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‫ﺑﻘﻠﻢ‬

‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﺎﺯﻣﻮﻝ‬

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‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﳓﻤﺪﻩ ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻩ ﻭﻧﻌﻮﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﺭ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﻬﺪﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻼ ﻣﻀﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻀﻠﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻫﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[١٠٢:‬‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹼﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ‪‬ﺗﻤ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇ ﹼﻻ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺲ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ﱠ‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ﹴ‬
‫ﺱ ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﱠﻟ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺂ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺗﺴ‪‬ﺂ َﺀﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﻗﻴ‪‬ﺒﹰﺎ‬
‫ﹺﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﻻ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﻴ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹺﻧﺴ‪‬ﺂ ًﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﱠﻟ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬
‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[١:‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹼﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﻻ ‪‬ﺳﺪ‪‬ﻳﺪﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻄﻊﹺ ﺍﻟﹼﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺯﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴﻤﹰﺎ ]ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.[٧١-٧٠:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪ ‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎﺑﻌﺪ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺔ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹲﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪﺛﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟﹸﺄﻣ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻗﺼﺪﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﲰﻴﺘﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺷﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺴﻤﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻭﺧﺎﲤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﺮﻗﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻠﻪ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﹰﺎ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺯﻗﲏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﹰﺎ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺩﺍﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﺎﺯﻣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻣﺔ ـ ﺹ‪.‬ﺏ ‪٧٢٦٩‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻣﺮﺗﺒﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ )ﻗﻠﺐ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎﺩﺓ "ﻕ‪.‬ﻝ‪.‬ﺏ" ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﺻﻼﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﻥ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺩ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﲰ‪‬ﻴﺖ ﻗﻠﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻬﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺭﺿﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻔﺮﺕ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻃﻮﻳﺖ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﻮﻯ ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﳛﺘﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪.(١٧/٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﲟﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‪" :‬ﺟﺎﻩ" ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ "ﻭﺟﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭ "ﺃﻳﺲ"‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ "ﻳﺄﺱ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ "ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ" ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ "ﺷﻲﺀ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ‬
‫"ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ" ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ "ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ" ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺹ‪.٣٤١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﰲ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ‪" :‬ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ"‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳜﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ‪.‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﺄﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﺎ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﲤﹰﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺠ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺱ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺼﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺩ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮ ﺃﱐ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺳﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻓﺪﻳﺖ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﱄ‬

‫ﻏﺪﺍﺓ ﻏﺪﺍ ﲟﻬﺠﺘﻪ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺁﻟﻮﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻃﻴﻖ‬

‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪" :‬ﻓﺪﻳﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻲ" ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ‪" ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻃﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﺒﻬﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺒﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺒﻬﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺹ‪٥٥٣‬ـ‪.٥٥٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﺒﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ )‪ ،(٣٢٧/١‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺹ‪.٣٢٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ )ﺕ‪٣٨٨‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ )‪١٣٧/٢‬ـ‪ :(١٣٨‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺴﺮﻩ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ‪ ...‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺍﺷﻐﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﳍﺠﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﲣﺬﻭﻩ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺯﻳﻨﺔ‪".‬ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺎﰊ )‪ .(٣٥٧/١‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ )‪" :(٤٠٤/١‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻭﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺃﺣﻖ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺴﺮﻩ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺛﲑ )ﺕ‪٦٠٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ )‪٣٢٥/٢‬ـ‪ " ":(٣٢٦‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺻ‪‬ﻮﺍﺗ‪‬ﻜﻢ" ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻘﹾﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪‬ﺯﻳ‪‬ﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗ‪‬ﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﹸﺮﺁﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺠ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﻘ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺗﺰ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﹶﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﹸﺮﺁﻥ"ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﻠﻬﺞ ﺑﹺﺘﻼﻭﺗﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻬﺞ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻐ‪‬ﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫‪‬ﺗﻄﹾﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﺤ‪‬ﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻟﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﺮ‪‬ﺏ‪ .‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﺮ‪‬ﻭﻯ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﱠﺎﰊ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﻠﹼﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ!‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )ﺕ‪٦٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﻮﺍﻥ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﳓﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ]ﻫﻮ[ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ]ﺟﻌﻞ[ ﻣﱳ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﱳ ﳌﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺮﻭﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻈﻤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٦٧٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ )ﺕ‪٧٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ )ﺕ‪٧٧٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ )ﺕ‪٨٠٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ )‪.(٦‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺟﺮﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﳌﺜﺎﻝ)‪ ،(٧‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻧﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻼ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﳊﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﺎﹰ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٩١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪.(٢٩١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻄﻴﻒ ﺹ‪.٥٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٧٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.٨٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﰲ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ "ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮﺓ" ﻟﻪ )‪. (٢٨٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣـﺠﺮ )‪.(٨٦٤/٢‬‬

‫‪٩‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻣﱳ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎ‪" :‬ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ")‪ (١‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻏﻔﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ)‪ (٢‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻗﺼﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﰲ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ)‪ ...(٣‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‪) :‬ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎ(‪".‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ! ﻭﻋﻠﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺼﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺴ‪‬ﻤﻮﺍ )ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ( ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﺎﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﲏ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﻫﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﻮﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪١١٩٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﻗﻠﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٧‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻜﻨﻮﻱ )ﺕ‪١٣٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭ]ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ[ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫]ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﱳ[ ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺳﻜﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ]ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﱳ[ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٠٣١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.٩١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.١٠٠٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺹ‪ ،١٠٠٤‬ﻭﻧﺺ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ‬
‫ﺃﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﻟﻪ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٤٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣١٩/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﺣﻮﺍﺷﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﱐ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻘﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺹ‪٦٤‬ـ‪.٦٥‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮﻭﺍ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻖ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﹰﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻣﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﻭﺟﻠﹼﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﺻﺮﳛﹰﺎ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﱳ)‪(٢‬ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﺎﻥ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻇﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﱐ ﺹ‪.٤٠٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺇﻻ ﻛﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )ﺕ‪٢٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ )ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻠﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،(٣٢٥/٦‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻌﻨـﻲ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ﺳﻬﻤﲔﹺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﹰﺎ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪" :‬ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻛﺜـ ‪‬ﲑ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎﻓ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺱ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺸ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺـ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺫﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭ ﹺﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ﺳﻬﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﲔ ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﺱ ﺳﻬﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳـ ﹺﻢ‪ :‬ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﲰ ‪‬ﻊ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻔﺮ ﹺ‬
‫ﻆ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﺤ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻢ ﻓـﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪ ‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻟـﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻛﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﺻﺮﳛﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٣٦٠‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﳕﻴـﺮ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﱳ! ﻭﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﻴـﺮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﲟﱳ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﺼﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ ﲰﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳚﻌﻞ ﷲ ﻧﺪﹰﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳚﻌﻞ ﷲ ﻧﺪﹰﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ"ﺍﻫـ ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )ﺕ‪٤٥٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪٤٨/٢‬ـ‪ ،(٤٩‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺃﺗﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ! ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺈﻳﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ!‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫‪٥‬ـ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﲔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳌﱳ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﳌﱳ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﲔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﱳ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻓﻜﻤﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﳘﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺒﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺯﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺟﻠﹼﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗـﻄﲏ ﰲ ﻏﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﱳ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ...‬ﺍﱁ" ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﰲ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ؛ ﻣﻜﺘﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻠﻪ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﲟﺜﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺸﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ )ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﲑﻱ( )ﺕ‪٧٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﳏﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ )‪ ،(١٠٠/٢‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﻴﺴﲑ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪ ،١٠٨‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻘﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺹ‪.١٦١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻬﻞ! ﺇﺫ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺹ‪" :٢٣٦‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺣﻲ ﰲ ﻏﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﻴﺚ ﺹ‪ ،٩٠‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣـﺠﺮ )‪.(٨٦٥/٢‬‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﹰﺎ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﻓﲑﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻃﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻺﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﰲ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ؛ ﻣﻜﺘﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﻨﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻣﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻣﺜﻞ‪" :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ" ﺑـ "ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ"‪ ،‬ﻭ "ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎﻥ" ﺑـ "ﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ""ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﲟﺜﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻣﺜﻞ‪" :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ" ﺑـ "ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ"‪ ،‬ﻭ "ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎﻥ" ﺑـ "ﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﺘﲔ ﺫﻛﺮﳘﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﺐ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ )ﺕ‪٧٩٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺹ‪.٢٣٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪.٦٠‬‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﳌﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻘﹼﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﺖ ﻟﻚ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﲢﺖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪" :‬ﻭ ]ﻫﻮ[ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ]ﺟﻌﻞ[ ﻣﱳ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﱳ ﳌﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﱳ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻫﻨﺎ!‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺑﻞ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ( ﻳﺒﲔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺗﻌﻘﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ؟‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﳓﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ" ﻷﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﳌﹼﺎ ﻗﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻤﻴﺰﻫﺎ!‬
‫ﻓﻜﺄﻥ ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ـ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻓﺄﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺫﺍﻙ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﻜﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )‪.(٢٩٩/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻟﻠﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ )‪.(٣٠٥/٢‬‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫‪٣‬ـ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺗﻪ ؛ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻘﻦ )ﺕ‪٨٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﳘﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﺭﺣﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻟﻴﻖ ﺑﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﳑﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺷﺎﻣ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﺮﺟﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٨١٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﳓﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺣﲔ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٨٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﱪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺮﻕ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ‬

‫ﺳـﺎﱂ‬

‫ﻳﺄﰐ‬

‫ﰒ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺫﺍ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻘﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺮ ﺹ‪.٥٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﳉﺮﺟﺎﱐ ﺹ‪.٩٢‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‬

‫ﻟﲑﻏﱭ‬

‫ﺫﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬

‫ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻥ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭﺱ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ‬

‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ‬

‫ﰲ‬

‫ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬

‫ﳚﺐ‬

‫ﺳﻬﻤﲔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺱ‬

‫ﻟﻴﻞ‬

‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻊ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌ ‪‬ﺰ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻔﻆ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭ‬

‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬

‫ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﻨﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺧﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺒﻞ‬

‫ﲨﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺼﻠﱢﻲ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻊ)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻫﻲ‪" :‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﱳ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﱳ ﳌﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ" ‪ ،‬ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻭﱃ ‪‬ﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻻ ﻣﺸﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻓﻴﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻓﻴﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺲ")‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﲰ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ"‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻟﻠﻤﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻘﻴﲏ )ﺕ‪٨٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﺃﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﺰﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ ﳌﺎ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﻨﺎ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )‪٣٣٩/١‬ـ‪.(٣٤٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٣٤٣/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ )ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ( ﺹ‪.١٠٠٤‬‬

‫‪١٦‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﲤﻴ‪‬ﺰ ﻋﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺗﻮﺿﺤﻪ ﻭﺗﺒﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺰﺍﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻣﺜﻞ‪" :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ" ﺑـ "ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ"‪ ،‬ﻭ "ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎﻥ" ﺑـ "ﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٨٤٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﺴﺎﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﳓﻮ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ...‬ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﱳ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﱳ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ)‪ :(١‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺷﺎﻣ ﹰ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﳍﺎ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻣﺜﻞ‪" :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ" ﺑـ "ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ"‪ ،‬ﻭ "ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎﻥ" ﺑـ "ﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻛﺬﺍ ! ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ )‪ ،(١٠٥/٢‬ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ )‪٩٨/٢‬ـ‪.(١٠٦‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻧﻈﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(١‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺃﻱ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻛــ "ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌــﺐ" ﻭ"ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ"؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ")‪ .(٢‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﻝ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺷﺮﻃﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻼ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻻ ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻟﻺﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻏﻠﻄﹰﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﰲ ﳏﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻞ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻔﺮﻗﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ؛ ﻓﺎﳌﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ"‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﲔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ "ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻛــ‬
‫"ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌــﺐ" ﻭ"ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ"‪ ،‬ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ" ﻣﻊ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ")‪(٤‬ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻼ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻛﻠﻪ( ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻻ ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻟﻺﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻘﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻮ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻏﻠﻄﹰﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫"ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ" ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ( )‪.(٨٦٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻭﻧﺺ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٤٦/٢‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺷﺮﺡ ﳔﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺹ‪.١٠٢ ،١٠١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱰﻫﺔ ﺹ‪.١٠١‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫‪٤‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬
‫ﻼ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺄﰐ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺷﺎﻣ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪٥‬ـ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻁ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻭﻏﻠﻄﹰﺎ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺳﺒﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ـ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪":‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﻝ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺷﺮﻃﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ‬
‫ﻼ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻏﻠﻄﹰﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻻ ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻟﻺﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺰﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻳﻬﺎﻡ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻨﺒﻬﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ‬
‫ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ـ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﺺ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻭﳘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻗﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ( ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻊ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻧﻈﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻛــ "ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌــﺐ" ﻭ"ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ"؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻓﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻨﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺭ )‪.(٨٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺷﺮﺡ ﳔﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺹ‪.١٠٢ ،١٠١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ( )‪.(٨٦٤/٢‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻬﻮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺻﻄﻼﺡ "ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ"‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﰲ "ﺍﻟﱰﻫﺔ"‬
‫ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻠﻲ"‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻋﲔ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﲪﻠﻪ ﻟﺸﺮﻩ‬
‫ﻭﳏﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﳑﻦ ﺭﻕ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻛﻤﻦ ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻋﻲ ﲰﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﺗﻌﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ! ﻓﺎﺳﻢ "ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ" ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺷﺮﻃﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ )ﺕ‪٩١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻗﺮ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻐﺮﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺟﺘﱮ‬
‫ﻧﻈﲑﻩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻵﺧﺮ ﻭ ﻋﻜﺴﻪ ﺇﻏﺮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬

‫ﳑﺘﺤﻨﹰﺎ ﻛﺄﻫﻞ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﺣﻜﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻪ)‪(٢‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪ .(٨٥٢/٢‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﻮﺭﻱ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺷﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﱐ ﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻘﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺹ‪ ،٦٥‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﻛﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺻﻼ ﻓﻮﺿﻌﻪ ﳌﱳ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻗﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﺻﻄﻼﺣﻬﻢ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻜﺴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺳﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻗﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲢﺖ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻼ ﺣﱴ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﻮﻓﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﺹ‪.٦٩‬‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻪ" ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﺗﻪ ﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ "ﻻﲢﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻧﹰﺎ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻏﲑﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺻﺪﻗﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻫﻴﺐ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ )ﺕ‪٨٧٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﲑﻏﺒﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻐﺮﺍﺑﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳜﺘﱪ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ]ﻣﻊ[ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ]ﳌﹼﺎ[ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳏﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺠﻲ )ﺕ‪٨٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﰒ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ..‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪" :‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ")‪ .(٤‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻓﺤﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.٨٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺟﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺹ‪٧٩‬ـ‪ ٨٠‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﻳﺴﲑ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺹ‪١٣٦‬ـ‪.١٣٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣١٨/١‬‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫ﻟﻶﺧﺮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ!‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﱳ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﲔ ﰲ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‪" :‬ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ" ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ!‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٩‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﱳ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ )ﺕ‪٩١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻗﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻐﺮﺑﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻈﲑﻩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻵﺧﺮ ﻭ ﻋﻜﺴﻪ ﺇﻏﺮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺟﺘﱮ‬
‫ﳑﺘﺤﻨﹰﺎ ﻛﺄﻫﻞ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﺣﻜﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٨/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﻢ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٢٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﺹ‪.٦٩‬‬

‫ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻪ)‪(٣‬‬

‫‪٢٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬

‫ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ‪" :‬ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻨﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٢٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻵﰐ ]ﰲ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ["ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﻡ ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻜﻨﻮﻱ )ﺕ‪١٣٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻟﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﲑ ]ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ[)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﻬﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ )ﺕ‪١٣٣٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ )‪ ،(٢٨٢/١‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﻮﺍﺷﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻘﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺹ‪.٦٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﰲ ﻇﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﱐ ﺹ‪" :٤٠٥‬ﻭﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻗﻠﻢ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻃﺒﻌﻲ!‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻇﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﱐ ﺹ‪.٤٠٥‬‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻓﺮﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻓﻴﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﺸﺎﺣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺺ ﺑﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺬ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻓﺮﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٥‬ـ ﺗﺼﺮﳛﻪ ﺑﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﺘﲔ ﺫﻛﺮﳘﺎ ﺑﻜﻮ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ـ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﹰ؛ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﳌﹼﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﱳ‬
‫ﻭﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ" ﺃﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻃـﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ )ﺕ‪١٣٣٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ‪ ...‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ"‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻭﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‪...‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﳓﻮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ"‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.١٣٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.١٢٦‬‬

‫‪٢٤‬‬

‫ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﳜﺼ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺑﻞ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺷﺎﻣ ﹰ‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺑﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳﻦ! ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻣﺸﺎﺣﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ!‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱰﻫﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺇﻳﻬﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺭﺟﻊ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣـﺠﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﲢﺘﻪ!‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﲢﺖ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳏﻤﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮﺷﻬﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٤٠٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺒﻬﻤﺔ‪" :‬ﺗﻐﻴﲑ" ﻋﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻭﻓﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳏﻤﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺣﻲ )ﺕ‪١٤٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺹ‪ ،٥٨١ ،٥٧٨ ،٥٧٤،٥٧٧‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٣١٥‬‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺑﺪﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‬

‫‪٢٦‬‬

‫ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ‬

‫‪٢٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﱳ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻳﺮﻧﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ؛ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻷﺻﻠﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺻﺒﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ )ﺕ‪١٤٠٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻟﻔﻆ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻓﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻭﺿ‪‬ﻊ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻭﺃﺯﺍﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺪﳚﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ .‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻬﲔ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﻳﺆﺧﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻓﻴﻌﻤﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻋﲔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺍﺑﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻓﻴﻐﲑﻩ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻓﻤﺜﻞ ‪"...‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﺮ‪‬ﻓﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻏﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.٩٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﻪ ﺹ‪.١٩١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺹ‪.١٠٨‬‬

‫‪٢٨‬‬

‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫‪٢٩‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﴰﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﳌﱳ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪٥‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺍﺑﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻋﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻓﻴﻌﻤﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻋﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺍﺑﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻓﻴﻐﲑﻩ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‪ ،"...‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﺐ؛‬
‫ﻓﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﳘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻖ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﳘﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻃﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺪﻝ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺩﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺩﺧﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻭﺃﺯﺍﻟﻪ!‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺑﺪﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻳﺮﻧﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬
‫ﻓﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻷﺻﻠﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻟﻄﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﻍ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﶈﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٢٥١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٤٣٥‬‬

‫‪٣٠‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ‬

‫‪٣١‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ‬

‫‪٣٢‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻳﺮﻧﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻬﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﺷﻬﺒﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ‪" :‬ﻭﳘﹰﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ"‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪" :‬ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ" ﺃﺻﻼﹰ؛ ﻓﻼ! ﻭﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪" :‬ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ" ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻘﻴﺪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ؛ ﻓﻤﺴﻠﹼﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﱳ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻵﺧﺮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻓﺴﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺄﺕ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑـ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ‬
‫ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ‪ ...‬ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﱳ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﻪ ﺑﻼﻏﺘﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺹ‪.٢١٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪١٥٤‬ـ‪.١٥٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.١٠٧‬‬

‫‪٣٣‬‬

‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻠﻜﻨﻮﻱ‪.‬ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣﺮﺭﻧﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﲜﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻛــ "ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌــﺐ" ﻭ"ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ"؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺄﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻧﻈﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻬﻮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﲔ ﳑﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﱳ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ‬

‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ")‪.(١‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎً‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﻏﺮ ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺪﺑﺞ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻓﻴﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠــﺮ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ")‪ (٣‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ "ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ"‪.‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺈﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺲﻣﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻘﻴﲏ )ﺕ‪٨٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ )‪.(٣٤٠/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ )‪.(٣٤٠/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪ ،(٣٢٨/١‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٣٣٩/١‬‬

‫‪٣٥‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﺃﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(١‬ﻭﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰ ‪‬ﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﲜﻌﻞ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳌﱳ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻣﱳ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﱳ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ)‪ .(٢‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ـ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ـ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ؛‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﻤﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻗﺼﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻭ ﻏﻠﻄﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ ﻻ ﻋﻜﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻷﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﺧﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ )ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ( ﺹ‪.١٠٠٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﳏﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ )‪ ،(١٠٠/٢‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪ ،١٠٨‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻘﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺹ‪.١٦١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻬﻞ! ﺇﺫ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺹ‪" :٢٣٦‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺣﻲ ﰲ ﻏﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﻴﺚ ﺹ‪ ،٩٠‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ!‬

‫‪٣٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫‪ (,‬أن )('& ‪  $ %‬و"ه  ا اب  ء ا‪،‬‬
‫‪ 34‬ه ‪& %‬ا‪ &'(" 2‬ا اب‪ ،‬وه‪ 1‬آ‪' /‬ة ا‪'&-‬اد أذآ' "‪56‬‬
‫&‪ 1‬اط ا‪: 9‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﻓﺎﺩﱐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﻛﺸﻒ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﺪ‪‬ﻛﻲ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫـﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻛﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺳﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٦٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ "ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻝ"‪" :‬ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺻﺪﻭﻕ"‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒـﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ)‪(٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٤٣/٢‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٦١٣/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(١٩٧/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣٠١/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪..٨٧١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺹ‪ ،٢٠‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺹ ‪.١٤٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪.(٥٩٢/٢‬‬

‫‪٣٧‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﻫﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋﺔ ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﻫﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺳﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻘﻠﺒﻪ! ﻭﺍﳌﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺃﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ!‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ! ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ‪" :‬ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻁ"‪" :‬ﻳﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﳚﻌﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﲰﺎﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻳﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﲰﲔ ﻭﳘﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﲰﲔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ "ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲪﻴﺪ"‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺒﻪ "ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ" ﻓﻈﹸﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﻮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬
‫"ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲪﻴﺪ" ﻭ "ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲪﻴﺪ"‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺗﺼﺮﳛﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺼﺤﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺻﺤﺎﰊ ﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ!! ﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﻧﺺ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲰﺎﻋﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺿﺤﻪ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻌﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﱢﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﳏﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻜﺸﻒ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﳌﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﳌﱳ!!ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﻮﻓﻖ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٤٢/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٤٢٢/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٤٣٩/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٣٦٠‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ‬
‫)‪.(٢٨١/١‬‬

‫‪٣٨‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫"ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲪﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﺛﻘﺔ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲪﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﲪﺎﺩ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎﻥ!‬
‫ﻼ ﱂ ﳜﻠﻘﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﺃﺧﻮﻳﻦ ﻗﻂ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﲔ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺿﻌﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺃﻛﺬﺏ؟ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺒﺴﻂ‬
‫ﻟﺴﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻭ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻭ ﻻ ﳛﻖ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺭﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺃﲨﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺍﺏ!"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻫﻬﻨﺎ ﻗﻀﻴﺘﺎﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﺟﻼﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲪﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﲪﻴﺪ؟‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ؟ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻞ ﳘﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎﻥ؟‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺮﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﰲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﻟﻘﺒﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻈﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﳘﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻳﺔ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﻘﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲝﺚ ﺃﲪﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻓﺮﺿﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻏﻠﻂ ﰲ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﱂ ﻳ ﹾﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻔﻪ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻥ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻔﻪ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﲪﻴﺪ("ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﺎﻫﲔ ﺹ‪٢٩١‬ـ‪.٢٩٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(١٣٣/٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪١٣٣/٩‬ـ‪ .(١٣٤‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲪﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣٩‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻓﻈﹸﻦ‬
‫ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻮﺭﺩﻫﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ"‪،‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧﺼﺼﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ـ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ـ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ "ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺮ" ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ـ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﳌﺰﱐ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺇﱃ "ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺰﱐ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﻦ ﺫﺅﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫"ﺷﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ـ ﺣﺼﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﲪﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﲔ" ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ!)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ـ ﺯﺑﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﱪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ" ﺇﱃ "ﺛﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺑﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﱪﻱ" ﻓﺄﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ـ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻟﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ "ﻟﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!)‪.(٧‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺟﺒﲑﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺇﱃ "ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﺒﲑﺓ"!)‪.(٨‬‬
‫ـ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﻁ )ﺕ‪٢٤٠‬ﻫـ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻋﻮﻑ ﺑﻦ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﻱ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ!)‪.(١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٥٢٩/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٣٨٥/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(١٧١/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٥٣١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪٣٨٦/١‬ـ‪.(٣٨٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪٢٠٩/١‬ـ‪.(٢١٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٣٣٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٨‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٢١٧/٢‬‬

‫‪٤٠‬‬

‫ـ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﺒﻞ" ﻓﻈﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﱪ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳊﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺒﻴﻠﻲ )ﺕ‪٥٨٢‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ)‪ (٣‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!‬
‫ـ ﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‪" :‬ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺩ"!)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻋﻤﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ـ ﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻏﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﱃ "ﻏﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺩ" ﻓ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﻘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ "ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﺒﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﹸﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!)‪.(٧‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻘﻴﺐ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﻴﻘﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ!)‪.(٨‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﺮﺩﺍﺱ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﻴﻚ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ "‪‬ﻴﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﺍﺱ"!)‪.(٩‬‬
‫ـ ﺻﻔﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ "ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺻﻔﻮﺍﻥ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ)‪.(١٠‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﻢ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺈﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(١٨٢/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(١٤٨/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻬﺎﻡ )‪ ،٣٥٨/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٣٥٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(١٧٦/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(١٨١/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(١٩٥/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٥٠٦/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٨‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٥٢٨/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٩‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٥٩٢/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١٠‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٦٨٥/٣‬‬

‫‪٤١‬‬

‫‪٤‬ـ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺒﲔ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﲔ!‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻭﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ‪" :‬ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.(٢)".‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﻮﻥ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﲟﺎ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻟﻸﺟﺮ"‪ .‬ﺛﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺥ‪ ،‬ﺛﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻣﻲ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻻ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ ﻭ ﻻ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ؛ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺪﻳﺞ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻚ ﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ!‬
‫‪٥‬ـ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺠــﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪٣٢٦/١‬ـ‪.(٣٢٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٢٤/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٤٣٢/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣/٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٣٧٤‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٢٩٠/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٣٢٤/١‬‬

‫‪٤٢‬‬

‫‪٦‬ـ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ﻛﺸﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻈﹸﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺎﻥ!‬
‫‪٧‬ـ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﹰﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﹰﺎ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٨‬ـ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﱪﺯ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﺲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ!‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺩﺓ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﲨﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻏﻴ‪‬ﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺳﺘﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺗﺪﻟﻴﺴﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻀﻌﻔﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٩‬ـ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﳑﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻘﻂ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﲟﺎ ﲰﻌﻪ ﻓﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﲝﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﺛﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳑﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻋﺎﻧﺎﻩ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻪ!‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﺗﻘﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﲣﺮﳚﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﻝ )‪.(٥٦٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ )‪.(٥٦١/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪.(١٣٥/١‬‬

