You are on page 1of 45

‫‪٣‬‬

‫@ @‬

‫ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻟﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﳍﻢ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﰐ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﲨﻌﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻼﻏﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﺼﺎﺣﺘﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻔﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻋﲏ ﺑﻼﻏﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﺼﺎﺣﺘﻪ ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺭﰊ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻨﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯﻫﺎ ﻃﻼﻭﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺣﻼﻭﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﲰﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫"אو א  מ  א د
אو" ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﲤﻬﻴﺪ ﻭﻣﻘﺼﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺧﺎﲤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻮﺟﺰ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ ﻓﻔﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻴﺴﺮ ﱄ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ؛ ﻓﺄﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺃﺧﺮ‪‬ﺟﻪ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﱪﺯﹰﺍ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﹰﺎ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺩﺍﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺀﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ﻭﺻ ﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﺳﱢﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺎﺯﻣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ـ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬

‫‪mbazmool@hotmail.com‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺭﺟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﺼﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﺼﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺑﻼﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﺍﻟﱵ ]ﻓﺎﻕ ‪‬ﺎ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺮﺳﻠﲔ ﻭﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﳋﻄﺐ[)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻔﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﻣﻲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﻜﹶﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺗﺴﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﱵ ﺑﺘﺄﺩﻳﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ  ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻭﳏﺎﻭﺭﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﳋﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﲝﺸﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺭﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻋ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻴﺰﺍ‪‬ﺎ "ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻴﲔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﳊﻆ ﺧﻠﻮ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻴﲔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﺂﺛﺮ ﺗﺴﺪﻳﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪٥‬ـ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺩﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.٢٥٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻼﻏﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪ ،٧٥‬ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﶈﻘﻖ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺺ ﺹ‪٥٠‬ـ‪ ،٥٣‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺫﹸﻛﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻮﺟﺰ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﻠﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ )ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ(‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ )ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ )ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻊ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻮ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻴﺪ‪] ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻟﺐ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺘﻨﻒ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ[)‪ .(١‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﳌﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﳎﻲﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﳎﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺑﻼﻏﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﻨﻨﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳋﱪ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻔﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﻴﺐ)‪.(٢‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺹ‪.٥٧٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺹ‪٤٥‬ـ‪ ،٥٣‬ﺟﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺹ‪ ،٢٣٩‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻴﺔ ﺹ‪٥٧٨‬ـ‪.٥٧٩‬‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ـ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ)‪.(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﺼﻨﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻫﻮ )ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ؟ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﲞﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﺣﻆ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻛﻼﻡ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ")‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻲ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ! ﻳﻜﺘﻨﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳌﹼﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﱭ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳉﺮﺟﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪ (٤‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹ‪‬ﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻟﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ‪ :‬ﻷﲪﻠﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻫﻢ" ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﻟﻄﺔ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻬﺐ" ]ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ[ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑـ "ﻣﺜﻞ" ﺇﱃ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺿﻴﻒ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻔﻌﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﺳﻢ )ﺍﳌﻐﺎﻟﻄﺔ( ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺟﺎﱐ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻠﹼﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻐﺎﻟﻄﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻊ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺰﻭﻳﲏ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺹ‪٥٠‬ـ‪ ،٥١‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻊ ﺹ‪١٨٢‬‬
‫ﻭﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺹ‪ ،١٦٢‬ﻓﺎﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺹ‪.١٦٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﻴﲔ )‪ ،(٢٨١/٢‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﲢﺖ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺰ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﻴﲔ )‪ ،(١٤٧/١‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ )‪٢٧٥/٣‬ـ‪.(٢٧٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﻖ ﺹ‪١٧٤‬ـ‪ ،١٧٥‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺣﻆ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺹ‪.١٦٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺹ‪.١٦٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺩﻻﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺠﺎﺯ ﺹ‪١٣٨‬ـ‪.١٣٩‬‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻛﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺃﻋﲏ‬
‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻣﺘﻔﻨﻨﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻱ ﺇﻻ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲜﻬﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻋﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻳﺘﺴﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﺎﻧﲔ ﺳﺤﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ‬
‫ﻻ ﻛﺎﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪"...‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ؟ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻪ ؛ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺘﺮﻙ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﲝﻤﻞ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ[)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ )ﺕ‪٩٤٠‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻜﺘﺔ ﻟﻄﻴﻔﺔ ﻳﺮﺗﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﻭﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻬﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﳛﺘﻤﻠﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ‪" :‬ﳏﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻟﻸﻭﱃ ﲝﺎﳍﻤﺎ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺨ‪‬ﺎﻃﹶﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﺎﻃ‪‬ﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‪ :‬ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﳎﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﲝﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﹶﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﳚﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﺑﻴﺎ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺹ‪.١٤٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻊ ﺹ‪.١٧٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺹ‪.٩١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺹ‪ ،١٤٠‬ﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺹ‪ ،١٦٢‬ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻼﻏﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.٣٣‬‬

‫‪٩‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﳚﻲﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺒﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﺍ ﹸﳌﺨ‪‬ﺎﻃﹶﺐ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪،‬‬
‫ﲝﻤﻞ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻭﻳﺮﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻴﲔ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺣﺼﺮﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ)‪ .(١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻟﻔﻈﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﳚﻲﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﳛﺼﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﳛﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﻫﻨﺎ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﲝﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻐﲑ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻃﺎﺑﻘﻪ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻘﻪ؛‬
‫ﻓﺈﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺯﻭﺩ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻘﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺐ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺨ‪‬ﺎﻃ‪‬ﺐ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺣﺎﺟﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ)‪.(١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻴﲔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻜﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺡ )‪" :(٤٨١/١‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺳﺆﺍ ﹰﻻ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲪﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ"ﺍﻫـ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ "ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ" ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﱵ )ﺕ‪١٠٥٩‬ﻫـ( ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺣﺴﲔ ـ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ـ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻟﻴﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪.‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻼﻏﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺹ‪٣٤‬ـ‪.٣٥‬‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪]" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﺫﺭ‪ [:‬ﻳﺎ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(٢٦٥/٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،٢٥٨/٨‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٧٨٧١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺭﻓﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺴﺎ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻈﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﱰﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺄﻗﺼﺮﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺫﺭ ﻓﺄﻗﺤﻢ ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﻓﺠﻠﺲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﺄﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﺟﺎﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺭﻓﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺫﺭ ﻫﻞ ﺻﻠﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪"...‬ﻭﺳﺎﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻃﻮﻳ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪" :٩٥٣‬ﻟﲔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﳍﺎﱐ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪" :٧٠٧‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻪ )‪ (١٥٠/١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ )ﻛﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﲏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻃﺒﻌﻲ ﺻﻮﺍﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ  ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﺒ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻼ"‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻨﻌﻨﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺁﺩﻡ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺒ ﹰ‬
‫ﺹ‪" :١٩٩‬ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﳊﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﻩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ )‪ ١٤١/٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪ (٥٧١‬ﻃﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ـ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ـ ﺑﺄﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ"ﺍﻫـ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪:(١١٥/٣‬‬
‫"ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ]ﻳﺰﻳﺪ[ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻼﻡ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺇﺭﻭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻞ )‪ ،٤١٥/٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ .(٨٩٧‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ  ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻟﻪ ‪" :‬ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻓﺠﻠﺴﺖ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺫﺭ ﻫﻞ ﺻﻠﻴﺖ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﻓﺼﻞ‪ ،"...‬ﻭﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ"‪ .‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺹ‪ ،٦٥‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٧٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫)‪ ،(١٧٨،١٧٩/٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ )ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺭ ‪ ٩٣/١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٦٠‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻏﺘﻨﺎﻡ ﺧﻠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮ ﺷﻴﺎﻃﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺲ )‪ ،٤٦١/٤‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٧٩٤٤‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﺸﺨﺎﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪" :(١١٦/٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ"ﺍﻫـ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺭﻭﺍﺀ )‪" :(٤١٥/٣‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻃﻪ"ﺍﻫـ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ‬
‫)‪ (١٧٨/٥‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻛﻴـﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﺕ ﺹ‪" : ،٢٩٣‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒـﻞ ﺭﲪﻪ‬

