 5. has some advantage for scaleup and commercial production. Referring to the bamboo structure seen on the inside of vapor grown carbon nanotubes (see Fig.7). but some singlewall nanotubes can also be present. 5. is much improved after heat treatment to 25003000°C in argon. so that the exposed cap layer provides growth along the length and the epitaxial layers follow this growth while at the same time adding to the nanotube diameter. Fracture of a thin vapor grown carbon fiber shows the presence of a nanotube at the fiber core. .
5. In the ion bombardment growth method.1121. The use of solar energy for the synthesis of singlewall carbon nanotubes has . which are attributed to overshooting growth on the basis of the open tube growth model [107].2 Other Synthesis Methods Another method of nanotube synthesis relates to the use of carbon ion bombardment to make carbon whiskers [lll. along with other structures is collected on a cold surface.11 pm and several mm in length. Little is known about the optimization of the ion bombardment technique in relation to the preparation of nanotubes.7: (a) Transmission electron micrograph of a cone containing only single conical shells. Carbon whiskers are known as a graphite material with high crystallinity [4]whose diameter is 0. 5.82 CHAPTER 5. The nearly periodic structures of the conical shells appear inside the cone tips [see (a)]. carbon is vaporized in vacuum through ion or electron irradiation [113]. Here a number of bamboolike structures are observed in the core region near the cap [110]. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. and the resulting deposit containing carbon nanotubes. (b) Commonly observed nanotube structure for the cap region of vaporgrown carbon nanotubes heat treated at 28OOOC in Ar.4.
and centrifugation) have been tried. minimize the concentration of carbon nanoparticles and amorphous carbon produced. 5. Purification generally refers to the isolation of carbon nanotubes from other entities. and intercalation methods [116]. The separation of nanotubes according to diameter (and chirality) is not considered under the topic of purification.5. increase the yield of ropes of singlewall nanotubes. such as amorphous carbon and carbon nanoparticles (see Fig. been reported [114. and t o characterize the carbon nanotubes that are produced. The classical chemical techniques for purification (such as filtering. 5.5. Further research is needed to optimize and control the synthesis process. liquid phase. 5.8: (a) Transmission electron micrograph of a web of singleshell nanotubes formed in the catalytic carbon arc method. using an experimental chamber where solar energy is focussed on the crucible t o achieve a temperature of 3000 K on a clear day. chromatography. carbon nanotubes are found along with other materials. (b) TEM picture of gas phase purified nanotubes [116].8). but not found to be effective in removing the .115]. and is not thought to be practical at this time. PURIFICATION 83 Fig. Three basic methods have been used with limited success for the purification of the nanotubes: gas phase.5 Purification In many of the synthesis methods that have been reported. A mixture of Ni and Y catalysts is used in an argon atmosphere (pressure of 450 mbar).
Much slower layerbylayer removal of the cylindrical layers of multiwall nanotubes occurs because of the greater stability of a perfect graphene layer to oxygen than disordered or amorphous carbon or material with pentagonal defects [117. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES carbon nanoparticles. fullerenes and other contaminants has also been reported [83. amorphous carbon and other unwanted species shown in Fig.6. Thus subsequent chemical removal of the intercalated species can be carried out [120].6 Nanotube Opening.118].118].1211231. A method for the purification of samples containing singlewall nanotube ropes in the presence of carbon nanoparticles. The gas phase purification process also tends to burn off many of the nanotubes. Wetting. Filling and Alignment Nanotube Opening 5.119]. The oxidation reaction for carbon nanotubes is thermally activated with an energy barrier of 225 kJ/mol in air [118]. the intercalation of unpurified nanotube samples with CuC12KCl results in intercalation of the nanoparticles and other carbon species.1 Experimental studies show that the cap of a nanotube is more reactive than the cylindrical part because of the presence of pentagons and hence the greater .117. The gas phase method removes nanoparticles and amorphous carbon in the presence of nanotubes by an oxidation or oxygenburning process [104.CHAPTER 5. Finally. but results in nanotubes of shorter length [116. except that it results in an increase in nanotube diameter due to the accretion of epitaxial carbon layers from the carbon in the vapor phase resulting from heating. Heating preferentially decreases the amount of disordered carbon relative to carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes obtained by gas phase purification are generally multiwall nanotubes with diameters in the range 202OOw and 10 nmlpm in length [104]. Liquid phase removal of nanoparticles and other unwanted carbons has been carried out with some success using a potassium permanganate KMn04 treatment method which tends to give higher yields than the gas phase method. since the smaller diameter tubes tend to be oxidized with the nanoparticles. 5.8 [116]. 5. This method was in fact first used to synthesize a singlewall carbon nanotube. but not the nanotubes which have closed cage structures. Heating could thus be useful for purification.
5.2 Nanotube Wetting A number of liquids have been found to wet the hollow core of carbon nanotubes and others do not show wetting behavior [126]. FILLING A N D ALIGNMENT 85 curvature and reactivity of the caps. W E T T I N G . Thus in a vapor phase oxidation process. such as with HNOs [116.5.124]. Tube opening can occur at quite low temperatures (4OO0C). Rb.6. and and liquidvapor interfacial surface tensions. Wetting occurs when 0 > ~ / or 2 ysv > ysr.2. 5. Examples of liquids which wet carbon nanotubes are HNO3. The presence of the pentagons in the cap region also promote tube opening by various chemical reactions. In this work sulfur was shown t o catalyze nanotube filling with many metal species. water. the cap region is burned off first. is an oxide of lead [104]. 5. a lead metal catalyst in air [125]. Ni. though in some cases whole compartments have been filled [124]. pressure.6. and solvent carrier methods [126].3 Nanotube Filling Three methods have been used to fill the hollow core of carbon nanotubes: capillarity. Fe is the use of a solution using H N 0 3 that performs both wetting and tube opening. the solidvapor. The material that is sucked up the nanotube. where r is the inner radius of the nanotube. however. y s v . Another method that has been successful for introducing high surface tension materials such as Co. S. respectively. Se. In many cases only partial filling of a nanotube compartment has been achieved. solidliquid.128]. The capillarity method exploits removal of the cap (or the opening of the tube) followed by wetting.126]. for example. various organic solvents and various oxides such as P b and BiaO:! [124. If a liquid does not wet the nanotube. with some reports of long continuous nanowires [127. Cs. thereby providing one method for tube opening. On the basis of classical theories for wetting. using.ysl and Tiv are. then pressures exceeding 2y/r are needed for tube filling. where the contact angle 0 exceeds n/2. as discussed in Sect. N A N O T U B E OPENING. the hollow core of the nanotube will be wet by a fluid if where 0 is the contact angle of a liquid on a surface.6. and at the same time .6.
but are predicted to lead to enhanced metallic conductivity [133]. These alkali metal layers donate electrons to the graphite layers. . Nevertheless. while at the same time greatly expanding the sample size along the direction normal to the lattice planes. Subsequent chemistry is used to remove the carrier solvent [129]. which do not act as substitutional dopants. Therefore the alkali metal ions enter into the carbon nanotubes near structural defects. 5.6. If a sample contains an assembly of randomly oriented nanotubes. most of the experimental activity on the doping of nanotubes has been with the alkali metals [131. the relatively large alkali metal ions cannot find easy entry into perfect nanotubes.4 Alignment of Nanotubes For a variety of experiments and applications it is desirable t o align the carbon nanotubes parallel to each other.132]. Once the ions penetrate the outer surface of the nanotube. nor is there enough space for these ions between adjacent shells of a multiwall nanotube. alignment can be achieved by rubbing in one direction or by cutting a material such as paraffin which contains embedded nanotubes.7 Nanotube Doping. This effect can be seen by microscopic probe studies on carbon nanotubes that have been attacked by alkali metals [131. and BN/C Composites The substitutional doping of carbon nanotubes with B and N dopants to make the nanotubes ptype and ntype has been discussed [130]. Selfaligned bundles of multiwall and singlewall carbon nanotubes are found on the copper collector in the laser vaporization method. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES contains a solute which is to be deposited within the nanotube. Because of the closed cylindrical structure of carbon nanotubes. their large size rips open the nanotube wall. and in the collarette for the case of growth by the arc method. Intercalation. the most common source for the alignment of nanotubes is by a selfalignment growth process.86 CHAPTER 5. Alkali metals readily intercalate into graphite as sheets of alkali metal which are located between graphene sheets in the crystal lattice.132]. 5. on the cathode deposit. Although some experimental work has been done on the substitutional doping of carbon nanotubes with B and N. thus greatly increasing the electrical conductivity.
with 3 carbon shells at the interior followed by 6 BN shells in the central region. has been synthesized by the arc discharge method using an HfBz electrode and a carbon electrode in a Nz atmosphere [137].. and 5 carbon shells on the outside. Transport measurements confirm that the intercalant uptake by the nanotube results in a dramatic increase in the electrical conductivity both for the case of Br:! and K [136]. The carbonization temperature is the temperature at which the volatile species are driven off from precursors for carbon materials.8.5. A composite multiwall nanotube 12 nm in diameter. The structure and composition was obtained by a scanning EELS probe across the diameter of the nanotube. while the Brz intercalation leads to an upshifted mode frequency. TEMPERATURE REGIMES FOR CARBONIZATION AND . as shown in Fig. Typical temperatures that were used in the twezone furnace for the alkali metals were 120OC for the nanotubes were 160OC. consistent with electrons donated by the alkali metals t o the nanotubes. The A . we summarize in the following some of the important temperature regimes for carbon materials. In addition to the melting (4450 K ) and vaporization (4700 K) temperatures for carbon. . 5. leaving behind the basic structural units on the order 1 nm in thickness. BN nanotubes have also been prepared by packing a tungsten rod with BN [87]. 5. vibrational mode at 1593 cm' in the undoped nanotubes are down shifted by Rb and K intercalation. two other temperatures are of importance: the carbonization temperature (650750OC) and the graphitization temperature (2300 K).136]. as well as uptake of alkali metal in the interstitial spaces between the nanotubes in the triangular lattice [135.9. The large uptake of the alkali metals Rb and K is consistent with a decoration of the carbon atoms on the nanotube surface by a (2 x 2) superlattice of alkali metal species. consistent with the transfer to electrons from the nanotubes to the halogen [135]. The graphitization temperature (23OO0C) is the temperature at which interplanar site correlation is established and the ABAB stacking . 87 For the intercalation of alkali metals and halogens into ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes. a twozone furnace was utilized similar to that previously used for similar intercalations into crystalline graphite 11341.8 Temperature Regimes for Carbonization and Graphitization Because of the importance of temperature as a growth parameter for carbon nanotubes.
C0. Dangling carbon bonds. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. The melting and vaporization temperatures for carbon are both extremal values for the condensed phases of matter. the state of amorphous carbon is metastable below the carbonization temperature. are broken in the . CO:!. The carbonization temperature is closely related to the desorption temperature of oxygen or hydrogen that is chemically bonded at the edge of graphitic nanocrystals. Chemical reactions also occur in the presence of 0 2 .9: Various steps of the graphitization process as a function of heat treatment temperature THT[138]. CO2 at temperatures in the 80O0C12OO0C range where the oxidation process occurs. H 2 0 . this phase is always the most stable state. Oxygen or hydrogen atoms are removed above about 7OOOC in the form of HzO. bonds. Below the carbonization temperature. etc. Thus if the solid state is formed by a rapid quenching process t o amorphous carbon. CO. 5. molecules by cutting carboncarbon bonds. carbon can transform from an amorphous carbon to a stable graphite planar structure at ambient pressure by cutting and reconnecting sp2 covalent bonds. which are related to CH. If the solid state is single crystal graphite. and CH. arrangement of the 3D graphite structure is formed. carbon cannot change its sp2 covalent bonding configuration. and CN. with only a small stability region for the liquid phase of carbon.88 CHAPTER 5. Between the carbonization and graphitization temperatures.
most of the inplane structural defects have been eliminated so that a rapid increase in La can occur due t o the disappearance of tilt and twist boundaries. much higher THTvalues (28003000°C) are generally used to obtain 3D graphite crystals by the heat treatment approach. the interlayer distance decreases. 5.143] assumes that the nanotubes are open during the growth process and that carbon atoms are added at the open ends of the nanotubes.9 Growth Mechanisms The growth mechanism for cylindrical fullerene nanotubes is especially interesting and has been hotly debated. GROWTH MECHANISMS 89 carbonization process. One school of thought [141. In this step. Although the graphitization temperature is usually given as 23OO0C. interlayer site correlation between layers starts to develop.the wavy planar structure begins to disappear and a turbostratic planar stacking arrangement starts to appear. < <   5. increase rapidly. start to pile up and form distorted columnar structures. and in this range of THT.9) and then observing the TEM micrographs [139. As the graphitic structure develops further with increasing THT.9. consisting of a short length (% 10k)of about three parallel layers. At higher T'T.108. By THT 17OO0C. By 21OO0C.140].5. the basic structural units. The second school [107. as impurity atoms are released.9. the columnar structures increase in length with a lesser degree of misorientation of the basic structural units as shown in Fig. mostly in gaseous form. For 1500 THT 1900°C. individual misoriented basic structural units become aligned and the crystallite size along the caxis L . and CC bonds are reformed at somewhat higher temperatures. Since the experimental conditions for forming carbon nanotubes vary . 5. The purification temperature for carbon nanotubes corresponds to the temperature for CO and COz formation. For 800 5 THT 5 1500°C. with L a values higher than 200 A at THT 20OO0C. increases gradually. the columnar structure disappears as wavy ribbons or wrinkled layers are formed by hooking the adjacent columns together. The various steps leading to graphitization have been studied by heating amorphous carbons to various temperature THT(see Fig. both the inplane and caxis crystallite sizes La and L .142] assumes that the nanotubes are always capped and that the growth mechanism involves a Cz absorption process that is assisted by the pentagonal defects on the caps. For THT5 800°C.
Referring to the basic model for Cz absorption in Figs. we see that sequential addition of Cz dimers results in the addition of a row of hexagons to the carbon nanotube. 5.11. indicated by open circles between 2 and 3 . Although the parent vaporgrown carbon fiber is itself nucleated by a catalytic transition metal particle [44]. When we introduce . (a) Numbers from 1 to 6 indicate the position of the six pentagons on the hemispherical cap. 5. in accordance with Fig. 5. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. the growth of the carbon nanotube is thought to be associated with the absorption of a Cz dimer near a pentagon in the cap of the nanotube.90 CHAPTER 5.10(a) we show a hemisphere cap of (6.llOO°C) and assumes that growth is nucleated at active sites of a vaporgrown carbon fiber of about 1000 A diameter. 5.[144] significantly according to growth method. To apply the Cz absorption mechanism. The first school of thought focuses on nanotube growth at relatively low temperatures (. we get a new hexagon denoted in (b) by dark shading. it is seen that the shape of the cap is the same for (a) and (b).10. as necessary for the execution of each C2 absorption. (b) Through rotation by 7 2 O .10: Cz addition t o a cap of (6. In Fig.10 and 5.5) nanotube. more than one mechanism may be operative in producing carbon nanotube growth. If we add one Cz molecule. and if the new bonds denoted by dotted lines form. it is usually necessary to use the StoneWales mechanism to bring the pentagons into their canonical positions.5) nanotube which have six pentagons denoted by numbers from 1 to 6.
If carbon atoms should be added out of sequence.12 [107].10(a) we consider new chemical bonds denoted by dotted lines. GROWTH MECHANISMS 91 C2 molecule between the pentagons 2 and 3. At present the growth model for carbon nanotubes remains incomplete with . If. it has been proposed that the nanotubes grow at their open ends[143. 5. In the case of an armchair edge. Referring to Fig. while capping with heptagons lead to changes in nanotube size [see Fig. Because of the curvature that is introduced by the pentagon. 5. 5. For the case of a zigzag edge. a C2 dimer is initially bonded at a zigzag edge.7. 5. 5.[110.10(a) and (b). Iijima argues that the inner tubes are capped first with the capping providing a method for relieving strain in the cap region. For the growth of carbon nanotubes by the arc discharge method. In Fig. 5.9. except for the last hexagon in the row. they also grow in diameter by an epitaxial growth process. however. it will form a pentagon. then addition of a C2 dimer would result in the addition of a pentagon. If the nanotube has chirality (see Fig. A schematic diagram for the open tube growth method is shown in Fig.12.7(b)] and orientation.10(a) but with the addition of one more ring of carbon hexagons around the nanotube.10(b). here again a single C2 dimer will add a hexagon. Multiple additions of Cz dimers lead to multiple additions of hexagons to the armchair edge. we return to Fig. while the addition of a C3 trimer out of sequence merely adds a hexagon. initiation of growth requires one trimer C3 (see Fig. the open end of the nanotube will likely form a cap. and growth of the nanotube by the open end process will be terminated.5. which could lead to capping of the nanotube. 5. The large aspect ratio of the nanotubes implies that growth along the tube axis is more likely than growth along the nanotube diameter. 5. we get a new hexagon denoted by dark shading in Fig. Thus the sequential addition of C2 dimers will result in continuous growth of the chiral nanotube. 511).145]. which then provides the necessary edge site to complete one row of growth for the nanotube through the addition of C2 dimers.10(b) by 72'. which requires only a C1 monomer. as shown in Fig. 5. When we rotate Fig. it is easily seen that the absorption of a single C2 dimer at the active dangling bond edge site will add one hexagon to the open end. The introduction of pentagons leads to positive curvature. 5. we see that the shape of the cap is the same for Fig. The introduction of heptagonpentagon pairs can produce a variety of nanotube shapes.11). While the tubes grow along the length.144] Repeating this process five times.
for the arc discharge synthesis method. the temperature where nanotube growth occurs has been estimated to be about 340OOC [146]. any dangling bonds that might participate in the open nanotube growth mechanism would be unstable.92 CHAPTER 5.107. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig.147]. In contrast. . and the open nanotube growth may be favored. where the inner nanotube has no access to a carbon source. regard to the role of temperature and helium gas. reported by several groups [106. Since the vapor phase growth occurs at only llOO°C. so that the closed tube approach would be favored. 5.11: Proposed growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes at an open end by the absorption of CZ (dimers) and C3 (trimers). Such a feature seems to require growth by an open tube mechanism. so that all the coaxial nanotubes grow at once at these elevated temperatures [141]. Absorption of a C3 trimer at the open end of a zigzag carbon nanotube and subsequent Cz dimer absorption. is the containment of a smalldiameter carbon nanotube inside a largerdiameter nanotube. At these high temperatures. the growth of the nanotube core and the thickening process occur separately. One interesting growth feature. nanotube growth and the graphitization of the thickening deposits occur simultaneously. In this lower temperature regime.
The figure shows the addition of carbon atoms to the open ends.12: Schematic diagram for open tube growth of nanotubes from a carbon supply. the capping of the longest open end.5. (a) Some shells are terminated at the positions indicated by arrowheads as illustrated in the circle. (c) Similar termination of the shells near the top of the tip. G R O W T H MECHANISMS 93 Fig. one atom in height. and the initiation of new nanotubes. as indicated by the arrowheads [107]. 5.9. (b) Terminated shells carry lefthanded or righthanded kink sites. . owing to the helical tube structure. forming steps.
.
. which is perpendicular to both B and v. is used to relate A *We here simply call the magnetic field.e A becomes p . but RH = l/nec.CHAPTER 6. an electron with velocity v experiences a Lorentz force eu x B.* B .t where A is the vector potential (V x A = B ) . This is. however. 95 . = v/w.1 Free Electron in a Magnetic Field In a uniform static magnetic field. in CGS units. Strictly B should be called the density of magnetic flux on a unit surface. In CGS units. B = p o H . In this chapter we show how to calculate the Landau energy bands of carbon nanotubes using the tightbinding method.eA in the Hamiltonian. where po is the permeability of free space and H is the magnetic field in free space. A gauge for A .e A / c in CGS units. the motion of an electron is described by the transformation p t o p . we simply replace e by e/c. By solving the equations of motion. we obtain the socalled cyclotron motion of the electron in a magnetic field with a cyclotron frequency we eB =m and a cyclotron radius of r . R H .for which SI units give RH = l/ne. so that the transformation of p . such as the Landau gauge. 6. Quantum confinement of electrons in onedimensional carbon nanotubes and confinement through application of a magnetic field show interesting phenomena as a function of the chirality of the carbon nanotubes and of the direction and strength of the magnetic field. not the case for the Hall coefficient. tWe use MKS (SI) units here. In quantum mechanics. Landau Energy Bands of Carbon Nanotubes Itinerant electrons in a magnetic field give rise to Landau quantization of the energy bands.
is not a constant but is an operator which does not commute with the positmion y.. 2.4) for the N t h magnetic energy subband and harmonic oscillator center X is. A = (O. [ X .y) motion of the free electron is quantized by the Landau index N . (6. The Hamiltonian for a free electron (V = 0 ) in the Landau gauge becomes (6. we can assume that the wavefunction. B ) . (6. z ) = ei(hvY+k. Further. The corresponding wave function p(x) in Eq.O. and the threedimensional energy bands in zero magnetic field are divided into onedimensional energy bands IabeIed by N as in Eq. (6. tFor a crystalline solid.. 9 . @(. (6’H/ay = 0./eB. so that the quantum number associated with X is a good quantum num. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES explicitly to the magnetic field B = (O. the Hamiltonian and the operator X commute. . When we use the solution to Schrodinger’s equation for a onedimensional harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian.y.6) Thus the twodimensional ( x .O).(z.Bx. and X = hlc.2) Since the Hamiltonian does not depend on y and z . and this commutator relation does not depend on the gauge.6). and a’H/dz = 0).Y ] = i A / e B .. ( N = 0 . the energy levels EN are given by E ~ ( k z= ) huc(N + 5)+ 2 2 h k z .4) in which ~ ( xsatisfies ) the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian.~). 1 . the center of the harmonic motion. Thus a general uncertainty relation applies to the two operators X and Y for the centers of the harmonic motion in a magnetic field.Z) (D(xc) 7 (6.ber* describing the wavefunction and its degeneracy.96 CHAPTER 6. has the form qx.). X = A k y / e B .
a special situation occurs. Even in this case it is found that most energy bands show Landau quantization in a uniform magnetic field. N .a. L . Hi(()= 2<. 2 given by Ho(E) = 1.. Using a periodic boundary condition in the direction of y with period. / L y a .2. L y a . which we will discuss in the following section. We then have L . . When we consider Landau quantization of the aenergy bands. The Landau radius is thus a quantum variable which is clearly different from the classical. in the case of carbon nanotubes. L . 2 . we have one degenerate state (Landau level) per area 2a12 for a given Landau index. in which the energy bands do not show explicit Landau levels. too. since the magnetic field that is applied t o the curved surface of a carbon nanotube is not uniform. the wave number ky is quantized as k . but they do instead have energy dispersion for all values of the magnetic field. The overall picture for the energy bands in a magnetic field can be obtained using the tight binding approximation. When B = lT.6. The energy band width in this case shows new oscillations with a period that is scaled by the cross section §Different definitions of the Hermite polynomials may give rise to confusion.1 ) and thus X = h k y / e B = 2 d 2 M Y / L y ais quantized. (My = 0 . f . the ratio of 27rL2 to the area of the unit cell is an important factor for describing the energy bands in a magnetic field. .a x L. cyclotron radius of rc = v/w. The H n ( t ) used here has the explicit expressions for n = 0 . we should consider the periodicity of the unit cell due to the crystal potential. . = 2 a M . a 2 / 2 d 2 degenerate statesf in the area L. Thus. Thus when we consider a twodimensional electron system. and a lattice constant a . and since the net magnetic flux penetrating the surface is always zero. VOrthogonality between two harmonic oscillator wavefunctions comes from the orthogonality of the plane waves in the y direction. 1 . 1 . and H z ( ( ) = 4t2 . FREE ELECTRON IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 97 where H N is the N t h Hermite polynomials defined here as and e is the Landau radius defined by The Landau radius represents the size of the wavefunction in a magnetic field and depends on the strength of the magnetic field.1. then e = 25. However..66 nm.
1. As is discussed in Sect. 31 = 1 ( p .2 Tight Binding Approximation in a Static Magnetic Field Here we explain a formalism for the tight binding approximation in a static magnetic field. 6.R ) . 3. the size of the unit cell changes as a function of magnetic field. The magnetic response of the electronic structure for such onedimensional materials.11) where it is noted that GR is a function of T and the integration in Eq. C?h. which have a twodimensional surface. we need only consider a phase factor.73.2 [69. When the Hamiltonian 3t for an electron in a crystal potential V ( T ) and in a magnetic field. depending on the vector potential.3). as specified by its chiral vector. (6. An interesting feature of the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes in a magnetic field is the dependence of the solid state properties on the chiral vector of the nanotube.R])dX.98 CHAPTER 6 .75. A simple result of this formalism shows that in describing the magnetic field dependence of the wave function. is especially interesting. Because of the breakdown of the Bloch condition in the wavefunction.12) 2m + v. . in Fig.eA)2 (6. (6. Within the tight binding scheme. and is relevant to recent magnetoresistance [150] and magnetic susceptibility [151. 6.152] experiments on carbon n an0t u b es .10) where R is a lattice vector and GR is the phase factor associated with the magnetic field and is expressed by [153] GR = Ji A ( ( ) . This phase factor corresponds to the continuous modulation of the periodic boundary condition for the wave function in a periodic system. 4. depending only on the symmetry of the tube.11) is taken along the line from R to T as shown in Fig.149]. which in turn is specified by the symmetry of the nanotube (see Sect.148. the Bloch functions in a static magnetic field can be expressed as (6.A ( R + X[T . 3. d( = J 0 1 (T . the electronic structure is especially unusual in the sense that carbon nanotubes can be either metallic or semiconducting.71.1. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES of the unit cell of the nanotube.
(6. (6. Thus the Hamiltonian matrix element in a magnetic field can be obtained through multiplication of the Hamiltonian matrix element in zero field by a phase factor. R' and r .G R ~ ) ) in the matrix . we can calculate the matrix elements of 71 between two Bloch functions and solve the matrix Hamiltonian to obtain the eigenvalues. we use the fact that: (1) the magnetic field is slowly changing with distance compared with the spatial change of P(T . Using Eq.1: The vector RR' shows the integration path of A(<)in calculating GR . cPo(r) is the flux that penetrates the triangle defined by the three points.13) the operator which acts on the wavefunction is the Hamiltonian in zero magnetic field. (6. It is noted here that we will have a term in exp((ie/h)(GR . Except for the phase factor. (6. in Eq. (6. R .13) is independent of the value of the magnetic field B and the functional form of A [153].13). In obtaining the last line of Eq.6.R ) is localized at T = R . It is important to note that in the last line of Eq.13). we obtain Fig. TIGHT BINDING IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 99 R r operates on Q ( k .GR.2. and (2) P(T .14). Eq.R ) . 6.T ) .
For simplicity we neglect the phase factor coming from @o(r) in the integrals over the atomic matrix element. 6. R. All of the energy dispersion relations are periodic functions of integer values of Bu2/q50. This approximation is consistent with the assumptions that we made above [154]. a fractal behavior has been found theoretically in the energy band spectra in a magnetic field of magnitude B . S . B .* In a twodimensional cosine band with lattice constant u . except for the Landau subbands near E = 0 in the case of a 2D cosine band.100 CHAPTER 6. 6.we only observe Landau levels. .15) and a is the lattice constant of a graphene sheet [155].105T)for presently available laboratory magnetic fields. Thus the matrix S is always taken to be the unit matrix. Let us start from the simple case of a twodimensional square lattice in a magnetic field. depending on whether Bu2/q50 is a rational or irrational number. since the wave functions near E = 0 are for extended orbits [156]. tThe flux quantum in a superconductor is half of this definition. which is explicitly dependent on r as GR .GR' = IRR' A([)& + @O(T)i (6. the magnetic field necessary to observe this fractal behavior explicitly is too large (.1356 x 1Ol5[T/m2] e h (6. R' and T as shown in Fig.= 4. The difference between the two definitions comes from the different charge of a carrier compared to a Cooper pair. The 'We hereafter neglect the effect of the magnetic field on the overlap integral matrix. where 40 is the flux quantumt defined by. whose energy dispersion is known to be that of a twodimensional cosine band. exp[(ie/h)(GR . However. In relatively weak fields ( w 102T). which is perpendicular to the twedimensional surface.3 TwoDimensional Cosine Band in a Magnetic Field A simple example of a twedimensional electron system is a square lattice.GRt)l. h / 2 e . LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES elements.14) where @ O ( T ) is the flux that penetrates the triangle defined by the three points. Thus the integration on r of the Hamiltonian matrix element gives the zero field matrix element multiplied by the phase factor.1. This approximation is valid when the magnetic field changes slowly as a function of the lattice constant. $J~ = .
we can define 'HRR' as the following Hamiltonian matrix element in zero magnetic field.3.R])dX. only the two cases of (R' . (6. has the same value of A ( R .R ) * A ( R . From Eq.R ] ) = (0.V ) k ' . s + eik.12) between states k and k ' is given by in which R and R' are taken as lattice vectors to nearestneighbor sites.11) and (6.X[R' .GR' = 1 1 (R' . (6. COSINE BAND IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 101 vector potential A in the Landau gauge is given by A = (0.16) has only y components. (k .(lck') ( e i k .R ) = (0. the vector potential A . since the integration path in the case of (R' . because the vector potential A in Eq.GR' is calculated by using Eqs.R') and the fact that we can sum Eq.R) = ( 0 .GR' = 1 + 1 (ka)BxdA= f B a x . GR . which is only a function of x. Thus Eq. (6.19) gives GR . (6.20) Using R k ' R' = R .a 1 (6.iR. (6.a + e 2 u i B a x / + ~ . ( R. B z ) along the entire integration path from R to R'.i k y a+ e2ui B a x l +o+i k. (6. the matrix element of the Hamiltonian in Eq. h a ) among the four nearest neighbor sites have nonzero values.17) over R'.13).19) In the inner product between R' . where x is the t component of R (or R').R and A . (6. h a ) is in the y direction.6.16) Using a Bloch wave function in a magnetic field.16). B z ) . (6. (6. (6. Further. then x k k ' is given by %!kk'  =t R .X[R' .18) The phase factor difference GR .21) .
Here we consider periodic boundary conditions for the area of a square La x La in real space. (6. the states with k. couples with other k i separated by 2n Ak = rL' La =  2n r a s1 (6. in a magnetic field is no longer a good quantum number and k. is still a good quantum number even in the presence of magnetic field. q 5 L are integers. with B as a rational value. k.. Since s A k corresponds to the reciprocal lattice vector of the twodimensional square lattice.m a ) . we solve the s x s Hamiltonian matrix of Eq. values to + .22) where 1 5 n . A k . LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES where t is the transfer integral. (6.26) where L' = L / s . B = r / s . the number of k. . From Eq. interact with each other. i. and R = ( x .25) in which B = Ba2/q50 is the magnetic field per the unit cell measured in units of flux quanta.23). y) = ( n a .21) as follows (6. Since the wavevector k.23).n 40 E Bn rn . we can see that k. (where r . p . Thus to obtain the energy dispersion relations. s are integers whose largest common denominator is unity). k.24) and Bax 40 Ba2 . (6. Thus.102 CHAPTER 6. Here we consider only the case where B is a rational number. values which interact with each other becomes a finite number ( 6 ) whenever B has a rational value. + 2 A k . (6. Then the lattice vector R and the wave vector Ic are quantized as follows: R = (2. =S (6. m. Then we can carry out the summation on R of Eq.. . we can solve the Hamiltonian matrix for given k.e. y ) .
the k values in the k . as is also observed in the case of the Landau quantization of the 2D free electron gas. direction are plotted using the Landau gauge given by Eq. . . 2t cos k .. a te”Ua 7f/= teikua 2t cos(k.. we can see from Fig. + ( s . the calculated Landau energy levels of the twodimensional ( 2 D ) cosine energy band are shown for a magnetic field value for which the ratio of the unit cell t o the area per quantum flux is 1 / 6 0 . 0 . ( p = 1. = z q . teikua 2t cos(k. . and Icy.. An explicit form of the Hamiltonian matrix is given by. In fact.2 that most of the energy bands are dispersionless.28) where a is the lattice constant of the 2D square lattice. The above discussion makes explicit use of the gauge of the vector potential. too. values as 2n kx = L a p . *. However. The corresponding Brillouin zone consequently becomes a rectangle in reciprocal space with area 27r/a x 2 n / s a . / s .2. COSINE B A N D IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 103 obtain s energy bands. 6. In this case.27) ( q = 1...1)Ak)a (6. Since we will solve the Hamiltonian matrix for given k. It is convenient t o express the k.6. . the calculated energy states should not depend on the gauge. It is important to note th a t the calculated energy dispersion relations in a magnetic field are twodimensional and are a function of both k . we note that the Brillouin zone is folded s times in the direction of ks to k .. y coordinate system with area sa x a . Furthermore. It is useful to show the energy dispersion for different k.. Along the horizontal axis. and k. we will have to diagonalize the s x s Hamiltonian matrix L x L’ times. Thus we consider the Landau energy levels for only the value k .. and these oscillations may reflect the delocalized nature of the wave functions. since T = 1 and s = 60. values simultaneously as a function of k.3. (6. the unit cell in the magnetic field becomes a rectangle in the x . ( 6 . 6. 2n k. ..L’). = 0 and the energy dispersion is given as a function of k. 2 ) .. 0 + Ak)a teikya 0 0 teikua teikara .. Near the E = 0 region. L ) . some oscillations in the energy bands can be seen. In Fig. ..
104 CHAPTER 6. using the Landau gauge of Eq. in the unit cell as discussed in Sect.0 Next we consider the Landau energy bands for twodimensional graphite.2).0 2.2: Landau energy bands for a twodimensional cosine band in a magnetic field perpendicular to the twodimensional plane. 0 2j 0.8 1. Here the ratio of the area of the unit cell to the area per quantum flux is 1/60. and (2) the directions of the nearest neighbors is not always parallel to the 2 or y axes.4 Landau Energy Bands of Graphite I 1 1 I Fig. 2. The Hamiltonian matrix between A and B sites is given by.6 kann 0.3.2 0. . The energy is normalized to the nearest neighbor overlap energy t and the horizontal axis plots R values in the direction of y in dimensionless units. The two differences from the previous section are that for the case of a 2D graphene sheet: (1) there are two atomic sites. and we will use the formulation discussed in the previous section.0 6.0 0.0 2 .4 0.0 4. I 0. 6. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES p/q=1/60 4. (6. A and B .
