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‫‪٨٤‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا  ‬

‫ار وا ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺳ‪‬ﻤﺎﺋﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﺭﺿﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﻱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ ﻫﺒﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺳﺖ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻻ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻻ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺛﻼﺙ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫﴾)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﺎﺕ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺭ؛ ﻓﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻼﺕ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ؛ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻟ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪$ :‬ﻟﹶﻤﺎ ﺃﺳﺮﻱ ﺑﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج؛ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻰ‪ .#...‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‪$ :‬ﻓﺄﻋﻄﻲ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﺗﻴﻢ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﹸﻔﺮ ﳌﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻘﺤ‪‬ﻤﺎﺕ‪.(٥)#‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٦‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻘﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﺳﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ" ﻟﻠﻬﺬﱄ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﴿‬

‫  

   
‬
‫  
‪ # − ! :‬‬
‫‪!( :%&'
 $‬‬
‫!‪= ";<

. 178 3* 90: : 12 3456 ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫(‪= "CD5E 9 . FG )H,I F5J #$>0 AB
. >2 6 1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫  
*‪L! :K‬‬

‫‪٨٥‬‬

‫ا ع ا   )‪  (١‬ا  وا ‬

‫]ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ[‪:‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﻣﻜﻲ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﻣﺪﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺪﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺑﺴﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﺳﻔﺎﺭﻩ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻟﻄﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﻣﻜﻲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ‪-‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،-‬ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻔﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻜﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺪﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ "ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ" ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻔﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪$ :‬ﹸﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ .#‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ‪" :‬ﻳﻌﹺﻨﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫  
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RS 9 . )*
. T 9
:U G@ 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 WX VG CY V C6 VG 9Z@ 3,‬‬
‫‪]==^& 1==*5J . ":F==<
==G@ 1== /==0 ,R\M ==,? V==G C==6 V==G 9==Z@ :1== :N<==O P==Q:‬‬
‫‪= "NB :‬‬
‫_‬
‫?=‪1=K, V=6: #a `,=5
: +=<E . R =4
1=?&@ : 9‬‬
‫‪N<=O ": )=*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫ ‪ !a 3f==6 `,== . J == V==G g==J: (ea c==Ud W==:M A==OE . ==^b‬‬
‫‪V=G : (((a! m95 =E . >J=l : ###>=0#aL h=*i
>j<E . T k^
1?&@:‬‬
‫ ‪>2= V= h=4 go G@ Tk&@ >2 6 VG 9 

V n V6  !a 3f6 `, . J‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 +66@ p@ V 6 VG‬‬
‫‪_ N<O PQ:‬‬
‫?‪e!a  '=*
9=o :\ q=5r . s=l 1 /0 ,tUl ) 9<6 VG h4 1 ; 9‬‬

‫‪٨٦‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﺑﺘﺒﻮﻙ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﹾﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﻋﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﹾﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﺑﺒﺪﺭ ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹾﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺧﻄﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺧﻄﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫]ﺷﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ‪[:‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻣﺪﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳉﺤﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻟﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻝ ﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﺸﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﲪﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﲪﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﲪﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﳎﻤﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻔﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳛﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺒﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﺗﻪ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻠﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺥ"‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻔﺮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺣﻀﺮﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻠﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎﺭﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﺎﺋﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﺭﺿﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺭ"‪.‬‬
‫]ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪[:‬‬

‫ﺼﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺳﺨ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳐ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺺ‪.‬‬
‫]ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ‪[:‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ"‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻝ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺆﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺥ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ" ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫‪= "m:v6":‬‬

‫‪٨٧‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ؛ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻔﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﺒﻞ"‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺳﻠﻊ‪ .‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ")‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ]ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ[ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ‪:‬‬
‫‪V6 x K
FG )SK
yoz F5J !# >0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫@{‪= " *
FB‬‬
‫‪= p@  9U~ 9| 9U~ 9| $#a$ +2l . ><} G@ 1?&@ :V | ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪= "1G 1 F,@ V +2 VG‬‬
‫‪ ;<

. Ph-: * VG V € <G ‚,8 3* ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫_‬
‫@‪†=K
nB=Q V=G yH=Q 9| )K I −$…a R*}M VG iG G@ 1?&@ 6 z,‬‬
‫‪ƒ
„ V6:‬‬
‫|‪,) =U /S: ,=K*
:)S=K
V=6 +,9E . /'} ":/0 50 V Wf }]*} /D6 VG ‡j| 9‬‬
‫‪,A5==4
: ,9==U~: ,F '==|M : ,==
: ,‚==l : ,y==B
: ,9==
: ,x ==G: ,9==oE : ,x ==
:‬‬
‫‪,)K=E : ,+=<Ud : ,N=
: ,+=B5UE : ,ˆ=l : ,+= 
jE : ,VZ
: ,9,9l : , jl :‬‬
‫‪q=} x=? „Q}: ,{Ž=
'
\ „Q}: ,ˆ=<
@ Q {W=Š ‹ =*
=Œ@ =,}: ,nX=^
: ,VG‰5
:‬‬
‫ { ‪"+iUG /'} )SK
o:‬‬
‫‪AB{ PQ:‬‬
‫_‬
‫@‪>0 a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@ 6 z,‬‬
‫‪ƒ
„ V6:‬‬

‫ |‪V= A 
={ V=G  9* 9‬‬

‫‪,x =
: ,) =U /S: ,=K*
= +=,9EG Ž=
'} ":/0 +B2 p@ VG  V A 
{ VG +,:<6‬‬
‫‪,9=,9l : ,A5=4
: ,{ :=4J V,g=
}: ,F '=|M : ,=
: ,‚=l : ,+=G5
: ,/=4}M : ,9oE :‬‬
‫‪>5==K2 „Q ==*
=Œ@ ==,}: ,VG=‰5
: ,N==
9=,, :‘, ==l : ,+=B5UE : ,ˆ==l : ,+= 
jE :‬‬
‫ 
‪ „Q}: ,{V=i, ‹}: ,{9K
+2
. P
'}@ }Q}: ,y2
: ,j4
: {WŠ ‹ *
Œ@ ,}: ,{x‬‬
‫\
'
Ž{‪"+iUG ƒ
„ o: { q} x? „Q}: ,‬‬
‫‪ = "V | PQ:‬‬
‫‪= "AB{ ’G ,:: ) D6 VG )U6: +UK2 V “]:‬‬

‫‪٨٨‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻌﱪﻱ‪ :‬ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﲰﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﺣﺪﳘﺎ ]ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﱐ[‪.‬‬‫﴾ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﳍﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺗ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺞ ‪-‬‬
‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪﴿ :‬‬‫ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍﻭﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻭﺇﺑﻠﻴﺲ ‪-‬ﺳﻮﻯ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ -‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺼﺺ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍ ’‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ" ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ" ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ"؛ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫﴾ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﴿‬
‫ﺱ﴾ ﻓﺒﻤﻜﺔ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﴿‪‬ﻳﹶﺄﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ" ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﺳ ﹰ‬
‫‪”0 3, V6 ($>0$$ a! 9 E .  '*
1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪V=G – =d 3=, V=6 ##a# =*
y=o• . KD*
1: ea$ m95 E . >Jl 1?&@:‬‬
‫‪A26‬‬
‫‪1G 1   9* V +UK2 V > GQ V ˜UM V —XJ‬‬
‫‪1,:6 VG Q 15* } L!a ™E 9
. 
 \:‬‬
‫_‬
‫_‬
‫@|‪= "”0 •Q P9@ 9‬‬
‫‪>2<} •: ,X6‬‬
‫‪”0 h- 1,:, š,9l g ": '*
/0‬‬
‫‪>Jl 9 A26 VG – d 1<G : Ž20‬‬
‫‪š,9l g› `  
G )2-f5E C5 90 ":/0 1}@ l VG V ((a )K I . 
yK}:‬‬
‫‪"14<O  P:9U5 :‬‬
‫‪,R9=M c=G
V=G ”=0 : 1=: ,>=Œ n:9={ ,œ =
A=26 VG – d :1 ;N<O PQ :Ž20‬‬
‫{‪ 1G ž9B 1™,9| V6 ”
6 1G 12 y&@: kJ E h‰ n:9‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪= " + 
5
+, :
. HJ ,X6‬‬
‫‪+UK2 V P2<j ˜UM FB{@ HD4 
& 90:‬‬
‫‪>0$ea )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@ :y6 ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

‫ ‪”,Ÿ=
VG :‬‬

‫‪1 
0 +UK2 V > GQ V ž9Y ˜UM 3, V6  >0#… )SK
yoz .‬‬
‫‪P := :1= N25& : ,˜UM 1,:, ":  La( y2<
. ^0 9
/0 ;F 
 1?
g:‬‬
‫‪V=G 9=* /=0 ƒ
gJ: , 9* V +UK2 V > GQ V ˜UM V cJ: G@: cG
VG ”0‬‬
‫‪+*<  V yK‬‬
‫‪1= ˜=UM FB={@ P : ƒ
g=J: ,1 
0 +UK2 V > GQ V ˜UM V +*<  V :Ph- /0:‬‬

‫‪٨٩‬‬

‫﴾ ﺃﻭ ﴿‬

‫﴾؛‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺮﺍﻥ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﴿‬
‫﴾؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﺪﱐ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﴿‬
‫﴾ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﴿‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬
‫﴾؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺪﻧﹺﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﻏﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺑﹺﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻌﻔﻪ‪،‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﳍﺎ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪.‬‬
‫﴿‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺃﹸﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﳍﺎ‪:‬‬
‫﴾)‪﴿ ،(٢‬‬
‫﴿‬
‫﴾‪.‬‬
‫﴿‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ ﲪﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ‪-‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹼﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ :-‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﻠﱠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ؛ ﻓﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻜﺔ؛ ﻓﻀﻌﻴﻒ؛ ﺇﺫ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﲰﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻨﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻣﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ"‪.‬‬
‫‪"AB
:‬‬
‫‪6 9
−$#(>0e `,5
. ‘<6 VG 1B? 6 :‬‬
‫_‬
‫@‪V cJ: 9| $e!>0!ea  NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&@ 6 :z,‬‬
‫‪%X5&• V6: :Ž20‬‬
‫ ‪. x¡ y=J: +=,9EG /'=}@ ;{ =6S V,g=
Œ@ ,} )SK
. x¡ yJ ":/0 > GQ V ˜UM‬‬

‪"+iUG /'}@ {
Œ@ ,} )SK‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪= "c^K6 1i
> GQ Q AB{ PQ: ,> GQ  06‬‬
‫‪12<j‬‬
‫‪#>0$ a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪= "1G 1 ) D6 VG )U6 V A2E p@ V 9*<6‬‬
‫ 
*‪ :K‬‬
‫‪ L :K*
 $‬‬

‫ |‪VG  9‬‬

‫‪٩٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ" ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ؛‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﹺﺑﻤﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ؛ ﻓﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻛﺎﻣﻞ" ﺍﳍﺬﱄ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺠﺪﺓ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺮﻳﻨﹺﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻛﻼ ﺑﻴﺜﺮﺏ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻤﻦ‬

‫ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﺗﺄﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﺟﺒﺎﺑﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﺮﺭﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻨﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ؛ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳛﺘﺞ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ؛ ﻟﺬﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺿﻌﻔﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ")‪ :(٢‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺄﻟﹸﺤﻘﺖ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ"‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪-‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪-‬؛ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃﺭﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻜﺜﻨﺎ ﺣﺠﺠ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﻘﺮﺅﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ‬
‫‪. 9=* G@: $e!e>0!ea  NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪(>0… a )SK
yoz‬‬

‫ ‪V=G Wf V ‘K, V6 !!a# *
yo• . KD*
:‬‬

‫‪;F g=<
: >6M J„ V6 )J 6: ,+,9EG /'}@ 1}’ ;+z, :@ 9| V6 )J 6 ":/0 1G@ V :‬‬
‫’}‪"+iUG /'}@ 1‬‬
‫‪= "1,:6 VG Q 15* } L!a ™E 9
. 
 \:‬‬
‫ ‪!! a#‬‬

‫‪٩١‬‬

‫ﻏﲑﻩ")‪.(١‬‬

‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺑﹺﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺧﺘ‪‬ﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﹺﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬
‫ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻣﺪﱐ‪﴿ :‬‬‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫﴾‬
‫ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٤‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻣﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺤﻨﺔ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﳐﺎﻃﺒﺔ ﻷﻫﻞ‬‫﴾)‪ ...(٥‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﳐﺎﻃﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﺪﺭ ﴿ ﴾ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺧﻄﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﳌﺸﺮﻛﻲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪﴿ :‬‬‫﴾)‪(٦‬؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺣﺶ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺫﻧﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺫﻧﺐ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻤﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﺣﺪ ﻭﻻ ﳓﻮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬‫‪V=6:  >=0$LLa V =
. 6 VG 9< 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪V nB G@ } /0 +,:<6 VG ‚,9| }  $!!>0(La  ¢:M >j<E . T k^
1K,‬‬
‫*‪ 1G 1 < 6 VG V *| VG  9‬‬
‫‪V=G ‚,9=| •Q VZ=
9=* p@ *| VG  9* V nBQ p@ V š,9l g :, ‹": T k^
/0‬‬
‫‪"+,:<6‬‬
‫‪= "¢25r ,<*
nBQ G@ :1 ;N<O PQ‬‬
‫  ‪$ : jl‬‬
‫‪$ :9oE  $‬‬
‫!  
‪(L :x‬‬
‫(  
‪! :yB‬‬
‫   
‪$ :>j‬‬

‫‪٩٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ)‪﴿ :(١‬ﻭ‪‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﹺﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﺤﻖ‪ ﴾‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ‪] ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﴿‬‫﴾[‪.‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫﴾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﻜﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬‫﴾)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﺪﺭ ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﻤﻞ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﺻﺢ ﲪﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺜﻞ ﻟ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﻤﻞ ﺇﹶﻟﻰ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺮﱘ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺻﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻗﺮﺃﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ")‪.(٦‬‬
‫  ‪$ :/4}M‬‬
‫ 
*‪# :K‬‬
‫‪…# :x 
 $‬‬
‫!  ‪ ! :) U /S‬‬
‫(‪AB=
. >2 =6: |=
x9=G F=G #>=0 AB=
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪VG  9* V WXI Q P9, y0 Q  *
F5J FG h
: Dd F5J ##$>0‬‬
‫* ‪F=5iG = ":y=0 )@ 1: Wf 
G >£¤ . ˜,0 J c6 )J ‘| )4 p@ +0 .‬‬
‫‪W:=
>=¥ y=0 Q  /= 9=U~ V=6 >|
VZ
 > G :1 „’ P@K ,  /‬‬
‫‪m=?@  ƒ= ¦, >2=@: >2 = >2@ WXI +,9G m@ T’ 9<G 6@ §9¨ c* V6  WX‬‬
‫‪>i=G: =G x = +U2J Q  
< F5i
y@ , y0} ‘ ,M >Q ƒ2 )’ Ž 
)Q: ‘ 6‬‬
‫_‬
‫_‬
‫@• }<*‪_ 1G mˆ} •:  •Q 9‬‬
‫@‪ :9D   
K  
)’  ): V6 GG‬‬
‫‪z<G‬‬
‫‪z<G gw5, •: © ‬‬
‫‪= "š,9l " {)U2 6 }]G‬‬
‫ ‪. R\=d V=G 1=K, V=6: …a(: ea 9 E . 1?&@ :V | ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪>=<} G@ 1K, V6: L$(>0#a! 9 E . 1,  VG nBQ 1?&@: $La >¥5E‬‬
‫‪ <=  .: !!a… §k=i
V =
. =KD*
1=?&@: L…>=0$ a =*
yo• .‬‬
‫ ‪V=G 9=U~ V= n= V=6 $ea =*
yo• .: !  K5• .: L>0…$a )H,I‬‬
‫‪V=G ž=l V=G VZ=
9=* VG iG p@ V FD  VG  9* VG >2 6 VG 9U~ 9| nBQ‬‬
‫‪+f=*l ª@ =
'} =E ":Ž= 
0  =*
‡:\ h=‰E VG +6@ p@ +G +U2 W@ V 6:'wE Wf‬‬

‫‪٩٣‬‬

‫ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳉﺤﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ ﻭﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺒﻴﺔ؛ ﻓﺴﻴﺄﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻀﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬‫ﺑﹺﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﻋﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺴﻔﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺒﻮﻙ ﻭﺑﺪﺭ ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻭﺣﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﲪﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪[:‬‬

‫ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻳﻨﹺﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ ‪1=
/=K ? x¡ V=6  V= 1=G x=? =« ƒ=<6 y= : 
p@ VG 4<d /0 ¡j
)@ 1:‬‬
‫_‬
‫{‪ š,9l " ­<DJ V6 9‬‬
‫?<‪12 @K  P@0 :¡j
1
/K ><} :4‬‬
‫‪–¯ 9=0: ,nB=Q h=- AB=
/=? 1= 
?: ,9=Z@ P : ": #a  9o :'
cU® . U™¨ /0‬‬
‫‪"H 
G‬‬
‫‪= #!e>0 La$ 9 E 3KŠ . °:}M 1 |:‬‬

