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III B.Tech. II Semester::2013 14



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S.No. 1

Name of the Experiment Introduction of general purpose machines -lathe, drilling machine, milling machine, shaper, planning machine, slotting machine, cylindrical grinder, surface grinder and tool and cutter grinder. Step turning and taper turning on lathe machine. Thread cutting and knurling on lathe machine. Drilling and tapping. Shaping and planning Slotting Milling Cylindrical surface grinding. Grinding of tool angles.

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Introduction: The lathe is one of the oldest machine tools. Henry Mand Slay an Englishman designed the first screw lathe in the year 1797 is the fare runner of present day high speed, heavy production duty lathe. The main function of the lathe is to remove metal from a piece of work to give it to require shape and size. To accomplish if a work is how firmly and turning is done against it, which removes metal from the work in form chips. Type of Lathe: Lathes of various designs and constructions have been developed to suit the various conditions of metal machining. The types of lathes are. 1. Speed Lathe 2. Engine Lathe (a) Belt drive (b) Individual motor drive (c) Gear head Lathe 3. Bench Lathe 4. Tool room Lathe 5. Capstan and turret Lathe 6. Special purpose (a) Wheel Lathe (b) Gap bed Lathe (c) T-Lathe (d) Duplicating Lathe 7. Automotive Lathe The Engine Lathe: The engine lathe is the most important member and it is so called as Engine Lathe because in early days it were driven by steam engines. It has all basic components i.e., head stock, tail stock. The head stock contains additional mechanism for driving the lathe spindle at multiple speeds. The engine lathe can feed the cutting tool both in cross and longitudinal direction with the help of carriage, feed rod and lead screw. Engine lathes are classified according to the various designs of the head stock and methods of transmitting power to the machine. Different types of lathes are classified according to the power. The Capstan and Turret Lathe: These lathes are used for production work. In this the tailstock is replaced by a hexagonal turret, on the face of which multiple tools may be fitted and feed into the work in proper sequence. The advantage is that several different types of operations can be done on a work piece without resetting of work or tools, and a number of identical parts can be produced in the minimum time.
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Specications of Lathe: The size of the lathe is specified as follows: The height of the centres measured from the Lathe bed. The swing diameter over bed The length between centres The swing diameter over carriage The maximum bar diameter The length of the bed. Description of Lathe parts: The principle parts of the lathe are lathe bed, head stock, full stock, carriage Bed: The lathe bed forms the base of the mechanism. The head stock, and the tail stock are located at either end of bed and the carriage rests over the lathe bed and slides on it. On the top of the bed there are two sets of slides or guide ways, outer ways and inner ways. The outer ways provide bearing and sliding surfaces are accurately machined to make them parallel to the lathe axis absolutely horizontal and sufficiently plain. In guide ways of the lathe bed may be flat and inverted --v having an included angle of 90 . The bed material should have high compressive strength, should be wear resistant and absorb vibrations. Cast iron alloyed with Nickel and Chromium. Head Stock: The head stock is secured permanently on the inner ways at the left hand end of the lathe bed and it provides mechanical means of rotating the work at multiple speeds. It has a hollow spindle and mechanism for driving and altering the spindle speed. The spindle of the head stock is made of carbon or Nickel chrome steel. There are two common types of spindle noses the threaded design which carries the chuck, driving plate and face plate and the flanged nose which enable them to be directly attached. For obtaining different speeds of lathe there are three methods: (1) By belt drive on cone pulley fitted on the headstock spindle with are with out a back gear arrangement (2) By all gear drive using sliding gears of clutches. (3) By variable speed motor. Tail Stock: The tail stock is located on the inner ways at the right hand side of the bed. It is used to support the other end of the work when it is being machined between centers. It holds a tool for performing operation such as drilling reaming. tapping etc. The tail stock is moved toward are away from the operator. To accommodate different lengths of work , the body of the tail stock can be adjusted along the ways by sliding it to the derived position where it can be clamped by bolts & plates Other features are incorporated for accurate length setting and felt wipes pads on the base and spindle Carriage:

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The carriage of lathe have several parts that serve to support , move and control the cutting tool . Saddle, cross slide, compound rest, tool post and apron are the main parts, that the carriage consists. Saddle: The saddle in an H- shaped casting that fits over the bed and slides along the guide ways. It carries the cross slide and too post. Cross Slide: It comprises a casting machined on the under side for attachment to the saddle and carries locations on the upper face for the tool post or compound rest Automatic movement of cross-slide can be obtained. Compound rest: The compound rest or compound slide is mounted on the top of the cross slide and has a circular base graduates in degrees. It is used for obtaining angular ends and short tapers as well as convenient positioning of the tool to the work Tool Post: This is located on the top of the compound rest hold the tool and to enable it to be adjusted in a convenient work position. The type and mounting of the tool post depends upon the class of work for which it is to be used. Apron: The apron is fastened to the saddle and hangs over the front of the bed. It consists gears, clutches and levers for aperciling the carriage by hand and power feeds. Usually a chasing dial is fitted either to the side are tap of the apron and consists of a graduated dial. Lathe Accessories and Attachments: The Lathe accessories are used either for holding and supporting the work are the holding the tool. They are centres catch plates and carries, chucks, collects, face plates, mandrels and rests. Centres: The most common methods of holding the work in a lathe is between the two centres line centre and dead centre. These two take up the thrust due to metal cutting and the entire load of the work piece on small bearing surface Different type of centres are used for holding different type of works. The ordinary type centre is the type used for most general work. In the tipped centre. the paint consist of a hard alloy tip brazed into and ordinary steel shank. The ball centre is used to minimize we are and strain on the ordinary centre while tape turning by set over method. The holy centre is little less than holy of the centre ground away while facilitates facing of the bar ends without removal of the centres. The rotating are friction less center is always used in tail stock for supporting heavy work revolving at high speed. Carries and Catch Plates: Carries and catch plates are used to drive a work piece when it is held between two centres carries are driving dugs are attachei to the end of the work piece by a set screw and catch plates are either screwed ar bottled to the nose of the head stock spindle . The projecting pin of a single pin catch plate drives the and are tail by a carries attached to the work piece two pins of a double pin catch plate engage with the double are double slotted carries and provide uniform drive . The tail type is used in conjuction with a face plate are slotted catch plate.
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Chucks: It is most important devices for holding and rotating a piece of work in a lathe work piece of short length and large diameter are of irregular shape which cannot be conveniently mounted between centres are held rigidly in a chuck . A chuck is atf ached to the lathe spindle by means of bolts with the back plate screwed on to the top spindle nose. Different types of chucks are Force jaw independent chuck Collect chuck Three jaw universal chuck Drill chuck Combination chuck Magnetic Air or hydraulic operated chuck. Universal or Self-centering chuck: It has three jaws of all are made to slide simultaneously by an equal amount within the slots provided on the body by rotating any one of the three fun ions which meshes with the teeth cut on the underside of the scroll disc. The scroll disc having the spiral groove cut on the top face meshes with the teeth on the jaws when the disc is made to rotate by any one of pinions all the jaw all moved backward or forward by equal amount. It is suitable for holding round or hexagonal work force and the job is centered automatically & quickly. But it has less gripping capacity and centering accuracy is soon lost due to wear. Magnetic Chuck: It is used for holding a very thin work piece made of magnetic material which cannot be held in an ordinary chuck. It is also used where any distortion of the work piece due to pressure of the jaws is undesirable. The holding power of chuck is obtained by the magnetic flux relating either from the electro magnetic flux or from the permanent magnets introduced with in the chucks. In ON position flux passes through the work piece and grips it. And in OFF position it is short circuited and the flux passage mall by stopped, it causes the work piece free. Face Plates: A face plate consists of a circular disc bored out and threaded to fit the nose of the lathe spindle. This has the radial, plain and T-slots for holding work by bolts and clamps. Face plates are used for holding work pieces while cannot be conveniently held between the centres or by chucks. Angle Plates:

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This is C.I plate having two faces machined to make me absolutely at right angles to each other. Holes & slots are provided on both faces so that it may be clamped on face plate and can hold the work piece on the other face by bolts and clampsq Angle plates are used in conjuction which a face plate when the holding surface of the work piece should be kept horizontal, as for example, in machining a flange of pipe elbow.. When the eccentric jobs are bolted on the face plate a balance weight or counter weight must be added. Man drels: A mandrel is a device for holding and rotating a hollow piece of work that has been previously drilled or bored. The work receives with me mandrel should be true with accurate centre holes for machining outer surface torsion. The ends of a mandrel are slightly smaller in diameter and frattched to provide effective gripping surface of one lathe dog set screw. The mandrel is rotated by the lathe dog and the catch plate and it drives the work by friction. Different types of mandrels are: plain mandrel, step mandrel, collar mandrel, gang mandrel, expansion mandrel. Plain Mandrel: It is used when a large number of identical pieces having standard size holes are required to be mounted on it. The body of the mandrel is slightly tapered, the difference in diameter is 1 to 2 mm per 100 mm length. The length varies from 55 to 43 0mm. The taper is provided for proper gripping of the work piece. It is suitable for only one size of bore. Step Mandrel: The step mandrel having steps of different diameter employed to drive different work pieces having different sizes of holes without replacing the mandrel each time. It is suitable for turning collars, washers and odd jobs. Lone Mandrel: It consists of a solid cone attached to the one end of the body and a sliding cone which can be adjusted by turning a hut at the threaded end. It is suitable for holding work pieces having different hole diameters by placing the work on two cones and lightning the nut. Avbid forcing the cone tightly upon the work to prevent spoil as its outer edge. Expansion Mandrel: This has a fixed collar at one end and a movable collar at the threaded end which may be adjusted to its position by a nut. The mandrel is used to hold a set of holler work pieces between two collars by tightening the nut. The friction between the sides of the work and the collar is sufficient to drive the work without slipping in the mandrel. Gang Mandrel: One type of a mandrel is that consists of a tapered pin which is driven into a sleeve that is parallel out side and tapered inside. The sleeve has three longitudinal slots, two are hear by cut through and the third splits it completely. This construction enables an expansion mandrel to grip
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various work pieces with different hole diameters with in a limit that cannot otherwise be held in all ordinary mandrel. The sleeve first placed within the work with pin remo ed. The tapered pin is then pressed from the end into the sleeve and the sleeve expands. gripping the work securely and accurately can hold work pieces of dia 0.5 to 2mm.

Rests: A rest is a mechanical device which supports a long slender work piece, which is turned between centres or by a chitch, at some intermediate point to prevent bending of the work piece due to its own weight and vibrations set up due to the cutting fQrce that acts on it. A rest should always be used when the length is 10 to 12 times the diameter of work piece rests when properly set provide greatest accuracy in machinery and permit heaver depth of cut on the work pieces the two types of rests used in an engine lathe are the steady or centre rest and the follower rest. Steady Rest: It consists of a C.I base, which may be made to slide on the lathe bed ways and clamped at any desired ways and clamped where a support is necessary. The upper portion is hinged at one end which facilitates setting and removal of work piece without disturbing the rest. The three jaws are moved then acts as bearing and holds the work piece rigidly. The main junction is to support a long slender work. Also used to support the free end of a long work piece for drilling, boring, etc., Follower Rest: It consists C like casting having two adjustable jaws which support the work piece the rest is bolted to the back end of the carriage. It moves with the carriage movement. The follower rest prevents the job from away when cut is made and is used ih turning operation or where the entire length of the work piece is required to bed turned without distributing the setting. centering: When the work is required to be turned between centres or between chuck and a centre, conical shaped boles must be provided at the ends of the work piece :c provide bearing surface for lathe centres. Centering is the operation of producing conical holes in work pieces. To prepare a cylindrical work piece for centering, it is first necessary to locate the centre hole by marking off This is done by rubbing the end with a chuck and the centre may be located by anyone of the following instruments. (1) Using a centre head and steel rule of a combination set (2) Using a hermaphrodite caliper. (3) Using a divider and surface plate (4) Using a surface gauge
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(5) Using a ball centre punch. After the centre has been located, a centre punch and a hammer are used to make a deep indentation to produce the hole to hold and to revolve the work on lathe centres. Centre holes are produced by using a drill and drill and counter sink tool. This is held on a drill chuck and may be mounted on the head stock or on the tail stock spindle to provide a conical hole on the ends of the work piece. The included angle as the hole should be exactly 60 to fit with the 60 point angles of the lathe centres. The straight hole projected beyond the conical hole serves as a small reservian for lubricating oil & receives the tip of the dead centre from rubbing with the work piece. Nomenclature of Cutting Tool: Cutting tool nomenclature means systematic naming of the various parts and angles of a cutting tool. The principle underlying cutting tool angles are the same whether the tool is single or multi point tool or a grinding wheel. The different points of the single point cutting tool are: Shank: Shank is that portion of the tool bit which is hot ground to form cutting edges and is rectangular in cross section. Face : Face is the surface against which the chip slides upward. Flank: Flank is the surface which face the work piece. Heel : Heel is the lowest portion of the side cutting and end cutting edge. Nose : Nose is conjunction of the side and end cutting edges. Rake: Rake is the slope of the tape away from the cutting edge. There are two types back rake angle and side rake. Side clearance: Side clearance is that the plane the forms the flank or side of a tool has been ground bach at an angle sloping down from the side cutting edge. End cutting edge angle: Indicates that the plane which forms the end of a tool has been ground bach at an angle sloping from the hose to the side of the shank. Lip or Cutting angle: It is the included angle when the tool has been grand wedge at shaped.