3) of Eg. Using the same magnetic field derived from Eq.18).2.24). Finally.GRI as follows: AG=O a Bax Ba2 (6. n . (6. we have discrete values of R and k as follows: where m.k ’ ) = Zni[n(pp’)+m(qq’)]/L.R ) . (2. T . Here we again assume. (6.32) where B is the number of magnetic flux quanta within a hexagon of the honeycomb lattice. as in the previous section.29) to i ( k R .n. Further.4. using Eq. we obtain the . s which have no common divisor except for unity. the magnetic phase factor appearing in Eq. which is defined in Eq. we can calculate AG GR .€2’ = R j .16) and the nearest neighbor direction R . ( R ’ . Then we transform the phase factor in Eq. R’) = i R + ( k k’).ik’.30) Expressing R in unit vectors of a1 and a2.k . p . (6.6. (j = 1.29) can be expressed as: (6. 1 5 r n . (2.q are integers between 1 and L .p. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS 105 where t is the transfer integral between nearestneighbor sites in zero magnetic field. (6. and 1% in units of the reciprocal lattice vectors bl and b2. B = T / S .and the first term becomes i R e ( k . that t3 is a rational number which can be expressed by the ratio of two integers.31). q 5 L .
following result for a matrix element of Eq. (6.29):
(6.33)
The matrix element ((a$~Xj(a$)is ca~culated in a similar way. We can then solve the 2s x 2s matrix Hamiltonian as a function of k, and k,. In Fig, 6.3 we show the Landau energy bands of twodimensional graphite in a magnetic field perpendicular to the twGdimensiona1 plane. Here the ratio of the area of the unit cell t o the area per quantum flux unit is 1/60 and the energy is plotted in units of the nearest neighbor overlap energy t . Along the horizontal axis, fcYa/4?rvalues are plotted using the Landau gauge of Eq. (6.2). Again we can see dispersionless energy bands, except that the Landau levels near E = 0 have some dispersion. Comparing Fig. 6.3 with Fig. 6.2, we see that the level spacing between two dispersionless energy bands at k = 0 near E = 0 is not uniform in the case of twodimensional graphite, in contrast to the uniform level spacing observed for the twodimensional cosine bands. These results are identica~ with the original Landau level ca~culation of twodimensional graphite by McClure [9,157] using k.p perturbation theory near the Fermi energy E = 0. When we use the approximation of linear energy dispersion near E = 0, the density of states is proportional t o E and thus the Landau quantization occurs a t En = &Cfi, where C is a constant and n = 0,1,2,. .. In this case it is interesting that we always have the n = 0 Landau level at E = 0 , with a density of states that increases with increasing magnetic field, causing an increase of the free energy. This is why we calculate a large diamagnetism for graphite, in agreement with experiment. The n = 0 Landau level at E = 0 arises from a wavefunction consisting of contributions from both the bonding 7~ and antibonding T * bands. The equivalence between the A and B sites in the unit cell, which is discussed in Sect. 2.3 in connection with the energy dispersion relations of twodimensiona~graphite, results in a band degeneracy at E = 0, so
6.4. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS
107
3 . 0
2.0
1.O
0.0
1.O
2.0
3.0 0.0 0.2 0.4
0.6 0.8
1.0
kYd&
Fig. 6.3: Landau energy bands for twodimensional graphite in a magnetic field perpendicular to the twodimensiona1 plane. Here the ratio of the area of the unit cell to the area per magnetic quantum flux is 1/60. The vertical axis expresses the energy in units of the nearest neighbor overlap energy and the horizontal axis plots the k values in the y direction using the Landau gauge of Eq. (6.2).
that the 7r and 7r* bands are not split, even in the presence of interband coupling. In a real system, the deviation from the linear k dispersion is important for understanding the level spacing between the Landau energy bands. For l giving rise example, the density of states diverges ~ogarithmicallyat E / t = f to a high density of energy bands. If we have dense energy bands folding into the first Brillouin zone in a weak magnetic field, we can expect the energy dispersion t o become flat and the predicted fi level spacing to be clearly seen. Figure 6.3, however, corresponds to a very large magnetic field, for which there
108 CHAPTER 6. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES
is a quantum flux unit per 60 hexagons or B 103T. In this case the number of Bloch wavefunctions that are coupled to each other (s = 60) is not large enough to make completely fiat bands. Such a situation will occur for the case of a carbon nanotube for which the number of Bloch wavefunctions is limited not by the magnetic field, but rather by the periodic boundary conditions along the chiral vector.
6.5

Magnetic Energy Bands of Carbon Nanotubes for B Bohm Effect
11 z :
Aharonov
Using the method discussed in Sect. 6 . 3 , we now consider the electronic stmcture of carbon nanotubes in a uniform external magnetic field. There are two high symmetry cases for the direction of the magnetic field: one with the magnetic field parallel to the nanotube axis ( B 11 z ) and the other with the magnetic field perpendicular to the nanotube axis, ( B I z ) . Hereafter the nanotube axis is taken along the zaxis. In this section we consider the case of B 11 z . When the magnetic field is parallel t o the nanotube axis, electrons moving within the nanotube surface will feel a force perpendicular to the surface. As far as we consider only the transfer integral between two atoms within the nanotube surface, the electronic structure would appear to be unaffected by the magnetic field. This, however, is not correct. The wavefunction will change its phase factor and thus its momentum, k, will shift depending on the magnetic flux penetrating the cross section of the carbon nanotube. This phenomenon is generally known as the AharonovBohm effect, discussed often in the case of cylindrical geometry. Since the carbon nanotube can be a metal or a semiconductor, depending on whether there is an allowed wavevector k in the circumferential direction that has the value of the K . point in the twodimensional Brillouin zone (see Fig. 3.5), this AharonovBohm effect will modify the energy gap of a carbon nanotube as a function of magnetic field [84]. Here we use the twodimensional Cartesian coordinates (x,y) in thc directions of C h and T in the honeycomb lattice of Fig. 3.2 [158,159], respectively.*
*When we roll the honeycomb lattice into a cylinder, the twodimensional coordinate z = rcp (where v ,9 are cylindrical coordinates) becomes a curvilinear coordinate in three dimensions. We now take special care on making a rotation of the vector potential. However, as far as we y) on a cylindrical surface in threedimensional space by use twodimensional coordinates (5, adding a coordinate in the radial direction, T , instead of using cylindrical coordinates, ( T , cp, z ) ,
6.5. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS: AHARONOVBOHM
109
The vector potential A for BII in this coordinate system is given by,
A = ($,O)
(6.34)
where # is the magnetic flux penetrating the cross section of a carbon nanotube, and L = (Ch1.t The magnetic phase factor GR of Eq. (6.11) is given by
(6.35)
so that the phase factor difference, AGRRI= G R  GRI becomes
A G R= ~ 2 ~
Thus if we shift k, by
.x X‘ 4.
L
(6.36)
4/(L40),that is
(6.37)
in the magnetic Hamiltonian, the phase factor of the Bloch matrix element of Eq. (6.17) becomes,
(6,
+
&)
X  (k;
+ $)
X’ = (k,X
 kiX’)
 ( X XI) 4
L40
(6.38)
The second term of Eq. (6.38) cancels with the term ~ G R R I / # ofO Eq. (6.36) upon substitution into Eq. (6.17). Using this fact, we can obtain the energy bands of a carbon nanotube in a magnetic field, B (1 z , by shifting the onedimensional energy bands in the direction of k, (or K 1 in Fig. 3.5) in the twodimensional reciprocal lattice of twodimensional graphite. Since the presence of an energy gap in a carbon nanotube is determined by whether or not the onedimensional energy bands cross or do not cross at the I(
no complicated situations occw due to curvilinear coordinates. In fact, the coefficients often used in vector analysis becomes unity; hl = hz = h3 = 1. tAn integration of the vector potential A in Eq. (6.34) on a circumferential loop, c , satisfies
4=
A . dr =
x
A . dS =
which is consistent with the fact that the magnetic flux, accordance with Stokes’ theorem.
4, penetrates the cross section S in
s,
B
ds,
110 CHAPTER 6. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES
15
o'oO.O
0.5
1.0 0.0
0.5
1.0 0.0
0.5
1 . 0
Magnetic Flux (units 01 +J
Fig. 6.4:The energy gap in units of 4nly1/3L (y Itl) at the IC and IC' points of the Brillouin zone are plotted as a function of magnetic field in units of $0 for metallic (v = 0) and semiconducting (v = fl)nanotubes [160]. Here v is the residue of ( n  m) divided by 3.
or I i ' points at the corners of the 2D Brillouin zone, a semiconducting carbon nanotube can become metallic in a parallel magnetic field at certain values of the phase shift, and conversely a metallic nanotube can become semiconducting in a parallel magnetic field. The energy gap thus oscillates like a triangular chopped wave as shown in Fig. 6.4 [160], where the energy gap is plotted in units of 4nlt1/3L (E4aly1/3L in the figure) at the I i and IC' points of the Brillouin zone as a function of magnetic field in units of 40 for metallic (v = 0) and semiconducting (v = f l ) nanotubes. Here v is the residue of ( n  m) divided by 3. The energy gap is found to oscillate with a period of 4 0 . In the semiconducting nanotubes, the oscillations of the energy gap at the K and IC' points have different phases with respect to each other, while the oscillations have the same phase in metallic nanotubes. This can be explained by a shift in the k vector in the direction of K1. This phenomenon corresponds to the AharonovBohm (AB) effect for a carbon nanotube. The significance of the AB effect in a carbon nanotube is that the semiconducting or metallic nature of the nanotube can be altered only by applying a magnetic field parallel to the nanotube axis. This is because the distinction between a semiconducting and a metallic carbon nanotube arises from a quantum effect in which discrete wave numbers in the circumferential direction distinguish between metallic and semiconducting properties. It is noted that the onedimensional energy dispersion relations for carbon nanotubes at the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band follow a linear t relation only when the carbon nanotube is metallic. When the carbon nanotube has a semiconducting energy gap, the energy dispersion is quadratic at the top of the valence band and at the bottom of the conduction band. Thus the effective mass
6. + O<x<L.rn: integers. Ch = nu1 mu2 = ( n .39) where L is the length of the chiral vector. m ) . (3.sinx . For a chiral vector.c ) .40) where u is the lattice constant of the honeycomb lattice ( u = f i a c . L = adnz + m2 + nm (6. The twodimensional vector potential A for the nanotube surface is then given by A= (i: . Since all t h e magnetic flux which comes in at one side of a nanotube goes out from the other side. 2m n ) [see Eq. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS: QUANTUMOSCILLATION 111 of an electron contributing t o the transport properties of a carbon nanotube is a function of magnetic field. 2 . the net magnetic flux penetrating the nanotube surface is always zero. ( L = IChI). the unit cell of the nanotube is a rectangle specified by Ch and a translational vector T as shown in Fig. but only 8 T for a circumference of 800 A. and the integer d R is the highest common divisor of ( 2 n m. the magnetic field corresponding to $0 is 1400 T for a circumference of 60 A. In fact. 6.6 Magnetic Energy Bands of Carbon Nanotubes for B Iz : QuantumOscillations Next we consider the magnetic energy bands for a magnetic field perpendicular to the nanotube axis: B Iz . ul. (6. in analogy to those defined in Eq. Thus when we consider the phase factor due to the magnetic field. + + . 2 ) . (6. the phase factor will always be zero (a rational number) for the original unit cell of the carbon nanotube in zero magnetic field.) 0. 3 . The period of the oscillatory behavior associated with the AB effect is 40 for the cross section of a given carbon nanotube.6.7)].34) (see Fig.( n . respectively. Ch.u2: unit vectors). Thus the AB effect is expected to have periodicity involving a lower magnetic field for larger diameter nanotubes. and the coordinates 2 and y are taken along the circumferential and nanotube axis directions. 3 .
(6. (6. (6. the values of ( A X . This reflects the invariance of the unit cell with respect to the magnetic field. A and B . 6. N ) . .12). The wavevectors k.42) = r. in the 2 direction mix with each other in the presence of a magnetic field in accordance with Eq. (b) 1.R = (AX. (6.29). Further.0.. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES Using the vector potential Eq. (6. AY). = L p .5 we show the calculated energy dispersion relations in a transverse magnetic field for a C h = (10. . In Fig.41) where R = (XIY) and A R = R' ..O) zigzag carbon nanotube as a function of the dimensionless wave vector Q = kYT/2n for several values of the dimensionless inverse magnetic length L/2nl: (a) 0.39).9). in the graphene unit cell. we have three possible values of ( A X . Since a carbon atom at an A (or B ) site will have three nearest neighbors. (3. and thus the wavevector ky in the y direction remains a quantum number of translation even in the presence of a magnetic field. (6.1) Icp. . L N N Since A G depends only on X I we can immediately carry out the summation on Y in Eq. In Fig. A Y ) are the same for A sites or B sites.0 for the magnetic field B perpendicular to nanotube axis. (3. A G defined by Eq. is X given by the definition of the symmetry vector defined in Eq. we must solve a 2N x 2N matrix to find the energy eigenvalues for a given 6 . Since we have two inequivalent carbon sites. * . AY). N . Because of the .43) ( p = 0 . 2n X L and N is the number of hexagons in the nanotube unit cell given by Eq.39). the z coordinate of R.5 we see that the energy dispersion relations for the subbands of the 1D carbon nanotubes become less dispersive with increasing magnetic field. 6. Since all carbon atoms belong to either A sites or B sites.19) is given by AG = GRGR~ = = 1 { [:I2 1 LB 2n d X A Y z sin r_(X + AAX) .0 (d) 3. 2n 2n L = r ( r = 1. The total number of wavevectors in the x direction is N where 2n (6.0 (c) 2..cos(X 2x L B E [ c o s : X 2n L + AX)] (AX # 0) BAY sin X ( A X = 0).112 CHAPTER 6. (n < kyT 5 n). wave vector.
20) (b). 0 1.0 1 .0 0.0 3.6 the energy at L.o 1 .0 3.2 0.30.0 3’0 2.6: The energy at ky = 0 as a function of the dimensionless magnetic field ( L / 2 n t ) ’ / d ~ for a zigzag nanotube (a) ( n . 6.0 2.o 2.1 0.3 0. In Fig.0.6. and the calculated dispersion relations approach those of 2 .0 (c’ 3. = 0 as a function of the dimensionless magnetic .00. along the circumference of the carbon nanotube ( n .0 3.0 2.00.s   .4 0.20.0 0.0 3 .o = .0 2.0 (b) 3.0 2. (a) 3.0 1.0 2.5 rl Fig. a large magnetic field (3. 6.o 2.0 Fig.0 1. The magnetic field B is perpendicular to the nanotube axis. the magnitude of the transfer integral. m ) = (20.0 .4 0.5 11 0.3 0.o 2. m ) = (20.0 1.0 1 .3 0.0 0. $perturbation theory near the r point.()). the magnetic field required to form Landau subbands becomes smaller.5 1 1 3.0 3. and (9. 6. 0 1.o I : 0.40.6.o 0.0.2 0.0 1 .O) zigzag carbon nanotube as a function of the dimensionless wave vector 7 = kyT/27r for several values of the dimensionless inverse magnetic length L/27rE: (a) 0.0 2.1 0.0 (d) 3. \ finite number (20) of wave vectors Ic.4 0. and the energy is plotted in units of It(. 0.O 0.0 1 .86 x lo4 T) is required to reach L/27rE = 3.0 2 .1 0.0 3.o 0.2 0. where != h/eB.5: Energy dispersion relations of a Ch = (IO.0).o 0.5 11 0.o 1. 0 (b) 2.0 GI 2 1 .0. and two armchair nanotubes of different diameters: ( n .0 1.00. (b) 2. When the diameter (or L ) increases.1 0.0 (C) (d) 2.s  1.9) .o 0 . LANDAU ENERGY BANDS: QUANTUMOSCILLATION (a) 113 3. m )= (lo.o 2.
7 might be related to the oscillation of the electronic conductance of a'multilayer carbon nanotube as a function of magnetic field a t low temperature.O) zigzag nanotube as a function of the dimensionless magnetic field v 2 = ( L / 2 ~ t ) ~ .5. 6.O ( L /2nl)' Fig. 6. 6. 6. and for two armchair nanotubes of different diameters ( n . for a zigzag nanotube ( n . In Fig.9) [Fig.20) [Fig. . field. The irregular oscillation in Fig.m) = (20. Figure 6. which can be scaled by the dimensionless magnetic field. values 0scillates periodically as a function of magnetic field. The mixing of Bloch orbitals with different k.0 15. 0 5. 6.6(c)].O) [Fig. The energy dispersion near the Fermi energy is especially important. LANDAU ENERGY BANDS OF CARBON NANOTUBES 0 . 6.o) zigzag nanotube as a function of the dimensionless magnetic field ( L / ~ A .7 the density of states at the Fermi energy is plotted for a c h = (9.7: Density of states per carbon atom at the Fermi energy for a Ch = (9.7 shows that when the magnetic field increases.0 jo.6(a)].6(b)] and (9.114 CHAPTER 6. This phenomena can be identified with the AharonovBohm effect. ! ) ~ . ( L / 2 ~ l ) ~ / isdshown ~ .m)= (20. 6. in analogy to the case of BIIdiscussed in Sect. a metallic Fermi surface appears and disappears in an irregular manner.
we show examples of (a) (12.2.7.1 in the literature showing the junction between two carbon nanotubes with different diameters using high resolution transmission microscopy [107]. In this chapter we first show how to connect two carbon nanotubes and then we calculate the electrical conductance of such a junction. In this chapter the general framework for joining two singlewall nanotubes of different diameters and chiralities is presented in Sect. 7.7. while in Sect. In this figure the larger diameter multiwall carbon nanotube AB is joined t o a smaller diameter multiwall nanotube C D through a junction section BC containing a single pentagon B and a single heptagon C. Coiled carbon nanotubes are reviewed in Sect.O)(8. since a semiconductormetal junction is realized by connecting a semiconductor and a metal carbon nanotube. as it relates to rolling up a graphene honeycomb sheet of width L equal to the magnitude of the chiral vector. a net diagram of a carbon nanotube.. In this section we use a net diagram t o describe a junction which connects two carbon nanotubes of different geometries [i.7. Sect. As discussed in Fig.O)(9.1.7.e.3. 7.4 the transport properties of such nanotube junctions are discussed.m)]. 7 .O) and (b) (12. 3.2 and Sect.O) zigzag 115 .2 we show that two arbitrary nanotubes can be joined in a unique way by introducing a single pentagon and heptagon pair.CHAPTER 7.7.7. described by different chiral vectors ( n .5. and by demonstrating the resulting junction explicitly. provides a useful description for considering the three dimensional structure of a single carbon nanotube. In Fig. In Sect.2. 1 Net Diagrams of a Junction There are many illustrations such as Fig. Connecting Carbon Nanotubes Connecting two singlewall carbon nanotubes is an interesting problem.
(c) A schematic illustration of the transition region between nanotubes of different diameters. The positive curvature of the pent(agona1 ring. respectively [107]. when the difference between the diameters of the 'Here we neglect the small s p 3 component in the and the junction. CONNECTING CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. makes the diameter of the carbon nanotube decrease in going from left to right in Fig. associated with the joining of the two nanotubes.1: (a) A high resolution TEM image of the junction between two multiwall carbon nanotubes. in which the carbon atoms of the pentagon and the heptagon rings are indicated by filled circles. All carbon atoms in the junction have three u sp2 covalent bonds.* Thus we can say that the pentagon and heptagon defects are topological point defects.116 CHAPTER 7. and there are no sp3 covalent bonds in the junction. and the negative curvature of the heptagonal ring prevents further decrease in the nanotube diameter. 7. (b) A schematic representation of (a).2. All the other polygons in the nanotube junction region are hexagons. showing a pentagon and heptagon at B and C . Thus. 7. ( r bonds due to the curvature of the tube . nanotube junctions. as is generally seen in fullerenes.
7.2: (a) (12. the chiral vectors AB and C D correspond to the tThis situation can be easily understood when the reader copies Fig.respectively. For each nanotube.O)(9. When we roll up the net + + diagram t o make a tube. are uniquely determined by the chiral vectors. 7. two carbon nanotubes becomes large. NET DIAGRAMS OF A JUNCTION 117 7.t Since the solid angles of a pentagon and a heptagon in the fullerene are 2 7 r . In Fig. the distance between the pentagon and heptagon also becomes large.O)(8. respectively. The smaller tube TABU and the larger + + tube R C D S . should correspond t o these angles. This fact gives the angle relations: LACR+ L B D S = 57r 3 ’ and LCAT+ LDBU = . AC t o BD.1.O) and (b) (12. and C R t o DS through cylindrical surfaces.1) The threedimensional structure is obtained by connecting AT t o B U .3 and makes a junction by cutting and connecting the edges.O) zigzag nanotubes are shown in which the carbon atoms of the pentagon and the heptagon are indicated by filled circles. Here a pentagon exists at the site C (or D)and a heptagon exists at A (or B). 77r 3 (7. .3 we show a net diagram of two carbon nanotubes which are given by the rectangles TABU and RCDS.7. indicated by shaded hexagons. the sum of the angles on the net diagram around the pentagon and the heptagon.~ / 3 and 27r+n/3. eight circumferential zigzag chains are shown. AB and C D .
(b) The cone of OALB and (c) its projection are shown for understanding that the line A M B is a line of minimum length for going around the surface of the cone. + The chiral vectors for the two nanotubes are shown by AB and + CD. a pentagon exists at the site C (or D) and a heptagon exists at A (or B). At the shaded hexagons in the figure.AC to BD. The relation O M IA M B satisfies both (b) and (c). The threedimensional structure is obtained by connecting AT to B U .5). CONNECTING CARBON NANOTUBES L Fig. + circumferential directions of the tubes while the translational vectors AT and + + * C R which are perpendicular to AB and CD.118 CHAPTER 7.3: (a) Net Diagram for the joint between two nanotubes.and CR t o DS through cylindrical surfaces. by Eq. . 7. The + which is given joint region is uniquely expressed by a vector. CA. (7.respectively. correspond to the directions of the nanotube axes in three dimensions.
AB= C7 = (127. j 2 ) .3. 6). and C A as CD= C5 = (125. 727. First we will give a formula for rotating a vector Zn. m7.. and Rj = (2. c. 7. is given by This formula of Eq. respectively.3 is drawn for 2 5 = (5. Figure 7. + Hereafter we denote CD. respectively. we ret " 27r LACD LBDC = . m5. and 6 7 = (1. 6 5 and 6 7 are given.m) Thus RCn. where 125. once the two chiral vectors. 4). 4 . t  Using Eq. which gives j = (6. Then the condition for j1 and j z for given 6 5 and 6 7 vectors is. we obtain the components of the joint vector 3 Thus the joint vector. (7.2 The Rule for Connecting Two Nanotubes LFrom Eq.7. j . and j . j1.*and CA= j = ( j l . A B . will be used frequently in the following discussion... T H E RULE FOR CONNECTING TWO NANOTUBES 119 7.4) for Rv'. is uniquely determined. are integers. Denoting a n/3 rotation by R . (7.2) give the rule for connecting two nanotubes * as discussed below.5). ms). (74 3 + + + Then BD is given by (1) rotating AC around C by n / 3 and then (2) translating by CD. . we get ( n .3). = na'l+ m?lz by 7r/3 on a honeycomb lattice. (7.and A C = BD.4).2.1) and using the fact that we connect AC to BD in Fig. (7.m7).. The conditions in Eq. * + + .  'Here 5 and 7 i n c 5 and mean that the chiral vectors C5 and C7 exist on the pentagon and heptagon sides of the junction. .
7.3(b)]. Thus we always expect some distortion arising from the elliptical shape of the cone section relative to the circle shape of the nanotube surface. 0.120 CHAPTER 7. 3 The polygon. are identical to each other. respectively. for the two tubes. while the path A M B is a circle on the nanotube surface. CONNECTING CARBON NANOTUBES Shape of a Junction 7 . It should be mentioned here that the path A M B is an ellipse on the cone surface in three dimensions [see Fig. Since O A = O B . OC = O D . We assume here that the lines A M B and C H D in Fig. Thus A O A B is a regular triangle. in the net diagram of Fig. The + + position of 0 is given by rotating CD or A B by ~ / . the line A M B is a line of minimum length for going around the surface of the cone. 7.7) that CO .3(b). However. Similarly.AO= When we define the angle of the vertex of the cone in three dimensions as 20. is defined as the crossing of the two lines O M and OH such that OM and OH are perpendicular bisectors of A B and C D . as is shown in Fig. This idea is valid. OALB. 0 = sin' 6 2: 9 . 7. For the cone. in which OM I A M B satisfies both Figs. ACDB is part of a cone whose vertex is denoted by 0 in Fig. we have LAOB = LCOD = a/3.7) We can easily check from Eqs. while the cone and its projection.8) .3(b) and (c). which gives LACD LBDC = LOCD LODC = ~ 1 3 .3(a) denotes the joint which connects t<hetwo nanotubes.3(b) and (c). the two triangles. where the lines A M B and CHD are minimum in length for going around the nanotube surface. too. 1 (7. ACDB. The shape of the joint determines the shape and axis of the cone as shown in Figs. since LAOC = LBOD. and AC = B D .n5). Within this assumption. (7. CO= R CD= (n5 + + + + + + (7. are shown in Figs. 727).3(a). 7. since the distortion is perpendicular to the surface. AO= R AB= (727 + m7. Thus LAC0 = LBDO. AOAC E AOBD. 7. this fact does not affect the angle on the tube or cone surface. Thus this assumption regarding minimum length lines seems to be reasonable.3(a) correspond to the minimum lines of the cone surface. 0 is given by I. the vertex of the cone. 7. 7. too.Thus we conclude that AOCD is a regular triangle. TABU and RCDS.3(b) and (c). 5 9 4 ' .3 + + + m5. respectively. 7.6) and (7.
In this case. m5.6). 7. The definition of the dihedral angle provides a good analogy to chemistry. cp. which corresponds *To obtain Eq.3(a) lie on a line. The two planes are defined by (1) the cone axis OF and an axis of the tube at the pentagon side F E . then the angle between the two axes of the tubes becomes 28 = 19. the positions of the pentagon and the heptagon (Dand B in Fig. as shown in Figs. (7. is defined by the rotation angle around the cone axis between AOFD and A O F N . @ and cp.4.4(b)]: D N = O D * Q. (o. (7. n7 and m7. = FN O D : FN = 27r :r / 3 .* (7. 7.7. B . the two nanotube axes do not intersect with each other. When the dihedral angle (o is n. The dihedral angle. since the dihedral angle of a threedimensional molecule is defined by three chemical bonds.4(a) and (b). the angle between the two axes of the tubes becomes zero. 7. and (2) the cone axis OF and an axis of the tube at the heptagon side GI<. SHAPE O F A JUNCTION 121 The angle 8 is the angle between the axis of the tube and the axis of the cone in three dimensions. * (o and .9). but when the pentagon and the heptagon are on opposite sides of the cone surface. When the pentagon and heptagon are neither along the same line nor on opposite sides of the cones. If the points 0. between two planes as shown in Fig. we use the following facts [see Fig. The dihedral angle is useful for understanding the threedimensional structure of the two nanotube axes and the single cone axis joining the two carbon nanotubes. respectively) are opposite each other. we can write the angles.4.10) Using Eq.19O. 7. 7. we can define a dihedral angle.3. The thick line EFGII' provides a wire frame model for representing the axes for the nanotubes and the cone.3(a) as follows. 7. In this case the bending angle of the nanotube axes in the net diagram. as a function of n5. and D in Fig. The dihedral angle (o is relevant t o the angle LBOD = @ shown in the projection map of Fig.
sum to T . 7. is on both planes. O F . are not located on these ellipses. respectively.8. D and E are in a plane and that G . F and G . (b) Another view of the dihedral angle. 7. F . Here the axis of the cone. LGFE and L F G K . The points P and Q are both centersof the darkshaded ellipses in Fig. It is noted that points 0. 7. shown on the cone. F E and GI{ are the axes of the two nanotubes. becomes n/6 (or 30°).3). The light shaded circle is the bottom surface of the cone and two dark shaded ellipses are the cross sections between the cone and each nanotube. (7. Ii' and N are in another single plane. cp. The thick line E F G K corresponds to a wire frame model for reproducing the axes for the nanotubes and the cone.4(b). which corresponds to the case discussed by Dunlap [161. L N F D = cp is defined between the two planes A O F D and A O F N .122 CHAPTER 7. The bond angles. D and B are the positions of the pentagon and the heptagon. The ellipses are defined by rolling . F . Here DH I O H and O M I M B .4: (a) The dihedral angle. Points P and Q are both centers of ellipses. in the joint region (see Fig.9).162]. CONNECTING CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. and both P and Q are on the nanotube axes. to Q in Eq. The crossing points of the cone axis with the nanotube axes.
127 and my.0. m5.7.3 and 7. (7. (7. After some calculation. T U N N E L I N G C O N D U C T A N C E OF A JUNCTION 123 up A M B and C H D in Fig. the skeleton of the wire frame in three dimensions is well defined by only the four integers of the two chiral vectors. 125. LGFE and LFGII'.4. (7.918 = 0.2% distortion at the junction. 7. we consider some specific cases and their electronic structure.082 = 8. Thus the nanotube axis length on the pentagon side becomes shorter by P F in the wire frame model and the nanotube axis length on the heptagon side becomes longer by GQ. where P F and GQ are given by PF = 1 ~ 3 ~ sin2 1 8. b/a is given by (7. The bond angles. 7. sum to T .3 so that DH IOH and O M IM B in Figs. It is clearly seen from Fig.4(b) that P and Q are not crossing points of the nanotube axes with the cone axis. we consider a system that incIudes the .4. When we denote the longer and the shorter axes of the ellipses as a and b.4(b). Using all the formulae given here.11) The length of the cone axis FG is given by FG = OF . GQ = 1 2 7 1sin2B.4 ~nnelin Conductance ~ of a Junction To discuss the electronic structure and the tunneling conductance of a junction connecting two carbon nanotubes. the ratio of b t o a is given as a function of 8.OG = (1651 I~~~)COS@.8). It is important to point out that there is no ambiguity in the structure of the junction if we specify the two chiral vectors of the nanotubes. FG. Thus the cross section of the circle at the end of the nanotube is distorted by 10. 7. Thus the geometrically optimized structure or electronic structure of the connected nanotubes is uniquely described by the chiral vectors of the two nanotubes. In the next section.12) using the fact that OG IGB. Finally we discuss the shape of the dark shaded ellipses shown in Fig.13) where we make use of Eq. and the two dark shaded ellipses have the same eccentricity but have different sizes. 7. 7.
O)(8. All the calculated energies are in units o f t . The total numbers of carbon atoms in the calculations are thus 735 and 720 for the (12.2. as discussed in Fig. are given by (3. m5) nanotube. for ?r orbitals is considered. and Gaussian broadening is used for calculating the density of states and for calculating the conductance. with eigenvalues E = 0 and eigenfunctions localized in a region about 6u ( u = Iii~l) from the nanotube end. 1. depending on whether or not n is a multiple of 3. At the ends of the carbon nanotube. respectively. 7.2. The structure of the junctions that we use for illustrative purposes is the junction between two zigzag nanotubes [69]. and the electronic structure of a zigzag nanotube is either metallic or semiconducting. respectively. whose magnitude is known to be between 2. In the calculation. 41.O)(9.124 (n5.13 eV [69]. though only 8 unit cells are shown in Fig. An armchair nanotube. and the unit cells of each carbon nanotube start from the carbon atoms of the pentagon or the heptagon that is connected to each nanotube. (n. and the small hybridization due to the curvature of the nanotube or junction is neglected. 4. the lengths of the carbon nanotubes at both ends are taken as 16 unit cells.O) zigzag nanotubes. has one of the smallest unit cells among carbon nanotubes.O)(8. and the dihedral angle p is always zero for zigzagzigzag carbon nanotube junctions. respectively.7.O). which are used here as examples of a metalmetal junction and a meta1se~conductor junction.3. The threedimensional lattice structure is represented by formulae given in Sect. ( j l .2 we show the top view of the junction of two zigzag nanotubes for the cases: (a) (12.where is an integer. but all armchair nanotubes are known to be metallic. Here the unit vector of each zigzag nanotube is 22 if 21 is selected in the circumferential direction.O) zigzag nanotubes. The corresponding junction vectors. Since we consider carbon nanotubes of finite length. n).0)(9.j z ) .0) and (12. The electronic structure is calculated by a simple tightbinding method in which only the nearestneighbor transfer energy.rn7) nanotube. In Fig. Since only the amplitude of the wavefunction in the junction is included . A zigzag nanotube defined by (n. the (n7.O) and (b) (12. 7. 7. the dangling covalent x bonds give rise to edge states.5 eV and 3. all electronic states are given by discrete electronic levels. also has a small unit cell.2 by filled circles. 3) and (4. Carbon atoms for the p ~ ~ t a g o and n heptagon rings are indicated in Fig. respectively. Thus zigzag nanotubes are suitable for considering a metalsemiconductor junction and armchair nanotubes are not. and the junction region between them.
