Sleep physiology and disorder

Is a recurrent, altered state of consciousness that occurs for sustained periods, restoring physical health and mental well being. It is a sensory experience and can be selective

Why do we sleep?  .

Sleep cycle  REM Rapid eye movement  NREM Non-rapid eye movement .

but brain rarely commands to  Low temperature & energy consumption  Heart rate.Non-REM sleep  Reduced body  Minimal movement – body capable of movement. respiration & kidney function slow down  Increased digestive process muscle tension through out .

Non.duration 5-15 minutes  Stage 3 . lightest stage. .duration 20-40 minutes .eye movements almost stop .REM sleep stages  Stage 1 – transitional sleep.large amplitude slow rhythms no eye or body movements  Stage 4 – deepest stage .eyes make slow rolling movements duration few minutes  Stage 2 – slightly deeper .

REM sleep       Dreaming period EEG almost indistinguishable from that of an active brain High oxygen consumption Increased and irregular heart & respiration rates Muscle atony exception: muscles controlling eye movements & tiny muscles in inner ear respiratory muscles barely operate eyes occasionally dart rapidly back & forth Body temperature drops .

temperaturefluctuating. . Adenosine is created over the course of the day. Homeostatic sleep propensity (the need for sleep as a function of the amount of time elapsed since the last adequate sleep episode) must be balanced against the circadian element for satisfactory sleep. enzyme-controlling device—works in tandem with adenosine. high levels of adenosine lead to sleepiness. The circadian clock—an inner timekeeping. a neurotransmitter that inhibits many of the bodily processes associated with wakefulness.Timing   Sleep timing is controlled by the circadian clock sleep-wake homeostasis.

5 to 9.Optimal amount in humans        Newborns (0–2 months)12 to 18 hours Infants (3–11 months)14 to 15 hours Toddlers (1–3 years)12 to 14 hours Preschoolers (3–5 years)11 to 13 hours School-age children (5–10 years)10 to 11 hours Adolescents (10–17 years)8.25 hours Adults. including elderly7 to 9 hours .

smoking) . Developmental—Lifespan Considerations Psychological Stress Motivation Desire  Anxiety  Depression  3.…overcome sleepiness  Opposite can occur also Shift work Dietary Habits (caffein. Life style   to stay awake .FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEP 1. 2.. 4.

Decongestants.less NREM Respiratory conditions…congestion Need to urinate Temperature increases. Medication     Antidepressants—supress REM Narcotics--. Illnesses      . less NREM and REM Discomfort from restricted movement 6.supress REM Heart medications—nightmares..4. Antiparkinsonian can disrupt Hypothyroidism…. insomnia Some Steroids.

5hrs of sleep/24hrs Most patients with insomnia have daytime effects of the disturbed nighttime sleep such as fatigue.Sleep disorder 1. difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. irritability or inability to concentrate.   . tiredness.  Insomnia It is a term applied to people who have a complaint of un-refreshing sleep. Also defined as less than 5.

kidney problems or alcoholism. diet may play a role in it.     Nocturnal Myoclonus – “Restless leg syndrome” Urge to walk .irritating ache or ― creepy feeling‖ in calves and thighs Common in elderly It may be associated with nerve damage in the legs due to diabetes.2. Stress. .

 Primary Snoring : also known as simple snoring.3. snoring without sleep apnea rhythmical snoring and continous snoring is characterized by loud upper airway breathing sounds in sleep without episodes of apnea (cessation of breath).  .

Hypersomnia  Excessive sleep especially during the day  Medical condition or frequently a coping mechanism to avoid a problem 4. .

5.     Narcolepsia Is a chronic neurological disorder caused by the brain's inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally It’s usually accompanied by Cataplexy(sudden and transient episode of loss of muscle tone) A person with narcolepsy is likely to become drowsy or fall asleep or just be very tired throughout the day Patients with narcolepsy can be substantially helped. but not cured .

vivid visual and or auditory imagines Parasomnia . .6.Some disruptive event occurs during specific sleep periods and/or transitions.inability to move especially the limbs durring sleep Hallucinations . Sleep paralysis . 8. 7.

Individual is generally unresponsive to attempts to be comforted and when finally awake. Sleep Terror Disorder : Occurs both among children and adults.Nightmare Disorder: Usually begins in children between the age of 3 and 6. . Individual experiences repeated episodes of abrupt awakening during the first third of a sleep cycle. It can persist into adulthood. The individual experiences repeated awakenings with detailed recall of frightening dreams. 10. Individual awakes with a scream and physiological symptoms similar to those of a panic attack. no memory of the dream. Episodes generally occur during second half of sleep period. 11.

Very difficult to awake and no memory of the incident. Initial onset of sleepwalking in adulthood is unusual. .Sleepwalking Disorder: Begins in childhood and ends during adolescence. Involves the client getting up and walking around. usually during the first third of the sleep cycle. 12. Non-rapid eye movement sleep. 9 January 2013. 10 January 2013 http://en.Bibliography        Consciousness.webmd. http://en. http://en.< Rapid eye movement sleep.wikipedia. 01 February 2011. 15 January 2013. > . 17 January Sleep. http://en.wikipedia. WebMD. http://en. 17 January Restless Legs Syndrome Factors Affecting Sleep.videojug.

wikipedia.html Sleep terror Sleep and Hypersomnia.http://www. WebMD. 10 January 2013. http://en.webmd.minddisorders.minddisorders.html Sleep Disorders Health Center. 17 January 2013. http://en.15 October Nightmare disorder. . 28 July 2012 .com/sleep-disorders/guide/hypersomnia Narcolepsy.      Snoring.wikipedia.

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