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Anatomical definition:It is a pelvis in which one or more of its
main diameters are reduced below average normal by one or more
Obstetric definition:It is a pelvis in which one or more of its
main diameters are reduced to the extent that interferes with the
.normal mechanism of labour
:Factors which affect the shape and the size of the pelvis
Several factors contribute to affect the shape and size of the human pelvis,
,developmental factors
,)sexual factors )male or female
,).racial factors )dark and white, Caucasians and Africans, etc
,)nutritional factors )lack of calcium and proteins
.)and metabolic diseases )as rickets and osteomalacia
:Causes in the pelvic bone
:)Developmental causes )Abnormal shape
Small gynaecoid )generally contracted pelvis), small android,
small anthropoid, and small flat platypelloid pelvis )simple
.)non-rachitic pelvis

:Diseases of the pelvic bones and joints

:Metabolic diseases
Rickets; resulting into flat rachitic pelvis and generally
.contracted pelvis
Osteomalacia:.)resulting into )triradiate pelvis

.Fractures of the pelvic bones

.Tumours of the pelvic bones

.Diseases of the pelvic joints e.g.: T.B

:Causes in the spine
,Dorso-lumbar scoliosis
,Lumbar Kyphosis
.and Spondylolisthesis
:Causes in the lower limbs
.Dislocation of one or both femurs
.Atrophy of one or both lower limbs
.Unilateral fracture or tumour
.)Unilateral lower limb disease )poliomyelitis

Bad obstetric historysuggestive of contracted pelvis
.).Prolonged labour ending in C.S, fetal birth injury, or still birth )S.B
.Difficult forceps ending in S.B. or fetal birth injury

.History of trauma or disease of pelvis, spine or lower limbs

Height:Short stature < 150 cm, is commonly associated*
.with a contracted pelvis
Gait:abnormal gait suggestive of diseases of the lower *
.limb or spines
Stigmata of old rickets:as square head, pigeon chest, *
costal rosary, Harrison’s sulcus, spine deformities and
.bow legs
Dystrophia dystocia syndrome:Short, obese, muscular *
appearance, male distribution of hair; may have an
.)android pelvis )favouring occipito-posterior position
Spines:for deformities in the spines )scoliosis or *
Lower limb: .for abnormalities *
for evidence suggesting contracted pelvis
.Malpresentations; as face, brow, breech and transverse lie

Non engagement of the fetal head in the last 3 or 4 weeks in a

:External Pelvimetry
External pelvimetry at the inlet:it has a little significance
.as it actually measures the diameters of the false pelvis

:External Pelvimetry at the outlet

Sub-pubic angle:direct palpation of the ischio-pubic rami
.))normally obtuse in females
Bituberous diameter:Roughly admits the 4 knuckles of the closed
.)fist or measured by the pelvimeter )11 cm
Anterior and posterior sagittal diameters:Measured by Thom's

NB: Thom’s dictum:The sum of the bituberous and posterior

sagittal diameters must exceed 15 cm to allow an average
sized head to pass through the pelvic outlet provided that the
.bituberous diameter is more than 8 cm
:Internal Pelvimetry
It is done through a P.V. examination, at 38 weeks during ANC, or during early
:labour. The following diameters should be assessed
:Diagonal conjugate )1
Between the lower border of the symphysis pubis and the promontory of the
Normally the diagonal conjugate is 12.5 cm )1.5 cm > true conjugate), and by
subtracting 1.5 cm from the diagonal conjugate the length of the true
.conjugate can be evaluated
.Normally the sacral promontory is not easily felt or reached
.To measure the diagonal conjugate the head must be not engaged
Palpation of the sacrum: )2 normally it is concave with smooth concavity from
.)above downwards and from side to side )there is no sudden bent
Palpation of the sidewalls of the pelvis: )3 .normally it is not converging
Estimation of the width of the Sacro sciatic notch: )4 normally it accommodates
.2 fingers
Palpation of the ischial spines: )5 normally it is not felt when opening the index
)and middle fingers at the same time )not jutting
Palpation of the sub pubic angle: )6 .normally it accommodates 2 fingers
Lateral view X ray and C.T. scan pelvimetry can assess pelvic
diameters, but nowadays is rarely needed. )e.g.; if vaginal
.)breech delivery is attempted
.It is the most commonly used method
It can assess the size of the fetal head by use of the following
)Biparietal diameter, ) BPD
)Occipto-frontal diameter )OFD
.)Head circumference )HC
It depends upon the fact that “The head is the best pelvimeter for the
Timing: These tests are especially important in a primigravida with
.unengaged head after 36 weeks
:Pinard’s method
The patient is put in the semi-sitting position with the bladder empty, to bring
.the foetus in the axis of the pelvic inlet
The operator right hand is placed over the symphysis pubis and the left hand
grasps the fetal head and try to push it downwards and backwards in the
The fingers of the right hand placed over the symphysis pubis can determine
.the degree of disproportion
:Muller-Kerr method
.The patient is put in the dorsal position, with the bladder empty
The index and the middle fingers of the right hand are put in the vagina to
perform the steps of the internal pelvimetry and to detect the station of
.the head in the pelvis
The thumb of the right hand is put over the symphysis pubis to determine
.the presence of any disproportion and its degree
The head is grasped by the left hand and is pushed downwards into the
No disproportion:. if the head can be pushed into the pelvis