Otherwise. a delocalized wavefunction is formed only in each nanotube region. the density of states for the junction of the (a) (12.O)(9. though their energy is at the Fermi energy E = 0. Thus these states do not contribute to the conductance. Even when we remove the contribution of the localized states to the density of states. the effect of these edge states is automatically excluded.7.O)(9. which is consistent with three carbon bonds associated with each carbon atom. The ca~culatedresults show that the eigenfunc~ionsof the energy levels consist of contributions from: (1) the delocalized wavefunction for the whole system. There are. If the energies of the wavefunctions in the two carbon nanotubes are equal to each other.~ i m e n s i o n ~ ~ 1 / f i singularities due to the onedimensional energy bands are quantized in the circumferential direction [69]. no localized states in the junction region. Were again all E = 0 states (see Fig. the density of states near the Fermi energy is smaller than that of the (12.O) and (b) (12. a delocalized wavefunction for the whole system is formed. (2) the delocalized wavefunctions for each of the carbon nanotubes. 7. The energies of all eigenstates are within IE/tl 5 3.O) zigzag nanotubes.O)nanotubes. the Bloch wavefunctions of each carbon nanotube are scattered by the pentagon.5) that not only the twodimensional van Hove singularities of graphite at E/t = f l but also many o n e . the heptagon and the junction region of the nanotubes.5. This situation is easily explained by the fact that the plane wave of an electron is reflected or transmitted at a positive square potential. however. 7.O) and (9.4.5) correspond to edge states whose wavefunctions are localized not in the junction region but rather at both ends of the nanotubes.0) zigzag nanotubes is plotted per carbon atom per energy 1.O) . which gives rise to a tu ~ n e lin g probability ils a function of electron energy. TUNNELING C O N D U C T A N C E OF A JUNCTION 125 in the conductance calculation. the resulting density of states is finite near the Fermi energy E / t = 0 which indicates that onedimensional metallic energy bands exist for both the (12. and (3) edge states localized at the both ends. In the case of the metalsemiconductor (12. because the junction does not correspond to an attractive potential.O)(8. 7. Since translational symmetry is broken at the junction. The density of states of these connected twonanotube systems can be understood primarily as the sum of the density of states of the two const~tuent carbon nanotubes.0~(8. as a function of energy in units of JtJ. We can see in the plot of the density of states (Fig. In Fig.
where the structures are shown in Fig. AE/1%1 = 0.4. It might be difficult to see the differences between Fig. By calculating the energy levels of a (8.4. When a voltage V is applied to this system.126 ~~APTE 7.y of states than Fig. the energy gap is reduced to E9/1t1 = 0.5: The density of states of junctions for (a) (12. All E = 0 states correspond t o edge states whose wavefunctions are localized not in the junction region but rather at either end of the nanotubes.O) and (b) (12. 7.5(b).O) carbon nanotube near the Fermi energy.O)(8. 7. 7. Because of the Gaussian broadening that is used. the tunneling elect. the conductance can be determined by c a ~ c u l a t i n the ~ current density.5(a). Using the eigenfunctions for the electrons in the nanotube junction structures shown in Fig. I .5(a) and (b). and also the energy width for the constant region is the larger in the case of Fig. is given by 21631 .O) nanotube with the same length.033. In this case the wavefunctions are only delocalized in the (l2.O) nanotube region near the Fermi energy. RC O N N ~ ~ CARBON T ~ ~ G ~ A ~ ~ T U B Fig.55. 7+5(a)shows a larger value of the densit. 7.O)(9. Fig. However when we look carefully at the almost constant.62. 7. we get an energy gap of Es/ltl = 0. system because of the absence of a finite density of states for the (8.O)nanotube. These differences can be explained a s follows.O) zigzag nanotubes plotted in units per single carbon atom per energy t . density of states region around E = 0. and not in the (8. 7.ric current.
141.>.0) zigzag carbon nanotubes. AE/t = 0. respectively.0)(9~0~ and (b) (12.g is t ~ o n . The plots in Fig. scattered in the periodic region but8only in the junction region. (T.Here G is the imagin~ry past of the resolvent given by Gi/i(E) = P C ~ E. ftetmning to Eq. appears when the energy of the wa~efunction to the Ieft of the junction coincides with the energy plus e l f of that t.33 (solid line) and AE/t = 0. we show the calculated conductance I / V for the carbon nanotube junctions of Fig. and Ci.5 < V / t < 0 3 . we see that J.15)~ ~ where E.o the right. Jij is the current operator for atomic orbitafs at sites a’ arid j given bv where (pi is ith atomic orbital. such as shown in Fig. i o Ibe i valid even for delocatized w a v ~ f ~ ~ ~ may over c ~ the io~s whole region. Turineling current. the conductance increases with increasing appiied voltage. This f o ~ ~ n u ~ a ~ . and these osciliations are closely related to the universal conduc~ance ~ ~ c t u a t i1164 ~ n srecently reported in carbon nanotubes [165]. In Fig. n~ in the case of f a ) for ~ e t a l ~ i c . used above far c a ~ c ~ ~ lG a itj ~ ~ etc.m e tnariotube a ~ ~ i ~ junctions. which are obtained by solving the t~ghtb~nding Hamiltonian for the junction structure. Since this nanotube juiiction system is so small. Rere we ~ S S B I Ithat ~ F it is only in the junction region that we export a voltage drop.v a n ~ ~ h ~ n g only for 7’ and j at nearest neighbor sites. ~  ~ (7.6 are made as a function of applied voltage 0. volltine integral [IG3]. The oscilfations in the con~uctance show resonances in the t u n ~ e i probability i~~ between the two nanotubes.16) from a surface integral t*o a. for two different Gaussian broadening values. The increase of the conductance with ~ n c r e ~V in ~ comes from the fact that (1) the resonance t ~ n ~ e lpi r~og b a b ~ is ~~t~ .4. the ~ a v e f ~ n c t ~ that o n is then obtained should be a ~ ~ r # ~ i rby na at delocalized ~~ wave~~nct~ at on F/ T : 0. (7.4 (a) (12. are the pth eigenvatue and ith component of the pth eigenfunction. When the voltage matches the ~ u ~ ~ ecoiidition ~ j n g for ~ o n n ~ ~ t i n ~ delocaliwd ~ ~ ~ v e f u ~ i over c ~ ithe o ~whole s region.6. and the integrati~n is taken at the same surface So as was used for calcu~ating the current density. in which electrons are iiot. and in regions where the voltage changes sig~ificant~y between sites i atid j .0)~$. 7. By conver~~~ng Eq. 7.50 (dotted line). 7. we consider the carbon network to be in the mesoseopic regime. 7.
7. as a function of voltage V in units of ltl. AE/)tl = 0. proportional to V .55ft1. weak ~ o c ~ ~ i z a twill i o n make it possible to have a finite level spacing near the .O) s e ~ i c o ~ d u c tnanotube or is 0.33 (solid line) and AE/ltl = 0.O) and (b) (12. there are more states near tke Fermi level.6: Calculated conductance I / V for (a) (12. When the length of the nanotube increases. in the case of Fig. using two different Gaussian broadening vdues. 7.~) zigzag carbon nanotube junctjon (see Fig. Thus it is concluded that a semiconductormetal junction is well established even in a nanoscale. The estimated energy gap for the (8. mesoscopic structure.128 C ~ A F 7. The ~alculated resu~ts with larger energy broadeni~ A ~E {dotted line in Fig. On the other hand. However.4 for their structures). there is no conductance in the energy gap region for the semiconducting (8. The results clearly show that a delocalized wavefunction is present near the Ferermi level only in the metallic (12.O) nanotube region.0~{8. Again it is noted that there is no contribution to the conductance from the edge states. 7.6) are closer to this case compared to the plot for smaller A E . T C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ E CARBON C T ~ ~ NANOTUBES G V/# Fig.50 (dotted line). which can be automatically excluded because their wavefunctions have no amplitude in the junction region.6(b) for a meta1se~conductor nanotube junction.O) nanotube though there is a finite density of states near the Fermi level. if there is a structural defect in the nanotube. if the density of states is constant near the Fermi energy. and that (2) the current operator. Thus the amplitude of the oscillations will decrease relative to the absolute value of the tunneling conductance and the average level spacings will decrease as energy bands are formed. 7. J q is proportional to V .O)(9.
the conductance G is given by (7.I<}. Especially when we consider a metalmetal junction system connecting two semiinfinite metallic nanotubes. As for the channels. p method in a magnetic field [168].169]. We have shown in the Chapter 4 that there are two metallic channels whose wave vector corret ' ' points of the twodimensional Brillouin zone. =z f e2 ($). In the above discussion we have assumed a voltage drop in the junction. numerical calculations show that f(R2/R1) oc ( R ~ / R I ) ~ [169]. we consider only energy subbands which cross the Fermi energy. In Landauer's formula. The reason for this assumption is that we obtain three kinds of wavefunctions in the above calculation and that two of the three are localized in the constituent nanotubes. Thus. I{}.n } = { K . expressed by a dimensionless scaling function f . { K ' .1).I('} [168. However.18) When R2IR1 >> 2. if there is no voltage drop at the junction nor over the nanotubes.1. and {It".4. {It'.167] (see Sect. we sponds to the It' and I have four contributions of channels { m . An interesting result is a scaling law for the radii of the constituent nanotubes. is the transmission coefficient between the incident channel n on the left side and the outgoing channel m in the right side. (7. the energy subbands a t the Fermi energy can be well defined over the junction and thus this assumption may be applied. This might be a possible reason for the observation of universal conductance fluctuations in carbon nanotube systems in which the region of the voltage drop corresponds t o a disordered region [164]. The transmission probability tm. 8.7. This result clearly gives the power dependence of the amplitude of the wavefunctions in the junction region. The .K ' } . TUNNELING CONDUCTANCE OF A JUNCTION 129 junction region which gives rise to conductance fluctuations.17) where t . we can treat the conductivity by the linearresponse theory known as Landauer's formula [166. is calculated by the recursive Green's function technique [170] in which the S matrix is calculated by a tightbinding calculation [169] or by a Ic . The conductance of a junction in a magnetic field is an important tool for monitoring the phase change of the scattered wavefunction at the junction. R2/R1.
we show much more complicated cage structures which have many pentagonheptagon pairs.7: Optimized toroidal structures: (a) torus C360 and (b) torus C240: Pentagons and heptagons are shaded. and for multiwall nanotubes.130 CHAPTER 7. Several observations of semitoroidal structures are described in the literature for singlewall nanotubes [54]. including both arc discharge grown nanotubes [107] and carbon nanotubes prepared from pyrolytic carbon and heat treated t o 28OO0C [59]. These phenomena can be applied t o enhance the capabilities of nanoscale magnetic devices. respectively.7 and 7. Figure 7.and intervalley scattering processes can be modified by a magnetic field [168]. 7. One possible shape for a nanotube is a toroidal (or donut) shape. Numerical cal~ulations show that the ratio of the intra. The diameters of the central toroidal hole are the same for (a) and (b).9(b) shows a typical toroidal structure. 7.8A. 7. and the other shape is a helically coiled shape. which are known as intervalley scattering centers. We also have intravalley scattering centers where the wavefunction is scattered by defects without experiencing any change of wave vector. 7. . which can be readily understood using the schematic diagram in Fig. 6 0 molecule [171]. 7. These complicated cage structures were first discussed in detail mainly by Ihara and his coworkers [171].8.5 Coiled Carbon Nanotubes In this section. CONNECTING CARBON NANOTUBES c360 c240 Fig.9(a) in terms of a sock turned inside out. as shown in Figs. which is close to the diameter of the c mixing of the wavefunctions between the 'I and I' wave vectors occurs at a pair of pentagonal and heptagonal defech.
(b) A TEM micrograph of a semitoroidal termination of a nanotube which consists of' six graphene shells [lo?].7. Helicallycoiled carbon nanotubes which are obtained by using a cobalt cat . 7.9A and (b) coil length = 13.9: (a) I l l u s t ~ a ~ i o of n a semitoroidal termination of a nanotube which is caused by six pairs of pentagonal and heptagonal rings in it hexagon network. one pitch contains a torus C ~ C ~ (a) O coil .5. though the pattern of pentagons in the outer ridge is fixed.8: Heli~allycoiled nanotubes: in both eases. Fig. The tiling pattern of heptagons in the inner ridge line is changed upon changing the coil length. 7. length = 12. COILED CARBON NANOTUBES 13 1 Fig.23k.
The number of pentagons and heptagons.1 investigation of such structures [81].9) in which the genus g is the number of topological holes.10. in which two growth points can occur at a single nanotube cap. in the toroidal structures is given by the Euler theorem for polyhedra as (7. the number of pentagons . and up to 30 pm in length. The multiwall twisted helical carbon nanotube obtained in Fig. CONNECTING CARBON NANUTUBES Fig.19) f5 . alyst on a silica surface. Another category of torus that has been observed experimentally is formed from a long singlewall nanotube by joining the two ends in a seamless way and thus has a very large outer diameter compared to the tube diameter. (that is g = l ) . This multiwall coiled carbon nanotube contains about 10 wall layers [173]. and a pitch of about 30 nm.132 CHAPTER 7. 7. This selfassembled torus has been called a “crop circle” [174].Oll% of certain nanotube samples are crop circle tori. This helical structure is well known in carbon fiber growth patterns [172]. growth which characterizes helical carbon nanotubes. It is estimated from TEM observations that O.f7 = 12(1 . 7. respectively. as shown in Fig.10 for the catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene might be considered to foflow the same basic crystal growth mechanism. Experimental observations of toroidal structures [173] have also inspired theoretica. the center. fs and f 7 . Since a torus (or a donut) has a single hole at. have also been observed by high resolution TEM with inner and outer diameters in the range 37 nm and 1520 nm. and these two growth points provide the mechanism for twist.10: A high resolution TEM image of a helixshaped structure with a radius of about 18 nm. 7.
as shown in Fig. eighteen pentagonheptagon pairs are necessary to make 360'. and heptagons are equal.4 is about T . (7. In the case of a toroidal shape structure. a onedimensional superlattice is obtained. This case corresponds to all fullerenes.8) is close to 20'. 7. a toroidal carbon nanotube is formed.8)(5. and the angle 28 defined by Eq. which can be specified by n 1 sets of chiral vectors. (7. 7. we can no longer image a loop. we get a singlewall carbon nanotube defined by a single chiral vector. 2 . 7.5) [175]. (8. when the dihedral angle defined in Eq. An infinite length of carbon nanotube can be considered as a torus with an infinite toroidal radius.5. we generally get helical coiled carbon nanotubes. Thus the angle 'p defined by Fig. . so that g becomes zero. each with a pentagonheptagon pair. . the number of pentagons f5 becomes twelve for the two caps. COILED CARBON NANOTUBES 133 Fig. Thus a general coiledshape nanotube can be considered to connect many joints. as in Fig.7. if the + . When f5 = f7 = 0 . in which case we have twelve pentagons per fullerene. giving fs . and if some joint conditions concerning the twisting of the nanotube are satisfied at the ends.10. f5 = f7.f7 = 12.11. On the other hand. Further.) per the unit cell. If the helical coiled carbon nanotube does not have any helical pitch. pentagons and heptagons appear in both the outside and inside of the main ring of the torus. When we consider the caps at the both ends of a nanotube. 7. and thus f5 = f7 here also. When the structure is periodic and f5 = f7 = n (for n = 1 .9) becomes zero. If a torus consists of such a joint with a bend angle of 2O0. When we do not consider any heptagons a t the caps..11: A superlattice structure consisting of the periodic joining of the two armchair sections. 3 .
giving rise to semimetallic behavior. depending on the position of the pentagon and the heptagon. The apex angle of the cone made by a pentagon is 2arcsin(5/6) = 113O. 7. In fact. 7. Their calcu~atedresults for the 7r orbitals within the tight binding approximation show that helical nanotubes can be either (1) a metal. Since a solid angle of 7r/6 is missing at a pentagon defect. 11761. Since each carbon atom has three CT bonds.* That means that if adjacent pentagons are close t o one another or are arranged in three dimensions. The optimized m depends on the shape of the torus and the value of n. As a result. the most geometrically optimized calculation shows that from ten to fourteen pentagons are necessary for constructing the outer side of a torus.4'.hole of the torus is missing at the center.9' and that for a regular truncated icosahedron is 117. as well as the pitch and twist values of the helical structure may be obtained from the chiral vectors. comes from the fact that a coiled carbon nanotube consists of at least two different constituent carbon nanotube shells. after folding the energy bands of the constituent carbon nanotube shells in accordance with the superstructure of the coiled carbon nanotubes. using a StillingerWeber model potential [171]. a small charge transfer occurs between these two bands. The semimetallic electronic structure. Thus the lowest conduction bands and the highest valence bands do not always come from the same constituent shells. . *The corresponding angle for corannuleneis 130.10 should be defined by two chiral vectors and the length of the pitch per unit of the two nanotubes. is fourteen for (2240 and twelve for (2360 as shown in Fig.29 eV) and that of graphite (7. then twelve pentagons are sufficient to form a fullerene. the effective curvature becomes large compared with an isolated pentagonheptagon pair. The electronic structure of coiled carbon nanotubes was discussed by Akagi et al. have also calculated the cohesive energy per carbon atom of (Cn)m by changing the order m of the rotational symmetry for a given unit of C. which are obtained numerically by an optimization of the calculated structure. Helicallyco~~ed carbon nanotubes such as in Fig. with overlapping valence and conduction bands. we can imagine a cone shape around a pentagon. (2) a semiconductor.7. which is consist~nt with the above discussion..44 eV)[171]. The inner and outer radii. The actual number of pentagonheptagon pairs in the optimized structure calculated by Ihara et al. or ( 3 ) a semimetal. Ihara et al.. and the optimized cohesive energy lies between that of c 6 0 (7. tubular radius.
which however never occurs for a singlewall carbon nanotube without a pentagon or heptagon. . In the k * p’ approximation. which means there is electronhole symmetry.$ tThis fact clearly follows from Euler’s theorem.5. implies that Nc is an even number.+ Therefore.. the band widths of the condu_ction and valence bands are identical. If we denote the number of carbon atoms and Q bonds by Nc and Nu. $The symmetry breaking between electrons and holes in tight binding results from the inclusion of the overlap matrix elements S . then 3Nc = 2Nu holds if there are no dangling bonds. in the matrix Hamiltonian. respectively.7. the crossing of two energy bands at the Fermi level is sufficient for semimetallic behavior. The equation 3Nc = ZN. the electronhole symmetry also holds. COILED CARBON NANOTUBES 135 the number of carbon atoms and thus the number of x electrons in the unit cell is always an even number. because the T electrons show electronhole symmetry around the Fermi energy. If these matrix elements are neglected.
.
CHAPTER 8. Conductance Buctuations as a function of the magnetic field. R=p L r w2 ' w2 L CT where p [am] is the resistivity. Then some results on transport experiments in carbon nanotubes are summarized in Section 8. when the size of the wire becomes small compared with the characteristic lengths for the motion of electrons. the resistance R[Q] is given by Ohm's law. Transport Properties of Carbon Nanotubes At low temperature a singlewall carbon nanotiibe is a quantum wire in which the electrons in the wire move without being scattered by scattering centers.(8. known as universal conductance fluctuations. and a length L .1. the resistivity p and the conductivity . the electrons act like waves that show 137 In a macroscopic conductor. W . then p and (T will both depend on the length L through quantum effects.2. The inverse of R in Eq. 8 .1) is the conductance G[U] which is related to the conductivity d z l/p[Urn'] by G = (T* are physical properties which do not generally depend on either the length of the wire L or the applied voltage t o the sample but only on the material. are found in carbon nanotubes. We review the difference between classical and quantum transport very briefly in Section 8. However. In the q~iantum regime. and are discussed both experimentally and theoretically. 1 Quantum transport in a onedimensional wire In considering an electric current in a square wire with a width (and a depth).
[177]. the phase information of the wavefunction as a function of the position r is lost. After two electrons are scattered by their mutual Coulomb potential that is dynamic. Here 'static' means that the potential has no freedom to promote the electron to an excited state. Electronelectron scattering between two valence electrons does not contribute to L . (2) the Fermi wavelength XF and (3) the phaserelaxation length L . is the length over which an electron retains its coherence as a wave. If the scattering of an electron is elastic. but only to L. when we consider N electrons on the Fermi sphere. so that the interference of electron wavefunctions can be observed. In mesoscopic systems* we consider three kinds of characteristic lengths: (1) the momentum relaxation length (or simply.$ In this sense there *A mesoscopic system is a solid of small enough size.138 CHAPTER 8. The Fermi wavelength XF = 2?r/kF is the de Broglie wavelength (Xg z h/rnv) for electrons at the Fermi energy. Thus elastic scattering does not contribute to L .. is the average length that an electron travels before it is scattered by a scattering center..100 n m which is larger than the microscopic or atomic size of around 1 .. and L. tStrictly speaking. However. but also with themselves within the coherence or phase relaxation length L. The mean free path L . and thus the wave remains coherent. When we take into account electronelectron in . It is useful to note that the effect of spin excitation can be suppressed by applying a magnetic field. electronelectron interaction between any two of the N electrons does not change the electronic state under interchange of the two electrons with each other. but only to L. The phaserelaxation length L . The scattering by a static potential is known to be elastic.lOA and smaller than the macroscopic size which is more than lpm.. mean free path) L. the ground state of the N electrons is no longer the Fermi sphere in the presence of electronelectron interactions. tIn a n elastic scattering process an electron does not change its energy as a result of the scattering event. Thus the electron waves can interfere not only with other electron waves. depending on the boundary conditions and the impurities and defects that are present in the nanotube. A typical size of a mesoscopic system is around 1 . where electrons occupy states from the bottom of the valence band to the Fermi energy in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.+ a phase shift of the wavefunction can be expected after the elastic scattering event. If the scattered wave loses energy by either exciting core electrons.. This infers that the phase of the electron is well defined along the propagating path of the wave. such inelastic scattering events contribute both t o L . spins associated with magnetic impurities or phonons. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES interference effects.. Thus the electronelectron interaction decreases L.
The table will be useful for finding the parameters in this chapter. In accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Here a significant change means. However. In classical teractions. in diffusive motion. In transport experiments. which brings about the Iocalization of the wavefunction. diffusive. are called the momentum relaxation time and the phase relaxation time. respectively. that the sum of the changes in momenand x . L T .1 we show the parameters which are used in the present chapter. the wavefunction of an electron is determined over the sample by solution of Schrodinger's equation. so that the lengths Lm and L. In Table 8. l . do not imply the time of a single scattering event by the relevant scattering mechanism. Ballistic transport consists of single electron conduction with no phase and momentum relaxation. reach hlc~ In Table 8. but rather correspond to an average time for the many collisions which result in significant changes of momentum and phase. In this sense we conclude that electronelectron scattering in the valence band does not contribute to L m . Here we do not consider the excitation of the two electrons out from the Fermi sphere. since such an excitation process requires energy which could be supplied by phonons.Ro and Go which will be introduced later in this chapter.8 . and t. are scaled by the Fermi velocity VF as where 1 . and therefore we cannot say that the electron state is changed upon electronelectron scattering. L. D. tum and phase over the times t . and is known as the configuration interaction. However. Classical conductance is the conductance which satisfies the Ohm's law. the excited states of the N eiectrons are added to the variational function of N electrons which is expressed by a s u m of the linear combination of the Slater d e t e r ~ t s . and classic transport. many elastic scattering events occur. In a ballistic conductor. QUANTUM TRANSPORT IN A ONEDIMENSIONAL WIRE: 139 is no change in the Fermi sphere before and after electronelectron scattering.. for example. respectively. only electrons near the Fermi energy contribute. we cannot distinguish any two electrons in the A'electron state. the phase relaxation length is much longer than the mean free path in diffusive motion. . The relationship between these characteristic lengths determines the three transport regimes: ballistic. On the other hand. These times are compared with the transit time t t during which an electron transverses the sample length L . and t .1 we do not define yet M . t m and t . respectively.
(8.= 12. (8.(See Eq. (8. Wavelength of an electron at the Fermi wavelength’) Fermi energy 2 a / k ~ ~omentum relaxation length*) Length over which an electron changes most of its original momentum. Thermal diffusion length L$ = (See Eq.&/vF diffnsion constants I) = L$/tv (see Eq. Here V F is the Feimi velocity and kp i *) We simply call L.18)). (8. (8.6)) G O quantized conductance Go = = 77. Symbol M Name Number of Channels [States] & . Length over which an electron phase relaxation length’) changes most of its original phase. (8. Length over which an electron localization length wavefunction is extended.140 CHAPTER 8. = . momentum relaxation time”) t n a = LmbF phase relaxation time“) 1 .9064kn (see Eq.1: Parameters in transport phenomena Definition A channel is the electronic states which propagate an electron in a coherent way. (See Eq. the mean free path (see further discussion in the text).4)) Length of sample in the direction Sample length of the current.28)) Time for an electron to go a distransit time tance L.7)) s the Fermi wave vector. L . TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Table 8. = ML.28)) quantized resistance Ro = .4809 x lo% (see Eq.
Dec. Dec . the concentration of ionic and magnetic impurities. The excitation of phonons is suppressed at low temperature but the relaxation of an electron by emitting a phonon is determined by the e~ectronphononinteraction.2). local . both momentum and phase refaxation occur frequently and thus an electron can be considered as a particle. The electronelectron interaction is determined by the carrier concentration N . No Dec. which is implemented by applying a gate voltage to the semiconductormetal junction. 8. Dec.8. The magnetic scattering can be suppressed by a magnetic field. In the table we list. how a givenscattering mechanism changes the characteristic lengths. No: no effect. and the band width W of the valence band.1. too. Dec. Dec. Ni and N . Length w conductance.B T Nc.1. Thus we can prepare materials for transport experiments by making the desired relationship between these parameters and the various scattering mechanisms. are parmeters which can vary from sample and sample. 8. N i Lrn Dec. The frequency Of all scattering processes can be changed (not independently) by changing the Fermi velocity.1).: Decreases a) Elastic means no freedom for carrier excitation by the scattering potential. The energy band width W can be chanted by pressure and by some special geometry of the crystal such as the presence of superlattices.~ ~ ~ E ~ WIRE S I O ~ A 141 L Table 8. *) The freedom for excitation of a spin can be suppressed by applying a magnetic field. 1 ' Only electronelectron interaction in the valence band is considered.1. In Table 8.2 we list the relationship between the characteristic lengths and the scattering mechanisms. No L.2: Dependence of characteristic lengths on scattering mechanism Scattering mechanism magnetic electronelastic') impurityb) Phonons electronc) Ns. In elastic and magnetic scattering. classical transport (Sect. In the following subsections we review the characteristics of various transport regimes: ballistic transport (Sect. These conductance regimes will be introduced in the following subsections. Q U A N T U M T R A N S P O R T IN A O ~ E .
. ....1.. An electron which has a velocity *The pseudoFermi energies are defined here by the highest occupied energy for k > 0 and k < 0 electrons..2 A ~ ~ ~ l z c~ o t ~i c ~ ~ (L c << ~ o A.. 8.. 8...4).1).... 8. P2 1 2 Fig....... In this case a voltage drop occurs at the contacts with the electrodes. the electron chemical potentials for electrodes 1 and 2 are constants denoted by p1 and p 2 ..which is denoted by M(E)[states]...... (PI > p z ) ...........1. there is a single Fermi energy for electrons. 8.. 8.. 8.. Thus the total current 1 is given by the sum of the microscopic currents for the k > 0 states of all the subbands Ej(k) which have an energy p2 < E j ( k ) < 111. only those electrons having wave vectors k > 0 (in going from the left to the right in Fig...... ....... we can treat k > 0 and k < 0 electrons as independent electrons.. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES e L P1 ..r L p ) For baIIistic transport we consider an ideal case where we have no electron scattering on a wire of length L connected to two electrodes...... The number of channels is a function of energy E. M is the number of channels for electrons with wave vectors k > 0 t o propagating from 1 to 2....3)... universal conductance fluctuations (Sect. respectively.. Electrons going to electrode 2 are assumed to have an initial energy E at the point contact of electrode 1... respectively...1. there are several energy subbands Ej(k)which have the same k value.. If there are no reflections of electrons at the electrodes.142 CHAPTER 8. respectively. since there is no scattering between k > 0 and k < 0 electrons. 8.. Hereafter the subbands which have k states in the energy range pz < E < 111 are called channels... 1 and 2 (see Fig.11 and p 2 .... The pseudoFermi energies* for the wire should be p 1 and p z for the k > 0 and k < 0 electrons.........1.5)) all of which pertain t o transpork in carbon nanotubes under appropriate conditions... Because of the quantization of electronic states in the direction perpendicular to the current.1) and having energies in the range p2 < E < p i contribute to the net current..1: A ballistic conductor with length L is connected t o two electrodes 1 and 2 whose chemical potentials are 1....... However.. and negative magnetoresistance (Sect... Since the two electrodes have a large electron capacity....... If there i s a thermal equilibrium state. ization phenomena (Sect......
h . Then the total current I is given by where the sum on k is converted to the integral with a spin degeneracy of 2 and the inverse of the level spacing L/21r.4). Thus we should not count the number of k states in the direction parallel to the current to M . Since V = ( p i . It is i m ~ o r t a n to density of states.4).p i ) (i = 1.4) is the quantized current per subband per unit energy [A/J]. 2e/h in Eq. When we assume that the total number of conduction channels M ( E ) is constant M over p2 < E < P I . = GoM. we t note that M ( E ) is not a obtain the last line of Eq.2) is the Fermi distribution function with the Ferrni energy denoted by pi.5) where R.9Ot54kQ2.1). (8. the resistance of the ballistic conductor is given by (8.v = ~ .= e / t l . M = 1 even for p1. (8. and the Fermi energy is about 1 eV. = L / u (See Table. is called the contact resistance and h/2e2 is the quantized resistance R O. If t. if the width of a wire is on the order of 1 pm.he width of a wire W is very small (less than 1 nm).lo6) for p1 .4809 x lO'U. Go =: 2e2 = 77.p2 = 1 eV.' ( a ~ / a> k0 ~ in an unoccupied state for 113 < E < p1 contributes to the microscopic current I. On the other hand. G. All the k states are integrated in Eq.p2 = 1 eV.5) gives the contact conductance G. (8. It should be noted that we have many k states even when M = 1.12. (8. M becomes very large (. In fact the dimension of M ( E ) and M is not [states/J]. which is related to the quantized conductance Go by Ro=:. 2e2 The inverse of Eq. in which t l is the carrier transit time t. but is rather [states]. 8. f ( E .pz)/e is the voltage between the electrodes.
4) is applicable as a first approximation. ltaj 1” Here we assume again that 7 is constant near the Fermi energy.1. the wavefunction is solved by a onedimensional Schrodinger equation. The Landauer formula applies only if the wavefunction can spread over the whole sample. causes a Cdnssic ~ ~ a ~ L. Equation (8.144 CHAPTER 8. 4. 4. we expect to find discrete k values spaced by 27rlL.6). the relation v = bEj(k)/dK in Eq. (8. Since the phase and amplitude of the wavefunction a t electrode 2 can be obtained from those at electrode 1.7. When we neglect the effect of interference during a scattering event. which is proportional to voltage drop in the wire. In a macroscopic metal. the conductance of metallic nanotubes is 2Go. we expect to find two energy bands ( M = 2) for k > 0 (see Figs. phase recombination processes are expected. The resistance of a mesoscopic wire R . 8. a similar discussion for the contact conduc~ance can be applied. o << ~ L . that is. Thus we cannot solve the Schrodinger equation over the entire sample since the electron wavefun~tion cannot be described by a single phase. .for a single channel is given in terms of the transmission probability 7 as since the reflected wavefunction. which is given by the sum of transmission probability from ith to j t h channel. scattering by a potential in one dimension. The conductance G and the resistance R are thus given by where 7 is the transmission probability for a channel to go from electrode 1 to electrode 2. the total transfer probability is given by . The quantized resistance and conductance can be observed in clean semiconductors at very low temperature on samples which have a small M [178].5 and 4. Even if the h states are discrete but still numerous. s << ~ L.f179] When the length of a nanotube L is finite.2 R = 1 . TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Thus in a wire with no scattering the conductance is proportional t o M .8) is known as the Landauer formula.4. . Thus in the ballistic limit. When we consider static scattering. When we consider the range of values of M for a metal nanotube of finite length L .
The phase shift 0 corresponds to a round trip . (8.1. and Eq.3 Localization. (8.10) by using (8.n. [Lm << L. called the Smatrix. 7 ' 1 and 1'2 is the transmission and reflection amplitudes of a wavefunction.10) We can rewrite Eq. . then t 1 2 is given by an equation similar to Eq. (8. QUANTUM TRANSPORT Iff A ONEDIMENSIONAL WIRE 145 summing over each transmission probability and of each reflection 7 2 d = 1x. R12 = R1 R2.. This is nothing but Ohm's to L.8.9)lfor every momentum relaxation length L. is given by (8. Thus the total resistance is given by a series connection of microscopic resistances [see Eq. (8. . When we consider multiple reflections between i = 1 and i = 2. . (i = 1 . the overall transmission probability 7 1 2 between electrodes 1 and 2. << L ) When we consider the phase shift at each scattering event.12) where N is the number of scattering events and 7 is an average transmission probability for an individual scattering event over a mean free path L. (8.11) we see that the resistance of the wires is additive.91.N). t 2 .1)] in which the macroscopic resistance is proportiona~ 8. the wavefunctions which are reflected many times between 1 and 2 are added along with their phases and the sum is then squared to obtain the transmission probability. When we consider the transmission coefficient t l 2 for a wavefunction between electrodes 1 and 2. (8. We then appIy this result to the N scatterers and we get + (8. (8.11) Using the formula for the resistance given by Eq.10).13) where t l .1. law [see Eq.