‫‪٩٤‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا ا"! ‬

‫ا ‪$‬ا‪ #‬وا ‬

‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺷﻲ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ‪‬ﺧﻠﱢﻔﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ)‪ (٣‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺛﻠﺜﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ج ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻣﻲ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺛﺮ؛ ﻟ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺑﻴﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬‫ﺍﷲ ج ﺑﲔ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻏﻔﺎ ﺇﻏﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻣﺘﺒﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺿﺤﻜﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ؟‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﺁﻧﻔﹰﺎ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﺃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪.(٥)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺃﻣﺎﻟﻴﻪ"‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻓﺎﳘﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻏﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺒﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺧﻄﺮ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋ‪‬ﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺮﺃﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻓﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬
‫  

‪
   c5‬‬
‫ 
‪L :+G5‬‬
‫‪+=X™
=:} F=G h 45
F5J !!ee>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬

‪ƒ= 
6 V=G =<J +=G š,9=| F=G +=G5
F=5J # …>0 AB
. >2 6: { 42& V,g‬‬
‫‪= "1*|{:‬‬

‫‪± ²³‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫! ‪:
/0‬‬
‫=
=| ‪¶ = .±‬‬
‫‪µ /'=} =6$ :+fo 3| . ‡ 1 
0: , g ‘G cUd yif5 :‬‬
‫ ‪± µ +K
y*0 )J g y<
: :V,9
/X? †K
/0 ;·h- @6‬‬

‪¶ = .± =D |
/'} 5‬‬
‫@‪+U2 W‬‬

‫‪;+f=o V= "P9 6" .± <, G@ §: , g V6 V |@ F ? 16 g&¦, HG± 4¸ : 
Ž20‬‬
‫ <· ‪)q= 1=2@ .± =: 1=2 /'=²
|
)J )Q:$ :1: ,š,9l‬‬
‫‪_ Ž^@$ :Ž 
0‬‬
‫ 
'‪’ C=4¹ • H=J ‘™,9=l ‘=G +=O<6 • g : ,·1l .± 1<6 }@: 12 /‬‬
‫‪² )J )Q: ,1‬‬
‫" ‪± − $e a ")K I‬‬
‫ ‪*2l‬‬

‫( ‪/=0 V=6 +=j| F=G X=
F=5J !ee>=0 AB=
. >2 =6 1=?&@ ": )=*
+,- . /0‬‬

* ‪= "x G §  yJ /:@ V6 +,S +2U‬‬

‫‪٩٥‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻭﺭﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻏﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻤﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻳﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﺣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻣﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺃﺻﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪$ :‬ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺁﻧﻔﹰﺎ‪ #‬ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻞ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﻏﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻳﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ)‪ ،(١‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ )!(‪.‬‬

‫‪z=,@:‬‬
‫ ‪,‡  /= H= ,= h=™J cº ‘G )i, • W
„Q ;·}D¸@ ‘G$ :”}@ /0 P9,¦,:‬‬
‫_‬
‫> ‪» ,"1@ c‬‬
‫=> ‪:1= 
0: ,ƒ=
„ 1*= @ =6: 1<jz=6 V=6 W=0‬‬
‫=> =‪µ ³ :@ ,sK5‬‬
‫‪µ ³ :yK, ‹:‬‬
‫‪µ ³ " :1 
0‬‬
‫  ‪= :/=K

g=J )J 
: ,ƒ
„ y*0 /' ² ‹» ¼@µ  /9, ·&S Q» @K‬‬
‫‪µ /'}@³$‬‬


‪» ,i‬‬
‫‪–=546" =< 
P=J„ Rg=
/:M 1=?5
c9=} ,=D6H5G  =
x =0 Q» ‚5=Y ‹:‬‬

< ‪$!# −$! a "
–*6:‬‬

‫‪٩٦‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا &‪ %‬‬

‫ ا )(ي وا ‪$‬ي‬

‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻱ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮﻱ؛ ﻓﻠﻪ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﺘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ‬
‫ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪﴿ :‬‬‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻼﺕ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ)‪ (٥‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ‬‫﴾‪.#‬‬
‫ج ‪‬ﻓﻲ ﻏﺎﺭ ﺑﹺﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﴿‬
‫‪ -‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﴿ ﴾ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻐﺎﺭ ﺣﺮﺍﺀ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ)‪.(٦‬‬

‫  

™‪
   T‬‬
‫ 
*‪… :K‬‬
‫‪F=5J $…((>=0 AB=
. Rw*
: !a! 9 E . 9Z@ 1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫ ‪@
32| \ ? FG ‚l F5J e>0 AB
. >2 6: +*,9l :'- . FG R\‰E‬‬

‪V=G VZ
9* V 9® V n V6 90 )G: 1K2l +,94
F?:: §„@ 1G )J „Q WBU2‬‬
‫@‪}q=| 9=0: ,)=6~ V=B}: ,+=*,9lG   /= c=6 =J :/=0 =j VG <J V 
p‬‬
‫ ‪ƒ=,„¦,@ ":/=K !  =*
p =U ,D?:  ¢0 W ¨ Ž2<j ,: ½ Ž}J: ,)JˆE‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪1=G :@ z=,6‬‬
‫ ‪>i6 )J VU} +,€ Pg Ž
'}: ":/0 ,32Y )@ :P6] ! ><} :Ž20 ? ƒ@ W‬‬
‫@„§ ‪= "{ƒ } :@ +09{ :@ W{ V6 +,94 1@ V6‬‬
‫! ‪V=G =U 3=, V=6 … /:'=
F*=@ . R9| 
1?&@ :Ph‰
AB{": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪PB} 1G 1 * VG V x^ V iE ˆG‬‬
‫‪= " 1,:6 VG Q ((a ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬
‫(‪= ";<

. 178 3* 90: :12 3456 ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪AB=
. >2 =6: |=
x9=G F=G $>=0 AB=
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪= "‘6¦E W@ +fo V   / Q |
x9G FG )H,I F5J  e>0‬‬

‫‪٩٧‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا دس ‬

‫ ا ‪.‬ري وا ‪,-,‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﺘﺘﺒﻌﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ‪‬ﺧﻠﱢﻔﻮﺍ)‪(٢‬؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ)‪ (٣‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻌﺐ‪$ :‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‬‫ﺗﻮﺑﺘﻨﺎ ﺣﲔ ﺑﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺚ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪.#‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻤﺮ‪$ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺣﺐ‬‫﴾‪ (٤)#‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﺇﱄﱠ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﻠﻌﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﺃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ع‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪$ :‬ﻭﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻤﺲ‬‫﴾)‪ (٦‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪.(٧)#‬‬
‫﴾)‪(٨‬؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪﴿ :‬‬‫  

™
š   
‬
‫ 
‪L :+G5‬‬
‫‪ ˆ cG 

. 178 3* 90: :12 3456 ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫@&?‪. >2 =6: { =42& V,g=
+=X™
:} FG h 45
F5J !!ee>0 AB
. Rw*
1‬‬
‫ 
‪= "1*|{: ƒ 
6 VG <J +G š,9| FG +G5
F5J # …>0 AB‬‬
‫! 
‪ :A54‬‬
‫(‪yz= F=G )S=K
yoz= F=5J !#(>=0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫
‪= "A54‬‬
‫   ‪ :9oE‬‬
‫‪>=2} 1= 
0 F=G R\=‰E F=5J !$$>=0 AB=
. R=w*
1=?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0#‬‬
‫{<‪_ 9‬‬
‫_‬
‫*{‬
‫‪ UU5 x6 :9¤‬‬
‫‪L :, U /S  L‬‬

‫‪٩٨‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﺣﲔ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻨﺖ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﹸﻛﺮ ﻣﻌﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪$ :‬ﺃﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺧﺼﻨﹺﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪ .(٢)#‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻪ"؟ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫"‪¿ R\=‰E F=5J $L!>=0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪V=6 =&€ +<J
V6 J
V6 1@ c „Q   / cU 1}@ :U VG  9* V À‬‬
‫_‬
‫_‬

‪_ V<
>D2
":/K, ,j4‬‬
‫‪;9=Ul ƒ=
: =G ,P9Z VE  cU :/K, 6 9<G ,}X:‬‬
‫‪}X:‬‬
‫‪}X‬‬
‫]}'‪¿  /‬‬

‫‪= "{)E¸ >¼’} 1 
0 Q À‬‬

‫‪_ N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫?‪ 9=* G@ 9| $$#a )D*{@ `, . ><} G@ 1?&@ : 9‬‬
‫ ‪V=G VZ=
9=* = < 6 G@  , p@ VG 9U~ VG ‘ l  iG VG 9Z@ VG  VG ‘ l‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 G? V hG'
p@ V ¡K
 9* VG A 
{ V ”0‬‬
‫‪_ N<O PQ‬‬
‫?‪m:v6 ,*z
”0 VG VZ
9* :1 ; 9‬‬
‫‪= "($ea ,9K
 . R:E 14<O:‬‬

‫‪٩٩‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا "! ‬

‫ا ‪ $-‬وا ‪ /‬ي‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻟﺔ ﺁﻳﺘﲔ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ)‪ .(٢‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ"‪$ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﺘﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻆ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻏﻠﻆ ﱄ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣ‪‬ﺘﻰ ﻃﻌﻦ ﺑﺄﺻﺒﻌﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺻﺪﺭﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﺮ! ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﻴﻚ ﺁﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ؟‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻟﺔ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ" ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪$ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫)‪(٦) (٥‬‬
‫﴾ ؟‪. #‬‬
‫ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻒ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫  

‪
   cG‬‬
‫ ‪ :+,S‬‬
‫‪# :+,S $‬‬
‫!‪y==J@ V=6 =¼ F==G 9? =E F=5J ( #>==0 AB=
. >2 =6 1==?&@ ": )=*
+=,- . /=0‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪= "6‬‬
‫(  
‪# :x‬‬
‫ ‪1=K4
Ÿ=
G@ }k&@ $#$a! m95 E . >Jl 1?&@ :Ph‰
AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ @‪p@ V= nB=Q p@ V= 3=,\ VG H  WS VG CY  9Ul 9* VG CY  9j} VG 9Z‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1  , p@ V VZ
9* VG +U2‬‬
‫‪_ =? N<==O P==Q:‬‬
‫=‪§k==i
V ==
. ==KD*
/==0:  >D5==6 ,TH==l 9==Ul 9==* V==G C==Y :1== , 9‬‬
‫ ‪"%:<UG ”
: ,c^K6 +U2 p@ V nBQ p@ š,9|": !a‬‬
‫‪o 4
F5J  L>0 AB
. >2 6: 1
s42
: …$a! 9 E . 9Z@ 1?&@ š,9l :‬‬
‫‪± ² V‬‬
‫‪± » » » ² +,S‬‬
‫‪Á &S‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫‪Á ² » G@  WS‬‬

‪Á ± » VG x k‬‬
‫‪» » ² ± p@ V iG‬‬
‫@}'
Ž » ‪³‬‬
‫\‪/0 F‬‬
‫‪² » ± ² ³ +,S‬‬
‫‪» ³ FG‬‬
‫‪» » ± » nBQ‬‬

‪» » VG CY V +
Xi‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫‪± » » » ² V‬‬
‫ ]
‪± » 1‬‬
‫?‪Â ³ » x‬‬

‪» ± ² » ": /K ? +
Xi‬‬
‫ 
‪"N‬‬
‫?‪± / Q y‬‬
‫ ‪² µ +³ ,S» ƒ4i‬‬
‫‪³ » » » » :  µ‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫‪² ³ ƒ}545 ==,‬‬
‫‪» » ³ ² » ² » } F==G h ==45
F==5J !$…>==0 AB==
. R==w*
1==?&@:‬‬
‫‪. >i==54,‬‬
‫‪² ³ ² ³  y==0‬‬
‫‪Á‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫‪±» »» ²‬‬
‫‪Á ² » VG )H2‬‬
‫‪» » ² ± p@ V +*< ‬‬
‫|‪³ » ² ³ 9| F‬‬

‪³ » ² » ³ 9| : /0{+
Xi‬‬
‫‬
‫‪» ³ &S‬‬

‪³ ": /0 x k‬‬
‫‪» » » ² Ž<U nBQ‬‬
‫‪± » » » ² . >i54,‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫‪Á &S:‬‬
‫» ‪±‬‬
‫}'
Ž } » ‪» » ³ ² » ²‬‬

‪= "{+
Xi‬‬
‫‪² » » » +,S‬‬
‫»» » ‪²‬‬
‫‪» ³ » x G‬‬
‫}'
Ž » » »‬
‫‪² ³ ² ³  y0² ³ ƒ}545 ,‬‬

١٠٠

‫ ﻓﻔﻲ‬،﴾

﴿ ‫ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‬...(١)﴾

﴿ :‫ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‬:‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺋﻲ‬
.#ٍ‫ﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺷﺎﺕ‬‫ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‬‫ﺃﻧ‬$ :‫( ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‬٢)‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ 

… − :
 
„Q •=
:} F=G h =45
F=5J !!#$>=0 AB=
. R=w*
1=?&@ ": )=*
+,- . /0
V ƒI š,9| FG +G5
F5J ##e>0 AB
. >2 6: {
)i, 6 >520 PU5<U
/'=}@ C=5| ,Ž=*
y=@ V=6 9=|@ ‡=& •: ,1 2®   / W  6    ": 1: +fo
W=, . =: ,)H=d y=™6 ,n=<
V=6 16 9B5
1}Q C5| ,x|k
V6 Pg&], )J 6 Pg&] ,12
/:@ Ž=}i ,ƒBz, : ,  / V Rà :Ž 
0 ,12 /'}@ Rg
/K
yK V6  
•  : :Ž2K 1
Q 60 :6@ ½ Ž 
K :Ž 
0 m@G 9K  6@ +fo , :/0 )@ ,› >2i +U2J
{>i=6 +*= ƒ=IG :? V,g
)Q} <  /'}@: :Ž 
0   •Q 9Z@ • T’ ;1
Q W0@ 
= " ,€ ˆ<

‫‪١٠١‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا ‪ 0‬‬

‫ أول  ‪2‬ل‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘ‪‬ﻠﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪:‬‬
‫﴾‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ‪-‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪﴿ :-‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ؛ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪$ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺉ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺭﺅﻳﺎ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﻼﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺣﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺤﻨﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﱄ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺰﻭﺩ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ل‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﳌﺜﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻓﺠﺄﻩ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﺎﺭ ﺣﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ج‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬﱐ ﻓﻐﻄﲏ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨﹺﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪ .‬ﻓﻐﻄﻨﹺﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨﹺﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪ .‬ﻓﻐﻄﻨﹺﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨﹺﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬‬

‫﴾ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻠﻎ‪﴿ :‬‬

‫﴾ )‪ ،(٢‬ﻓﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺗﺮﺟﻒ ﺑﻮﺍﺩﺭﻩ‪ #‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ" ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ" ﻭﺻﺤﺤﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ؛ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪:‬‬
‫﴾‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫‪$‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫﴾‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻭ ﴿‬
‫ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﺛﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ج‪$ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺟﺎﻭﺭﺕ ﲝﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻀﻴﺖ ﺟﻮﺍﺭﻱ؛‬

‫ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺒﻄﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻈﺮﺕ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﻲ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻴﻨﹺﻲ ﻭﻋﻦ ﴰﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻧﻈﺮﺕ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬

‫  

‪
   cG‬‬
‫ 
<‪( :32‬‬
‫‪= "ˆ ”6b 
. 178 3* 90: :12 3456 ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫!‪m95 ==E . >J==l : (a$e h ==45
. ==,? V==G 1==?&@ :AB=={ ": )==*
+==,- . /==0‬‬
‫‪1==K, V==6: !!ae h ==45
. ==*2<™
: ((a ==*
y==o• . ==KD*
: (# a‬‬

*‰‪V= R='
V nBQ VG 9U~ V + VG )4 V n V6 (e#a! h 45
. R‬‬
‫‪ 1G D +fo V :‬‬
‫‪"P?¹ ‹: >2 6 °;  AB{ š,9| g": >Jl /0‬‬
‫‪= "AB{ Q g ": KD*
/0:‬‬

‫‪١٠٢‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬﺗﻨﹺﻲ ﺭﺟﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﻴﺖ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻓﺪﺛﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‪﴿ :‬‬

‫﴾‪.(١)#‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺏ ]ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ[ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺄﺟﻮﺑﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﺛﺮ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﻜﻤﺎﻟ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺎﻡ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻗﺮﺃ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺻﺪﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻭﻫﻮ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪$ :‬ﺑﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺸﻲ؛ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺻﻮﺗ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻓﻌﺖ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀﱐ ﲝﺮﺍﺀ ﺟﺎﻟﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﲔ‬

‫﴾‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺟﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺯﻣﻠﻮﱐ ﺯﻣﻠﻮﱐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺛﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪$ :‬ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀﱐ ﲝﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،#‬ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫﴾‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺑﹺﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﱪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫﴾‪.‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﺒﻮﺓ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﴿ ﴾ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ؛ ﻓﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻣﺎﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﻜﺸﺎﻑ")‪ :(٣‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪ ،(٤)﴾ ﴿ :‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪AB==
. >2 ==6: |==
x9==G !>= 0 AB==
. R==w*
1==?&@ ": )==*
+==,- . /==0‬‬
‫‪= "/
Q |
x9G FG )H,I F5J  >0‬‬
‫‪= "178 3* Rg
G? š,9| V6 x'? g ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪$ a! $‬‬
‫!@‪VZ=
9* VG ','<
9* 3, V6 !$a# *
yo• . KD*
1?&] :* VG @ 6‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 * VG V 9® V N& V‬‬
‫‪)4<O ,N&: ,¡K
','<
9* :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪V=G V= mBz=
V n: p@ 3, V6  ! C45iE . T 9
:U G@ D?&@ §&@ 3, 1
:‬‬
‫* ‪"{>2<, ‹ 6} Q {32& Rg
ƒG >G @0 } ,S ”Ä )SK
V6 /'} x¡ /:@ ":/0‬‬