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Lathe Operations: Operations which are performed in a lathe either by holding the work piece between the centres or by a chuck are. 1. Straight turning 2. Shoulder turning 3. Chamfering 4. Thread cutting 5. Facing 6. Knurling 7. Filling 8. Taper turning 9. Eccentric turning 10. Polishing 11. Grooving 12. Spinning 13. Spring winding 14. Forming

Operations which are performed by holding the work by a chuck or a face plate or an angle plate are 1. Drilling 2. Reaming 3. Boring 4. Counter boring 5. Taper boring 6. Internal thread cutting 7, Tapping 8. Under cutting 9. Parting off

Operations which are performed by using special attachments are: 1. Grinding 2. Milling

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Aim: To perform step turning and taper turning (taper of 5: 100) operations on the given work piece for given dimensions. Material Required: Mild steel rod of 25mm diameter and 100 mm length. Tools Required: H.S.S single point cutting tool, V-cutting tool, calipers, steel rule, chuck key. Sequence Of Operations : Centering Measuring & Marking Facing Plain turning Step turning Finishing Taper turning Checking

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Procedure : The work piece is fixed on 3 jaw self centering chuck with sufficient over hang. Adjust the belt pulleys to run the job at a required cutting speed. Fix the cutting tool in a tool post and give the feed and depth of cut of the cutting tool. Facing operation is performed from the centre hole to towards outwards or from the circumference to towards the centre. Plain turning operation is performed until the dia of the work piece is reduced to 20 mm. Check the dimensions by using the outside calipers. Step turning operation is performed with different depth to reach the dimensions as shown in fig. The angle is measured by using the formula o Tangent of the half of the taper angle = (Large Dia Small Dia)/2 Check the dimensions using a vernier calipers and a steel rule.

Precautions : The chuck key must be removed from the chuck before the spindle is switched on Chips should not be allowed to wound the revolving job an{ must be cleaned as often as possible using brush but not by hand. Apply cutting fluids to the tool and work piece properly. Before starting the lathe spindle by power, lathe spindle should be revolved through one o revolution by hand to make sure that no failing exists. Result :

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3. THREAD CUTTING AND KNURLING Aim : To perform thread cutting (TPI =12) and knurling operations on the given work piece for given dimensions. Material Required : Mild steel rod of 25 mm diameter and 100 mm length Tools Required : H.S.S. Single point cutting tool, V-Cutting tool, Outside calipers, Partingoff tool, Vernier Calipers, Steel rule, Chuck key Sequence Of Operations : Centering Measuring & Marking Facing Plain turning Chamfering Parting Thread cutting Knurling Checking

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Procedure : The work piece is fixed on a 3 jaw self centering chuck with sufficient over hang. Adjust the belt pulleys to run the job at a required cutting speed. Fix the cutting tool in a tool post and give the feed and depth of cut of the cutting tool. Perform facing, plain turning, chamfering operations to get the required dimensions Using the v- cutting tool and parting off tool to perform the step turning operation to required dimensions. Check the dimensions using a outside calipers and replacing the parting tool by thread cutting tool in the tool post. Reduce the speed of the spindle by engaging the back gear mechanism in the head stock. Calculate the .size of change gear required to cut the thread of given pitch using the relation o Gear ratio = (pitch to be cut on the work piece) / (pitch on the lead screw) Engage half-nut mechanism for automatic feed to perform thread cuttinq operation (Right hand threading ) Give the small exam feed and repeat the steps to complete the threading for required depth.

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Replace the thread cutting tool by a knurling tool and perform knurling operation on required length of the job.

Precautions Result The chuck key must be removed from the chuck before the spindle is switched on. Apply the cutting fluids to the tool and work piece properly. The cutting tool point should exactly resemble the shape of the thread. To avoid pitch errors the machining should be done properly


Aim : To perform drilling and tapping operations on the given work piece. Material Required : Mild steel flat of 100 x 45 x 10 mm Tools Required : Steel rule, Dot Punch, Vernier height gauge, Jenny calipers, Drillbit ( dia 8 mm) Sequence Of Operations : Measuring Marking Punching Grinding Drilling
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Tapping Surface grinding Procedure: Place the work piece on the surface plate and mark the required drill- spots as per the sketch given using jenny calipers, scriber and steel rule. Highlight scriber lines on the work piece by using dot punch and ball peen hammer Hold the work piece in the machine vice firmly Select the drill bit as per the sketch and insert into the drill chuck by means of align screw. The drill chuck is inserted into the sleeve of radial drilling machine Start the machine and lower the arm so the drill bit contacts the work piece at the required position gently. Apply the feed continuously to make a through hole. Repeat the above process till all the holes are drilled as per the sketch. Use reamer to finish the drilled holes Use appropriate dill taps to make the internal threads