This means that the wavefunction near the Fermi energy becomes localized so that the transmission probability from one electrode to the ‘Here we assume the foliowing: R I = ~ R(L Am).Ro + 2R Lc Lc  (8. (8. (8. we consider that the reflected wave is incoherent to the original wave. Rlz is not additive (that is R12 # R1 Rz. Thus the calculated T12’s in Eqs. to obtain where R1 and R2 are given by Eq. (8.16) The solution of Eq.It might seem that Eq.17) Thus the resistance becomes very large in the limit of large L so that the material becomes an insulator.) .) and thus Ohm’s law is not expected to be valid. (8. we consider many reflections of a coherent wave in Eq.15). + = R(L). However the two equations (8. in the coherent case. From Eq. Thus we add the probability of multiple reflections in Eq.10). On the other hand.13) we obtain the probability for the transfer of an electron from electrode 1 to electrode 2 where = l.14) should be compared to the case of the incoherent limit given by Eq.10).R(L) . The nonadditive term in Eq..* +  dR = dL R(L + L. (8.ta12. and Ri = i ~ i 1 ~ . since the assumptions for the two equations are different as follows. R 1 R o. (8. (8. The resistance Rlz is obtained by taking an average over 8 such that (cos 8 ) = 0.10) are generally independent.and R2 = R ( A L ) = R(Lm)  . In Eq.14) and [8. when R( L ) is defined by a step of Lc L.10) are not analytically connected to each other.16) is ( L 3 Go).13) where we add the amplitude of multiple reflections.between electrodes 1 and 2.14) and (8. Then Eq. (8. (8. (8.15) gives the ~ifferential equation.10).9).(8. In the incoherent limit of Eq. (8. (8.15) that involves 2R& causes an e x ~ o n e n t ~ ~ ~ divergence for R as a function of L .
when L . < L . << L . just like cars on a highway not being able to move above a critical density.182]. In the strongly localized regime. In the case of large M .8.18) When L ... The coherence length of an electron infers the existence of an upper limit for the length over which we can solve the Schrodinger equation for an electron with a single phase. the electron cannot move. such as thin metallic are known to be in the weakly localized wires or carbon fibers with high THT. (8. > L. The localization becomes strong for large L. the conductor is said to be in the weakly localized regime. The localization described by Eq. . by[l80] L .t Localization can occur even when M is large. In this case. we can redefine the localization length L . for small M . This second type of localization is called Mott localization. the phase relaxation length L . the conductance arises from the thermal hopping from one localized site to another.3: Transport regimes of a conductor Regime Relationship Coherence length Classical L. On the other hand. (8. is much larger than L. = MA.17) is the effect of a random potential on the oneelectron wavefunction and this is called Anderson localization. In Table 8..1. then the strong localization effect of Eq.. When the coherence tThere are two kinds of localization. << L L. Most lowdimensional metals. L. which makes L . < L many L. < L. and for small L. LC Ballistic Am > L.17) occurs. strong L. > L L N other is almost zero. smaller. then L in Eq. For both strong and weak localization. (8. Localized L . Q U A ~ TRANSPORT ~ U ~ IN A O N ~  ~ ~ WIRE ~ ~ ~ S 147~ O ~ A Table 8. is larger than L.17) should be terminated at L = L. When the electronelectron repulsion is large compared with the average level spacing.3 we summarize the cunditions pertinent to the various transport regimes by listing the pertinent relations between the characteristic lengths and the coherence length of an electron.. This is known as the localization phenomen0n.. is required to be much larger than the mean free path L. regime and heavilydoped semiconductors and intercalated graphite with a large fluorine uptake are known to be in the strongly localized regime [181. (8.’s weak L.
is close t o the sample size L . When the sample is large and thick.19) d m where ( X ) denotes the ensemble average of X for the sample.2. the conductance is described by a wavefunction that is defined over the entire sample. for the weak or strong localizat~on regimes. if the coherence length is close to the sample size.4 Universal Condsctance F~uctsutio~~ When the phase delocalization length L . << L . On the other hand.183]. For the each path. The fact that the fluctuation does not depend on M is an interference effect which . the interference effect can be observed as a microscopic scattering process. 8. << L v ) . When M = 1. In the weak localization regime ( L . respectively. quantum interference occurs within the lengths of L.811 in which the number of propagating states and their probability for transmission determines the conductance. (8.1. we have many scattering centers and thus many scattering processes because of the multiple scattering events for the many centers.length or inelastic scattering length (. in a ballistic conductor. An ensemble average means an average for many samples with different impurity distributions. is 2 e 2 / h . the conductance is given by the Landauer formula [Eq.5.) is smaller than the elastic scattering length (Lm). classical transport occurs. Let us consider M paths of conducting current for each sample. the conductance fluctuation. Here we show that the fluctuations do not depend on M unless L . If we prepare many samples of the same size. since the transmission probability may be distributed homogeneously from 0 t o 1.(G>2. as discussed in Sect. respectively. interference effects associated with the wavefunction become important [164.15. we can observe two interesting quantum interference effects: universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) and negative magnetoresistance (NM). or L ."  *If M paths were independent.the fluctuation m / ( G ) for M paths would be proportional to r y 1 / m . ). in which the resistance is an additive property. (8. but its contribution to the resistance becomes small compared with the classical resistance.4 and Sect. L. 8. the conductance will fluctuate from sample to sample because of differences in the inhomogeneous distribution of scattering centers. < L . 8.1. Here the (6G2) is defined by (SG') = (G2>. Furthermore. When the coherence length contains many elastic scattering lengths ( L .
8. R denote the average on M possible paths of 7 ( r n + n ) and R(rn + n ) . .. Q ( n + rn) = C A .. (8. 8. The reflected wave function \k(n + m).. (1 5 n 5 M ) for given rn.... ( r n + n ) . 2e2/h (8.2 M 2 ( z ) ( E ) 2 the .2: A scattering process of the reflected wavefunction for the path entering 1 and exiting 4 in electrode 1 (A. for the path entering n and exiting to rn in electrode 1 (see Fig. A P ( m+ n ) can be expressed.21) Here we consider the fluctuations of the reflectivity. for example. is given by the summation of the wavefunction A p ( m+ n ) for the pth multiple scattering processes. (8. conductance or of (S?). 112 1 AP (P4) 2 Fig..23).23) } .2).. Here we consider 4 channels (M=4). . n)exp{it.t(m.M ( R ) and (g2) = M2(?') = M 2 . $ We start from the Landauer formula Eq. the amplitude of the scattering wavefunction is given by Eq. where 7. (8. '.}. Within the phase coherence length L. (8. Q U A N T U M T R A N S P O R T IN A ONEDIMENSIONAL W I R E 149 M=4 111 .. When we have M channels. Note that the fluctuations become small for samples large compared with L. Since ( 9 ) = M ( T ) = M .22) P where a scattering process of the reflected wave..(1 4)). 8..20). fluctuations can be derived from either the fluctuation of  9MT=MM7Z. the conductance is generally proportional to M as shown in Eq. where rn and n denote specific channels.. which are known to be relevant for the following discussion. + + can be seen universally. (8.. 8..1..L...20) + (s") (Sg2) = M 2 ( 6 T 2 )= M 2 ( 6 X 2 ) ..2 we show a scattering process of R ( l + 4). There are many scattering processes in R ( l + 4) as shown below. In Fig.8) for the conductance normalized by 2 e 2 / h . by Ap(m  n ) = t ( m + m l ) e x ~ { i k n ~ L r n l } d r n ~ W )e x ~ { i h n ~ L r n ~ (8..
Note that the conductance G is N MGo.21). quantum fluctuatin~ conductors in series.28) 1. becomes smaller than L . (8.150 CHAPTER 8.24) where we use the fact that the ensemble average of the sum of ApAil for p jt+ p’ gives zero because of the assumption of a random phase. (8.P’. (8. the fluctuation of the conductance become l/N3i2 L3/2 smaller than for a single conductor. This power dependence can be seen by changing L.23)] is changed by the vector potential eA.pll] + (8. (8.P’!PI’. When we consider N = L / L . Here we assume that R and 7 are in order of 1.).P“‘ P.(R(m + l/Mt we get from Eq..27) Thus the fluctuations in g are on the order of the quantum of conductance 2e2/h which does not depend on M {or on a particular choice of material). P (8. The effective distribution of impurities can be changed by applying a magnetic field since the phase of each process [see Eq.pl~+. In order to discuss the fluctuations we define the following quantity (R(pn 3 n)’} = = P. the ensemble average of the reflection probability R(m + T I ) is given by (R(mt n)) = lQ(n + m>I2= ( p lAPl2 + PfP’ ApA:t) =( 1Ap12).P” IP”’ C C {ApAp/Ap//Ap/ii} (IA. p . When the phase delocalization length L.pll~ ~p.I~~A [~. We cannot avoid this fluctuation from sample to sample with the same impurity concentration. This fluctuation can be seen by changing the length of the sample provided that the sample size is smaller than the phase relaxation length ( L c L. . p~ ~~ It ~ jpt. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES When we assume that the overall phase of A p ( m4 n) is random in @(n 4 m). the fluctuations can be smoothed out.25) = 2{R(~~TI)}Z Thus the fluctuations of the reflectivity are given by (6R(m TI)’) Since (R(m + n ) )  (R(m + n)’) . (Sg2) N = (R(m + T I ) ) ’ . N tThe probability of choosing channel n from M channels i s on the order of 1/M.
. an electron can vary its energy by h / t . . and A : .so that the overall phases are identical. which refers to a decrease in the resistance with increasing magnetic field. that is R(m + m). : m + ml + ml + .1.) + (AT + AT + . Actually there is no time reversal symmetry in R(m + n ) for n # m. is larger than L . the energy h / t . + + R(m f m )= ((A1 + A2 + . $ + (8.kB T >h t l p h tL (8. + mp + m . QUANTUM T R A N S P O R T IN A ONEDIMENSIONAL W I R E 151 When we fix the sample length L . Thus when we consider the reflection probability of Eq. [see Eq. . + m2 f ml + m . . (8. since R ( m t n) and R ( n m) are different paths from each other.31) If there is no phase correlation between A and Aa. At high temperatures such that EBT is larger than h/t. we expect a coherence between A. (8. R ( m m) would give 21AI2. Consider a process A. so that the + .23)] in which the starting and ending sites are identical. can be considered as an energy width for phasecoherent motion.24) for R(m m). the Einstein relation savs that (8.)I2 * * / A Aa12 = 41AI2. This means that within a lifetime t .5 Negative Magnetoresistance An another interesting phenomena observed in the weak localization regime is negative magnetoresistance. .8.28) (8. from the uncertainty relation. Consider the special case for A. and the timereversed processes A: : m + m q . When we define the thermal diffusion length LT for a given diffusion constant D . and L . then N = kBT/(h/tlp) independent channels are open incoherently.1.30) 8. Here we show the basic idea behind the negative magnetoresistance.29) Thus the universal conductance fluctuations show a temperature dependence given by m=Go { constant (2)lJ2T1/2 T<t.
whereas for zigzag nanotubes. Since the Fermi surface of a 1D nanotube consists of the two points f k p . rather large diameter (20 nm) multiwall nanotubes were used. such as a singlewall nanotube (SWNT). 8. 8. considers quantum transport in general.2 Transport experiments on carbon nanotubes In this section we discuss quantum transport in carbon nanotubes. single wall nanotubes became more available and the focus of research on the transport properties of carbon nanotubes shifted emphasis to the singlewall nanotubes. since singlewall nanotubes represent a model system for studies of q ~ a n t u m transport. When a magnetic field is applied. where transport properties for an isolated singlewall nanotube are presented. phonon with wave vectors 2n/T are effective. a single rope (SWNT bundle). 8.31) i s known as enhanced backward scattering. scattering processes involve taking an electron from +CF to IF or visa versa. (8. However. we start this section with a few comments about quantum transport in carbon nanotubes generally and then proceed to discuss specific experiments. In the initial transport experiments on an individual carbon nanotube [184].152 CHAPTER 8. 8. Transverse acoustic (outofplane) phonons are most effective in this scattering process through the electronphonon interaction [78].2. This is an explanation of the origin of negative magnetoresistance under weak localization conditions. For an armchair nanotube this wouId involve a phonon of 47r/3T where T is the Iength of the 1D translation vector.2. The phase difference is proportional to the magnetic flux penetrating through a loop made from a set of Ap and A?.1. thus we can no longer expect any enhanced backward scattering. thus decreasing the reflection probability. . T ~ A ~ S P O R P T~ O P ~ ~ T ~ E reflection probability becomes 21A1’. Transport. a single multiwall nanotube (MWNT) and a single MWNT bundle. The coherence associated with Eq. Subsequently. 51s discussed in Sect. Whereas Sect.2. and can be applied to radar systems for searching a cloud which can be treated as a random material. measurements of nanotubes show different aspects depending on the sample type. and this is discussed in Sect.1. the phases of A and A” become different from one another. The most difficult experimental problem for the transport experiments on carbon nanotubes is the attachment of electrodes to the extremely thin nanotubes. since the lengths of the loops are different for different Ap’s.
151]. The deposition of the contacts is performed under computer control without any visualization.31.0 pm range. The distance between the probing leads on the sample is in the 0. as seen in Fig.3 on transport in a single rope of singlewall carbon nanotubes where intertube interactions play a role. 8. The 80 nm wide tungsten wire contacts are deposited by focusedionbeam induced deposition using a W(CO)6 carrier gas. is seen in Fig. The four Leads are connected to a gold pad and the currents a.21 Attaching Conlacis We summarize here some of the techniques that have been used for attaching contacts t o carbon nanotubes for carrying out transport experiments [185]. A third method involves the use of sophisticated semiconductor Si technology to attach 4 tungsten leads by a focused ion beam deposition technique. Another approach for making electrical contact. 8. 8. The advantages of this method is that 4 contacts can be placed reliable on the single nanotube. Phenomena associated with weak localization and universal conductance phenomena are observed in multiwall nanotubes and are discussed in Sect. continuously measuring the resista.4.8.4 where the carbon nanotube is placed on top of a Si/SiOz substrate on which two P t electrodes had previously been deposited.o an n a n o t u b ~ ing suspended nanotubes. For those nanotubes which connect two electrodes. that utilizes so of the techniques mentioned above.2. The effect of strain introduced by lead attachment process is not understood.nd voltages are observed by a fourpoint contact measurement. TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS ON CARBON NANOTUBES 153 This is followed by a report in Sect. transport me* surements can be carried out [150. One is to place a liquid drop. In another version of this method. This method has the advantage of perturbing the nanotube only weakly. on a substrate on which electrodes were previously deposited. a single contact is made with this technique and a scanning tunneling probe is used to make the second contact as this probe moves along the wire.3 for four contacts attached to a multiwall nanotube in the 510 nm diameter range on an oxidized silicon surface [185]. containmethod for attaching contacts t. 8. but has the disadvantage of a high contact resistance and of not providing four contacts . 8.2.2.nce as a function of nanotube length [186]. The nanotube is visualized by the focusedionbeam with a low beam current (4 PA) for imaging the nanotube.
3: An individual multiwall carbon nanotube connected to four 80 nm wide tungsten wires by focused. p1 and pz.154 CHAPTER 8.4) is placed on top of a Si/SiOz substrate with two 15 nmthick and 140 nm wide P t electrodes as shown in Fig. In this experiment a single wail nanotube (the very thin wire in Fig.1).4 [51] and the bias voltage vbiw is measured between the two electrodes. Fig. while the gate voltage Vgate changes the position of the energy levels of nanotube relative to the chemical potentials. applied to the third electrode in the upperleft hand corner of Fig. 8.2 APL I ~ ~ z Siszgle~ %Wall ~ ~~ a ~~ ~ t ~ ~ e We now discuss experimental results from the first transport experiment on an individual isolated singlewall carbon nanotube [51]. 8. p1 and pz (see Fig. 8.ionbeaminduced deposition [185]. 8. 8. 8. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Fig.5 [51]. Because .2. A schematic circuit diagram is presented at the top of this figure and is relevant to the transport experiments shown in Fig. 8.4: AFM tappingmode image of a carbon nanotube on top of a Si/SiOz substrate with two 15 nmthick and 140 nm wide Pt electrodes. A gate voltage Vgate. The bias voltage v b i a changes the chemical potentials of the two electrodes. 8.4 is used to change the electrostatic potential seen by the nanotube.
= e 2/2C.1 mV (curve B) and 120. The two traces were performed under the same conditions and represent a bistability (see text) [51].6 meV. b. the onedimensional energy band is split into energy levels whose spacing AE = h v ~ / 2 L is estimated t o be AE 0.V ranging from 50mV (bottom curve) to 136 mV (top curve). of the finite length of the nanotube ( L =3 pm).vbim curves are shown with.5: a.5a are N N    . 104. obtained from a similar nanotube on which a fourpoint contact geometry was used. Thus. However.2. more I .5b appears only when him > E. In Fig. such that the thermal energy k g T is smaller than the charging energy E. Since the energy of the levels in a nanotube can be modified by Vgate.0 mV (curve C ) at 5 mK. TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS ON CARBON NANOTUBES 155 Fig. The t w ~ p o i nresistance t at roomtemperature of such a single wall nanotube is 1 Ma. The position of the steps in the I vbim curves is changed by increasing the gate voltage. Currentvoltage curves of a carbon nanotube at a gate voltage of 88. Current versus gate voltage at vbim = 3 0 p V .0 mV (curve C).2 mV (curve A). the current Aow can be blocked by this energy shift when the charge from the current flow itself shifts the levels out of the bias window between p 1 and p 2 .1 x 105 m/s. where we use an estimate for the Fermi velocity of VF = 8. The plateaus of nonzero current clearly show ballistic transport when a conducting channef is in the range of vbim = ( p l p Z ) / e . is 300kSZ at room temperature and 1MS2 at 4 K. we must consider not only the level shift effect but also the Coulomb charging effect of the nanotube. . The estimated contact resistance. At very low temperature. current Row in Fig.1 mV (curve B) and 120. whereby. 8. In the inset. 104. the step positions shown in the inset of Fig. 8. 8.. of an electron k g T < E. the nanotube is considered as a capacitor with a capacitance C. we show the I vbia curves at a gate voltage of 88.2 mV (curve A).8.5a. 8.
8. 8. Right inset shows the current vs gate voltage for vbim = 0. Figure 8. Solid lines in Fig.08 5 "k P 4 P 0... When the bias window denoted by vbjm is very narrow ( 3 0 p V ) .4.04 8 0. This bistability may be explained as the result of switching offset charges that shift the energy levels of the 1D carbon nanotube.6: Conductance G = I/vbi.~. Some double &functions are also observed in the two traces in Fig. from the peak conductance point.. 8. 8./a2k~T) Left .02 0.. This ratio corre . TRANSPORT PROPERTIES 0.156 CHAPTER 8. the current flow appears like a delta function of Vgate.8./2akBT where ). A decrease in intensity and a broadening of the conductance peak with increasing temperature shows the relaxation of the phase and amplitude of the resonance tunneling by phonon scattering events. the factor a = 16 obtained from Fig. 8.1. which are taken under the same experimental conditions. as a function of the gate voltage shift AV. 8. as shown in Fig.6 shows the temperature dependence of the spectra of a sharp peak that is observed in Fig.6 is the ratio of AVgate to the shift of the energy levels.5b. The solid lines represent fits to the function G0 : ~osh~(eAV. inset shows a model for explaining the temperature dependence of G.5b.2 and 1. smoothly changed by changing Vgate.5b.6 are fitted to the function G 0 : ~osh~(eAv~.00 3 2 1 0 AVgeie (mV) 1 2 3 Fig.~.0.only when the energy levels are in the bias window between p1 and p2.6 m v . vs AVgate at the bias voltage vbim for three different temperatures with the bias window vbias = 1OpV. with the minimum bias window vbim = 1OpV. showing the contribution from the lowerlying levels within the bias window [51].
A value of a = 1 2 is estimated for the data in Fig. 8. as discussed in Sect. respectively. TRANSPORT ~ X P ~ R I ~ E N ON T CARBON S ~ A ~ ~ T U ~ 157 E S sponds t o the ratio of the capacitance of the gate to that of the nanotube.4 meV (see the left inset of Fig. Although the absolute value of conductance is ff0. the quantum conductance 2e2fh could be obtained at a smaller bias voltage. When we further decrease Vgater the next plateau appears and is attributed t o conduction processes associated with the lower level below A E 0. 8. The further decrease of Vgate a no current situation.6 meV for a L =3pm nanotube.6 wiil show saturation at 2 e 2 / h .03(2e2/~). For curves at high gate voltages (about 140mV) plateaus can be seen for different values of Vim. When the gate voltage increases (see the right inset of Fig. to AE.8.2.4.6.1.6) into the bias window. The discrepancy between the fitted and the observed temperatures is due t o the finite bias voltage (10pV = 116 K) and the residual noise in the measurement system.6}.5 and 8. since the state at the Fermi level is now located outside of the bias window.. The resistivity is about 104103 Qcm for the metallic nanotubes. while the measured temperatures are 5 . This value of a = 1 2 is in satisfactory agreement with the previous value of ~ ~ in 1 brings the system back to the first approximation. These results are consistent with the fact that the curves in Fig. which is consistent with the estimated level spacing of AE 0.6 from the ratio of AV.6 (110. the conductance of Fig. and 600 mK. dearly show ballistic transport effects associated with the discrete levels imposed by the finite length of the onedimensional nanotube conductor. The temperatures in Fig. 8. The semiconducting nanotubes exhibit a slope . 8. step structures are observed. described in Figs. which was first predicted theoretically. 8. The plateaus correspond to the entry of a state at the Fermi level (denoted by the solid line in the left inset of Fig. thus providing clear evidence for quantum c o n d u c t ~ c e . If the conductance is observed with a smaller bias voltage and a larger ct. value. 8. 4. 8. The observed phenomena can be understood by steps in the quantum conductance. while the room temperature resistivity is about 10' Qcm in semiconducting nanotubes. and 830 mK) are the fitted temperatures for the plotted curves. 8. The resistance measurements for various nanotube samples show that there are metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. and charging effects amociated with the micro capacitances of the nanotube and the gate.6 with a larger bias window vbim show a signal within a larger range of   6 Vgate * The experiments. 240.61. 390. 8..
In Fig. 8.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 v (mY Fig. [l87] in a plot of logR versus 1/T. A similar  .4 nmdiameter [187].158 CHAPTER 8. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES 40 20 a E.w a l ~ carbon nanotubes. Since the nanotube sample shows a slight positive magnetoresistance. which is consistent with the theoretical values of the energy gap for the corresponding nanotube diameters. the currentvoltage characteristics are shown for the rope segment between contacts between 2 and 3 (Left inset).10. the sample may contain a large number of defects. At room temperature.5 4 .7: I . 8.Wall ~ ~ n o ~ ~ b e ~ Next we show transport results from a single 12nmdiameter rope containing about 60 SWNTs of 1. This variation has been attributed to the presence of many defects in ~ u l t i . In the right inset shows schematic energy levels near Fermi energy which are quantized because of the finite length of tube. which seriously affect the measured conductance. large variations from sample to sample are observed in the absolute values of the resistance and in its temperature dependence from 4 K to 300 K. thereby indicating an energy gap in the range 0.2 .3 An I n d ~ v ~ d uRope a l of Single.0 h 20 4 0 .6 .3 eV.3 . while the conductance is suppressed near V = 0 for T < 10K. On the other hand.7. for the metallic nanotubes.V characteristics of a single 12nmdiameter rope made up about 60 1. 8.2. the I V characteristics gives Ohmic behavior.4nmdiameter nanotubes at different temperatures for the rope segment between contacts between 2 and 3 (Left inset).
about a €O% increase of the resistivity was reported from 50 K to 280 K [l88].8. I1 T.4 Magneto. gap is obtained by other single ropes with different diameters and lengths [187]. The reasons for these temperaturedependent trends are not explained.7. LFrorn . we see that the resistivity decreases with increasing temperature. A negative with a dependence of pfT) was even found in the higher temperature region when a single rope has a disordered nanotube alignment. while a decrease in the resistivity with increasing T was found bejow 50 K. From Fig.Transport in Mu&&Wall Nanotubes One of the early transport experiments on multiwall nanotube bundles with 50 nm diameter showed a negative magnetoresistance.  ~~~~~ 8. 7 T.8: Resistance R(T) of a bundle of muitiwall nanotubes as a function of temperature at the indicated magnetic field values.8 we show the resistance of a bundle of multiwall nanotubes as a function of temperature at several values of the magnetic field (4 T.2. The temperaturedependent resistance R(T) shows three kinds of temperature regimes (see text [150]. In Fig. TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS ON CARBON NANOTUBES €59 Fig.2. In another experiment on a single rope. It is believed that the transport between singlewall nanotubes in a rope makes an essential contribution to the current at low temperatures. and 14 T) 21501. and this is not typical metallic behavior. 8. 8. 8.
7 meV for the band overlap. the resistance continuously increases with decreasing temperature. However below 1 K . 11. In 1 . weak locatization effects are expected to occur at much lower temperatures.160 CHAPTER 8. However. a relatively small negative magnetoresistance A R / R = [R(H)R(O)]/R(O) < 0. One explanation is the effect of weak localization. and 111. The other possible reason is associated with Landau level formation at the Fermi level.4. Thus the negative magnetoresi~tance above 4 K may be associated with a Landaulevel effect (called the Bright model 11911). the band overlap can be expected to be much smaller. Since the interlayer interaction in the multiwall nanotube is incommensurate. In the very low temperature region below 1 K .The phase delocalization length L .13 K. which is a typical value for the magnetoresistance in the weaklylocalized regime [192]. This enhancement of the density of states at the Fermi Level contributee to an increase in the current path and thus is expected to give rise to a negative magnetoresistance.1 is observed with I ? normal to the tube axis. the resistance quickly decreases.9 [150]. the negative magnetoresistance shows relatively large values of A R / R as shown in Fig. a peak in the resistance is observed whose origin may relate to possible ordered states induced by lowering the symmetry. which is much smaller than A == 40 meV in 3D graphite [190]. In the figure. In the low temperature regime below 77 K.3). As shown in Chapter 6. as discussed in Section 11. increases . There are at least two possible reasons for the observed negative magnetoresistance. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES the figure we can see three kinds of temperature regimes denoted I. the n = 0th Landau level in two dimension~l graphite always appears at the Fermi energy. the magnetoresistance shows the same magnetic field dependence at 2. and the density of states increases with increasing magnetic fieid. thereby suggesting a conducting nature of carbon nanotube bundles. and a value of 3. as discussed in the previous section. 8. These phenomena were accounted for using a simple twoband semimetal model [189] for the electron and hole concentrations n and p as a function of temperature T. In the temperature regime 111. the magnetoresistance becomes quite large (up to A R / R = 0. the resistance is almost independent of temperature the temperature regime 1 and has a value of loe2 to $2cm. In the higher temperature regime I. reflecting the degeneracy of the Landau orbits. By lowering the temperature.3 K and 1. which is consistent with the smaller value of A in the small diameter nanotubes.
with decreasing temperature so that the loop of phase difference discussed in the previous section becomes large even for small magnetic fields.2 .8.10 the magnetoresistance for a 20 nm multiwall nanotube at very low temperature is presented as a function of the magnetic field. 8. Thus the fluctuations in the magnetoresistance are not associated with noise but rather are due to a quantum interference effect known as universal conductance fluctuations.8 [150]. The fluctuations in resistance that are observed at the same values of magnetic field at different temperatures are known as universal conductance fluctuations [184]. These data show a complete quenching of the enhanced backscattering. the carrier scattering .15 0. It is interesting that the negative magnetoresistance phenomena occur below that temperature.2.4. I I L 0 r. 8. 8. 8.ao6] . By applying an external magnetic field. I Q.9: Magnetoresistance A R / R as a function of magnetic field at low temperatures below 1 K.1. 8. Clearly the magnetoresistance is seen to fluctuate randomly by varying the magnetic field. I 12 14 18 0 2 4 6 8 10 Magnetic Field P I Fig. At the lowest temperature of 0. Thus a negative magnetoresistance effect is observed in carbon nanotubes at lower magnetic fields than is usually found in graphite. In Fig.9 a saturation of A R / R is observed at large magnetic fields. 8.O. which is discussed in Sect. However the peaks in the magnetoresistance for different temperatures appear at the same value of the magnetic field.U 4.OJ 0. The data are taken on the same multiwall carbon nanotube as in Fig.10: Magnetic field dependence of the magnetoresistance of a 20 n m multiwall carbon nanotube at the indicated temperatures. TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS ON CARBON NANOTUBES 161 0 Q.3 Fig.3 K in Fig.
TRANSPORT PROPERTIES processes are changed. from which we can estimate t . The amplitude of the fluctuation is constant below 0. = 2 x sec.162 CHAPTER 8.10. AG = O.lGo.10 are constant in magnitude below 0.301.. thus having the same effect on the magnetoresistance as is observed in Fig 8. (8.4 K. The amplitudes of the two indicated fluctuations in Fig 8.4 K . where Go = 2 e 2 / h is the quantum conductance [see Eq. (8. The effect of variation of the magnetic field is the same as the fluctuations in the conductance that would be observed from sample t o sample.7)].4 K and decreases as T1I2 above 0. showing that the multiwaI~carbon nanotube consists of N 5 serial quantum wires of length L.  . consistent with Eq.
. *A second rank tensor is defined by a 3 x 3 matrix whose elements ( K z s . The sum over j in Eq. 4. 9. (9. (i = 1 .. (9. 9.1 and See.2. we first explain how to calculate phonon dispersion relations in twodimensional graphite. In Sec.1 Dynamical matrix for phonon dispersion relations We start with an approach for calculating the phonon dispersion relations within a force constant model. u i = ( 2 1 .3. The r onefolding technique is the same as that used in treating the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes. We also consider the threedimensional dynamical matrix. Then we discuss phonon dispersion relations for carbon nanotubes in See.1) where Mi is the mass of the ith atom and Id”) represents the 3 x 3 force constant tensor* between the ith and the jthatoms. where U is a unitary matrix which transforms the x . .1. we can reproduce the experimental results as closely as possible by increasing the number of the force constants.l). . which is discussed in Sec. yi. 163 . y. t coordinates into another orthogonal r’. Phonon Modes of Carbon Nanotubes The phonon dispersion relations of carbon nanotubes can be understood by zone fold~ng the phonon dispersion curves for a single 2D graphene sheet.. . and obtain results for the phonon dispersion relations. taking the curvature of the nanotubes into account..zi) for N atoms in the unit cell is given by Miiii = j IW(uj Ui). KzY. the equation of motion for the displacement of the ith coordinate. z’ coordinate system. 9.y’. In general.N ) . 9. . K z z ) can be transformed as Ulh’U.CHAPTER 9. in which interatomic forces are represented by spring constants. Although the model is simple.1.
. (9.3) by e i k . .5) where f is a 3 x 3 unit matrix and ARij = R. R . and using the following orthogonality condition in the continuum k spacel$ we get (9.Rj is the relative coordinate of the ith atom with respect to the jthatom.1) can be a site in the neighboring unit cell when the iehatom is near the unit cell boundary. then Eq.e. When the j and j ‘ sites are equivalent to each other (i. We note that j in Eq. differ by a lattice vector). k = k’. k / is a delta function which vanishes unless 1mNty. Ic’. (9. that is u i = .1) becomes C j I<(ij) C eik’. (9. Here we show that all j in Eq. is the number of unit cells in the solid and thus Nfi * 6 k . in which case 6k&  has the vdue of .3) k’ Upon multiplying both sides of Eq. which for a 2D graphene sheet has been carried out up to 4th nearestneighbor interactions [193]. (9. Rj and Rj. taking a summation on Ri. In a periodic system we can perform a Fourier transform of the displacement of the ith atom with the wave number.. When we assume the same eigenfrequencies w for all u i .Rju(i) k’ (9. to obtain the normal mode displacements ui’ where the sum is taken over all ( N n ) the wave vectors k’ in the first Brillouin zone+ and Ri denotes the original position of the ith atom.is normally taken over only a few neighbor distances relative to the ith site.5) can be shifted to a site in the original unit cell. The vibration of the ith atom is coupled t o that of the jthatom through the Ii(ij) force constant tensor. then by tlv.w 2 u j .
5) contains the variables u:) within the original unit cell. 2. (9. (9.. and from Eq.7) have nonvanishing values only when i = j. we can show that u f ) = ugi' using the definition of z l f ) in Eq.6) To obtain the eigenvalues w 2 ( k ) for P ( L ) and nontrivial eigenvectors u k # 0 . (9.  I ) ( k ) u k = 0. are added to I<(ij)with a phase factor eik'ARiJ1. . 9. . When the ikhatom has equivalent neighbor atoms in the adjacent unit cells. This situation is similar to the case of the tight binding calculation for the electronic structure where the matrix element is given by the product of the atomic matrix element and the phase difference factor (see Sec. the last term can appear in the diagonal block of the dynamical matrix.+. (9.N).5) can be formally written as follows by defining a 3N x 3N dynamical matrix 'D(k) t(ut). In a periodic system. and vice versa.5) for 3~ unknown variables U k u f ) . The first two terms5 of Eq. we solve the secular equation detD(k) = 0 for a given k: vector. in which the superscript t denotes the transpose of a row vector into a column vector. Thus Eq.5) it follows that D('j)(k) is expressed as where the sum over j" is taken for all neighbor sites from the ith atom with K(dj")# 0. The contributions of I d @ ' )in which the j' sites are equivalent to the j sites.2). It is convenient t o divide the dynamical matrix D ( k ) into small 3 x 3 matrices ID(ij)(&). for a given Iz vector. . j = 1. The last term in Eq. (9. where we denote D ( k ) by {D(ij)(k)}."k (W 1.1). (9. 9.2 Phonon dispersion relations for twodimensiona~ graphite §This corresponds to the diagonal block of the dynamical matrix.9. Then Eq.Thus we obtain simultaneous equations in Eq. the dynamical matrix elements are given by the product of the force constant tensor IC('j) and the phase difference factor e i k ' A R i j . (9.2 PHONON DISPERSION RELATIONS FOR 2D GRAPHITE 165 considering Rj . and the last term appears only when the jthatom is coupled to the ith atom through If(") # 0.7 is in the offdiagonal (ij) block of the dynamical matrix. and the sum over j' is taken for the equivalent sites to the jth atom. ( i .R j l .