‫‪١٠٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ؛ ﻓﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺠﺘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ" ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻴﺴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﺣﺒﻴﻞ‪$ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻗﺎﻝ ﳋﺪﳚﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﻠﻮﺕ ﻭﺣﺪﻱ؛ ﲰﻌﺖ ﻧﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺧﺸﻴﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﺎﺫﺍ ﺍﷲ! ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻴﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺍﷲ ﺇﻧﻚ ﻟﺘﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ؛ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺫﻫﺐ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻠﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﻠﻮﺕ ﻭﺣﺪﻱ؛ ﲰﻌﺖ ﻧﺪﺍ ًﺀ ﺧﻠﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ!‬
‫ﻳﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ! ﻓﺄﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻫﺎﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺗﺎﻙ؛ ﻓﺎﺛﺒﺖ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﺋﺘﲏ‬
‫ﻓﺄﺧﱪﱐ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺧﻼ ﻧﺎﺩﺍﻩ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ! ﻗﻞ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫‪ ﴾....‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻠﻎ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﹰﺎ؛ ﻓﻴﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﱪ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻦ‬

‫_‬
‫@‪V=6 1=
9Df=, =6 c=6 UjE=G §=K5, 1=}@ •Q ‘K,=^
. P=Q N<=O c6: ;z,‬‬
‫‪N<O PQ:‬‬
‫|‪. >2 =6: |=
x9=G FG $>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ :|
x 95G . +fo š,9‬‬
‫ 
‪   / Q |
x9G FG )H,I F5J  e>0AB‬‬
‫‪VG : $(L >0(!a#: $e#>0!#a  NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&] 9® V 6@:‬‬
‫?‪= ": /=0 9=® V Aj} p@ VG V )4 V n V6 ($ ,(a$e h 45
. ,‬‬
‫@‪"{)} :> ,{32& Rg
ƒG >G @0 } Ž
'}  /:‬‬
‫‪= "y6 1i
9® Q AB{ PQ:‬‬
‫‪R9=| 
: $ (((>=0$…a# NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪yo ÅQ V ‘K, V6 (( /:'
F*@ .‬‬
‫‪1=?&@:  a $ 3f6 `, . J  VG 1K, V6: (La *
yo• . KD*
1?&@:‬‬

™<‪:U VG ”}, 3, V6 !!ae h 45
. *2‬‬
‫_‬
‫_‬
‫‪X6‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪y*|; VG :U Ã6 p@ V <*
nBQ p@ V —XJ‬‬
‫‪"c^K6 g ": (…a *
yo• . KD*
/0‬‬
‫‪"/'} 6 /:@ +Š4
)J : ;+G - 1: ,y6  ": ea$ +,D
: +, 9*
. h™J VG /0:‬‬
‫‪= "><} p@ Q ea ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬

‫‪١٠٤‬‬

‫ﻧﺰﻭﻟ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ﴾ ﴿ :‬ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺛﺮ)‪.(١‬‬
‫﴾‪ .‬ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫"ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ" ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ؛ ﻗﺎﻻ‪$ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫﴾‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴿‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ‬
‫﴾‪.(٣)#‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ! ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺬ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﻞ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺑﺮﺃﺳﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺭﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪$ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ؛ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫ ‪² ,=K 1= 
? )=J )Q: :y6  :j| VG /0‬‬
‫‪¿ :/'=} =6 /:@ )@ Æ=4BE :‬‬

‫‪)@: ,À‬‬

‫}'‪#… aL "R*
A5" ’ ƒ
„ 9<G )J +Š4
/:‬‬
‫‪i6 :@ „  š,9l‬‬
‫‪V=G = 3=, V=6 !  /:'=
F*@ . R9| 
1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪ 1G V l : +6i V RB
9,', V 1G@ V 90 : VG ‘ l‬‬
‫‪ = "+º  1
N0@ ‹ V6 :1: ,1 
I ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪ =,J =G@ 9=| $ a h =45
. =,? V=G 1=?&@ :N<=O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬

‪1= =* V=G  9* V mBz‬‬
‫‪V n:‬‬
‫‪Ç‬‬
‫‪² » G@ 9| H‬‬
‫|‪» ³ VG ˆG 9| 9<» VG )H™ 9‬‬

‫‪ 1G‬‬

‫‪_ =O P=Q . )’= ;%=<
;P==}J„ H=}Q: , =,- =M g== ": (a h =45
. h=™J V=G /=0‬‬
‫=<‪4‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪">2@  : ^K} :‬‬
‫‪= "^K} : N<O PQ . ": #…aL A54
. sl /0:‬‬
‫!‪N
]= F=G )S=K
yoz= F=5J !#e#>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

‪)SK‬‬
‫‪"¢K Rw*2
P ' LLa /{M c6? .: ‘wf2
P ' gJ": `f
/0‬‬

‫‪١٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺟﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﻥ " ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ" ﻣﻘﺪﺭﺓ؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﺛﺮ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻌﻞ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺮﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ع‬

‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﺪ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‪ ،﴾ ﴿ :‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ" ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ")‪ (٢‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻧﻈﺮ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺗﻔﺴﲑ" ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻔﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ"‪.‬‬
‫ع ِ أوا & ‪5‬‬

‫ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ" ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ‬‫﴾ )‪.(٤)#(٣‬‬
‫ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫‪= "Rw*
 @ V6 $$ >0ea! ‘BB
‘G cUd . R9Ul PJ„ :Ž20‬‬
‫‪‘ =l V=G = 3, V6 !L /:'
F*@ . R9| 
1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 ‘ l VG  V 1G@ V 90 : VG‬‬
‫‪= +º  1
N0@ ‹ V6 :1: ,1 
I ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫ "‪ e aL "R*
A5‬‬
‫‪$… :‚l  $‬‬
‫!‪ a 9 =E . 9=Z@: $…a$ h =45
. n \
9* 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪V ====
. Rg====6v
1====?&@: $L!>====0$(…ae ====5wE . xz====
1====K, V====6:‬‬
‫(‪V ====
. o ====
: $L>====0…# y====o :M . >===={ p@ V====G : $#>====0$e!a‬‬
‫ ‪h 45
. ,? VG : $!(>0!a : !…>0$a$ §ki
.: $eL(>0a‬‬
‫‪#…$a 6 =‰
. / if=G V=G 1=K, V=6: =™E 9
−(#a  gE VG #a#‬‬

١٠٦

﴿ :‫ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬‫ "ﺃﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‬:‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
.(٢)"(١)﴾
﴿ :‫ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ‬‫ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓ‬:‫ﻲ "ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻞ" ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻛﻢ‬‫ﻭﻓ‬
.(٣)﴾
‫ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‬.‫﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬
﴿ :(٤)‫ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‬:‫ﻲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‬‫ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓ‬.(٥)‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‬
. ==B
: $e>==0(L y==o :M . T k==^
: !#e>==0La AB=
. )==*| V==G :
V ==
. ==KD*
1==: ! , … ,# a m95 ==E . >J==l : (#e È ==E : `==

V= ‘=^*
>2 =6 V= ˜=U M V= R=™
V= (#…a *
yo• .: ea… §ki 

1G 1 * VG V h*? VG 9< 
"P?¹ ‹: ‘wf
°;  AB{ š,9| g ": >Jl /0 
$eL(>0 o 
AB{ . T*
M PQ AB{:
= "1,:6 VG :  '*
: 9Z VG 9* Q (#a  ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \: 
…e :K*
 
VG W 9| #…>0$(a h 45
. > | p@ VG ‡&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0 
1G 1 + 
<
p@ V cG
V 4<? p@ V WS   : 
s4l xœ n:9{ ,R\ 
)6 VG C  4<? G@ :1 ;N<O PQ: 
=4<? p@ V=G = nB=Q  C™E 9| L…a h 45
. ,? VG 1?&@ 6 1¥4| x V6:
=Y •  )Q :9=5< •: >i}2 =K, V,g=
 y* . 2 0:} 1 
0 . cG
V 4<? p@ V 
" ,+,9EG /5K
. Ž
'} +,S /:@ Pg ":/0 {V,95<E 
1KG J N<O PQ:
,1=2 Ž=40: Rg=
: ,=,? V=G• + 
<
p@ +, : 
} gJ ,? VG ‡&@: 1 
0 :1* 
= "!

a F*M )G . Fj<
. sl §' 1
Q: ,cG
/0 V6 ,? VG 9 
:+G5
 $ 
$$ :x ÅI  !

_ N<O ": )*
+,- . /0(
‘ l V Ž9| :/0 La( h 45
. ,? VG 1?&@ : 9?

‫‪١٠٧‬‬

‫ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﰲ "ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ" ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻧﺰﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‬‫﴾)‪ (١‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺣ‪‬ﺮﻣﺖ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﻼﺙ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﻝ ﺷﻲﺀ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﺩﻋﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻔﻊ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻓﺴﻜﺖ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪َ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻻ‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‪َ ‬ﹶﻼ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳﻜﹶﺎﺭ‪‬ﻯ﴾)‪ ،(٢‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺣ‪‬ﺮﻣﺖ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻻ ﻧﺸﺮﺑ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﺏ‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٣‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﺴﻜﺖ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺣ‪‬ﺮﻣﺖ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﻃﻌﻤﺔ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ)‪﴿:(٥‬‬‫﴾ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ)‪﴿ :(٧‬‬
‫ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ)‪﴿ :(٦‬‬
‫﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ)‪﴿ :(٨‬‬
‫ ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺠﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪.(٩)#‬‬‫‪ =*}: +iUG g )J ": /K, mBz
Ž<U /0 9* }k&@ /K, „<6 G@ Ž<U ‡4
VG‬‬
‫ › ‪" y5K
)]  . )SK
V6 /'} x¡ /:@ :‬‬
‫?‪_ N<O ,R 9‰*
‡4
VG ‘ l :1: ,Rk^
`  :>D*6 :  1 ; 9‬‬
‫‪_ N<O PQ:‬‬
‫?‪= " 9‬‬
‫ 
*‪… :K‬‬
‫  
‪!$ :x‬‬
‫‪…e :9oE  $‬‬
‫!‪p@ V=G 1=K, V=6: …(#>=0 ! 9 =E . É= 
^
1=?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫| > ‪)H=,I <=  . =KD*
g=J:  # >=0……a!: e! >0$L…a h 45
.‬‬
‫(‪+=G p@ V= 9=Z p@ V=G 9=U~ V= $ a h =45
. ,? VG 1?&@: ((#e>0!a‬‬
‫ ‪1G 1 U VG V RqE‬‬
‫‪ 1,:6 VG Q (#a$ ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬
‫‪= "/D® ,RqE +G G@ :1: ,N<O ,9Z p@ VG 9U~ :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫(  ‪!( :W<}M‬‬
‫   
‪! :yB‬‬
‫‪#$ :+,S #‬‬
‫‪$ :+,S L‬‬
‫…‪ :9j=} F=G h 45
F5J !(L>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

١٠٨ 

= "{ :9* :

‫‪١٠٩‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا ‪ !6/‬‬

‫ِ  ‪2  78‬ل‬

‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻓﺮﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬‬‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪. #﴾ ﴿ :‬‬
‫ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ‪.(٤)#‬‬‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾ )‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪$ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ‪.(٧)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺧﻄﺒﻨﺎ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫  

™‪
   V6‬‬
‫  
‪# :x‬‬
‫‪ V=6 x =G} F=G h 45
F5J !$##>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫‪F=G o =4
F=5J  L>=0 AB
. >2 6: {‘JˆE V6 > 9 V,g
Q 1 
:‬‬
‫‪= "+
Xi
+,S Ž
'}@ +,S &S‬‬
‫! ‪_ , =K :} F=G h =45
F5J !#e>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪=6‬‬
‫ ?<) ‪= "1G 1 * VG V { Q 1‬‬
‫( ‪= "178 “]": +,D
+,- . /0‬‬
‫  
*‪#( :K‬‬
‫‪9 ====E . nB====Q: !…a 9 ====E . 9====Z@ 1====?&@ : AB===={ ": )====*
+====,- . /====0#‬‬
‫‪. =,? V=G : # >=0# !a V =
. 1?6 VG : + 
<

^E −$#!>0(!a#‬‬

‪c}=0 VG : !a$ h 45
. ,? VG : …#>0(L +
. R\:E : !a$ h 45‬‬
‫‪9<= V= =50 V= n V6 $La# *
yo• . KD*
: $a +GB
>j<6 .‬‬
‫‪"+*,
: G
9 ,G
+,S   /'}@ 6 &S ": F^b VG U /0 :/0  E VG‬‬
‫‪"AB{ Æ4~ Df6 g": !ea$ §ki
§:54
. WXI `  /0:‬‬
‫‪"K 1 
? AB{ Q g ": $(a$ +??'
–*6 . Rh{*
/0:‬‬
‫‪= "# >0 1?6 VG V AB{ . T*
M 1BB{:‬‬

‫‪١١٠‬‬

‫ﻧﺰﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪:‬‬‫﴾)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.#‬‬
‫﴿‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺎﰊ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ" ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺵ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ‪$ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺵ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻳﻦ‪ .#‬ﻣﺮﺳﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫‪h =45
. 1=,:6 V=G : $a# y=6i
. R9= V=G 1=?&@ :AB={ ": )=*
+=,- . /0‬‬
‫‪C=U5
W^ =G VG ‡ V ‘K, V6 Lea!  9‰G `, . ^b : h™J VG −$…a‬‬
‫  ‪ 1G 1 U V R9b 9< CG@ V Ÿ} CG@ V 9 p@ VG :‬‬
‫‪"x¡• ,N<O ‡": #L>0…a$ h&g
.  VG /0‬‬
‫‪: 1G 1 U V *<f
V :  V P:: +º 14 
&:‬‬
‫@&?‪V=G : …>=0 !a V =
. 6 9=
: ee…>0!!La! NE . +*  p@ VG 1‬‬
‫?‪= "!##aL BE . W'| VG : !a$ h 45
. ,‬‬
‫ 
*‪L :K‬‬
‫‪e(#>=0$e#a  §k=i
V =
. o =
1=?&@ : AB={ PQ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫‪h==*i
>==j<E . T k==^
: !aL ==K™
. )==*| V==G : !a$ h ==45
. ==,? V==G :‬‬
‫‪1= =* V=G V= +=6i V 9,', V 90 : VG ‘ l V n V6 e!e>0$#a‬‬
‫‪= "1G‬‬
‫!‪ = "c5

. 178 3* 90: :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫(‪VG }k&@ /0 ”}, 9| (a$ h 45
. ,? VG 1?&@ : N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪¶< 
=G )SK
ž9|@ )@ ":1‰2G 1}@  E VG 9<  /0 FD  VG V ”}, Tk&@ :‬‬
‫‪"V,9
+,S‬‬
‫‪"  E VG 9< V AB{ 9 G ,? VG ‡&@ ":#a ™E 9
. 
/0‬‬
‫‪"I AB{ y6": L$a )K I . /0:‬‬

‫‪١١١‬‬

‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ[‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺎﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻭ﴿‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺩﻓﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﻛ ﱞﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪"(١‬؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ‪" :‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﴿‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ" ‪ :‬ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻭ﴿‬
‫﴾)‪ :(٣‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺧﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻌﻄﻮﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﲔ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎ ﲨﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﺪﻕ ﺃﻥ ﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﹺﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺭﻳﺚ؛ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻜﺴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﺭﺟﺢ؛ ﻟ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﳋﺎﺗ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ‪.‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ" ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬‬‫﴾)‪ (٤‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ‪.#‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺯﻭﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ" ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﻦ ﹸﺃﺑ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ)‪.(٥‬‬

‪V= =: V=G P : š,9=| V +\ G@ y© ": #(>0L a y2<
. > | p@ VG /0 Vi‬‬
‫‪¶< 
=G )S=K
ž9|@ )@ ": 1‰2G 1}@  E VG 9< 9| /0 FD  VG V 9,', VG ”},‬‬
‫‪"V,9
+,S‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪¶< 
G 9D‬‬
‫‪+,S &S ":/0 1}@  E VG 9< V ‰2G :/0 R'
V U<6 V m*E VG P ::‬‬
‫‪"V,9
+,S‬‬
‫‪= "½Q |@ U<6 š,9| ":+\ G@ /0‬‬
‫  
‪# :x‬‬
‫ "‪e( aL "R*
A5‬‬
‫‪L :K*
 $‬‬
‫! 
‪…: L :+G5‬‬
‫(‪. =,? V=G : #a( 9 =E 9=o :\ . 9=Z@ V=G  9=* 1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

‪m95 ===E . >J===l : ($$>===0……a h===*i
>===j<E . T k===^
: #La h ===45‬‬
‫‪V= N=, V= 9=,\ V=G  V +*<  V n V6 $!(a AOE . ^b : $ La‬‬
‫ ‪ 1G 1 <J VG p@ V * VG‬‬
‫‪= "š,9l ‘
,Rq*
) D6 VG N, :1: ,N<O ,Rq*
9,\ VG  :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬

١١٢

﴿ :‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬$ :‫ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬-