‫‪٤٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳑﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻃﺎﻋﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪١٠‬ـ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﻣﻔﺴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲰﻊ ﺯﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﰱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﲔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﺄﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﻜﻢ ﻗﺮﺃ ﺑﺴﺒﺢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻼ ﺧﺎﳉﻨﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻘﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻫﻪ؟‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺮﻫﻪ ﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﰲ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺃﺗﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ"‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺃﺩﺭﻯ ﲟﺮﻭﻳﻪ؛ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻃﺎﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﰱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﲔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺭﺟﻞ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﺎﳉﲏ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺭﰐ ﻓﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ"‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٦٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪٤٨/٢‬ـ‪.(٤٩‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﻋﺪ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻓﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ"‬
‫ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺣﺠﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ‪ :‬ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻭﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻭﺣﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ﻭﳘﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺮ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺠﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻫﻪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺮﻫﻪ ﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ؛ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﳍﺎ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺼﺮﳛﻪ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ؟!‬
‫‪١١‬ـ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺤﺎﰊ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ! ﻳﻜﺸﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﺃﺷﻌﺚ ﺑﺎﳌﺜﻠﺜﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻮﺩﺍﻥ ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺷﻌﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﺷﻌﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻷﺏ )ﺃﺷﻌﺚ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺷﻌﺚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺻﻠﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺭﻭﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻮﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺤﺎﰊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟﻼ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﺃﻋﺠﺒﻪ ﺣﺴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(١٦٢/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ )‪١١٧/١‬ـ‪ ،(١١٨‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(١٢٥ /١‬‬

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‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻋﻤﺮﻭ"!‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﺐ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﻩ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﻴﲔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﻩ‪" :‬ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﻋﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ"ﺍﻫـ )‪.(٤‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(١٦٩/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ )‪.(٩٢/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ )‪.(٤٥٧/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ )‪ ،(٢٧٧/١‬ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺴﺘﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺒﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺥ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻋﺮﺍﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﺀ( )‪.(٨١/١‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺗﺒﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺳﻬﻮﹰﺍ ﺑﻼ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻂ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﰒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻪ‬
‫ﺨﺪ‪‬ﺵ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻓﺒﺤﺴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﺮﻭﻳﺎﺗﻪ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪١٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻔﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻏﻠﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺗﺮﻙ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﺭﺟﻞ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻣﺘﻘﻦ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻓﺎﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪.٦٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٢٠/١‬‬

‫‪٤٧‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﲟﻌﲎ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻭﻳ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﻤ‪‬ﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﺒﻪ!‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﳌﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻭﺿﺎﻉ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪" :‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺃﺗﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ"؛ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﻤﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻤﺪ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪:‬‬
‫‪.١‬ﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺠﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢‬ﺍﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺼﺮ ﺍﳍﻤﺪﺍﱐ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣‬ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﲑﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٥‬ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺯﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٦‬ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺪﺭﻙ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٧‬ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٨‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٩‬ﺯﺍﻓﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻳﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٠٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪٤٨/٢‬ـ‪.(٤٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٠١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٤٩٠/٢‬‬

‫‪٤٨‬‬

‫‪.١٠‬ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫‪.١١‬ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٢‬ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٣‬ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻄﺲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٤‬ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٥‬ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﱪﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٦‬ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٧‬ﺳﻮﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٨‬ﺷﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٩‬ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٠‬ﺷﻬﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻮﺷﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢١‬ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٢‬ﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ"‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٣‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٤‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٥‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٦‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٧‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﻳﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٨‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٩‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٠‬ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣١‬ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٢‬ﻗﻄﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺴﲑ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٣‬ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٤‬ﻛﺜﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺃﺑﻮﺷﻬﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٥‬ﻟﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٦‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٧‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٨‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٩‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤٠‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤٩‬‬

‫‪.٤١‬ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺠﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤٢‬ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤٣‬ﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤٤‬ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﰲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤٥‬ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﺷﺪ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤٦‬ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪.٤٧‬ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﻛﲑ)‪.(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ )ﺕ‪٢٠١‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻭﺟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ـ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻂ ﻣﻦ ﳝﺘﺤﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻈﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﺧﱪﺓ ﻟﻪ ﻓﲑﻭﻳﻪ ﻇﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﱄ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺮﻙ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪" :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﺮﻓﻊ ﰒ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺇ ﹼ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺬﺏ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻚ ﻓﻠﻘﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪" :‬ﻟﻘﻨﺖ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻓﺤﺪﺛﻨﻴﻪ ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺮ‪‬ﻙ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺬﺏ ﺃﺧﺎﻙ ﻓﻠﻘﻨﻪ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﻕ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺮ‪‬ﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﺬﺏ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻚ ﻓﻠﻘﻨﻪ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻲ )ﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺘﲔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ( ﻭﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﺣﺮﻣﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٠١‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ؟ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻓﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺮﺃﻫﺎ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻲ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﻣﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﺌﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳛﻞ؟)‪.(٥‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﺍﲨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣـﺠﺮ )‪.(٨٦٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٩ ،١٤٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪.(١٣٦/١‬‬

‫‪٥٠‬‬

‫ﻭﳑﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ‬
‫)ﺕ‪١٩٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻛﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﱵ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﺄﰐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﻬﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺌﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺗﻮﺭ‪‬ﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻠﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻠﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ ‪ ...‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻃﺎﻋﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻃﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ )ﺕ‪ ٨٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﺜﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﶈﺪﺙ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﻞ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ‬
‫ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻻ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺷﺮﻃﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﳑﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺣﺮﻣﻲ!‬
‫ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻲ )ﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺘﲔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ( ﻭﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﺣﺮﻣﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٠١‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ؟ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺮﻣﺰﻱ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺹ‪٣٩٨‬ـ‪ ،٣٩٩‬ﻭﺳﺘﺄﰐ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻄﻮﳍﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(٢٨٤/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺹ‪.١٠٢‬‬

‫‪٥١‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺪﻓﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ ﻓﻘﺮﺃﻫﺎ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻲ!‪.(١)...‬‬
‫ﻭﳑﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ ﻓﺎﻧﻘﻠﺒﺖ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻗﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﱐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ ﻻ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺣﺪﺛﻚ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ؟ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺲ! ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻚ ﺃﻧﺲ؟ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﳑﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ ‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﻧﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻧﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﳛﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺒﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻛﲔ( ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﻄﻪ ﲝﻀﺮﺗﻨﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑـﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻴﻚ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻒ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﻧﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰒ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﳛﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻣﻠﲏ ﻭﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ـ ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﲪﺪ ـ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺂﺩﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﻓﺲ ﳛﻲ ﺭﻓﺴﺔ ﺭﻣﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﳛﻲ ﻭﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺰﺍﻙ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺧﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺟﺮﺑﻚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪.(١٣٦/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪.(١٣٦/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪.(١٣٥/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٣/١‬ﻭﺑﻨﺤﻮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪٣٥٣/١٢‬ـ‪ ،(٣٥٤‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪‬ـﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪،(٢٧٤/٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣـﺠﺮ )‪ ،(٨٦٦/٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪ ،(٣٢٣/١‬ﻭﺳﺎﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٣٦/١‬‬

‫‪٥٢‬‬

‫ﻭﳑﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻣﻲ‪" :‬ﺩﺧﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﰲ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﻗﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﳛﺪﺛﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻛﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﻍ ﰒ‬
‫ﻓﻄﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﺪﻩ ﻓﺮﻣﻰ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﷲ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﺩﺕ ﻭﺍﷲ ﲤﻀﻲ ﻛﺎﺩﺕ ﻭﺍﷲ ﲤﻀﻲ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻤﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ)‪ .(٣‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻋﲔ)‪ .(٥‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﻫﻪ ﺃﻏﻠﻆ ﲢﺮﳝﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﰒ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ )ﺕ‪٥٩٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺩﻟﹼﺲ ﻛﺬﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﻹﰒ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻟﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺁﺛﺮ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٧‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺋﻲ )ﺕ‪٧٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ؛‬
‫ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺪﻟﺲ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻛﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٦١٥/٢‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(١٨١/١‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺹ‪ ،٦٩‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٤١/١‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻤﻪ )ﺷﺮﻳﺢ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺿﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴـﻠﻲ )‪ ،(٢٢٠/١‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪.(١٣٦/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺹ‪ ،١٠٢‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺭ )‪.(١٠٠/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮﺓ )‪ ،(٢٨٤/١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ )‪.(٢٨٦/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪ ،٢٧٣ ،١٩٨ ،١٨٣،١٧٧ ،٢٩،١٦٦‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٥٢/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺭ )‪.(١٠٠/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ (٥٦٣/٣‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪٥٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﻲ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻴﺪﻟﺴﻪ ﻟﻺﻏﺮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻴﻴﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﻋﲑﻩ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﳌﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻨﻜﺐ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻊ ﻣﱳ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺳﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺮﻭﻯ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﻠﻖ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻳﺮﻛﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﻠﻖ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻳﺮﻛﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻜﻦ ـ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻟﹼﺲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻮﻋ‪‬ﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣـﻦ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻦ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﲰﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻴﺨﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻬـﺬﺍ ﺃﻫـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺴﻬ‪‬ﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﻬ‪‬ﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﰒ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻟﹼﺲ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻓﻴﻮﻋﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻣﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﱄ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺹ‪.١٠٤‬‬

‫‪٥٤‬‬

‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﻠﻖ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻳﺮﻛﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﻠﻖ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻳﺮﻛﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻﲡﻮﺯ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﺧﻒ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺧﻒ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ!‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﳊﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﻭﳛﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﺛﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺑﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﺜﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﳜﺘﻠﻘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﳜﺘﻠﻘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﰒ ﻭﻏﻠﻈﺘﻪ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ!‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺪ‪‬ﻋﻲ ﲰﺎﻉ ﻣﺎﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪٥٥‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪" :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻘﺮﻳﺐ!‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺳﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﺪﻋﻲ ﲰﺎﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺳﺮﻕ ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﳌﱳ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺧﻒ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﳑﻦ ﺳﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﹰ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﲦﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﻮﺃ ﺑﻴﺘﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ!‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺏ ﳎﺮ‪‬ﺩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻔﻠﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻭﻗ ﹼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﺘﻀﺢ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﺘﻀﺢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻨﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ )ﺃﻋﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ( ﻳ‪‬ﻔﺴﺮ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺻﻔﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺪﻳﺜﻬﻢ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪.١‬ـ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢‬ـ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣‬ـ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤‬ـ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٥‬ـ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٦‬ـ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٧‬ـ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﻄﺎﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٨‬ـ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٩‬ـ ﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٠‬ـ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﱯ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١١‬ـ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪.٦٠‬‬

‫‪٥٦‬‬

‫‪.١٢‬ـ ﲪﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٣‬ـ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﺪﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٤‬ـ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺍﶈﱪ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٥‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٦‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٧‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٨‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﺼﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺎﺷﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٩‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٠‬ﻣﻌﻠﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢١‬ﻭﻫﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻔﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺠﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٢‬ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٣‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺜﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺟﻊ ﺗﺮﺍﲨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪:‬‬
‫‪.١‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢‬ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣‬ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤‬ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺰﺍﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٥‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻮﺃﻳﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٦‬ﺻﺎﱀ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٧‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٨‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٩‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٠‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻇﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١١‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻫﺎﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٢‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ )ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﺒﻮﺑﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺻﻒ )ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ( ﻭ )ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ( ﻭ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ( ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪٥٧‬‬

‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻜﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﺤﻜﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ " :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﺙﹶ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳﺜﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳﺜﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﹶ ﱠﻥ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻄﹲﺄ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ" ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺫﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳﺜﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺩﺧ‪ ‬ﹶﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳﺚ‪‬؟‬
‫ﺐ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹸﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳﺜﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶ‬
‫ﺻ ﹲﻞ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )ﺕ‪٦٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃﻧﻪ‪"" :‬ﻻﲢﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻷﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻛﻦ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻧﹰﺎ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺻﺪﻗﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻫﻴﺐ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺗﺮﺍﲨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٦٦٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.٨٩‬‬

‫‪٥٨‬‬

‫ﻭﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ؟‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺳﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ؟‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﻠﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺫﹰﺍ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺬﻭﺫ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﺔ ﲣﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ؟‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺬﻭﺫ ﺗﻘﺪﺡ ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ؟‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺣﺮﺭ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺅﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﳚﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﺩﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫ ﻗﺎﺩﺣﹰﺎ!)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﳚﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻻﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻗﺎﺩﺣﹰﺎ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻗﺎﺩﺣﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٧٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪ ،(٢٣٥/١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪١٨/١‬ـ‪ ،(١٩‬ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪٦٥/١‬ـ‪.(٦٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺭ )‪٩٨/٢‬ـ‪.(٩٩‬‬

‫‪٥٩‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﱂ ﺃﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﺴﻮﻥ ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪" :‬ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ(‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ‪) ،‬ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺳـﻮﺩ ﺍﳉﺮﺷـﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺍﺳﺘﺴﻘﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺩﻣـﺸﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻧﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺸﻔﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﲞﲑﻧﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻠﻨﺎ"‪ .‬ﻓﺴﻘﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻛﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻠﻐﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪) :‬ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ )ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻨﺪﺏ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺠﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺣﺐ )ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ )ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ(‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪) :‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ(‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ )ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ( ﰲ )ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻪ( ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ( ﻭﺃﹸﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻨﻒ )ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ( ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﲰﺎﻩ )ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ‬

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‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﲨﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ )ﺕ‪٨٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺘﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ")‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ )ﺕ‪٩١١‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺘﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٨٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﲰﻪ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺭﺍﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻻﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﲟﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻔﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺨﻄﻴﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺏ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻻ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻛـ "ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ" ﻭ "ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ" ﻷﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓـﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ "ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ"‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻠﺨﻄﻴﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺭﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺏ""ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻆ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻛـ )ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻌﺐ( ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ )ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ( ﻭ )ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ( ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ )ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﳑﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻊ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.٥٦٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(٢٢٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٢٧٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )‪.(٥٠٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٥٠٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺹ‪.١٠١‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﻨﻒ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﻭﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ؛‬
‫ﻓﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﻓﻔﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳕﻂ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ )ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﳎﻠﺪ ﺿﺨﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺼﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻴﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﺍﲰﻪ "ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﺭﺗﻴﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ"‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺭﺍﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻻﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﲟﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻔﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﻭﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺒ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻘ‪‬ﻴﲏ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺳﻼﻥ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٨٢٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﲨﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺑﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﲎ ﲜﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻼﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻠﻘ‪‬ﻴﲏ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺟﺰﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻧﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺑﻴﺎﺕ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﺍﳉﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻘﻴﲏ ـ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ـ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ]ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ[ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻧﻄﻴﻞ ﺑﺈﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻨﻴﺖ ﲜﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻴﺴﺮ ﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﲣﺮﳚﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪ .(٣٢٦/١‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ )‪.(٢٩٠/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ )‪.(٢٢٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٨/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٣٤٦/١‬‬

‫‪٦٢‬‬

‫‪٣‬ـ ﻭﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻣﺸﻘﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺏ "ﺍﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ" )ﺕ‪٨٤٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﺍﲰﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﰲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲨﻌﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﳏﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ٤‬ـ ﻭﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪" :‬ﺟﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ "ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻨﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳕﻂ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻟﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ)‪ .(٣‬ﻭﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ "ﺟﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ"‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻩ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺴﻴﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺃﺩ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﻓﺼ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻦ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻭﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻣﺎﺀ ﻳﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﻋﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﻳﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ)‪(٤‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪١٦١‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺼﺤﺐ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﺭﻓﻘﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﳏﻘﻖ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺒﻪ" ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ )‪.(٧٥/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺭ )‪ ،(٦٨٠/٢‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎﺗﻪ )‪.(٣٤٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳌﱳ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﳌﱳ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻭﻏﻠﻄﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)‪.(٤٢٦/٦) (٤‬‬

‫‪٦٣‬‬

‫ﺟﺮﺱ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺴﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ )ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺜﺮﺕ( ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻫﻮ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻈﻢ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ ﻭﺇﻧﺼﺎﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮ‪‬ﺓ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄـﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺧﺎﻃﺒﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻧﺒﻬﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺜﻮﺭﻩ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﺟ ﹼﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻠﻚ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﺎﺑﻄﹰﺎ ﺃﺭﺟﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﹼﺄ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻮﻩ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻻﳚﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻃﻌﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭ"‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺗﻰ ﻟﻴﺤﻲ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺄ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻴﻘﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺮﻭﺡ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻼ‪ :‬ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﲔ ﻓﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻥ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﳚﻤﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺡ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺟﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ"‪:‬‬
‫"ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻲ!‬
‫ﻼ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺎﺋ ﹰ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪٣٢٧/١‬ـ‪ ، (٣٢٨‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺬﻑ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٨/١‬‬

‫‪٦٤‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬

‫ﻭﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪:‬‬
‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺟﺮﺡ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪٦٥‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﺓ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﳌﺮﻭﻳﻪ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﹰﺎ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﳘﻪ ﻭﺧﻄﺌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻜﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ﻗﺪ ﲣﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﲣﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﳒﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪ ،‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎ ﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﻭﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٧‬ﻫـ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻞ ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﺮﻑ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹾﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺪ ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺃﺟﺪ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻗﻂ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﺘﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﹼﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺟﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﺴﻮ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻛﺨﱪ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﲢﻮ ﻫﺬﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺈﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻘﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻭﻳﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٨٣/١١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٧٣/١‬‬

‫‪٦٦‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٤٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﳌﹼﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻡ ﻋﻤﺪﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻓﺮﻛﺒﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻐﺮﺏ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻲ ﺣﻴﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﻭﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﻛﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﱯ ﻭ‪‬ﻠﻮﻝ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺻﺮﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻮﺷﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ؟ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻞ ﺹ‪ ،٥٩‬ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺛﲑ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ )‪١٣٩/١‬ـ‪.(١٤٠‬‬

‫‪٦٧‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻛﺸﻔﻪ ﻫﻮ ﲨﻊ ﻃﺮﻗﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﳌﻠﻄﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺇﱃ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ‬
‫ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﺘﻚ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳓﺬﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﲰﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﺫﻛﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺷﺄﻧﻚ!‬
‫ﻓﺎﳓﺪﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪ :‬ﱂ ﺗﺴ‪‬ﻤﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ؟‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ!‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ‪‬ﺬﺍ؟‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳜﻄﻲﺀ ﻓﺄﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﻴ‪‬ﺰ ﺧﻄﺄﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﲞﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﻴ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﻄﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻭﺟﻬﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻘﻠﻨﺎﻩ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻗﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﲔ ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻀﺤﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٣٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٣٣/١‬‬

‫‪٦٨‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺼﻨﻌﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻃﹼﻠﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﺘﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒـﻞ ـ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ـ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﻓﻠﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ؟‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﲪﻚ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺃﻛﺘﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ )ﺕ‪٢١١‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﺃﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻝ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻳﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺑﺖ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﻻ‬
‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ )ﺕ‪٢٣٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﲔ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻭﻳﻘﻠﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻏﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀﱐ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳـﲏ ﻓﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﲏ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻓﺮﻭﺓ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ‪‬ﺎ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ!)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ! ﻓﻨﻈﺮﺕ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺌﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻚ ﻭ ﻻ ﲰﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﻂ؟! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﺻﻨﻊ؟ ﳚﻴﺌﻮﱐ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻚ ﻓﺄﺣﺪﺛﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ!")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﻓﺴﺌﻞ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺑﺴﻄﺎﻡ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﻜﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٣٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺿﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻠﻲ )‪ ،(١٠٢/١‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٤١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٥٢‬‬

‫‪٦٩‬‬

‫ﳜﻄﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻠﻂ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺗﻮﳘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻻ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﲑ ﻓﻌﻠﻤﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺃﰐ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٤٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺎ ﳜﻔﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ]ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ[ ﲜﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﳑﻦ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﺧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺫﹰﺍ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﻠ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﺄﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﺮﺍﺭﺍﹰ؟‬
‫ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﺰ ﻻ ﻧﻨﻜﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺒﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻌﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﺮﺟﻌﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺒﻬﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﹼﺄ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻮﻩ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻻﳚﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻃﻌﻢ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭ"‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٤٥‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ ﻣﻘﺘﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ )‪ ،(٧٤/١‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪٧٣/١‬ـ‪.(٧٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪٥٩‬ـ‪.٦٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٧٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٧٥/٢‬‬

‫‪٧٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺗﻰ ﻟﻴﺤﻲ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺄ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻴﻘﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺮﻭﺡ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ :‬ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﲔ ﻓﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﳚﻤﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺡ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﲣﻄﺌﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﺭﺟﻮﻋﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﲔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺼﲑ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺴﻜﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻭﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻭﳘﺖ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﺗﺆﺍﺧﺬﱐ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺴﻜﺖ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﺒﻴﻚ ﻭﺳﻌﺪﻳﻚ! ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺃﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻭﳘﺖ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺭﺩﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﰱ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺣﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﺴﻜﺖ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ‬
‫ﺟﻠﺲ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻨﺖ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻏﻼﻣﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﳊﻴﱵ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﳎﻠﺲ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﺮﺃ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ )ﺕ‪١٨١‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﻀﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺩ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻲ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪٣٢٧/١‬ـ‪ (٣٢٨‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ "ﺟﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ )‪ (٨٧٥/٢‬ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٧‬‬

‫‪٧١‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺯﻳﻨﻚ ﻓﺄﰉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ!‬
‫ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ ﻓﻐﻀﺐ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﻓﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺝ ﺻﺤﺎﺋﻒ ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﻏﻠﻄﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺻﺤﺎﺋﻒ ﻳﻌﲏ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻓﻐﻠﻄﺖ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺖ ﺃﻛﺘﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﱄ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﱄ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﲔ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻼﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻭﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻬﺮﱐ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺪﺧﻞ ﻭﻧﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰒ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﱄ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻏﻼﻡ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻗﺖ ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻣﲏ ﻓﺎﺣﻜﻢ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٤٦‬ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ )‪.(٨٧٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٧٧/١‬‬

‫‪٧٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺟﺮﺡ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ )ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ( ﻭﰲ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻥ )ﺩﺧﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ( ﻭﰲ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ )ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ )ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ( ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻴﺌﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺳﻮﻕ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﺃﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ")‪ (١‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻲ )ﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺘﲔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ( ﻭﺳﺄﻟﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ) ﺕ ‪٢٠١‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ؟ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻓﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﺃﻫﺎ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻲ"‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﺌﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻊ‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳛﻞ؟!"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﻓﺎﺩﱐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳـﻠﻤﺔ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﱐ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ ﻓﺎﻧﻘﻠﺒﺖ")‪.(٣‬‬

‫)‪. (١٣٦/١)(١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣٠١/٩‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٢٤٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪. (١٣٦/١)(٣‬‬

‫‪٧٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﲰﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ ﻻ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻨﺖ ﺃﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺃﺟﻌﻞ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻭﺃﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻷﻧﺲ‬
‫ﺃﺷﻮﺵ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﺠﺮﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ )ﺕ‪١٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪" :‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﳛﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰒ ﳛﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪ ٤‬ـ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺃﻇﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ )ﺕ‪١٨٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪" :‬ﺩﻓﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺿﻄﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪ ٥‬ـ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻛﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﱵ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﺄﰐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﻬﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺌﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺗﻮﺭ‪‬ﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻠﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻙ ﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻠﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﺣﻔﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻠﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻤﻮﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ‬
‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻤﻮﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺑﻪ ﺃﰊ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٥٢٧/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٣٢٣/٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،(٣٨٥/٨‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٤٠٨/١١‬‬

‫‪٧٤‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺷﻴﲏ ﻭﻋﻴﱯ ﻓﺴﻠﺒﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺣﻔﺺ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻚ ﻭﺩﻧﻴﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻠﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻧﻔﻌﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻚ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﻲ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻠﻲ ﺣﻔﺺ ﰲ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﰿ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﳝﺖ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺣﱴ ﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺪﻗﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٦‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻬـﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺮﺝ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ‪" :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺯ ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٧‬ـ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )ﺕ‪٢٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ )ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻠﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻌﻨـﻲ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺱ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻛﺜـ ‪‬ﲑ‬
‫ﺳﻬﻤﲔﹺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﹰﺎ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )ﺕ‪٤٥٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺸ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺـ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺫﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ‬
‫ﺱ ﺳﻬﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﺱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎﻓ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳـ ﹺﻢ‪ :‬ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﲰ ‪‬ﻊ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻔﺮ ﹺ‬
‫ﺱ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺮﻣﺰﻱ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺹ‪٣٩٨‬ـ‪ ،٣٩٩‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻻﻋﺘـﺪﺍﻝ‬
‫)‪ (٦٤٥/٣‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺫﻛﺎﺋﻪ ﻓﺮﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮﳏﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺮﻣﺰﻱ ‪...‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺳﲑ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼﺀ )‪ ،(٣٢١/٦‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺮ!‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﺍ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺮﻣﺰﻱ( ﻭﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻮﻛﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﻭﻟـﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺌﺘﲔ‪"..‬ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ‬
‫)‪٨٧١/٢‬ـ‪ ،(٨٧٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪ .(٣٢٣/٢‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳـﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺌﺘﲔ"‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﻭﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ )ﺕ‪١٦٧‬ﻫـ( ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﻗﺪﱘ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ! ﻓﺴﺒﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٦١/٨‬‬

‫‪٧٥‬‬

‫ﲔ ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ﺳﻬﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻢ ﻓـﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻟـﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻆ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟـ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻳﺸﲑ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﻟﻔﻆ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ( ﺇﱃ )ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺱ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺱ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭﺱ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻓﺮﺳﻪ‪ :‬ﺳﻬﻤﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻔﺮﺱ ﺳﻬﻤﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﺼﲑ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺱ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ!‬
‫‪٨‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ )ﺕ‪٢٢٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟـﺴﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻟﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺴﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻈﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )ﺕ‪٢٨٠‬ﻫـ(‪:‬‬
‫"ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ]ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ[ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ]ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ[ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺩﻟﹼﺲ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻟﺲ! ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪﻩ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪ – ٩‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻏﺸﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺟﺎﺀﱐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ ﻓﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﲏ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻓﺮﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ‪‬ﺎ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ")‪.(٥‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(٣٢٥/٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٤٧/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٤٧/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤١/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٤٧/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻠﻲ )‪ ،(١٠٢/١‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ‪ /‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺮ‪.(٩١/١)/‬‬