2. solid squares (2nd). since there are two carbon atoms.166 CHAPTER 9. B2.D B A . PHONON MODES OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. we must consider six coordinates u k (or 6 degrees of freedom) in Eq.1. 9. . (see Fig. the electronic bands related to the carbon p electrons have a direct correspondence to the phonon dispersion curves. in the unit cell. The phonon dispersion relations for a single graphite plane (or a twodimension3 graphene sheet) are calculated by following the procedure used in Sec. and B3 whose contributions to 21 are contained in D A B .1 and 9.3). we plot open circles (lst neighbor). 9.6). and the coupling between them When we consider an A atom. From the lst to the 4th neighbor atoms. A B . and open hexagons (4").2) are 3 1 . *From a symmetry s t ~ d p o i n tonly . (9.The dynamic^ matrix V for twodimensiona~graphite is written in terms of the 3 x 3 matrices D A A D .and DEB for the A and E atoms within the unit cell. Circles connecting the same neighbor atoms are for guides t o the eye.open squares (3rd). respectively. 4. the three nearestneighbor atoms (see Figs.1 for the electronic energy bands for the t~ and ?r electrons of graphite.1: Neighbor atoms of a graphitic plane up to 4th nearest neighbors for (a) an A atom and (b) a B atom at the center denoted by solid circles. A and B .* In twodimensional graphite. The secular equation to be solved is thus a 6 x 6 dynamical matrix V .
we show neighbor atoms up to 4th nearest neighbors for the A and B atoms... and $$:' represent the force constant parameters in the radial (bondstretching). ... 9.*. Further details are given in the references: G. B7. 9. Here we show a simple way to obtain K('j)... Int. Vol LI s.inplane and outofplane tangential (bondbending) directions. .. and L.. It is important to note that the A and B sites do not always appear alternately for the nth neighbors.. . The remaining problem is how to construct the force constant tensor I d i j ) .2 [see also Fig. whose force constant tensors are obtained by appropriately rotating the tensor €or A and B1. 9.. inplane and outofplane tangential (bondbend in^) directSince the determinant of the dynamical matrix is a scalar variable. Rev. Dresselhaus and M.. J. 2275 (1973) for graphite. 2. $ti..2. . G. or . In fact the third and the fourth neighbor atoms belong to equivalent atoms. Quantum Chem. Thus the proper combina~io~ of terms in the product of the force constant tensor h ' ( ' j ) and the phase difference factor e'k'aRdj is determined by group theory. 9. Dresselhaus.t First we consider the force constant between an A atom and a nearestneighbor B1 atom on the 2 axis as shown in Fig.'... Dresselhaus. #$I..1 (a>and (b).l(a) are all A atoms. Here #.3 (a)].9) where $!"I. 333 (1968) for silicon and germanium. In Fig. and $to represent forces for the nearestneighbor atoms in the radial (bondstretc~ing). which gives blockdiagonalization in accordance with the irreducible representations of the symmetry group of periodic structures. S.9. 63 A B1 X B 2 equivalent and B3 are to respectively. Johnson and G. Phys. the determinant should be invariant under any operation of the point group for the unit cell. while the six nextnearestneighbor atoms denoted by solid squares in Fig. The force constant tensor is given by (9. with contributions to D that are contained in DAAand so on.. respectively. __I' . PHONON DISPERSIOX RELATIONS FOR 2D GRAPHITE 167 82 2 ~~~~ Fig. nearest neighbors BI.2: Force constants between the A and B1 atoms on a graphene sheet.
0 ( 0 0 1 (9. and Vz is evaluated assuming 6 2 = 2 ~ / 3 .168 C ~ A P T 9. B2 and I33 are obtained by rotating the matrix in Eq.) . (9.. taking the B 1 atom into the Brn atom.10) the rotation of atoms. e i k ’ A R i j I becomes exp(ik. However. the interaction between two nearestneighbor atoms is not sufficient to reproduce the experimental results. 9. B ~ ) u mi ( m = 2. 2 .”)) O &(& 0 3 4 y + #. In the case of the phonon dispersion relations calculation for 2D graphite. such as from the nth neighbor atoms.). 0. §When we consider the force constant matrix of the nrhneighbor atoms. and we generally need to consider contributions from longdistance forces.ll) To make the method explicit.I ( P F ) ) 461:) . ~R P ~ O ~~ O O~ OF ~ E CARBON S ~ A ~ O T ~ ~ E tions of the nth nearest neighbors. and the corresponding phase factor. a/(2&) ik.9). respectively. In that case it does not seem that we can build an initial force constant matrix as given by Eq. we present in Eq. COS%.. we can get the force constant matrix without any difficulty. ( n = 1 .2. However.12) and the corresponding phase factor is given by exp[ik. for easy understanding. we introduce two parameters to describe the inplane (y) and outofplane ( z ) tangential modes.’ I{(A*B2) =  4 l i &((Pi. and the two tangential directions (y and z ) are taken to be perpendicular to the radial direction.(6. if we consider a virtual atom on the 5 axis. a/2. (9.0]. the radial direction (z in the case of Fig.10) where the unitary matrix U. The matrix for the rotation of the axes is the transpose matrix of the matrix for the rotation of atoms. . 9.a/2]. Here the graphene plane is the xy plane.Bm) = u m I I { ( A . + . 3 . 0 sin%. 4 . The force constant matrices for the two other nearestneighbor atoms. we show next the force constant matrix for the B2 atom at [a/(26).9) according to the rules for a secondrank tensor: &A.3) (9. .2) corresponds to the direction of the (7 bonds (dotted lines). Since graphite is an anisotropic material. (9. (fA1) + 34:.O). and if we then rotate the matrix. This happens at 4th neighbor atoms in graphite. is here defined by a rotation matrix around the z axis in Fig. these atoms are not always located on the 5 (or y) axis.% Urn = ~ 0 ~ 8sin6.§ To $The formulation should be in terms of the rotation of the axes connecting an atom A to its various equivalent neighbors.a/fi) for the B1 atom at (a/&. (9.
. 9.40 sf. which originate from the . 9.1 and 9. Values for the force constants [193] (see Table 9.’ $1. 9. (4) = 1.’) = 36. denoted by solid lines.4(b) the corresponding density of states is plotted per C atom per cml.92 3.29 #it)= = 0. 9.15 0. 9.2.9. t i . and to refer to radial.. describe the twisted motion of four atoms.1. Thus the inclusion of fourthneighbor interactions is sufficient for reproducing the phonon dispersion relations of 2D graphite. Here the subscripts T. The numbers shown in the figure denote the nth nearestneighbor atoms from the leftmost oth atom.4(a) reproduce the experiment^ points o b t ~ n e d by electron energy loss spectroscopy very well [194.00 4::) = 5. respectively. are shown using the set of force constants in Table 9. The calculated phonon dispersion curves of Fig.2. transverse inplane and transverse outofplane..4(a) the phonon ~ispersion curves of a t w ~ ~ i m e n s i o n sheet. in which the outer two atoms vibrate around the bond of the two inner atoms as shown in Fig.58 graphene a~ In Fig.) 4::’ 4$3) = 4. In Fig.3: In order to describe the twisted motion of four atoms. it is necessary to consider up to at least fourthnearestneighbor interactions. 9.23 #$) = 0.195].(2) = 8.82 #. Radial Tangential 4.80 4. Table 9. where the energy is in units of crnl. PHONON DISPERSION RELATIONS FOR &D GRAPHITE 169 (4) Fig.50 = 9. contributions up to a t least the fourth nearestneighbor interactions are necessary [194].3.1: Force constant parameters for 2D graphite in units of 104dyn/cm 11931. The three phonon dispersion curves (or branches). as for example from i n e l ~ t i c neutron scatter in^ or electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements along the I’ M direction [194.1) are obtained by fitting the 2D phonon dispersion relations over the Brillouin zone as determined experimentally.) I I : 3.50 = 24.195]. See Figs.25 &’ = 2.
(9. as is normally seen for acoustic modes. y plane in the case of twodimensional graphite. ~ It is noted that the outofp~a~e transverse) acoustic branch shows a h2 energy dispersion relation around the I ' point. .4(a)]. correspond to acoustic modes: an outofplane mode. an inplane tangential (bondbending) mode and an inplane radial (bondstretching) mode. . x lo9 statellCatom/cm' Fig. PHONON MODES OF CARBON NANOTUBES 1600 1200 800 400 r M U r .4: (a) The phonon dispersion curves.p ~ a n modes. respectively. . .1 [193]. The remaining three branches correspond to optical modes: one outofp~ane mode and two i n . The 1 x 1 force constant tensor I<!:') for the nth neighbor atoms .10) that all rotations U are within the z . while the other two inplane acoustic branches show a linear k dependence. One reason why we get a k2 dependence for the outofplane mode is simply because this branch corresponds to a twodimensional phonon mode and because graphite has threefold rotational symmetry. using the set of force constants in Table 9. It is clear in Eq. Thus the force constant matrix can be decomposed into a 2 x 2 matrix of z. y components and a 1 x 1 matrix of z components. listed in order of increasing energy. plotted along high symmetry directions. 9.170 CHAPTER 9. 9. 0 1. (b) The corresponding density of states vs phonon energy for phonon modes in units of states/lCatom/cml x ' I point of the Brillouin zone [see Fig. for a 2D graphene sheet. 0 .
which wi~s discussed in f 9. For example.28)] is an even function of k around the I' point. (3. However.9. C3 along the z direction. 3. b). The optical outofplane transverse branch (. (2. This is why we get a k2 dependence for w ( k ) for the outofplane branch. When the force constant matrix depends on the atom locations. (2. axis. and the phonon density of states shows a step function which is known as a twodimensional vanHove singularity [see Fig. the phonon dispersion relations for a singlewall carbon nanotube are determined by folding the phonon dispersion curves of a twodimensional graphene layer. where N = 2(n2 m2 nm)/dR and d s are defined in Eqs. for a onedimensional spring constant model with the force constant.  + + . The energy dispersion relation thus obtained [see Eq. (9. Since there are 2 N carbon atoms in the unit cell of a carbon nanotube.25) when discussing the electronic structure. and thus the eigenvalues are even functions of k: around k: == 0 (the r Even though w(k) is an even function of k.3. The absence of a linear k term in the phonun dispersion relations along the z axis of graphite comes from the threefold rotational axis. Thus there is neither a phase velocity nor a group velocity for the z component of the vibrations at the J? point.3. such as ak. (with constant values for a. we get w ( k ) = 2 m l s i n k a l 0: J k l . The simpiest invariant form is a constant. respectively (see also Table.4(b)]. ils discussed in f 41. bk. It is clear that Ill*[= 1 mitian matrix D. 6 N phonon + + %n general.7).fi If we consider only the three nearestneighbor atoms. Thus when w e change k: to k.rn) is the same as that for electrons. and the quadratic form of k$ kg is also invariant. and ky. 9 . (k 0).a term proportional to might appear poi% in w ( ). 9.865 cml at the r point) shows a C2 dependence for the same reason.1 Zone j u ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ge As a first approximation. and w ( L ) thus becomes an even function of X: which is obtained from the sum of the differential phase factors eik'ARij given by Eq. the phase factor eik'AR*j goes into its complex conjugate if we change k: to k. which generally has a linear k term in w ( k ) . the sum of the differential phase factors is nothing but f ( k ) obtained in Eq. axis. except that the zonefolding is applied to the 2D phonon dispersion relations. no linear combination of k. can be invariant under a 2a/3 rotation around the k. The method of folding the phonon dispersion curves for a given chiral vector c h ( n . Icy) should have threefold rotational symmetry around the C. K.1.9) and (3. such as for the inplane modes. the dynamical matrix for the z components in a two0 1for the Herdimensional system becomes its complex conjugate. PHONON DISPERSION RELATIONS FOR NANOTUBES 171 does not depend on the coordinate.3).2. this invariant condition applies to the product of the force constant matrix and the phase difference factor. 3 Phonon dispersion relations for nanotubes ~ ~ o ~ 9.. Because of this symmetry.5). the w ( k I .
the two directions which are perpendicular to the nanotube axis do not correspond ‘Since there is no vibration in the direction of the nanotube axis in the breathing mode. Here. the bond angle of the hexagon network is modified. where wrD (lc) denotes the twodimensiona~ energy dispersion relations for a graphene sheet. it has been pointed out [193] that zonefolding alone does not always give the correct dispersion relation for a carbon nanotube.y. and T is the m a ~ n i t u d e of the onedimensional translation vector T given in Eq. (3. Thus the force constant &i is necessary to describe the breathing mode. (3. when we consider the vibrations of a carbon nanotube in the context of threedimensional space. g. 9. The idea of zone folding is applicable for almost all the phonon modes of a carbon nanotube. However. L directions. and this results in a finite frequency at the I? point. in accordance with the periodic boundary conditions of the chiral vector.20) ). since the phonon wave vector in the circumferential direction becomes discrete for every K1 vector [see Eqs. However. For example. On the other hand.5(a) on the left do not give zero energy at the r point when rolled into a nanotube as shown on the right. and some additional physical concepts must be introduced. only the inplane force constants.172 CHAPTER 9. (3. 9. In the breathing mode. d t . all the carbon atoms of the nanotube move radially in an outofplane radial acoustic vibration. at k = 0. and z v~brationsfor each atom are foIded into the onedimensional Brillouin zone of a carbon nanotube along the K2 direction (Eq. the outofplane tangential acoustic (TA) modes of a graphene sheet shown in Fig.M ) and diameter of the carbon nanotube.5(a) on the right.8). and dti* in the ~ i ~ c u ~ f e r e n tdjrection ial of the tube are related t o the vibration. especially in the low frequency region. we generally expect three acoustic modes which correspond to vibrational motions in the 2 . PHONON MODES OF CARBON NANOTUBES dispersion relations for the x . 4 . The corresponding onedimensional phonon energy dispersion relation wyg (k) for the nanotubes is given by. .20) and (4.1)]. The phonon dispersion relations of a carbon nanotube also depend on the chirality (n. which corresponds to a breathing mode with nonzero frequency f1931 as shown in Fig. k is a onedimensional wave vector.
9.3.9.3. the graphitederived inplane and outofplane modes do couple to each other. 9. These modes do not couple in the case of a single graphite layer.5(b). However. (b) An acoustic mode of a carbon nanotube whose vibration is perpendicular to the nanotube axis (right) corresponds to a linear comb~nationof both inplane and outofplane graphitederived modes (left). 9. the inplane and outofplane modes are decoupled from each other. when the graphene strip is rolled up into a nanotube. In a graphene sheet.5: (a) The outofplane tangential acoustic modes at Ic = 0 (left) in a single layer of graphite give rise to a radial breathing mode in the carbon nanotube with nonzero frequency (right).2 Force constant tensor of a carbon nanotube In order to avoid these difficulties. to any tw5dimens~onalg r ~ p h i t e phonon modes. to form the acoustic mode of the nanotube shown on the right. PHONON DISPERSION RELATIONS FOR ~ A ~ O T U ~ E S 173 Fig. as shown on the lefthand side of Fig. but do couple for the nanotube because of the curvature that is introduced by rolling up the sheet. we solve the threedimensional carbon nanotube dynamical matrix problem directly using the force constant parameters .
and B1 RP.4). . ( p = l . .1 ) I cos(p. When we put atom A1 on the z axis. respectively. N ) . When we consider I d A l B p ) or IdBIBJ').1 ) I o ( 0 0 1 where the z axis is taken for the nanotube axis. (BpBq)) are within the 4th neighbor distance. the dynamic matrix to be solved becomes a 6 N x 6 N matrix.1 ) I sin(p . Then UP' is defined in Eq. and V ( B i B j ) (.1.1 ) I 0 sin(p.6 (a).16) as UP' = cos(p . we then consider (2N)' = 4 N 2 small matrices. we use ( N q . .1 times on A1 (or B l ) : + A1 RP1  Ap. the effect of the curvature has been taken into account.1  Bp. is obtained by: (a) rotating the tensor of Eq.10) p . (BpAq). WheIl a pair (ApBq). + . (or (ApAq). 'p and I are. then (b) rotating the tensor by an angle (p/2 around the z axis. as discussed in 3.l ) n / N in Eq. . .p 1) for ( q . . we will consider V(ApBq). When ( q . where the N Ai (or N B j ) atoms are geometrically equivalent to each other. (3. 9. and the angle 9 between A1 and A p around the z axis defined by 2 ( p . Since we have 2N carbon atoms. (3.4). and finally (c) rotating by I around the z axis.) (9.(3. PHONON MODES OF CARBON NANOTUBES listed in Table 9. 9.D(BiAj). (b) and (c). (3.N ) . 1 . . D ( A i A j ) .9) by (7r/6) . .0 around the z axis. . Here the angles 0. For example. respectively.16) + + + + . (9.p 1) is negative or zero in Eq. the position of each Ap (or Bp) atom can be obtained by operation of the symmetry vector R defined in Eq. Here we denote the 2 N atoms as Ai and B j ( i . let us consider the case of (see Fig. The corresponding force constant tensor I d A p B q ) is calculated using where U is a unitary matrix for rotation by an angle I = 2 r / N around the nanotube axis.6).15). i .174 CHAPTER 9. (9. . the angle (o between A1 and B1 around the z axis. the chiral angle 0 defined in Eq. In fact. j = 1. (9. Thus we can generate all force constant tensors from the nonzero tensor related to A1 or B1. N .p 1).14) When we divide the big 6N x 6N dynamical matrix into the 3 x 3 small matrices V ( A i B j for ) a pair of Ai and B j atoms. as shown in Fig. j = 1 . . D ( A i B j ) . .4.
B on a 2D graphene plane. The force constant tensor is obtained by (a) rotating the tensor of Eq.fl Fig. of which 12 modes are nondegenerate and 54 are doubly degenerate.lO) armchair carbon nanotube e the unit vector along are given in Fig.7(a). 9. Here B is the chiral angle defined in Eq. B1.16)). and the angle yo is defined in this figure by the angle between A1 and €31 in the xy plane around the z axis. The phonon energy dispersion relation is determined by solving the dynamical matrix for many k points in the onedimensional Brillouin zone.4). (9.lO) nanotube. where T denotes the ~ a g n i t u d of the tube axis (see Eq. where Azij is the component of Al&j along the z or nanotube axis. For the 2N = 40 carbon atoms per circumferential strip for the (10. (3.6: The geometry of the A1 atom and its nearest neighbor atoms. but because of mode degeneracies there are only 66 distinct phonon branches. Using the force constant tensor thus obtained and multiplying by exp ikAzij. The upper open circle in (a) represents the projection of B1 on the yz plane and the lower open circle represents its location after rotation by n/6 .8 around the z axis and by (b) rotating the force constant tensor by an angle rgf2 around the z axis. the dynamical matrix for a Ic vector is obtained. Bi. The results thus obtained for w(lc) for a (l0.B j .Y l i ) 5. we further rotate in (c) the force constant tensor by 9 around the z axis (see Eq. For II(APBq).5)). we have 120 vibrational degrees of freedom.9) by ( n / 6 ) . (9. 9. (3. The number of distinct phonon branches can be obtained by point group theory for atoms .
4(b)]. In the case of the (10. .0 kT/ 'IC 1.0 0.lO).7: (a) The calculated phonon dispersion relations of an armchair carbon nanotube with c h = (10. we get 3 states/Catom as the total number of states. 9.lO) nanotube in units of states per C atom per cml. z is decomposed into the irreducible representations for the phonon modes.176 CHAPTER 9. When we integrate the phonon density of states with respect to the energy. D l o h is the point symmetry group. 9.lO) armchair nanotube. in the unit cell.4(b)] since the phonon dispersion relations are. (b) Phonon density of states of (10. Since we use the same units for the phonon density of states for 2D graphite [see Fig.lO) nanotube is close to that for 2D graphite [see Fig.6 0.lO) nanotube and for 2D graphite. 1x10* states/l Catom/cm' Fig. In Fig. The phonon density of states for the (10.4 0. 9. 9. in principle.7(b) we show the phonon density of states for the (10. we can directly compare the phonon density of states for the (10.lO) nanotubes. given by the zonefolding of *The character of the atomic sites for an operation 0 of the point group is defined by the number of atoms which do not change their position when the operation 0 is carried out.0 0. PHONON MODES OF CARBON NANOTUBES 1600 1200 aoo 400 n  0.2 0. The number of degrees of freedom is 120 and the number of distinct phonon branches is 66. and the direct product of the reducible representation for the atomic sites* with the representations for 2 .8 1. y .
lO) carbon nanotube. and the twisting mode (TW). 9. However. The corresponding phonon density of states is proportional to . In Fig.8. There are four acoustic modes in this cylindrical solid. which are doubly degenerate. Since there is k 2 dependence in the outofplane TA mode for 2D graphite. we have no phonon density states at w = 0 as shown in Fig.lO) nanotube and graphite relates to the phonon density of states at w = 0 cm'.lO) armchair car' point. bon nanotube near the I The three lines near w = 0 which intersect at k = 0 correspond to the acoustic modes of a carbon nanotube. 9. since all acoustic modes of the (10. we get a finite density of states at w = 0 cml. The lowest energy modes are the transverse acoustic (TA) modes. P ~ O N O N ~ ~ S P RELATIONS ~ ~ ~ O FOR N NANOTUBES 177 200 '6 100 3 0 Ll 0.7(b).5(b) right). as is commonly observed in the solid state. the z longitudinal acoustic mode (LA). those for 2D graphite. 2 0. doubly degenerate).3. The difference in the phonon densities of states appear in the small peaks due to the onedimensional van Hove singularities.9.8: Phonon dispersion relations of the (10. the frequencies of the phonon dispersion relations are proportional to k for all three phonon branches.lO) nanotube have a k dependence as shown below. The highest energy mode is the longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode in the direction of the nanotube axis. The TW mode is related to the rotation of a nanotube along its axis.0 0 . including the lower energy 2. 9. the phonon dispersion curves around the J? point are shown on an expanded scale for the (10. 9.y transverse acoustic modes (TA. Since the djsplacements of all the acoustic modes are three dimensional. It is noted that we integrated the phonon states within an accuracy of 10 cml. and have 2 and y vibrations perpendicular to the nanotube ( z ) axis (see Fig.lO) carbon nanotube.4 kT/a Fig. Another difference between the (10. Let us focus our attention on the acoustic modes of the (10. which is known as the twodimensional van Hove singu~arity at the band edge.
This small Y value arises from the small mass density of the rope. vgiD 9. When we consider a single carbon nanotube as an infinite onedimensional material. since the sound velocity for the zonefolded outofplane TA mode is zero because of the k2 dependence as discussed above. It is noted that the sound velocities that we have calculated for 2D graphite are similar t o those observed in 3D graphite [9].178 CHAPTER 9.00 km/s. Y can be estimated by the LA velocity. .35 km/s. The sound velocities of the TA and LA phonons for a (l0. respectively. Since the driving force for this wave motion is a twisting motion of the nanotube.? These results cannot be obtained by the zonefolding method discussed in the previous subsection.9 Force constant corrections due to curvature of 1D nanotubes The threedimensional phonon dispersion relations of a carbon nanotube can be obtained by the methods discussed in the previous subsection. This value is smaller than other calculated Y values. However it should be mentioned that the force constant parameters of Table 9. respectively.0 km/s.196]. tThe Young modulus. The reason why the T W modes have the same velocity as the TA graphite mode is that the displacements associated with the T W mode are in the cylindrical plane and are perpendicular to the tubular axis. The difference of the sound velocity is due to the existence or absence of the interlayer interaction between graphene layers for 3D graphite and a 2D graphene sheet. 'u = in which p is the density of carbon atoms. we call this mode a twisting mode (TW).43 km/s and 20. PHONON MODES OF CARBON NANOTUBES the energy while the phonon density of states of 2D graphite is constant because of the k2 dispersion relation for the outofplane TA graphite mode.1 are not well defined on the curved surface of the nanotube by merely considering the planar graphene force constants. fi. the density p becomes 1.3 km/s and vgjD = 21. The sound velocity of the T W mode is 15. which is the same as the calculated value of the inplane TA mode for 2D graphite.lO) armchair carbon nanotube are estimated as 9. for which = 12. a rotation around the nanotube axis is possible [83.44x&A. which is related t o a rotation around the nanotube axis at k = 0. When we assume the triangular lattice of the nanotubes ( s o called rope) with the lattice constants of a =16.9.95A and c =1. Details will be discussed in Chapter 11 on elastic constants.28 x lo3 kg/m3 from which the Young modulus gives Y = 532 GPa. there is a fourth acoustic mode for the carbon nanotube. In addition.
the calculated result for the (10. Thus we do not use the elasticity theory approach to the curved coordinates of carbon nanotubes.lO) carbon nanotube gives a finite value of w = 4 cm' at k = 0 for the twisting mode when we use the method of the previous subsection with the force constant parameters of Table 9. we can find a small radial component of the motion which is perpendicular to the cylindrical surface and is due to the effect of curvature on the force constant parameters. we find that the force constant parameters in Table 9.1 cannot be applicable to the curved coordinates. the two vectors u and G u are not in the plane which is defined by the dotted line and tube axis.1 give less accurate values than the approach of the previous subsection. in Fig. Actually when we examine the eigenvectors of the motion.3. However this treatment requires a different method from that used for a lattice of springs.9. this effect can be neglected compared with general nanotube phonon frequencies which are on the order of lo3 cml.. When we consider a curved chemical bond. for this kind of rotational motion.9. Thus as a first approximation. PHONON DISPERSION RELATIONS FOR NANOTUBES 179 For example. which would mix the force constant parameters with each other depending on the curvature and the bond length. which gives a nonzero value of w at k = 0. negative w 2 ) frequencies for the acoustic phonon modes. Thus. It is a physical requirement that we have a rotational mode with w = 0 at k = 0 in this system. The other three acoustic modes correctly give w = 0 cmI at k = 0. . we show the effect of the rotational motion of the twisting mode with k = 0 on the cross section of the carbon nanotube in which all vectors of the motion should be parallel to the cylindricaI surface and perpendicular to the nanotube axis. The ratio of the components of the motion in the radial direction to the cylindrical direction is on the order of The curvature effect will also apply to all of the other modes by an amount up to ~ 1 cm' 0 even for the (5.5) armchair nanotube.9. 9. Actually the calculated results using the force constant parameters in Table 9. Sometimes the calculated results even give imaginary (i. we could consider the dynamical matrix on a curved coordinate reflecting the cylindrical surface. the force associated with the tangential outofplane force constant. However. In order to treat the curvature effect correctly with the given force constant parameters of twodimensional graphite.1. This p h en o ~ en o ncan be treated by elasticity theory for a thin film.e. 9. 4to artificially introduces a force on the motion. When we denote a nearestneighbor bond as the dotted line in Fig.
we have proposed the following approximation in which the force constants are scaled depending on their bond lengths.18) and (9. which is given by Eq.9: The dependence of the twisting mode at k = 0 of a carbon nanotube on its cross section is shown.10 (a)zthe motion is in the direction perpendicular to the cylindrical surface. and &. When we consider the tangential outofplane mode for the ith site on the cylindrical surface as shown in Fig.. 9. when we denote the bond ij by the thick line.19). When we consider the interaction between the two atoms along the dotted line. (9. x Y Fig. and (b) illustrates a plane corresponding to an unrolled graphite sheet. (9.10: (a) Correction of the force constant #do.17) and (b) correction of the force constants of 4. PHONON MODES OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. the rotational motion appears to have a tangential outofplane motion in the plane defined by the dotted line and the nanotube axis. 9. which are given by Eqs. whose subtended angle around the tube . On the other hand. To avoid the difficulty of the curved coordinates. 9. Figure (a) illustrates the section of a plane perpendicular to the nanotube axis.180 CHAPTER 9.
Thus this bond ~e ngth dependent correction is used to describe the v~brations perpendicular to the cylindrical surface.as that of Eq. the force constants of 4Sp. The difference between the two directions is the angle 912 which depends on the bond length. (9.cos(cp/2)) to #to.cos (5. we conclude that 4. #ti are corrected by the following formulae.cos ( . (9. such as r#~t.6 (a)]. A justification for the correction of Eq.18) (9. the tangential outofplane direction for that bond is defined to be perpendicular to that bond. Using the scaled force constants. (9.3.17) as an empirical correction for the force constant. we calculate an improved version of the phonon dispersion relations for a (10. which reIates to the corresponding bond length becoming shorter than that in a twodimensional graphite plane. the Component of the force constant in the direction perpendicular t o the cylindrical surface becomes 4 ~ o c o s ( ~ / Z )In . cos(n/6 0) and sin(a/6 .Q) (1 . In this case.4) are the components to be corrected. Since we consider only the horizontal component of the force by a rotation of 9/2 around the z axis.10) armchair carbon nanotube. When the bond length is large.17).19) where n/64 is the angle of the bond from the horizontal zy plane [see Figs. However. Here we scale the force constant #to by do= 4 t o + d t o (1 .. (9. = #r and + 4.) (9. we add #bo(l .17) becomes relatively large with increasing bond length or increasing p.cos (~)). the frequency of the twisting mode becomes very small (Iwl < cml)  *We could also consider other corrections of the force constant. and thus we do not adopt it. but not so large as the origina~ force co n st~ n t. 4. the correction for the force constant becomes large.9. 9. order to obtain the same amplitude of the motion in this direction as is obtained in the case of twodimensional graphite. Similarly.. . For small cp. 9. respectively. this correction gives the same effect. this correction diverges at 'p = R. When we calculate the motion using the tangential outofplane dto force constant for a given bond.* The correction of Eq.10(a). PHONON DISPERSION RELATIONS FOR NANOTUBES 181 axis is p as shown in Fig.17) is as follows./cos(cp/2).10 (b) and 9.
lO) armchair nanotube. mode which gives a large softening after this correction from 22 cm' to 17 cml. are discussed in the following chapter. The only mode where the correction is significant is the E2. symmetry) shown in Fig. Since this mode is a Ramanactive mode and its frequency is sensitive to the radius of the carbon nanotube.182 CHAPTER 9. the above arguments show the importance of investigating this mode experimentally.5(a). 9. It is interesting to note that the lowest phonon mode with nonzero energy at k = 0 is an Ezg mode in which the cross section of the carbon nanotube is vibrating with the symmetries corresponding to xy and x 2 . This mode frequency quickly decreases to 0 cm' with increasing radius.y2. . The frequency of the breathing mode appears at 165 cm' for the (10. As for the other modes. PHONON MODES OF CARBON NANOTUBES at k = 0. The observation of the Ramanactive modes. the corrections are generally small (less than 5 cml).lO) carbon nanotube is 17 cml. The calculated frequency of the E2. Another important mode for experimental study is the Ramanactive low frequency breathing mode (Al. mode for the (10.
2 of Raman scattering experiments on purified s i n g ~ ~ w a nanotubes li and arrays of carbon nanotubes. only a few modes are Raman or infrared (IR) active. 10. 3. + 183 . Point group theory of the unit cell. predicts the number of Ramanactive modes and IRactive modes. 10. as specified by the symmetry of the phonon modes.5.)active modes correspond to modes whose irreducible representations transform as a quadratic form (z2 y2.2 Raman or infrared active modes of carbon nanotubes Among the 6 N calculated phonon dispersion relations for carbon nanotubes whose unit cell contains 2N carbon atoms. as discussed in Sect. A review is given in Sect.1.4 and the dependence of the Raman mode ~ntensities on nanotube orientatioii is discussed in Sect. results €rom bond polarization theory are presented in Sect. 10. 10.ctive phonon modes of carbon nanotubes are described on the basis of group theoretical arguments in Sect. z 2 . As discussed in Chapter 9. Since only k vectors very close to k = 0 are coupled to the incident light because of the energymomentum conservation requirements for the photons and phonons. and z ) for the infraredactive modes.CHAPTER 10. Raman Spectra of Carbon Nanotubes The Ramanactive and infrareda. we need only consider the symmetry of the nanotube zonecenter vibrations at the I? point (k = 0). there are four acoustic modes including the rotation around the nanotube axis ( R z )at the I ' point. 10. zy. To analyze the unique Raman spectra that are observed. z for the Ramanactive modes. The dependence of the Raman mode frequencies on the nanotube diameter is discussed in Sect. or as a vector y. The Raman and infrared(IR. 10. yz and ) .y 2 . called ropes. Thus 6N4 optical phonons are considered in this section. x2 .6. The relationship between an form (8.3.
Y2r .2j) 4 (0) 4(7) 8 16(7) others 3 (n. The other Ramanactive modes belong to the El and E2 symmetry types. The numbers of the Ramanactive and IRactive modes for the solid can be predicted by group theory once the lattice structure and its symmetry are specified. groups. Basis functions D.184 CHAPTER 10. as shown in Table 10. and t transforms according to A2 ( A ) symmetry. The superscripts and I R .R.Y2lR (x2 6 6 Total 6N4 16(6) 1 5 0 Numbers without and with parentheses denote the numbers of Raman and IR active modes.6). RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES Table 10. the Raman modes whose vibrational amplitudes transform as t 2or z 2 y2 are invariant under any operation of the group. ( +Y 2 7 W zIR. the eigenfunction belongs to the corresponding irreducible representation. When we consider the nanotube axis to be in the t direction. E2 E2 . An eigenfiinction can be identified with an irreducible representation by applying a projection operator for the irreducible representation of the group to the phonon normal modes [197]. Each type of nanotube is classified by its symmetry. and therefore have A1 or A symmetry in the Dn or C .1 are listed the basis functions for the irreducible representations of the carbon nanotubes and the number of Ramanactive modes for each irreducible representation.1. 9 21 2j A1 2j+1 R.1: Basis Functions for Point Groups Dnd and Numbers of Raman and IR Active modes. The number of opticallyactive modes is calculated by the decomposition of the reducible representation of the vibration.) ("7y)IR } Az AI Az A A (2j.YP (RX. which is given by the direct + . respectively. If we know the irreducible representation of the calculated eigenfunctions of the phonon modes. the basis functions 2 and y are partners of a twofold degenerate mode with El ( E ) symmetry. CNfn Achiral Chid " . If the projected eigenfunction is not zero. denote Ramanactive and infraredactive modes.4 phonon modes. Pib. respectively. respectively (see Section 3.m) (1) 6(5) 4 (4) El El EI 5(5) E 2 irreducible representation and its basis function is given in the character tables. we can directly assign the symmetries of the Ramanactive modes and IRactive modes among the 6 N . In the case of the IRactive modes. ( x z . In Table 10.