Drilled and Tapped Work Piece Precautions: 1. Marking should be done accurately. 2. Apply cutting fluids to the tool and the work piece properly
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3. Chips should not be allowed to wound the revolving job and must be cleaned as often as possible using brush but not by hand. Result :

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Aim : To produce flat surface on the given work piece by performing shaping operation using shaping machine.
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Material Required : Cast Iron block 50 x 50 mm Tools Required : Steel rule, dot punch, Ball peen hammer, Surface gauge, Scriber, Vernier height gauge, V-block surface and H.S.S. Single point cutting tool. Sequence Of Operations : 1. Measuring 2. Marking 3. Punching 4. Fixing 5. Machining 6. Checking Procedure : 1. Place the work piece on the surface plate to mark the required size using surface gauge , scriber and steel rule. 2. Convert scriber lines into the dots using dot punch and ball peen hammer. 3. The tool is fixed on the tool post such that the tool movement should be exactly perpendicular to the table 4. Adjust the length of the stroke, depth of cut and start the machine. 5. The feed is given to the table only after the completion of the return stroke. 6. Continue the process for all the sides until a block of required size is obtained. 7. Finally produce flat surface on one side according to the dimensions.

Precautions : 1. Marking should be done accurately. 2. Never attempt to remove the chips and reach across the feed in motion.
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3. Apply cutting fluids to the tool and the work piece properly. 4. Always feed will be given to the tool after the completion of return stroke only. Result :

Aim: To machine a spur gear to the given module and number of teeth in the given work piece

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Material Required : Cast iron / wooden block of size 50 mm diameter and 20 mm width Tools Required: Formed tooth cutter Universal dividing head Vernier Calipers Spanners of different sizes Accessories & Attatchments : Mandrel Universal dividing head Sequence Of Operations: Measuring Centering Fixing Indexing Milling Checking Calculations For Indexing : In simple indexing method the work piece periphery is divided into equal parts to generate similar spur gear teeth. To find the indexing crank movement, divide 40 by the number of dimensions required on the work. The formula for index crank movement is given by 1. Calculate the gear tooth proportions. Blank diameter = (z+2) m Tooth depth Tooth width = 2.25 m = 1.5708 m
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Where z = Number of teeth required m = Module 2. Indexing calculation Index crank movement = 40 / z Procedure: The dividing head and tail stock one bolted to the table. The cutter is mounted on arbor is then centered accurately by dividing head spindle axis by adjusting position of the table in transverse direction, the alignment of the cutter with the work checked by raising the table. The index plate with suitable number of holes selected and bolted to the dividing head. The position of the crankpin and sector arms are adjusted. First rhe table is raised till the cutter point touches the periphery of the work. Then the table is raised to the height equal to the tooth depth. Start the machine and give automatic feed by automatic feed mechanism to cut the first tooth of the gear. Stop the machine and change the position of the crank pin by simple indexing method. i.e., the work is indexing for machining the next tooth space. Repeat the steps 5 to 6 to generate complete spur gear. Precautions : The milling machine must be stopped before setting up or removing a work piece cutter. The cutter should be rotated on right direction only. The index crank must be rotated to the exact number of rotations. Result :