‫‪٧٦‬‬

‫‪١٠‬ـ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺼﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻛﲔ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﻓﺮﺝ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻁ‪" :‬ﻛﺬﺍﺏ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌـﲔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﻛﻮﱐ‪" :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﻛﻮﱐ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺜﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻣﺄﻣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻻ ﻛﺮﺍﻣﺔ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪١١‬ـ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﲑ )ﺕ‪٢٣٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕـﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺠــﻠﻲ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺸﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻓﺎﻋﻲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ")‪.(٥‬‬
‫‪١٢‬ـ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒـﻞ ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ‪" :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺜﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ )ﺃﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ(ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﱂ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﰊ‪) :‬ﺃﺣﺎﳍﺎ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﰊ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺛﻘﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺿﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﹰﺍ")‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻫﻨﺎ )ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ( ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(٢١٦/١‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺹ‪.٩٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(١٠٠/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٤٠٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﺹ‪ ،٣٤‬ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ )‪.(٨٤/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪.(٦٨/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٨١٨/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(١٨٠/٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺳﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﲟﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪٧٧‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻌـﺒﺔ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻔﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲤﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺪﻋﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪١٣‬ـ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻓﺮﻭﺓ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﻲ‪" :.‬ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻓﺮﺝ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﺧﻲ ﺃﺑﻮﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﻤﺼﻲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺮﺝ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ "ﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ" ‪" :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺗﻘﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺯﻫﲑ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨـﺒﻞ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫‪ ١٤‬ـ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﲑﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﺭﺷﺪﻙ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻧﺎﻗﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ )ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ( ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﻨﺴﺐ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺧﱪﻩ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺫﻟﻚ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣٣٨/٤‬ﲝﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺹ‪.٢٠٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(١٨٨٥/٥‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٣١٧/٣‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٣٤١/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢٦٠/٨‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٣٥٧/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(٩٥٣/٢‬‬

‫‪٧٨‬‬

‫ﻏﲑ ﺧﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ... ... ... .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺻﻔﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﺘﲔ ﺧﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺭﻓﻮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻧﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻣﱳ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﳎﺘﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﻭﻳﻪ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﻋﻤﻦ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻨﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﺨﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﱳ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻌﻠﻢ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳛﻜﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺪﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪. (١‬‬
‫‪١٥‬ـ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ‪" :‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬

‫‪١٦‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻠﻲ)ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺗﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﺧﻠﻄﺖ ﻭﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪ ١٧‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٦٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﺣﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺼﺮ ﺍﳍﻤﺪﺍﱐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ‪" :‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻓﻴﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻼﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺼﺮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺼﺮ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺹ‪.١٧٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤١/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٤٧/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢٨٨/١١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪ ،(٦٤٥/٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢١/٢‬‬

‫‪٧٩‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺎﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ )ﺕ‪٣٢٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻪ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﺎﺯﺭﻋﺔ(‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ ﻋﻦ ﲰﺎﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﺮﺩﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭ ﻻ ﺗﺴﻜﺮﻭﺍ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻮﻫﻢ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﲰﺎﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﺮﺩﺓ ﻗﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺻﺤ‪‬ﻒ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‪ .‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﰒ ﺍﺣﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺐ )ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ( ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﺤﺶ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ!‬
‫ﻭﺃﻓﺤﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﺷﻨﻊ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﻔﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ‪" :‬ﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻕ ﻭ ﻻ ﺗﺴﻜﺮﻭﺍ" ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﺃﺑﻮﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺯﺑﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﻣﻲ ﻋﻦ ﳏﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺩﺛﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﲰﺎﻙ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﲑﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺒﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺛﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺮﺳﺎﱐ ﻭﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻬﻴﻞ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪:‬‬
‫"‪‬ﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﺭ ﻓﺰﻭﺭﻭﻫﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﳊﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺿﺎﺣﻲ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻓﺎﻣﺴﻜﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﺬ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﺎﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻘﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻻ ﺗﺸﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﻣﺴﻜﺮﹰﺍ" ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺒﻮﺍ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻜﺮ" ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪" :‬ﻭﻻﺗﺴﻜﺮﻭﺍ" ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﲔ )ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﺍﳌﺸﻤﺲ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻓﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻳﺼﻒ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪١٨‬ـ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺃﺑﻮﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(١٥٧/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢١١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ )‪٢٤/٢‬ـ‪.(٢٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )‪ .(٤٥٦/١‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﲣﺮﻳﺞ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٢٨١/٢‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺩﺧﻠﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻥ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪١٩‬ـ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ )ﺕ‪٢٧٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪ :‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﺪﺙ ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻻ ﲣﺎﻑ ﺍﷲ! ﻓﻀﻤﻦ ﱄ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٢٠‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ )ﺕ‪٢٧٥‬ﻫـ( ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻵﺟﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺪﺭﻙ ﻛﺬﺍﺏ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻓﻬﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﻗﻴﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺰﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪٢١‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺃﰊ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﺎﺣﺎﰎ( ﻭﺃﺑﺎﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳـﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻃﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺴﻘﻰ ﻓﺄﰐ ﺑﻨﺒﻴﺬ ﻓﺸﻤﻪ ﻓﻘﻄﺐ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻫﻮ ﻳﺎﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﳍﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ؟‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٠٣/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪ ،٢٢٧‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(١٢٧/٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(١٤٨/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٤٤٧/٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ )ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻁ( )‪ ،(٢٧٩/١‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ )‪ ،(٥٢٣/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪ ،٩٥‬ﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟـﺴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،٣٩٧‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٣٢٣/٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﱂ ﺃﺟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻻﺕ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻵﺟﺮﻱ ﻷﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ )ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻁ(‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻌﻠﻘﻬﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻃﺒﻌﺔ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺍﺩ‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻠﻘﻨﻬﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻠﻘﻴﻬﺎ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ" ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪٨١‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﺎﻻ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺩﺍﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﰊ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪:‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳـﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪" :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﻧﺒﻴﺬ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻄﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ ...‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ؛ ﻓﺴﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﳌﱳ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋـﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢٢‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺵ )ﺕ‪٢٨٣‬ﻫـ(‪ ،‬ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻌﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺵ )ﺕ‪٢٨٣‬ﻫـ( ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺪﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻟﻪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺒﻴﺐ ﻭﺳﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺒﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺫﺍﻥ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﺫﺍﻥ")‪.(٢‬‬

‫‪٢٣‬ـ ﺍﻟﱪﺫﻋﻲ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ )ﺕ‪٢٩٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﺫﻋﻲ‪" :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺑﺎﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺳـﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﺃﺗﻘﻨﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺯﺭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺸـﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﲑ ﺃﰊ ﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻔﻜﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑـﻮﺯﺭﻋﺔ؛‬
‫ﻓﻮﺟﺪﺕ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻗﺎﻃﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ )‪٢٥/٢‬ـ‪.(٢٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٤٧/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(١٥٧٤/٤‬‬

‫‪٨٢‬‬

‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻤﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢٤‬ـ ﺻﺎﻟـﺢ ﺑﻦ ﻣـﺤﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺪﻱ‪ ‬ﺍﻟـﺤﺎﻓﻆ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﱀ ﺟﺰﺭﺓ )ﺕ‪٢٩٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺟـﺰﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﺟﺮﺃ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺳ‪‬ﻔـﻴﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴـﻠﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪‬ﻣﻬ‪‬ﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴـﻠﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑـﻲ ﻗـﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‬
‫ﳛﻴـﻠﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠـﻰ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﺒ‪‬ﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣ‪‬ﻤﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺘﻬﻤﻪ ﻓـﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓـﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﺟﺮﺃ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺾ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓـﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓـﻴﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ )ﺃﺣﺬﻕ(‪ ،‬ﺑـﺎﻟ ﹶﻜﺬ‪‬ﺏ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹶـﲔ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﹶـﻴ‪‬ـﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎﺫﻛﻮﻧـﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻔﹶﻆ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳﺪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺣ‪‬ﻤﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪٢٥‬ـ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )ﺕ‪٣٠٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻲ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٢٦‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ )ﺕ‪٣٠٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٨٩/٣‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٢٩٨/٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٣٩/١١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٠٣/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪ ،٢٢٧‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(١٢٧/٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٢٦٥/٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٤٥٢/١٠‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٢١٩/٣‬‬

‫‪٨٣‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻌﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺵ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺪﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﻼﻡ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻟﻪ؟‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺮﻗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺒﻴﺐ ﻭﺳﺮﻗﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﺒﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺷﺎﺫﺍﻥ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺫﺍﻥ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢٧‬ـ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ )ﺕ‪٣١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﻴـﺮ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﱳ! ﻭﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﻴـﺮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﲟﱳ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﺼﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ ﲰﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳚﻌﻞ ﷲ‬
‫ﻧﺪﹰﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳚﻌﻞ ﷲ ﻧﺪﹰﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٢٨‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﺗـﻢ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﱵ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﲤﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ ﺇﻻ ﻭﲡﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﹸﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ! ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﺻﻔﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢٩‬ـ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳍﺞ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎ ﹰﻻ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﻢ!‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣٠‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٣٧٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٢٤٩٤/٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺹ‪.٣٦٠‬‬

‫‪٨٤‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٣٧٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٣١‬ـ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄـﲏ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪" :‬ﻟﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻮﺍﻃﻴﻞ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄـﲏ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﲤﺎﻡ‪" :‬ﺑﺼﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ‪:‬‬
‫"‪٧٣٥‬ــ ﻭﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻌﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻠﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ"؟‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ؛ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻑ ﻣﻐﲑﺓ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻄﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﺒﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ!‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ؛ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺿﻤﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪١٠٦١" :‬ــ ﻭﺳﺌﻞ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻄﺶ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺴﻘﻰ ﺑﻨﺒﻴﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﺸﻤﻪ ﻓﻘﻄﺐ ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﲟﺎﺀ ﻓﺼﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺷﺮﺑﻪ"؟‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٦١٣/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٣٠١/٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ( ﺹ‪ ،٣٣٩‬ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ‪ ،٣٤٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪،(٤٤٧/٦‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٥٠/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﻮﻥ )ﺿﻤﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ( ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٣٢٩‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٥٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ )‪ .(٨٩/٥‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ‪ :‬ﺩ‪.‬ﳏﻔﻮﻅ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺯﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬

‫‪٨٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﳛﲕ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺩﺍﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﻔﻆ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪" :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﺴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺭﺑﲔ"؛ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ!‬
‫ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲝﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻻ‪ :‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻄﺶ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻄﻮﻑ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺴﻘﻰ ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﻨﺒﻴﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺸﻤﻪ‪ "...‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٣٢‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ )ﺕ‪٣٨٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻏﻠﻂ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻧﻮﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ )‪ .(١٩٢/٦‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ‪ :‬ﺩ‪.‬ﳏﻔﻮﻅ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺯﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﳓﻮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻗﻄـﲏ )ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ‪.(٢٦٤/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪٨٦‬‬

‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﻱﺀ ﻣﺎﻧﻮﻯ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﳓﻮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻟﺼﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﱳ!‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻮﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺬﺷﻲ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٣٣‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٤٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٤٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﱪﻱ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ ﺃﻳﺴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﳊﻔﻆ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﱪ ﺳﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻻ ﳝﻴﺰ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٣٤‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٤٣٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴـﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺎﺭ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٠٦‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﲔ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪٣٥‬ـ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )ﺕ‪٤٥٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒـﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﺓ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﱴ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺳﻘﻂ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ")‪.(٥‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )‪١١٠/١‬ـ‪.(١١١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻘﺒﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﰲ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺮﻳﺐ )‪ (٤/٢‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‪" :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻮﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ"؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﲜﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺡ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄـﲏ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪ ،(٨١/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٤/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤٢٥/٤‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻳﺔ )‪ ،(٤٠٢/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٣٢٨/١١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﻷﰊ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺹ‪.١١٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ )ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ( ﺹ‪.١١٥‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺃﺗﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻣﱳ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻆ ﺃﻧﺒﺄ ﺍﻟـﺤﺴ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﻟـﺤﺎﻓ ﹸ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟـﻤ‪‬ﺎﻟ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻴﻨﹺـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻧﺒﺄ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺃﲪ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻔـﻴﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﺮ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﺡ‬
‫ﻆ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠـﻲ‬
‫ﺻﹺﺒﻬ‪‬ﺎﻧﹺـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻧﺒﺄ ﻋﻠـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟـﺤﺎﻓ ﹸ‬
‫ﺙ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻧﺒﺄ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜ ﹺﺮ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟـﺤﺎﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﻗﺎﻻ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺳﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻣـﺤﻤﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻠـﻴـﻤﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣـﺤﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﲝ ﹴﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻄﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺛﻨﺎ ﳛﲕ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔـﻴﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮ ﹴﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴـ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺣﺒـﻴ ﹺ‬
‫ﺶ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺣﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑـﻲ ﻣﺴﻌﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻡ«‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ﱠﻄﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ » :‬ﻋﻠﹶـ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ﹶﺬﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﹴ‬
‫ﺴﻘﹶـﻰ ﹶﻓﹸﺄﺗ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻨﺒـﻴ ‪‬ﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺸﻬﹺﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻆ ﺣﺪﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻠـﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ‪ :‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ﻫﻮ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪» :‬ﻻ«‪ .‬ﻟﻔ ﹸ‬
‫ﻼ ﹲﻝ‬
‫ﻑ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ﹶ‬
‫ﺚ ﺃﺑـﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﺮ ﳐﺘﺼ ‪‬ﺮ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪» :‬ﺣ‪‬ﻼ ﹲﻝ« ﻳﻌﻨـﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـﻴ ﹶﺬ‪.‬‬
‫ﻑ ﺑـﻴﺤﲕ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳـﻤ‪‬ﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺚ ﻣﻌﺮﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻋﻠـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ )ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ(‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﹶ ﹾﻠﺒﹺـ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑـﻲ ﺻﺎﻟـﺢﹴ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ﹾﻠﺒﹺـ ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ‬
‫ﻂ ﲝﺪﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻋﻠـﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻘﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﺎﻟـ ﹴﺢ ﺿﻌﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺴﻠﹶـ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻧﺒﺄ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟـﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟـﻤـﺤﻤﻮﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ‬
‫ﻱ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹶ‬
‫ﺕ ﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪ ﹺﻦ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣـﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠـﻲ ﺍﻟـﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹾ‬
‫ﺳﻔـﻴﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮ ﹴﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـﻴ ‪‬ﺬ ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﲰﻌﻴ ﹶﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳ ﹺﺰ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻓﺮﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔـﻴﺎﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟـ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﲰﻌﻴ ﹶﻞ‬
‫ﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔـﻴﺎ ﹶﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳ ﹺﺰ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟـ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟـ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﺍﻟـﺤﺪﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿﻌﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪٤٨/٢‬ـ‪.(٤٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪.(٣٠٤/٨‬‬

‫‪٨٨‬‬

‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻆ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟـﺤﺎﻓ ﹶ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪“ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻘ ﹺﱪ‬
‫ﻆ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜ ﹴﺮ ﺍﻟـﺠ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﻟـﺤﺎﻓ ﹶ‬
‫ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻣـﺤﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﻌﻘﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹾ‬
‫ﲔ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﺫ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﹶﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮ ﻟﹶـ ‪‬ﻢ ﺗ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﻓـﻲ ﻣﻘﱪ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟـﺤﺴ ﹺ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺰ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﻜ‪‬ﻴـ ﹴﻢ‬
‫ﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺢ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﲨﺎﻋ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺰ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺣﻜﻴـﻢﹴ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓـﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺷﻰ ٌﺀ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٣٦‬ـ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﱪﻱ‪" :‬ﺳﻜﻦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻧﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ")‪.(٢‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻴﺴﺮ ﱄ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻋﲏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰒ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺒﻬﻢ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻠﺖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺳﺠﻠﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ )ﺕ‪٣١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٤٥٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ!‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪.(٢١٠/١٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪ ،(٨١/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٤/٤‬‬

‫‪٨٩‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺒﲔ ﻟﻚ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﳘﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ!‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻟﻠﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺟﺮﻯ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺌﺘﲔ‪"..‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺌﺘﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‬
‫)ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﻭﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ )ﺕ‪١٦٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬
‫‪ ٣‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﳍﺞ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺑـ )ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳍﺞ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺑـ )ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ(!‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ )ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ(‪ ،‬ﰒ )ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻌﱪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺣﺎﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺑـ )ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳏﻞ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﲑ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼﺀ )‪.(٣٢١/٦‬‬

‫‪٩٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫هك أ‪4‬اع ‪  /$‬و"‪AB‬ت &‪ 1‬ا‪'6‬ح وا‪9) =(9‬ا>= "< ا‬
‫اب‪N L(, 1& ،‬ر‪ M‬و&‪G L(, 1‬ا‪ ،JK4‬رأ‪ H‬أن أ‪ 5(G‬وأ‪5EF‬‬
‫&‪ =" 1‬وا‪.$‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﻬﺪ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻴﺔ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ)‪:(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪!...‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺛﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻕ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻋﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻞ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ!‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻲ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻴﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺎﺫ ﻣﻌﻠﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻞ ﺷﺎﺫ! ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ! ﻭﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺁﺣﺎﺩ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ )‪.(١٠٥/٤) (١١٨/٢‬‬

‫‪٩١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ! ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻞ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪!...‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻯ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﲔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺋ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ!‬
‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻊ ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻋﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ "ﳔﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻋﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳊﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑـ )ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻴﺲ( )ﺕ‪٦٨٧‬ﻫـ(‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ")‪،(١‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﰒ ﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﻳﻔﺮﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﲡﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ!‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪.١‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫‪.٢‬ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫‪.٣‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ‬
‫‪.٤‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‬
‫‪.٥‬ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ‬
‫‪.٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫‪.٧‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻃﺒﻊ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪١٤١٢‬ﻫـ‪.‬‬

‫‪٩٢‬‬

‫‪.٨‬ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ‬

‫‪.٩‬ﺭﺍﻭﺓ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﺓ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﲰﺎﺀ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫‪.١٠‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﻏﺮ‬
‫‪.١١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ‬
‫‪.١٢‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫‪.١٣‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‬
‫‪.١٤‬ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ )ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ(‬
‫‪.١٥‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ )ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ(‬
‫‪.١٦‬ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‬
‫‪.١٧‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ‬
‫‪.١٨‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻙ‬
‫‪.١٩‬ﺍﳌﺪﺑﺞ )ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﻥ(‬
‫‪.٢٠‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ‬
‫‪.٢١‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺴﺮﻕ ﻭ )ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ(‬
‫‪.٢٢‬ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫‪.٢٣‬ﺍﳌﻀﻄﺮﺏ‬
‫‪.٢٤‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻌﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ‬
‫‪.٢٥‬ﺍﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ‬
‫‪.٢٦‬ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻝ‬
‫‪.٢٧‬ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ )ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ(‪) ،‬ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ( )ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺭﺓ(‬
‫‪.٢٨‬ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫‪.٢٩‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭ )ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ(‬

‫‪١٥٧‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻘﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﺴﻤﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻓﺎﳌﺘﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺇﺫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻓﻴﻮﻫﻢ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﻌﻨﺔ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻓﻴﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﲰﺎﻉ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻮﻫﻢ ﲰﺎﻋﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺗﺼﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﺪ‪‬ﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﺪ‪‬ﻛﻲ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫـﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻛﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺳﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ! ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺹ‪ ،٢٠‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺹ ‪.١٤٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺗﺼﺮﳛﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺼﺤﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺻﺤﺎﰊ ﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘـﻪ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ!! ﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﻧﺺ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲰﺎﻋﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺿﺤﻪ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻌﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﱢﺲ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﳏﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤـﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻜﺸﻒ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘـﻀﻴﺔ‬

‫=‬

‫‪١٥٨‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﳚﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﲰﺎﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ ﳛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪" :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﻄﺄ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺮﻳﺐ!‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺳﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﺪﻋﻲ ﲰﺎﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺳﺮﻕ ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﳌﱳ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺧﻒ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﳑﻦ ﺳﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﹰ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﲦﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﻮﺃ ﺑﻴﺘﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ!‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺏ ﳎﺮ‪‬ﺩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻔﻠﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻭﻗ ﹼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﺘﻀﺢ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﺘﻀﺢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻨﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺪﻱ ﻭﺑﻼﻝ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺃﻭﻫﻢ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ!‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﺗﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﳌﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺛﺒـﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﱳ!!ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﻮﻓﻖ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٤٢/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٤٢٢/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٤٣٩/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٣٦٠‬ﺍﳉـﺎﻣﻊ‬
‫)‪.(٢٨١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪.٦٠‬‬

‫‪١٥٩‬‬

‫ﻭﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺃﺑﻮﺣـﺎﰎ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ!‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺪﻱ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬

‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻﺗﺴﺒﻘﲏ ﺑﺂﻣﲔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻬﻠﱯ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻻﺗﺴﺒﻘﲏ ﺑﺂﻣﲔ"؟‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﰊ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺳﻞ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻬﻞ؟‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺻﺪﻭﻕ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﺣـﺎﰎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ)‪ (٤‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﲔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﹺﺒ ﹾﻘﻨﹺﻲ ﺑﹺﺂ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪" :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻠﻖ ﺑﻼﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ "ﺃﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ ﻗﺎﻝ"‬

‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻝ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،٤٧٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٨٢٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(٢٣/٢‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﹼﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒـﻞ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(١٢،١٥/٦‬ﺇﺫ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻻﺗﺴﺒﻘﲏ‬
‫ﺑﺂﻣﲔ" ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﻱ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ" ﺇﳕﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻼ ًﹰﻻ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻌﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﺲ ﳏﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ! ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ )‪.(١١٦/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٩٣٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٦٣/٢‬‬

‫‪١٦٠‬‬

‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ! ﺃﻋﲏ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺭﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ؛ ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ! ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻤﺎﱐ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٧٤٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﲰﻊ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻌﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ )ﻋﻦ( ﺃﻭ )ﻗﺎﻝ( ﻓﻬﻮ‬

‫ﳏﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻨﻌﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺃﰊ ﺣـﺎﰎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﺘﻪ ﻟﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ!‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻠﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﳍﺠﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﻛﺘﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻧﺼﹰﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﺎﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﲝﺴﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ!‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺗﻨﺼﻴﺺ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻳﲔ‬
‫ﳏﻞ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﰲ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﺫ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!)‪(٢‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺪﻱ ﻭﺑﻼﻝ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻻﺗﺴﺒﻘﲏ ﺑﺂﻣﲔ"‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﺒﻼﻝ‪" :‬ﻻﺗﺴﺒﻘﲏ ﺑﺂﻣﲔ"! ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢‬ـ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻲ )‪.(٢٣/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ )‪٣٥٧/٢‬ـ‪ ،٢٥٩‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٩٤٧‬‬

‫‪١٦١‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﳛﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺒﻪ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻏﻠﻂ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ .‬ﳛﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ "ﺣﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻘﺮ"‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﻴﲔ ﳛﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺷﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺴﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺜﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻞ )ﺃﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ(ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺳﺎﱂ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﱂ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺃﰊ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺎﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﰊ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻮﺛﻘﻪ ﻭﻻﻳﺮﺿﺎﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﹰﺍ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‪.‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﻟـﺤﺎﻓﻆ(‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺟﺰﺭﺓ )ﺕ‪٢٩٣‬ﻫـ( )ﺻﺎﻟـﺢ ﺑﻦ ﻣـﺤﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﲪﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﺟﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺳ‪‬ﻔـﻴﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴـﻠﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪‬ﻣﻬ‪‬ﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ (٥٢٧/٢‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﱐ‪ (١٦١٦/٤) ،‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ‪‬ـﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪) : (٢٨٢/٦‬ﳛﻤﻠﻮﻥ( ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ )ﳛﻴﻠﻮﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٧٧٢/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٦٥/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٨١٨/٢‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(١٨٩/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٣٠٨/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫)‪ ،(١٨٠/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٢١٨‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺳﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﲟﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٦٢‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴـﻠﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑـﻲ ﻗـﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﳛﻴـﻠﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠـﻰ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﺒ‪‬ﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣ‪‬ﻤﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻬﻤﻪ ﻓـﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓـﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﺟﺮﺃ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ )ﺃﺣﺬﻕ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺾ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓـﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓـﻴﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬
‫ﺤﻔﹶﻆ‬
‫ﺑـﺎﻟ ﹶﻜﺬ‪‬ﺏ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹶـﲔ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﹶـﻴ‪‬ـﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎﺫﻛﻮﻧـﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣ‪‬ﻤﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳﺪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻤﻲ‪.‬ﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻳﻐﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺑﺜﻘﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﺒﻬﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ‪" :‬ﺃﻓﻌﻤﻴﺎﻭﺍﻥ ﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ" ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﳛﻴﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻤﺮ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ ﲢﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻮﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﻮﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺛﻘﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻮﻱ‪" :‬ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٠٣/٢‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(٥٤/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(١٦٦/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜـﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴـﺚ ﺹ‪،٢٢٧‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(١٢٧/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٨٣٩‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٤٧٠/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ ﻷﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٢٣٩/٢‬ﺿﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴـﻠﻲ )‪ ،(١٠٧/٤‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٩٠/٢‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪،(٨٧/٣‬‬
‫‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ )‪ ،(١٢٥٠/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٢٠٥/٢‬ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٦٦٢/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣٦٣/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،٨٨٢‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٥٧/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٢٠٨/٤‬‬

‫‪١٦٣‬‬

‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨـﺘﻘﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻳﻜﺘﺒﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﰒ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻓﻴﻘﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﻪ‪ ...‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ!‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﻐﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﳌﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ!‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺯﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺠﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﻉ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ‬
‫)ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺣﺴﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺠﺒﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻃﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺭﲟﺎ ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺪﻭﻕ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ )ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺗﻐﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﺗﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺔ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺟﻲ )ﺕ‪٣٠٧‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺛﻘﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ‪.٤.‬ﺧﺖ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬

‫ﺣﺼﲔ ﻭﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﲑ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٣٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺛﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﻩ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﺗﻪ‪،‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺹ‪.٤٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ )‪ ،(٥٠٥/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٥٤٨/٢‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ )‪ ،(١٨٧/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪،(٦٩/٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﺕ ﺹ‪ ،١١١‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٢٦/١‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺗﻐﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﺗﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺿﺎﺑﻄﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺜﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ‪ .‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺧﺮﺓ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﺪ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﱐ ﺃﺑﻮﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺑﲏ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﱃ ﺑﲏ ﲤﻴﻢ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٠٧‬ﻫـ ﺃﻭ ‪٢١٠‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﻷﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﺱ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﻪ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻛﻴﹰﺎ! ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺬﺏ! ﻓﻌﻈﹼﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ!! ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻇﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻟﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﻛﱪ ﻓﺎﺧﺘﻠﻂ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﳑﻦ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺣﱴ ﻏﻔﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﲑﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﰲ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﲞﱪﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃﺭ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﺳﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻜﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﺠﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪ‪‬ﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺡ ﲟﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻪ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻳﺜﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﻛﱪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻟﺲ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺘﺐ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٦٣٣/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢١٠/٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٥٨٦‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٧٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٨/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(١٤٧٣/٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٥٧٠/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣٠١/٥‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،٥٢٣‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٤٨٧/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٩/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٦٠٥/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٥٥٥‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٤٠/٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻀﱯ‪.‬ﺧﺖ‪.‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )ﺕ‪٣٠٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺟﻌﻞ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﺎﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺿﺎﺣﻲ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻧﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺜﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺲ )ﺕ‪١٤٣‬ﻫـ(‪.‬ﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻧﺎﹰ‪ .٤ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ )ﺕ‪٢٩٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺿﻄﺮﺏ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻼ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﰲ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﺣﱴ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﲟﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻬﻢ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻃﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ("‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻓﺘﺮﻙ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﳎﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺍﳍﻤﺪﺍﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ )ﺕ‪ ٣‬ﺃﻭ‪١٤٤‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ )ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻧﹰﺎ(‪ .٤ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺩﻱﺀ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(١٧٣/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٦٩٤/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٨٦/٧‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٦٥٥‬ﺍﳉـﺎﻣﻊ‬
‫)‪.(١٧٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٣١/٢‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(٢٩/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(١٥١/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٤٦٥/٨‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،٨١٨‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٤١٣/٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ ‪" :‬ﻣﺎﺕ ‪١٣٨‬ﻫـ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(١٠/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ، (٢٣٩/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣٩/١٠‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٩٢٠‬ﺍﳉـﺎﻣﻊ‬
‫)‪.(٤٣١/٢‬‬

‫‪١٦٦‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺩ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻖ ﻟﻪ ﺕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ )ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺫﻫﺒﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﻭﺳﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﻘﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰒ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﺴﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺧﻠﹼﻂ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﻤﻲ ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻳﻠﻘﻦ ﻭﺭﺟﺤﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ )ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻮﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻉ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﱂ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺭﺁﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﻪ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻴﺐ ﺑﻜﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﰲ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺴﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻄﻴﻊ ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺭﻭﺡ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﻧﻜﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﻘﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬
‫ﻭﳛﺪﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﰒ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺫﻭﻳﻪ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﲔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳍﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ" )‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٧٠/٢‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(٤٥/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(١٦١/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٨٨/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،٨٣١‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٤٥٧/٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﺣﲔ "ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻄﺒﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٢٣٠٥/٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٥/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٢٧٧/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢١٩/١٠‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٩٥٧‬ﺍﳉـﺎﻣﻊ‬
‫)‪.(١٤٥/٣‬‬

‫‪١٦٧‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﱯ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻌﺎﺀ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻴﺨﹰﺎ ﺻﺪﻭﻗﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﺻﺪﻗﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻃﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٤٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﳊﻔﻆ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﱪ ﺳﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻻ ﳝﻴﺰ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺒﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪١٩٥‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪" :‬ﺩﻓﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻓﺎﺿﻄﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺩﻓﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻻ ﳚﻲﺀ ﲝﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳌﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﻴﻐﻠﻂ ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﻓﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪.١‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢‬ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(١٠٤/٣‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤٢٢/٤‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٣١٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٢٧٢٩/٧‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤٢٥/٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٣٨٢/٢‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻳﺔ )‪ ،(٤٠٢/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫)‪ ،(٣٢٨/١١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،١٠٧٥‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺹ‪.١٨٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،(٣٨٥/٨‬ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ )‪ ،(٢١٨/٩‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٢٦١٤/٧‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪،(٤٦٢/٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ )‪ ،(٣١٧/٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٤٠٧/٩‬‬

‫‪١٦٨‬‬

‫‪.٣‬ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٥‬ﺍﳌﻀﻄﺮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٦‬ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٧‬ﺍﶈﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٨‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٩‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٠‬ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪٥‬ـ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻭﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ؛ ﻓﺎﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ؛ ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻟﻪ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﻌﻄﻒ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺪﻣﺞ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﲟﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺼﻴﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻌﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ!"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﳌﹼﺎ ﻳﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﺭﺝ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺧﱪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﲨﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ!‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺡ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ )ﺕ‪٢٧٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺒﺔ ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺮ‪ /‬ﺹ‪٩٠‬ـ‪.٩١‬‬

‫‪١٦٩‬‬

‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹺﺯﻳ‪‬ﺎﺩٍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ﹸﺫ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺼﻠﹶﺎ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﻗﺮﹺﻳ ﹴ‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﱪ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑـﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑـﻲ ﻟـﻴﻠـﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺤﻔﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴـﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﺸﻴﻢ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟـﻢ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓـﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﰒ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻓـﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﳛﺘـﺞ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴـﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﺛﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﳝ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﻴﺲ ﻓـﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﰒ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ"‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺣﺪﺛﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻓـﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﰒ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻨﻈﺮﺗﻪ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻣﻠـﺤﻖ ﺑـﲔ‬
‫ﺳﻄﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﻭﺍﻟـﺤﻤﻴﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴـﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟـﻤـﺤﻔﻮﻅ ﻓـﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑـﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺑـﻲ‬
‫ﻟـﻴﻠـﻰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻓﺘﺘـﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‬
‫ﻓـﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻓـﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓـﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﰒ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ"؛ ﻓﺨﻄﺄ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟـﺤﺪﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ" ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳋﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ـ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٧٤٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٢٤٨/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٦٩٠‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻞ )‪ ،٣٧٣/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٧‬ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﱪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ )ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻚ ‪.(٤٨/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﳏﻠﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ!‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ )ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻚ ‪.(٥١/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﳊﺒﲑ )‪.(٢٢١/١‬‬

‫‪١٧٠‬‬

‫ﺍﷲ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٤٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﳊﻔﻆ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﱪ ﺳﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻻ ﳝﻴﺰ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﻣﱳ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﱳ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻸﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻻ ﺗﺒﺎﻏﻀﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲢﺎﺳﺪﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺪﺍﺑﺮﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮﺍ‪ ((..‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮﺍ( ﺃﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺮﱘ ﻣﻦ ﻣﱳ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻪ‪)) :‬ﻻ ﲡﺴﺴﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲢﺴﺴﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲢﺎﺳﺪﻭﺍ‪ .((،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﺄﺩﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ؛ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻮﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ! ﻓﻴﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﲔ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ! ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺴﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺼﻠﺖ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )ﺕ‪٦٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻃﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺪﺭﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳛﺬﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺁﻫﻢ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺐ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺼﻞ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ‪.٨٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.٨٧‬‬

‫‪١٧١‬‬

‫‪٦‬ـ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﺲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ! ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ!‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺩﺓ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﲰﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﲨﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(١‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻭﻗﺪ ﻏﻴ‪‬ﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺳﺘﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺗﺪﻟﻴﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻀﻌﻔﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻔﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ﻧﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‪.‬ﻉ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺜﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﻳﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻇﻬﲑ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﳛﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻏﺰﻭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﺣﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﻦ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺰﺍﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺃﺑﻮﺑﻜﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﺑﺎﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺻﻠﺤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ‪" :‬ﺛﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻭﺩﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺴﺘﺄﱏ ﰲ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺛﻘﺔ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻤﻦ ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻟﺲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﺪﺓ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻄﻲ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﱳ ﳌﱳ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﳌﱳ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺴﹰﺎ!‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ )ﺕ‪٢٣٤‬ﻫـ( ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﰊ ﻧـﻌﻴﻢ ﻓﺪﻟﹼﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻏﻮﺍ ﺭﻓﺲ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﺣﱴ ﺃﻗﻠﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﻨﻌﻪ ﻭﺭﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﻝ )‪.(٥٦٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ )‪.(٥٦١/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺳﺆﺍﻻﺕ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻷﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٢٨/١‬ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٩٣/٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷـﻒ )‪ ،(٢٥٤/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫)‪ ،(٩٦/١٠‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٩٣٢‬‬

‫‪١٧٢‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ـ ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ـ ﻓﺘﺤﻨﻴﺜﻪ ﳝﻨﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻚ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﳛﻲ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺴﺔ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺇ ﹼ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻏﲑﻩ ﳑﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ! ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ!‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﲪﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻴـﻨﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳐﻠﺪ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺬﺍﺏ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٩٧‬ﻫـ(‪" :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﲝﻤﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻩ ﻳﺪﻟﺲ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻼ ﺣﺠﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﻗﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺫﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻪ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﻷﰊ ﻋﺒﺲ ﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬

‫ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﲝﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﲔ ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻩ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﳛﺪﺙ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪ ،(١٣٦/١‬ﻭﺳـﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﺑـﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺁﺧـﺮ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ـﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٣/١‬ﻭﺗـﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐـﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫)‪٣٥٣/١٢‬ـ‪ ،(٣٥٤‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٦٩٦/٢‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(٢٣٨/١‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪.(٦١١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٧٧/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٩١٥/٣‬ﺍﳌﺘـﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(٢٤٩/١‬ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٦٣٧/١‬ﺍﳉـﺎﻣﻊ‬
‫)‪.(٢١١/١‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﲰﻪ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ )ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘـﻪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ‪" :‬ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ‪" :‬ﺃﰊ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫‪١٧٣‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ﺃﺑﻮﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﻔﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﱃ ﺑﲏ ﺳﻌـﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﺓ‪.‬ﺧﺖ‪ .‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ )ﺕ‪٢٣٠‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٠٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٢٧‬ﻫـ(‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻟﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺴﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ ‪-‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٨٠‬ﻫـ(‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ]ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ[ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ]ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ[ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺩﻟﹼﺲ"‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺒﻴﺢ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻟﺲ! ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ! ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(١‬‬

‫‪٧‬ـ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻻ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻐﲑﻩ ﻻ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﻃﺎﺭﻱﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺴﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪٨‬ـ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺮﺃﻩ ﺃﻭﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻃﺎﻋﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ)‪ .(٢‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻗﺼﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻺﻏﺮﺍﺏ!‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻘﻨﺘﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻓﺬﺍﻙ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٩٦/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٩٩٢/٣‬ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤١/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷـﻒ )‪ ،(٣٩٢/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫)‪ ،(٢٤٧/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٣٢٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٦٦/٢‬‬

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‫ﺑﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺬﺍﻙ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﺱ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﻴﺜﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻘﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺗﻘﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﺣﺎﺩﺛﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻟﻘﻦ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﻭﻳﻠﻘﻨﻪ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺿﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ!‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻲ )ﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺘﲔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ( ﻭﺳﺄﻟﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫) ﺕ ‪٢٠١‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ؟ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻓﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺮﺃﻫﺎ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻲ"‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﺌﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻊ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳛﻞ؟!"‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﱐ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ ﻓﺎﻧﻘﻠﺒﺖ")‪.(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻛﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﱵ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﺄﰐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﻬﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺌﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺗﻮﺭ‪‬ﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻠﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻠﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﺣﻔﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻠﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻤﻮﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪ .١٤٩‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ )‪ (٥٧٣/٢‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ!!ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪﻱ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ!‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﺃﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٣٦/١‬‬

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‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻤﻮﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺑﻪ ﺃﰊ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺷﻴﲏ ﻭﻋﻴﱯ ﻓﺴﻠﺒﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻔﺺ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﷲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﻚ ﻭﺩﻧﻴﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻠﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻧﻔﻌﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻚ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﻲ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻠﻲ ﺣﻔﺺ ﰲ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﰿ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﳝﺖ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺣﱴ ﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺪﻗﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ ‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﻧﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻧﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﳛﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺒﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻛﲔ( ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﻄﻪ ﲝﻀﺮﺗﻨﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑـﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻴﻚ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻒ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﻧﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰒ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﳛﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻣﻠﲏ ﻭﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ـ ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﲪﺪ ـ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺂﺩﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﻓﺲ ﳛﻲ ﺭﻓﺴﺔ ﺭﻣﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﳛﻲ ﻭﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺰﺍﻙ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺧﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺟﺮﺑﻚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺮﻣﺰﻱ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺹ‪٣٩٨‬ـ‪ ،٣٩٩‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻻﻋﺘـﺪﺍﻝ‬
‫)‪ (٦٤٥/٣‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺫﻛﺎﺋﻪ ﻓﺮﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮﳏﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺮﻣﺰﻱ ‪...‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺳﲑ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼﺀ )‪ ،(٣٢١/٦‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺮ!‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﺍ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺮﻣﺰﻱ( ﻭﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻮﻛﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﻭﻟـﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺌﺘﲔ‪"..‬ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ‬
‫)‪٨٧١/٢‬ـ‪ ،(٨٧٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪ .(٣٢٣/٢‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳـﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺌﺘﲔ"‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﻭﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ )ﺕ‪١٦٧‬ﻫـ( ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﻗﺪﱘ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ! ﻓﺴﺒﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٣/١‬ﻭﺑﻨﺤﻮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪٣٥٣/١٢‬ـ‪ ،(٣٥٤‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪‬ـﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪،(٢٧٤/٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣـﺠﺮ )‪ ،(٨٦٦/٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪ ،(٣٢٣/١‬ﻭﺳﺎﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪،(١٣٦/١‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ!‬

‫‪١٧٦‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻣﺸﺎﻳﺦ‬
‫ﳛﻜﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﺴﻤﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﺎﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻤﺪﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺌﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﻣﺘﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﱳ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﱳ ﳌﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺩﻓﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻞ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻭﻫﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺮﻭﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻋﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻀﺮ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ‬
‫ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻳﲔ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻃﻤﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺑﺄﻫﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺪﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ! ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ! ﻓﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻓﺮﻍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ!‬
‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻤﺎﺀ ﳑﻦ ﺣﻀﺮ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﻳﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﻬﻢ! ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺼﲑ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ!‬
‫ﰒ ﺍﻧﺘﺪﺏ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ! ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ! ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ! ﻓﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻝ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻓﺮﻍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ!‬
‫ﰒ ﺍﻧﺘﺪﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺇﱃ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺣﱴ ﻓﺮﻏﻮﺍ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ!‬
‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻓﺮﻏﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﻚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺗﻰ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﱳ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺘﻮ‪‬ﺎ! ﻓﺄﻗﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﺃﺫﻋﻨﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻀﻞ!")‪.(١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪ ،(٢٠/٢‬ﺳﲑ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼﺀ )‪.(٤٠٨/١٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺇﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺎ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﻳﺦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻟﻸﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪" :(٣٢١/١‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﺷﻴﻮﺥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱎ ﻋـﺪﺩ‬

‫=‬

‫‪١٧٧‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻚ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺌﹰﺎ ﻓﺠﻠﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺗﺒﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩﻩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﱳ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻘﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﺪﺭﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻓﻴﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻴﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺧﱪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ(!‬
‫‪٩‬ـ ﺭﺍﻭﺓ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﺓ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﲰﺎﺀ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﺥ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﲰﺎﺀ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﲢﺖ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﲏ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ‪‬ﻢ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﲤﻴﺰﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳘﹼﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻲ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻜﺜﺮ‪‬ﺎ")‪.(٢‬‬

‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﻳﻨﺠﱪ ‪‬ﻢ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺘﻬﻢ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﳍﺎ ﻭﺗﻴﻘﻈﻪ ﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺻﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺄﻫﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﲟﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺰﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ!‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﺗﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ ـ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ـ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﳑﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻜـﲑ ﻣﻨـﻬﻢ‪،‬‬

‫ﻓﺄﻓﻬﻢ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪ ،(٣٤٠/١‬ﻭﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(١١٨/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٢٧/١‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(٤١/١‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤٢/١‬ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ )‪.(٧٣/١‬‬

‫‪١٧٨‬‬

‫‪٢‬ـ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠـﻢ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ‪" :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻀﻌﻔﻪ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﱄ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﲪﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ! ﻭﺃﺻﻠﺤﺖ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ‪" :‬ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻓﻊ ﺇ ﹼ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ؛ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻴ‪‬ﺰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺯﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺠﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﻉ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﺱ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻲﺀ‪ .‬ﻫﻮ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺟﻲ )ﺕ‪٣٠٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺘﻴﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺳـﻌﺪ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﳜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﺻﺎﱀ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻬﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﺟﻮﻳﱪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺨﻲ‪) .‬ﺟﻮﻳﱪ( ﻟﻘﺐ‪ .‬ﺧﺪ‪ .‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻳﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(١٠٢ ،٩٩/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٢١٤/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷـﻒ )‪ ،(٢٢٥/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪،(١٦٦/١‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.١١٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ )‪ ،(٥٠٥/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٥٤٨/٢‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ )‪ ،(١٨٧/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪،(٦٩/٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﺕ ﺹ‪ ،١١١‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٢٦/١‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺗﻐﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﺗﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٧٩‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪ ٥‬ـ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳉﹸﻔﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪ .‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‬

‫ﺑﻦ ﺟﺤﺎﺩﺓ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٦‬ـ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﱂ ﺃﺭ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﺗﻪ ﻓﻼ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻤﺪ! ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٧‬ـ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺠﲑﺓ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﲑﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ‬

‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﲑﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪٨‬ـ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺎﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳊﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻜﹾﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﰲ‪ .‬ﻡ‪ .٤.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺎﺏ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺎﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﳑﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻚ ﰲ ﺻﺪﻗﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﺏ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﳜﻄﻲﺀ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ")‪ .(٥‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢١٧/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٢٩٨/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(١٢٣/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٢٠٥‬ﺍﳉـﺎﻣﻊ‬
‫)‪.(١٣٧/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٣٧/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٧١٧/٢‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(١٩٩/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٣٢٢/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،٢٣٥‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢٠٦/٢‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٦١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٤٠/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٧٤٨/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﲑ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ ﺹ‪.١١٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(١٠٦٥/٣‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(١٠٠/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٤١٥/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٤٠٣/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪.٣٥١‬‬

‫‪١٨٠‬‬

‫‪.١‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ‬
‫‪.٢‬ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣‬ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﱪﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤‬ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٥‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٦‬ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٧‬ﺻﺎﱀ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٨‬ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻫﻼﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٩‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٠‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١١‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٢‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٣‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٤‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺜﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٥‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٦‬ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲪﻴﺪ ﺍﳍﺬﱄ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٧‬ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٨‬ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﳎﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.١٩‬ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٠‬ﻋﻨﺒﺴﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢١‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٢‬ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٣‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٤‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﺼﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺎﺷﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٥‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٦‬ﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٧‬ﻣﻌﺪﻱ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٨‬ﻧﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻦ ﳒﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٢٩‬ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٨١‬‬

‫‪.٣٠‬ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣١‬ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻷﻳﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٢‬ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٣‬ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣٤‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٠‬ـ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﻏﺮ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﲏ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﻏﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٨٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺪ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ‬
‫ﻟﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﳏﺪﺛﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻋﻤﻦ ﻓﻮﻗﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﺩﻭﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ")‪(١‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺐ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﹼﻘﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،"...‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻃﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺑﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺗﱰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٨٤٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٢٤٦/٨‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٨٢٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺹ‪،١٧١‬‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٤١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻴﺔ ‪ ،٤٧٧/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢٧٧٢‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ )‪ ،٨٩/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٥٧‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﻟﻪ ﺹ‪ ،١٩٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇﺳ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ‬
‫)‪ ،(٣٢٢‬ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺷﺒﹺﻴ ﹴ‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺛﹶﺎﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒﹺﻴ ﹺ‬
‫ﻒ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ ﹲﺔ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹾﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻓﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺛﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹲﻞ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺯﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹺﺰﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﻭ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹲﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻙ‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﻭ‪‬ﺩ )ﺕ‪٢٧٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹸ‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ"ﺍﻫـ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٤٣٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )‪" :(٣٧٩/٤‬ﻏﺮﻳـﺐ ﻣـﻦ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪١٨٢‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﺹ‪ ،١٩٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٢٣‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳐﺮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ ‪ ،"...‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﻓﻜﺄﻥ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﲔ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪" :١٠٧٠‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ﳜﻄﻲﺀ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻐﲑ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﺕ ﺹ‪ ،٤٣٦‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫــ( ﺭﲪـﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪١٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺑﻌﺠﺎﺋﺐ‪ ،"...‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ!‬
‫ﻓﻠﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻋﻠﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ )ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﻻﺑﻨﻪ ﺹ‪.١٦٧‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﳋﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺨﺸﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ! ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٤٣٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﻋﻠﹼﺔ ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﺒﻴﺐ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺹ‪ ،٣٢٩‬ﻓﻌﻨﻌﻨﺘﻪ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ !‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻨﻌﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳐﺮﺍﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﺔ ﺃﺧـﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ )‪" :(١٣٥/٦‬ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳐﺮﺍﻕ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋـﺸﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ"ﺍﻫـ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ )‪ ،(١٨١/٧‬ﻭﻋـﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻌﺔ! ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺹ‪" :٣٣٠‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻼ ﻳـﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳐﺮﺍﻕ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﺒﻴﺐ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳝﺎﻥ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٨٩٤‬‬
‫ﻼ‪" :‬ﺻﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻖ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪ ،٤٩‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺎﺋ ﹰ‬
‫"ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﱰﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ"‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ( ﺹ‪" :٣٢٨‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ."..‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﻘﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴـﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺹ‪ ٣٢٨‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ‪"...‬ﺍﻫـ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ﻣﺎﺗﻊ ﻛﺜﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ!‬

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‫ﻓﺘﺠﻬﻞ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﱰﻟﺘﻬﻤﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ!‬
‫‪١١‬ـ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﲟﺎ ﳛﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ!‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻳﻜﺬﺏ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻏﻠﻂ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻭﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻐﲑﻩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺼﺤﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻜﹼﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﱳ!‬
‫‪١٢‬ـ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻨﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﳌﺘﻠﻚ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ‪ :‬ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﻏﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻣﺎﺀ ﻳﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﻋﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﻳﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ)‪ (٣‬ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪١٦١‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺼﺤﺐ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﺭﻓﻘﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺟﺮﺱ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺴﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ )ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺜﺮﺕ(‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(١٦٤/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٨‬‬
‫)‪.(٤٢٦/٦) (٣‬‬

‫‪١٨٤‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻫﻮ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻈﻢ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪١٦١‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ ﻭﺇﻧﺼﺎﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮ‪‬ﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺟﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺧﺎﻃﺒﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻧﺒﻬﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﺜﻮﺭﻩ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ ﻷﻥ ﺟ ﹼﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻠﻚ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﺎﺑﻄﹰﺎ ﺃﺭﺟﺢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ!‬
‫‪١٣‬ـ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺫﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﲜﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﳑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠ ﹰ‬
‫ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﺧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﳏﻞ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﳑﻦ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺭﺟﺢ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﳌﹼﺎ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺷﺎﺫ! ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﺮﺟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ!‬
‫ﻭﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻓﺎﺭﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ!‬

‫‪١٤‬ـ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ )ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ( ‪ :‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٤٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻋﻤﺪﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻓﺮﻛﺒﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺴﺘﻐﺮﺏ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪٣٢٧/١‬ـ‪ ، (٣٢٨‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺬﻑ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٧٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻞ ﺹ‪.٥٩‬‬

‫‪١٨٥‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )ﺕ‪٦٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﳓﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﻻ ﺍﳓﺼﺎﺭ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﲔ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻬﻢ‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﻠ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻀﻌﻒ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﻭﺧﻔﺘﻪ!‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﺸﻌﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ"ﺍﻫـ )‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺗﻮﳘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻻ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﲑ ﻓﻌﻠﻤﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺃﰐ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﹼﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ ﻃﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻺﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻠﺨﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻓﺔ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺷﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ")‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﻌﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪" :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻰ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﺎﺋﱵ ﺭﻛﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻓﺴﺪﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻻ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٩١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٧٤/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪ .١٤٢‬ﻭﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪ ١٤٥‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺃﰎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ!‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪٧٣/١‬ـ‪.(٧٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٠/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤١‬‬

‫‪١٨٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.(١)"...‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺣﺎﻟﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻏﺮﺍﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﺥ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﻏﺮﺍﺋﺒﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﻗﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻃﻠﺒﻪ؟ ﻓﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﲑ )ﺕ‪٢٣٤‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻋﻲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺿﻌﻔﻨﺎ ﻃﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻧﺎ‬
‫ﻏﺮﺍﺋﺐ"‪".‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺠــﻠﻲ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻓﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٤٨‬ﻫـ(‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﻴـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﺣـﺎﰎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﻴـﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺿﻌﻔﻨﺎ ﻃﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻧﺎ‬

‫ﻏﺮﺍﺋﺐ")‪.(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺃﺑﻮﺑﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﲑ‪.‬ﺥ‪.‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻭﲡﻨﺒﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﻘﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ! ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺟﻠﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﺫﺍﻛﺮﻩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻓﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺱ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺑﺎﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺳﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﰲ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(٤‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺛﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(٥‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺍ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪١٤٢‬ـ‪.١٤٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﻴﻞ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺄﻧﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺛﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻃﻴﻞ )‪.(٩٩/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٢٢٧٧/٦‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪ ،(٣٧٥/٣‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٦٨/٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٢٣١/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫)‪ ،(٥٢٦/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٩٠٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ )‪.(٦٧٢/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٦٣٠‬‬