.(١)#﴾
‫ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﰎ‬،‫ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬:‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬$ :‫ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ؛ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‬.(٢)‫ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬#...‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻼﻝ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺤﻠﻮﻩ‬
.(٣)#‫ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‬:‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬$ :‫ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﺎ ﺃﻳﻀ‬
 9* VG  9* V h 45
F5J $e!>0 AB
. >2 6 1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0 
_
„Q} :>=<} :Ž=20 ? =<º
Ž=
'} )S=K
V6 Ž
'}  &S >2< :* VG ½ /0 :/0 +*5 VG 
= "Ž09{ :/0 {A54
:  q} x?
9=Z@: $ #>=0!eLa )S=K
yoz . WX VG >K
1?&@ :V | ": )*
+,- . /0
`==
. ==B
: $L>==0 $$$a  §k==i
V ==
. o ==
: LLa  9 =E .
m95 ===E . >J===l : … $>===0!!a$ ‘6f===
9 ===6 . T k===^
: ! È ===E :
V= +=, '
p@ V= +=,:<6 V= n V6 #a# §ki
V
. KD*
1: $!ea 
¼’ :Ž 
0  ><} :Ž20 :/0 ? 9oE  @K y :Ž 
K ,+fo  Ž2& :/0 h4} VG h*?
,P=6B W =| V=6 =D > 9=?: =6: ,P2B5= /X=| V=6 =D > 9=?: H= ,Ž
'}  &S 
")SK
":Ž 
K ?   / 32& V D5
]: 
1,:6 VG : gE VG• $a$ ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \: 
"P?¹ ‹: ‘wf
°;  AB{ š,9| g ": >Jl /0 
= "1 g
V | PQ:
. >J==l : $e $>==0 a( V ==
. Rg==6v
1==?&@ : N<==O ": )==*
+==,- . /==0$ 
| 3, V6 #a# §ki
V
. KD*
1: $!ea m95 E . >Jl m95 E 
1G 1 :U VG  9* V *l VZ
9* p@ V 
1,:6 VG Q $a$ ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \: 
" ,- V | š,9| g ": Rg6v
/0 
$e $>0 Rg6v
V N<O . T*
M 14<O š,9l : 
$a h =45
. h=™J V=G s=l =D5*@ =,'
V=i
"A5=4
:": =,\ V =
+=<* . ”=
:1*
P9= Ž =
: >J=l V= š,9=l =KD*
§: 9=0: ,$##a %f=i
‚,=8 . <2,'
:

‫‪١١٣‬‬

‫﴾‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ[‪ :‬ﻳﻌﻨﹺﻲ ﴿‬
‫ ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ‪ ﴾ ﴿$ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻧﺰﻭ ﹰﻻ‪.(١)#‬‬‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ‪-‬ﺇﻥ ﺻﺤﺖ‪ -‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ ﺑﹺﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ"‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻭﻛ ﱞﻞ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻀﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﻏﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺮﺿﻪ ﺑﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻪ‬
‫ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺗﻼﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ج ﻣﻊ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﺆﻣﺮ ﺑﺮﺳﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻈﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﺍ ’‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫﴾)‪(٢‬؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﻼﻝ ﻭﺣﺮﺍﻡ")‪ ،(٣‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻼﻟﺔ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‬


'‪= ">2@  : ,‬‬
‫‪. 9=Z@: $(…($>=0 #a# N=E . +*=  p@ V=G 1=?&@ :N<=O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪V =======
. Rg=======6v
: #L >=======0eLa V =======
. :  =======G@:  …a 9 =======E‬‬
‫‪§k====i
V ====
. o ====
: $!!>====0La 9 ====E .  '====*
: $eL >====0#a(:‬‬
‫(‪T===<E –; . R:===B^
: $>===0#a h ===45
. ===,? V===G : Lee#>===0ea‬‬
‫‪$ e ,!a m95 ==E . >J==l : !$>==0$ea AB=
. )==*| V==G : ea‬‬
‫‪V * VG V 9,', V % V n V6  !(>0!#(a )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E :‬‬
‫™‪1G 1 )H‬‬
‫‪ $……a 9 E –; . J  9Z@ 14<O š,9l :‬‬
‫‪= " #L >0 ( :  p@ V N<O . T*
M 14<O:‬‬
‫  ‪$ :9oE‬‬
‫‪$((>=0$(a X=
9=0 >=¥< . R\:=E 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫‪1G 1 R9
V °*@ V ‘K, V6 #…a  h 45
. ,? VG :‬‬
‫ ¨‪= "F‰, ]^b h™J n:9{ ,T 9U‬‬
‫‪² q} VG °*@ :1 ;N<O PQ‬‬

‫‪١١٤‬‬

‫ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﺭﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺇﺟﻼﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺣﺠﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ؛ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻄﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻳﺪﻩ ﺑﹺﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﳛﺠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﲨﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﴿ ﴾؛ ﻧ‪‬ﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺞ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻛﻬﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫﴾)‪.(٣)#(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ‪﴿ ،‬‬

‫‪= "
g . : 6 ‚,8 3* ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫  ‪$ :9oE‬‬
‫‪9=* = C=™E 9=| La  h 45
. ,? VG 1?&@ : N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫   ‪ 1G 1 * VG V  V +,:<6‬‬
‫‪ gE VG Q #a$ ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬
‫‪,=Dd A 
={ V=G  9* :1: y,9< •: –?  1 N0@ ‹ ,Rk^
`  :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫{‪= "D6 Ž 
Pg: 9? 1 +UoM +, : ,¢2‰
h™J n:9‬‬

‫‪١١٥‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا ون‬

‫ أُ‪2‬ل  > ‪ <" =,‬ا;‪-‬ء‬

‫و َ@ ‪2 D‬ل  > ‪ =,‬أ‪ ;B C‬ا ‪ ِ; E‬ج‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺗ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪:‬‬
‫]ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺳﻲ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺒﻴﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻨ‪‬ﺰ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻌﻄﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺒﻴﻜﻢ‪.[.(٣)#‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪$ :‬ﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻣﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﻨﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺗﻴﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺆﺗ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫‪‬ﻧﺒﹺﻲ ﻗﺒﻠﻚ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻮﺍﺗﻴﻢ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﹶﻟﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﴿‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٥‬ﻓﺒﻠﻎ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ج‪ :‬ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺻﺤﻒ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﴿‬
‫﴾)‪(٦‬؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﰱ‪.#‬‬
‫﴾ )‪.(٨)"(٧‬‬
‫﴾‪ ...‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴿‬
‫  
‪
   ˆ ”6b‬‬

‫ ‪± ,yz4
p@ +<* .± gJ‬‬
‫‪± +<* .:‬‬
‫ ‪ x  )Q 15*@ 6 F 
y<
: ,"9* G@" :*2l‬‬
‫‪$!(>==0$L!a )S==K
yoz== . 9==* ==G@ 1==?&@ :N<==O P==Q ": )==*
+==,- . /==0 $‬‬
‫‪+2 2 E š,|M . + 
j<
−( 9 E . U2,9
: # >0…La x9
. T k^
:‬‬
‫‪p@ V >K
V 9,', VG  V +i <
p@ VG )H™ V ‘K, V6 ! + 
j<
. T 4
:‬‬
‫@‪‹ ¶=<
Ž=Š 'J V6  >i*} D^@ H}Q ":/K, )J 1}@  
p@ VG  V  +66‬‬
‫‪"  >i*} y*0 9|@ D^<,‬‬
‫‪V=G =:1=: ,9=,', V=G  V 15, : . P4<O,n:9{ ;+i <
p@ VG )H™ :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪= " h™J‬‬
‫‪F‰, n:9{ ,Kf69
VZ
9* VG >K
:1: ,N<O ,Kf69
9,',‬‬
‫! ‪yz= F=G V, =E X={ F=5J Le >=0 AB=
. >2 =6 1=?&@": )=*
+=,- . /0‬‬

‪= "+Š4‬‬
‫(  
‪( − :>j‬‬
‫   
‪( − :>j‬‬
‫‪+KG
+ l ”4} #‬‬
‫‪L>=0($a  §k=i
V =
. o =
1=?&@ :N<=O PQ": )*
+,- . /0 L‬‬

‫‬

‫‪١١٦‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪$ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻒ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪.#‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪$ :‬ﻧ‪‬ﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﻒ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺻﺤﻒ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫﴾)‪(٣‬؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺎﰊ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ا ع ا )دي وا ون‬

‫ ‪2 0 >C 7FG‬و >‬

‫‪. >J=l : $ !a( y=6i
. R9= V=G : $$>0!L!a 1&  >j<6 . HI :‬‬
‫ ‪V=G x=^ V= 1=G@ V )H2 VG U5<E V ‘K, V6 (a: !  ,(La m95 E‬‬

‪ 1G 1 * VG V +6i V o‬‬
‫‪1,:6 VG : gE VG :  '*
Q !LLaL ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬
‫‪¢25r ,x^ 1 ;N<O PQ‬‬
‫‪= "y6i
. R9 VG PQ N<O:‬‬
‫‪9=
. H=J 1=,:6 V=G : g=E V=G : 9=Z V=G 9=* 1=?&@ : N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪ 2
!LLaL ™E‬‬
‫‪¢25r , o
VG x^ :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪V o
VG x^ V ƒ,; 3, V6 eLa( )SK
F Q . B
1?&@ 6 1^28 V6:‬‬
‫<‪= "PB} 1G 1 * VG V h*? VG 9‬‬
‫‪= "PQ  N0@ ‹: , !LLaL 9
. 
PJ„ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪L :M  $‬‬
‫!‪AB{ p,4
Q ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪+=6i V= 1=G@ V= )4= V= ) =D6  9Z VG 9| (La$e h 45
. ,? VG 1?&@:‬‬
‫}‪ PB‬‬
‫‪= "9Z VG 9*<
!LLaL ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬
‫(  

™‪
   ˆ T‬‬

١١٧

>C 0 > ‫و‬2 7FG ‫و‬

﴿ :‫ﺰﻭﻝ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‬‫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‬:(١)"‫ﻲ "ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ‬‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﻓ‬
‫ﻲ ﺯﻛﺎﺓ‬‫ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‬‫ﺃﻧ‬$ :‫ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‬،(٢)﴾
.(٤)‫ﺎ‬‫ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ ﳓﻮﻩ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋ‬.(٣)#‫ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ‬
‫ ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻋﻴﺪ ﻭﻻ‬،‫ ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‬:‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‬
.‫ﺯﻛﺎﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ‬ 
$ a  
( −! :M  
_ N<O ": )*
+,- . /0$
 9=* =G@ }k&@ (…a! §ki
V
. KD*
1?&@ : 9?
C=Y  > GQ VG nBQ  +U2 VG 9Z@  œ
FK<, VG nBQ VG N,  sl
Pg= Ž=
'} :/=K, )=J 1=}@ :=U V=G V c} V U VG  9* V 4l Z G@  WS VG 
")z6 J\ . : { 1G > J„: CJ' V6 A2@ 90} +,€ 
1,:6 VG Q !L(aL ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:
_ N<O PQ: 
= "m:v6 :o 
1 /0 ,4l Z G@ +09{ VG yz4E :1 ; 9?
_ N<O ": )*
+,- . /0!
. +=U,'& V=G : $$L$>=0$$aL 9 =E .  '=*
1?&@ : 9? 
===0:M yoz=== .: (…a! §k===i
V ===
. ===KD*
: !e>===0…ea! AB===

:/=0 P9=? V= 1=G@ V= T'=E  9=* VG h™J V c} VG  9* V n V6 !(>0$e(
. Ž=
'}@ ":/=K ? {= 1=G >= =J„: CJ' V6 A2@ 90} +,€ Pg V   / y© 
"^4
J\
V= 19| >2<} •: ,% VG :U •Q  *
V s42
g› P : >2<} • š,9l g ":  '*
/0 
" 9* VG h™J •Q :U VG  9* V 19| •: ,:U VG  9* 1G •Q % VG :U 
" ,- , ,- k&": +U,'& VG /0: 
"N<O :  9* VG h™J 1: , '*
P : ": Lea$ cUjE . U™¨ /0:
1=,:6 VG : i
. >Jl : > | p@ VG Q 15* }  \: !L(aL ™E 9
. 
14<O: 

_ N<O":  
= " 9?

(>0 -v
N<O . T*
M /0:

‫‪١١٨‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(١‬ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﳊﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪-‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪$ :-‬ﺃﺣﻠﺖ ﱄ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،(٢)#‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﲨﻊ؟ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻧ‪‬ﻬﺰﻣﺖ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ؛ ﻧﻈﺮﺕ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﺼﻠﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ")‪.(٤‬‬

‫ 
*‪ − :92‬‬
‫‪>2 =6: >2<
+G5J FG >2<
F5J >0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪= " , p@ š,9| V6 $((>0 9{: +i6 >,Š FG ‚l F5J AB
.‬‬
‫‪!( :UK
 $‬‬
‫_‬
‫_‬
‫?=‪. T k=^
1=?&@ : 9‬‬
‫‪N<z= "N = 
G 52=6‬‬
‫! ‪": 1= 
0 ): AB={ ": )=*
+=,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪V=G '=,'<
9=* } gE VG > GQ  9< VG 9< 6 9| …>0(La… ¢:M >j<E‬‬

‫‪ 1=*} = − 1=
X? y=? −  /'=}@ ": /0 , p@ V 1G@ V /X VG 9U~ 9| ) U‬‬
‫ ‪» Ê » ³ » cUd‬‬

‪ PJg F^b VG U /K ,G9‬‬
‫‪³ ² » ² W'D‬‬
‫‪» ³ Ê ) 
,:‬‬
‫‪³ » ² ³ »  +iUG‬‬

‫‪_ N<O PQ:‬‬
‫?‪'=,'<
9=* :1=: ,y,9< :@ –?  1 N0@ ‹ , ^<
9< VG 9< 6 : 1 ; 9‬‬
‫‪ ‘2 •Q: cG „Q R@ /*K6 , /X p@ VG /X : 1: m:v6 , ) U VG‬‬
‫‪š==,|@ ‚,==8−$…a$ 9 ==E . +==,  V==G 1==: (…a$ h ==45
. n \==
9==* ‡==&@:‬‬
‫=‪W'D‬‬

‪³ » ² ³ »  Ž=
'} =E : /=0 =U )@ +=6i V= F=,@ V: 50 V U<6 V <2,'2
%fi‬‬

‫ ‪» Ê » ³ » cUd‬‬

‪. Ž=*™, ,  =*
Ž=,@ , 9=G W=, )J H2 ? W'Œ cº R@ : /0@ Ž2<? G»³9‬‬
‫‪Ê ) 
,:‬‬
‫‪³ ² »²‬‬
‫ ‪» Ê » ³ » cUd‬‬

‪G9‬‬
‫‪³ ² » ² W'D‬‬
‫‪» ³ Ê ) 
,:‬‬

‪³ » ² ³ »  /K, : 9‬‬

‫‪‘K,= V=6 h™J VG − La! h 45
. > | p@ VG : ( #a h 45
. ,? VG 1?&@:‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 +6i V F,@ V‬‬
‫‪ Ph 4 . 1,:6 VG Q $…a$ %fi
š,|@ ‚,8 . 15* } <2,'
 \:‬‬
‫‪= "AB{ PQ:‬‬

‫‪١١٩‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ "ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ"‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ؛ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪$ :‬ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﻗﻼﺩﺓ ﱄ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺪﺍﺀ ﻭﳓﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺎﺥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻭﻧﺰﻝ ﻓﺜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﺠﺮﻱ ﺭﺍﻗﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻓﻠﻜﺰﱐ ﻟﻜﺰﺓ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺒﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻼﺩﺓ؟! ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺒﹺﻲ‬
‫ج ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻆ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻤﺲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬‬

‫﴾)‪.#(٢‬‬
‫﴾ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺼ ﱢﻞ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻓﹸﺮﺿﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ ﺃﻥ ج ﻟﹶﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﺘﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻘﺪﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻘﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻳﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ا ع ا  وا ون)‪ J;6  (٣‬ا ‪2I‬ول‬
‫]ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪[:‬‬

‫ﺤﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ" ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻗﺪﻭﻡ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﻛﺬﻛﺮ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻧﻮﺡ ﻭﻋﺎﺩ ﻭﺛﹶﻤﻮﺩ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻌﱪﻱ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‪ :‬ﻗﺴﻢ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀً‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺴﻢ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪] :‬ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ[‪:‬‬
‫ﺯﻋﻢ ﺯﺍﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻃﺎﺋﻞ ﲢﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ؛ ﳉﺮﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ‪:‬‬
‫‪>=2} 1= 
0 F=G h =45
F=5J !$$>=0 AB=
. R=w*
1=?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪_ 9<{ UU5 x6 :9¤‬‬
‫*{ ‪= ">U5
FG l F5J $ #>0 AB
. >2 6:‬‬
‫  ‪ :9oE‬‬
‫‪
   c5

 $‬‬

‫‪١٢٠‬‬

‫ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﱪﺓ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲣﺼﻴﺼﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ؛ ﻗﺼﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﳑﻨﻮﻉ؛‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺬ ﻓﺠﻮ‪‬ﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻝ‪.‬‬‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ)‪" :(١‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻧﺰﻭﻟ‪‬ﻬﺎ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ‪" :‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ)‪" :(٢‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﻳﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻳﻮﺭﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﹾﻤﺴﺒ‪‬ﺐ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣ‪‬ﻜﻲ ﻋﻦ ]ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ[)‪ (٣‬ﺑﻦ ﻣﻈﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺪ ﻳﻜﺮﺏ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻻﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﺠﺎﻥ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ)‪،(٥‬‬
‫ "@*‪( Ë ")SK
/:'} F‬‬