1 for the groups of nanotubes which are discussed in Section 3. depending on whether n =odd or n =even. we can easily find the number of Raman and IR modes. When we into the irreducible representations of the group.: a 1 R. and the irreducible representations which belong t o the vector components 2. z . tIn Eq. using the ordecompose rvib t ~ o g o ~ i relations ~ ~ t y between the characters of the irreducible re ~ r e s ~ n ta tjo n s . we get the decomposition of rvib 11981: for armchair nanotubes (even n = 2 j with Dnh symmetry)t a .O) nanotubes are either Dnd or D n h . t i o ~ (Az. . The characters for I'a.2) + 2B2. + 8E1.8. the 4 and 8 are interchanged in the last two terms in Eq. and the symmet~y of chiral nanotubes is the nonsymmorphic kbelian group CN.t are.1 RAMAN OR INFRARED ACTIVE MODES OF NANOTUBES 185 product of the two representations of the group as foilows (10. A2. respectively. subtract the number of those modes from the optically active modes in compiling Table l O . z. l . E l g .2) we assume that j is even.6)]. l ) g +8E(jl)u + *The symmetries are for achiral nanotubes.) modes.10.4. y.y.s. (10.1) where I'a.. From the as follows character Tables 3. the representations of the atomic sites for the equivalence transformation. + 8E2$ +4Ezu + * * * + 4 E ( j . 3. Since we know which irreducible representations correspond to the Ramanactive and IRactive modes. The representations which correspond to x$ y. El. and rz.5 and 3. Raman (A. n ) and zigzag C h = (n.s.y.6. * The point group symmetries of armchair C h = ( n . which is discussed in Sect. (10. respectively. are listed in Table 10.6. + 4 $431. E l ) modes.: z) and r ~ t a . are given by the number of atoms in the unit cell that remain invariant under an operation of the group. the symbols are as follows: transiational fE A ) . m )= (6. E l . E2) and I R ( A . 4 +~ 242a ~ +2 B 1 g (10. If the z. If j is odd [such as for ( n . rotational ( A ) . ) r$y = 4Aig + 2A1. 3. For chiral nanotubes.2).) motion be~ong to the t r a n ~ l a t i o ~(Elu: al and IR (Az. + 4BzU + 4E1. we symmetry types of the Raman (Alg. the number of times an irreducible representation is contained in rvib is the number of phonon modes which belong to that irreducible representation.
4) For chiral nanotubes: We list in Table 10. +6E1g * ' ' 3Azg + 6E1. though the total number of phonon modes 6 N . because of the existence of an inversion center.d 3A2.4). 2j) have a different numbers of Raman and IR modes from others such as armchair nanotubes with odd number indexes ( 2 j 1 . Group theory selection rules indicate that there are 15 or 16 Ramanactive modes and 6 to 9 IRactive modes for a singlewall carbon nanotube. . symmetry): = 3Alg I.3A1.1 the numbers of Raman and IR active modes for achiral and chiral nanotubes in which the numbers without and with parentheses.O).1 we see that the numbers of Raman and infraredactive modes for a carbon nanotube do not depend much on the nanotube diameter and chirality. refer t o the numbers of Raman and IRactive modes. Raman and I R active + + t The g and u come from the traditional notation of the German words 'gerade' and 'ungerade'. Among achiral nanotubes. From Table 10. 2 j 1) and zigzag nanotubes (n. The difference between Dzj and Dzj+l for armchair nanotubes comes from the different numbers of El and Ez modes in the decomposition of rvib in Eqs. respectively. Since the basis functions of achiralnanotubes consist of even ( 9 ) and odd ( u ) t functions.2) and (10. (10. + 6E2g + 6Ezu + + 6Ejg + 6Eju (10. RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES (10.4 is very different for different chiralities. only armchair nanotubes with even number indexes (2j.186 CHAPTER 10.3) For armchair and zigzag nanotubes (odd n = 2 j rvib zj+l + 1 with D. respectively.
modes can be found for several different irreducible representat~ons. especially the growth temperature. in general.2 Raman experiments on singlewall nanotubes This section mainly describes Raman experiments on singlewall carbon nanotubes [52. However. the diameter range is 1. while thinner nanotubes with diameters of 0. For example.99. However.199]. Even when the same catalysts are used.lO) armchair nanotube is the dominant species in the rope. 10. when 1. atomic vibrations prevent the for . Even though group theory may indicate that a particular mode is Ramanactive. In both of these synthesis methods. 5. which depend sensitively on the catalysts that are used in the synthesis and the growth conditions. However for chiral nanotubes. the Raman samples have a narrow distribution of diameters and chiralities. a higher growth temperature gives a larger diameter. Since similar eigenfunctions give similar Raman intensities for any kind of nanotube. this mode may nevertheless have a small Raman cross section.4% Rh/Pd catalyst with growth at llOO°C [99]. as shown in Sect. because of the lack of an inversion center. and thus the caps that are generated tend to be smaller.4 nm. When the temperature is lowered. though similar results were obtained on singlewall nanotubes synthesized by the carbon arc method 1521.2 weight % of Ni/Co catalyst is used in the sample synthesis at a temperature of 1150OC in 500 torr Ar. 10. In fact.200].4. the probability of closing a carbon pentagonal ring increases. the Raman spectra also have similar shapes.83.3. as shown by the calculations in Sect. in these cases the intense Raman modes are generally weak IR modes and vice versa. This situation may be explained by the probability for generating a pentagon.0 nm are obtained in the case of a 2.81. Under some synthesis conditions. A phonon mode can be Raman and IR active simultaneously in the lower symmetry chiral nanotubes. Most of the Raman studies on singlewall carbon nanotubes were made on nanotubes synthesized by the laser vaporization method [55] with transition metal catalysts. At a higher temperature.01. the (10. 10. modes with A and El symmetry are both Raman and IRactive. we have only six or seven intense Ramanactive modes for any nanotube chirality. the singlewall carbon nanotubes grow in a triangular lattice t o form a bundle or ‘rope’ containing 1050 nanotubes (see Sect.2) [55. however.
The four bottom panels are the calculated Raman spectra for armchair ( n .1 shows Raman spectra for the singlewall nanotube rope using a laser excitation wavelength of 514. 10.1 [83]. the experiments show a few intense lines and several weaker lines. RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. N mation of relatively unstable pentagonal rings.1: Raman spectra (top) of the rope of single wall carbon nanotubes taken with 514. 10. two strong features are observed at 1567 cm' and 1593 cm'. which correspond to the graphite E2$ optic mode a t 1582 cm' which has been extensively studied in HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) [9.5 nm. n ) .5 nm excitation at 2W/cm2. n = 8 t o 11. Among the 15 or 16 Ramanallowed zonecenter modes. n = 8 to 11. so the lower growth temperatures favor the growth of smaller diameter tubes. The features in the spectrum denoted by the symbol "*" are assigned to secondorder Raman scattering.201]. n ) nanotubes. and the lower panels show the calculated intensities for armchair nanotubes (n. a s illustrated in Fig.188 CHAPTER 10. The arrows in the panels indicate the positions of the remaining weak. The strong lines between 1550 and 1600 cm' may be assigned t o the . compared with hexagonal rings. 10. respectively. The top panel of Fig. Ramanactive modes [83]. Between 1550 and 1600 cm'.
modes in carbon nanotubes with different diameters. the observed Raman spectral frequencies are shown for three singlewall nanotube samples prepared with different catalysts and under different growth conditions yielding nanotubes with different mean diameters (radii) and different distribu . The Raman frequencies in this high frequency region do not vary much with carbon nanotube diameter. (8. 10. and (c) La (r = 1.55 nm). E l g . respectively. 10.0 nm). (b) Co ent mean nanotube radii P : (a) Fe/Ni ( ( P = 0. and Elg or A l . respectively [202]. Solid dots and the symbol 'T' correspond to the observed frequencies of the peaks and shoulders in the Raman spectra. The Raman frequencies in the range 15501600 cml can be understood by zonefolding of the graphite phonon dispersion relations [202]. (9.9) tubes.65 nm).2. 10.1. Ezg and Al. In Fig. respectively.8). prepared with different catalysts under different growth conditions yielding differ.Fig. Rao et al. as shown in the lower panels of Fig. The dashed lines are theoretical LO and TO energy dispersion curves for graphite along I'M as a function of q and q / 2 for n = 1 and n = 2 (first harmonic vibrat~on). [83] assigned the two strong modes of 1567 cm' and 1593 cml to the E2.2: Plot of the observed Raman frequencies for several different singlewall carbon nanotube samples. = 0.
and TO ( n = 2) correspond to the Al. Even for a given sample. 10. mode can also be clearly seen in fullerenes. In armchair nanotuhes. El. and the presence of carbon nanoparticles and amorphous carbon.3).lO) nanotubes. while disordered graphites and carbons show a broad feature around 1350 cm' [9. In the very low frequency region below 30 cm'.65 nm).2 shows a clear relationship between 1 / and ~ q on the zonefolded phonon energy dispersion curves. respectively. but their intensities are expected t o be lower than that for the Al. breathing mode can be used as a marker for assigning the approximate diameter of the carbon nanotube. breathing mode is found in Fig.l(a) [see Fig. RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES tions of diameters (radii). the Raman spectra may change if we change the frequency of the excitation laser.4.0 nm). mode. (b) Co ( T = 0. a strong Al. However.5 cml [198]. 9. and Ez.. Thus LO (n = l ) . 10. it is difficult t o observe Raman lines in the very low frequency region. At 186 cml. The radial breathing A1. It is important to note that the Raman intensity for graphite in the 13001600 cm' region is sensitive t o sample quality. the r . these El.5(a) on the right]. modes are important since they also show a diameter dependence of their mode frequencies.1. a strong low frequency Ramanactive Ezg mode is expected. The dashed lines are theoretical LO and TO energy dispersion curves in graphite along I?M as a function of wavevector q and q/2 in units of lo9 cm' for n = 1 and n = 2 (first harmonic vibration). the calcvlations predict nanotubespecific El. respectively.* In the low frequency region. TO (n = l ) . Raman modes.1 may come from a symmetrylowering effect.55 nm). for (10. due to defects or nanotube caps. Figure 10. 10.201. Generally the intensity of the Ezg modes of graphitic materials is sharp and strong when the sample is highly crystalline and defect free.204]. where the background Rayleigh scattering is very strong. of (360 has a frequency of 497. . modes around 116 cm' and 377 cml. breathing mode on nanotube diameter (see Sect. the A1. the frequency of the A1. When the excitation energy is close to an energy 'For example. 10. and (c) La ( T = 1. Because of the strong dependence of the frequency of the A l .M direction corresponds t o the wave vector along the equator of the nanotubes. lO. bending of the nanotube. and Ez. The 1347 cm' signal seen in Fig. and E2. as shown in the lower panels of Fig.203. which will be explained in the theoretical analysis in Sect. Specifically the catalysts and resulting average radii are: (a) Fe/Ni ( T = 0.190 CHAPTER 10. However.
R A M A N EXPERIMENTS O N SINGLE. For every onedimensional band edge. 10.10. 10.3 are shown Raman spectra obtained with different laser excitation frequencies. The 1/fi singularities for the 1D density of states results in a much stronger resonant Raman effect than would be . showing the resonant enhancement of the Raman intensity associated with the vanHove singularities in the nanotube density of states [83]. 4.7). the density of states of the 1~ band becomes singular by folding the twodimensional energy bands of the graphene layer into the onedimensional bands of the carbon nanotube. a I/@ singularity is expected for the energy dependence of the onedimensional density of states (see Fig. the Raman modes that are preferentially enhanced shift to higher frequencies.3: Room temperature Raman spectra for purified singlewall carbon nanotubes excited at five different laser frequencies. more light can be absorbed. as in a carbon nanotube. thereby enhancing the Raman signal through the electronphonon coupling process. Each trace is labeled by the wavelength and power level of the laser light. and these singularities are known as vanHove singularities. In Fig. Under resonant conditions. of high “optical” absorption.2. the Raman intensity is enhanced. and this effect is known as the resonant Raman effect.WALL NANOTUBES 191 Fig. since the resonance effect is most pronounced when the joint density of states of the carbon 1~ band is large. When the laser frequency increases. As discussed in the 5 4. and the laser frequency matches a peak in the optical absorption.2.
mode provides the value of the nanotube diameter that is in resonance electronically. Thus the resonance effect is a quantum effect that can be understood in terms of both the electronic and phonon dispersion relations of the nanotubes.7) .j is the derivative of the electronic polarization tensor for the fth normal mode. r] and r]' are the corresponding unit vectors for the polarization of the light.206]. (10. and Pap.6) denote Cartesian components of the vector or tensor.The a and . (10. The observed phonon frequency of the low frequency A1. When we consider only armchair nanotubes ( n . RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES observed for a 2D graphene sheet or for 3D crystalline graphite. the energy separation between the vanHove singularities becomes large with decreasing n. which is given by [205]. Clearly the energy separation of these singularities in the 1D density of states increases as the number of energy bands decreases. w j is the ) l/(exp(hwf/hBT)frequency of the fth normal phonon mode. g . Since nominal singlewall carbon nanotube samples consist of nanotubes with different diameters and chiralities. respectively.192 CHAPTER 10. Here W L and w s are the incident and scattered light frequencies.n ) . .B subscripts in Eq. The Raman intensity for h/ atoms in the unit cell is calculated by the empirical bond polarizability model [205.m) which has a singularity in its electronic density of states at the laser frequency. since the phonon frequencies for the low frequency normal modes increases with decreasing n. which is also useful for the interpretation of the Raman spectra. while ( n ( w f ) = 1) is the phonon occupation number at temperature T.3 Bond Polarizability Theory of Raman Intensity for Carbon Nanotubes In this section we discuss the nonresonant bond polarization theory for calculating the Raman intensity. The Raman resonance condition thus selects the particular carbon nanotube ( n . the resonant Raman effect may be seen in different nanotubes for different laser excitation frequencies. 10. x . z .
B> Here the summation is taken over the bonds connected to the 1th atom and we use the following relations: (10. When we denote the bond vector without the displacements of the two atoms of the bond as Ro(4. and R ( t .. and the derivative is performed with respect to the yth Cartesian displacement.11) and .9) while the derivative on u. Both translational and rotational acoustic modes are included in f for simplicity. respectively.(tlf) is the y component of the unit vectors of the f t h normal modes of the t t h atom.B ) = &(&. in Eq. respectively.B ) R(&. B ) .(l).10.Bf is the corresponding vector from the 4th atom to the neighbor atom l' specified by B .a(e).(. for the t t h atom. The quantities R. B ) + . B ) are the a component and the length of R(&. The term Pap in Eq.Q ( B ) ) ( RU(eJ B)Rp(e8 B. However.B { a l p ) + W B ) } 6. (10.(L.8) R(t.el) .  $6Qd)] (10.3 BOND P O ~ A ~ Z A ~ r ~ THEORY r T Y OF AN ~ ~ T E ~ S ~193 T Y where Pap is the electronic polarization. B ) and R(4. (10.B ) . then R(t. and aql(B) and a ~ ( 3 are ) the static molecular polarizabilities for the bond B in the directions parallel and perpendicular t o the bond.7) is expressed by the derivative on R(t.B ) as follows: a d d R ( t .7) is approximated by a sum over the bond polarization contributions as follows Pap = 1 [  c l.B)2 where B denotes a bond which is connected to the Gth atom in the unit cell. the acoustic modes do not contribute t o the Raman in tensity. u.B ) =&(jJ? (10. (10.B ) can be defined by R(4.10) €3 dR(t. The term x.@ 3 + {9l(B) .B ) . Here we assumed that q ( B ) and a l ( B ) are functions of only the length R(L.
RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES When we calculate Pap.that is ). The values of a l ~ ( B ~ ically as a function of the bond length between two carbon atoms or between carbonhydrogen atoms. (10. and aR("B) in 8% After some calculation au.11) and (10:12).7).46A) and double (1.194 CHAPTER 10. we have terms .j in Eq.B) du.(l. (10. and making use of Eqs.2 do not converge well for carbon materials.40di) carbon bonds in c 6 0 and related materials [205.I ( B ) all(B) . we start by interpolating between the values for the polarizability parameters for single (1. we obtain an explicit form for Pap. (10. and these values are listed for carbon nanotubes in Table 10.207]. . and aL(B) are given empirrespectively.!. da dR. 7 du. (el .2. the values for the polarizability parameters listed in Table 10.10)' (10. In order to obtain values for the parameters for carbon nanotubes. Although the calculated values are within a reasonable range for carbon materials. because of the different results that have been reported by various groups. Then we fit the values so as to reproduce the Raman signal for randomly oriented nanotubes.13) where all(B)and a y ( B ) are the radial derivatives of q ( B ) and a l ( B ) .
46) C = C (1.C (1. The lowest Ez9 mode is found to be most sensitive to the parameter a11.c (1.50 f 0. Guha et al. that the polarizability parameters of carbon are similar for a variety of carbon materials.46) 1. Cardona [207]. R.20 0.40 1.30 2. [208].944 2. Snoke and M.13 6. The Raman intensity is calculated using the eigenvectors for the vibrational modes. I t is known.016 4.2: Bond lengths and Raman polarizability parameters for singlewall carbon nanotubes and for various carbonrelated molecules. obtained by solving the dynamical matrix. 10.60 2.40) SWCNC) C = C (1. The eigenfunctions for the various vibrational modes are calcufated numerically at the I ' point (k = 0). the relative intensities for the Raman modes are not so sensitive to small changes in the values of the bond polarization parameters except for the lowest E29 mode.7 2. however.70 5. (10. Molecule Bond Lengths (YI~ 2 a ~ ( ~ 1 1 Q L +  + CH4") C .00 f0.40) C .K (1. Here we consider two possible geometries for the polarization of the light: the VV .28 f 0. Saito et al.35 f 0.O ~ ~ ~ '1 S.47 4 .32) [A1 1~33 [k31 1. the fitted values are used for calculating appro xi mat^ Raman intensities.07 0.28 0.36 1.09 1.55 f 0.32 It 0.30 5.42) Ceoa) 3. W.42) SWCNd) C = C (1.65 1.30 f 0.01 7. (Y' 20'1 Q ' a. Richter et al.30 f 0.96 4.28 1.Table 10. E.20 4.28 f 0.40 f 0. and the polarization parameters are obtained using bond polarization theory [205].a ~ Thus .04 cf21 d21  c60b) c .6) for the Bose distribution function for phonons.20 0. Furthermore.31 2. [205].50) CZH4&) C = C (1. (unpublished data which is used in their work[83]).890 C = C (1.50 2. D.60 If: 0.4 Raman Spectra of Nanotubes with Random Orientations The Raman intensities for the various Ramanactive modes in carbon nanotubes are Calculated at a phonon temperature of 300 K which appears in the formula of Eq.50 5.09) C ~ H G ~ )c c (1.
we need the directions of V and H for calculating the Raman intensity of a nanotube. The Raman intensity is averaged over the sample orientation of the nanotube axis relative to the Poynting vector of the light. 6. and thus the calculated results cannot distin~uish between forward and backward scattering of the light. 10. and middle (500 cmI 5 w 5 1500 cml) frequency ranges. 10. rU. Generally the cross section for Raman scettering is a function of the scattered angle of the light. and 6. in the V V configuration) of unity. (17. mode at 165 em' is suppressed in the VH configuration. Most importantly. and E2. This anisotropy is due to the low dimensionality of carbon nanotubes. weighted by the solid angle for that direction. Since we consider randomlyoriented nanotubes in this section. we show the calculated Raman intensities for the (10. higher (w 2 1500 cml). in which the average is calculated by summing over many ( w 50) directions.4 is the calculated result for r~domIyorientednanotubes. the incident and the scattered po~arizationsare parallel to each other.7S& 6.4). in which we rotate the nanotube axis by fixing the polarization vectors. while the lower frequency El. However.4. the Raman intensity shows anisotropy.lO) nanotube in the next section. In Fig. Thus Fig. modes are not suppressed as much. the A l . Then we discuss the phonon density of states for the Ramanactive modes which depend strongly on the chirality.lO) armchair.196 CHAPTER LO.47A and are close to one another. The degenerate vibrations of the E modes. whose radii are. RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES and V H configurations. 10. We present the sample orientation dependence of the Raman spectra of a (10.4.s) chiral nanotubes. On the other hand. We divide the discussion into the following three frequency regions: the lower (w _< 500 cm'). In the VV configuration. whose eigenfunctions 500 cml. respectively. the formulae for the bond polarization theory consider only Smattered waves [205]. . When we compare the VV with the V H polariz~tions(see Fig.O) zigzag and (11.66A. we do not need t o mention the direction of the polarization vector for the V V and V W configurations. while they are perpend~cu~ar to each other in the V H direction.1 Lower ~ r ~ ~ R ~ e~ Spectra n c ~ ~ ~ n Here we discuss the Raman intensity for the lower frequency modes below The Raman intensity is normalized for each nanotube to a maximum intensity ( A l .
10.lO) armchair. 4 A* 1687 1581 o 400 11 388 400 800 1200 1600 % 1581 BOO 1200 woo 1580 1571 400 600 1200 1600 0 400 BOO 1200 1600 I  1% E. and (c) (11.O) zigzag. €4. (b) (17. When we compare the lower frequencies of these Raman modes for nan .4. 1591 400 600 1200 1600 Raman Shift [ cm’1 Fig. From the figure we see that the relative intensities for the same mode between the V V and VII polarizations are different but are on the same order for all the E modes. 10. RAMAN SPECTRA WITH RANDOM ORIENTATIONS 197 vv . are orthogonal to each other. VH .8) ehiral nanotubes and the tube radius are given on the right. are relevant to V N signals. The left column is for the V V scattering configuration and the right column is for the VH configuration.4: The polarization dependence of the Raman scattering intensityfor (a) (10.
In the next section we will see that the A1. the experimental Raman spectra between 100 to 300 cml are dominated by the A l . which is approximately quadratic and may reflect the effect of curvature on the nanotube.and r ~ 1 0 .5 clearly shows straight line dependences for all four Raman modes. As for the lowest E2. since the frequencies of the higher frequency optical modes are more sensitively determined by the local movements of the atoms. the frequency w z S ( r ) has a dependence of r1~95f0~03. 10. However. Here w(10. respectively. the frequencies are inversely proportional to r making only a small deviation from the predictions of Fig. which is consistent with the fact that the energy gap of a semiconducting nanotube and the strain energy depend only on the nanotube radius and not on the chiral angle B [81. RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES otubes. ) =ql0. which is relevant t o the Raman active E2. nanotube. 1. 10. the frequency and radius of the (10. mode.0007 1 ( 10.3. The fitted power law for the A l . we do not see a strong dependence on P . As for the higher frequency Raman modes. mode as shown in Figs. From the slopes of ~ ( rfor ) this range of r .?85& It is the noted that the El.10)= 165 cm. modes is not as strong as that for the Al.5 we give the calculated mode frequencies for the lower frequency Ramanactive modes on a loglog plot as a function of the carbon nanotube radius r for ( n .m) in the range (8 5 n 5 10.5. This fact shows that . mode that is valid in the region 3hi 5 r 5 7A 4 . and A1.15) should be useful to experimentalists in interpreting their spectra. mode of graphite. mode.=6. mode.4. mode a t 1587 cm' does not show a suppression between the V V and V H geometries. with vaiues of w ( 10. except for the lowest E2. since the intensity of the El. 10.198 CHAPTER 10.So) [+ y(lo. modes depend on the orientation of the nanotube axis. we conclude that. thus indicating a power dependence of u ( r ) on r.10) and ~ ( 1 0 .209]. the frequency shifts systematically with increasing diameter. In Fig. 1 0 ) are. No chirality dependence is found for the mode frequencies for these modes. This dependence is closely related to the circumferential length of the nanotube. modes exist in a similar frequency region.2 Higher Frequency Raman Modes It is interesting that the higher frequency A1. Figure 10. 0 5 m 5 n).0017f0. 10.lO) armchair l~) respectively.1 and 10.
which corresponds t o C=C bond stretching motions for one of the three nearest neighbor bonds in the unit cell. 10. the lattice can be split into two sublattices consisting A and B atoms. When we see the motion of the higher or the lower Ramanactive modes of a nan . mode.6 (e) to (g) are similar to the motion of the Ramanactive E2. In the higher frequency A l . mode of graphite at 1582 C M .6 are independent of the chirality. 10. mode the A and B atoms move in the same way (inphase).6 we show the normal mode disp~acements for seven Raman modes for a (lO . In Fig. a V H signal can be expected when the vibration of the A1. In the nanotube. because of the relation of these modes to the Eag mode of graphite. Thus this motion is an outofphase motion.1 rIAl 10 Fig.1000 R 9 fj 100 U 3 0 0 .~ . The motions shown in Fig.5: Loglog plot of the lower Raman mode frequencies as a function of carbon nanotube radius. while in the lower frequency A l . 10. that the modes are outofphase between nearest neighbor carbon atoms. 10. 10. The outofphase motions observed in Fig. lO } nanotube which have a relatively large intensity. while the modes of Fig. It is reasonable that the outofphase motions of the higher frequency Raman modes of a nanotube have a large Raman intensity. 10.6 (e) to ( g ) . It is clear from Fig.6 (a) to (d) show inphase motion. mode is different from the polarization vector. the A and B atom moves in opposite directions (outofphase) in the unit cell.
two.. We can say that the envelope function should satisfy the symmetry for the Ramanactive modes among the many phonon modes. 10. and Ez. modes are functions with zero. 1591cm' Fig. respectively [see Fig.lO) nanotube modes which show strong Raman intensity. We show the displacements for only one of the two modes in the doubly degenerate El. otube. ~ ~~A~ T ~ SPECTRA ~ OF CARBON N A ~ O ~ U B ~ S A]. modes. ( e ) .200 G ~ A 10. 10. frequencies. and symmetries for those (l0.6 (f). respectively. For example. we can consider an envelope function for the amplitude of the vibration. 1585cm' AI. The symmetry and the frequencies for these modes are almost independent of the chirality of the nanotube. El9 and E2. the envelope functions for the Al. multiplying it by the abovementioned outofphase or inphase motions.587~111' E2. 165cm' Ezs 368cmI El. 1. and four nodes around the tube zaxis. and .6: The calculated Raman mode atomic displacements.
When we investigate the vibration of the higher frequency A l . modes are different for armchair and zigzag nanotubes. which is understood by the zonefolding method and is discussed in Sect. in C60t since all 60 atoms are equivalent. we may get a result that is not so polarization sensitive. as shown in discussing the angular dependence of the Raman int~nsities.10. respectively. the directions of the outofphase motions of the A1. When we focus our attention on armchair nanotubes. 10. In fact the C=C bondstretching motions can be seen in the horizontally and the vertically vibrating C=C bonds for armchair and zigzag nanotube. however.2. Thus. no carbon atom can move in an outofphase direction around the C s axes for either of the two A l . it will be possible to identify the different modes experimentally. This is the reason why we get similar Raman spectra for different chirality nanotubes. From the calculation we cannot explain why these low intensity peaks appears. Although these higher frequency modes are difficult to distinguished from one another because of their similar frequencies. The peaks might come from a lowering of the symmetry of the nanotube. rn) values. On the other hand. 10.5.4. lo. The calculated results. show almost no intensity for the ~ n t e r m e d ~ a t ~ em'. Thus the curvature of the nanotube affects the frequency of these mode. Thus the envelope functions with a given symmetry are similar to one another for nanot~ubes with any (n. In . (b).9 Medium Frequency Raman Modes It could be very interesting to discuss the Raman frequency in the intermediate frequency region where the frequency may be the most chirality dependent [210]. which is reviewed in Sect. We can say within the discussion of the envelope function that we see a homogeneous elastic cylinder.4. However. the vibration corresponds to the folded vibration of one of the higher Ez9 modes of graphite. mode at 1587 cml. once purified aligned samples become available. The Raman experiments on singlewall Raman modes around 12001~00 nanotubes show weak features which have been assigned to armchair modes {83]. and (a) for inphase motion]. and (c). in the cyli~drical geometry. the higher Raman frequencies depend on the radius of the nanotube l / r via the wave vector q around the equatorial direction 12021. modes. so that both modes show similar polarization behavior to each other [198]. RAMAN SPECTRA WITH RANDOM ORIENTATIONS 20 1 fg) for outofphase motion.
11. broad Raman peaks around the 1347 cm'l are observed experimentally [83. The nonzonecenter phonon mode a t 1365 cm' has a flat energy dispersion around the M point in the Brillouin zone of graphite. Because of the large number of states for the (11. since a Peierls instability is unlikely. modes. These peaks are known to be associated with symmetrylowering effects in disordered graphite [211] and carbon fibers [212] for which a broad peak is observed around 1350 cml.s) nanotube. as is discussed in Sect. bending of the nanotube and the other possible defects are likely to turn on the Raman intensity for this Mpoint mode. the M point ' point and the folded modes becomes Ramanphonon can be folded to the I active A .4 for 2D graphite. the intermediate frequency Raman modes have a small intensity relative to the strong peaks in the higher and the lower frequency regions.O) nanotubes have 40 and 68 carbon atoms in their 1D unit cells.218].213].4 have almost the same diameters. 10. the frequency and the normal mode displacements are modified by the finite size effect. the (10.3. it *See Fig. 9.8) nanotube has 364 carbon atoms in its unit cell. 10. However the number of carbon atoms per 1D unit cell is very different. The observed Raman signal in Fig.1 in the intermediate frequency region can be relevant to the finite length of a nanotube.4. 10.202 C ~ A P 10. respectively. As shown in Fig. However. Note that if the nanotube is deformed to a 2 x 2 structure for any reason. Moreover. the (11. the chirality dependence of the Raman spectra is not clearly observed except for the frequency. For example. When we caIcuIate the Raman intensity for a nanotube with open ends. However. In this case we can see a flat band appearing below 1300 c m 1 . which implies a high phonon density of states * f216]. The amount of disorder in these systems can be controlled by the heat treatment temperature THTor by ion implantation 12151. the amount of disorder in carbon fibers [212] and in graphite nanoclusters [214]. The relative intensity of the broad peak around 1350 cml to the strong EQ mode at 1582 cml is sensitive to the lowering of the crystal symmetry of graphite [211. However when we consider the absoIute Raman intensity. Thus some symmetrylowering effects such as the effect of the end caps. in small aromatic molecules. so that these M point phonon modes becomes Raman active [217] and have a large intensity [214. The three nanotubes in Fig.135]. it is i m p o r t ~ n to t consider also the effect of the phonon density of states. T ~ AN ~ SPECTRA OF CARBON ~ A ~ O T U fact.lO) and (17. this situation may occur only in the case of intercalated nanotubes [135].
Then we consider the effect of rotating the nanotube axis from the z axis. It would be interesting to be able to assign the chirality of a nanotube from the Raman spectra by using many laser excitation frequencies. 10.4. ( i = 1 . mode at 1.(i = 1 . 10. As a result. 3 ) . 3 ) as shown in Fig. which corresponds to 82 = 83 = 0. and 82 are the angles of the nanotube axis from the z axis to the x and y axes. while 83 is the angle of the nanotube axis around the z axis from the x to the y axis. the frequencies of the Raman Ezs modes in the high frequency region are close to one another. we show the intensities of the various Ramanactive modes for the (10.lO) armchair nanotube has a tenfold symmetry axis ( C ~which O ) is not compatible with the Cartesian axes. Here 81. three rotations of the nanotube axis are possible for the VV and the V H ~onfiguratjons. In Fig. 2 . we see that the high frequency Raman modes originate from the outof~ph~ e mode of graphite. 10.5 Sample Orientation Dependence In Sect. In Fig. Here we define the x. In Fig. mode can be separated from one another by exploiting special experimental geometry conditions.7. Here we fix the polarization vectors to lie along the z and x axes. 10. while the El. for the V V configuration.lO) carbon nanotube as a function of &.8) nanotube within the reso~ution of the STM because the singu~arities occur so close to one another. However since the symmetry of these modes are d i ~ e ~ e n these t .585 cml has a maximum .lO) armchair nanotube for the VV and V H configurations for the various Raman modes of a (10. respectively.y. respectively for the V and H polarizations. since the (10.should be difficult to observe the singularities in the electronic density of states in a (11. Thus the resonant Raman effect for chiral nanotubes should also be re~ative~y d i ~ c u t~ o tobserve compared with the case of achiral nanotubes. 2 . In this geometry. and these three rotations are denoted by Bi. mode a t 1587 cml as a function of 81 has a m a x i ~ u m at 81 = 0. 10.7. Since we put the horizontal polarization vector along the x axis. 81 and 42 are different from each other for the V H configuration. we show the relative Raman intensities for the (10. 10. the rotations by 81 and 42 are not equivalent to each other in the case of the (10.7.lO) armchair nanotube. z axes so that we put a carbon atom along the 2 axis when 83 = 0'.7 we see that the Raman intensity for the Al. Even for the VV configuration.lO) armchair nanotube as a function of sample orientation.2.
Thus. RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES vv VH EJ591 0 30 60 E$68 80 Fig. and 62 are angles of the nanotube axis from the z axis toward the z and y axes. 93 is the corresponding angle around the z axis from the z t o the y axes. respectively.7: The polarization dependence of the Raman intensities as a function of the orientation of the nanotube axis for a (10. The left and right hand figures correspond t o the VV and V H polarizations. There is also an E2g mode at 1591 cm' at . mode at 1587 cm' and of the E2. el = 45'. When 81 increases t o 45O. respectively.204 CHAPTER 10. where V and H correspond to the light polarization in the direction of the z and z axes. 10. we can distinguish these two closelying modes from each other experimentally if we have an axially aligned sample.lO) armchair nanotube. the relationship between the intensities of the A1. mode at 1591 cml becomes reversed for the VV configuration relative to the V H configuration. 61.
mode a t 1587 cm'. The sample orientation dependence of the Raman intensity shows that not only the symmetry but also the direction of the displacements give rise to their own angular dependence.5. we can see the difference between these EzS modes. In summary. zigzag. the two Ez. As for the other Ramanactive modes. SAMPLE ORIENTATION DEPENDENCE 205 which can be distinguished from the Al. The Raman intensity is explained by the envelope function of the amplitude of the vibration. and El. modes at 368 and 1591 cm'l have almost the same intensity in the VV configuration. Thus we can see only a single line in the VV configuration of the figure. 10. ~ therefore. In Fig. However. since the Al. Even in this case. as shown in Fig. since the E2.lO) nanotube does not satisfy the symmetry of the trian~u l a r nanotube lattice. Further. mode intensity at 8 1 = 90'. N o significant dependence on chiral angle is found for the Raman spectra.9) armchair nanotube is of special interest.7. The symmetry analysis may be difficult even if we can get an aligned nanotube sample for which the direction of the carbon atoms is ordered. modes. for (9. the signal for this mode will be clearly seen. and chiral nanotubes is discussed in Sects. it is clear from the figure that the angular dependence with respect t o 81 and 6 2 is different for the V H geometry since the horizontal polarization is taken in the x direction. For example. since the 10fold symmetry of the (10. However in the 8 2 dependence of the V H configuration. the intensity of the Al. Thus an averaged angular dependence for 01 and 02 in the V V geometry is expected for a general aligned sample.10. the Raman intensity of armchair.9) n an o tu b ~ s in a trjanguiar lattice. we has a m ~ i m u m can also distinguish them by their frequencies. and this angular dependence can be used for distinguishing between the symmetry assignments for the higher frequency Raman . 10. detailed angledependent selection rules can be expected.4 and 10. The (9. mode a t 1587 cm' is independent of 03. since it is one of a few examples where the nfold symmetry of the nanotube matches the triangu~a lattice. Even the modes belonging to the same irreducible representation do not always have the same angular dependence with regard to the polarization of the light. mode at 165 cml has a different angular dependence from that of the A l . we expect to see a large c h i d dependence of the phonon density of states which is reflected in the absolute intensity.5 as a function of their polarization geometry and sample orientation. and this envelope function is sensitive only to the homogeneous elastic cylinder.7. 10.