‫=‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﲰﺎﻉ ﻭﻛـﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻗﺪﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩ"ﺍﻫـ ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ )‪ ٧٧/٥‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٧٢١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻔﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﳜﻄﺐ ﻓﻘﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻷﰊ ﺫﺭ‪" :‬ﻫﻞ ﺭﻛﻌﺖ؟" ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ‪ "...‬ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ؟‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ!"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﺮﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻔﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ"‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻤﺤﻲ ﻻ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳑﻦ‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ )‪-٣٦٨/١‬ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ )‪ ،(٣٧٠/١‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪.٢٩٣‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ )ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ( ﻳﺘﻘﻮﻱ ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻗﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ  ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ (١) :‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،٧٦/٢-‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٦١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ١٥٧/٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٦٥١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )‪١٦٦/١‬ـ‪) ،(١٦٨‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻴﺔ ‪ ١٢٨/١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢٧٣‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﳛﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺴﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳋﻮﻻﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬
‫)‪" :(٧٢/١‬ﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺮﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪" :(٣٧٨/٤‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻓﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺐ"ﺍﻫـ )‪ (٢‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬـﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٤٣٠‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )‪" :(١٦٨/١‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ]ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ[ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪" :٩٢٦‬ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪" :١٤٤‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﳜﻄﺊ"ﺍﻫـ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺳﻢ "ﺍﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ" ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻴﺔ )‪ (٣) .(١٣٠/١‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻪ )‪ ،(١٥٠/١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳋﻮﻻﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ  ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺹ‪" :٩١٣‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ )‪" :(٣٦٢/٦‬ﺍﲰﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ"ﺍﻫـ )‪ (٤‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬـﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )‪ (١٦٨/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‬
‫)‪ (٤/٩‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻴﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﻕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻛﲑﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬـﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ )‪ (١٦٨/١‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪" :‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺑﻄﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺸﻤﻲ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺸﻤﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻴﺪﻱ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻫـﱯ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ )‪ (٥) .(٣٧٨/٤‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )‪ (١٦٨/١‬ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺬ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺑﻄﻮﻟﻪ"ﺍﻫـ‬

‫=‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ" ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺄﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺛﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﲑﻏﺒﻚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﻘﺒﻪ ﻣﻼ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻱ )ﺕ‪١٠١٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺁﺧﺮ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻝ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺰﺍﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳋﱪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺬﻝ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻘﲔ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻔﻖ؟ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻔﻖ؟‬
‫ﺴﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ‬
‫ﲔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻔﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺂ ﺃﹶ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﺮ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻠ ﹾﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻷ ﹾﻗ ‪‬ﺮﺑﹺ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪} :‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﺮ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ{ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪.[٢٢١٥ :‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﹼﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻔ ﹼﻜﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ{ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﹼﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ ﹶﻻﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻔﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹸﻗ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ } :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪.[٢١٩‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﺪﻝ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ! ﻓﻬﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ! ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻚ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺖ‪" :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻃ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ! ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪" :‬ﻋﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺞ")‪.(٣‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ )‪٢٦١/٦‬ـ‪ (٣٦٣‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٦٨‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،٦٩/١٤‬ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٦١٩٠‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻼ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﱯ ﻣﻜﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺁﺩﻡ؟‪،"...‬‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻗﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ )‪.(٤٨٤-٤٨٣/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﺮﻗﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ )‪.(٤٨٤/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ) ‪.( ٢٨٧٥‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪" :‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪" :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻻ ﳔﺮﺝ ﳒﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﻌﻜﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻛﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺍﳌﱪﻭﺭ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﺎ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺮﺟﻦ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﲣﺮﺟﻬﻦ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺷﺪﻫﻦ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻫﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺩﻝ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻛﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ"‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻄﻮﻋﻦ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﻭﺍﺟ‪‬ﺒﺎ‬
‫ﳌﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺮ ﻭﳎﺎﻧﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﳍﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﰲ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺿﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺨﻢ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﳔﺎﻣﺘﻪ ﻓﻤﺴﺤﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ ﻭﺟﻠﻮﺩﻫﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﱂ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻧﻠﺘﻤﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﱪﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻠﻴﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺆﺩ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻱ ﺟﺎﺭﻩ"‪.‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ‬
‫ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺣﺴﺒﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻛﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺃﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﲝﺴﺒﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻛﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪" :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﺒﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻤﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻛﻦ"‪ .‬ﻭﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺷﺬﻭﺫ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﺭﻭﻭﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻫﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻗﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺑﻄﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻐﻤﺲ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰒ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﺄ ﻓﺘﺘﺒﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻓﺤﺴﻮﻧﺎﻩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﲪﻠﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻢ؟"‪ .‬ﻗﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺐ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺒﺒﺘﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺒﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﺄﺩﻭﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺅﲤﻨـﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﺻﺪﻗﻮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺛﺘﻢ ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻨﻮﺍ ﺟﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻭﺭﻛﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺮﺩﺍﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺪﻋﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻄﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻐﻤﺲ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﺘﻮﺿﺄ ﻓﺘﺘﺒﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻓﺤﺴﻮﻧﺎﻩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﲪﻠﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻢ؟"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺒﺒﺘﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺒﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﺄﺩﻭﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺅﲤﻨـﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﺻﺪﻗﻮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺛﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻨﻮﺍ ﺟﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻭﺭﻛﻢ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻴﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺆﺩ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻱ ﺟﺎﺭﻩ" ﺇﺫ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻮﻟﻪ]ﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪:‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ[ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﳌﹼﺎ ﺳﺄﳍﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﱂ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻧﻠﺘﻤﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﱪﻛﺔ"‬
‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻤﻮﻩ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﶈﺒﺔ ﷲ ﻭﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﺎﱐ )‪ ،(٨١/٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٩٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ )‪،(٣٢٠/٦‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻗﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪" :(٢٥٧/٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺮﺩﺍﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪" :(٢٧١/٨‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻌﻲ ﰲ ﰲ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٩٩٨‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳋﻄﻤﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻗﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺑﻄﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻐﻤﺲ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﺘﻮﺿﺄ ﻓﺘﺘﺒﻌﻨﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻓﺤﺴﻮﻧﺎﻩ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﲪﻠﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻢ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺣﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺒﺒﺘﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺒﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﺄﺩﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺅﲤﻨﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﺻﺪﻗﻮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺛﺘﻢ ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻨﻮﺍ ﺟﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻭﺭﻛﻢ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ‬
‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳋﻄﻤﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻗﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻓﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﲔ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﺧﻠﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻭﱃ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﲟﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﻃﺮﻗﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٦‬‬