‫‪١٨٧‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻃﻠﻖ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻤﹰﺎ )ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ)‪ .(٢‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ)‪ .(٣‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠــﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻌﻘﺒﹰﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺩﺡ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(٤‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺮﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﻭﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺩﺧﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴﺎﹰ؛ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻛﻼﻡ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ! ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ)‪ (٥‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻭﺩ؛ ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻨﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ! ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﰲ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨــﺎﺭﻱ )ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺻﺨﺮ ﻣﻮﺳـﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ(‬
‫ﻫــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــﺔ‪):‬‬
‫‪،١٢٥،٢٥٧،٢٦٥،٦٤٧،٧٤٦،١٠٨٤،١٧٠٢،١٧٥٠،٢٠٦٨،٢٢٥٢،٢٣٥٨،٢٣٨٦،٢٥٠٩،٢٦٧٣‬‬
‫‪.(٢٩١٨،٣٣٣٩،٣٣٦٦،٤٣٤٠،٤٩٤٥،٥٠٥٦،٥٧٩٨،٦٦٨٣،٦٧٩٩،٧٤٦٢ ،٢٩١٦‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻣـﺴـﻠﻢ ﻫـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‪،١٦٠٣ ،٧١٥ ،٦٩٥ ،٥٢٠ ،٣٦٨ ،٢٩٢) :‬‬
‫‪.(١٦٥٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻫـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‪:‬‬
‫)‪.(٦٧٩٩ ،٣٣٩ ،٢٣٥٨ ،٦٤٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳒﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﱪﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(٢٩٢‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇﺳ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺞ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫ﺱ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺙ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻃﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹴ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺶ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﹾﺂ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻛ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌ ﱠﺬ‪‬ﺑﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺬﱠﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻛﹺﺒ ﹴﲑ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻫ‪‬ـﺬﹶﺍ‬
‫ﺸ ﱠﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﺛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻃ ﹴ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺴِﻴ ﹴ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﹺﺎﻟ‪‬ﻨﻤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﹾﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻒ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ﱠﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹺﺰ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺶ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﹾﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋﻦ‪ ‬ﺳ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ"‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻱ ﺹ‪.٤٢٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱢﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪.(٦٧٢/١‬‬

‫‪١٨٨‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲡﻨﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒـﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄـﺎﻥ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻜﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺩﺍﻋﻤﹰﺎ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻗﻂ"!‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺟﻠﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﺫﺍﻛﺮﻩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺮﻓﺎ"!‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ! ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻏﻤﺰ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ( ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ!‬
‫‪١٥‬ـ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ )ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ( ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﻗ ﹼﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﻲ )ﺕ‪١٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻬﻢ‪] :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺙ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭ[ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﲑﻩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﳌﹼﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﳍﺎ ﺑﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫"ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ" ﻣﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺿﻌﻔﻬﺎ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ؛ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﲰﻌﺘﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻠﻲ )ﺕ‪٣٢٢‬ﻫـ( ﻭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﳑﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺹ‪ ،٤٨٢‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻓﺘﲔ!‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٢‬‬

‫‪١٨٩‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺳﻨﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ!‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ " :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ .‬ﺧﺖ‪.‬ﺩ‪ .٤‬ﺍﻝ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﻓﺎﺩﱐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪١٦‬ـ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ‪ :‬ﻭﺻﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺻﺎﳊﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻮﻱ! ﻭﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﻔﺔ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺆ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ!‬
‫‪١٧‬ـ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑـ )ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ(!)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪١٨‬ـ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻙ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺜﺮﺕ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﺪ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ!‬
‫ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ )ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ()‪ .(٣‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ!‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑـ )ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻙ(!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ )ﺕ‪٩١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﻓﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺐ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﻓﻮﻩ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺴﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻔﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻛﺜﺮ)‪(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪) :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢٤٣/٢‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٦١٣/٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(١٩٧/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣٠١/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪..٨٧١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪ ،(٣٢٨/٢‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٣٣٩/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٦٧٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﺹ‪ ،٤١‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ )‪..(٥٧٤/٢‬‬

‫‪١٩٠‬‬

‫‪١٩‬ـ ﺍﳌﺪﺑﺞ )ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﻥ(‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﲤﺎﺛﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺑﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ)‪ .(١‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻘﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻳﺦ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﻪ!"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﺎﺋﺪﺗﻪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺑﻌﻦ ﺇﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﻌﻨﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ "ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ" ﺑـ "ﻋﻦ" ﻫﻮ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ‪ :‬ﻣــﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺒﺪﻝ )ﻋﻦ(‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﻥ! ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ )ﺕ‪٥٨١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻗﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﻜﺴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ؛ ﰒ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ)‪" : (٥‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻋﺠﻴﺐ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ( ﺹ‪.٣٣٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺹ‪ ،١٢٤‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(١٦٨/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪(١٦٨/٤‬ﺯ‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻠﻄﺎﺋﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻷﻋﺎﺭﻑ ﺹ‪١٢٠‬ـ ‪ ، ،١٢١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪١٩١‬ـ ‪.١٩٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺹ‪ .٢٤٠‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪. ٥٥٣‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )ﺗﺮﺗﻴـﺐ ﺍﻟـﺴﻨﺪﻱ(‬
‫)‪ ،(١١١/٢‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﰲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺣﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٥٥‬ﻭﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ )ﺕ‪٥٨١‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻄﺎﺋﻒ ﺹ‪١٢٠‬ـ ‪ ، ،١٢١‬ﲢﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪١٩١‬ـ ‪ .١٩٢‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ )‪.(٢٤٨/٢‬‬

‫‪١٩١‬‬

‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺲ!"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢٠‬ـ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ ‪ :‬ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑـ )ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ(!‬
‫ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﳌﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺑـ )ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ(!‬
‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺘﻪ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﱪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺮﻕ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬

‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬

‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬

‫ﰲ‬

‫ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬

‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺳـﺎﱂ‬
‫ﰒ‬

‫ﻳﺄﰐ‬

‫ﻟﲑﻏﱭ‬

‫ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺫﺍ‬

‫ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺫﺍ‬

‫ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌ ‪‬ﺰ‬

‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺑﻦ‬

‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬

‫ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻊ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻛﱢﺐ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻀﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺩﺧﻠﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻥ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﺎﻫﲔ )‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻔﻲ ﺃﺑﻮﲝﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪.‬ﺩ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ )ﺕ‪٢٣٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ )ﺕ‪٢٧٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺗﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﱄ ﻃﺮﺣﻪ")‪ .(٣‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﺎﻫﲔ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )‪٣٣٩/١‬ـ‪.(٣٤٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ!‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٦١/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(١٦٠٥/٤‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(٩٧/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٦٣٦/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫)‪ ،(٢٢٦/٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٥٩٠‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٧٨/٢‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪١٩٢‬‬

‫)ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻔﺴﺮﹰﺍ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‪" :‬ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ"‪" :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣـﻨﺒﻞ ﰲ ﺃﰊ ﲝﺮ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻄﺮﺏ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬ﺮﻛﱢﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ")‪.(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪" :‬ﻓﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻘﺮﻳﺐ!‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺳﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﺪﻋﻲ ﲰﺎﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺳﺮﻕ ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﳌﱳ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺧﻒ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﳑﻦ ﺳﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﹰ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﲦﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﻮﺃ ﺑﻴﺘﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ!"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺴﺎﻛﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺒﺎﻧﺎ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻲ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻧﺎ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﺑﻮ ﺍﲪﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺮﻳﻔﻲ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﰊ ﻣﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﱯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻋﺪﻻ ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺎ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺴﺌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻋﻄﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ "‬
‫ﻭﺳﻜﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺴﺎﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺮﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺑﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹼﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺒﺢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﺿﻌﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﻩ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻘﻪ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ!‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪" :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻧﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺷﺎﻫﲔ ﺹ‪.١١٠‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪" :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪.٦٠‬‬

‫‪١٩٣‬‬

‫‪٢١‬ـ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺴﺮﻕ ﻭ )ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ( ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﱳ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻛﺴﺎﱂ ﻓﻴﺒﺪﻟﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻧﻈﲑﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻛﻨﺎﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺬﺑﹰﺎ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ )ﺕ‪٧٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‪" :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻤ‪‬ﺪ ‪ ...‬ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻪ ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﺪ‪‬ﻋﻲ ﲰﺎﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻛﺴﺎﱂ ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ﺑﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻧﻈﲑﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻛﻨﺎﻓﻊ‪ ...‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﰲ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺮﻭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻩ ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺁﺧﺮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻔﻰ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺗﻔﺮﺩﻩ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺑﺪﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﺎﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺣﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﲟﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻠﺰﻗﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﺃﺛﺒﺎﺕ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺹ‪.٢٣٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪.٦٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪٢١٩/٢‬ـ‪.(٢٢٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١١٩/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٤٤/١‬‬

‫‪١٩٤‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺑﺸﻬﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳓﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﻴﺼﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻬﻨﺎ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ)‪(٢‬‬

‫‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺑﺪﻝ‬

‫ـ ﻏﻠﻄﹰﺎ ﻭﻭﳘﹰﺎ ـ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ‬
‫ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻤﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ‪ :‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻟﻜﺸﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤﻲ )ﺕ‪٨٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﻭ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻠﻲ )‪٤٤٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫)ﺕ‪١٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﻭﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(٣‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻌﻘﺒﹰﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻠﻲ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺟﺮﺡ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺭ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺳﻮﻯ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(٤‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ؛ ﻭﱂ ﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ )ﺕ‪١٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻴﺐ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﻭ ﻻ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﹰﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻌﻲ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(٥‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺑﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ‪" :‬ﺟﺮﺡ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ"!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.٩١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٤١٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )‪.(٢٨٠/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻱ ﺹ‪.٤٢١‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٣٩٩/٦‬‬

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‫‪٢‬ـ ﻗﻄﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺴﲑ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﱪﻱ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٦٤‬ﻫـ( ﳛﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻳﻮﺻﻠﻪ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﳜﻄﻲﺀ")‪ .(١‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳜﻄﻲﺀ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﻓﻈﹸﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﻓﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻔﺮ‪‬ﻗﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ( ﻭ )ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ( ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﺪﻣﻪ!‬
‫‪٢٢‬ـ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ )ﺕ‪٨٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺘﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ")‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ )ﺕ‪٩١١‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺘﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﲰﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٨٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﲰﻪ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﻤﺴﻮﻥ ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ(‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ‪) ،‬ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺍﳉﺮﺷﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺍﺳﺘﺴﻘﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻧﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺸﻔﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﲞﲑﻧﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻠﻨﺎ"‪ .‬ﻓﺴﻘﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻛﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻠﻐﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪) :‬ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻞ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٢٠٧٥/٦‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪ ،(١٨/٣‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺹ‪ ،٣٢٧‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷـﻒ )‪ ،(١٣٨/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫)‪ ،(٣٨٢/٨‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٨٠٢‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٣٩٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(٢٢٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.٢٧٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )‪.(٥٠٥/٢‬‬

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‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ )ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻨﺪﺏ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺠﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺣﺐ )ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ )ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ(‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪) :‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ(‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ )ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ( ﰲ )ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻪ( ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ( ﻭﺃﹸﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻨﻒ )ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ( ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﲰﺎﻩ )ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﺮﻃﺎﹰ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﲨﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻻ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻻﲰﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺭﺍﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻻﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﲟﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻔﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﺏ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻆ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻛـ )ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ(‬
‫ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ )ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ( ﻭ )ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ( ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ )ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻊ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.٦٢٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٥٠٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ )‪.(٢٢٣/٣‬‬

‫‪١٩٧‬‬

‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﻨﻒ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﻭﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪ ٢٣‬ﺍﳌﻀﻄﺮﺏ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﱳ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﻓﻤﺮﺓ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻠﺐ! ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺒﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪١٩٥‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪" :‬ﺩﻓﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻁ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻓﺎﺿﻄﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺩﻓﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳚﻲﺀ ﲝﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ")‪ .(٢‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ :‬ﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺻﺤﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺸﺮ"‪ ،‬ﻋﱪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﱪ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻳﻀﻄﺮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ .(٣‬ﻳﻌﲏ ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ـ‬
‫‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻀﻄﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻓﻤﺮﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺮ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﺐ!)‪.(٤‬‬

‫‪٢٤‬ـ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻌﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﲔ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﻀﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻔﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ! ﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻂ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤﻲ )ﺕ‪٨٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﻼ‪" :‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ" ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﻤﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻤﻌﻀﻞ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ" ﻗﺎﺋ ﹰ‬

‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻮﻓﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ..." :‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻤﻌﻀﻞ‪ ،"..‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ؟‬
‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻃـﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ )ﺕ‪١٣٣٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻀﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﺻﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﲎ‬
‫ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻭﻻﰊ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬

‫‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﺞ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﹸﻗﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺻﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﳌﺎ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻛﺎﺗﻪ" ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻀ‪‬ﻞ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻃ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻌﻀﻞ ﻻ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪ .(٣٢٦/١‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ )‪.(٢٩٠/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،(٣٨٥/٨‬ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ )‪ ،(٢١٨/٩‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٢٦١٤/٧‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪،(٤٦٢/٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ )‪ ،(٣١٧/٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(٤٠٧/٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ )‪.(٥٠٠/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪.(٥٢٩/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.٢٧٣‬‬

‫‪١٩٨‬‬

‫‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪﻯ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺑـ "ﺍ ﹸﳌﻌ‪‬ﻀﻞ" ﻣﻦ ﺷﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﳐﺘﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﳐﺘﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﺑﺪﻝ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﺍ ﹴﻭ ﱂ ﺗﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﳐﺘﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻠﻖ ﻣﻌﻀﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ!‬
‫ﻭﺧﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻫﲏ ﺍﻵﻥ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ـ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ـ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻀﻞ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻌﻀﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻀﻞ!‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢٥‬ـ ﺍﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻠﹾﻘﻴﲏ )ﺕ‪٨٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪" :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﱂ ﺃﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺴﻤﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺑـ )ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ(‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑـ‬
‫)ﺍﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺲ!‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ(‪.‬‬
‫‪٢٦‬ـ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(٤٠٨/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.٢٨٦‬‬

‫‪١٩٩‬‬

‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺫﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﲜﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﻠ ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﳑﻦ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﺧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﲜﻤﻊ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﺎﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ!‬
‫‪٢٧‬ـ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ )ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ(‪) ،‬ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ( )ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺭﺓ(‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻟﲔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ )ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻨﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻟﲔ ﻓﺤﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ! ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻜﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ!‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺘﺮﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ!‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﶈﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ )ﺕ‪٣١١‬ﻫـ( ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺭﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻏﻴﻨﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﲟﺼﺮ ﰒ ﺗﺮﻛﺖ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻐﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳏﻞ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ )ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ( ﺃﻭ )ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ( ﺃﻭ )ﺗﻨﻜﺮ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ( ﺃﻭ )ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻜﺎﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻠﻢ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻔﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻧﻜﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٧٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺹ‪.١٤٣‬‬

‫‪٢٠٠‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺑﺴﺆ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻀﻌﻒ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺸﺎﳜﻪ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻻ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ؛ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﻟﺮﺗﺒﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﻮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻏﻠﻄﻪ ﻭﻭﳘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ؛ ﻓﻴﻌﺮﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﻕ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﹰﺍ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٦٧٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪(١‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪" :٧٧‬ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ؛ ﻓﺤﺪﻳﺜـﻪ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻓﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨـﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺮﺩﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺠﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺌﺘﺎ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﲝﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻴﻘﻆ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺛﻘـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻢ‬
‫ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎﺑﻌﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﳌﱳ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻛـﺜﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺟـﺪ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﺎﺡ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪" :٤٢‬ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﻳﻌـﺪ ﻣﻔـﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﻕ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﹰﺍ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪" :٧٨-٧٧‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﻤﻲ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺸﻴﻢ ﻭﺣﻔﺺ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺎﺙ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﺸﻴﺨﺔ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑـﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﺫﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻏﻤﺰﻭﻩ ﻭﻟﻴﻨﻮﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻮ‪‬ﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﺭﺟﺢ ﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺘـﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻠﻂ ﻭ ﻻﳜﻄﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻘـﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٠١‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺇﻛﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻔﻈﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻳﺼﲑﻩ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻧ‪‬ﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺛﻘﺔ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ؛ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﻭﻣﻨﻜﺮﹰﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻳﺼﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻛﺎﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﳐﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﺟﺮﺣﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪) :‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ()‪ ،(٣‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺻﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻖ ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﳊﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻓﻴﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻔﺮﺩﻩ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺯﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺬ‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ؟"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻄﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﲝـﺴﺒﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﻕ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﲝﺴﺒﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ‪ -‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺑـﺔ ﻻ ﲡـﺎﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻣ‪‬ﻞ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ )‪١٤٠/٣‬ـ‪.(١٤١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪" :‬ﺳﲑ ﺍﳊﺎﺙ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ" ﺹ‪.٢٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻈﺔ ﺹ‪٧٧‬ـ‪ ،٧٨‬ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻞ ﺹ‪١٩٩‬ـ‪.٢١٢‬‬

‫‪٢٠٢‬‬

‫"ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ"‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻌﻒ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻜﻨﻮﻱ )ﺕ‪١٣٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺃﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﳏﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺷﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ -‬ﻧﻘﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒـﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﲡﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ" ﰒ ﲡﺪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪" :‬ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪٢٨‬ـ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﻲ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٨٣٣‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻓﻴﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ )ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ(‪ .‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ )ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ( ﻭﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﱪ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳـﺎﱂ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﲑﻏﱭ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﰒ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺫﺍ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﳌ ‪‬ﺰ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﳚﺐ‬

‫ﻱﺳﺒﻖ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺜﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭﺱ ﺳﻬﻤﲔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺱ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﻨﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺧﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺲ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬

‫ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ )‪.(١١٨/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻠﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )‪ ،(١٢٦/٢‬ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻞ ﺹ‪. ٢٠١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪.(٣٦٢/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(١٦٢/١٠‬‬

‫‪٢٠٣‬‬

‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻟﻴﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺼﻠﱢﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﲨﻌﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻊ)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻓﻴﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻓﻴﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺲ")‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﲰ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ﺑـ "ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻠﺐ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﺮ‪‬ﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻟﻠﻤﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ )ﺕ‪١٣٣٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٢٩‬ـ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭ )ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ(‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤﻲ )ﺕ‪٨٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻇﻬﺮ ﱄ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺑﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻤﺪﻩ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺗﻐﻔﻴﻞ ﻓﻼ ﺇﰒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺰﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺿﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﻄﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤﻲ ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﺄﻱ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺿﻊ! ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﻻ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﹴﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻭﹴ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻠﻴﻘﺘﺼﺮ‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )‪٣٣٩/١‬ـ‪.(٣٤٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٣٤٣/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺹ‪.١٢٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.١٧٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.١٨٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.١٩٨‬‬

‫‪٢٠٤‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬
‫)ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ( ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫)ﺗﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤﻲ ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ؟‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻟﻪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﳌﹼﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻋﲔ‪" :‬ﻭﺿﺮﺏ ﻳﻘﻠﺒﻮﻥ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻏﹶﺐ ﰲ ﲰﺎﻋﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ‬
‫ﱂ ﺍﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ )ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﻋﻤﻦ ﺭﻣﻲ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ( ﻭﺇﻥ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻛﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﻒ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﻻ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺼﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻟﺒﻮﻥ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﺎﻣﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻼ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺣﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻐﻔﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﳌﹼﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﻋﲔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﲪﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻩ ﻭﳏﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻕ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻛﻤﻦ ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻋﻲ ﲰﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻓﻜﻞ ﺗﻌﻤﺪ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﻠﺐ!‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.٢٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.١٦٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪.(٨٥٢/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻇﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﱐ ﺹ‪.٤١١‬‬

‫‪٢٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ!‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﱐ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺼﻔﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻻ ﻋﻤﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﹸﻦ ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ـ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﻓﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ!‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ١‬ـ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻠﻴﺢ ﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﺍﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻭﻛﻴﻊ‪ .‬ﺑﺦ‪ .‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺯﻋﻢ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺿﺎﻋﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺪﻭﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﺃﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻭﻛﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻭﻛﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﻗﺎﱐ ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ )ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ ﺕ ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻴﻊ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺑﻪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻟﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﻳﻬﻢ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪ ٢‬ـ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ‪.‬ﺥ‪.‬ﺱ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﺑﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ )ﺕ‪٢٧٥‬ﻫـ(‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺛﻘﺔ"‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺟﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺪﺭﻙ ﻛﺬﺍﺏ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻬﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ"‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻬﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺣﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻱ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﻛﺬﺑﺎﹰ؛‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٢١٩/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٥٨٤/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٢٩٠/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٦٦/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،١٩٦‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٢٤/١‬‬

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‫ﻷﻥ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﻭﻓﻬﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻓﻴﻘﻪ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﺤﺪﺛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻛﺬﺍﺑﺎﹰ؟! ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋـﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﺮﺣﹰﺎ ﻭﳘﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻳﺴﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﻭﰲ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﻻ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﲔ ﻭ ﻻ ﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻫﻞ ﲰﻊ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟ )‪ .(١‬ﻓﻈﹸﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ!‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺳﻮﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ‪ .‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺕ‪.‬ﺱ‪.‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻠﻲ)ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﻮﰲ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺻﺎﳊﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﺒﺪﹰﺍ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﻀﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻫﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ﲝﺎﻝ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﻓﺄﺳﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﺮﺃ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﻀﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻫﻴﺔ"‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ‪" :‬ﻭﺛﻘﻮﻩ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﺛﻘﺔ ‪ ...‬ﺃﻓﺤﺶ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ )ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻁ( )‪ ،(٢٧٩/١‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ )‪ ،(٥٢٣/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٣٣٠/١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪ ،٩٥‬ﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻱ ﺹ‪ ،٣٩٧‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٣٢٣/٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٢٤٣‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﱂ ﺃﺟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻻﺕ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻵﺟﺮﻱ ﻷﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ )ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻁ(‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻌﻠﻘﻬﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻃﺒﻌﺔ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺍﺩ‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻠﻘﻨﻬﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻠﻘﻴﻬﺎ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ" ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺠـﻠﻲ )‪ ،(٤٤٣/١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٥١/١‬ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٢٥٣/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷـﻒ )‪،(٤٧٣/١‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪ ،١٣١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٤٢٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢٧٧/٤‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٣٦١/١‬‬

‫‪٢٠٧‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺴﺨﻪ ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺻﻞ‬
‫ﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﳍﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﺎﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻔﺖ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﲨﻌﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﻢ)‪:(١‬‬
‫‪ ١‬ـ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﳋﻮﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺘﻴﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻫﺎﻣﹼﺎ ﻏﻠﻴﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒـﻞ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺳﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺘﻴﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﻧﺎ ﺑﻠﺤﻤﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻧﺪﺭﻱ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺫﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ!‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺘﻴﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﲑ ﺧﺒﺚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ‪‬ﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﰊ ﺛﻨﺎ ﻣﺆﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺘﻴﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮﺕ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﳍﻢ ﻓﺎﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺠـﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٠٠،١٠٢/١‬‬

‫‪٢٠٨‬‬

‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺳﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪ ٣‬ـ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺃﺑﻮﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﺰﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻻﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺛﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣــﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﲣﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪ ٤‬ـ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺟﱪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﺭ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﳑﻦ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ"‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺝ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﺒﻴﺖ ﺟﱪﻳﻦ‪ ..‬ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﻟﻮﻻ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪‬ﺎ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪ ٥‬ـ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳍﺎﴰﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﱳ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻚ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ"‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳋﺼﻴﺐ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻴﺼﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﺒﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﲟﺎﺋﱵ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪ ٦‬ـ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳉﹸﻔﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ )‪.(٨١/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٢٣/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٣٠/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٢١٥/١‬‬

‫‪٢٠٩‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺤﺎﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻱ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺃﺑﻮﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺤﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻟﻴﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﺕ؛ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﳑﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺪﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ )ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺱ( ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻮﳘﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻐﻠﻂ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٧‬ـ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﻞ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺗﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ"‪ ... .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺜﻘﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻲ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ! ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﺑﻘﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﻟﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺪ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺼﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ؛ ﻓﺈﻟﺼﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑـ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻧﺴﺨﺘﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳋﻠﻴﻞ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺻﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺨﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ـ ﻭﺃﺑﻘﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ!‬

‫‪٨‬ـ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻪ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﻷﰊ ﻋﺒﺲ ﻟﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﺸـﺎﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﲝﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﲔ ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻩ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ‬
‫ﺑﻪ"‪ .‬ﰒ ﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ‪‬ﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻃﻼﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺙ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﺑﻌﻠﻮ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٧١٧/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٢٨٦/١‬‬

‫‪٢١٠‬‬

‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﱯ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﻭﺛﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺪﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺼﻔﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﱯ ﻓﻠﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻔﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻤﺪ ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺻﻔﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻴﺸﺘﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٩‬ـ ﺳﻌـﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﱪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﺃﺑﻮﺳﻬﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ )ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻠﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﺑﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﺨﺎﻳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﻊ ﳍﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻫﻮﻣﺔ ﻻ ﳛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﲞﱪﻩ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪١٠‬ـ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻧﱪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﱪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻋﻦ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺳﻜﻦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﻩ ﻭﺻﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟــﻚ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ‬
‫‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﲢﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )ﺕ‪٤٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ ﺃﻳﺴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ )ﺕ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺳﻜﻦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻧﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪١١‬ـ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﲪﺺ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳌﻬﺪﻱ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻫﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٩١٥/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٥٧/١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٤٦٩/٣‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٢٨٧/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٢٥/١‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪ ،(٨١/٩‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢٤/٤‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٢٩٥/١‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﲰﻪ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ‪" :‬ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻧﱪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺘﺮﲨﺘﻪ‪ ..." :‬ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻧﱪ"‪.‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺠﺒﲏ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﲞﱪﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ‪ ...‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺕ‪٢٣٣‬ﻫـ( ﺳﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰﻭﺟﻞ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰﻭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﱰﻝ ﻏﻴﺚ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﷲ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺻﻔﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ]ﺛﻨﺎ[ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳌﻬﺪﻱ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺡ ﰲ ﻧﺎﻗﻠﻴﻬﺎ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪١٢‬ـ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺪﺭ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺪﺭ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺛﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﲞﱪﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪١٣‬ـ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﺠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ )ﺕ‪١٩٨‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺎﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻳﻄﻮﻝ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪١٤‬ـ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻲ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﺴﻜﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻮ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻲ‪ .‬ﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ!‬

‫‪١٥‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﱃ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻜﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻠﺰﻗﺎﺕ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٣٢٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٢٦/١‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪.(١٥٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٣٧٩/١‬‬

‫‪٢١٢‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻷﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻔﺤﺶ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺼﻴﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻀﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻌﺔ ﻭﺃﺿﺤﻰ ﻭﻓﻄﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺷﺒﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﲟﺎﺋﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺍﺻﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻠﺰﻕ‬
‫ﺑﺈﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ﲝﺎﻝ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪١٦‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳒﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨـﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳜﻄﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﳍﺎ ﻳﻄﻮﻝ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪١٧‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺳﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻴﺼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌـﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﺴﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ"‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠـﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋـﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻴﺼﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪١٨‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﺳﻜﻦ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺒﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪١٩‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٣٨/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٤٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٤٦/٢‬‬