‫ "‪!#Ë "h 45
/{@ .± +69K6‬‬

‫‪1=: ,9=|@ 9=<G .= )H™= )’= ;1=5*@ =6 F =
: ,>=20 3*= 12<
: ,")H™" :‘5*^E .± $‬‬
‫ 
‪‡ /‬‬
‫!  ‪…! :9oE‬‬

‫( ‪1=K, V6: #e# >0!ea… NE . n \
9* 1?&@ : AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

*‪V=G : !L>=0$ a +=,9E *&@ . +*  VG 1?&@: $(aL §ki
V
. KD‬‬
‫@‪. >J=l :  a š,9=l =,- . p=^b :  ###>=0ea! h =45
. > | p‬‬
‫ ‪yU<5= U )@ +<G VG 6 VG  9* Tk&@ FD  VG V ‘K, V6 ! a$ m95 E‬‬
‫‪”=K
9=* 9= :=d W9=K U VG  9*: +4| /& : V,B*
 )<¥6 VG +6 90‬‬
‫|=‪_  :9=| V=6 9‬‬
‫_‬
‫|‪)@ = =K‬‬
‫ ‪Ž=,@ TQ: i = F; +=6 90 )Q ‘6¦E h6@ , /K U‬‬
‫@<‪TQ +=6 9K
U /K  W9K V,B*
V6 12 W9K, )@ +6 90 Q 5J > ": 1:  ƒ
Q 1‬‬

‫|‪  /=0 +=6 90 /=0 =E  =U /=K T:9=2j5
>i
)J 6 ) 
K, HJ ŽG; 
/K m‬‬
‫} 
” 
‪)Q y=,:]5
]=^&@ =U /=0 +=,€ { =U< H –? l
2U: 6S V,g‬‬
‫ ‪" ƒ2  W| 6 Ž*5?  ŽK‬‬

‫‪١٢١‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻧﺰﻭ‪‬ﻟﻬﺎ؛ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻮﻻ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‪$ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻧﺎﺳ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻟﹶﻤﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﺮﻣﺖ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺑﹺﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻗﹸﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﺎﺗﻮﺍ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺸﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺭﺟﺲ؟! ﻓﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺖ‪ .#‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺩﻓﻊ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ‪.‬‬‫﴾)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪-‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻟﹶﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﻣﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﺎﺩﺓ؛ ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺿﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺣﻼﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻣﺘﻤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻠﻠﺘﻤﻮﻩ؛ ﻧﺎﺯ ﹰﻻ‬
‫ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺣﻼﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺁﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺣﻼﻭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻻ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻠﻠﺘﻤﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﳊﻢ ﺍﳋﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﱠﻞ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀﻩ؛ ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ <=  }k&@ )H
G@ 9| /0 !e>0 R\‰E F5J AB
. Rw*
1?&@ M g:‬‬
‫‪1¥4
3 , ‹ Vi
1G 1 R'
V‬‬
‫‪)M 1=; = Ž =
+06 ¼i
+K
Rw*
Jg, ‹ ": $ea# R*
A5 . sl /0‬‬
‫‪_ 9D  V6 J„ 1O‬‬‫‪= " ¢K 9G‬‬
‫‪VG : (>0$$#a  §ki
V
. o 
1?&@ :Ph‰
AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫?‪xz=
1K, V6: !(…>0!!a h*i
>j<E . T k^
: $!a# h 45
. ,‬‬
‫‪. >J==l 1==?&@: !!a… /H==i
,g==£ . R'==E g==J: $#e>==0$!ae ==5wE .‬‬
‫ ‪+<G } /D6 VG ‡j| V n V6 L(aL §ki
V
. KD*
: (La! m95 E‬‬
‫‪ PB} 1G 1 * VG V h*? VG 9< V 1G@ V k? VG W™2J VG‬‬
‫‪$ae R*
A5 . sl 1BB{: V | PQ:‬‬
‫‪=* VG V +6i V mH V yo ÅQ V ‘K, V6 …( ,#a 9 E . 9Z@ 1?&@:‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1‬‬
‫‪$ae R*
A5 . sl 1BB{ ,<G5E . 1G ]G • PQ:‬‬
‫‪V=6 P=, : 9=K ,g=D5
: =5wE V=6 1=5*@: ,T k=^
+=<* V6 Ž^K "1G@ V": +, :
. 1 
0‬‬
‫‪= "1K,‬‬
‫  ‪!( :W<}M‬‬

١٢٢

‫ ﻭﻟﻮﻻ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻟﹶﻤﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺠﻴﺰ‬،‫ﻲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‬‫ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻓ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﲔ‬
.‫ﺤﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬‫ﻲ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‬‫ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻓ‬
.‫ ﻭﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬،‫ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬:‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬﴿ :‫ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‬:‫ﻲ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ‬‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ﻓ‬
.(٢)‫ﻨﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻧﺰﻭﳍﺎ‬‫ﻰ ﺭﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺑﻴ‬‫(؛ ﺣﺘ‬١)﴾
:[‫ﺰﻭﻝ‬‫ﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﺓ ﻓ‬ 
# :%K|M  
/=0 Rg=
:} F=G h =45
F=5J !((e>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0
Á 1,9 

=^w +=,:<6 12U<5= \=jl = ) :=6 )=J :/=0 ƒ=6 VG N, V {Hi
%@
_ iG p@ VG VZ
9* 1
/K 1G@ 9<G 1
c,*, i
+,:<6 VG 9,', Jg, y<j
P:g& :/K © 
%@ 1=,9 

/=0 Rg=
:} 1=  /'=}@ Rg
g )Q :) :6 /K , :9K, >2 ,+fo ŽG y&9
_
/'=}@  )@ •Q )S=K
V=6 ©=  
=  /'=}@ =6 F=jl x : V6 :+fo Ž 
K {} 9< @ Hi 

"Rg
V6 L(#>0$…(ae h 45
. > | p@ VG : #$>0!a  9 E .  '*
1?&@:
) :6 , ": Ž 
0 D  † +fo )@ 1: D*
 9* V 9 
& p@ VG yHQ V ‘K,
=B5} >= )X= V=G )X= . Ž=
'} V=i
: Ž=
'} 1= 6 ŽGgJ gJ: gJ VZ
9*<
yoK
Ž}@ 
"%q} C5| DU2i, y<j £j| FG C @ C5| kE V /'} > ) :6 
"1?
g V6 •Q *
V iG p@ VG VZ
9* V §:, 1U2<} • WXi
g":  '*
/0 
"V | PQ:  '*
P : ": !a( 9o :'
cU® . U™¨ /0
§k=====i
V =====
. o =====
: #L(>=====0#ea `,=====5
. +=====U™& p@ V=====G 1=====?&@: 
(La! m95 =E . >J=l : (#a š,9=l ,- . p^b : !…>0!(La 
V=6 $!a$( 3f=6 `,= . J  VG : %fi
‚,8−La$ h 45
. 1,:6 VG : 
PB} +fo V ,\ VG 9U~ V ‘K,
_ 
"+fo V6 cU , ‹ 9U~
)’ ;^K} 1 ": 1 
KG *g
1*K<5 >Jl 1BB{:
1 
K HD  † iG p@ VG VZ
9* . Ž
'} ¼@ >\ V6 ": (…a! h 45
. h™J VG /0 
= "16XQ V |: ƒ
„ 9<G >2@ HD  † iG p@ VG VZ
9* )M ;N<O

‫‪١٢٣‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ)‪ :(١‬ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ ﻭﻭﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺑ‪‬ﺤﺜﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ‪$ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ‬
‫ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﻖ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﻞ ﺳﺪﺍﺩ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﲢﺘﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ)‪ :(٣‬ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ؛ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﹺﻲ ﺑﹺﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ؛ ﻫﻞ ﳚﺮﻱ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻷﺟﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳚﺮﻱ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﹺﻤﺴﻨﺪ؟ ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺧﻠﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺧﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ؛ ﻛـ "ﻣﺴﻨﺪ" ﺃﲪﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻩ؛ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺳﺒﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍ ’‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ")‪ :(٤‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺁﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺸﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ")‪ :(٥‬ﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻋﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺬﺍ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻭﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ‪‬ﻟﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ]ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ[‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ‬
‫ "@*‪( Ë ")SK
/:'} F‬‬
‫‪V=G :  …$>=0(…a )SK
yoz . WX VG >K
1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫@‪yoz . R4‰5 E : L a h 45
. ,? VG : $ee……>0$(a  NE . +*  p‬‬

‪`,= . =^b : L>=0!!a )H=,I <  . KD*
: $…>0$e a )SK‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 V,h VG V n V6 !$ /:'
F*@ . R9| 
: La  9‰G‬‬
‫‪= "AB{ P9 ": ……a Fj<
. sl /0‬‬

‫‪!L Ë "h 45
/{@ .± +69K6" $‬‬
‫! ‪e Ë‬‬
‫( ‪$− $ a‬‬

‫‪١٢٤‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ‪‬ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﺧﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ؛ ﻛﻤﺠﺎﻫﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﻀﺪ ﹺﺑﻤﺮﺳﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ...‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ)‪:(١‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ؛ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬
‫ﻗﺮﻳﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻜﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺗﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻭﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪] :‬ﺍﻟﻌﱪﺓ ﺑﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺃﻡ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ؟[‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ؛ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﱪﺓ ﺑﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺃﻡ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ؟ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﹺﻬﺎ؛ ﻛﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺎﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺻﺨﺮ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺎﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺭﻣﺎﺓ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ)‪ ،(٤‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻯ‬
‫ "
‪ −( a ÌJ'2
")k‬‬
‫‪V ====
. :  ====G@: $#a! 9 ====E . 9====Z@ 1====?&@ : AB===={ ": )====*
+====,- . /====0‬‬
‫‪(a V ===
. 1===?6 V===G : $>==0 (a‬‬

‫‪C===K5E . :===d V===G : e >===0‬‬

‫(‪$#a$ V =
. ^0 9=
: $#L>=0#$a! AB
. +U,'& VG : #!!>0L‬‬
‫‪V=G 9=U~ V= ‘K,= V6 $L(a# §ki
V
. KD*
: a m95 E . >Jl :‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 R}M w{ VG +U2 V  , VG )H2 V x^ VG :U VG 9U~ V nBQ‬‬
‫‪= "e…>0# a# y2‰
x :Q . T*
M Ph‰
1BB{ š,9l :‬‬

‫‪± − 
Pg /:'} * .± AB
 g" :h™J VG /0 : `f
/0‬‬
‫‪š,9| 6] ,−+ 
jE :<,‬‬
‫ 
'‪h 4 " ’ "
Pg .±  /'}@ HG± 6@³ Vi
: ,/:‬‬
‫‪Ê * )J 1}@ 1 ”2 ;w{ VG +U2‬‬


‪$ea! ">¥<
)SK‬‬

‫‪³ » ² » » } F=G h =45
F=5J !!#e>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫‪=D @9=,:‬‬

<‪* VG š,9| V6 {F g‬‬
‫‪» »»²‬‬

‫‪V==G ”==}@ š,9==| V==6 ‘==U
n9=={ F==G )==<2
F==5J !… >==0 AB=
. >2 ==6 1==?&@:‬‬
‫‪= "ƒ 
6‬‬
‫!‪„Q •==
} F==G h ==45
F==5J !#(e>==0 AB==
. R==w*
1==?&@ ": )==*
+==,- . /==0‬‬
‫‪ƒ=I š,9=| . FG +G5
F5J ##e>0 AB
. >2 6: {
)i, 6 >520 PU5<U‬‬

‫‪١٢٥‬‬

‫ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ ﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺼﺮﺕ‬
‫ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ[‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺑﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺷﺎﺋﻌ‪‬ﺎ)‪ (١‬ﺫﺍﺋﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ)‪ :(٢‬ﻗﺪ ﳚﻲﺀ ﻛﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺎﺭ)‪ (٣‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ]ﺃﻭﺱ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ)‪،(٥)[(٤‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (١‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻨﹺﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻟﺔ)‪ (٦‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﰲ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ)‪ ،(٧‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫‪= "+fo š,9| V6‬‬
‫ ‪±‬‬
‫‪ƒ
gG +GB
‡j5| :<,‬‬

‫ "‪!! Ë "h 45
/{@ .± +69K6‬‬
‫‪+ 
jE  V6 !− $‬‬
‫!‪9 =E . 9=Z@: (!>=0!$L 9 =E . 9=Z V=G 9=* 1?&@ : AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪a V
. 1?6 VG : ! a‬‬

‫‪ (>0#La +
. >{ p@ VG : e $>0‬‬

‫‪h 45
. > | p@ VG : (aL h 45
. ,| VG : !#Le>0!aL 9 E . <, G@:‬‬
‫‪`, . T?d : e >0!(a 1&  >j<6 . HI : LL$…>0$$!ae‬‬
‫??) …‪V= hG'=
V=G := V= >=Í V ˜UM V ($a m95 E . >Jl : $L‬‬
‫‪ 1G +fo‬‬
‫_‬
‫_‬
‫‪{ hG‬‬
‫‪<U‬‬
‫‪ )J:} FG 9|5
F5J AB
. Rw*
1K2 š,9l :‬‬
‫‪= "e $>0 1?6 VG V AB{ . T*
M 1BB{:‬‬

‫( ‪/={@ .± +=69K6" .± ƒ
gJ : ,15*@ 6 F 
: ,"”0 VG ŽG" :Q» ‘5*^E .± NB‬‬
‫=‪` ==} =<G .± >,9‬‬

‪² =0 NB=5
g= )@ :9==*,: ,$$L a$ "§:=54
==U®" VU=O "h =45‬‬
‫" ‪!( −!! Ë "h 45
/{@ .± +69K6" 3K~ 1*5J 6 ¥} : ,"+69KE‬‬

‫  ‪x 
 V6 #‬‬

‫‪± } F=G h 45
F5J !$e>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0#‬‬
‫‪ >i={,‬‬
‫‪³‬‬
‫‪² ³‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫@‪š,9=| V=6 +=
Xi
ž h=6 F=G o =4
F=5J   >0 AB
. >2 6:{>J•:‬‬
‫‪² ³ »²».‬‬

‫‪١٢٦‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﻳﻈﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻀﲑ)‪ ...(٢‬ﻭﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻘﺼﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻋﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﺴﺒﺒﻪ؟ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﲣﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﳌﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﲣﺘﺺ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻌﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲝﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻧ‪‬ﻬﻴ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻭﻟﻐﲑﻩ‬
‫‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﹺﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺧﱪ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﹺﻤﺪﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻡ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻭﳌﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺑﹺﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﺍ ’‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﻈﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻄﻌ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪(٣‬؛‬
‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﰲ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ)‪ ،(٤‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﹺﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻭﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫?‪G‬‬
‫‪= "DD? : Rw*
+, :  !$aL R*
A5 . sl WXJ :¥} :‬‬
‫  ‪!… :9oE‬‬
‫‪VG 1K, V6: Wf VG −… a R\‰E . nBQ VG 1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫?‪y=o• . =KD*
:  !…L>=0(!a! h 45
. > | p@ VG : #!a  h 45
. ,‬‬
‫ 
* ‪ * VG V h*? VG 9< :@ +6i V 9U~ V nBQ VG 3, V6 ($$a‬‬
‫‪= "/D® ,9U~ p@ VG 9U~ :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪L −# :y2
 $‬‬
‫!‪>0…(a +GB
yoz . y*| VG 9Z@ 1?&@ :V | ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

‫ ‪1K, V6:‬‬

‫ 
|===‪yoz===4
=== P9===o :\ .  9===* 1===G 1===?&@: (( /:'===
F*===@ . . R9‬‬
‫‪>Jl : $ a  y6i
. R9 VG : La$e h 45
. ,? VG : …>0$#a‬‬
‫‪ 9=* V=G 6 V ‘K, V6  …a$e 3f6 `, . J  VG : ((a m95 E .‬‬
‫‪= "1G@ V hG'
VG‬‬

‫‪١٢٧‬‬

‫﴾)‪ :(١‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫﴿‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ؛ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﻠﻂ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲨﻊ ‪-‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﻗﻮﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻬﺪ‪ ،-‬ﻭ)ﺍﻟﻼﻡ( ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿ ﴾ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺻﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺇﲨﺎﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿ ﴾ ﻟﻴﺲ ﲨﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳﻔﻴﺪﻩ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ )ﺃﻓﻌﻞ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺎﳋﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ]ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ[‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﱪ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺁﺧﺮ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ‬‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻻ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺎﺓ ﺑﲔ ﻗﻮﻟ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﳍﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﱪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺮﺡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪،‬‬‫ﻭﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺳﺒﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﺒﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ؛‬‫ﻓﺎﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩﺍﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻓﲑﺟﺢ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺑﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‬‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﹶﻬﺎ ﻋﻘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ؛ ﺑﺄ ﱠﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ]ﺇﺫ[ ﻻ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ]ﲪﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ[‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ‬

‫  ‪$ : jl‬‬
‫ ‪±‬‬
‫ 
'‪= :@ ,F*M 9<  HD2Z )i6Q W9 c6: ,/:‬‬
‫‪Ê * J„ .± HŒh*< +| ¯ c6 <,‬‬
‫ 
'‪/:‬‬
‫ <‪Ê 9‬‬
‫‪ *= = )=i ;W9=K5E %=³ )Q :/=K, H}Qµ , A?v2
)i6 • 1}@ −>2@  :− D¥, Rg
$‬‬
‫ 
'‪/:‬‬
‫ 
'‪Ê 9< :@ h 45
FG V6 y<7³ &]5E : ,/:‬‬
‫‪Ê‬‬