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MILLING MACHINE Introduction: A milling machine is a machine tool that removes the metal as the work is feed against a rotating multipoint cutter. The cutter rotates at a high speed and because of the multiple cutting edges it removes metal at a very fast rate. The machine can also hold one or more number of cutters at a time. This is superior to other machines as regards accuracy and better surface finish. Types of Milling Machine: The Milling Machine may be classified in several forms covering a wide range of work and capacities. There are some milling machines classified according to size and operation to be performed. They are: (1) Column and knee type (a) Hand milling machine (b) Plain milling machine (c) Universal milling machine (d) Omniversal milling machine (e) Vertical milling machine (2) Manufacturing or fixed bed type (a) Simplex Milling Machine (b) Duplex milling machine (c) Triplex milling machine (3) Planar type (4) Special type (a) Rotary table milling machine (b) Draw milling machine (c) Planetary milling machine (d) Pantograph, profiling and traces controlling machine Column and Knee Type: In this type, table is mounted on the knee-casting which in turn is maintained on the kneecasting on the vertical slides of the main column. The knee is vertically adjustable on the column so that the table can be moved up and down to accommodate work of various heights. The column and knee type milling machine are classified according to the various methods of supplying power to the table, different movements of table is supplied by hand control and is useful in machining, slots and grooves and keyways etc., In a plain milling machine the table may be fed in alongitudinal, cross or vertical direction. They are much rigid and sturdy. In case of Omniversal milling machine the table can be fitted in a vertical plane by providing a swivel arrangement at the knee. Also the entire knee assembly is mounted in such a way that it may be fed in a longitudinal direction horizontally. The table enables to machine taper spiral grooves in rearners, bevel gears etc., More ever this knee column type milling machine is mostly used shop work machine. In vertical Milling Machine the position of the spindle is vertical or perpendicular to the work table. Manufacturing or fixed bed type: These are comparatively large, heavy and rigid from column and knee type and differs in table construction. The table is maintained directly on the ways of fixed bed. The table movement is restricted to reciprocating at right angles to the spindle axis with no provision for cross or vertical adjustment. The name Simplex, Duplex and Triplex type indicates that the machine is provided with
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single, double and triple spindle heads respectively. In a duplex machine, the spindle heads are arranged one on each side of the table. In triplex type the third spindle is maintained on a cross rail. Planer Type: The planer miller as it is called is a massive machine built up for heavy duty work, having spindle heads adjustable in vertical, in transverse directions. It resembles a planar and like a planar rn/c, it has a cross rail capable of being raised or lowered carrying the cutters, their heads, and the saddles, all supported by rigid uprights. There may be a number of independent spindles carrying cutters on the rail as well as two heads on the uprights. This arrangement as independently driving multiple cutter spindles enables number of work surfaces to be machined simultaneously there by obtaining great reduction in production time. Special Type: Milling machines of non conventional design have been developed to suit special purposes. The features they have in common are the spindle for rotating the cutter and provision for moving the tool or the work in different directions. In special type milling machines there are rotary table machine. Drum milling machine, planetary milling machine, pantograph, profiling and tracer controlling milling machine. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Base: The base of the machine is a grey iron casting accurately machined on its top and bottom surface and serves as a foundation member for all the other parts which rest upon it. It carries the column at its one end. Column: It is maintained vertically upon the frame. Many mechanisms for the spindle and table feed are maintained on it. Front face has the guide ways for supporting the knee. Knee: It slides up and down on the vertical ways of the column face. The adjustment is effected by screw mechanism. The knee houses the feed mechanism of the table and different controls to operate it. Saddle: On the top of the knee is placed saddle, which slides on guide ways set exactly at 900 to the column face. A cross feed screw near the top of the knee engages a nut on the bottom of the saddle to move it horizontally, by a hand power for cross feed. Table: The table rests on ways of the saddle and travels longitudinally. Overhanging arm: Maintained on the top of the column extends beyond the column face and serves as a bearing support for the other end of the arbor. Arbor: An arbor may be considered as an extension of the machine spindle on which milling cutters are securely mounted and rotated, the arbors are made with taper shanks for proper alignment with the machine spindles having taper holes at their nose. Front brace:
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The front brace is an extra support that is fitted between the knee and the over arm to ensure further rigidity to the arbor and knee. Work holding devices: It is necessary that the work should be properly and securely held on the milling machine table for effective machining operations. Different types of work holding devices are o T-bolts and clamps o Angle plates o V-bolts o Vises : plain vise Swivel vise Universal vise o Special fixtures Cutter holding devices: There are several methods of supporting and rotating milling cutters with the machine spindle depending on the different designs of the cutters. The following are the different devices for holding and rotating cutters (1) Arbors (2) Collets (3) Adapters (4) Spring Collets (5) Bolted cutters (6) Screwed on cutters Milling Machine Attachments: The attachments are standard or special auxiliary devices intended to be fastened to or joined with one or more components of the milling machine for the purpose of augmenting the Range, Versatility, productivity or accuracy of operation. Some classes of milling machine attachments are used for positioning and driving the cutter by altering the cutter axis and speed, whereas other classes are used for positioning, holding and feeding the work along a specified geometric path. The following are the different attachments used on standard column and knee type milling machine. (1) Vertical milling attachment (2) Universal milling attachment (3) High speed milling attachment (4) Slotting attachment (5) Universal spiral milling attachment (6) Rack milling attachment (7) Circular milling attachment (8) Driving head attachment