‫‪٢١٣‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺎﻭﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺛﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻌﹰﺎ‪."...‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻻ ﳜﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺳ ﹰ‬
‫ﰒ ﺳﺎﻕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺤﺪﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﱪﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻬﺪﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺴﺨﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﱄ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﻻﻛﺜﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺇ ﹼ‬
‫ﺷﻌﻴﺐ! "ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﲪﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬
‫ﱄ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫)ﺕ‪١٨١‬ﻫـ( ﻓﺄﺧﺮ‪‬ﺟﻪ ﺇ ﹼ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ! ﻓﻨﻈﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ! ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻤﺖ ﻓﺠﻠﺴﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺷﻲﺀ ﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﺖ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻬﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻚ ﻭ ﻻ ﲰﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻗﻂ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ]ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ[ ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ‪‬ﻢ ﳚﻴﺌﻮﻥ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻚ‬
‫ﻓﺄﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ!")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﱄ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٧٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٢،١٣/٢‬‬

‫‪٢١٤‬‬

‫‪ ٢٠‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺪﺍﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﻴﺼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﺠﻴﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺁﻓﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻗﻠﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﲬﺴﲔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻓﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺳـﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺎﺅﻩ ﺍﳊﻞ ﻣﻴﺘﺘﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻮﻻﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻴﺼﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺳﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌـﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﲟﺼﺎﺋﺐ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ "ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ" ﳑﻦ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﲑﻭﻳﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢١‬ـ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻮﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺗﻐﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺗﻐﻠﺐ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳛﻔﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ‬
‫‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﲔ ﻟﻪ؛ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٢٢‬ـ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﳎﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻊ ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٢٣‬ـ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻫﺎﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٩/٢‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤٨٨/٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﺹ‪.١٥٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٧٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(١٧٢٢/٥‬‬

‫‪٢١٥‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻳﻘﻠﺒﻪ ﻻ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪...‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻄﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻛﺮﻫﺖ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﻄﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺸﻬﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢٤‬ـ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪﻝ‪ .‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﳛﻞ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ"‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ‪‬ﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻫﲑ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺑﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٢٥‬ـ ﻛﺎﺩﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻌﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻔﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺤﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﺩﺡ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٢٦‬ـ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻠﻤﺎﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺷﺒﻴﻬﺔ ﲟﺄﰐ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٩٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٨١/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٢٢٩/٢‬‬

‫‪٢١٦‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ‪ .‬ﹼﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﻮﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺛﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻠﻤﺎﱐ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎﻫﺎ ؛ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺮﻫﺖ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎﻩ ﻏﻨﻴﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻛﺜﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢٧‬ـ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻮﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﱂ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺭﺁﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺑﹺﻪ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﻴﺐ ﺑﻜﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٢٨‬ـ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﰲ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺴﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻄﻴﻊ ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺭﻭﺡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ )ﺕ‪٢٧٧‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺍﻧﻜﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﻘﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬
‫ﻭﳛﺪﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﰒ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻳﲔ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺫﻭﻳﻪ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﲔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳍﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ"‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺣﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺛﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(٢٦٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٢٣٠٥/٦‬‬

‫‪٢١٧‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢٩‬ـ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﳏﻤﺪ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺑﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎﻥ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٣٠‬ـ ﻣﻴ‪‬ﺎﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺎﺋﺐ ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺑﻪ"‪ .‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎﻩ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻐﲑﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻣﻴﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪٣١‬ـ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻃـﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻮﻳﺮﻳﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ )ﺕ‪٢٩٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٦٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻤﻦ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻫﻢ ﻭ ﻻ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺳﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻠﻨﻀﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻃـﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻀﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻃـﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﺜﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻳﺴﺮﻗﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻤﻦ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٥/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢١٩/١٠‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٤٥/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(٣٨/٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪ ،(٢٥٠/١٠‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(١٥٥/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٢/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(٢٤٩٣/٧‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٢٥٨/٤‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪.(٢٠٧/٣‬‬

‫‪٢١٨‬‬

‫‪٣٢‬ـ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻫﺪﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﲑﺓ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻄﺢ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻫﺪﻡ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ ﻭ ﻻ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ﳑﺎ ﳛﻞ ﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﲑ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٣٣‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﻷﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﻤﺪﻫﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺳﺎﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺷﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻓﺮﻭﺥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻷﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻭﺻﻔﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺳﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻚ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﱄ ﻭﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪ ،(١١٤/٣‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )‪ (٥٠/٨‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻄﺢ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ )‪.(١٥٠/٣‬‬

‫‪٢١٩‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻮﻕ ﻟﻚ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﱂ ﺃﻗﺼﺪ ﺇﱃ ﲨﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻜﺜﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﺗﺴﺎﻋﻬﺎ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺒﻖ)‪(٢‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻫﻮ ـ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ـ ‪" :‬ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ـ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ـ "ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﲔ ﳑﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ـ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ـ‪" :‬ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﲔ ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻒ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻓﻴﻪ!)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﲟﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﻄﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺣﲔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻴــﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺬﻫـﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺇﻻ ﻛﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )ﺕ‪٢٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ )ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺟـﺎﺀﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻠﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،(٣٢٥/٦‬ﺣﻴـﺚ‬
‫ﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـ ‪‬ﻲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻌﻨـﻲ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ﺳﻬﻤﲔﹺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﹰﺎ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪" :‬ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻛﺜـ ‪‬ﲑ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﺱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟـﺸ‪‬ﺎﻓ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺱ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺸ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺـ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺫﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭ ﹺﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ﺳﻬﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﲔ ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺟ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻬﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﺱ ﺳﻬﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳـ ﹺﻢ‪ :‬ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﲰ ‪‬ﻊ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻔﺮ ﹺ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٢٠‬‬

‫ﻭﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺒ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻘ‪‬ﻴﲏ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺳﻼﻥ )ﺕ‪٨٢٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﲨﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺑﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﲎ‬
‫ﲜﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻼﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻠﻘ‪‬ﻴﲏ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺑﻴﺎﺕ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﺍﳉﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻘﻴﲏ ـ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ـ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ]ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ[ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻧﻄﻴﻞ ﺑﻺﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻠﹾﻘﻴﲏ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ! ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺪﺕ ﰲ ﲨﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﲣﺮﳚﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﲝﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﷲ ﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﺩ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﻆ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﺤ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻢ ﻓـﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻟـﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻛﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﺻﺮﳛﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٣٦٠‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﻠـﺐ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﳕﻴـﺮ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﱳ! ﻭﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﻴـﺮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﲟﱳ ﺍﳋـﱪ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﺼﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ ﲰﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳚﻌﻞ ﷲ ﻧﺪﹰﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳚﻌﻞ ﷲ ﻧﺪﹰﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ"ﺍﻫـ ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )ﺕ‪٤٥٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪٤٨/٢‬ـ‪ ،(٤٩‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺃﺗﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺫﻟﻚ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ‬
‫ﺠﻨﹺﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ"‬
‫ﻀ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ﹺﺭﺉ‪‬؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ! ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻇ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٨/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪.(٣٤٦/١‬‬

‫‪٢٢١‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﹶﺜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮﺏﹴ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻄﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻔ ﹺ‬
‫" ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻈﱡﻠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻇﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻇ ﱠﻞ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻇﱡﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ‬
‫ﺸﹶﺄ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﺷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻝ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ﹴ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹲﺓ ﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧﻔﹶﺎﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺷﻤ‪‬ﺎﻟﹸﻪُ‪.‬‬
‫ﻕ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ﹺ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﹾﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ‬
‫ﻱ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻔ ﹺ‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹺ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤﹾﺜ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧﻔﹶﺎﻫ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻕ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻗﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺷﻤ‪‬ﺎﻟ ُﹸﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ )ﺕ‪٥٤٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪" :‬ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺈ)‪(٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ)‪(٣‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٠٣١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺎﺑﲔ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٧٧٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻠﺲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٢٢‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﲔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎ‪" :‬ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻏﻔﻠﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ)‪ (٢‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻗﺼﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﰲ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ)‪...(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ]ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﻠﻘﻴﲏ[‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ)‪ .(٥‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ)‪) :(٦‬ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺎ(‪".‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٧‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﳑﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ )ﺕ‪٥٤٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﲟﺜﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰲ‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫)‪ ،(٦٦٠‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٤٢٣‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺎﺀ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺧﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٦٤٧٩‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺣﺶ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪.(٦٨٠٦‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ )‪.(٥٦٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.٩١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﲟﺜﺎﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﱐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺒﻬﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‬

‫ﻓﺎﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ!‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺹ‪.١٠٠٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺹ‪ ،١٠٠٤‬ﻭﻧﺺ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ‬
‫ﺃﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﻟﻪ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪٤٨/٢‬ـ‪ (٤٩‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲰﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ‬
‫)ﻗﻠﺒﹰﺎ(‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ!‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٤٦/٢‬‬

‫‪٢٢٣‬‬

‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ" ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻟﻨﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﺒﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣـﺠﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳑﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ‪ :‬ﳛﲕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﳕﲑ)‪(٢‬ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﳛﲕ ﻭﺃﺷﻌﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﺰﻫﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻫﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻗﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻘﺒﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﳛﲕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﻭﺍﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ "ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ )ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ(‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﺑﻜﻮﻥ ﳛﲕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺧﺮﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ)‪ (٤‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ)‪ (٥‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﲰﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻗﻲ ﻭﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﳛﲕ ‪] ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻨﻪ[‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﳌﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺯﻫﲑﺍ ﺗﺮﺟﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﳛﲕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ )‪.(٥٦٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ "ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ"!‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺟﺰﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ )‪ ،١٨٦/١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٣٥٨‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘـﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳛﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻪ‪" : ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ‪" ،‬ﻻﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ" ﻗﺪ ﺧﻮﻟﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻏﲑ ﳛﻲ‪" :‬ﻻﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ"!"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴـﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ )‪ (١٠٤/٣‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﻟﻔﻆ ﺯﻫﲑ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻫﲑ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻫﲑ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳛﻲ!‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻠﺲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٦٦٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(١٤٢٣‬‬

‫‪٢٢٤‬‬

‫ﳏﺘﻤﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﲜﻴﺪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﺘﺤﺪ‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ)‪ (١‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﳛﲕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺭﻓﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳑﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪" :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ"؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﻜﺴﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻓﻮﺍﺧﺬ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ"؛ ﻟﻜﻮ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺘﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺼﺮ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﻈﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﺃﺭﺟﺢ ـ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ـ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴـﻢ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﻣﺴﺪﺩ ﺛﻨﺎ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺡ ﻭﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺼﺮ ﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻻ‪ :‬ﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﺧﻴﺜﻤﺔ ﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺛﻨﺎ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻳﻈﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻇﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻇﻠﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺎﺏ ﻧﺸﺄ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﺰﻭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﻣﻌﻠﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻼﻥ ﲢﺎﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺗﻔﺮﻗﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺩﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﲨﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﺧﺎﻑ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻞ ﺗﺼﺪﻕ ﺑﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﻓﺄﺧﻔﺎﻫﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴـﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻌﺮ ﲝﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻞ ﻗﻮﻱ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٤٦/٢‬‬

‫‪٢٢٥‬‬

‫ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻖ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺭﺟﻞ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻔﺎﺿﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﻩ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺇﺫ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻭﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ!‬
‫ﻭﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ"‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ‪" :‬ﺣﱴ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ"‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻷﰊ ﻧﻌﻴـﻢ )‪ ،١٠٣/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢٣٠٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺎﺑﲔ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٧٧٧‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺐ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٣٩١‬ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،٣٣٢/١٦‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٧٣٣٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪ ،(٨٧/١٠‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،٤٦٩‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ )‪ ،٥٢/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣١٦٥‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ )‪ ،١٨٧/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫‪. (٤٧١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺹ‪ ،٣٢٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٤٦٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٨٠٦‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪،٣٣٨/١٠‬‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٤٨٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ )‪ ،١٨٧/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٤٧٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ )‪ ،٤٤٣/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٥٧/١٣) ،(٥٤٥‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪،(٦٩٧٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﱪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ )ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻚ ‪.(٢١٤/١٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٤١٤/١٥‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٩٦٦٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﻭﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛـﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﻗﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ )‪ ،(٦٤٧٩ ،١٤٢٣ ،٦٦٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺐ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٢٩١‬ﻭﺃﺣﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﱳ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٢٦‬‬

‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ"‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ!‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﳛﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ)‪ ،(٤‬ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٠٣١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٥٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،١٠٣/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢٣٠٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪.(١٦٢/٨) ،(١٩٠/٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﻭﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴـﺪﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﻻﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻻﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﴰﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﳝﻴﻨـﻪ"‬
‫ﻭﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ"ﺍﻫـ ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،١٠٣/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢٣٠٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،١٠٣/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢٣٠٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪﻩ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ (٥٨٤٥‬ﻣـﻦ‬

‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺳﺘﺔ ﻳﻈﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻪ‪ "...‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﺎﺿﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﻩ!‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪.(٤١٥/١٥‬‬

٢٢٧

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﻮﻳﺔ ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺆﺫﻧﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮﳏﺬﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻳﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻐﺮﻧﻜﻢ ﺃﺫﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺫﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻄﻌﻤﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﻮﻳﻪ )‪ ،٨٥٩/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪٩٨٠‬ـ ‪ (١٥٢٣‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪١٨٥/٦‬ـ‪،(١٨٦‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )‪٢١١/١‬ـ‪ ٢١٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٤٠٨-٤٠٧‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻣـﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟـﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﻟﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻨﻌﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٣١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺧﱪ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻷﱐ ﻻ ﺃﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺧﱪ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻓﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﻠﺖ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺧﱪ ﻫـﺸﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ!‬
‫ﰒ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪١٤٠/١‬ـ‪ (١٤١‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷــﻌﺒﺔ ﻋـﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﺍﻟﺖ ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﺟﺰﺍﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺧـﲑﹰﺍ ﻛﻔﺎﻧﺎﻣﺆﻧـﺔ ﺗـﺪﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﺴﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ!‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹼﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﺋ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹶـﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻗﻠﹾـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫" ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎﻋ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﹶـﺎ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻄﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗﺮﹺﻳﻦ‪‬؟ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹶﺫﺍ ﹶﺃ ﱠﺫ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﻓﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﱠﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ـ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺿﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ﱠﺫ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﹺﺒ ‪‬ﺢ"‪.‬‬
‫ـ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺆﺫﻧﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺆﺫﻧﲔ"!‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪١٤٠/١‬ـ‪ (١٤١‬ﻋﻦ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﱴ ﺗﻮﺗﺮﻳﻦ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺫﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺆﺫﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﺫﺍﻧﲔ!‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﲨﻠﺔ ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ" ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﺘﻪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ (١٤١-١٤٠/١‬ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٢٩‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳛﲕ ]ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻠﻲ[ ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ » :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ")‪.(١‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻧﻜﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﺫ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺫﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺘـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺼ ﹺﺮ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺿﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﻳﻐﺮﻧﻜﻢ ﺃﺫﺍﻧﻪ" ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ﱠﺫ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺫﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ"؟‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻭﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﺕ ‪ ،٣٥٠‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﻼﻡ ﳏﻘﻘﻪ ﺟﺰﺍﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﺹ‪ (٣٥٧-٣٦٥‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )‪ ،٢١١/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٠٦‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ )ﺍﻹﺣـﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ ،٢٥١/٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٤٧٣‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪ ،(٣٨٢/١‬ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻋﻤﻰ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺫﻥ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻳﺒﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻏﻠﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ!"‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺛﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪" :٦١٥‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻓﻴﺨﻄﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻏﻠﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ!" ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻭﳘﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(٦٢٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﻄﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠـﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓ ﹴﻊ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ ،(١٠٩٢‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻢﹺ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪":‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹶﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ"‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻏﻠﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ! ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ؟!‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻳﺒﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ" ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﺫﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳜﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦١٧‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٣٠‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺧﱪ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻷﱐ ﻻ ﺃﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺧﱪ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻓﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺮ ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺷﻌـﺒﺔ ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺴﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﱰﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻳﺼﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻨﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻧﺘﺴﺤﺮ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺼ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ )‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨﹺﻲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺯ‪‬ﺍﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻥ( ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒـﻞ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ﹴ‬
‫ﺴ ﹶﺔ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ﹺ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ!‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ﱠﺫ ﹶﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ﱠﺫ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄ ﹸﻛﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹸﺓ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺒﻘﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻟﹺﺒﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻬ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﻮﺭﹺﻱ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺴﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﻄﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٠٩٢‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ﻳ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ـ ﹴﻞ‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ! ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟﹶـ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ـ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ"؛ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﲣﺎﻟﻒ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻗﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ!‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )‪.(٢١٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﻮﻳﻪ )‪ ،٢٠١/٥‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ .(٢٣٢٩-١‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤٣٣/٦‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ـ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺣﻨﺒـﻞ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﱠﻔﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ﹴ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺑﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ـ ﹴﻞ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ـ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﻱ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺣ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ"‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔـﺮ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹺﺰ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ!‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ .(٤٣٣/٦‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﺎﱐ )‪ ،(٢٦٠/٦‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘـﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٣١‬‬

‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻔ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﹾﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﻱ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﺑﺎﺏ ﻫﻞ ﻳﺆﺫﻧﺎﻥ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﺍﺩﻯ )‪ ،(١٠/٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٤٠‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺫﻧﺎﻥ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﺍﺩﻯ‪ ،٥٠١/١) ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٦٠٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ ،(١٣٨/١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )‪ ،٢١٠/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٠٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،٢٥٢/٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٤٧٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄـﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،١٩١/٢٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٨٢‬ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﺍﺫﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻴﺴﻪ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ (٣٨٢/١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺯﻭﻕ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻣﱳ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺣﻪ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ .(٤٣٣/٦‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )‪ ،٢١٠/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٠٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(١٩١/٢٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ( ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﻳﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﻮﻳﺔ )‪.(٢٠١/٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٤٣٣/٦‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(٣٨٢/١‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ )‪.(١٣٨/١‬‬
‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ!‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌـﺒﺔ ﳎﺰﻭﻣﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ"‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺹ‪ ،٢٣١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٦٦١‬ﻭﻣـﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،(٣٨٢/١‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺣﺪﺛﺘﲏ ﻋﻤﱵ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻳﺆﺫﻧﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻓﻜﻨﺎ ﳒﺒﺲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺣﱴ ﻧﺘﺴﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺫﺍﻧﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﱰﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻳﺼﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ (١٩/٢٤‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌـﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٣٢‬‬

‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪" : (٣٨٢/١‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺯﻭﻕ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺪﳝﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ]ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ[ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﻭﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺯﻭﻕ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﺍﺫﺍﻥ!‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ! ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ! ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ؛ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ!‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ )‪" :(١٠٢/٢‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ]ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ[ ﳎﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﻓـﺎﺧﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ‪ ،"...‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ "ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ "‪".‬ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،٣١١/٩‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٣٥٧/٩ ،٥٤٢٤‬ﲢـﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪ ،(٥٤٩٨‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌـﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔـﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ!‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﲏ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ (١٣٨/١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌـﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧـﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ" ﺷﻚ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ"!‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ـ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﺓ ـ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ـ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ ـ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ـ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ـ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﻴﲔ ﺑﻘﻠـﺐ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻗﺘﻪ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ )‪٣٦٤/٢‬ـ‪" :(٣٦٥‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﻓﺎﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺛـﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻛﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺪﳝﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﻭﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺯﻭﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﺍﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﻭﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺯﻭﻕ ﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﻤﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺎﺭﺿﻬﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻃﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠـﺮ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٣٣‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ! ﺻﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨــﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻕ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺃﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ":‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓ ﹴﻊ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﻱ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺯ ‪‬‬
‫ﺡ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨﹺﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹶﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺲ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ﺻ‪‬ﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﺫﹶﺍﻥﹸ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻃ ﹾﺄ ﹶﻃﹶﺄ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ﹸﻞ‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺑﹶﺄﺻ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ﺍﹾﻟﹸﺄ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻴﹺﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻜﺬﹶﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﲞﻼﻓﻪ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﺃﺫﻥ‪".‬ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٢٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﻄﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٠٩٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٢١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﻄﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٠٩٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴـﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﻳﺞ ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮﻩ!‬

‫‪٢٣٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ )ﺕ‪٣١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺤﺢ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻳﻀﺎﺩ ﺧﱪ ﺳﺎﱂ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻮﺍﺋﺐ ﺑﲔ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﱄ ﺑﻼﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺃﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺻﻌﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻓﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺋﺖ ﻧﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻓﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺻﻌﺪ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻓﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺒﻼﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺘﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻻ ﺑﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻃﻌﺎﻣﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﺍﺑﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺇﳕﺎ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻻ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺧﱪ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺫﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ" ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳋﱪ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺫﻥ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ"‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﳏﺮﻣﲔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺍﺫﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻝ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻭﻫـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺟـﺎﺀﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﺗﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ )‪٣٦٤/٢‬ـ‪ (٣٦٥‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﲰﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﺪﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﱂ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﻓﺎﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ‪ ... ،‬ﻭﺧﱪ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﲰﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ‬

‫‪٢٣٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﺆﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻻ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﳌﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻻ ﺑﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﰒ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻻ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧـﺰﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎ ﹴﰎ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺧﱪﺍﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﳘﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻜﻢ ﺻﻨﺎﻋ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠ ﹺﻢ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﻀﺎﺩ‪‬ﺍﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻴﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺑﻼ ﹴﻝ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ‬
‫ﱄ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻨﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮ ﹺﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎ‪‬ﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻟ‪‬ﺼﻼﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻧﻮﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹲﻝ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻴﺎ ﹶ‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻴﺎﱄ ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎ ﹺﺭ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺢ ﻟ‪‬ﺼﻼ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺗﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﱄ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣ ﹰﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﻨﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹲﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﺔ ﺍﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡﹴ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴ ﹺﻞ ﻟﻴﺎ ﹶ‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺢ ﻟ‪‬ﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻏ ﹺﲑ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﱪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻴﺎﱄ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﹺ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ)‪(٣‬ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫]ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ[‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻣﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪ (٤‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﲔ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﻌﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺫﻥ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )‪٢١٢/١‬ـ‪.(٢١٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪٢٥٢/٨‬ـ‪.(٢٥٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ‪‬ﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪٢٤٧/٤‬ـ‪ ،(٢٤٨‬ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪" :‬ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﺔ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺘﻪ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨـﻬﻢ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )‪٨٧٨/٢‬ـ‪.(٨٨١‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﳘﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ!‬

‫‪٢٣٦‬‬

‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺿﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻐﺮﻧﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺫﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻄﻌﻤﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ")‪(١‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﻜﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻏﻠﻂ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ)‪(٣‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺯﺍﺩ " ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻳﺒﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ" ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻏﻠﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ"‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﲨﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﻌﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﲟﺎ ﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻮﺑﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳛﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﺫﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳜﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦١٧‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺑﻴـﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﻄﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٠٩٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ " :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻱ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ! ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ"!‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪١٨٥/٦‬ـ‪ (١٨٦‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﳍﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ! ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ )‪ ،(٤٣٣/٦‬ﻭﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ!‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(٣٨٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻋﻤﻰ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺫﻥ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻳﺒﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ! ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻏﻠﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ!"‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻏﻠﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ!" ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻭﳘﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(٦٢٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﻄﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠـﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓ ﹴﻊ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ ،(١٠٩٢‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪":‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹶﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ"‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻏﻠﻂ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ! ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ؟! ﻭﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﻋﻠﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﻳﺞ!‬

‫‪٢٣٧‬‬

‫ﻭﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﺪﻩ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻧﻮﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳍﻤﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﺎﻥ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺘﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﺒﺢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ " ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﳚﻠﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﱵ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﲤﻄﺄ ﰒ ﺃﺫﻥ " ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﲪﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ " ﺃﻥ ﺳﺎﺋﻼ ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻼﻻ ﻓﺄﺫﻥ ﺣﲔ ﻃﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ" ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ)‪(٣‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻠﻘﻴﲏ ﰲ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﺹ‪.١٠٠٣‬‬
‫ﻕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺓ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥١٩‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪ ‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺴﹺ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹶ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻔ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃﺓ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺠ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﺭ‪‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﻄﱠﻰ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹴﺮ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪ ﹰﺓ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫ ﹸﻥ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺶ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺩ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻌ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺕ"‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(١٠٥/١‬‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥٤٤‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪" :‬ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻖ‬
‫ﲔ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻗﺖ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ﺻ‪‬ﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹴ‬
‫ﺼﻠﱠﻰ ﹺﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹸﻞ‬
‫ﺼﻠﹶﺎ ﹸﺓ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﻠﱠﻰ ﹺﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃﺳ‪ ‬ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﹸﺄﻗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻠﹶﺎ ﹸﺓ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ"‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺼﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﺴـﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫ﺼﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪ ‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻗ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ " (٦١٣‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﱠﺫ ﹶﻥ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻗﹶـﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ﱢﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨﹺﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺯ‪‬ﺍﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻖ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﻏﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺸ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﻏﹶﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ﹲﺔ ﺑ‪‬ﻴﻀ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹲﺔ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻴ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧﹺﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺑﹺﺎﻟ ﱡﻈ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺑ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﲔ ﹶﻃﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﻔﹶ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ـﺸ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻐ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ﹲﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻮ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹸﺛﹸﻠ ﹸ‬
‫‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻗ ‪‬‬

‫‪٢٣٨‬‬

‫ﰒ ﺃﺭﺩﻑ ﺑﺎﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺗﱰﻝ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻟﻀﻌﻔﻪ ﻭﻭﻛﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ‪" .‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻤﻊ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ )ﺕ‪٧٥١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻧﻮﺑﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻧﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻠﻮﺍﻭﻳﺸﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﳚﻰﺀ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻗﻂ ﻻ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻏﻠﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﳛﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺧﱪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﲰﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﳜﻨﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪١٠٢/٢‬ـ‪ .(١٠٣‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻓـﺄﺫﻥ ﻗﺒـﻞ‬
‫ﻃﻠﻮﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ " :‬ﺃﻻ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻧﺎﻡ " ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻏﻠﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻌﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺧﺮﺣﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻻ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺎ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﺣﻔﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﲪﺎﺩﺍ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻗﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺆﺫﻧﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﲪﺎﺩﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﻓﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﰊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻱ ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟـﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌـﺪﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﰒ ﻳﺎﺀ ﻛﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻻ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻤـﺮ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻋﻀﻠﻪ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﰲ ﺭﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫﻼﻝ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻳﻘﻮﻱ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻇـﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻬﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻼﻻ ﺃﺫﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺃﻻ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻧﺎﻡ" ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘـﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺇﻋـﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ )‪٣٦١/٢‬ـ‪.(٣٦٣‬‬