206 CHAPTER 10. RAMAN SPECTRA OF CARBON NANOTUBES modes. . Such a symmetry analysis will also be useful for identifying the chirality of carbon nanotubes.
3.2.4. Elastic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Since the C=C bond in graphite is the strongest bond in nature.CHAPTER 11. The fundamental atomic forces consist of strong c. and these are summarized in Sect. sp2 covalent 207 . In graphitic materials. 11. The strain energy thus increases with decreasing nanotube diameter. 11. The unusual aspects of the Peieris instabilit~} associated with the distortion which makes an energy gap a t the Fermi energy. The static elastic properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in Sect. a carbon nanotube is widely regarded as the ultimate fiber with regard to its strength in the direction of the nanotube axis. the total energy of the nanotube is increased by the strain energy associated with the curvature of the nanotube. respectively. all three forces are essential for describing the elastic properties of carbon nanotubes. E n each section we give an overview of the relationship between the properties and the force. three kinds of forces between carbon atoms produce their characteristic elastic properties. Furthermore.1 Overview of Elastic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes In graphite and in carbon nanotubes. in carbon nanotubes are discussed in Sect. as shown in the following three sections. Although the three forces differ from oneanother regarding their orders of magnitude. 11. 11. so that a nanotube with a small diameter may be less stable than a nanotube with a larger diameter. single wall nanotubes are rather flexible in the direction normal t o the nanotube surface. By rolling a graphene sheet to form a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCN). Multiwall carbon nanotubes have unique properties that do not appear in single wall nanotubes.rbonding and nbonding forces between intralayer C=C bonds and weak interlayer interactions.
Thus the strength in the direction of the nanotube axis may be considered as an elastic thin film for which classic elastic theories can be applied [219]. be restored [219]. 11. the 7~ contribution is nevertheless . singlewall nanotubes show remarkable flexibility. in many cases. and molecular dynamics simulations [222] indicate that an increase in length (elongation) of several percent without fracture might be possible [95. carbon nanotubes form kinklike ridges under compression. and this feature of SWCNs can also be explained by consider in^ a tangential force on the abond skeleton.2 the rigidity of carbon nanotubes and the weak chirality effects expected for their elastic properties. Using elastic continuum theory to describe the elastic properties of nanotubes. ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES bonds mainly form the D skeleton of the honeycomb lattice. Whereas carbon fibers fracture easily under compression. It should be possible to utilize these excellent mechanical properties for applicat~ons directly. we expect a rather soft surface in SWCNs for a force applied perpendicular to the surface of a carbon nanotube. and their ability to withstand compression without fracture. in addition. Although the 7~ electron contribution to the elastic energy is relatively small compared with that from the c electrons. In addition to these amazing predictions for their tensile properties. On the other hand. we discuss in Sect. since a hollow vacuum core exists inside each nanotube. Singlewall carbon nanotubes are believed to possess many of the desirable mechanical properties of carbon fibers. In fact. Single wall carbon nanotubes have no interlayer interactions. the original circular crosssection of the nanotube can. a perpendicular deformation is not always stable and the cross section of carbon nanotubes is easily flattening by applying a force normal to the nanotube axis [220] and a large bending of single wall nanotubes is observed without breaking the skeleton [221]. their extensibility. Just as for the carbon fibers that are produced commercially for aerospace applications. or in conjunction with their use for manipu~ating other nanostructures [53]. and these ridges can relax elastically when the stress is released. and can be bent around small circles or about sharp bends without breaking [ l l O ] . carbon nanotubes show excellent strength characteristics under extension.208 CHAPTER 11. Computer simu~ations 12221 further indicate that when the c o m p r ~ ~ i o nor a l shear stress is released.2. as shown in Sect. singlewall carbon nanotubes have a number of other desirable nanotube properties with regard to their flexibility. 11. their ability to withstand crosssectional and twisting distortions. but.219].
relative t o those on the inner layer of the nanotube. These topics are briefly summarized in Sect. in discussing multilayer nanotubes we require that in the limit of large nanotube diamet. 11. the electronic structure between two adjacent carbon layers is considered in terms of a sum of the electronic structures of the constituent nanotubes. The lattice structure of the inner and the outer layers are generally incommensurate with each other.3. and it is well known that the Peierls instability is favored in low dimensional systems 12231. which describes the turbostratic structure of multiwall carbon nanotubes. This turbostratic structure affects shear stress between the nanotube shells. Multiwall carbon nanotubes have many interesting properties that are not observed or explained by the physics of singlewall nanotubes. The Peierls instability is known to cause a metalinsulator transition. in which the energy gain associated with the electronlattice interaction of the T electrons is balanced by the energy loss of the potential energy of the Iattice. 11. 11. in some cases. In multiwall nanotubes.225]. Furthermore.2).4. Because of the weak and incommensurate electronic interaction between the two layers. . the interlayer stacking can become correlated. Although one third of the possible carbon nanotubes that can be formed are onedimensional metals. Starting from a general theory of the Peierls instability.21. However. which denotes the positions of the atom sites on the outer layer.1 OVERVIEW OF ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF NANOTUBES 209 important for obtaining the lattice distortion known as the Peierls distortion (see Sect.er. The values of the distortion are determined by minimizing the total energy as a function of the distortion. the relatively weak interaction between two adjacent layers determines their relative stacking structure. we focus our attention on the reason why the Peierls distortion is suppressed in carbon nanotubes in Sect. the associated lattice distortion can be negligible in the case of carbon nanotubes because of the following physical situation.3. all the nanotube properties should correspond to those of graphite. by opening an energy gap at the Fermi energy to benefit from the eIectronic energy gain which is introduced by the distortion of the lattice into a doubled unit cell. and experimental evidence has been found for faceting in some multilayer nanotubes [224.
the strain energy per carbon atom is inversely proportional to the square of the nanotube diameter: (11./N on chirality. is inversely proportional to the diameter of carbon nanotube. and this weak dependence may be due to: (1) chiralitydependent directions of the three equivalent u bonds with respect to the nanotube axis. The solid curve in the figure depicts the (l/dt)' dependence of E . the strain energy E. L = 2sdt). (3. (11.1). (11.9)] is also proportional to dt (i. 11. T is the length of the carbon nanotube per 1D unit cell in the direction of the nanotube axis [see Eq. Since the number of carbon atoms per unit cell N = 2LT/&a2 [see Eq. depending on whether there is an energy gap or not in the dispersion relations.2 Strain Energy of Carbon Nanotubes When we consider a singlewall carbon nanotube as an elastic sheet. and (2) chiralitydependent contributions of the K bonds. (3. dt: [12].1) where E is the elastic modulus of the sheet.446. In fact. ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES 11. and d f is the thickness of the thin film. is very weak.5)]. as shown in Fig. experimental results for the diameter distribution of single wall carbon nanotubes do not show the same diameter distribution for different catalysts [57]. The small deviations of the strain energy as a function of nanotube diameter (or radius) suggests that the dependence of E.1.2) This simple argument for a dependence of E.210 CHAPTER 11. Although the total energy depends on the nanotube chirality and thus should be related to the stability of the carbon nanotube.e.). the abundance of a given diameter carbon nanotube should not depend on the chirality.. Since the diameter and chirality cannot ./N on d t 2 is confirmed by a more detailed first principles calculation of the strain energies of many carbon nanotubes with different diameters and chiralities [209]. This is because the abundance of nanotubes is determined by the initial formation of the end cap of the carbon nanotube. given in Eq. showing that we can understand the functional dependence of the strain energy of a carbon nanotube from the simple arguments given above for an elastic thin film. which can be considered as the interplanar distance between two turbostratic graphene layers (3.
and r. C11= 1060 GPa [9. When we consider a cantilever beam of length 4. as a function of nanotube radius ri = d t / 2 [Sl]. (11. the nanotube bends. I = Z(Y: radii of an elastic cylinder. this result might show that the diameter and chirality that are obtained in the growth process depend mainly on the shape of the caps generated by the catalytic particle. we may use the C l i values for graphite to obtain a value for Y for carbon nanotubes. be changed in a singlewall nanotube unless a defect exists.3) 3Y I where I is the areal moment of inertia of the crosssection of the nanotube r i ) / 4 . calculated the beam rigidity of a carbon nanotube in the same geometry. However. The lower limit of the diameter of a single wall carbon nanotube seems to be the diameter of CG0.' I where Si. The  'The Young's modulus Y is given by (S).11.ff3 (11.219. we expect Y for a carbon fiber (N 800 GPa) to be somewhat smaller than 4 1 for graphite. since we expect Clz in a nanotube to be reduced relative to graphite. The solid curve depicts the ( l / d t ) 2 dependence of E. in which r. STRAIN ENERGY OF CARBON ~ A ~ O T ~ 3 E S 211 Fig.1: Strain energy per carbon atom E. In fact there is no report of observation of a nanotube with a diameter smaller than that of (360. Since C ~= Z 220 GPa is not negligible in a carbon fiber.2. When a force acts pe~pendicular to the nanotube axis.226].1). respectively [220]. using the Keating potential whose parameters are given by the local density functional calculation [227]. are the outer and inner about its axis. 11. . As a first approximation* we use Y= where the elastic modulus Cl1 for a carbon fiber for Y . the deflection d of the beam with a force f at its free end is given by [219] d = . Their calculated result shows that the beam rigidity is 200 times greater than a Pr bar of the same size. denotes the compliance tensor. Overney et al. given in Eq. as described by the Young's modulus Y [220].
4) where c. whereby the amplitude of a thermal vibration of the nanotube is observed as a function of temperature [229].6) . A novel method for measuring the Young’s modulus of individual nanotubes has been developed. The TEM observations show evidence for nanotubes collapsing into a flattened or bent nanotube without breaking the nanotube structure. There are many calculations for the Young’s modulus whose value varies from 500 to 1500 GPa. the nanotube is unstable in the direction perpendicular to the surface. At a high temperature T where a classical Boltzmann distribution of probabilities. which is the interlayer separation between turbostratically stacked graphene layers [9]. for a vibrational mode. The spring constant is estimated by directly observing the amplitude of the thermal vibration as a function of temperature within the standard deviation u2 = k BTCn 1 (11. is proportional to the square of the amplitude t i : . (W.44A.5) cn given by statistical physics.3) and we can consider the wall thickness to be 3. the average of the vibrational energy. the nanotube seems to be rather soft in the direction perpendicular to the nanotube axis. On a nanometer (nm) scale. P c ( exp(E/kBT). depending on the potential model and on the estimation for the cross section. we can write (11.212 CHAPTER 11. becomes k B T .). n . can be used. TEM photos of a collapsed nanotube look similar to the bending of a rubber nanotube [228]. and the Young’s modulus Y is given by use of elasticity theory for continuum media (11. When we consider a single wall nanotube. Since the averaged value of W. The experimental observation of the Young’s modulus of a single nanotube is difficult because of its small diameter. (11. The relationship between c. we may use Eq. or (W. ELASTIC PROPERTIES O F CARBON NANOTUBES calculated Young’s modulus for a carbon nanotube is about 1500 GPa. is a spring constant.)=kBT. where ]cg is Boltzmann’s constant. When the diameter of single wall nanotube increases.
By fitting a.0 eVfA). and L to Eq.2. f is defined by and t. . For partially filled bands. (11.. the energy dispersion relations are folded in half and an energy gap is opened at the Fermi energy a t the zone boundary of the foided Brillouin zone. . which has been discussed 12302331 in terms of the SuSchriefferHeeger (SSH) model. and subsequently for CSO and its ions [2312331. developed initially for polyacetylene (CH).3. a tightbinding Hamiltonian describing bondalternat~on is solved in a large unit cell in which the transfer integral between the nth and mth atoms.5 3. such a distortion leads to a lowering of the energy of the system a. cosp.7>. 1 = 0. and 2 . When electrons occupy about half o f the valence energy band of # n e . 7. the corresponding unit cell in reciprocal space is reduced by a factor of 2. becomes a function of the distortions of atoms from their originai positions. In Eq. An example of the Peierls instability is the bond alternation or the Kekul6 structure of neutral carbon nanotubes [230].8751. 4. comparable to CIl for graphite. ( n = 0. fin can be found by the approximation fin (a 1 1 2 ) ~ . x. In the SSH model. is the transfer integral without bond alternation (2.1 The Peierls Instability of Nanotubes Bond Alternation Next we discuss the effect o f t electrons on the elastic properties. THE PEIERLS INSTABILITY OF NANOTUBES 213 where the values 3 /. b.8548 and 10. . coshp. The leading numerical values for Bra.s the lower energy bands become occupied and the higherlying energy bands remain empty. When the two atoms are close to each other. the absolute value  . (11.9955 and for larger Pn values. .6) for various nanotubes.d i ~ e n s i ~ materials.) are 1. For the doubled unit cell in real space. This effect is known as the Peierls instability. /234].3. t:. n the energy bands are unstable to a distortion of the lattice into a doubled unit cell.6941. the estimated results for Y are found to be in the range of 1000 G P a .2 eV) and a denotes the electronphonon coupling constant ( w 5.11.3. +  + 11. are solutions to the equation. Therefore..3 11. In their experiments the authors used a clamped hollow cylindrical cantilever of length L 12293.1.
7). In the case of polyacetylene (CH).9) The solution of Eq.13) 8Kzo = a /"'a d k d dA 'IT n/a 8x0 *It is noted that tOnm < 0 and a > 0 in Eq.2 a q and tz = t o 2az0. ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES of the transfer integral' becomes large.9) yields the dispersion relations Ef(z) = czP f Jtt + t i + 2tlt2 coska. (tl = to .lO).4 is opened at k = f a / a because of the bond alternation.2 for the values of tl = 1. (11. When we neglect the overlap integral.20) for simplicity. (2. = 0. (2.2). (a 'IT < k < ).1 and t2 = 0. and thus the optimized value of 20 is given by minimizing the total energy.the energy difference of the electronic energy is given by + .2. Comparing Figs.2 and 2.2azo and t2 = to 2az0 into Eq. (11.10) which are plotted in Fig. The electronic energy of those electrons which are in the occupied valence energy band (E+ band in Fig. the bond alternation problem can be solved by using a doubled unit cell with a distortion zn = ( . s = 0 in Eq. wesee that an energy gap of 2)tltzI = 8azo = 0. N A B of Eq.E)2. Putting tl = to .11) where I< is a spring constant.E tleika/2 + tZe+ika/2 (11. 11.214 CHAPTER 11. 11.17) becomes + N A B = t l e ikal2 + t2eika/2 and the secular equation is given by f2p . the elastic energy increases by ESP= 4Kzi (1 1.l ) n z ~leading to two transfer integrals tl and t2. (ll. dEtot/dzo = 0 when + B cos La.9. decreases by opening the energy gap.. (11. 11.12) Thus the total energy EM = Eel + ESP has a minimum.(tf t t. + tleika/2 + taeika/2 f2p . a 'IT ( 11. On the other hand. with It11 < 1t21). .E 2tlt2 cos ka) 1 (11.8) = (fgp .
.2B AfB 14(?) * (11.i) for bondalternating polyacetylene given by Eq.5 0.t + .0 kdz 0.5 1. The energy gap at k = f a / a arising from the bond alternation has a value of 2]tl .8a2x:.=2{l(.15) In Eq.4 in these units.10) using values for the parameters ~2~ = 0..13) is given analytically by ( 11.*}. :+.2: The energy dispersion relation I3k.14) where K ( z ) .4) 1.16) To solve Eq. (11. (11.2sin2 6. respectively. and & ( z ) are.)22+(2. ) = 2 {+ 1 ($2 + (E)’.1 < 1 w e can expand K ( z ) and E ( z ) around le = 0 to obtain: K ( .. (11. K(2) = LTf2 HB vczzT and & ( a ) = Jld *P d B u . we use the mathematical formula cos 28 = 1.l 0.14).215 rr. respective1yJ the complete elliptical integrals of the first and the second kind defined by. (11.} 224 . . and qz.. The integration of Eq. t When 1.t2l = 8 ~ ~ x =00.3 2 respectively.9.0  1.0 0.14) z is a function of xo which is given by 2 z 2 = .1 and t 2 = 0. where A and B denote A = 2t$ f 8a2x$ and B = 2t$ . (11.0 Fig. 11. t l = 1.and obtain a solution for 20 over a reasonable range of a > 0.
3 we plot . the degenerate states become unstable under a lattice distortion. In Fig. bond alternation is always found in a onedimensional metal. Egap 3 8azo/ltol. The corresponding lattice deformation is called the Peierls distortion..log( Egap) . clearly showing a linear dependence of .ln(Egap) on l / z which is numerically fitted by (11. In the inset of Fig.§ In a carbon nanotube. §There are no pure one or two dimensional solids in three dimensional space. which is the solution of Eq. as a function of the normalized electronphonon interaction z z 4a2/(rlto IK). Egap3 8azo/ltol.14). ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ‘I I/x / / X I 1 1 Fig.$ In higher dimensions. as a function of 1/x. 11.17) The functional form of the energy gap is similar to that for the superconducting energy gap according to BCS theory.log(EgaP)as a function of l / z .3: The normalized energy gap of polyacetylene.216 C H A P T E R 1 1 . 11. $The Peierls instability is sometimes called a band JahnTeller effect. 11. The Peierls instability is thus a kind of JahnTeller effect which occurs in the solid state. is plotted as a function of the normalized electronphonon interaction z 4 a 2 / ( ~ l t o l K ) The .3 we plot the normalized energy gap. (11. Because of this lowering of the total energy. simply because the energy gain in a small region around the Fermi energy is not always larger than the energy loss associated with the elastic energy. which lowers the symmetry and splits the degenerate levels so as to open an energy gap between the filled and unoccupied states. The Peierls instability occurs when the shape of the Fermi surface is close to that of a onedimensional . In a molecule which has degenerate and partiallyoccupied levels associated with the high symmetry of the molecular geometry. this instability does not always occur. inset shows a linear dependence of . This effect which is similar to the Peierls instability is called the JahnTeller effect in quantum chemistry.
If the two atoms were not equivalent to each other.2. . while solid and open circles in the outofplane bond alternation denote deformations in the +z and z directions. denote shrunk and elongated bonds. as described in Sect.3.4. (a) a Kekul6 type inplane bond alternation. In Fig.11. Thus a dimensional crossover associated with bond alternation occurs at 0 K. 11. although the geometry is onedimensional. In the honeycomb lattice we can consider three kinds of lattice deformations as shown in Fig.2 PeierEs Distortion of graphite and carbon nunotubes In chapter 2 we show that twodimensional graphite has no energy gap between the bonding and antibonding T bands because there are two equivalent carbon atoms in the unit cell which give rise to a symmetryimposed degeneracy at the Brillouin zone corner. respectively. and (c) an outofplane bond a~ternation. respectively. and (c) an outofplane bond alternation. 11.3. thick and thin lines.4: Possible bond alternation for a honeycomb lattice.3.4(a) and (b). ur when two Fermi surfaces are parallel to each other over large areas in the Brillouin zone (the nesting condition). (a) a Kekul6 type of inplane bond a~ternation. denote shrunk and surface. 11. thick and thin lines. respectively.(b) a quinoid type in plane bond alternation. Whether this symmetrylowering distortion does occur or not depends on the strength of the electronphonon coupling constant. 11. In the case of inplane bond alternations.(b) a quinoid type inplane bond alternation. thereby lowering the electronic energy. which we will discuss in this section. T H E PEIERLS INSTABILITY O F NANOTUBES 217 Fig. the electronic structure becomes close to that of graphite as the diameter increases. an energy gap would appear. $1.
Generally. the calculated energy dispersion E ( k ) becomes This relation implies an energy gap of 2azo at the K point. After deformation] the unit cell becomes twice as large as the original unit cell in the case of inplane deformations. ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES elongated bonds. See. and thus there is no relative difference in the transfer energy between the A and B sites. respectively. there is a difference between the inner and outer directions. Here we consider only the change of the site energy by the lattice deformation. However. If we assume that the site energy for the A and B carbon atoms is shifted by &aro/2 in which a is the electronphonon coupling constant per distortion t o . R. the energy dispersion of the distorted T bands of graphite is given by solving the perturbation Hamiltonian . Japan 52.* In a single layer of graphite.25). J. (2. Phys. there is no relative difference in the site energy between the A and B sites.26) for simplicity.18) tf(k)* where t and f(k) are defined by Eq. (1983) 407. 31= (at0 tf(k)) at0 . Saito and H. respectively. the electronlattice interaction affects both the transfer integral and site energies. In the case of an outofplane deformation. For example the A and B sites are inequivalent in threedimensional graphite. SOC. Thus for simplicity we consider the case of an outofplane deformation.218 CHAPTER 11. Kamimura. all CC bonds are still equivalent to each other.24) and Eq. Even if we deform the lattice by an outofplane deformation. (11. (2. The value of t o is obtained by minimizing the total energy which is given by the sum of the ~ *In the SSH Hamiltonian they consider only the change of the transfer energy by the lattice deformation. the two sites are not equivalent. in which the A sites have carbon atoms above and below the atom but the B sites do not. for example. the A and B sites in the unit cell deform in the +t and 2 directions. in the case of a single layer carbon nanotube. When the distortion is included. . Here we neglect the effect of the overlap matrix S and we put czP = 0 in Eq. When the site energies have different values for the A and B sites. (2. while the unit cell for outofplane deformations does not change.
23) which directly follows from the definition of K in the footnote of the previous subsection.21) is obtained by use of the mathematical formula. .0) zigzag nanotube Eq.22) respectively. (11. (11.0). The 4% energy dispersion relations of the distorted (n. (11.electronic energy and potential energy of the lattice. = / 4 c o s ( ~ ) / . and in which X(z) is the complete lipt tical integral of the first kind defined in B4 are given by A.= (y) 2 + 1 + 4 c o s 2 ( ~ ) and 8 . and A.7). for ~ i m p ~ ~ iSince t y . in which IC is a spring constant. electronic structure of a distorted (n. This situation is explained below as the limit of a carbon nanotube. (11. we obtain the following gap equation for the (n. the size of the unit cell does not change in the case of an outofplane ~ i s ~ o r t i othe n .O) zigzag nanotube. are expressed as Taking account of the potential energy of the lattice as K $ f 2 per unit cell of graphite. and Eq. (4. Let us consider the Peierls instability of a carbon nanotube. (n. No distortion from the honeycomb lattice is observed in crystalline graphite because the density of states at the Fermi level is zero in the case of twodimensional graphite. Here we consider only outofplane distortions for the case of a zigzag carbon nanotube. E&(k). 0)zigzag nanotube is obtained by zo~efoldingas discussed in Eq.14).
corresponding to 2D graphite) denoted by solid. 11.0 0. 6. the normalized interaction of a 2 / I C J t ~ l satisfies a2/K1tOl < 1. The reason why we get the present results is that the electron energy gain comes only from two of the 4n energy bands which cross the Fermi energy. dashed. Since there is no experimental distortion in 2D graphite. dotted. 11. Actually in the case of zigzag nanotubes.01. and 999 (.5 X I .5 is made for special values of n that are multiples of 3.6  0. the energy gap has nonzero values for small values o f 2.4.17) to polyacetylene and carbon nanotubes is that the factor appearing in the exponent of Eq. ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES Fig. as a function of = .5 In Fig. The plot in Fig. O ) . (11. and that an energy gap appears due to the finite values of the interaction. 12.17). Thus for large R a larger interaction x is necessary for opening an energy gap. = 0. for metallic zigzag nanotubes (la.which is normalized by x which is the electronphonon interaction a2 normalized by IiltoI so that 2 a Z / ( I i l t ~(lt) o < 0). and bold solid lines. respectively.01.220 CHAPTER 1 1 . we see that the dependence of the energy gap of the nanotube on the electronphonon coupling constants is very close to that for the 2D case. which is essentially 2D graphite) denoted by solid. 12. although these values can be exponentially small. is plotted as a function of the normalized electronphonon interaction 2 E a2/(Iilltl)(t < 0 ) for special valuesof n = 3. ( n . dashed. (11. Harigaya et a1. 11.5: The normalized energy gap Egap a2zo/ltol for metallic zigzag nanotubes. 6.o 1. namely n = 3. while the elastic energy loss comes from all of the 27a carbon atoms in the unit cell [71].0).8 0. + 00. From the figure. 11. and bold solid lines.00.(233] and Viet et a1. its seen in Eq. As for the other types of d~stort~ons of carbon n ~ o t u b e shown s in Fig.5. we plot the energy gap Egap 2 a z 0 / ( t 0 I . respectively.17) depends on n for (la. dotted. 0) zigzag nanotubes as 0 : exp(nA/z) (A is constant) [711. we obtain the twodimensional case in which a In the limit of nonzero value of zo appears only when cx2/Kjtoi > 1. (11. and 999(w m.[235] independently calculated the energy gap l t o l . The difference between the application of Eq.
it is believed that eV) cannot be observed experimentally.11 nanotubes.) are taken into account in the SSH Hamiltonian. A magneticinduced distortion can however occur in a nanotube since the density of states at the Fermi energy is enhanced by the presence of a magnetic field by forming the l = 0 Landau level. which is considered to be large in conjugate polymers. in which the twobody effect is calculated mostly within the HartreeFock approximation. the lattice distortion is determined by the electronphonon interaction (a). The electronelectron repulsion interaction. a spinPeierls interaction may occur in which the interaction between the two spins is now a function of the deformation of the lattice: ( J ]itI2/V = JO a3(zn zn+l)).For larger U .  . is also expected to be important in carbon nanotubes. using the SSH model for twodimensional graphite.4 Properties of ~ u l t i . Onsite ~ ~and offsite ~ electron ~ interactions (Uijlai.71].~ Nanotubes a~l In this section. N ~ +  11. as discussed in detail by Ajiki and Ando [lSO]. Although multilayer nanotubes have not been characterized in detail for their physical properties. is independent of the lattice deformation. { 1 1 .t In conclusion.. we list several interesting features that can be seen only in multiwa.nj. J depends on the deformation. PROPERTIE§ OF ~ ~ ~ T I NAMOTUBES W A ~ ~ 221 as a function of the chiral vector or the intensity of the electronphonon interaction. while keeping selfconsistency between the charge and the lattice distortion [233]. 7 ) ] . This effect is known as the spinPaerls distortion. The such a small Peierls gap (< coexistence of metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes. because of the difficulty of making measurements on the individual shells of the nanotube and of sample preparation of tThere is an kinetic exchange interaction J N it12/U which favors the ~ t i f e r r ~ m a g n e t i c interaction. since they are aIso P owdimens~ona~ materials.4. Within the reasonable range of U N Itol. Thus if we. though metallic 1D energy bands are generally unstable under a Peierls distortion^ the Peierls energy gap obtained for metallic nanotubes is found to be greatly suppressed by increasing the nanotube diameter.11. The calculated result shows a similar functional dependence of the energy gap on the electronphonon interaction. [see Eq. Thus the Peierls gap quickly approaches the zeroenergy gap of 2D graphite [69. consider finite temperatures or fluctuation effects. Since the transfer energy t in the SSH Hamiltonian is a function of (sn 3 c n + l ) . depending on the chirality of the carbon nanotube.
One nanotube may move smoothly with respect to the other in the attractive force between the two walk. no periodicity appears along the z axis. n2) (where T = a ) or for two zigeag nanotubes (nl.O). n l ) and (n2. Since we have two degenerate shear modes in the x and y directions in + + . When the number of carbon atoms in the unit cell of the constituent nanotubes becomes large.(n2. the shear modes between two graphite layers. the length of the chiral vector c h = L is proportional t o an irrational number L = adnz m2 nm. we will not see any two atoms in a line parallel to the 2 axis. since the length of T = f i L / d ~is an irrational number in units of a [see Eq.8)]. are the same for two armchair nanotubes (721. When we consider two coaxial n ~ n o tu b es which share the same n ~ o t u b e axis. the structures of the two nanotubes will not be commensurate to each other in almost all concentric nanotubes. both for the inner and outer nanotubes. In this sense. the elastic potential is. Thus the lattice constant along the z axis has a 1 to 1 commensurate ratio. since the translation vectors. but is not scaled in the direction of the nanotube axis. which give the radii of the constituent nanotubes and the interlayer spacing between them. In the case of ~ncommensurate coaxial nanotubes. In achiral nanotubes. the coaxial nanotubes provide an interesting geometry. since the average of the interatomic potentials a t different distances does not depend much on +. When we slide the inner nanotube along the z axis relative to the outer nanotube. a periodic function. Further for (n. as shown below.O) (where T = d u ) . however. since their ratio of lengths in the circumferential direction is scaled by the ratio of the two diameters. This means that when we put carbon atoms on the x axis. the ratio of the T vectors for the two nanotubes will be an irrational number. (3. cyclic boundary conditions always imply a commensurate relation. The only commensurate cases are the cases of the achiral coaxial nanotubes. the commensurate ratio is expressed by n1/n2. In the case where the two are general chiral nanotubes. the potential becomes flat. m) nanotubes. which is observed at 42 cm' in graphite. the chiral vectors of the inner and outer nanotubes can be determined separately. ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES a welldefined and structurally characterized multiwall nanotube. As for the circumferential direction. since the ratio of T is l/&.222 CHAPTER 1 1 . with a period that is the larger value of the T vectors for the constituent nanotubes. It is clear that an armchair nanotube and a zigzag nanotube cannot be commensurate in the direction of the z axis. However. should be much reduced in the multiwall nanotube. T .
Anticrossingoccurs as a result of the interaction between the two energy bands. In that case a v~brat~onal from the sliding motion.5)(10.0) nanotubes show an anticrossing* of two energy dispersion curves with the same symmetry of wave functions belonging to the two different nanotubes. however. If we could have an ideal coaxial multiwall nanotube with open ends. and m2 for the ( n l . The normal mode for the shear displacement of the two constituents of a twowalled nanotube is a mixture of a translation and a rotation around the P axis. have reported an upshift of the two shear modes to 49 cml and 58 em" from the Ezs.35 eV for the two A carbon atoms with a separation (O. graphite shear mode at 42 cml. rnl) and (n2.0)(18. Since there are two chiral vectors in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the nanotube axis. most nanotubes have end caps which prevent mode can be expected to result the sliding motion. is the common divisor of the four integers. we can expect another shear mode in the nanotube which corresponds to the rotation around the z axis. In this calculation. The authors attributed the upshift to defects in the nanotube axis. where A = l / a is an empirical damping factor. In the tightbinding calculation. m l . As for the wave functions with different symmetries. the interlayer interaction between two carbon atoms on two different nanotube shells with a separation r is assumed to be 7 1 expfAT).11.rnz) nanotubes. the smaller is the value of d. n l . the value used for the largest interlayer iiiteraction in graphite associated with the overlap of the wave functions of the two ?r electrons was y1 = 0. the energy dispersion relations can cross each other. like the micro~copic motion of a muscle. The direction of the normal mode d i s p ~ a ~ e m e will ~ t sbe d ~ t e r ~ i n by e d the two chiral vectors. relative to the shear mode in graphite. Except for a few nanotubes with open ends.O. we expect a downward shift for the shear stress between the adjacent walls of a multiwail nanotube. . it would be interesting to study the nanoforces associated with sliding the inner nanotube with respect to the outer nanotube. PROPERTIES OF MULTI. The calculated results for the commensurate (5. 712. where d.lO) and (9. we expect the motion to be smoother. In all cases. since the wave functions remain orthogonal to each other even in the presence 'Anticrossing means that two energy dispersion curves repei each other at the crossing point. Thus. Chandrabhas et ai. the rotation around the z axis has a periodicity of Znld...WALL NANOTUBES 223 the graphitic plane.4. The electronic structure of a multiwall nanotube has been calculated for a commensurate doublewall carbon nanotube by a tight binding calculation 1761.c). [236].
a triangular pattern is observed in the STM image. the calculated result [76] shows that the electronic properties of a twoshell coaxial nanotube look like the sum of the electronic structure of the two independent nanotubes except for the anticrossing phenomenon. we can expect that it will be possible to fabricate coaxial conducting wires or capacitors shielded by semiconducting nanotubes which are suggested in the literature [141. depending on the chirality of the constituent nanotube. Although we take account of the interlayer interaction. ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANUTUBES of the interlayer interaction. From this result. Thus the calculated results show that the constituent nanotubes of a coaxial nanotube remain either metallic or semiconducting. the STM can only see the electrons and the holes at the B sites which form a triangular lattice. Thus when a small voltage is applied. Since the energy gap of a BN nanotube is the same as that for the bulk BN semiconductor. which do not have a neighboring atom directly above or below them on the adjacent graphite layers. we do not see the onset of an energy gap at the Fermi energy for metaimetal and meta~semicon~uctor coaxial nanotubes. respectively.237]. a triangular lattice is observed because of the ABAB stacking of the graphite layers. a large energy gap of about 5 eV is expected for BN nanotubes. the electrons and holes near the Fermi energy mainly corresponds to B atom wavefunctions. since high insulation by the EN nanotube can be expected. The arc method of synthesis using a carbon rod with the materials for the BN nanotube included in the central portion of the carbon anode yields a coaxial multiwall nanotube in which a severalwall BN nanotube is surrounded by a severalwall carbon nanotube on both the outside and the inside [137]. If the electronic structure of a mu~tiwallnanotube can be understood in terms of the electronic structure of the constituent singlewall nanotubes.224 CHAPTER 11. . although the reason for this is still not clear. Thus when we cover a carbon nanotube by a BN nanotube. In the STM experiment on single crystal graphite. Even when this anticrossing appears near the Fermi energy. In graphite. i n a multiwall nanotube and even in a singlewall carbon nanotube. the nanotube complex will be more interesting than carboncarbon coaxial nanotubes for device applications. it becomes easy to understand the topological STM and the transport STS experiments in which only the outermost nanotube contributes to the STM image and STS conductance measurements. which clearly shows that the A and B atoms are not equivalent to each other [54]in the nanotube plane. This observation suggests further possibilities for a variety of other nanotube complexes.