Milling Cutters:
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The milling cutters are revolving tools having one or several cutting edges of identical form equally spaced on the circumference of the cutter. The cutting elements are called teeth, which intermittently engages the work piece and remove material by relative movement of the work piece and cutter. Milling cutters are classified as (1) According to the constructional features of the cutter (a) Solid cutter (b) Tipped Solid cutter (c) Inserted teeth cutter (2) According to the relief characteristics of cutter teeth (a) Profiler relieved cutter (b) Form relieved cutter (3) According to the methods of mounting the centre (a) Arbor type cutter (b) Shank type cutter (c) Facing type cutter . (4) According to the direction of rotation of cutter (a) Right hand rotational cutter (b) Left hand rotational cutter Milling Machine Operations: The following are the different operations pyramid in a milling machine. 1. Plain milling 2. Face milling 3. Side milling 4. Straddle milling 5. Angular milling 6. Gang milling 7. Form milling 8. Profile milling 9. End milling 10. Saw milling 11. Milling keyways, grooves and slots 12. Gear cutting 13. Helical milling 14. Cam milling 15. Thread milling 2. Precision Grinders (a) Cylindrical grinders (i) Centre type (plain) (ii) Centre-type (Universal) (iii) Centre less (b) Internal grinders (i) Chucking plain universal (ii) Planetary (iii) Centre less (c) Surface grinders
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(i) Reciprocating table Horizontal Spindle Vertical spindle (ii) Rotating table Horizontal spindle Vertical spindle (d) Tool and cutter grinders (i) Universal (ii) Special (e) Special grinding machines

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7. MILLING MACHINE Aim : To produce keyway slot in the given work piece by performing slotting operation using slotting machine. Material Required : Cast Iron block of 50 X 50 mm Tools Required : Steel rule, dot punch, ball peen hammer, surface gauge, scriber, vernier height gauge, v-block surface and H.S.S single point cutting tool. Sequence Of Operations : Measuring Marking Punching Fixing Machining Checking Procedure : Place the workpiece on the surface plate to mark the square of required size using surface gauge, scriber and steel rule. Convert Scriber lines into the dots using dot punch and ball peen hammer. The tool is fixed on the tool post such that the tool movement should be exactly perpendicular to the table. Adjust the length of the stroke, depth of cut and start the machine. The feed is given to the table only after the completion of the return stroke. Continue the process for all the sides until a block of required size is obtained. Finally make a keyway on one side according to the dimensions.

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Precautions : 1. Marking should be done accurately. 2. Never attempt to remove the chips and reach across the feed in motion. 3. Apply cutting fluids to the tool and the work piece properly. 4. Always feed will be given to the tool after the completion of return stroke only. Result :

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SURFACE GRINDING Introduction: Grinding is a metal cutting operation performed by means of a abrasive wheel that acts as cutting tool. This is used to finish work pieces which are showing a high surface quality, accuracy of shape and dimension. In grinding operation a little metal 0.25 to 0.5 mm with an accuracy of order 0.00025 mm can be obtained columns and status were shaped and finished with a globular stone which abraded the surface. Types of Grinding: Grinding is done on surfaces of almost all conceivable shapes and mat dials of all kinds. Grinding may be classified broadly into two groups. 1. Rough or non-precision grinding 2. Precision grinding Rough Grinding: The common forms of rough grinding are snagging and off hand working where the work is held in the operators hand. The work is pressed hold against the wheel or vice-versa. The accuracy and surface finish is obtained are of secondary importance.
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Precision Grinding: This is concerned with producing good surface finish and high degree of accuracy. The wheel or work both are guided in precise paths. Grinding in accordance with the type of surface to the ground is classified as. External cylindrical grinding Internal cylindrical grinding Surface grinding Form grinding Types of Grinding Machines: According to the quality of surface finish grinding machines are classified as. 1. Rough Grinders (a) Floor stand and bench grinders (b) Portable and flexible shaft grinders (c) Swing frame grinders (d) Abrasive belt grinders (2) According to the direction of helix of the cutter teeth (a) Parallel or straight teeth cutter (b) Right hand helical cutter (c) Left hand helical cutter (d) Alternate helical teeth cutter (3) According to the purpose of use of the cutter (a) Standard milling cutter (b) Special milling cutter Rough Grinders: A floor-stand grinder as a horizontal spindle with wheels usually at both ends and is maintained on a base or pedestal. A motor at floor level drives the wheel spindle through a belt. A flexible shaft grinder has the grinding wheel on the end of a long flexible shaft a motor on a relatively station from widely separated areas. The swing frame type grinder has a horizontal frame about 2 to 3 m long suspended at its centre of gravity so as to move freely within the area of operation. This machine is moved around with a job crane suspended from columns or by mobile units. Cylindrical Centre-less Grinder: Centre-less grinding is a method of grinding exterior cylindrical, tapered and formed surfaces on work pieces that are not held and rotated on centers. The work is placed upon the work rest, and the lather, together with regulating wheel, is fed forward, forcing the work against the grinding wheel is feed forward centre-less grinding may be done in one of the three ways. Through feed In feed End feed Some advantages of centre-less grinding are: 1. As a true floating conditions exists during the grinding process, less metal to be removed. 2. The process is continuous and adopted for production work 3. The size of the work is easily controlled.
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Disadvantages: Work having un-multiple diameters is not easily handled. Cylindrical Centre type grinder: These are primarily intended for grinding plain cylindrical parts also for grinding controlled cylinders, tapers, faces & Shoulders, fillets and even cams and crankshafts. In this type work piece is held between dead centers and by rotating by a dog and driver on the face plate. In this (1) The work must revolve 2) The wheel must revolve (3) The work must pass the wheel (4) The wheel must pass the work, The main feature in this type is that the operation may be stopped automatically. The range of speed for works is 20 to 30 s.m.p.m (surface speed in rn/rn) Plain centre type grinder: A plain grinding machine is essentially a lathe on which a grinding wheel has been substituted for the single point tool: It consists of following parts. Base: The base is the main casting that rests on the floor and supports the parts mounted on it. On the top of the base are precision horizontal ways set at right angles for the table to slide on. Table: These are lower and upper type. The lower table slides on ways on the bedand provides traverse of the work past the grinding wheel. The upper block (table) has T-s!ots for securing the head stock and tail stock or float stock and can be positioned along the table to suit the length of the work. Head stock: The head stock supports the work piece by means of a dead centre and drives it by means of a dog, as it may hold and drive in a work piece. TaIl Stock: This may adjusted and clamped in various positions to accommodate different lengths of work piece. Wheel head: It carries a grinding wheel and its driving motor is mounted on a slide at the top and rear of the base. It may be removed perpendicular to the table ways. Cross feed: The grinding wheel is fed to the work by hand or power as cross feed control. In this type of the operation may be stopped automatically when the work piece has been finished to the size. In one method it uses an automatic calipee type ganging attachment to measure the work piece and stop the operation at the proper time. Surface Grinder: Surface grinding machines are employed to finish plane or flat surfaces. Also capable of grinding irregular, curved, tapered, convene and concave surfaces. The two classes are: One has reciprocating tables for work tables for continuous rapid grinding. In an horizontal type of grinding machine, grinding is normally done on the periphery of the wheel the area of contact is small and the speed is uniform over the grinding surface. Small grain wheels can be used and the finest finishes obtained the different types are.