‫‪٢٣٩‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻠﹾﻘﻴﲏ )ﺕ‪٨٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﲨﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ‪":‬ﻭﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻻﺗﺒﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻓﺘﺤﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻼﺕ ﻻﻧﺪﻓﻊ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻜﻨﻮﻱ )ﺕ‪١٣٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻀﻌﻴﻒ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﻰ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ )‪ ،(٣٦٥/٢‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﺹ‪١٠٠٣‬ـ‪.١٠٠٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻇﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﱐ ﺹ‪.٤٠٩‬‬

‫‪٢٤٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ )ﺕ‪٢١١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﻴﺪ )ﺕ‪٢٢٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻳﻌـﻘﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺼﻨﻒ ﻋﺒـﺪﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ )‪ ،(٤٨٥/٢‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )‪ ،(٣٥٧/١‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ‬
‫)‪ ،٢٨٥/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ .(٢١٥٥‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ )‪ ،٢٨٣/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٤٦‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺆﻣﻞ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰊ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﻪ )‪ ،١٦١/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٨٥٨‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺭﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ!‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﻣﱳ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺟﻢ ﻏﻔﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ!‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ" ﻋﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟــﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﺘﻪ ﻭﺛﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻲ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﻭﺗﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٦٠٧‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﺆﻣﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﺳﻲﺀ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٩٨٧‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻟﻌﻄﺎﺭﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳉﺒﺎﺭ ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(١١٢/١‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺐ ﺹ‪:٩٢‬‬
‫"ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﺎﻋﻪ ﻟﻠﺴﲑﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ـ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻭﺟﻢ ﻏﻔﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﺡ ﻭﻣﺆﻣـﻞ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺭﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻀﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ" ﺷﺎﺫﺓ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻷﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٧٦‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪٣‬ـ‪ ،(١٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻋﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ ﻣـﺴﻠﻢ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ ،٤٧٦/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٨٩٣‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮﺯﺍﺩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺑﻪ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻟﻘﻴﺖ ﳛﻲ ﻓﺤﺪﺛﲏ ﺑﻪ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"!‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٤١‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ )‪٣٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﺮﻱ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧـﺮﺍﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻮﺷﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻃﺎﺓ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺧـﺮﺯﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻔـﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨـﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠـﻢ )‪ ،٤٧٦/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٨٩٢‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﱐ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﱪﻱ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿـﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻭﱃ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ٨١/١١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ .(١١١١٣‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪" :(١٧٠/٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﻗﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻟﻠﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻭﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ" ﺧﻄﺄ ﻃﺒﻌﻲ ﺻﻮﺍﺑﻪ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ"؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﻋــﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣـﻞ‬
‫)‪ ،(١٥٢٥/٤‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧـﺮﺍﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺻـﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ" ﰒ ﺫﻛـﺮ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧـﺮﺍﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻮﺷﺐ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻭﻟﻌﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧـﺮﺍﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻭ ﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻔﻮﻅ"ﺍﻫـ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪" :(٤١٣/٣‬ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﻨــﻲ ﻭﻏـﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﺯﺭﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﺎﰎ‪ :‬ﺫﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺧﻮ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﻣﻊ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٧/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﲤﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ )ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻡ ‪ ،١١٠/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،(١٣١٦‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٦/٢‬ﲢـﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٥٧‬‬

‫‪٢٤٢‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ـ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ـ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ـ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٩/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٧٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﲰﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺸﻴﺨﺘﻪ )‪ ،٥٢٢/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٦١‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ‪) :‬ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ( ﻭﺻـﻮﺍﺑﻪ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﰊ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﻖ ﳌﺸﻴﺨﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﲝﻤﺎﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٦/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٥٨‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ‪) :‬ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳍﻤﺪﺍﱐ( ﻭﺻﻮﺍﺑﻪ‪" :‬ﲪﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳍﻤﺪﺍﱐ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻫﻴﺐ )‪ ،٨٠٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪.(١٩٧٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰊ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﻪ )‪ ،١٦٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٨٦٤‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺼﻼﺗﻜﻢ ـ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ـ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٢١٤٧‬ﻭﺟﺰﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨـﻮ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٧/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ )‪ ،٤٨٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤١٧٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ )‪،٥٢٢-٥٢١/٢‬‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٩٩٨٥‬ﻭ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ( )‪ ،٤٥١/٣٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٦٣٦/٣٠) ،(١٨٤٩٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫‪ ،٥٨٠/٣٠) ،(١٨٧٠٩‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٨٦١٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺩ ﺹ‪ ،٣٤ ،٣٣‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٤٦٨‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪ ،٣٤٨/١‬ﲢـﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٢١/٥) ،(١٠٨٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٨٠٥٠‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،١٤٦/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٦٢‬ﺃﺑﻮﻋﻮﺍﻧـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ )‪ ،٤٨١/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٩١١‬ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٥/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(٢١٥٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،(٢٢٩/١٠) ،(٥٣/٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ )‪.(٣٧٢/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺹ‪ ،١٠٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٧٣٨‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻨﺴﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊـﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳌﻪ ﺹ‪ ،[١٨-٢] ،٧٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌـﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫)‪ ،٦٣٢/٣٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٨٧٠٤‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﻧﺴﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﺬﻛﺮﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟـﻀﺤﺎﻙ"‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺹ‪ ،٣٤‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻧﺴﻴﺖ "ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ" ﺣﱴ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺣـﺴﻦ ﺍﻟـﺼﻮﺕ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٤٣‬‬

‫ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺑﻴﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲜﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻐﻔﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳕﻴـﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ـ ﻓﻄﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ـ ﻟﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٧‬‬
‫ـ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻐﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٨‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٤٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪ ،٣٤٨/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٠٨٩‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ ﰲ ﻛﺘـﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﺰﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٠١٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،١٤٤/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪،(٣٥٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﻧﺴﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺣﱴ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )‪ ،٢٤/٣‬ﲢﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٥٥١‬ﻭﺍﻵﺟﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺧﻼﻕ ﲪﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺹ‪ ،١٥٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٨١‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،٢٨٥/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(٢١٥٥‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﻧﺴﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟـﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺎﻡ )ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٠٠/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٣٠٤‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪ ﲤﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﳎﺎﻫﻴﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(٥٣/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ )‪ ،١٧٧/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٧٢٠٦‬ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻣـﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ )‪ ،٢٨٦/٢‬ﲢـﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫‪.(٢١٥٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٧٠‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﰲ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺍﻗﻴﲔ ﺹ‪،٤٨‬‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.٣٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﲔ )‪) (٧٧٥‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﺲ ـ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،٦٣٦/٣٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٨٧٠٩‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻮﺭﺩ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٦/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،١٤٦/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٦٠‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،٢٨٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٣/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٤٥‬ﻭ)‪ ،٢٨٦/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٠‬‬

‫‪٢٤٤‬‬

‫ـ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ـ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻔﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﱐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﻟﻴﺴﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﻔﻮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٤٣٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳉﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﲑ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺯﺑﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﳉﻌﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٤٧٩/٣٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٧٥١٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺹ‪ ،٣٤‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٧/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٦١‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ )‪.(١٧٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ )‪ ،٤٨٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤١٧٥‬ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،٥٨٠ /٣٠‬ﲢـﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪،(١٨٦١٦‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٥٠٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،٣٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،١٤٤/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،١٤٥/١) ،(٣٥٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،١٤٦/١) ،(٣٥٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(٣٦٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒــﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،٢٥/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٧٤٩‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،٢٨٤/٢‬ﲢـﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪،(٢١٤٨‬‬
‫)‪ ،٢٨٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٢٨٩/٢) ،(٢١٥١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٤٩،٢١٧٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪ (٢٢٩/١٠‬ﻋﻘﺐ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﺴﺒﺖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻـﻮﺗﻜﻢ"‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ‪" :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﻧﺴﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺣـﱴ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺿﺤﺎﻙ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻢ"‪".‬ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﻘﺒﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻤﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻚ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﺧﺮﺟـﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺛﻨﺎ ﳛﻲ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻧﺴﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﻴﻬﺎ ﻓ ﹸﺬﻛﱢﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺘﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ؟‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،٢٨٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٥٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )‪.(٢٧/٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٧/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٦٩‬‬

‫‪٢٤٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺘﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﻘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺟﻨﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﲜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻐﻮﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻄﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻧﻴﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺛﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻐﻔﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺷﻌﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻃﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﳍﻤﺪﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎﺷﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻮ‪‬ﻟﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺮﻩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺭﻭﻭﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ" ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﱳ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﳎﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻐﻔﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﺮﱘ ﻋﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ـ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻐﻮﻝ ﻭﻓﻄﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ ﺑﻦ ﺿﻤﻌﺞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ)‪.(٤‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ )‪.(٢٧/٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٥٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٨٩/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٧٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٢٥٨/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٧٠٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﺑﺎﺻﺒﻬﺎﻥ )‪،(٢٧١/٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﲰﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺸﻴﺨﺘﻪ )‪ ،٦٨٩/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣١٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ‪ ،٢٨٦/٢‬ﲢـﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(١٣٨٢‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺳﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﺳﻢ )ﻓﻄﺮ( ﺇﱃ )ﻗﻄﻦ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ )‪ ،٢٨٩/٢‬ﲢﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢١٧٣‬‬

‫‪٢٤٦‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ ﺑﻦ ﺿﻤﻌﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ـ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺛﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺍﺫﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ـ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺑﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﱐ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﱪﻱ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ" ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺵ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٢٥٨/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٧٠٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﺑﺎﺻﺒﻬﺎﻥ )‪،(٢٧١/٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﲰﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺸﻴﺨﺘﻪ )‪ ،٦٨٩/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣١٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ‪ ،٢٨٦/٢‬ﲢـﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(١٣٨٢‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺳﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ )‪ ،(٣٥٠١‬ﺑﻠﻔـﻆ‪" :‬ﺣـﺴﻨﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ )‪ ،٢٨٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٧١‬ﻭﲤﺎﻡ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻡ ‪ ،١١٤/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٣١٨‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪" :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٧٧١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻌﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٣٠٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٠٧٧‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ )‪ ،٢٨٥/٢‬ﲢﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٥٣‬ﻭ )‪ ،٢٨٩/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٧٤‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(٢٦١/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٢٤٥/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(١٦٨٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ )‪ ،٤٧٦/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٨٩٢‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﳏﻤـﺪ ﺑـﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )‪ ،٢٧/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٧٥٠‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻷﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٧٦‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪٣‬ـ‪ ،(١٨‬ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻜﲑ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰊ ﻋﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،٤٧٦/٢) ،‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٨٩٣‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮﺯﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺑﻪ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"‪ .‬ﰒ ﻟﻘﻴﺖ ﳛﻲ ﻓﺤﺪﺛﲏ ﺑﻪ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"!‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﺃﻭﱃ!‬

‫‪٢٤٧‬‬

‫ﺑﻦ ﺣﻮﺷﺐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻮﺷﺐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺳـﻌﺪ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺻﺎﱀ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺭﻓﻴﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﲝﺴﻦ ﺍﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﻭﻃﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ")‪.(٥‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(١٥٢٥/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄـﲏ )ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ‪ ،٣٢٢/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪.(٢٧٨٤‬‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧـﺮﺍﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻮﺷﺐ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻌﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧـﺮﺍﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻭ ﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻔﻮﻅ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﺴ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ )‪ ،(٥١٩/١٣‬ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄـﲏ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻛﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺭﺃﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(١٢٢١/٣‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺯﺑﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ )‪ ،(١٣٢/٢‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻴـﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ" "ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺱ‪" :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪" :‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒـﺰﺍﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺭ ‪ ،٩٦/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢٣٢٩‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ‪" :‬ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺎﱀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻟﲔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺗﻪ ﻵﺑﲔ ﻋﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ"ﺍﻫـ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒـﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ )‪.(٥١٩ /١٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ )‪) (١٣٩/١‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻴﺔ ‪ ،٤٠٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢٥٨٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﻌﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻠﻤﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻭﺱ )‪ .(٤١٧/٢‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪ ،(٢٨٨/٣‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻫـﱯ ﰲ ﺇﻳـﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺍﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ ،(٤٠٠/٣‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪.(٢٦٦/٣‬‬

‫‪٢٤٨‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺷﺤﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ" ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻟﺔ؛ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻗﻄﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺎﱐ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﻨﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﻴﺪ )ﺕ‪٢٢٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻭ‪‬ﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﳊﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻋﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻬﺬﺍ ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ )ﺕ‪٧٧٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺘﻮﻛ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﻭﻱ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ‪‬ﺗﺮﹺﻙ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺘﺄﻭ‪‬ﻟﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺒﻄ‪‬ﻞ ﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﲪﻠﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻼﻥ ﻭ ﻻﺣﻮﻝ ﻭﻻ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﷲ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ )ﺕ‪٣٨٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻓﺴﺮﻩ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ‪... .‬‬
‫‪...‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺃﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻕ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ«‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺍﺷﻐﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﳍﺠﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﲣﺬﻭﻩ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺯﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﺆﺍﻻﺕ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻨﻴﺪ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ /‬ﺹ‪ .٢٧٤‬ﻭﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳌﻪ ﺹ‪ ،[١٨-٢٠] ،٨١‬ﻋﻦ ﳛﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺷـﻌﺒﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺎﱐ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﺙ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳌﻪ ﺹ‪.٨١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺹ‪١١‬ـ‪.١١٢‬‬

‫‪٢٤٩‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ـ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻯﺀ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﲝﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪".‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻭﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺴﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺃﺣﻖ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺴﺮﻩ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ!‬
‫ﻭﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ" ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻛﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻻ ﺩﺍﻋﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺇﺫ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻮﺍ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ﺣﻘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ ﻭﻭﻓﻮﻩ ﳐﺮﺟﻪ! ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺛﲑ )ﺕ‪٦٠٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " ":‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻ‪‬ﻮﺍﺗ‪‬ﻜﻢ"‬
‫ﻗﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻘﹾﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪‬ﺯﻳ‪‬ﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗ‪‬ﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﹸﺮﺁﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺠ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﻘ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺗﺰ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﹶﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﹸﺮﺁﻥ")‪ (٤‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﻠﻬﺞ ﺑﹺﺘﻼﻭﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺗﻄﹾﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﺤ‪‬ﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻟﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻬﺞ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻐ‪‬ﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﺮ‪‬ﺏ‪ .‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﺮ‪‬ﻭﻯ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﱠﺎﰊ)‪ (٥‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺮﺗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟ ﹶﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﻠﹾﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﳊ ﹼ‬
‫ﺸﻌ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪} :‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺮﺁ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﺗﻴﻼ{؛ ﻓﻜﺄ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﻞ ﻻ ﻟ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻳ ﹲﻞ ﻟﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﻌ‪‬ﺮﻙ ﻓﻜﺄﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺒﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻘﺼ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮﺀِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭ‪‬ﺍﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍﻭﻯ ﻻ ﻟﻠ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ )‪١٣٧/٢‬ـ‪ (١٣٨‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ )‪.(٤٠٤/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﺒﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ )‪ ،(٣٢٧/١‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺹ‪.٣٢٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪} :‬ﻭﺍﺳﺮﻭﺍ ﻗﻮﻟﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺟﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ"‪ ،‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻥ"‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪" :‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ ،(٧٥٢٧‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ " :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﺯ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪" :‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺎﰊ )‪ ،(٣٥٧/١‬ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ )‪١٣٧/٢‬ـ‪.(١٣٨‬‬

‫‪٢٥٠‬‬

‫ﺚ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻗﹼﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﺤ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺼﺤﻴﻒ ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻮﺀ ﺍﻷﺩ‪‬ﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ﹼ‬
‫"ﺯﻳ‪‬ﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺮﺁﻥ" ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺰﻳ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺪﺑ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻘ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀﺓﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﻳﻘﺮﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﹸﻗﺮ‪‬ﺁﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺯﻳ‪‬ﻨﻮﺍ ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀﺗ‪‬ﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗ‪‬ﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﺼﺤ‪‬ﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﻠﺐ ﻻ ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪" :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻧﻚ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣﺰ‪‬ﻣﺎﺭﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺰ‪‬ﺍﻣﲑ ﺁﻝ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﻭﺩ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻋﻠﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﻊ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﹸﻭﺗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻭ ‪‬ﺯﻳ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﻊ ﳊ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺗﻪ ﻟﻚ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﺒﲑﹰﺍ")‪ ،(١‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻟﻮﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﺴﻤﻌﻪ ﳊﱪﺗﻪ ﻟﻚ ﲢﺒﲑﹰﺍ" ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻓﻘﻂ!‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ )‪،(٥٠٤٨‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻗﺼﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ )‪،(٧٩٣‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﹸﻭﺗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ " :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺰﻣ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﲑ ﺁ ﹺﻝ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ"‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪" :‬ﻟﻮ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﺴﻤﻊ ﳊﱪﺗﻪ ﻟﻚ ﲢﺒﲑﹰﺍ" ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٢٦٦/١٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(٧٢٧٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )‪ ،(٢٥٨/١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ‪] ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ[‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﺄﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘـﻪ‪،"...‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،١٧/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (١٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ )‪،٣٨٤/٢‬‬

‫ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (١٨٠٢‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻐﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻴﺐ‪" :‬ﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‪ "...‬ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴـﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴــﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ ﻣـﺴـﻠﻢ )‪ ،٣٨٤/٢‬ﲢـﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪ (١٨٠٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜـﺒﲑ‬

‫)‪٢٣٠/١٠‬ـ‪ ،(٢٣١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﲏ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﲰﻊ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪ ."...‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻧﻌﻴـﻢ )ﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺑﺮﺩﺓ( ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ‬
‫ﻣﻦ )ﺃﰊ ﺑﺮﺩﺓ(!‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﲟﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻌﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٤٩٦‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٣٤٥٨‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ )ﻫﻮ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭﰊ( ﻋﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻳﺘﻬﺠﺪ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻠﺢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ! ﻟﻮ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺴﻮﺗﻚ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺑﺘﻚ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﻚ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﰐ ﻟﺰﻳﻨﺖ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺼﻮﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳊﱪﺗﻪ ﲢﺒﲑﹰﺍ!"‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٥١‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺆﻳ‪‬ﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺒ‪‬ﻬ ﹶﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ")‪ .(١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﹼﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪".‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟ ﹸﻜ ﹼﻞ ﺷﻰ ٍﺀ ﺣﻠﹾﻴﺔﹲ؛ ﻭﺣ‪‬ﻠﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻳﺔ )ﺕ‪٧٥١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"! ﻭﻏﻠﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻐﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ" ﻭﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺴﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺿﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﲎ ﻻ ﺗﻐﲎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ "ﳚﻬﺮ ﺑﻪ" ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ‪" :‬ﳓﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‬
‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﻪ ﳛﺴﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﻠﻪ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻭﺑﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻻ ﲢﺘﻤﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ )‪ ،٢٩٣/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٧٥٣١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣـﺮﻭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪" :(١٧١/٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺠﻠﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ )‪ ،٤٨٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤١٧٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒـﺰﺍﺭ )ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺭ ‪ ،٩٦/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(٢٣٣٠‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪،(١٤٥٢/٤‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ‪" :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﺮﺭ"‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﺮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪" :(١٧١/٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒـﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﺮﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (٢٦٨/٧‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺠﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ )‪" :(٤٤٠/٤‬ﺑﺼﺮﻱ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻔﻮﻅ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﲟﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ )‪٣٢٥/٢‬ـ‪.(٣٢٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺿﺔ ﺍﶈﺒﲔ ﺹ‪.٢٦٨‬‬

‫‪٢٥٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﻐﲎ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻳﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ‪} :‬ﺇﻧﺎ ﻓﺘﺤﻨﺎ ﻟﻚ ﻓﺘﺤﺎ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎ{‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻐﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﻌﻪ ﺁﺁﺁﺛﻼﺙ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﲨﻌﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻐﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ")‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻛﺄﺫﻧﻪ ﻟﻨﱯ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻳﺘﻐﲎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ")‪(٣‬؛‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍ ﻻ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﳍﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻷﺟﻞ ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻼ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻐﻔﻞ ﳛﻜﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍ ﻟﻴﺆﺗﺴﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﻠﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻓﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺟﻴﻌﹰﺎ!"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ" ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺮﺀﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ!‬
‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻗ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺯ‪‬ﺍﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥٠٤٧‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪" :‬ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﲑ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﹸﺃ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻐ ﱠﻔ ﹴﻞ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺓ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﹾ ﹶﻔ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺢ ‪‬ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﹰﺓ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ"‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٧٥٤١‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ " :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﹸﺃ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺓ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺢ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻐ ﱠﻔ ﹴﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺰﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻜ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﹶﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻐ ﱠﻔ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎﻭﹺ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺟﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻜ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻐ ﱠﻔ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ"‬
‫ﺙ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺁ ﺁ ﺁ ﹶﺛﻠﹶﺎ ﹶ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ!‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(٧٥٤٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻗﺼﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٧٩٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ )‪٤٨٣/١‬ـ‪.(٤٨٤‬‬

‫‪٢٥٣‬‬

‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺯ ﹴ‬
‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﹺﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﰊ ﻋﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺗﺰﻳﲔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﹸﻓﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ )‪ ،(٣٥٠١‬ﺑﻠﻔـﻆ‪" :‬ﺣـﺴﻨﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ )‪ ،٢٨٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢١٧١‬ﻭﲤﺎﻡ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻡ ‪ ،١١٤/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٣١٨‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪" :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪" :(٧٧١‬ﺇﺳـﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺟﻴـﺪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺷـﺮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻢ )‪.(١١٤/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟـﺒﺰﺍﺭ )ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺭ ‪ ،٩٦/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢٣٣١‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑـﺎﻟﻘﻮﻱ"ﺍﻫــ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻌﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٤٩٦‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٤٥٦‬ﻭ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺑـﻦ ﻛﻠﻴـﺐ ﰲ ﻣـﺴﻨﺪﻩ‬
‫)‪ (٣٣٩/١‬ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،١٠١/١٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٠٠٢٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋــﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣـﻞ‬
‫)‪ ،(١٢٠٢/٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﻨـﻲ )ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺐ ‪ ،١١٢/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٣٧٣٩‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﲪـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﱐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﰊ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺣﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﻋﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺁﺧﺮ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴـﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )‪٢٣٥/٤‬ـ‪ ،(٢٣٦‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴـﻢ‪" :‬ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﲪﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳـﻖ )‪ ،(١٣٥/٢‬ﻭﺳـﺎﻗﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒـﻲ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺳﲑ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼﺀ )‪ (٥٨/٤‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ (١٣٦/٢‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﰊ ﻭﻋﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ )‪ (٢٠٦٨/٦‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻗﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﱐ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻏﲑ )ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ( ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻭ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ )ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺎﺻﻢ( ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﱐ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻳﺮﺗﻘﻲ ـ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ـ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ!‬

‫‪٢٥٤‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪" :‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎﺏ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫"ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺮ‪‬ﺍﻡﹺ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ" ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺳﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻙ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ " ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ " ﺍﳌﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻭﺓ ﲜﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﻠﻌﺜﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺸﻜﻚ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻣﻄﺮﺏ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻠﺘﺬ ﺳﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻭﺓ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻳﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻳﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﺄﺿﺪﺍﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٥١٩/١٣‬‬

‫‪٢٥٥‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺠﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺮﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﱪﻙ‬
‫ﻛﱪﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺠﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺮﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ‬
‫ﺻﱠﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪" :‬ﻳ‪ ‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻞ"‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻙ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﲑ ‪‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪" :‬ﺇﹺﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ )‪ ،(٢٦٣/١‬ﻭﻋﻠﹼﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٩‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ )‪ ،(٤١٤/١١‬ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ ،(٢٥٥/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜـﺒﲑ )‪.(١٠٠/٢‬‬
‫ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﱪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪" :٥١١‬ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ!‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ )‪" :(٢٩١/٢‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻘﻖ ﻣـﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠـﻰ‪" :‬ﺇﺳـﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺿـﻌﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺟﺪﹰﺍ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻮﻳﲏ ﰲ "‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱰﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺔ" ﺹ‪" :١١‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﻗﻂ!"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺴﺠﻮﺩ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬
‫)‪ (٢٦٩‬ﳐﺘﺼﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(٨٤٠‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٨٤١‬ﳐﺘﺼﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳـﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻮﺩﻩ )‪ ،(٢٠٧/٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ‪.(٣٤٥/١‬‬
‫ﺚ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ‪‬ـﺬﹶﺍ‬
‫ﺐ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﹸﻓ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﹶﻏﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ " :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹸ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﻫ‪ ‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹸ‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺﻭ ‪‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٥٦‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺮﺭﺓ ‪" :‬ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺗﻔﺴﺮ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺑﺮﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﲑ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‪" :‬ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺑﺮﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪" :‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﻮﹺﻱ ﺑﹺﺎﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜﹺﺒ ﹺﲑ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘﻴ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪" :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ‪ :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻄﱠﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ٍ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٥٨/٢‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﳏﻘﻖ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ )‪ ،(٣٧٨/٥‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٥٨/١‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ )‪.(٨٦/١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻟﻠﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ﺹ‪ ،١٧٥-١٧٤‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ "ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ" ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﲢﺘﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(٨٠٣‬ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﻛﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ )‪ ،٣١٩-٣١٨/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٦٢٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛـﺎﺭ )‪،(٢٥٤/١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ‪ ،(٣٤٤/١‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٦/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪ .(١٠٠/٢‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈـﺮ ﺗﻐﻠﻴـﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴـﻖ‬
‫)‪.(٣٢٨-٣٢٦/٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺷـﺮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠـﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻮﻳﲏ ﰲ ﺭﺳـﺎﻟﺘﻪ‬
‫"‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ" ﺹ‪.١٦‬‬

‫‪٢٥٧‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﺼﻒ ﻫﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ‪" :‬ﺣﻔﻈﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺍﻛﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻳﺜﺒﺘﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻛﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺗﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ!‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻛﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻩ!‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﹶﻗ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻟ ﹺ‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺶ‬
‫ﺸ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪" :‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹸﻞ ﹸﻛﻔﱠﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫ﺸ ﹴﻢ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺒ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﹶﻗ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﱠﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻜﺮﹴ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﺔ ﹸﻛ ﱢﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﻲ ﺑ‪‬ﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻟ ﹴﺞ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺠ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹺ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻠ ﹴ‬
‫ﺲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬ﺍ‬
‫ﺱ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﹶﻗ ﹸﺔ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺖ‪ ‬ﺁﹺﻧﻔﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹰﺓ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ﹺﻞ ﹸﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ!‬
‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻄﹶﻠﻘﹸﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ! ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﹶﻗ ﹸﺔ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ ﹺﺑ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹰﺔ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻠ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴﹺﻨﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﹺﺒﹾﺜ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺤ ﹶﻄ ﹾﻄ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣﺤ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﹺﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺏ ﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬‬
‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺯﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺑﹺﻲ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺯﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺜ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ .(٢٥٦/١‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﺹ‪.١٧‬‬