The faceting may occur in order to gain the cohesive energy of graphite through the ABAB stacking.39 A interlayer separation [196.44 A separation expected for turbostratic graphite may be explained by the interlayer correlation between the carbon atom sites both along the nanotube axis and the circumferential directions. In the faceting. The fact that the interlayer separation is somewhat less than the 3.with an energy stabilization of 14 meV/atom [147]. In the multilayer structure. PROPERTIES OF MULTI.l a y n ~~ r o t u b ew s ith~n the local density approximation t o establish the optimum interlayer distance between an inner (5.WALL NANOTUBES 225 A more sophisticated calculation was done for ~ u l t i . the curvature of the nanotubes becomes concentrated a t the corners of the pillars as the interlayer correlation becomes established over a large area with a structure that is close to that of graphite. when the diameter increases to more than 1020 nm. the multiwa~~ nanotube starts t o exhibit a hexagonal pillar shape.lO) nanotube.52 meV/atom. were obtained.Z 1.ayer red coaxial armchair nanotube 1196.524 A between the two shells of C60@C240.5)armchair nanotube and an outer armchair (10. By faceting the layers. the cross section of the hollow core becomes relatively small with increasing numbers of carbon layers. yielding an interlayer spacing of 3. estimates €or the translationa~ and rotationa~ energy barriers of 0. A similar calculation for dou~lelayeredhyperfull~renes has also been carried out. suggesting significant translational and rotational interlayer mobility for individual shells of ideal nanotubes at room temperature. we can expect multiwall carbon nanotubes to have the properties of graphite. In addition.4. which is related t o the growth of multiwall nanotubes in the radial direction by an accretion method.23 meV/atom and 0.2381 confirm the tightbinding results [76] mentioned above. It is important to note that the faceting is not generafly found in pyrolytically generated. and thus the multiwall structure would be advantageous for obtaining high strength per unit area in the nanotube axis direction. multilayer carbon nanotubes [59]. . However. the greatest part of the individual layers more quickly approach that of graphite than through the cylindrical growth of multiwall nanotubes.238]. Detailed band calculations for various interpfanar geometries for a t~o. The result of this c a h l a t i o n yielded a 3. for two coaxial armchair nanotubes. with an energy stabi~i~ation of 48 mev~carbon atom. similar to the occurrence of faceting in carbon fibers 191. In the limit of large diameter. respectively.
.
R and other related parameters.2m~n) of 300 ==> Length o f Ch 227 . See details of the definitions given in Tables 3. Example: Input and output of the program A1 tube% a l . The atomic coordinates for an ( n . we obtain output for the parameters in a standard output format. We show below an example of the inputoutput on a workstation.lO Ch = ( 10. When you input n. which generally means a keyboard.m) ==> d . m) carbon nanotube The first program A1 generates the characteristic vectors such as Ch.m) carbon nanotube In this Appendix. o u t Enter n.m) carbon nanotube are generated in the unit cell of the nanotube by the second program. R i s gcd(Zn~m. m values for an ( n . which is discussed in Chapter 3.2 and 3.3.m) carbon nanotube using a standard input method. The source codes are written in Fortran 77. we show first a simple program for generating parameters of an (n. T. A1 Parameters for an (n. Any reader can use these codes by citing the book. R = 30 L/a = square r o o t <== input ==> Chiral vector (n.Appendix: Programs for a (n. 10) d = 10 d . m) carbon nanotube.m) ==> d i s gcd(n.m f o r Ch 10. The third program gives more coordinates for several unit celIs.
The file inputoutput is specified by the OPEN statement of Fortran codes.m) nanotube.78478AA ==> diameter and radius Translation vector (t_I. When n . the output is shown above for convenience.2) Length of T Number of hexagon in the unit cell Symmetry vector number of T in N R Here the diameter and the radius are in A unit. If you want to change *xmol is a graphic software package with a Copyright by Research Equipment Inc.xyz has a format for the xmol program* which can display the structure in its xyz format and can convert the results to many formats consistent with other software. After a blank line in the second line. y i . the atomic symbol C and ( q .m) CARBON NANOTUBE = 13.228 d . and dba Minnesota Supercomputer Center Inc.xyz includes the atomic coordinates of carbon atoms in the unit cell for the ( n .. A2 Coordinates for a (n.42A. The first line of tube. 2N) en. The file tube. 0) ==> = 10 ==> T T/a N R M rt = 6. Since these values are a square root of an integer in units of a . The z axis is taken to be along the nanotube axis.xyz2 : work file which will be used in the program A3. m values are input in the same way as in the example for the A1 program. . 1) ==> = I ==> = 20 ==> = ( 1. .t. . The other file en. z i ) coordinate in A units are listed from the third line for the number of carbon atoms. the program generates two files: Output files for A2: (No Input file) tube. . The lengths of C h and T are shown in units of a .m) carbon nanotube The program A2 generates (xi.xyz2 is a work file which will be used in the program A3. . The CC bond distance is taken as 1. . .xyz : 2N and coordinates (xi.xyz is the number of carbon atoms in the unit cell. The file tube.m ) carbon nanotube. 2N) coordinates in the unit cell for an ( n . yi. .zi) ( i = 1 .yi.56955AA = ( 1. t APPENDIX: PROGRAMS FOR A (n. zi) (i = 1.
A3 COORDINATES FOR SEVERAL UNIT CELLS this value.m) nanotube C C C C C C C C C C Parameters for a (n. A4 Source Codes Here we list the source cords.xyz2 which is generated by the A2 program. the parameters in the program should be changed. Dresselhaus dimension nnp I 100) . G . 229 A3 Coordinates for several unit cells The program A3 reads the en. by R.m .m for Ch’ read(*. nnq $00) itest=l i t e s t l=O < C write(*. the program A3 outputs a fiIe tubel. .xyz has the same format as tube.xya.m) nanotube Rade by 10/16/96 R. The file tubel. ~ 6 zi) .xyz but the number of carbon atoms becomes Nu x 2N.. Saito.. Input and Output files for A3: en.*) ’Enter n. before we run the A3 program.*) n. 2 N x Nu) If you want a large numbers of carbon atoms (more than 5000). the parameter in the program shouid be changed. A€ Parameters for a (n. Dresselhaus.xyz2 : (Input) the work file made by the program A2.xyz : (Output) the coordinates (ti. tubel. and M. Saito Reference: “Physical Pxoperties of Carbon NanotubesSJ Imperial College Press.S. Anybody that uses these source codes or their mo~i~e versions d is required to cite the book. Thus. ( i = 1. we need to run the A2 program. . When you enter the number of unit cells Nu from the keyboard.
.13.0’ l=int (sqrt (float ( 1 2 ) ) * e p s ) if((121**2).13. eq.1) mite(.I> write(*.5.40) nt format(’ T7.rt rt ~ ’ ~ f 1 0 .O) then ndr=3*nd else ndr=nd endif if (itest.eq.230 APPENDIX: PROGRAMS FOR A (qm)CARBON NANOTU3E nd=igcm(n.32) dt. = square root of).eu.’)’) nt2=3*12/ndr/ndr nt=int (sqrt ( float(nt2f>+eps) if ((nt2nt**2) eq.0) stop ’12.422 m a s format(’ T = fl.eq.i3) if (itest .i3.3*nd). f10.). 40 41 c N 50 c R nn=2*12/ndr if(itest.421 eps=l. .i) write(*.1e. i3) else ) write(*.21) ndr format(’ dR = ’.30) 1 formato L7: = I.’)’) if(itest. 10) n .e 1 format( ’ T7. 1) write(*.0) then n60=1 else n60llr endif C itest2=0 . 5 ’\AA’) .il write(*.3i) 12 format( J a = square root o f ’ . ’\AA nra (2*m+n) /ndr nsa(2*n+m)/ndr if(itest.1) wite(*.e 1 ) write(*.le. i4) else if(ite9t.Oe5 10 2 0 2 1 C C L 30 31 32 C T l2=n*n+m*m+n*m if (12.0)*1.5 if(itest.e .eq.eq.e i) write(*.O) then if(ite9t.20) nd format(’ d = ’.1) nrite(*.1415926525 rt=dt*O. i4) ichk=O if (nr. . format(’ dt = ’. i 6 ) endif 42 .m) if(mod((nm).eq. = >.0) then if(ite9t.m format(’ Ch = <’.tiO) nn format(’ N = ’.’.i3) a=sqrt(3.41) nt2 if(itest.13. i6) endif dt=a*sqrt ( float(12) )/3.eq.eq.
np.ns=’ .6i4.nrps write(*.m.ge .n:m. .ne.i=l.and.lt.abs(ns) 52 7 nr*nq .nn) continue endif goto 777 m .66) <nnv(:) . ndr=’.nn. ndr= .2) then if (itest3.q strange!!’ endif endif 777 continue 62 C .eq. ’ .nr.jl.ns*np if(32.iChk) 66 format(’ (’.ns.m.*) ’ichkm .n*nq if(itest2.0) then 77 C if(itestl.abs(nbO) do 61 nqabs(ns) .12.nr.nn j2ihen ichk=ichk+l nnp(ichk)=np nnq(ichk)=nq endif endif continue continue if(ichk.q strange!!’ endif C itest3=l C if (ichk.nr.2i6P i f ( jl. j2 format( ’n.y.0 C .i=l.eq.eq. ndr write(*.ns=’.nr .ichk if((m*nnp(i)n*nnq(i)).1) then jl = m *np .nq. jl.ns write (* .1) then do 77 i=l.ne.*) ’ichk=’.ichk.n.i2!’) mpnq = ’.m.Mq(i).eq.?s=’. i3.eq.ns stop ’ not found p.A4 SOURCE CODES C 231 67 61 60 C do 60 np=abs(n60) .*> ’n.nq. j1.lt. i3) stop more than 1 palr of p.n.nr.0 . .m. ns.ichk) .66) ( n n p ( i ) .*) ’n.q strange!!’ endif if(nr.nr. n n q ( i ) .1) then write(*. 1) arite(*.n: write(*. ndr write(*.and.(m*Mp(i)n*nnq(i)) .gt.nn.ichk.m.67) n.*) ’n. ’ N=’. ( m * n n p ( i ) n * n n q ( i ) ) stop ’ more than 1 pair of p.m. 1 1 8 .0) then write(*.
232 C APPENDIX: PROGRAMS FOR A (n.np. ’.S. j j ) i=abs ( i i ) j=abs (jj) i f ( j g t i) then fw= j J 1 .*)’ R = (’. and M.m f o r Ch=(n.m)’ read(*. 1‘ 4 J =lr endif got0 10 end A2 Atomic Coordinates for a ( n . . i=iw 10 endif i f (j eq. Saito c Reference: “Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes” Imperial College Press. j > i f (ir eq.42d0) parameter (nk=1300) dimension x(nk) . S a i t o . rn) nanotube in the unit cell C c Atomic Coordinates i n t h e u n i t c e l l of a (n.ndr) write(*. Dresselhaus. .oz) C c C acc: CC bond distance. ’1’ .*) n.nq. nq . 0) then igcm=i return endif continue ir=mod(i.xyz2 ( a work f i l e f o r the program A3) C implicit real*8 (ah.’.m (from keyboard) c Output: tube.) C en.m) nanotube C c Made by 10/31/95 C C C by T.m) CARBON NANOTUBE c c a l c u l a t e t h e highest common d i v i s o r C integer function i g c m ( i i . C by R. Dresselhaus c Input: n.m C C C c a l l genll(n.*)’ Enter n. G. 0) then igcm=j return else .y(nk) . np.m.xyz (coordinates. parameter (acc = 1. Takeya and R . See d e t a i l i n t h e above book.z(nk) C write(*.
OdO) *acc C c C r.f10.OdO/pi 'q5 : 3 ' .*) 'ql: ='.OdO)ql) C C C C C C C C C C write(*.nn*2 C C rs: r a d i u s of t h e tube if(2*nn.OdO*atan ( 1.q2*180.*) ' N ='.OdO) pi=4.gt. sq3=sqrt(3.OdO)ql)/c*2~OdO*pi C C C C hi : h2: Delta z between t h e A and B atoms hlsabs ( t ) /abs (sin(q3) ) hZ=acc*sin( (pi/6. c.q5*180. .. OdO) a z s q r t (3.IRI .OdO) *c/dfloat (ndr) I .hl .*) write (* .ql*l80.141592.4) C C C nn: t h e number of hexagon i n t h e u n i t c e l l M nnt2*(n**2*m**2+m*n)/ndr C c C write(*. l T I r=a*sqrt (df l o a t (np*np+nq*nq+np*nq)) c=a*sqrt(dfloat(n*n+m*m+n*m)~ t = s q r t (3 ...*) write(*.OdO/pi C c I 9 0 format(' r a d i u s ='. The A atom . df l o a t (n*n+m*m+n*~) w r i t e (* .OdO*pi) C C C C C q l : t h e c h i r a l angle f o r Ch 42: t h e ' c h i r a l ' angle f o r R 93: t h e angle between Ch and R ql=atan( (sq3*df l o a t (m) /df l o a t (2*n+m) ) q2=atan( (sq3*df loat (nq) /df l o a t (2*np+nq)1 q3=qlq2 C C C C 94: a period of an angle f 5 r t h e A atom q5: t h e d i f f e r e n c e of t h e angle between the A and B atoms q4=2.OdO/pi Calculate 2*nn atoms i n t h e u n i t c e l l .nk) s t o p 'parameter nk is too small' C rs=c/(2.lC.OdO*pi/dfloat (nn) q6~acc*cos((pi/6.*) t= write (*. t . a: t h e length of t h e u n i t vector sq3 = 1.q4*i80. t .. 190)~/2.OdO/pi 'q4: =' .732.0dO/pi 'q2 : =' . *) write (* .A4 SOURCE CODES C 233 c C p i = 3.
lt.m) CARBON NANOTUBE do 100 i=O.01) then z2=z2+t*dfloat(kk) endif x(ii)=x2 y(ii)=y2 z(ii)=z2 endif continue 100 C .234 ii=O APPENDIX: PROGRAMS FOR A (n.02)then zl=zlt*dfloat(kk2) endif if(zl.ge.lt.0.gt.02) then zl=zl+t*dfloat (kk2) endif ii=ii+i x (ii) =xi y(ii)=yl z(ii)=zl C C C The B atoms zd=(dfloat (i)*abs(r)dfloat ii=ii+l C (k)*hl)*sin(q3)h2 c Check the C B atom is in the unit cell 0 < 23 < t x2 =rs*cos (dfloat (i) *q4+q5) if((z3.nn1 xi0 yl=O zl=O k=int(df loat ( i ) *abs(r) /hl xl=rs*cos(dfloat (i)*q4) yl=rs*sin(dfloat (i)*q4) zl=dfloat ( ( d f loat(i)*abs ( r ) dfloat (k)*hl)) *sin(q3) kk2=abs(int (zl/t))+l C c Check the A atom is in the unit cell 0 < zl < t C if(z1.gt.O2))then c yes y2 =rs*sin(dfloat(i)*q4+ 5) 22 =dfloat (dfloat (i)*abs?r) dfloat(k)*hl )*sin(q3)h2 x(ii)=x2 y(ii)=y2 z (ii)=22 else c no x2 =rs*cos (dfloat(i) *q4+q5) y2 =rs*sin(dfloat(i)*q4+ 5) 22 =dfloat (dfloat (i)*abs?r)dfloat(k+l)*hl)*sin(q3)h2 kk=abs(int(z2/t))+l if(z2.le.0.02).O.(z3.t0.and.t0.0l)then z2=z2t*dfloat (kk) endif if(z2.tO.
ii7)x(i) .z(i) end do fornat (ii5.ndr) dimension nnp(iO0) .m.np.3f10.(2*n+m) /ndr nt2=3*12/ndr/ndr nt=int (sqrt (dfloat (nt2))+eps) c N nn=2*12/ndr c R ichk=O if (nr.1415926525 c T nr.xyz ’1 write (60.0) then n60=i else n60m endif C itest21 .le.*)2*~ write(60.xyz2’) write(60.y(i) .xyz2 C I18 open(60.0’ l=int (sqrt (dfloat (12) )+eps) dt=a*sqrt (dfloat (12)) /3.x(i) .eq.nq.*) ’ ’ do i=l.nnq(iOO) C nd=igcm(n.m C subroutine genll(n.A4 SOURCE CODES c Out put to the file tube.acc format (2f25.nn*2 write(60.le.116)i.m) if (mod((nm) .xyz C 235 117 C open(60.eq.5) close(6O) c Out put to the file en.file=’en.O) then ndr=3*nd else ndr=nd endif C L 12=n*n+m*m+n*m if (12.y(i) .O) stop ’12.3f25.20) 116 close(60) stop end C c This subroutine calculates np.*) 2*nn write (60. f ile= ’tube.nq and ndr from n.(2*m+n)/ndr ns=.ii8)t.z(i> end do format ( ’C’ .3*nd) .nn*2 write(60.6) do i=i.
ns.1) then stop ’ more than 1 pair of p.nn ) then ichk=ichk+l nnp(ichk)slp nnq(ichk)slq endif endif continue continue if (ichk.ge.eq.1) then np=nnp ( 1) nq=nnq( 1) endif continue return continue stop end c calculate the highest common divisor C integer function igcm(ii.m) CARBON NANOTUBE do 60 np=abs (n6O) .q strange!!’ endif if(nr.and.ns*np if(j2.236 C APPENDIX: PROGRAMS FOR A (n. jj ) i=abs(ii) ) j=abs(jj if(j.0 .O) then C 77 C if (itestl.0 .eq.eq.ne.eq.0) then stop ’ not found p.i) then lu=j J 1 i=iw .ichk if ((m*nnp(i)n*nnq(i)) continue endif .abs(ns) j2 = nr*nq .l) then J l = m *np .eq.nn) goto 777 endif endif 777 continue C 2 1 C if (itest .and.2) then if (itest3.gt.q strange!!’ endif 61 60 C C itest31 C if(ichk.1) then do 77 i=l.lt.lt.abs( 1 1 6 0 ) do 61 nq=abs(ns) . j1.ne.gt.n*nq i f ( jl.
n n do 21 jj=O. (nk) .xyz (atomic coordinates) C i m p l i c i t real*8(ah. Takeya and R . x ( i ) .iZ(nk. C by R. Dresselhaus.*)t do 10 i = l . j ) i f (ir.xyz2 (a work f i l e made by t h e program A2) c Output: tubel.*)nn read(6l.eq. Dresselhaus C c Input : n (from keyboard.0) then igcm=j return else :=J J‘lr endif got0 10 end 237 . n*nn if(n*nn.ic(nk. n n read(61.A4 SOURCE CODES endif i f ( j eq.~yz2’) read(dl. S a i t o . Saito c Reference: “Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes” Imperial College Press. rn) nanotube c Atomic Coordinates f o r several unit c e l l s of a (n.m) nanotube C c Made by 10/31/95 C C by T. 10 A3 Atomic Coordinates for several unit cells of a (n.z(nk) dimension iic(nkT.S. z ( i ) continue c l o s e ( 6 l .*)n open(Gl. t h e number of the u n i t c e l l .3) .*)j . aa=1.nk) stop ’change parameter nk t o a l a r g e r value’ ii=nn do 20 i = l . 02) parameter (nk=5000.n1 iii=ii+i+j ’*ii z ( i i i ) = z (ij+df l o a t ( jj + l ) *t C . statusi’keep ’1 write(*. and M.gt.*) ’Number of t o t a l atoms = ’. 0) then igcm=i return endif continue ir=mod(i.3) C 10 C write(*. G. ) C : en.FILE=’en. y ( i ) .*) ’enter the number of the unit c e l l Nu =’ read(*.42) dimension x(nk).
y (i) . 3f 10.FILE=’tubel .238 APPENDIX: PROGRAMS FOR A (n.5) close(60) stop end 21 20 C 100 700 C .*) ’ ’ do 100 i=l.*)n*nn write (60.z (i) continue format (’Cl.xyz’) arite(60.m) CARBON NANOTUBE x (iii)=x (i) y (iii)=y (i) continue cont inue open(GO.7OO)x(i) .n*nn nrite(60.
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Index
9 25 caxis crystallite sizes L , ...........89 CN group ........................ 184 D, group ......................... 184 D, point group .................... 48 d R ................................. 39 dt ................................. 38 E2, optic mode ................... 188 K point ........................... 60 k . p perturbation theory ..........106 k2 dependence .................... 170 L .................................. 38 Mpoint mode .................... 202 N ................................. 40 Smatrix ......................... 145 sp hybridization .................... 5 sp2 hybridization ...................7 sp3 hybridization ...................8 sp" hybridization ................... 5 THT............................... 89 VH configurations ................196 VV configuration ................. 196 rvib .............................. 185 T bands of 2D graphite H j j i .......................... 26 S jjr ........................... 27 energy dispersion relations .... 27 T bands ........................... 26 T bond ............................. 7 11, .................................. 41 u bands of 2D graphite ............ 29 H.j ........................... 29
acc
1s Core Orbitals ....................
..............................
........................... ............................. al a2 .............................
Sij
u bond
KI K z ............................
bl b 2 ..............................
R .................................
Ch ................................
T .................................
29 7 38 47 47 41 39 37
2D graphite acoustic modes .............. 170 Brillouin zone ................. 25 force constant parameters ....169 graphite ...................... 25 Landau level ................. 106 optical modes 170 phonon dispersion relations . . 166 reciprocal lattice unit vectors . 25 unit cell ...................... 25 unit vectors ................... 25
................
A
AB effect ......................... 110 ABAB stacking., .................. 87 abundance of nanotubes .......... 210 acetylene ........................... 7 additive property ................. 148 AharonovBohm effect ............108 amorphous carbon ................. 12 amorphous graphite ................12 Anderson localization ............. 147 angle of rotation around the nanotube axis 11, ......... 41
253
254
antibonding r* bands .............. 24 arc method ........................ 77 areal moment of inertia. ..........211 armchair nanotube ................. 36 atomic s i t e s . . .................... 185 axis of cone ....................... 121 beam rigidity ................211 Brillouin Zone ................45 circumferential length .........38 curvature., ...................70 density of states .............. 66 38 diameter ...................... dynamical matrix ............ 173 electronic structure in a magnetic field ...........108 electronic structure ........... 59 energy gap .................... 66 growth rate ...................78 oxidation., ...................84 parameters ...................46 Peierls instability ............219 phonon dispersion relations .. 171 quantum transport .......... 152 reciprocal lattice vectors ...... 45 157 resistivity .................... solid state properties .......... 66 strain energy ................210 35 structure ..................... the number of hexagons N .... 40 45 unit cell ...................... carbon whisker ...................2,82 carbonization temperature .........87 carbyne ............................ 13 catalytic chemical vapor deposition . .2 CGS units ......................... 95 CH, ............................... 22 channels .......................... 142 chemical potentials ...............142 39 chiral angle B ...................... 36 chiral nanotube .................... 37 chiral vector C h ................... 35 chirality ........................... classic elastic theories ............. 208 classical conductance ............. 139 classical transport ................ 144 classification ....................... 35
ballistic transport ................ 139 bamboo structure .................. 81 band JahnTeller effect ........... 216 121 bending angle .................... 81 bending ........................... 80 benzene gas ....................... bias window ...................... 157 156 bistability ........................ Bloch's theorem ...................17 224 BN nanotube ..................... 213 bond alternation .................. bond polarization theory ..........192 167 bondbending ..................... 167 bondstretching ................... 24 bonding x bands ................... breathing A1, mode .......... 172,190 Bright model ..................... 160 broad Raman peaks around the 1347 cm' .......... 202 bulk modulus ...................... 15
C
Cz absorption process .............. 89 cantilever beam ...................211 81 capping ............................ 79 carbide ............................ carbon arc synthesis ............... 73 carbon fiber with high THT....... 147 carbon fibers ....................14,15 carbon nanotube
...........................210 electron energy loss spectra ...........151 elastic modulus Cxl ... 127 137 conductivity .210 elastic scattering .................... .... ......... 88 88 oxygen .................. ...... F faceting ................................................................ ................... 106 11 diamond . 95 cyclotron radius T ...INDEX coaxial nanotubes ............ 150 envelope function ...... 192 electronic properties of a twoshell coaxial nanotube ...................................... ..... 79 energy dispersion armchair and zigzag nanotubes . 138 coherence ...132 eccentricity ..............138 desorption temperature hydrogen .... 139 121 dihedral angle ...................... .. ........ coiled carbon nanotubes ..... 138 electronphonon coupling constant ...... core orbitals ........ 152 ensemble average ........... ............ 154 force constant model .... diamagnetism for graphite .......... .. 163 correction of force constant ................127 CVD ...... 155 crystallite size along the caxis L................... 213 electronic polarization tensor ................ 2 cyclotron frequency wc ........ .....................138 elastic thin film.. ............... diffusion constant D .... .................... 61 energy stabilization .225 enhanced backward scattering .............. ................ 163 Euler theorem................... 5 core electrons .......... ......95 255 de Broglie wavelength XB .. 221 electronelectron scattering ...89 dynamical matrix D ( k ) ........................................... 202 flux quantum ............. 89 current operator ..215 conductance G[O]........200 equation of motion .................................. 151 diffusive motion .......202 distorted columnar structures .................... commensurate doublewall carbon nanotube ....................... 225 138 Fermi sphere .................. 11 electronelectron interaction .. 137 141 conductance regimes .................................... dimensionless inverse magnetic length L/2irC .............130 electronic structure ............... 11 effective mass .. 100 focusedion.........224 encapsulated metal cluster . 9 Coulomb charging effect ...........222 132 cobalt catalyst .... edge states .......134 222 commensurate ......112 disorder in carbon fibers ................. Fermi wavelength XF ....... 165 123 126 EELS .... ..223 complete elliptical integrals .... 110 Einstein relation .. ..................beaminduced deposition ....... 138 finite size effect .................................. ...... 178 ....... conductance ...... .......................................
...................183 interband coupling . 95 97 Landau radius .124 132 genus ............... 106 mean free path L ......... ...................74 layerbylayer removal ...202 helical pitch .................... 95 Iijima ...147 longitudinal acoustic mode ..............213 HOPG ....207 inversion center .......132 heptagonal defect . 133 helically coiled nanotube ............................................107 intercalated graphite with fluorine .......... 89 incommensurate coaxial nanotubes . 2 hybridization .......................... 5 Landau energy bands twodimensional graphite .................................................... 184 J...................................84 length of cone axis ......... graphitization temperature ..224 metalmetal junction .. Landau gauge ............... 116 high strength per unit area .. 104 111 carbon nanotube .. 225 highly oriented pyrolytic graphite ....... ..........222 infraredactive modes....138 metalmetal coaxial nanotubes ......... magneticinduced distortion . 199 inplane bond alternation ........ K G Gaussian broadening .................... 95 irreducible representation .... 4 in zero magnetic field ..............................................131 helixshaped structure .....107 local density approximation ..............................................81..163........................127.217 inplane crystallite sizes La ................... 2 hollow cylindrical cantilever ..120 211 Keating potential .... . L H heat treatment temperature THT ...... 138 mesophase pitch fibers ...... laser vaporization method ............... 186 gerade ..............177 Lorentz force ...... ......123 junction ............................ 186 ...........256 force constant tensor .............87 89 growth mechanism ..............................71 localization length L ..........147 interlayer interaction .....216 joint density of states ............221 McClure ..........191 115.......... free electron in a magnetic field .............................167 164 Fourier transform ..123 linear k dispersion .... 15 mesoscopic systems .. JahnTeller effect ....... shape of a junction .. 213 Kekule structure ........................ .................. 97 144 Landauer formula . 124 .......... 147 localization phenomenon ... Landau degeneracy .............. 111 inphase motion ............
.... ........... . ..........199 outofplane deformation dotfill 218 overlap integral matrix ............ mode . ................ .....151 .. (see alse transpolyacetylene) 7.... ........ ........ ......................... ......... ...... .. 198 lower frequency modes .....22...9 5 molecular polarizabilities ...209.....151 phase diagram of carbon .....12.. .. 163 phonon occupation number .........193 momentum relaxation length L ..... 0 open ends .... 32 ............. 160.143 quantized resistance Ro ............... .............. . .138 momentum relaxation time t ....... power law for the A1....... 14 polarizability parameters ..... polyacetylene (CH)...... ... 10 phasecoherent motion .................... ............ ... normalized electronphonon 216 interaction . 187 nonsymmorphic translational group ...... ....... ... 184 N nanotube junctions . 15 PAN fibers ..... 196 medium frequency modes .................. ... ............ 138 Peierls distortion . negative magnetoresistance ..... 221 257 Pauli exclusion principle .. ...... .................. . ..................INDEX metalsemiconductor coaxial nanotubes ...124 8 methane ........ .. 89 outofphase motion .....216....... 192 photoelectron spectroscopy . 84 Q quantized conductance Go ..... ....... . ...... . 70 Peierls instability .... .... 224 metalsemiconductor junction .....10 a bond ...... 194 192 polarization . ........202 192 normal mode .......... . 116 116 negative curvature .......... ... ........ . 147 multiwall nanotubes .............14. 187 PES .......... ......187 Raman mode of carbon nanotube atomic displacements ......... .138 phonon density of states ............... 198 projection operator .. 143 quantized current .......... 52 nonzonecenter phonon mode ... Ni/Co catalyst . ... 167 Raman experiment ....... 13 phase relaxation time t . ..... 201 PAN (polyacrylonitrile) ......95 R radial .. MKS (SI) units ..215 2 polyacrylonitrile .200 higher frequency modes .... ...........2 13 normalized energy gap ....151 Landau level formation .....207 pitch fiber .....................19 oxidation ..... ......... ......................... ....213 pentagon ..................139 phaserelaxation length L ..... 139 Mott localization ... .... 7...........2 parameters of 2D graphite tight binding method ...... ..143 quantum confinement ..... ......202 phonon mode ..... ............. 171.. .. ..... ... .. .... .....
183 random phase ...................7 sp3 hybridization ..................... 127 resolvent ................ semitoroidal structure...... .. 195 Raman spectra angular dependence ....................................... ............212 Thomas A .... 178 sp2 hybridization ........223 STM image ....221 ....... 22 unit vector ... 197 Ramanactive modes .... 134 semimetal ........ 210 strongly localized regime ........................... ............................. 24 reciprocal lattice vector.......................168 165............................................ .. 22 ' F I J J I .....181 secondrank tensor ...........Raman polarizability parameters ...........................1 9 tilt and twist boundaries ................ 22 Brillouin zone .. 187 rotation angle II............................... ....... resistance of a mesoscopic wire R........................... 150 rareearth metals ... 137 resistance.. 23 SJJI ...... 224 strain energy per carbon atom ...147 STS experiments .151 thermal vibration ......................... ..... 98 tight binding method .......... 133 superlattice ............. 15 tows .....190 120 regular triangle .................79 translation r ... symmetry assignment .................... 19 S j j ! ...... 223 sound velocity ....... ...... rope ............43 spinPeierls interaction .....139 sample orientation dependence ....... transition metals ........ 22 transfer integral matrix ................... ...................... 203....... .............224 SuSchriefferHeeger (SSH) model 213 199 sublattices .....................203 scaled force constant .. resonance tunneling ........20 secular equation ............... ....................79 Rayleigh scattering . 144 137 resistivity......................222 207 abonding .............133 130 torus c 3 6 0 ........22 energy dispersion relations ...... 205 symmetry vector R ....................... Edison .............. 19 139 transit time t t ..............8 space group symmetry operation R = ( $ 1 ~ ) ............. .. 17 ..191 187 Rh/Pd catalyst ......... ................... sliding motion................................41 202 symmetrylowering effects ....... .156 resonant Raman effect ................. 10) armchair nanotube ................. 1 tight binding approximation in a static magnetic field . T (10........151 toroidal carbon nanotube ..89 timereversed processes A: ....................................... 43 njjl sample length L .....43 rotation around the z axis .205 polarization dependence .......................187 thermal diffusion length L T ................ transpolyacetylene irbands ..130 shear modes between two graphite layers ................................................ 186 selection rules .................................... 24 Bloch orbitals ....
............. ..... . 80 vaporization temperature ........... 211 zerogap semiconductor ....... ................ 41 translational vector T .............. 36 zone folding phonon mode ........127...163... 144 transport experiments ... ..................14......160 twodimensional cosine band in a magnetic field .......... . ..... 144 w wavy ribbons . 5 vanHove singularities . ......... . 123 wrinkled layers ......79 vapor growth method ...... 89 twisted helical carbon nanotube . ......37 transmission probability ...... 95 voltage drop..... ..148..... 147 wire frame model ......177 tube opening ... 172 zonecenter vibrations ..... . ... ..............59 ungerade ..... .......... 183 zonefolding Energy dispersion .... 85 tubule axis length .......................... 89 .......132 twisting motion ..........123 tunneling conductance ....... ...............125 twopoint resistance .... .... ...... z XPS ........ .161 valence electrons ....178 twoband semimetal model .. 89 weakly localized regime ..... 168 universal conductance fluctuations (UCF)127.....Y..........INDEX translation in the direction of T r .. 77....... 191 vapor grown carbon fiber ............... ....... ........ ..... .. .... ...... 159 transverse acoust>icmode .... .... 9 Young’s modulus Y ....................155 259 X......169........2.... ... 186 unitary matrix .......... ...............123 turbostratic graphite.......64 zigzag nanotube ..... .............100 twodimensional graphite (see 2Dgrphite) twodimensional van Hove singularities ...... .. ....... 88 vector potential .
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