‫ﻓﻠﻴﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺆﺩ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﻱ ﺟﺎﺭﻩ"‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﳍﻢ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺳﺄﳍﻢ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﲪﻠﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻢ؟"‪ .‬ﻗﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺐ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺒﺒﺘﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺒﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﺄﺩﻭﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺅﲤﻨـﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﺻﺪﻗﻮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺛﺘﻢ ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻨﻮﺍ ﺟﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻭﺭﻛﻢ"‪ .‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺇﺫ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﻏﻴﺒﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﳍﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻙ ﲟﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻮﺋﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻗﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻓﹸﺄ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻔ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻜﹶﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺼﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻭﺿ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺧﺬﹸﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿﹶﺄ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ٍﺀ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺰ ﹲﺓ")‪. (٢‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﱠﻜ ﹶﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺯ ﹲﻝ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ " :‬ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗﻨﹺﻲ!‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ!‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ(‪ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ!!‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺒﻠﹶﺎ‬
‫ﻀﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ( ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺑﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﺎ!‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺎ‪ :‬ﹶﻗﹺﺒ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻙ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﺹ‪.٢٥٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٨٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٥٠٣‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫ﺴﻞﹶ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺞ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺡ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ٌﺀ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ( ﹺﺑ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹴ‬
‫ﻀﻠﹶﺎ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺡ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﺎ ﹶﻓﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ﹺﺮﻏﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﹸﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻟﹸﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﻠﹶﺎ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻔ ﹰﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭﹶﺛ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹴﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ " :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺖ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﹶﻠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺟﹾﺌﺖ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺊ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﻠ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ﹾﻞ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺞ‪‬؟‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ﹴﻞ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻲ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ﹶﺔ‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔﹶﺜ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ﹴﻞ‬
‫ﺴ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻪ‪ .‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪" :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )ﺕ‪٢٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ "‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔﹶﺜ ‪‬ﻪ" ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨﹺﻲ‪ :‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ"‪ :‬ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺒ ﹲﻞ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺇﺫ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻟﻪ ﺣﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺪﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻳﺒﲔ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﺭﻩ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔﹶﺜ ‪‬ﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺪﻓﹶ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﺘﺪ ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺞ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ ﰲ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ﲦﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٣٢٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٤٩٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(٢٦١ ،١٥/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﲜﻤﻊ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٨٩١‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(١٩٥٠‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ )‪ ،(٢٦٣/٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﲨﻊ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٠١٦‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫)‪ ،٤٣٨/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢٤٩١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉـﺎﺭﻭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٦٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(٢٨٢١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،١٦٢/٩‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٨٥١‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛـﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪.(٤٦٣/١‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺇﺭﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻞ )‪ ،(٢٥٨/٤‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻘﻖ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ‪ "...‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ  ‪ " :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺎﳌﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺣﺞ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﺷﻬﻮﺩ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺖ ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺃﰎ ﺣﺠﻪ ﻭﻗﻀﻰ ﺗﻔﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺖ ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺣﺠﻪ ﺗﺎﻡ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺱ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﹴ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـــﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺞ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺾ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻔ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ " :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻙ")‪(٢‬؛ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﰲ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺷﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﺑﻠﻪ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ!‬
‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻔﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ »ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹِﻣﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻔﻴﻀﻮﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹِﻣﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ« ﻭﻷﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ »ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ ﻓﻼ ﺣﺞ ﻟﻪ« ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺻﻨﻒ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻞ]ﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻠﻲ[ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻄﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻄﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻄﻂ ﻓﺰﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹِﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻳﻔﻮﺗﻪ‬

‫ﺇﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺃﻟﺰﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻓﺤﻜﻰ ﺍﻹِﲨـﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹِﺟﺰﺍﺀ)‪ (٤‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﻜﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ)‪"(١‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ )‪.(٢٦٧/٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ )‪ ،(٢٦٣/٥‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ‬
‫ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٦٣٦/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﻠﻰ )‪.(١٣٠/٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻭﻧﺺ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ )‪ (٤٢٢/٣‬ﻣﻌﻘﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﲨﻊ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪} :‬ﻓﺎﺫﻛﺮﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ{‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻀﺮﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﱪ ﻓﺎﳌﻨﻄﻮﻕ‬

‫=‬

‫‪١٩‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺮﻡ ﻭﻗﺼﺪ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺞ ﻭ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﲨﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﱂ‬
‫ﻼ ﳍﺬﻩ‬
‫ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻟﻔﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲪ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﺎ ﹸﻓﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﲜﻤﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻻ ﻓﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ ﻣﺎﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﻉ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺞ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓ ﹸﺔ‪ .‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﻊ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﹸﻃﻠﹸﻮ ﹺ‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻯ‪ :‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪ ‬ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺞ‪ .‬ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻰ ﹶﺛﻠﹶﺎﹶﺛ ﹲﺔ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹶﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ﺇﹺﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(٣‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺮﻛﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺑﺎﺕ ﲜﻤﻊ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺣﺠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺖ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺷﻬﻮﺩ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻌﲔ ﲪﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﺎﺗﺖ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﱪﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺎﻉ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﲨﺎﻉ"‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪.(٢٠٩/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٥٢٩/٣‬‬
‫ﻱ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺚ‪ .‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﺜ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ " :‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺚ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹸ‬
‫ﺚ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹶ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﻛ‪‬ﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ‪" :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﲜﻤﻊ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،٨٨٩‬‬
‫‪ ،(٨٩٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (١٩٤٩‬ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٠١٦‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺻﻼﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٠٤٤‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣـﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﲨﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٠١٥‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ )ﺕ‪٣١١‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٨٢٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺒــﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،٢٠٣/٩‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٢٨٩٢‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،١١٨/٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٦٧٢/٢) ،(١٧٤٦‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣١٥٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(١٧٣،١٥٢/٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﺎﻩ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺭﻭﺍﺀ )‪ ،(٢٥٦/٤‬ﻭﺻﺤﺢ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﲔ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﻴﻪ ﻓﻠﻢ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬

‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃﻫ‪ ‬ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ‪" :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺉ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺠ ﹺﺰ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺞ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻉ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﹸﻃﻠﹸﻮ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻘﻒ‪ ‬ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺤﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎﹺﺑ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﺜ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌﹸﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻉ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﻃﻠﹸﻮ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﺷﺤﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺞ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ" ﻓﺪﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺮﻡ ﺑﺎﳊﺞ ﻭﻗﺼﺪ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﷲ ﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ  ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺎﳌﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳊﺞ ﳌﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺞ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﺮ‪" :‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﳒﺪ ﺳﺄﻟﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﳍﻢ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺞ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻓﻀﻞ‪،‬؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺪ ﺁﺗﺎﻩ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ ﻭﺧﻮﺍﲤﻪ ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺞ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﻭﻣﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺑﺴﺆﺍﳍﻢ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺞ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻛﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻛﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﺄﻧﻔﹰﺎ ﻟﻴﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺞ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ" ﻓﺄﻭﺟﺐ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻮﺕ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ")‪ (١‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‬
‫ﺷﻲﺀ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺘﻀﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﳜﺮﺟﺎ ﻟﻪ ﳏﻘﻖ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪ ،(٢٠٩/٢‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ‪" :‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ ﻭﺍﻗﻔﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻧﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﳒﺪ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ‬
‫ﺠ ﹶﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﲎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ‪ } .‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ﻪ{"‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪.(٢١٠/٢‬‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪} :‬ﻓﺎﺫﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ{ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪:‬‬
‫‪ [١٩٨‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻒ ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰﻭﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻪ ﺗﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻓﺎﳌﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺣﺮﻯ ﺃﻻﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﺿﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﳚﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﳚﺰﺉ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺑﺈﺻﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﺱ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺑﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻭﻗﻒ ﻭﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻓﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻓﺎﺗﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻪ ﺗﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳚﺰﺉ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺻﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺣﺮﻯ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﻮﺡ ﱄ ﺃﻥ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﺱ  ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ﱠﻜ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻓﺠ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫" ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻓ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻄﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ")‪ ،(٢‬ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﰲ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺀ ﻭﻗﻮﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻒ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ!‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪.(٢٠٩/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٣٢٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﻥ ‪ ...‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٩٧‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﻨـﻲ )‪١٦٣/٢‬ـ‪.(١٦٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪" :‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﳏﻘﻖ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ )‪ ،(٢٧٨/٦‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺭﻭﺍﺀ‬
‫)‪ ،(١١/٤‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٩٠٥‬‬