‫‪٢٥٨‬‬

‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺽ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻐﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﺕ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜ ﹸﻞ‬
‫ﺕ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺄﺛﹶ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺜﹶﺎ ﹲﻥ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ‪‬ﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ﹺﺮﺝ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ‬
‫ﺝ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﹶﻗﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺯﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﻡ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻈ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺤﺒ‪ ‬ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﹶﻟﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺟﹾﺌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻲ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﺎ! ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹶﺎﻧﹺﻲ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻉ ﹶﻓﻠﹶ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺯ‪‬ﺁﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ﹴﱘ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣﻀ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺐ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﻦ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻓ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﺺ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ!‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺎﺣﻆ )ﺕ‪٢٥٥‬ﻫـ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﻒ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ ﻓﺮﻛﺒﺘﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻛﺒﺘﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺭﺟﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻛﻔﻪ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ﻛﻔﻪ ﰲ ﺭﺟﻠﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٢١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻬﺎﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﻮﺍ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻟﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ )ﺕ ‪٣٧٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺭﻛﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻛﺒﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﻼﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﻥ ﻳﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺌﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻒ ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻗﻮﺑﺎﻥ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻛﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﳌﹼﺎ ﳜﺮ ﺇﳕﺎ ﳜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﺘﲔ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻣﻲ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﺳﻘﻮﻃﻪ ﺻﻮﺗﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﲟﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻫﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٩٠٦‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﻟﻠﻬﺠﺮﺓ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺋﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﺣﻆ )‪.(٣٥٥/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ .(٢٥٤/١‬ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﺃﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪ .(٢١٦/١٠‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﺹ‪.٢٠‬‬

‫‪٢٥٩‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺯﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ )ﺕ‪١٥٧‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺭﻛﺒﻬﻢ")‪ .(١‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﻩ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ -‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ -‬ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﻠﺔ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﻋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻟﻌﻠﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻴﻀﻊ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ! ﰒ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻳﻨﺼﺮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﺮﻙ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﻤﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ!!‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻏﲑ ﺳﺎﺋﻎ! ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﱪﻙ ﻓﻴﻨﺤﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺮﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻻ ﰲ ﺭﺟﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ)‪ (٣‬ﻻ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺼﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺠ ﹴﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ " :‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻛﹸﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ ‪‬ﺭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺻﻔﺔ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻟﻸﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﺹ‪.١٢٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺒﻮﺩ )‪ ،(٣١١/١‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻓﻠﻴﻨﻈﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺰﺍﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)‪.(٤٤٧/١) (٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﻷﲪﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ )‪.(٥٩/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﻳﺪﻳـﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ )‪،(٨٣٩ ،٨٣٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ )‪،(٢٦٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻮﺩﻩ‪ ،(٢٠٦/٢) ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٨٨٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛـﺎﺭ‬
‫)‪ ،(٢٥٥/١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﻳـﻤﺔ )‪ ٣١٨،٣١٩/١‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‪ ،(٦٢٩ ،٦٢٦‬ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ﺣﺒــﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣـﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٦٠‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ‪" :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ﹺﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ‬
‫ﺾ ‪‬ﺭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﻟﻘﻮﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ )ﺕ‪١٥٧‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺭﻛﺒﻬﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"‪.‬‬
‫‪٥‬ـ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﻪ!‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫‪٢٣٧/٥‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٩١٢‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٦/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(٩٨/٢‬‬
‫ﻚ" ﰒ‬
‫ﻑ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﺠ ﹴﺮ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺻـﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺻ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹰﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﻭ‬
‫ﺚ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹶ‬
‫ﺐ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹸﻛﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴ‬
‫‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳﻚ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﹼﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺗﻔﺮ‪‬ﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )ﺕ‪٣٨٥‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ )ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ‪" :(٣٤٥/١‬ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﺭﻭﻭﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻫﻮ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻃﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(٣٢٩/٢) (٩٢٩‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻟﻺﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )‪.(٢٣٧/٥‬‬

‫‪٢٦١‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ)‪(١‬ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ‪" :‬ﺣﻔﻈﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺍﻛﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺣﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻃﺎﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺘﺎ ﺗﻘﻌﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ :‬ﻟﺴﺖ ﺃﺷﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ﺃﺻﻼﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ‬
‫ﺻﺮﳛﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﻧﹰﺎ ﺑﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬
‫ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﻷﺭﺟﺢ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﰲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ )‪ ،(٣٣٢-٣٣٠/٢‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﺹ‪.١٩-١٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪.(٢٥٦/١‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ )‪ (٢٦٣/١‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٢٩٥٥‬ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺃﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷـﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻴﻪ"‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﺸﻌﻴﺐ )‪ ،(٢٣٩/٥‬ﻭ‪‬ـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﺹ‪.١٩-١٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ ،(٢٥٦/١‬ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻃﺎﺓ ﻣﺪﻟﺲ ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٦٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ )ﺕ‪٣٢١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻗﻴﺖ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺣﻔﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺟﺎﻟﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻌﺪﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺑﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺮﱘ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﳛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻂ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻃﻠﻌﺖ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺑﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﳏﺠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻠﱭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻳﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )ﺕ‪٣٥٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺍﳊﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﻔﻴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺳﻌﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎﻟ‪‬ﺴﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺼﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺈﹺﺫﺍ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺭ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ"‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻓﺮﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ":‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬ ﹺﺭ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪.(٢٣٤/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،٢٦٦/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(١٤١٨‬‬

‫‪٢٦٣‬‬

‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻊ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﻴ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺄﹾﻡِ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘﻀ‪‬ﻲ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﺛﹶﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﻝﹶ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫"ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻟﹺﺒ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ‬
‫ﺴﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨ ﹴ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻊ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨﹺﻲ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹺﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹺ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱢﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻮ ﹸﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﻘﱢﻲ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ!‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺍ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﻗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺎ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻟﹺﺒ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺸ ﹴﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻊ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹶﻞ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺻ‪‬ﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺘ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ‬
‫)ﺕ‪٩٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪ ،(٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻜﻨﻮﻱ )ﺕ‪١٣٠٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﱪﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪١٤٨‬ـ‪.(١٤٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٦٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )‪.(٨٨٣/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٩/١‬‬

‫ﺍﷲ)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ‬

‫‪٢٦٤‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻫﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﲰﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ" ﻛﺎﳉﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺎﳓﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ! ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﱄ ـ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ـ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳـــﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻇﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﱐ ﺹ‪.٤٠٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺚ )‪.(٣٢٩/١‬‬

‫‪٢٦٥‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬
‫ﺐ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺻ‪‬ﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒﹶﺜ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﻏﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻮﺻﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﳚﺰﻡ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ)‪ (٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ)‪(٤‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺪﺓ)‪(٩‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻭﺩ)‪(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻠﻲ)‪(٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ)‪ (٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋـﺪﻱ)‪(٨‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻱ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺼ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜﺮ‪‬ﺍﹺﺑﻴ ِ‬
‫ﺚ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ)‪ (١٠‬ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ " :‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﻠﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎﺏ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜﺘ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺ‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻲ ﺁ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻭﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻟﹺﺈ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﺮﹶﻗ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻗﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﺓ ﺍﹾﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋﹶﻠ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻜ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹰﺓ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮﻡ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺ‬
‫ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٢١٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬
‫ﺚ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﻫ‪‬ـ ﹺﻞ‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹶ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﹸﻓ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﺣ‪ ‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﺚ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٣٥١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﱂ ﺃﺟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺻﺨﺮ! ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﺲ! ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺰﺍﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﺍﻑ )‪ (٢٧٠/٧‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ )ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜـﱪﻯ(‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺜﲎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﻋﺒﺪﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺳﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳـﺔ ﺃﺧـﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻦ!‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ )ﻏﻮﺙ ‪.(٢٧٧/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(١٤٣/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ )ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ‪. (٧٧/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٨‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ .(١٦٥١/٤‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺫ ﻻﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (٩‬ﺳﺎﻕ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﰲ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ )‪.(٢٢٠/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١٠‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪٢٣٧/٥‬ـ‪ .(٢٣٨‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ"ﺍﻫـ‬

‫‪٢٦٦‬‬

‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺐ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺫ ﹶﺓ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ﹸﺃ ﹾﻗ ﹺﺮﹸﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺠﹺﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ﹴ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠﻢ‪‬؟!‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺝ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺫ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﹶﻰ! ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻢ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹰﺔ ﻟﹶﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﻏﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒﹶﺜ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻌﺒﺪﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ)‪ (١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺭﺩﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫﻮﺫﺓ ﺃﻻ ﺃﻗﺮﺋﻜﻢ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﱄ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ؟! ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﻰ! ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﺑﺴـﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﺳــــﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ ـ ﺷﻚ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ـ ﺑﻴﺎﻋﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻻ ﺩﺍﺀ ﻭ ﻻ ﻏﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭ ﻻ ﺧﺒﺌﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﻪ!‬
‫ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﺖ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺰﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﹼﻘﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺄﻣ‪‬ﻞ!"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪" :‬ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻓﺎﺗﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪ .(٣٢٨/٥‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻌـﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ"ﺍﻫـ‪ .‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﻴـﻖ )‪ (٢١٩/٣‬ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ!"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ )‪.(٢٢٠/٣‬‬

‫‪٢٦٧‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ )ﻳﻌﲏ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ(؛ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻭﺑﺎﻉ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ!"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺻﻮ‪‬ﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻘﺒﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬‬
‫"ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻣﺘﻜﻠﻒ"ﺍﻫـ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٣١٠/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ )‪.(٢٢١/٣‬‬

‫‪٢٦٨‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )ﺕ‪٣٠٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴﹶﺜ ﹺﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻜ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺔ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺱ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻗﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺬ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺶ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺓ ‪‬ﺟﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻄﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﹺﺑ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺟﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻏﹾﺜﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ﹶﺃﺷ‪ ‬ﺪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺟﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟﻘ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹸﻞ! ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻋﻘﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹸﻞ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹾﺄ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﲑ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻘ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ‬
‫‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻘﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑﻞﹺ؟‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻘﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻘﹶﺎﹸﻟﻪ‪‬؟‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺓ ‪‬ﺟﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎﹶﺛﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻏﹾﺜﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺟﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹸﻞ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻘﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ!‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺤ ﹶﺬﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ! ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒﱢﻠ ﹲﻎ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺭﺳ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬
‫ﺕ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ‬
‫ﺶ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﺟ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻙ ﻓﹶﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﺟ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻮ‪ ‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧﹺﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠﻨﹺﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﻘﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺽ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴ‬
‫ﺚ ﺣ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﺻ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﱢﻠ ﹶﻎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻜ ﹶ‬
‫ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺶ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﻗﹶﺎﹸﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﻮ‬
‫ﺶ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻓﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫ﻚ ﹺﺭﺳ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ﹰﺔ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺐ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧﹺﻲ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﺑﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬‬
‫ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟﺐﹴ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴ‬
‫ﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﹶﺋ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹺﻞ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﺛﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﻘﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻄﹰﺄ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹲﺓ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﹺﺑﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﺬ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫‪٢٦٩‬‬

‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺠﹺﻴ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴ‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﹶﺋ ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﹺﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴ‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﹺﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻴﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ ﹸ‬
‫ﺐ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻳﺼ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ‬
‫ﺱ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻲ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘﹺﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ‪‬ﻴ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺣﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﻑ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻄ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺭ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫ﺶ" ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺍﺑﻪ‪" :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺶ"‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ!‬
‫‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪" :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺟﺮﻩ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺨﺬ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ"‬
‫ﻛﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﺷﻴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻛﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ " ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺨﺬ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﻜﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺧﺪﺍﺵ ‪ -‬ﲟﻌﺠﻤﺘﲔ ﻭﺩﺍﻝ ﻣﻬﻤﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺮﻱ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴﹶﺜ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻜﹾ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻟﻔ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪" :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻗﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺶ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹴ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺬ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻄﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﹺﺑ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹴﻢ ‪.(٣)"...‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٧٠٦‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٦٩٠٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٥٧/٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٣٨٤٥‬‬

‫‪٢٧٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﻈﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ ﲤﻴﻤﺔ ﲢﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻓﻄﻠﻘﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺰﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺭﻓﺎﻋﺔ ﰒ ﻓﺎﺭﻗﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺭﻓﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ!‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ!‪.‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺡ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺔ‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹰﺓ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ " :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﹺﺭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻇ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﺓ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺸ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﺬﹶ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﹶﹶﺄ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻃﱠﻠ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺬﹸﻭ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗﺬﹸﻭﻗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹸﺓ ﺭﹺﻓﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻇ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪" :‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰﹺﺑ ﹺﲑ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﺜ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻃﻠﹶﺎﻗ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻄﱠﻠ ﹶﻘﻨﹺﻲ ﻓﹶﹶﺄ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ! ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ﹴﺮ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺬﹸﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﺮﹺﻳﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻰ ﹺﺭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﺔ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗﺬﹸﻭﻗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ﹴﺮ ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺹ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺟ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪٤٦٤/٩‬ـ‪.(٤٦٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﹼﻘﻬﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﹼﰒ ﺗﺰﻭﺟﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺯﻭﺟﹰﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ ﱂ ﳝﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻻ ﲢﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹰﻞ ﳌﻄﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻨﻜﺢ ﺯﻭﺟﹰﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٤٣٣‬‬

‫‪٢٧١‬‬

‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﱯ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٣٩‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻻ ﲢﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹰﻞ ﳌﻄﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻨﻜﺢ ﺯﻭﺟﹰﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٤٣٣‬‬

‫‪٢٧٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻔﱠﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫"ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗﻨﹺﻲ؟‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻗ ﱡ‬
‫‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ‬
‫ﺏ! ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﹺﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗﻨﹺﻲ؟‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻗ ﱡ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻟﻠﹾﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻙ!‬
‫ﺏ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻈ ﱠﻞ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻈﱢﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺁ ﹸﻛ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺸ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻫﺬ‪ ‬ﻩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺮﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹲﺓ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻈ ﱠﻞ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻈﱢﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺮﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﺄﹸﻭﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋﻬ‪‬ﺎ!‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺁ ﹸﻛ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ؟‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻧﹺﻲ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃﺳ‪‬ﹶﺄﹸﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹲﺓ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﹺﻧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺮﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﱠﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠﻨﹺﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄ ﹸﻝ‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻘﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ﹶﺛﻠﹶﺎﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻠﹶ ﱢﻘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟﺖ‪‬؛‬
‫ﻍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ" ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬

‫‪٢٧٣‬‬

‫ﺖ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸ‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﲟﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻳﺴﲑ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺣ‪ ‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑﻦﹺ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗﻨﹺﻲ ؟‪ "...‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ‪" :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ" ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭﻱ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ" ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸ‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹾ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ"‬
‫ﻱ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ" ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ"‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ! ﺻﻮﺍﺑﻪ ‪" :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸ‬
‫ﺙ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹾ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ‪ :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻔ ﹾﻈ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺡ ﻭ‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺒ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺜ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻕ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺯ‪‬ﺍ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻧﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﺔ‪‬؟‬
‫ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪‬؟‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺗﻀ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٢٣٧/١٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١١٧٠٨‬ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻷﺟـﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺪﻋﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ!‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٢٠٦/١٨‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١١٦٦٧‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺨﺐ )‪ ،١٠٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٩٨٨‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﳏﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﻷﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺪﻋﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻟﻪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ!‬

‫‪٢٧٤‬‬

‫ﺲ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪‬؟‬
‫ﹶﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺗﻀ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ!‬
‫ﺱ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﻘ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﻘﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﻮ‪‬ﺍﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﹾﻟﹸﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺔﹸ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓﻘﹸﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻏﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﺮ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﻓﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪ ‬ﹾﻓﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺏ ﹺﺟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﻓﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻛﹸﻮ ﹸﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠﹺﻴ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻞ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛﻠﹶﺎﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ؟‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣﹾﺜ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺷﻮ‪ ‬ﻙ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﹶﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ!‬
‫ﺱ‬
‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻈ ‪‬ﻤﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﹾﺜ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻍ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻀ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺠ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶ‬
‫ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻖ ﹺﺑﻌ‪ ‬ﻤ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﺮﹺ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺠ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄ ﹸﻛ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﺨ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﻓﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ﺁﺛﹶﺎ ﹺﺭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹶﺔ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻧﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ٌﺀ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺠ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﺃﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﺒﻨﹺﻲ‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻘﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹲﻞ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻬﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﳛﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻗﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﺫﻛﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺅﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‬
‫ﺼ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹸﻟﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱢﻲ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﻄ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﺛ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠﻨﹺﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹶﻯ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ‬
‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺫ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﹺﺎﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺰﺍ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷﻘﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫‪٢٧٥‬‬

‫ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﺗ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬ﻊ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺩﺧ‪‬ﻮﻟﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ‪ :‬ﻭ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺜ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ‬
‫ﻱ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﺎ ٌﺀ‪َ :‬ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ" ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ‪ " :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ"‪ .‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻔ ﹾﻈ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﲨﻴﻌﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ " :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺣﺪﺙ ﲟﺎ ﲰﻌﺖ ﻭﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﲟﺎ ﲰﻌﺖ " ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ)‪ (٢‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٥٧٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘـﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٨٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒـﺰﺍﺭ )ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺭ ‪ ،٢١٢/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٥٥٥‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ‪" :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳛـﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻴﻌـﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﻝ ﺛﻨﺎ ﲪﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻻﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳـﺪ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٤٦١/١١‬‬

‫‪٢٧٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﺢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﹸﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪" :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﻰ‪ :‬ﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨﹺﻲ ﺃﹸﻭ‪‬ﺛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻘ ﹸﻄ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌﻔﹶﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺷ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ ﹸﻜ ﱢﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﺆﻫ‪‬ﺎ!‬
‫ﺐ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑﹺﻲ ﹸﺃﺻ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹸﺊ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨﺔﹸ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻈ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ‬
‫ﺾ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻗ ﹾ‬
‫ﻀﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻠ‪ ‬ﹸﺊ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺛﻠﹶﺎﺛﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻂ ﹶﻗ ﹾ‬
‫ﹶﻗ ﹾ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻳﺔ )ﺕ‪٧٥١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺷﻴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ )ﺕ‪٧٢٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻠﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ" ﻓﻐﻠﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ ﻳﺮﺩﻩ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻼ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺇﺑﻠﻴﺲ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﺃﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﺠﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻛﺬﺏ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪} :‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻮﺝ ﺳﺄﳍﻢ ﺧﺰﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﱂ ﻳﺄﺗﻜﻢ ﻧﺬﻳﺮ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻠﻰ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﻧﺎ ﻧﺬﻳﺮ ﻓﻜﺬﺑﻨﺎ ﻭ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ{ ]ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪٨:‬ـ‪ [٩‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻈﻠﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪" :‬ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺟﻬﻨﻢ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﻪ ﻓﻴﺰﻭﻱ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪}:‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈـﺴﻨﲔ{‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٧٤٤٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﺡ ﺹ‪ ،٢٨٤‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺹ‪.٢٦٤‬‬

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‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﻂ ﻗﻂ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻓﻴﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﺍﷲ ﳍﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﺎ" ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﺍﷲ ﳍﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻨﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﳍﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻳﺴﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ" ﻓﻐﻠﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ "ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﻲﺀ ﳍﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﹰﺎ" ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٤٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ "ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻓﻴﻨﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﷲ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻠﻢ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺟﺎﻩ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮ‪‬ﺟﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪} :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﺬﺑﲔ ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﻼ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻧﺒﻌﺚ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹰﻻ{ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ [١٥:‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻟﻦ ﲡﺪ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳ ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻏﻠﻂ! ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ ﲤﺘﻠﺊ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺑﻠﻴﺲ ﻭﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ!‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻘﻴﲏ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪} :‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻈﻠﻢ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ{ ]ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪[٤٩:‬‬
‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﲪﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺠﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﲪﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻱ ﺭﻭﺡ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺫﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﺡ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺑﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺰﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻻ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻓﻴﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺰﻳﺪ" ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻀﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﻪ ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﲤﺘﻠﺊ" ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻠﺆﻫﺎ ﺣﱴ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ )‪ (٤٣٩/١‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻳﺴﲑ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺬﻳﺐ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ١٦٨٧ .‬ـ ﺑﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺫﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ )‪١٠٦/٢‬ـ‪ .(١٠٧‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﹰﺎ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﺳـﺘﺪﻻﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻵﻳﺔ‪}:‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﺬﺑﲔ ﺣﱴ ﻧﺒﻌﺚ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹰﻻ{ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ [١٥:‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﺸﺌﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﻌﺬﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭ ﻻﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻭ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪} :‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻈﻠﻢ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ{ ]ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪ [٤٩:‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺩﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ"ﺍﻫـ‬

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‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺣﺴﱯ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻭﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﺻﻔﺔ ﷲ ﻋﺰﻭﺟﻞ ﺑﻼ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﻭﺑﻼﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﻌﻬﻢ ﺑﺈﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻨﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﺊ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹶﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻕ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺯ‪‬ﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﹶﺎ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﺒﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﻭ‪‬ﺛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫"‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻘ ﹸﻄ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﻰ‪ :‬ﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌﻔﹶﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﹸﻠﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺷ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ ﹸﻜ ﱢﻞ‬
‫ﺏ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑﹺﻲ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﱢﺬ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺷ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﺊ‬
‫ﻂ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ ﹶﻗ ﹾ‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻗ ﹾ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﺆﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﺊ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﱠﻞ‬
‫ﻀﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺾﹴ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻈ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺰﻭ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹸﺊ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠﻘﹰﺎ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﺓ!‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﺢ ﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺ‬
‫ﺸ ﹸﺊ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻘﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑـ‪ " :‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺛﻠﹶﺎﺛﹰﺎ"‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻔﻮﻅ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳑﺎ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻗﻄﻌﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﱂ ﳛﻔﻆ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ ﻳﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻢ ﻣﺘﻨﻪ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﳘﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪ .(٤٣٧/١٣‬ﻭﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪٣٤٣/١‬ـ‪.(٣٤٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪" :‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ"‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٨٥٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺻﻔﺔ ﻧﻌﻴﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٨٤٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺗﲔ ﺹ‪ ،٣٩٠‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﺔ )‪٦٣٠/٢‬ـ‪.(٦٣١‬‬

‫‪٢٧٩‬‬

‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲏ! ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺒ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻻ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻓﻴﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ" ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻀﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﲤﺘﻠﺊ" ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻠﺆﻫﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺣﺴﱯ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﳋﱪ"!‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﺑﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﻭﻩ ﺳﺒﻘﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﻣﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ!‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﺇﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻏﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ)‪ .(٢‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ!‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ‬
‫ﻀ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﺛﹶﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴﻢ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﺑﻲ‪ ‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻠﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺼﻠﱢﻲ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٥٣٤/١٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ )ﺻﺨﺮ ـ ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ( ﺛﻼﺙ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘـﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٩٢٨‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﺑﺮﺍﺩ ﺑـﺎﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥٣٤‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻔﺎﺿﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(٥٢‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٣٩٢‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﻏﻔﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٥٢١‬‬

‫‪٢٨٠‬‬

‫ﲔ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬ ﹴﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟﹶﺄ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺴﺮ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪" :‬ﺃﺭﺳﻠﲏ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻬﻴﻢ"!‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻒ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ‬
‫ﻀ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﻰ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﻠﱢﻲ؟‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻴ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﻠﱢﻲ‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ"‬
‫ﻒ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹺﺮ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ﹶﺃﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ!‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )ﺕ‪٢٦١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬﹺﻨ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻞ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﹶ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻛ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻦ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴﻢ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١١٦/٤‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﻀ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (٩٤٤‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹴﻢ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶـﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺼﻠﱢﻲ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹸﻮﻧﹺﻲ ﺇﹺﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺒ‪‬ﺎﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹰﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻟﹶﺄﻥﹾ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪ (٦١/٢‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺃﲪﺪ‪" :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒـﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺧﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ"‪".‬ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺰﻱ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﺍﻑ )‪ ،(٢٣١/٣‬ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪ ،(٣٦/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ )‪.(٨٨١/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﰒ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٥٠٧‬‬

‫‪٢٨١‬‬

‫ﺚ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻓ ﹶﺬ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٥٠٧‬‬

‫‪٢٨٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ‬
‫ﺶ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻖ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺕ‪٢٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻭﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺑﹺﺎﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ!)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻛﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ؛ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﺎﻋﻪ ﺭﻭﻭﻩ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻜﺲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻇﻪ‪ " :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﻭﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﻛﻴـﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳕـﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـ ﺣﻔﺺ ﺑﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺑﻪ ﲟﺜﻠﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،١٢٨/٦‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،١٣٤/٧ ،٣٦٢٥‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٠٣٨‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٣٥٩‬ﺃﺑﻮﻋﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ )‪ ،٢٧/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٣٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١١١/٣‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺖ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ )‪٨٨٣/٢‬ـ‪.(٨٨٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،١٣٦/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٠٤٣‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٩٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٣٦٠‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ )‪ ،٢١٢/١‬ﲢـﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٦٦،٦٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪،٢٦٩/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٢٣١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑـﺎﷲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٩٢‬ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٦١/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٥٥٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﺰ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٢٣٨‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨـﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻛﺘـﺎﺏ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٨٣‬‬

‫ـ ﺃﺑﻮﲪﺰﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺑﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ـ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﺑﻞ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺋ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﻧﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻗﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﻧﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻗﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﻛﻴـﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﺑﻮﺑﻜﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ـ ﺷﻌﺒـﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٧‬‬
‫__________________‬
‫=‬
‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ )‪ ،٢١٣/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٧٠‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪} :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﺪﺍﹰﺍ{‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٤٤٩٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺬﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ ﺃﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺻﻠﻰ ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(٦٦٨٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ )‪ ،٢١٣/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٧١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،٢٣١/١٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٠٤١٠‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ )‪ ،٣٥٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪.(٢٢١١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﺓ )‪ ،٢١٣/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٦٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٣٦٩/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٢٣١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ )‪ ،٢١٢/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٦٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٣٦٠/٦‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٤١٢/٦) (٣٨١١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪ ،(٣٨٦٥‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ‬
‫)‪ ،٢٢/٩‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٥٠٩٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،٢٣٣/١٠‬ﲢﺖ ‪.(١٠٤١٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺹ‪ ،٣٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٥٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٢٦٩/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٤٢٣٢‬ﻭﻛﺮﺭﻩ‬
‫‪ ،٤١٣/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٤٢٩/٧ ،٤٤٠٦‬ﲢﺖ