‫‪١٢٨‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻜﺮﺭﻩ)‪.(١‬‬

‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺘﲔ )ﻓﺘﻼ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻓﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻣﺮ ﻳﻬﻮﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺿﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻩ‪،‬‬
‫﴾ﺍﻵﻳﺔ)‪.(٣)#(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻩ؟ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ)‪ (٤‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪$ :‬ﻓﺘﻼ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪ ،#‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ }‪ x  )Q ½5

: ,>,i
)SK
V6 1
:'} i 6 =G 32<5E 
¥‬‬
‫ 
'‪ # :6‬‬
‫‪+
. >{ p@ VG : $!,(a 9 E 9Z@ 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫‪h ===45
. ===,? V===G : $!e>===0$#a( V ===
==== Rg===6v
: (!(>===0!ea‬‬
‫‪¢:M >j<E . T k^
: …>0L(a 9|5
. +U,'& VG : $e>0(a‬‬
‫(‪V= +=,9J p@ V= ‘K,= V=6  (>=0L( +=UDd  
. P96 VG : ! L…>0 #a‬‬
‫^‪ 1G 1 * VG V CBz
CG@ V o
VG x‬‬
‫‪KD*
: 1,:6 VG Q ! a# ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬
‫‪, +=,9J =G@ •Q =* VG V Bz
p@ V o
VG x^ V š,9l g :, ‹ ": T k^
/0‬‬
‫ ‪"Ž2
VG 9U~ : 1G 4‬‬
‫‪1=?
g= V=6 •Q =* V=G š,9=| V=6 1<} • ,AB{ ,- V | š,9| g": Rg6v
/0‬‬
‫" =‬
‫‪¢25r , o
VG x^ : 1 ;N<O PQ‬‬
‫‪= "!ea +d /X¸ . T*
M 14<O š,9l :‬‬
‫!‪ :9=0 6:} FG h 45
F5J !($$>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫|‪ 9=* š,9=| V=6 
: +d : +6K
+4{ F5J #L >0 AB
. >2 6: {P90 3‬‬
‫‪ +6K
W,  :H
ƒ U, <  )Q ,9U~ , :/K  *
Q k| x? :/0 < 6 VG‬‬
‫‪3=2b o=: ,c*={Q  §™
: xE : ,c*{Q  jf
: /*d : ,c*{Q  ‘OM : ,c*{Q‬‬
‫_‬
‫ <‪k=l /=0 =« =*j‬‬
‫ ‪;  /= ƒBz= !ƒ=2E =}@ ƒ=2E =}@ :/=K ,V'Œ > ,c*{Q‬‬

‫‪١٢٩‬‬

‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ؛‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻮﺭ ﺷﺘ‪‬ﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪$ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻻ ﺃﲰﻊ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﹺﻧّﻲ َﹶﻻ ﹸﺃﺿ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ﴾)‪ (١‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﴿ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪$ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﹸﺃﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﹸﻧﺰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪$ :‬ﺗﻐﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻐﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ‪،‬‬
‫_‬
‫_‬
‫‪,^6  :H
: +6K
W, 15z*0 <º‬‬
‫ ‪ªM : P90 3|  :90 6:} @0 > ,1
K,9‬‬
‫‪"{)Jˆ, H < : 1}B* 1UG‬‬
‫  ‪…( :) U /S‬‬
‫‪. =,? V=G 1=K, V=6: !!a h =45
. n \
9* 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

‪KD*
1K, V6: ((>0$ a$ V
. 6 VG 9< 1?&@: (a! h 45‬‬
‫ ‪V
. Rg6v
: $e>0!!a 9 E . R9Ul 1?&@: ($e#>0(eea  +<E‬‬
‫(‪h ===45
. ===,? V===G :  …(L>===0$…a 9 ===E . ===<, ===G@: $e$>===0$#a‬‬
‫!‪!…a z=K
=*&@ . c=J::  (>0…!a$ h*i
>j<E . T k^
: (a‬‬
‫‪V= += V=G )4= V= # /:'=
F*=@ . R9=| 
: $La m95 E . >Jl :‬‬
‫‪ 1G D +U2 W@ V U VG +U2‬‬
‫‪"P?¹ ‹: Rw*
°;  AB{ š,9| g": >Jl /0‬‬
‫‪= "$e$ >0 Rg6v
V AB{ . T*
M Ph‰
1BB{:‬‬
‫‪$e :F '|M  $‬‬
‫!‪F=j<
−L a p=,4
: $a  9 =E . 9=Z@ 1=?&@ :AB={ ": )=*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪=,? V=G :  …(…>0$…$a 9 E . <, G@: $e>0$#a( V
. Rg6v
:‬‬
‫‪A=j} p@ V=G V= )4= V= ‘K, V6 !(a m95 E . >Jl : (a! h 45
.‬‬
‫‪ 1G D +U2 W@ V 9® V‬‬
‫‪= "$e>0 Rg6v
V AB{ . T*
M Ph‰
1BB{:‬‬

‫‪١٣٠‬‬

‫﴾)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ‪﴿ :‬‬

‫ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‪﴿ :‬‬

‫﴾‪.(٢)#‬‬

‫]ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪[:‬‬

‫ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺃﻗﺪﻣﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﹺﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ)‪ (٣‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﻮﺍﺯ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺮﻩ ﺍﳉﻌﱪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺬﻑ ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺰﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺃﻟﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺴﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻮﺟﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﳏﺮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺆﻟﱠﻒ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ ]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻟﻔﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﻓ ﹰ‬‫ﲰﻴﺘﻪ‪" :‬ﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ")‪.(٤‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ا ع ا   وا ون‬

‫ ‪G‬ر ‪2‬و >‬

‫ﺻﺮﺡ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺗﺬﻛﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻭﻣﻮﻋﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺧﻮﺍﺗﻴﻢ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫  
‪$ :x‬‬
‫‪9==*:  !>=0$ a! V =
. =6 V=G 9<== 1=?&@ :AB={ ": )=*
+=,- . /=0‬‬
‫ 
\ ‪>J=l : !#a( h 45
. ,? VG : $a  9 E . 9Z@: ( a h 45
. n‬‬
‫‪a… §k=i
V
. KD*
1: $$(a m95 E . >Jl : $$(a m95 E .‬‬
‫‪+U2= W@ V 9® V Aj} p@ VG V ‘K, V6 L /:'
F*@ . R9| 
1?&@:‬‬
‫‪1G D‬‬
‫‪"+U2 W@ V6 9® cU )J )Q ‘wf
°;  I AB{ š,9| g ": >Jl /0‬‬
‫‪= "$e>0 Rg6v
V AB{ . T*
M Ph‰
1BB{:‬‬

‫‪± µ ƒ=2 1 <* V |@ V6 ,")SK
/:'} F*@" 1U : ,*^6 $‬‬

‪  c=* ,K={ 9= =DKK| =5‬‬

‪’!e! +}™
° ,9? ,+2*K‬‬
‫! ‪W…#… +}™
+<*^
,:hG ,W2<
x|Q   +<* 1 <* V6 ,*^6‬‬
‫(  
‪
   ˆ Rl‬‬

‫‪١٣١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾ )‪ (٢‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ")‪ :(٣‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺸﺄﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﺬﻛﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﻭﺧﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻮﺣﻲ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﺗﺬﻛﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﳍﻢ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﲔ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﹸﺃﺑ‪‬ﻲ‪$ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﰊ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﹶﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺩﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﻮ‪‬ﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﱵ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﱄﱠ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻗﺮﺃﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻓﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺩﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﻮ‪‬ﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﱵ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﱄﱠ‪ :‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺃﺣﺮﻑ‪ ،#‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﻫﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ")‪ (٥‬ﻟﻠﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ‪-‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ :-‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻧﺰﻭﳍﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﺎ؛ ﳓﻮ‪ :‬ﻣﻠﻚ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻞ ﺑﹺﻤﻌﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻠﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻻ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ )!(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﺑﹺﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ )!( ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﲟﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﻼﺯﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﻺﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺑﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺮﺋﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ )!( ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺑﹺﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻳﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﳍﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺣﲔ ‪‬ﺣﻮ‪‬ﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬
‫  ‪L( :x ÅI‬‬
‫ 
‪$ :+G5‬‬
‫‪… a $‬‬
‫!‪= "c5

. 178 3* 90: : AB
. >2 6 1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫( ‪$! a‬‬

١٣٢

‫ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﺮﺃﻩ‬،‫ﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬‫ ﻓﻈﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﺰﻭ ﹰﻻ ﹶﻟﻬ‬،‫ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ‬‫ج ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻓ‬
.(١)’‫ ﻓﻈﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻧﺰﺍ ﹰﻻ ﺍ‬،‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻘﺮﺋﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺑﹺﻤﻜﺔ‬

+<*  )SK
/'}$ :−WX
: X
12− 1 
0 : ,/:'

Ê  i 0:  /9, 6 : 90 
y=G ,+=2: /:@ V=6 V=i, ‹» %=|@ +<*=  )SK
/:'} )@ :š,9l .± +
•9
1?:: ,·%|@ 

=*5i, )@ >=6@ ‘=| +=X™
‘= K
¢=2
)H™= /=0 HJ ;˜,0 ) 2G _•:@ /'} 1}@ ¥

/'=} H}’=
µ ;˜,=0 ) =2G P*5J= ;)S=K
V6 x¡ .± ŽG VG 9,\: >5}@ >5425& „Q$ :N|E
± 
Rw*
1?&@ ·>¼ 2G

± : )H™ WXJ  K2<
_ 
… Ë "'?
9 E " .± +6  G@ /0
.± +&
y*0 1
:'} /:@ <, 
’ %|@ +<*  1 x 0

˜,=0 ) =2G _•:@ /'} 1}Q :/K, )@ … a… "R*
A5" .± j| VG /0 HJ /•95• g +2Ui :
±
_
)H™= c=º H=2 , h = :
XD 
£x 0
.± ):„]E +<*
%|MG /'} >
µ ³ ,+<*
%|M 9|@
_ 

=
yUB ,%|M :@ 1} 2G _•:@ )SK
/'} Rg
%l )@ §@ ;9| : %|  

± µ )
1}i
;12 
’ JgE +
:M V6 1
E± » ,‡ *

/'=}@³ 1=}@ P=0 6  /9,: :+6  p@ WXJ ,K .± L a… "R*
A5" .± − 1Z− z,@
_ /0:
/=& =™J )@ 9=<G ƒ=
„: ,˜,=0 ) =
h=‰G P:x=K, )@ +=6M = yD= >
µ ³ ,˜,0 ) 2G _•:@

: <J VG p@ š,9| .± HJ ;j¨ 9<G )J ƒ
gG N4w5
:: )@ Ž* 9K ,WXI .± F<

± µ C @» y,k? )Q$ 
= )S=K
ƒ=56@ Î=K )@ m6],  )Q :/K ,4- ± G O@ 9 : ‡ *

. ,>2 =6 1=?&@ š,9=l ·ƒ=
„ 3=^ • =56@ )’ ;1 4‰6: 1 <6  /] :/K %| 
L >0 š,9| ,%|@ +‰*  /'} )SK
)@ )G FG X
F5J
,,9=‰ 
J x=E cK5 6  ,š}] x P&S: '— h‰G +Uj<E z
: 'U¨ A54G  :4- G± O@:

;4-± ± G» Q» ,³ +,*
+,9EG cO6 : ,x}Q :y™6 ;'U¨ : 9EG :y0: ,<J ;O@ :1<º: 

’ P9 
'} >¼M
µ ;x4
N48: +Uj<E ÃiG

;§=&@ 9<G 6 yG ,+<*
%|M  +2: /:@ V6 /',² ‹» )SK
)@  /9, š,9l )@ :KE 
>2@  : ,)SK
/:'}  i  +
• š,9l .± )’ ;12: ,1 , : o V6 g >D4,³ HJ

‫‪١٣٣‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا ا"! وا ون‬

‫‪2 -‬ل ‪ 0‬ا ‪8K‬ن ‪ =,‬ن "< ا )"‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻠﺒﻪ‪.#‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪$ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻗﻂ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ؛ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻓﻴﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.(٣)#‬‬
‫  

<;   
‬
‫‪V ====
. Rg====6v
: ($a 9 ====E . 9====Z@ 1====?&@ :AB===={ ": )====*
+====,- . /====0‬‬
‫(‪= P9=o :\ . 9=Z@ VG  9*: $$ a §ki
K*^
. 9< VG : $ L>0 #a‬‬
‫=======‪AB=======
. )=======*| V=======G : (( ,$…(>=======0$(… ,……a +GB=======
yoz‬‬
‫(‪>==j<E . T k==^
: C==K5E −e$>==0!!a == I . ==2b :  L…(>==0$La‬‬
‫ ‪$La ‘9=BE =K* . `f=
=G@: $$$e>=0$$La$: L…>0…(a ¢:M‬‬
‫‪V=6 !L…>=0$a# + =
y@ K5 . oi
X
: e >0…a 9o 4
. WÍ:‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 U VG V c} V n‬‬
‫‪"1?
g V6 ,- V | š,9| g ": Rg6v
/0‬‬
‫‪= "$ L>0 Rg6v
AB{ . T*
M 1BB{ š,9l :‬‬
‫‪1=K, V=6: h™J VG −#a Ph 4 . ,Q p@ VG WS 1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫ ‪ 1G 1 9® V ?DE VG > GQ V ƒ,; }k&@ #a h 45
. 1,:6 VG‬‬
‫‪:  p@ VG Q …ea ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬
‫‪"9® V y6 g ": #a h 45
. h™J VG sl /0‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪+i 
G xzK
½: g6 1¥4| h‰ , h™J‬‬
‫‪xC^¹ n:9{ ,†K
ƒ,; :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪V= ƒ=,; V= WS V=G C=Y §: ": …$a( 9=DU5
. k=
9=* VG /0 ,PQ . N25& 90:‬‬
‫_‬
‫@‪V=G =U )=J •=0 *<f=
6= V= 9= 
® V= z=,‬‬
‫|* ‪ƒ,; V: 9® V U p@ VG‬‬
‫ ‪ = ")SK
1G /' R@
§, F^b‬‬

‫‪١٣٤‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ‪$ :‬ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﺭﰊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺛﻼﺙ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ‬
‫﴾)‪ (١‬ﻭﻗﻠﺖ‪:‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻟﻮ ﺍﲣﺬﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻣﺼﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﺇﻥ ﻧﺴﺎﺀﻙ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺟﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺃﻣﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﺠﱭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺖ ﺁﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺏ)‪ .(٢‬ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻧﺴﺎﺅﻩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﹶﻬﻦ‪ :‬ﻋﺴﻰ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻃﻠﻘﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺒﺪﻟﻪ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻨﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺖ)‪ (٣‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﺭﰊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺛﻼﺙ‪ :‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺮﻯ ﺑﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪.(٥)#‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﺬﻧﻴﺐ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺍﷲ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺒِﻲ ‪-‬ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪-‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ؛ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺼﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳏﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻧﻪ ج؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴿‬
‫﴾)‪ (٧‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٨‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ؛ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (١٠‬ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬
‫﴾)‪ (٩‬ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﴿‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﺘﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﹸﻗﻞﹾ؛ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ 
*‪( :K‬‬
‫  ‪($ :F '|M‬‬
‫‪( :>,B5
 $‬‬
‫!‪9 = E . 9==Z@: (>==0 e#a V ==
. ==6 V==G 9<== 1==?&@ ": )==*
+==,- . /==0‬‬
‫‪ = "+2*K
. x? 6 FG X
F5J $…$>0 AB
. Rw*
: !, ,$a‬‬
‫(‪V=6 F=G  +GB=
yoz= F5J $……>0 AB
. >2 6 1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪= " U yoz‬‬
‫   ‪e! :W<}M‬‬
‫‪! W<}M  #‬‬
‫‪ ! :>,6  L‬‬
‫…  
‪− ! :‬‬
‫‪! :+Š4
 e‬‬

‫‬

‫‪١٣٥‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا &‪ %‬وا ون‬

‫‪َ6‬ء ‪2 0‬ل ‪ @.-‬ا ‪8K‬ن‬
‫ِ أ ْ‬

‫ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻣﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﺮ‪‬ﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺎﺕ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ‪ :‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ‪$ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻻ‬
‫﴾)‪.(٣)#(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺁﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻚ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻷﺩﺏ" ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺮﱘ‬
‫﴾)‪﴿ ،(٤‬‬
‫ﻲ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫‪$‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ‪.(٦)#‬‬

‫  
‪
   )<*
: Rl‬‬
‫  ‪# :‬‬
‫‪_ N<O ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫?‪1G e# !>0e!a  h 45
. > | p@ VG 1?&@ : 9‬‬
‫‪N<O ,R9M  9* VG * 1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪VG  9* V G? 3, V6  a( h 45
. *2<™
: (a h 45
. ,? VG 1?&@:‬‬
‫‪ 1G  V CY‬‬
‫‪_ N<O PQ:‬‬
‫?‪= "m:v6 ,4<d G? :1 ; 9‬‬
‫!  ‪ :/4}M‬‬

‫( 
<‪± , ! 9=Z@ +=, : .± =6 =: , gJ ;L :*i‬‬
‫‪+=}™
+=, :
: "=4E FM " .:‬‬
‫‪D6 _•9G )HK
 V6 ! +,€ J„ ( # 9ZM‬‬

‫_‬
‫‪F5J #!L>0 /4}M +,S  q5K6‬‬
‫ ‪AB
. >2 6 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪!$>=0…e 9< 9 6 . 0:9
1: eL>0L 9 E . É 
^
: /4}M FG Dd‬‬
‫‪. 9=Z@ 1=?&@: L#((>=0 !…a( h =45
. > =| p@ V=G 1=?&@ É 
^
3, V6:‬‬
‫ ‪!>=0 =4E FM . R=w*
: $>=0#! 9=Z VG 9*: L( ,La 9 E‬‬
‫‪9 ==E . ¡f==
#!a… h ==45
. ==,? V==G : !…>==0$!#a$ 9 ==E .  '==*
:‬‬
‫‪= "1G 1 1G@ V 9< VG <6 V mH V n V6 #L>0!ea‬‬

١٣٦

‫ﻲ‬‫( ﻓ‬١)﴾

﴿ :‫ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬$:‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻓﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻇﻲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
.(٢)#‫ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻨﺎ‬$ :‫؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬-‫ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺒﺎﻉ‬:‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‬- ‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﲨﻌﺔ ﺟﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺒﻊ‬
.(٤)#‫ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﲔ‬،‫ ﻭﻛﻨﺎ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻧﻔﺮ؛ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ‬،(٣)﴾
﴿ :‫ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ 
( :­K
 
h =45
. > =| p@ V=G : LLae h =45
. =,? V=G 1?&@ : AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0
+U2 VG Z V ‘K, V6 !( !>0($a( h*i
>j<E . T k^
: h™J VG −$…!a$ 
= "1G 1 ¸K
+ V 9<? VG CY V , VG :U V 
( :A54
 $ 
=<, G@: h™J VG −…!a! h 45
. > | p@ VG 1?&@ : V | PQ ": )*
+,- . /0! 
e!>==0…ea h==*i
>==j<E . T k==^
:  == 
^E −$#…>==0!ea( 9 ==E .
1=?&@: 

e>=0 a +GB=
+=<6 . >=<} =G@ 1=K, V=6: $(!$>0!a!:

>=<} G@: LLa +GB
>j<6 . c}0 VG : !#>0 $a xHM : Ci
. p•:9 

j| V >  G 6 9< p@ VZ
9* 3, V6  

>0 a +GB
+<6 . 