‫‪٢٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺭ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪" :‬ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹸﻗﱠﻠ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﻉ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪‬ﺍﺏ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭﺽﹺ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﺒ ﹶ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬
‫ﳒﺲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻨﺠﺲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳒﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺘﲔ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺔ ﻓﻼ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ  ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﳊﺎﳍﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺭﺷﺪﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳒﺎﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺭﺟﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻣﺮﺟﻮﺡ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﶈﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻻ ﲣﺼﻴﺼﹰﺎ ﶈﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻘﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ‬
‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﶈﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺣﺠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺠﺲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥١٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺠﺲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٧٣١‬ﻭﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(٣٢٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺠﺲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(٦٣‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧـﺰﳝﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻘﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺇﺭﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻞ )‪.(٦٠/١‬‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ )ﺕ‪٧٢٨‬ﻫـ(ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﹺﺇﻣ‪‬ﻼﻕ{ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،[٣١:‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺧﺺ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ } :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﹸﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﳜﺘﺺ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿ ﹲﺔ{ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،[٢٨٣:‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﻛﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﺒﹰﺎ ﹶﻓ ﹺﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹲﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ } :‬ﻭﺇﹺﻥ ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻫﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﺭﻋﻪ ﻣﺮﻫﻮﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺭﻫﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻗﻠﺘﲔ" ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻗﻠﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳏﻤﻮﻻﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺗﻪ؛ ﺑﲔ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺧﺒﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺠﺲ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻃﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺼﺼﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺠﺲ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﱢﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﺨﺒﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﲪﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳒﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻨﺠﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺚ"ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﺒ ﹶ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ " :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﳒﺎﺳﺔ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ!‬
‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻼ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﻣﻈﻨﺔ ﲪﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺼﻴﺺ‬
‫ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﻻ ﻟﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺠﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻟﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﻗﺪ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ )ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﳏﻤﻮ ﹰﻻ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ )ﺕ‪٧٢٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺩ ﹼﻝ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ][ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺠﻴﺲ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‬
‫ﳏﻤﻮﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﳏﻤﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳒﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻬﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ][‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻃﻬﻮﺭ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺠﺴﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ" ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻌﲔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺭﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺹ‪.١٧-١٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺭﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺹ‪.١٦‬‬

‫‪٢٤‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻗﻠﺘﲔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺲ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﻗﺪ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﳛﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻳﺴﲑﹰﺍ ﳛﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻳﺴﲑﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﱂ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺘﲔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳛﻤﻞ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺄﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ " :‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ َﺀ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﻪ!‬
‫ﺼﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓﲑﹺ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻃﹸﻮﺑ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻠﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹸﺔ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹸﺔ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ‬
‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺏ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪ ‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻓﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﹶﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﺒﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺗﺘﺮﻗﺐ‪،‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺭﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺹ‪ ١٧‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﺼﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٦٦٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٨٤/٧‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٤٠١٧‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﻏﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﻨﻪ ﺻﺨﺮﺓ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺴﺤﺖ ﺃﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻟﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺑﲏ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬
‫ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ؟ ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﻪ ﻭﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻀﺮﻩ"‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻲ]ﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪:‬ﳛﲕ[ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺺ‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻔ ﹺ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻳﻀﺤﻚ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٢٣١٦‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨﹺﻲ ﺭ‪ ‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﱢﻓ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺶ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹴ‬
‫ﺙ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻏﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ"‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺣﻔﺺ‬
‫ﺚ ﹶﻏﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﺨ ﹶﻞ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﺭﹺﻱ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻜﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺙ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﺹ‪" ،١٣٥‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ )ﺕ‪٢٣٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ‬
‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﲟﻜﺔ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﻓﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺷﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪" :١٠٧١‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺷﻲ ‪ ...‬ﺯﺍﻫﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ"ﺍﻫـ ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻼﺏ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﷲ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﻟﻠﻨﺎﺭ ﺃﻫ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﺄﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﷲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺃﻫ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﻁ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹰﺔ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏﹺﻨ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹶﻞ‬
‫ﺤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﻫﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪" :‬ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻓﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺋ ﹶ‬
‫ﻉ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﻂ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﱡ‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻓﺒ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ‬
‫ﺸﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﺓ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﹺﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓﺠ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻐ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ﹺﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻲ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻛﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٌﺀ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻛﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﺭ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺸﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﺓ"‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ  ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻘ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﻫﻨﹺﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻐ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ﹺﻢ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻲ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻠﻪ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ )‪ " :(٣٥٩/٤‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪" :‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ"‪ " :‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﱃ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ‪" .‬ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ ‪ ...‬ﺇﱁ" ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﲨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭﻋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺡ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺃﺣﻮﻁ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ]ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ[ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﺫ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺑﺎﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻐﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻟﻮ ﰎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﻢ! ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻟﻮ ﰎ ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﰲ ﳐﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﺇﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﻳﻦ ﲢﻘﻴ ﹰﻘﺎ ﻏﻴﺐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻁ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ"ﺍﻫـ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺬﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻫﻞ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﻨﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻭﻉ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(٦٧٠٧‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﺧﻴﱪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٢٣٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻏﻠﻆ‬
‫ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١١٥‬‬