: Moderate disproportion))1st degree disproportion

The head does not enter the pelvis and is nearly at the same level of the anterior surface
.of the symphysis pubis
Vaginal delivery may or may not occur depending upon the undetermined factors of
.)labour )moulding of the head and yielding of the pelvis

: Marked disproportion))2nd degree disproportion

.The head overrides the anterior surface of the symphysis
Usually found in cases with.marked degree of contracted pelvis
.Vaginal delivery cannot occur

Prolonged labour and slow dilatation of the cervix )abnormal progress of *

.Premature rupture of membranes and prolapse of cord *
.)Obstructed labour )may end in rupture of the uterus *
.Higher incidence of instrumental and operative delivery *
.)Postpartum haemorrhage )due to atony and lacerations *
.)Maternal infection )prolonged labour and instrumental delivery *
.Necrotic genitourinary fistula *
.Rarely, injury of the joints or nerves from difficult instrumental delivery *

:Fetal birth injuries *

,Intra-cranial haemorrhage
,fractures of the skull
..nerve injuries, etc

.Intrapartum and neonatal asphyxia *

.Prolapse of the cord, due to the high non engaged presenting part *

.Intra-amniotic infection, due to the prolonged early spontaneous ROM *

Decision-making: Before allowing labour to continue, early exclusion of
indications for C.S. is mandatory: e.g.; Malpresentations, Placenta previa,
…Uterine scar of s previous CS or myomectomy, Elderly primigravida etc

:Management according to the degree of CPD

Moderate degree of cephalo-pelvic disproportion *
.)Trial of labour )TOL) in selected cases )see case selection
.C.S. trial of labour is failed or contraindicated
Marked degree of cephalo-pelvic disproportion *
.CS if the foetus is living
.Craniotomy for dead foetus
(Trial of labour (TOL

It is a test of the undeterminable factors of labour in moderate

:degree of CPD. It is affected by
Mouldingof the head and
Yielding. of the pelvis
Efficiency of uterinecontractions and
Dilatation.of the cervix
:Selection of cases for trial of labour
Young healthy primigravida, with a cephalic presentation and
.moderate degree disproportion
Cases with bad obstetric history, marked outlet contraction, and post-
.maturity are better excluded
:Conduct of trial of labour
.It must be in a hospital with available facilities for CS
Proper management of the 1st stage of labour
Proper assessment of the progress of labour by the use of
.Proper and adequate analgesia to avoid maternal exhaustion

A successful TOL ends by engagement of the head and vaginal

.A failed TOL ends by reverting to a C.S
:Termination of TOL by CS is indicated in cases of

.Occurrence of fetal or maternal distress

.Failed progress of labour as evidenced by a well monitored partogram

:Indications of Caesarean section in contracted pelvis
.Marked disproportion if the foetus is living *
.Moderate disproportion if trial of labour is contraindicated or fails *
.Markedly contracted outlet *
.Contracted pelvis in elderly primigravida *
Contracted pelvis associated with complications as malpresentations, *
.or placenta praevia
:”Contracted outlet: ”Funnel pelvis

Definition: it is a variant of contracted pelvis in which the bituberous diameter *

.is 8 cm or less
Features:The pelvic capacity is reduced from above downward. The pelvis *
is narrow and deep, Sidewalls are converging, Transverse diameter of the
.outlet is reduced, A.P. diameter of the outlet is reduced
Mechanism of labour: Extreme flexion and moulding occurs at the outlet *
with backwards displacement of the fetal head. N.B.; Contraction of the outlet
.interferes with long anterior rotation in O.P. positions
:Management *
According to “Thom’s dictum”, when the sum of the bituberous and the
posterior sagittal diameters is > 15 cm, the bituberous is > 8 cm and the sub-
pubic angle is not very narrow: a generous episiotomy is performed and low
.forceps may be applied
If the sum of the bituberous and the posterior sagittal is <15 cm C.S. is