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Horizontal spindle reciprocating table Horizontal spindle rotary label Vertical spindle reciprocating table Vertical spindle rotary table Tool and cutter Grinder: Tool and cutter grinders used mainly to sharpen and recondition multiple tooth cutters like reamers, milling cutters, drills, laps, knobs and other type of tools used in the snap with various attachments. They can also do light surface, cylindrical and internal grinding to finish such items as figs, fixtures, die and gauge details and shaper single point tools. They are two types 1. Universal tool and cutter grinders: They are particularly intended for sharpening of miscellaneous cutters. 2. Single-purpose grinders: These are used for grinding tools such as drills, tool- bits etc., in large production plates where large amounts of grinding tools such as drills, work is necessary to keep production. Tools can be ground uniformly and with accurate cutting angles. Work holding devices and attachments: The work holding devices and attachments cover a wide range and include the following. Work holding and supporting devices Equipment of contain grinding Attachments to improve grinding results Measuring and sizing devices

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Aim : To prepare a flat surface 100 x 60 x 7 mm by using the surface grinding machine Equipment Required : Surface grinder, Coolant Material Required : 100 x 60 x 10 mm Mild steel plate Sequence of Operations : Measuring Marking Fixing Surface Grinding Checking Procedure : Remove turns and any projection on the flat plate by filling on the one side of the plate for accurate location of the work piece with respective to the given grinding wheel on the chuck. After filing place the work piece on the magenetic table and operate the level such that because rigidly magnetization of that table surface the work piece rigidly held on the table. Start the machine and also switch on the coolant pump. Initially by adjusting the wheel head by using down feed handle make the wheel just in contact with the work piece. After contact with the work piece give the required depth by adjusting wheel head. Then give the longitudinal feed for removing the material along the length of work piece After the material is removed along the length of work give cross feed to the new surface along the width of work piece such that overall width of work piece should be machined. After finishing the surface on one side of the plate stop the machine and move the table to the extreme positon of the longitudinal travel to the clear of the grinding wheel and demagnetizing the table Then repeat the steps 3-7 to finish the next side also Then both sides of work piece finished by surface grinder Check whether the required thickness is obtained or not by using vernier calipers Stop the machine and coolant pump.
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Precautions : Check whether the coolant flows to the cutting zone. Do not operate the magnetic table lever during grinding operation Check whether the work piece on magnetic table rigidly clamped or not before starting the grinding operation. Result:

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