‫‪٢٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻃﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹲﺓ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﱢﻓ ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺟﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘﻜﹶﻰ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﺍ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻈﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺸﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﹾﺛﻮ‪‬ﺍﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ!‬
‫ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ؟‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺭﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ!‬
‫ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺩ‪‬ﺭﹺﻱ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻞ ﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬
‫ﲔ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﹶﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺠﹾﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﺮﹺﻱ ﹶﻓ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻌﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﺎ ِﺀ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺯﻛﱢﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹶﺬ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺠﺮﹺﻱ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٧٠١٨‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻈﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﹺﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻈﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻲ ﹶﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻞ ﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺭﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹴ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﻝﹺ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ! ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ! ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ‬
‫ﺴﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻔﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻘ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﹶﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻌﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﺮ‪ :‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻃ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹺﺮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪ ‬ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻈﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ﹾﻠ ﹺ‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻔ ﹺﲑ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﺔ‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺣ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱢﻠﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ﹺﺑﹶﺜ ‪‬ﻮﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ"‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﻜ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺹ‪ ،٣٥١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٩٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌـﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪٢٩٨/٣‬ـ‪ ،(٣٩٩‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(٣٣٥ ،٣٨-٣٧/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،٢٥/٩‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٨٣١٧‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ‬
‫)‪ ،١٩٢/٤‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٩٢١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻴﺔ ‪ ١٩٩/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٥٥٣‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺪﻋﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪" :(٣٠٢/٩‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺧﻼﻑ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ( )‪ ،(٢١٦/٥) ،(٣١/٤‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻜﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ )ﺭﻗﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺫﻛﺮ )ﺯﻳﻨﺐ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٧‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺭﲪﺔ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ! ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪" :‬ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ!"‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ‪ " :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺭﹺﻳﻚ‪‬؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﻭ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻞ ﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ!"‪،‬‬
‫ﲔ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫"ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺼﻠﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺹ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺮ ﺑ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻗﱠﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫﻄﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻟﻚ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟﹶﺄﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ؟‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ!‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻚ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟﹶﺄﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ؟‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏﹶﻠ‪‬ﺒﻨﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ!‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏﻠﹶ‪‬ﺒﻨﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟﹸﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻄ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻟﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﺴﻠﻤﹰﺎ" ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ "ﻣﺆﻣﻨﹰﺎ"‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺷﺪﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺲ ﻓﹶ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋ‪‬ﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫﻄﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫"ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻚ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟﹶﺄﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ؟‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ  ﰲ ﺑﺪﺭ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺖ ﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﻌﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﻬﻮﺩ ﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﻦ!‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(٢٧‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪} :‬ﻻﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﳊﺎﻓﹰﺎ{‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﲎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٤٧٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﺄﻟﻒ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﻪ ﻟﻀﻌﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٥٠‬‬

‫‪٢٨‬‬

‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺐ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ! ‪ ...‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟﹸﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻄ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪" :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ" ﻫﻮ ﺑﺈﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻻ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺮﻳﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﳍﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰊ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺠﻤﻪ)‪ (١‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ " ﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ " ﻓﻮﺿﺢ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻺﺿﺮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﳜﺘﱪ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳏﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺀ ﳌﻦ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺗﺄﻟ ﹰﻔﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺳﺄﻟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﻃﺒﻪ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻫﻂ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺟﻌﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﺃﺣﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﱪﻩ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺩﻭ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻌﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﻼﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻭﺣﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﺟﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﳑﻦ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﱂ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺿﺢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻌﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﳏﺾ ﺍﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺑﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪) ،(١٢٦٧‬ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪ ‪ ،(٤١٦/٢‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺋﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﺰﻭﺟﻞ ‪} :‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﺁﻣﻨﺎ ﻗﻞ ﱂ ﺗﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ{‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٩٩٣‬ﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪" :‬ﻋ‪ ‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﻓﻠﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ{"‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ‪} :‬ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ" ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻦ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٨٠/١‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﱵ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﳌﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺎﳉﻨﺔ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﺮ ‪‬ﳛﺎ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﺣﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻼﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻷﻫﻢ ﻓﺎﻷﻫﻢ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺧﻔﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻊ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻟﻠﻜﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﻫﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻔﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‪:‬‬
‫" ﻓﻘﻤﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﺴﺎﺭﺭﺗﻪ "‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﲑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﲑ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻻ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٢٩‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻞ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪" :‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻐ‪‬ﻨ ﹺﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻞ ﻟ‪‬ﻠ ﱢﺬ ﹾﻛ ﹺﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪‬؟‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻓﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪" :‬ﻓﺎﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻳﻘﻊ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻐﻨﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺪﺡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻬﺬﺍ ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺎﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﳚﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻓﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ " :‬ﻓﻬﻮ" ﺭﺍﺟ ‪‬ﻌﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺘﺎﻟﻪ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺇﻋﻼﺀ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺭﺿﺎﻩ ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﺛﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﺩﺣﺾ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺋﻪ ﻭﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻼﺯﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﳑﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﺸﺆﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﷲ ﻓﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻓﺄﻓﺎﺩ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻓﻬﺎﻡ"‪.‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺒﲔ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻋﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺩﺕ ﺷﻔﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻹﳊﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﻄﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‪".‬ﺍﻫـ ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻳﺴﲑ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٨١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٩٠٤‬‬

‫‪٣٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ"‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﻗﺘﺎﻟﻪ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺇﻋﻼﺀ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﻞ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﻣﻘﺼﻮ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻻ ﳜﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺿﻤ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻻ ﻳﻀﺮﻩ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻀﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﺀ ﺻﺮﹰﻓﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﺀ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﲨﺮﺓ ‪ :‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺇﻋﻼﺀ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﱂ ﻳﻀﺮﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍ‬
‫ﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪" :‬ﻟﹶﺎ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻲ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻝ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻞ ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ﱢﻈﺒ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹸﻄﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻭﻝﹶ؟!")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ‪‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﲑ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ  ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﳌﻦ ﺳﺄﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻝ‬
‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ‪‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ؟"‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻞ ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ﱢﻈﺒ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹸﻄﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﲑ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪" :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻭﻝﹶ؟!"‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺤﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ ﻋﻤﻦ ﺃﻋﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ؟‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﲝﺎﻟﻪ ﻟﲑﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪" :‬ﻓﻴﺠﺮ‪‬ﺎ"‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ "ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﳚﺮ‪‬ﺎ"‪ ،‬ﺑﻀﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺏ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﺤﺎﺀ ﺃﻣﺮﺿﻬﻢ ﻓﻨﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﺑﻄﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰊ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﻋﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ؟" ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪٢٨/٦‬ـ‪ (٢٩‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﺼﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺑﺎﺏ "ﻻﻫﺎﻣﺔ"‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥٧٧١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻻ ﻋﺪﻭﻯ ﻭ‬
‫ﻻ ﻃﲑﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،...‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٢٢٠‬‬

‫‪٣١‬‬

‫ﻭﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺏ ﻟﻠﺬﻱ ﺃﻋﺪﻯ ﺑﺰﻋﻤﻬﻢ ؟ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﲑ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻴﻔﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﷲ ‪".‬ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹺﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺪﺭﹺﻱ ﹶﺃ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﹶﺎ؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ " :‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ" ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺐ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻬﻤﻜﻢ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪" :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮﻡ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺞ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﹺﺒﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹲﺓ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ! ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺯﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ  ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﻋﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﺑﺎﳊﺞ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﲎ ﻭﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺿﺎﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺞ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻮﺽﹺ؟‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺁﹺﻧ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﺭ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻛﹺﺒﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻈ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺑﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﻟﹶﺂﹺﻧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻧﺠ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻈ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﺄ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺔ ﺁﹺﻧ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻞ")‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜ ﹸﻞ ﻃﹸﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﺎﺿ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻈ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪٢٤١/١٠‬ـ‪.(٢٤٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﻭﺱ ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٠٥٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺳﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ )‪.(١٦٥/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻭﺃﺟﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪..(١٣٣٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﺽ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٣٠٠‬‬

‫‪٣٢‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪] ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ  ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻛﺜﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﻨﺪﻓﻊ ﳏﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﲪﺔ ﻓﺄﺟﻴﺐ ﺑﺒﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ[)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱢﺜﻴ‪‬ﺎﺏﹺ؟‬
‫ﺲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺍﹺﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍﻭﹺﻳﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﺎﺋ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﺧ ﱠﻔ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺒﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱢﺜﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹺ‬
‫ﺨﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ )ﺕ‪٥٤٤‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺏ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻠﺒﻮﺱ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺼﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻟﻴﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﺒﺎﺡ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺎﺳﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺏ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﻟﻴﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻮﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﺼﺮ ﻭﺃﺣﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺎﻷﺻﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ‪] ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﺒﺴﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻃﻨﺎﺏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺪﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺴﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﺒﺴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺇﲨﺎﻝ ﻳﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻔﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﻎ[)‪.(٥‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﰲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺹ‪.٩٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٥٤٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺮﻡ ﲝﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺒﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١١٧٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ )‪١٦٠/٤‬ـ‪.(١٦١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪٤٠١/٣‬ـ‪.(٤٠٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﰲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺹ‪.٩٤‬‬

‫‪٣٣‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﺳﹶﺄ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺮﹺ؟‬
‫ﺿﹸﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ﹾﺄﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺗﻮﺿﺌﻮﺍ‪ .‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﺿﺌﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺎﺅﻩ ﺍﳊﻞ ﻣﻴﺘﺘﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻷﻓﺎﺩ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺯﺍﺩﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺔ‬
‫ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﲝﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ )ﺕ‪٥٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺳﺆﺍﳍﻢ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺇﻧﺎ ﻧﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻭﳓﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﺄﻧﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻄﺸﻨﺎ" ﻓﺸﻜﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺳﺆﺍﳍﻢ ]ﻓﺒﻬﺎ[ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺄﻧﻒ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻓﺘﺘﻮﺿﺄ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﻴﻤﻤﺖ‬
‫ﻭ ﻻ ﲪﻠﺖ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻟﻄﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲢﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺸﻘﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ... .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﻞ ﻣﻴﺘﺘﻪ" ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﺄﻥ ]ﳚﺎﺏ[ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﺇﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺠ‪‬ﺎﺓﹸ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺧﻄ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣـﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻮﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٣‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫)‪ ،(٢٣٧،٣٩٣/٢‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻃﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‬
‫ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﲟﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٨٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﲟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٨٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٧٢٩‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺭﻭﺍﺀ )‪.(٤٢/١‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺫﻱ )‪ ،(٨٩/١‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪.‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ ﺹ‪ ،٤٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٤‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(١٤٨/٤‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ‬
‫)‪ ،(٢٥٩/٥‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٤٠٦‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻟﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٥‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺣ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎﺳ‪‬ﻢ ِ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ"‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﲑ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﳍﺎﱐ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﻮﻯ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻗﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺵ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺳ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٦٥٤/٢٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (١٧٤٥٢‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻘﺒ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﹾﺜ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇﻠﹶ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ‪...‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ" ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺧﻄ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٨٩٠‬ﻭﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻃﺮﻕ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٥٦٦/١١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٦٩٨٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺹ‪ ،٢٣٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(٢٠٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،٩/١٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻟﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﱐ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﱳ )‪ ٣٦٣/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١١٧‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٤٠٢/٥‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٧٣٣/٥) ،(٧٨٢٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(٨٦٤٥‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ ..." :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺎﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻓﺪﺍﻙ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻡ ﺑﻴﺘﻚ ﻭﺍﻣﻠﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻟﺴﺎﻧﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺬ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﺩﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻉ ﻋﻨﻚ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،٦٣٤/١١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٧٠٦٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪،١٠/١٣‬‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،٥٠٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٦٢٠/٥) ،(٢٧١٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٨٣٨٩‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﺯﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻢ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٣٤٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٩٥٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،١١/١٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٧‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﺯﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻫﻨﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ )‪ ،٥٨٣/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(١٢٣٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،١١/١٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٩‬ﻭﲤﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ )ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٣٤/٥‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(١٧١٩‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻃﺮﻗﹰﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٥٤/١١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪ ،٦٢٦/١١) ،(٦٥٠٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٧٠٤٩‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪١٠/١٣‬ـ ‪ ١٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪٦‬ـ‪ ،(١٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﱳ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﱐ‬
‫)‪ ،٣٦٥/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١١٨‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪٢٠٥‬ـ‪.(٢٠٦‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،١٩٦ ،١٦٤/٦‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٥٩٨٤ ،٥٨٦٨‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺻﺮﻡ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،٢٨١/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪٨١٧‬ــ‪،(٨١٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﺻﺒﻬﺎﻥ )‪.(١٧٩/٢‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪٣٥‬‬

‫]ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ؛ ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﲝﺎﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﱃ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ؛ ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻣﺰﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ[)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺒﻜﹶﻰ ﹶﻃﻮﹺﻳﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺹ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺎﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﻱ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ " :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺷﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ﹶﻜﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ﹶﻜﺬﹶﺍ!‬
‫‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹶﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﺓ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ‪:‬‬
‫ﻕ ﹶﺛﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ﹾﻃﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﺐ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃﻛﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐﻀ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻝ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ‬
‫ﺴﹶ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠﹸﺄﺑ‪‬ﺎﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹾ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠﺒﹺﻲ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‪:‬‬
‫ﻁ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ؟ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺮ ﹸ‬
‫ﻁ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺮ ﹶ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﻭ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻱ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹶﺎﻡ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺇﹺﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ! ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺄﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﹶﻠﹸﺄ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻃ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺃﻃ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﹶﻠﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ!‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃﻛﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪٢٧٩/١٣‬ـ‪ ،٢٨١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪،٥٩٥٠‬‬
‫‪ ،(٥٩٥١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،١٥٩/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(٢٧٧٦‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،٢٦٠/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٣٤٩ ،٣٣٤٨‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬
‫)‪ ،٢٥٧/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(١٩١٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،٢١٠/١٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٠٣٥٣‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬
‫)‪ ،٦٢/٦‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٥٧٩٩‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﺮﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻧﻮﺡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻱ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ )‪ ،(١٩٧/٢‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻳﺴﲑ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﺘﻨﺒﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﰲ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮﺕ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ )‪.(١٩٦/٢‬‬

‫‪٣٦‬‬

‫ﺸﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺤ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺩﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﻮﹺﻧﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﺒﻨﹺﻲ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﺎﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹺﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺟ ‪‬ﻊ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄﹺﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﺰ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺷﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻗ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﺮﹺﻱ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻲ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﻁ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ؟ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺮ ﹸ‬
‫ﻁ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﺮ ﹶ‬
‫ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ‪ " :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟ‪‬ﻲ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ!"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻏﺮﺽ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺑﺎﺋﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﺑﻴﻌﺘﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻬﺪﻡ ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ‪‬ﺪﻡ ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺞ ﻳﻬﺪﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻﺗﺴﺄﻝ ﻭ ‪‬ﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺞ ﻳﻬﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻃﻪ ﺿﻤﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﹸﺮﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻏﺮﺽ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺑﺎﺋﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳊﺞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻬﺪﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻜﻞﹸ؟‬
‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﻰ{ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪} :‬ﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ‪ } :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜ ﱞﻞ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﻯ{")‪.(٣‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻳﻬﺪﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(١٢١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ )‪.(١٦٧/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪} :‬ﻓﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﻭﺍﺗﻘﻰ{‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٤٩٤٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻘﺪﻭﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٦٠٥‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٣٧‬‬

‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺃﻓﻼ ﻧﺘﻜﻞ" ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﻓﻼ ﻧﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻟﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺯﻝ ﻭﻧﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﺎ ﲜﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﺭ ﻓﺄﻱ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ؟‬
‫ﻓﺤﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻻ ﻧﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﺈﻧﺎ ﺳﻨﺼﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺏ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ"‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﻷﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻴﺴﺮ ﳌﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺮﻩ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺇﺫ ﻣﻨﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﻜﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻼ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﰎ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺁﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻭﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﺎﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﺲ ﹺﺇ ﹼﻻ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ{ ]ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،[٥٦:‬ﻓﻼ ﲡﻌﻠﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻹِﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ ﻵﻳﺔ } ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻄﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻬﺎ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻐﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﺮﲪﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﺬﻻﻧﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﳌﹼﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺑﺄﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﺩﺙ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻳﺎﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ؟ ﺃﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻣﺰﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﰲ‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﻴﺴﺮ ﳌﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻟﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﻟﻶﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺯﺍﻕ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﲝﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﳍﺎ ﻃﺮﻗﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺳﻠﻚ ﻃﺮﻗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺴﺮ‬
‫ﺴﺮ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺪﻩ‪ ،... ،‬ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﺪﺭ ﱄ ﺯﺭﻉ ﻭﲦﺮﺓ ﺣﺼﻼ ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﺃﺯﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫ﻼ ﺿﺎ ‪‬ﻻ‪،‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﻕ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﹸﻗﺪ‪‬ﺭ ﱄ ﺭﺯﻕ ﺃﺗﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﻌﻲ ﻭﺣﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﲪﻖ ﺟﺎﻫ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺳﻌﺎﺩﰐ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻭﲪﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻭﷲ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﱠﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺹ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫" ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮﹺﻭ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎﻥ‪‬؟‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻵﺩﻣﻲ ﰲ ﺑﻄﻦ ﺃﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٦٤٧‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٩٧/١١‬ﻓﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ )‪.(١٣/٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻳﺔ ﺹ‪٧٩‬ـ‪ ٨٠‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣٨‬‬

‫ﺨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ!‬
‫ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻞﹺ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻟﱠﻠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ .‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻟﱠﻠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺷﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ُﺀ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪‬ﺍ‬
‫ﻍ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪‬؟‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻔ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻓ ﹺﺮ ﹶ‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨﺔ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺪﺩ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹺﺭﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﱠﻥ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﻞ!‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫ﻍ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﺮ‪ ‬ﹶ‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﲑ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﺃﺭﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩﻧﹺﻲ‬
‫ﺲ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪" :‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹴ‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺯ ‪‬ﺩﻧﹺﻲ ﹺﺑﹶﺄﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺯ ‪‬ﺩﻧﹺﻲ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﲔ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪١٢١/١١‬ـ‪ ،(١٢٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٤١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ )ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺑﺮﺓ ‪ ،٢٥٠/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٣٥٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ )‪ ،٤٥٢/٦‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١١٤٧٣‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪ ،٢٦٤/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٩٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻴﺔ ‪ ،٤١٥/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪.(٢٦٠٤‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻗﺒﹺﻴ ﹴﻞ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ‪‬ﺊ"ﺍﻫـ ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﻴﺢ‪ ‬ﹶﻏﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ "َ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٨٤٨‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﳏﻘﻘﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻘﻖ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺃﰊ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻓﺮﻱ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻔﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺗﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺹ‪ ،٢٧٧‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻗﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﲔ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻗﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٢٨٢‬ﺃﻧﻪ‪" :‬ﺻﺪﻭﻕ ﻳﻬﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ـ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ـ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﰲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺴﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣٩‬‬

‫ﺖ")‪.(١‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﹸﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒـﻲ )ﺕ‪٧٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺯﺍﺩﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻘﻲ ﳏﺎﺭﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻭﲡﺘﻨﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﳌﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻏﻔﺮ ﺫﻧﺒﻚ" ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﺯﻋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻯ ﺗﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﻓﺄﺷﺎﺭ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﻏﻔﺮ ﺫﻧﺒﻚ" ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﰒ ﺗﺮﻗﻰ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻭﻳﺴﺮ ﻟﻚ ﺍﳋﲑ" ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺲ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧﺒﹺ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹺ‬
‫ﻂ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺑ‪ ‬ﻮ ﹴﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﺮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﹶﺓ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺟﹺﻴ ﹴﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻈ ﹴﻢ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹺ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑﹶﺄﹶﻗ ﱠﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺛﻠﹶﺎﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﺭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺃﺟﻞ"‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﱯ )ﺕ‪٧٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻙ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺰﺃ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻬﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺴﻜﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺖ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺩ‪‬ﻉ ﺭﺟﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٧١‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺩ‪‬ﻉ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٣٤٤٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺹ‪ ،٩٨‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٩‬ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻄﻲ )ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻜﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺍﺋﻄﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻲ ﺹ‪ ،١٨٠‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٤١٦‬ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ )‪ ،١١٨٠/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٨١٧‬ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ‬
‫ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪٢٣٦‬ـ‪ ،٢٣٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )‪ (٥٠٣-٥٠٢‬ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺩﻳﻊ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻟﻪ )‪٤٢٢/٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (٢٥٢٢‬ﲟﺜﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺐ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ )‪" :(١٥٦/٣‬ﺣﺴﻦ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ"ﺍﻫـ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻗﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻗﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ )‪.(١٢٦/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢٦٢‬‬

‫‪٤٠‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺋﻪ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﳐﺮﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺪ ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻖ ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﻘﺒﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )ﺕ‪١١٣٨‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺯﻋﻤﻪ ﺳﺒ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻳﺼﺮﺣﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳛﺴﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻠﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﺢ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺩ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺄﻣﻞ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺗﺄﻣﻠﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻮﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺩ ﺿﻤﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺩ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺈﺭﺷﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻖ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲜﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻞ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﲝﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٤٢/١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٤٢/١‬‬

‫‪٤١‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻀ ﹶﺔ{ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ [٣٤:‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ }ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜﹺﻨﺰ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪" :‬ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻝ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﻀﺔ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹺﺰ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﹸﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹺﺰ ﹶﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺ‬
‫ﺾ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻔﹶﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺ‬
‫ﻀﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹲﻥ ﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ﹶﺬﻩ‪‬؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﻛ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹺﺇﳝ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺆﺍﳍﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻲ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﻀﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹲﻥ ﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﻛ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹺﺇﳝ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﳍﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻥ‬
‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﲣﺎﺫﻩ)‪.(٢‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(٢٨٢ ،٢٧٨/٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(٣٠٩٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(١٨٥٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻴﺔ ‪ ٣٧٣/٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪٤٠٩٤‬ـ‪ .(٤٠٩٥‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳉﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺎﻳ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫)ﺕ‪٢٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠﻢ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺻ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ‪ .‬ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ"ﺍﻫـ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ (٣٦٦/٥‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ )ﺕ‪١٦٠‬ﻫـ( ﻋﻦ ]ﺳﻠﻢ[ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺍﳍﺬﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺤﺎﰊ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺢ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٧٦‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٢١٧٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﺮﻗﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ )‪.(١٦/٣‬‬

‫‪٤٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺄﹶ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺎﻗﹸﻮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬ﲑ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹴ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﻞﹴ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﹺﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺧ‪‬ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇﹺﺑﻞﹴ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ ﹸ‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﱠﺬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ")‪.(١‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺹ‪ ،١٠٨‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٨٠٦‬ﻭ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٣٥٢/٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺧﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٥٤٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٦٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(٤٢٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﺹ‪ ،٢٣٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪٣٩٣‬ـ‪ ،(٣٩٤‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺛﺪ‬
‫ﻼ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻫﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺧﻴﻞ؟‪ ،"...‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻫـﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﺕ ﺹ‪ ،٢٨٨‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ‬
‫)ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺹ‪ ،٧٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،٢٧١‬ﰲ ﺫﻳﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﰲ‬
‫ﻂ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ )‪ ،(٢٢٢/١٥‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪ ‬ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ"‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‬
‫ﺴﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫)ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪ (١٤٩/٣‬ﻣﻔﺴﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ‪" :‬ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪ‪‬ﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻞ ﺭﺟﺢ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻝ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻼﻡ ﳏﻘﻖ )ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺛﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﺣﻨﺶ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺛﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺍﳋﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ ،"...:‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬـﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٦٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٢٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﺹ‪ ،٢٣٥‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(٣٩٦‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺣﻨﺶ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺛﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴـﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٦٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٢٤‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺠﺮ )ﺕ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ )‪ ،(٣٩٩/٢‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻂ ﻫﻲ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫)‪ .(١٤٩/٣‬ﻭﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺸﺬﻭﺫ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻂ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻨﺶ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺡ ﻟﻸﺭﺟﺢ ﺷﺬﻭﺫ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻂ ﻳﻘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‪) ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴـﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٦٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪٤٢٦‬ـ ‪.(٤٢٧‬‬

‫‪٤٣‬‬

‫]ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺱ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﲪﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺗﺸﺘﻬﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻻ ﻭﲡﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺷﺎﺀﺕ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﻴﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﺐ ﻓﺮﺳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺟﺪﺗﻪ ﻭﲤﻜﻨﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻚ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺎﻗﻮﺗﻪ ﲪﺮﺍﺀ ﻳﻄﲑ ﺑﻚ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺮﺿﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻓﺮﺳﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻣﺎ ﲡﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺻﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻐﻨﻴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ)‪ (١‬ﻭﻫﻮ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﺑﻔﺮﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺎﻗﻮﺗﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺟﻨﺎﺣﺎﻥ ﻓﺤﻤﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ" ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﳌﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﺮﺱ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺳﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺃﻧﺼﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺻﻔﺎﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﰲ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻪ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺟﻨﺎﺣﺎﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒـﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﺑﺸﱵ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﺇﻻ ﲪﻠﺖ" ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻔﺮﻍ ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﲟﻄﻠﻮﺑﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺴﻌﻔﹰﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﲟﻄﻠﻮﺑﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺎﺋﺰﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪،‬‬

‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ‬
‫ﺖ ﹺﺑ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹴ‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﹸﺃﺗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﻞﹲ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺓ‬
‫ﺻ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ"‪ .‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ ﹸ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻃﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺎﻗﹸﻮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺣ‪‬ﺎﻥ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﻴ‪‬ﻞ ‪ "...‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍﹺﺑﻲ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٢٥٤٤‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺹ‪ ،١٦٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(٤٢٣‬‬
‫ﺲ‬
‫ﺚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺹ‪ ،١٦٥‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٤٢٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ١٨٠/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٤٠٧٥‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ " :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹲ‬
‫ﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﹸﻓ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺇﺳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ﹺﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ]ﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪:‬ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ[ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬
‫ﲔ ﹺﺟﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ .‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻂ ﻣﺮﺳﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻭﹺﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﲑ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺟﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻗﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻫﻮ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺣﺴﲔ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﺑﻮﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﺑﺸﱵ )ﺕ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‪٦٦٠‬ﻫـ(‪ ،‬ﳏﺪﺙ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﲰﻪ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﻴﺴﺮ"‪ .‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻜﻲ )‪ ،(٣٤٩/٨‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ )‪.(٧٥/٨‬‬

‫‪٤٤‬‬

‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺒﺘﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻦ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ[)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﺷﺮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ! ﻓﺴﺄﻝ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﺋﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺷﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ")‪.(٢‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺮﻗﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ )‪.(٢٩٦/٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ )ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،٤٧٦/٤‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(١٥٩٩‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ،٢٧٩/١‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪،(٣١٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪ ،(٦٥/٣‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻪ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﳉﻠﻮﺱ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻼﻩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٦٧١‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ " :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺾ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺒﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍﹸﻗﻬ‪‬ﺎ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪،‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺒﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋ‪‬ﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑﹺﻴﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ " :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻠﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺴﻠﹶﺎﻡ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮﹺﻳ ﹸﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻠﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮﹺﻳ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺚ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻜ ﹶ‬
‫ﺴﻠﹶﺎﻡ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻜ ﹶ‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻄﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﹺﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮﹺﻳ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻠﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍﹸﻗﻬ‪‬ﺎ" ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﱠﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭﹺﻱ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻠﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،٣٠٨/٢٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (١٦٧٤٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ )ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺭ ‪ ،٨١/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪،(١٢٥٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪ ،٤٠٠/١٣‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(٧٤٠٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪ ،١٢٨/٢‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪١٥٤٥‬ـ‪،(١٥٤٦‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪٢٧٨/١‬ـ‪ ،٢٧٩‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪٣١٠‬ـ‪ ،(٣١١‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻔﻘﻪ )‪ ،(١٧٠/٢‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﻞ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻫﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻫﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ )‪ ،١٥٤/٧‬ﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪ ،(٧١٤٠‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﳉﱪﻳﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﺧﲑ؟‪ ...‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ" ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺧﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﻭﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﺮﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎﺷﻢ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻋﻔﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﺪ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺹ‪ ،٦٥٣‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ )‪.(٤٧٠/٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ )ﺕ‪٢٩٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ"ﺍﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﳏﻘﻖ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﳏﻘﻖ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ( ﻋﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﻦ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٤٥‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ)‪(١‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺒﲔ‬
‫ﺃﻥ]ﻟﻌﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ[ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻱ ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﳐﻠﺼﺔ ﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺋﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺳﺌﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﺧﲑ ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺑﻀﺪﻩ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ؟‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ‪" :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹴ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ! ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ َﺀ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻧ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺖ‪ .‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ! ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤﹾﺜ ﹺﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃﻛﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬
‫ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ")‪.(٣‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻄﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﺼﻞ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺷﺮﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﲣﺮﻳﺞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﺄﺗﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻓﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ )‪.(٤٧٠/٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(٣٦٨٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‬

‫=‬

‫‪٤٦‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﱂ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻣﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٧٨٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪" :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻃﺎﺑﻖ "ﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﺪﺩﺕ ﳍﺎ"‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻬﻤﻪ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﱄ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫________________‬

‫=‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺐ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(٢٦٣٩‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻣﺎﱐ ﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ )‪٣٥/٢٢‬ـ‪.(٣٦‬‬

‫‪٤٧‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ ـ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺣﺴﻨﻬﺎ ـ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪١‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﳚﻌﻞ ﳎﻲﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﲡﺪﻩ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻗﺪ ﳚﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﰲ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪٤‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﱵ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﺇﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬
‫ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ )ﺕ‪٧٠٢‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪":‬ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻛﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ"ﺍﻫـ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪٥‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺡ ﲤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺃﺧﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ـ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒـﻲ )ﺕ‪٧٤٣‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ـ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻣﺎﱐ )ﺕ‪٧٨٦‬ﻫـ( ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺑﻼﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﻭﻓﺼﺎﺣﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ  ﺃﻭﰐ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻧﻈﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺭﰊ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻨﻌﻤﺘﻪ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﲝﻤﺪﻙ ﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺃﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮﻙ ﻭﺃﺗﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺎﺯﻣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺮﻣﺔ ـ ﺹ‪.‬ﺏ ‪٧٢٦٩‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ )‪.(١٠/٣‬‬