1G 1 * VG *| % VG  9* V N2& VG
V=G 9<=: >=  =G 6 9< G@ 1 §: ,6
T ‰
N2& G@ žl VG j| PQ .: 
T= b x=^ VG )H™ VG  9*: Kf69
hfG VG +U2: c} VG cG
+G G@: 6
_ 
=|?
1= Jg, ‹:  #a$ –d . > | p@ VG : #$a$ h*i
`,5
. Rw*
PJ„
_ 
a WX=I `,= . *g
/0: aL K™
. )*| VG PJ„: , X,9<
•: 
"n9
12~ ": L( /HJI .  l /0: "N<z, ‹: ": 
"K —9|@ /? ,V,’G T k^
P : ": e#a# cUjE . U™¨ /0 
g=E VG : <, p@: )4 VG V l Q 15* }  \: ($!a# ™E 9
. 
PQ ?: 
1,:6 VG : R:*
:
/=K,: ,c* VG 9? :/K,: ,* VG *|": ea$ y,9<5
: –d . HJ > | G@ /0 :9o
1=
Wf=
/'=} x§=K
R=}M *= V=G =*| AB=
: ,Ti
+<º G@ : VG *| 
= "+*B{

‫‪١٣٧‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا دس وا ون‬

‫ِ ‪ >M‬و‪>;-GG‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺮﻋﺎﻗﻮﱄ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ"‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻗﹸﺒﺾ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺟ‪‬ﻤﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺷﻲﺀ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻤﻊ ج ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ؛ ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻗﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻧﺎﺳﺦ‬
‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻼﻭﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﻰ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻪ ﺑﻮﻓﺎﺗﻪ؛ ﺃﳍﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﻮﻋﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺑﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺑﹺﻤﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪$ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺒﻮﺍ ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ #....‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ؛ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺔ‬
‫ﳐﺼﻮﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻏﲑ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﺮﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ")‪ :(٤‬ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﲝﻀﺮﺓ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫  

™‪
   ˆ V6‬‬
‫‪(…>=0$…ea +GB=
yoz=  P9o :\ .  9* 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫|‪ 1G 1 ŽG VG 9,\ V n*
VG 9* V R'
V )4 ™0 R6
™0 > GQ 9‬‬
‫‪"1 }9| H}Q: ,R'
V6 1<U@ ‹: )4": /0‬‬
‫‪s42
¸  HJ ,+º 19| Rg
)i
;kj, >D*E g )@ ¥
: :Ž20‬‬
‫‪3=, V=6 )S=K
c=º F=G )S=K
yoz= F=5J !#e>=0 R=w*
AB={ . š,9l y{@:‬‬
‫‪= "1G 1 FD  VG V 9< VG > GQ‬‬
‫‪A5=" :¥} : ,# a  "‘4
¦E >j<6" CY‬‬
‫‪» » G@ ,>™¨ VG >,i
9*  :½0,9
: `f
/0‬‬

*‪ a… "R‬‬

‫‪. Ž==*™5
F==G 9=='
F==5J $ee!>==0 AB==
. >2 ==6 1==?&@": )==*
+==,- . /==0 $‬‬
‫ ‪= "š,9l‬‬

‫! ‪1  \: >Jl WXJ .± y 
)@ s|X,: , : … a‬‬

‫‪١٣٨‬‬

‫ج ﻧﺆﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﻉ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ)‪ :(٢‬ﻳ‪‬ﺸﺒﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﲨﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﲝﻀﺮﺓ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ" ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺃﺭﺳﻞ‬

‫ﺇﹶﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﺗﺎﻧﹺﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺮ‪ ‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﺧﺸﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ؛ ﻓﻴﺬﻫﺐ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱐ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﻣﺮ ﲜﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻌﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج؟‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺰﻝ ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻌﲏ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﷲ ﺻﺪﺭﻱ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﺃﻯ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺷﺎﺏ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ ﻻ ﻧﺘﻬﻤﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ج‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓﺎﲨﻌﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﺍﷲ ﻟﻮ ﻛﻠﻔﻮﱐ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ؛ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺛﻘﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﱐ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻔﻌﻼﻥ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺧﲑ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺰﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻌﲏ‬
‫ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﷲ ﺻﺪﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺬﻱ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﺻﺪﺭ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﺒﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﲨﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺨﺎﻑ ﻭﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﰊ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﺃﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻩ‪:‬‬

‫‪…!!L>===0La! N===E . +*===  p@ V===G 1===?&@ : V ===| ": )===*
+===,- . /===0‬‬
‫‪>0!e…a :‬‬

‫!‪yoz= .: L!a( 9 =E . 9=Z@: $…>0ea 9 E .: $‬‬

‫ 
‪Rg6v
1?&@: #$a# /Hi
,g£ . R'E 1K, V6: #L>0…e a +GB‬‬
‫‪>=j<E . T k=^
: !>=0$ea AB
. )*| VG : $…(!>0#$!a( V
.‬‬

‪)H==,I <==  . ==KD*
1==: !…a m95 ==E . >J==l : !…$$>==0(La( h==*i‬‬
‫‪>J==l 1==?&@:  a 3f==6 `,== . J == V==G 1==K, V==6: $>==0!$a‬‬
‫ ‪La m95 E‬‬

‫ ‪`,= . >,9=<
V=G 1=K, V=6: !#a# =*
y=o• . KD*
1:‬‬

‫|‪+=H  V=G VZ
9* V *| p@ VG 9,', V F,@ VG CY V ‘K, V6 $!ea 2‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 ŽG VG 9,\ V‬‬
‫‪"F,@ VG CY š,9| V6 1<} H}Q ,- V | š,9| g ": Rg6v
/0‬‬
‫‪"P?¹ ‹: ‘wf
°;  AB{ š,9| g ": >Jl /0‬‬
‫‪= "$…(!>0 Rg6v
AB{ . T*
M 1BB{:‬‬
‫ "•‪!# a# "*
yo‬‬

‫‪١٣٩‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫‪﴾.....‬‬

‫﴿‬

‫ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺧﺎﺗ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﺑﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺗﻮﻓﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬

‫ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻋﻤﺮ)‪.(٣)#(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ﻴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﻃﺐ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺄﺕ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻜﺘﺒﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺷﻬﻴﺪﺍﻥ‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺯﻳﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﹺﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻭﺟﺪﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﻩ‬
‫ﲰﺎﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺪ‪:‬‬
‫‪$‬ﺍﻗﻌﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﺎﺀﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺸﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ؛ ﻓﺎﻛﺘﺒﺎﻩ‪ .#‬ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻋﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ)‪ :(٦‬ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ")‪ :(١‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ 
‪… −L :+G5‬‬
‫|‪1*2 C5‬‬
‫‪µ 9 )J 6 U5 ,U +{: Ž}J ¼M‬‬
‫ ‪µ :j| VG /0‬‬
‫‪µ ;+4| 9 ƒ
„ )J H}Q:‬‬
‫‪ a… "R*
A5" ’ ƒ
„ 2 1
V6 D6‬‬

‫‪c=º F=G )S=K
yoz= F=5J !#e>=0 AB=
. R=w*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0 $‬‬

‪= ")SK‬‬
‫!‪:  p@ V=G :  (>=0$#!a +=,9E *&@ . 1*  VG 1?&@ :N<O": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪V ‘K, V6 $ (a  3f6 `, . J  VG 1K, V6: #>0$#a N|E .‬‬
‫*‪9=* V=G C=Y V +UK2 VG :U VG 9U~ V ™2
+B2 VG U Tk&@ /0 : VG  9‬‬
‫ 
‪ 1G 1 | VG VZ‬‬
‫‪= "oX<2
…L yB5
c6? . HJ ,‘<6 VG 1 
0 ,U V6 cU , ‹ CB ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫(‪=^
G@ 9| L>0 a N|E . :  p@ VG 1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫@&‪ 1G 1 1G@ V : VG Wf V }'
p@ VG Tk&@ : VG }k‬‬
‫‪"V | c^K6": (… )SK
yoz . h™J VG sl /0‬‬
‫‪= "1^K} c6 K 1 
?": !a… R*
A5 . sl /0:‬‬
‫  "‪( −! a… "R*
A5‬‬

‫‪١٤٠‬‬

‫ﻳﺪﻱ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪] ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺟﺎﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ[‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺷﺎﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﺮﺿﻬﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﺐ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻻ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺠﺮ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪$ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﺃﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻩ‪#‬؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﺃﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻩ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﳊﻔﻆ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻋﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ)‪ :(٢‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ)‪ (٣‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪$ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ‪-‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻐﺎﺯﻱ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ‪‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺃﺭﻣﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺫﺭﺑﻴﺠﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﺰﻉ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،-‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ؛ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﻧﻨﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺯﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﻓﻨﺴﺨﻮﻫﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺮﻫﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺘﻢ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؛ ﻓﺎﻛﺘﺒﻮﻩ ﺑﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻠﺴﺎﻧﹺﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻌﻠﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺴﺨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ؛ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺑﹺﻤﺼﺤﻒ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺴﺨﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﺑﹺﻤﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺤﻒ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺮﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺣﲔ ﻧﺴﺨﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﲰﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‬
‫ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻤﺴﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻮﺟﺪﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺧﺰﻳ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٤‬ﻓﺄﳊﻘﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪.#‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ)‪] :(٥‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ[)‪ (٣‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ ﲬﺲ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ ‪16 ,'
: ,L a‬‬
‫ " ‪… a "m95 E‬‬
‫‪c=º F=G )S=K
yoz= F=5J !#e>=0 AB=
. R=w*
1=?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬

‪= ")SK‬‬
‫!  ‪$ :F '|M‬‬
‫( "‪# a… "R*
A5‬‬

‫‪١٤١‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﹺﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﲪﻞ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﺸﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ‪$ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻭﻟﻴﺖ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‪ .(١)#‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ‪-‬ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :-‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ي ﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ج؛ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺯﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﺼﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲪﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻌﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹰﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺴ‪‬ﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺨﺎﻑ ﻭﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺎﻓﻮﺍ ﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ‬
‫‪ ^b 1K, V6:  $>0#La N|E . :  p@ VG 1?&@ :V | ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪:  p@ VG 1?&@: !La$… 3f6 `, . J  VG gJ: …($a y{2
y4
.‬‬
‫‪J  VG gJ: …(a y{2
y4
. ^b 1K, V6:  >0##a N|E .‬‬
‫‪V==6: $>==0!! ,!$a N|==E . :  p@ V==G 1==?&@: !#a$… 3f==6 `,== .‬‬
‫‪+<,ˆ====
. R====?€ 1====?&@: !( ,!!a$… 3f====6 `,==== . J ==== V====G 1====K,‬‬
‫!‪. R4‰5 =E : +GB=
yoz=−LL>=0!!a +=}GI . +^G VG : !!>0#L(a‬‬
‫‪)=G@ V=G 9U~: +*<  3, V6 L cKE . T 9
:U G@: !>0$(…a )SK
yoz‬‬
‫ ‪_ Ž<U /K, +24- VG 9, cU VU +*<  /0 96 VG +UK2 V —XJ 4<d‬‬
‫‪":/=K, 2‬‬
‫|>  ™‪"N|E . y< 6 Ž2<4
15
: 
)H‬‬
‫‪ 9, V y? V +UK2 V :6 +*<  /0:‬‬
‫‪"y? HDG 9, V6 1<U , ‹ +UK2 ":J  VG /0‬‬
‫‪. R=?€ : # ,#e>0…a +,9E *&@ . 1*  VG ‡&@ HJ  '<
 +^ 
Pg:‬‬

ˆ‪ ^b : +GB
yoz−L#>0!eLa +}GI . +^G VG : !$>0#L!a! +<,‬‬
‫‪`,= . J = V=G : !a §k=i
V
. KD*
: …($a ‡9E y{2
y4
.‬‬
‫‪9, V /:? VG  '<
V 96 VG +UK2 V )G@ VG 9U~ V n V6 !(a$… 3f6‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1  V +24- VG‬‬
‫‪"Æ4BE  ": …a$ y2<
. ^0 9
/0‬‬
‫‪= "$!$a$ . 1 |: La… R*
A5 . sl 1BB{:‬‬

‫‪١٤٢‬‬

‫ﺑﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﺣﻔﻈﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺰﻋﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻮﻩ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﲨﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﲜﻤﻌﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺘﺒﻮﻩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲰﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج؛ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻗﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻠﻘﱢﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﻌﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﻔﻨﺎ؛‬
‫ﺑﺘﻮﻗﻴﻒ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ‪-‬ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ -‬ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻘﻴﺐ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺜﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲨﻌﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﻔﻮﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﻔﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪‬ﻟﻪ ﻣﻔﺮﻗﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ج ﻣﺪﺓ‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪﴿ :T‬‬
‫﴾‬
‫ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ‪T‬؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،[١٠٦ :‬ﻓﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺳﺒﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺭﲪﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ‪ T‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪،‬‬
‫﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪.[٩ :‬‬
‫ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻮﻋﺪﻩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪﴿ :T‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻘﺮﺀﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺮﺃﻫﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،T‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻈﹸﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﺷﺪﻭﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﺃﺭﻣﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺎﻓﻬﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺎﻭﺭﻫﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ؛ ﻟﻴﺰﻭﻝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺼﻮﺑﻮﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻀﻮﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﻧﻨﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻫﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﺨﻮﻫﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺚ‬
‫ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺇﹶﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍ’)‪.(١‬‬
‫]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﲨﻊ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﲨﻊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪[:‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﲔ)‪ (٢‬ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﲨﻊ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﲨﻊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻊ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﳋﺸﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻤﻌﻪ‬
‫ ";–
‪9o4
WH5
h , 5& c6 1G 152K} 90: ,($ −( a! "+‬‬
‫ "‪ a… "R*
A5‬‬

‫‪١٤٣‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺻﺤﺎﺋﻒ ﻣﺮﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻔﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج‪ .‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻊ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﹶﻟﻤﺎ ﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﺮﺃﻭﻩ ﺑﻠﻐﺎ‪‬ﺗﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﲣﻄﺌﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺸﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ؛ ﻣﺮﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺴﻮﺭﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺠﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻠﻐﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺳﻊ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ؛ ﳏﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﺭﻓﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺝ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ؛ ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻗﺘﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﰲ "ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ"‪ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲨﻊ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﻟﻮﺣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺼﺪ ﲨﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻭﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬﻫﻢ ﺑﹺﻤﺼﺤﻒ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﻳ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺃﹸﺛﺒﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺥ‬
‫ﺗﻼﻭﺗﻪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺜﺒ‪‬ﺖ ﺭﲰﻪ ﻭﻣﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻪ؛ ﺧﺸﻴﺔ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫  ]ِ ‪ J-GG‬ا‪DP‬ت[‬

‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺍﺩﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻲ ﻻ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ؛ ﻓﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫"ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺘﻮﻗﻴﻔﻪ ج ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﲨﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ج ﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻝ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ‬
‫ج ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺁﻳﺎﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﲑﺗﺒﻮﺍ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﲰﻌﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻠﻎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫  ]ِ ‪ J-GG‬ا  ر[‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ؛ ﻓﻬﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻲ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ؟ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺧﻼﻑ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺮﻣﺎﱐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄ‪‬ﻴﺒﹺﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ")‪ :(١‬ﻭﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﲔ ﻟﻔﻈﻲ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤﺎ ﺃﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ ‪(# a‬‬

‫‪١٤٤‬‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺂﻝ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺘﻮﻗﻴﻒ ﻗﻮﱄ ﺃﻭ ﹺﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﹺﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﹶﻟﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﺳﺒﻘﻪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ"‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻣﺮﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻮﺭﻩ ﻭﺁﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ ﻭ ﴿ ﴾‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻢ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ج؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﻣﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺼ‪‬ﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻓﻮﺽ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺮﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ)‪ :(١‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬
‫]ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ[‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻭﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻔﻲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻘﻴﻒ‪#...‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‪$ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪ :‬ﻃﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﺣﺰﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻻﱠ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﻗﻀﻴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج؛ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺰ‪‬ﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﳓﺰﺑﻪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﲬﺲ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻊ ﺳﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻊ ﺳﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﺛﻼﺙ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﴿ ﴾ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ‬
‫ﳔﺘﻢ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﻩ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻲ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻣﻴﻢ ﺭﺗﺒﺖ ﻭﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺳﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ "‪! a… "R*
A5‬‬
‫‪. +*=  p@ V=G : (ea( §k=i
=K*^
. 9<= V=G 1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪V =====
. :  =====G@: $!$ ,…a! 9 =====E . 9=====Z@: L(L$>=====0!a N=====E‬‬
‫‪=€ ,g=£ . =,? V=G : L#L>=0#!a +=,9E *&@ . +*  VG : $…$>0((a‬‬
‫‪)H,I <  . KD*
: e…>0$La )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E : e#>0##a‬‬
‫‪ 9* V n V6 $ a 3,45
: cUd W:@ AO6 . ^b : # >0$… a‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 :@ P9? V 4K™
:@ VG  9* VG )H™ V 4o^
VZ
9* VG‬‬
‫‪= "$…$>0 :  p@ V N<O . T*
M 14<O:‬‬

‫‪١٤٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﴿ ﴾ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ ﻭ﴿ ﴾‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ ﺑـ﴿ ﴾ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﺼﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻳ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻟﺬﻛﺮﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺕ ﴿ ﴾ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺸﺮﺡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻲ؛ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ج ﺳﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻭﻻﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ)‪ (١‬ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ‪.‬‬

‫‪F*B5= F=G V, =E X={ F5J ##>0 AB
. >2 6 1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ^‪:Ž2K ,K*
A55 +2
 „  *
c6 Ž2{ ":/0 +4,g| V y2
X{ . x K
y,‬‬
‫‪,x =
A5=5 >= ,=› c=J, :Ž=2K ,Ï=U ,+=<J . =› =, Ž2K ,Ï6 > ,+oE 9 cJ,‬‬
‫‪ = "š,9l " @K ,) U /S A55 > ,@K‬‬

‫‪١٤٦‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا "! وا ون‬

‫‪ 6 0‬م ا &‪ T‬و‪8‬داب آ‪>/"/‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ)‪ :(٢‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳋﻂ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻲ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻠﱠﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺁﺩﻡ‪.‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﺐ ﲝﺮﻭﻑ ﻫﺠﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺓ ﺃﺻﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺧﻂ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺷﻬﺐ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺌﻞ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺠﺎﺀ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ؛‬
‫ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﱐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﻘﻨﻊ")‪ ،(٣‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ)‪ (٤‬ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺌﻞ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻒ؛ ﺃﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﻨﹺﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪﺗﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻭﻣﺘﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ؛ ﻧ‪‬ﺤﻮ‪] :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿ ﴾[)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﳛﺮﻡ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺼﺤﻒ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻭﺍﻭ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺷﻌﺐ ﺍﻹﻳ‪‬ﻤﺎﻥ"‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﹰﺎ؛ ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻭﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺘﺒﻮﻩ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺻﺪﻕ ﻗﻠﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻟﺴﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﻦ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺭﺍﻛﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﺖ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﻤﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﺎﻥ ﻓﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫  ِ ‪8‬داب آ‪>/"/‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﺒﻴﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻳﻀﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳋﻂ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫  

 ‪
   )<*
:‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫ 
|*" ‪: e Ë‬‬
‫ "‬

‫‪… Ë $‬‬
‫! " ‪$ Ë "cKE‬‬
‫( ‪–z,Ð
,1 4} 9E V6‬‬

‫‪١٤٧‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﻪ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻠﻪ" ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪$ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﹰﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺑﻘﻠﻢ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﻩ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻈﱢﻤﻮﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﹰﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳛﺮﻡ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﳒﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻫﺐ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺴﻦ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻛﺮﻫﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪9=| #!L>0$$ a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫*‪1G 1 F^b VG U V M p@ V +<¨ VG V T l :  VG 4‰
9‬‬
‫‪ N<O +<¨ VG 1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪‘K,= V6 $ea! x
:M +2| . ><} G@: $!>0$La N|E . :  p@ VG ‡&@:‬‬
‫‪F=5J =U¥ :/=K, )=J: :/0 NBE :‰, )@ )i, }J ":/0 > GQ V h‰6 V‬‬
‫ "‬
‫‪= "V< 90: ,”
96 ,>f :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪p@ VG : #!!>0$L a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@ :* VG @ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪!e ,!e…>=0#a N|=E . :  p@ V=G : $e$$>=0!…a  NE . +* ‬‬
‫‪:@ z= 9=0 NB=E §@ „Q )=J 1}@ : * VG V +6i V /|M >{ V n V6‬‬
‫„ ! ‪"1? . 15,\: ? n
1G ):‰ @ ":/0‬‬
‫‪AB{ PQ:‬‬
‫‪. T 9=
:=U =G@ 1=K, V=6: #!(>=0$… a )S=K
yoz= . 9* G@ 1?&@ :„ p@ @:‬‬

‪$!L>====0#!a N====E . +*====  p@ V====G 1====?&@: !!>====0LLa! V5====4‬‬
‫‪>i4|=6 >5=2|: >J9? 6 >50:\ „Q ": /0 1} „ p@ V n V6 $e$#>0!…a :‬‬
‫
‪">i2 69‬‬
‫‪Ph‰
V | PQ:‬‬
‫‪yoz= . 9=* =G@ 1=K, V6: #…#>0#( 9'
. m*E VG  9* 1?&@ :x 9
p@ @:‬‬

‪. p=,4
: ($>=0(!a$ N=E . n \=
9* 1?&@: :#! >0$ea )SK‬‬

‫‪١٤٨‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﹺﻤﺼﺤﻒ ‪‬ﺯﻳ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺯﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺗﻼﻭﺗﻪ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﻜﺮﻩ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻮﻑ ﺃﺷﺪ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻃﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻮﻃﺄ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻞ ﲡﻮﺯ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺑﻘﻠﻢ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰉ؟‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ)‪ :(١‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﺃﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻼﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪VG 1?&@:  >0!# )SK
yoz . R\ 
1K, V6: #…>0!# )SK
yoz‬‬
‫@‪V=6 >=0$…a )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E : !e>0ea N|E . :  p‬‬
‫‪">i2 G9 
>J9? 6 >5:\: >i4|6 >52| „Q ":/0 x 9
p@ V n‬‬
‫‪Ph‰
V | PQ:‬‬
‫‪. :  p@ VG : $!L>0#!a NE . +*  p@ VG ‡&@ 9K : <J VG p@ V PB} x?:‬‬
‫ ‪9<= p@ V=G 9<= V= )X=j VG 9U~ V ZM 9 
& p@ V !e>0e…a N|E‬‬
‫‪= ">i2 G9 
>i4|6 >52|: >J9? 6 >50:\ „Q ": p@ /0 :/0‬‬
‫‪1=K, V=6: #…!#>=0$$a! N=E . n \=
9* 1?&@ : AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

^==‪a )S==K
yoz== . 9==* ==G@ 1==?&@: LL! >==0#ea… h==*i
>==j<E . T k‬‬
‫‪ <f=
. =KD*
1=K, V=6:  !>0!L(a V
. 6 VG 9<: #!$>0$#‬‬
‫‪32& . Rw*
: $e$(>0!…a  NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&@: !>0!e…a‬‬
‫@<==‪)S==K
yoz== . p==,4
: !(>==0( )S==K
yoz== . ”,Ÿ==
V==G : LL ==*<
/‬‬
‫ ‪e(a! +=2l . >=<} =G@: !e(>=0$a N|E . :  p@ VG :  !>0$‬‬
‫‪V=G V= y=o : p@ V= ˜=UM V= n= V6 e>0$…a )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E :‬‬
‫‪1G 1 < 6‬‬
‫‪= "K 1 
?: ,T k^
P :":  La# 9o :'
cU® . U™¨ /0‬‬
‫‪_ N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫?‪$>=0 a )S=K
yoz= . 9=* G@ 1?&@ : 9‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 ','<
9* VG U V hG'
VG 9U~ V ƒ 
6 VG >K
9| #(>0$ a:‬‬
‫‪_ N<O PQ:‬‬
‫?‪= "m:v6 ,Rq*
¥l hG'
VG 9U~ :1 ; 9‬‬

‫‪١٤٩‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﳛﺴﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻊ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲢﺮﻡ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻐﲑ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻧﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻗﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫﴾)‪ .(٢‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫≅ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘ‪‬ﻠﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺷﻜﻠﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺅﱄ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻧﺼﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺜﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳍﻤﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﴰﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺀﻭﺍ ﻓﻨﻘﻄﻮﺍ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﲬﺴﻮﺍ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﺸﺮﻭﺍ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻵﻱ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺗﺢ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﺍﰎ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﺣﺪﺙ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻵﻱ‪ .‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ "
‪$Le a ")SK
W2 .± )k‬‬
‫ 
‪…( :x <f‬‬
‫‪( , N|E ¢K} . >iBE . T 9
:U G@ 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫‪V= ƒ,9= V= 9=
: V=G =*<
V= 9=,', VG 9Z@ 3, V6 $e )SK
RS 9 . )*
.:‬‬
‫ ‪ 1G 1 50 V  \:M‬‬
‫‪Ž
]= ": La y,9=<5
: –=d . > | p@ VG /0 ,T 2l 9,', VG 9Z@ :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫@‪= " 1O, >2 ? 1 +\ G‬‬
‫!‪)=*
.: $(,#, N|=E ¢=K} . >iBE . T 9
:U G@ 1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪) „  VG } )H™ VG 9Z@ } 9U~ VG 9Z@ } ÎKE 9Z@ VG  9| $e )SK
RS 9 .‬‬
‫} ~‪h=™J p@ V=G C=Y Ž<U= = \:M =} >2 6 VG 9 

}@ C6 VG > GQ } C  VG 9U‬‬
‫_‬
‫® ‪]=G • :  
=0: x=
: x5
 ¢K
D 9|@ 6 /:] N|E .‬‬
‫‪)SK
)J ": /K,‬‬
‫‪_ D 9|@ > 1
}  ,1G‬‬
‫}‪"> b : A 4
9|@ > R€ CD56 9 ^K‬‬
‫‪+º  1
N0@ ‹ V6 PQ .:‬‬
‫(‪1=K, V=6: #!>=0$( a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫@‪1=?&@: $ )S=K
RS 9= . )=*
.: # N|=E ¢K} . >iBE . T 9
:U G‬‬

١٥٠

.(١)‫ﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻻ ﲣﻠﻄﻮﻩ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ‬‫ ﺟﺮ‬:‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
.(٢)‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻩ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‬
.(١)‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺗﺢ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﺍﰎ‬
p@ V=G C=Y V= = \:M V= h=™J V=G 9U~ V $…L>0ea N|E . :  p@ VG 
1G 1 h™J 
= "¢2‰
h™J n:9{ ,T<
h™J VG 9U~ PQ .:
V=6: #…!!>=0$a! N=E . n \=
9=* 1=?&@ :Ph=‰
AB={ ": )*
+,- . /0
a )S=K
yoz= . 9=* =G@ 1=?&@: …#($>0$($a… h*i
>j<E . T k^
1K,
+*  p@ VG 1?&@: e N|E ¢K} . >iBE T 9
:U G@ 1K, V6: #$>0$e!
)S====K
yoz==== . p====,4
: $e(>====0(ea : L(!#>====0$…a N====E .
>==j<E . T k==^
: $(… ,$(L>==0(La N|==E . :  p@ V==G : !e ,$…>==0(e
)4 V n V6  #>0(!#a )H,I <  . KD*
: …#($>0$($a… h*i 

1G 1 < 6 VG V x '
p@ V yDJ VG +U2 V 
$# ,$ >0! ,!e )SK
yoz . p,4
: $#>0! a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@: 
$ e>=0 ea N|E . :  p@ VG : eLee>0!ea  §ki
V
. o 
: 
PB} 1G 1  9* V Ë|M p@ V yDJ VG +U2 V +*<  V n V6
p@ V=G : $e( ,$e($>=0(ea : L(!…>=0$…a N=E . +*  p@ VG 1?&@:
V=6 e N|=E ¢=K} . >=iBE . T 9=
:=U =G@: $#>=0#a N|E . :  
")SK
:? ": 9* V n 
= " 1G 1 < 6 VG V q5wE −# y2
W0 . R\:E 1?&@:
V=6: #$>=0$e$a )S=K
yoz= . 9* G@ 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0
V ===
. ===6 V===G 9<=== 1===?&@:  N|===E ¢===K} . >===iBE T 9===
1===K,
p@ V=G 1=?&@:  #(>=0(!#a )H=,I <=  . =KD*
1K, V6: L!>0$eLa 
=G@: $L# ,$L >0L#a N|E . :  p@ VG : L(! >0$…a NE . +*  
1G 1 > GQ V h‰6 V ‘K, V6 e N|E ¢K} . >iBE T 9
:U 
= "V< 90: ,”
96 ,*z
> K6± VG h‰6 :1 ;N<O PQ:

١٥١

.(٢)‫ﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺸﲑ‬‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺃﻧ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺷﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺗﺢ ﻭﺗﺼﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺃﻥ‬
.(٣)‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬
V=6: #!e>=0$$ a )S=K
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@ :AB{ PQ ": )*
+,- . /0 
$e )SK
RS 9 . )*
.: ( , N|E ¢K} . >iBE . T 9
:U G@ 1K,
. :  p@ VG : $e!#>0(ea : L(!>0$…a NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&@:
V= ‘K,= V=6 e#>=0$(a )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E : $#e>0#ea N|E 
1G 1 V,h VG V Wf
:V,h VG : V l V Wf V 9,', 9| #$$>0$e( a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@: 
"N|E ¢K} )i, }J H¼@ 
#…!>=0$a! N=E . n \
9* 1?&@ :< 6 VG V x? 6 ": )*
+,- . /0
. T 9=
:=U =G@ 1=K, V=6: #$L ,#$#>=0$ ,$ea )S=K
yoz= . 9=* G@:
. +*==  p@ V==G 1==?&@: … )S==K
RS 9== . )==*
.: ! N|==E ¢==K} . >==iBE
. >iBE . T 9
:U G@ 1K, V6: $e!>0!…a : L($ >0$La NE 
:  p@ VG : !,!#>0$(,($ )SK
yoz . ”,Ÿ
VG 1?&@: ! N|E ¢K}
V=6  #>=0(!#a )H,I <  . KD*
: $ $−$ >0 $− a N|E . 
"NBE . hf<5
PJ 1}@ ":  9* V n:Ã6 V CY V ‘| p@ V ‘K, 
AB{ PQ:
T 9
:U G@ 1K, V6: #$…>0$ a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ 1?&@ :9® V x? 6:
N==E . +*==  p@ V==G 1==?&@: ( N|==E ¢==K} . >==iBE : … )S==K
RS 9== .
VG 1?&@: ( N|E ¢K} . >iBE . T 9
:U G@ 1K, V6: L($…>0$…a
V==6 !!>==0!a N|==E . :  p@ V==G : L(!(>==0$…a N==E . +*=  p@ 
"NBE . hf<5
PJ 1}@ ":9® V š
V ‘K, 
= "N<O ,>2 p@ VG š
:1 ;N<O PQ:
,L(! ,L(!!>=0$…a N=E . +*=  p@ V=G 1?&@ :Ph‰
V | ": )*
+,- . /0$
VG : !,!$>0!L,!… ”,Ÿ
VG : L$>0$eea V
. 6 VG 9<: L(!L

‫‪١٥٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﹸﰐ ﺑﹺﻤﺼﺤﻒ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺁﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻣﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺮﻫﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻬﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻼ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﺮﻩ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﺸﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﲬﺎﺱ ﻭﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫‪$‬ﺟﺮﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ (٣)#‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻓﻴﺠﻮﺯ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﻷﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻗﺮﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬
‫@‪,$ (>======0 (a N|======E . :  p‬‬

‫‪,(! a )H======,I <======  ======KD*
: $‬‬

‫‪ 1G 1 > GQ V h‰6 V n V6  #! , #$ ,‬‬
‫‪>0(!#‬‬
‫‪V< 90: ,”
96 ,*z
> K6± VG h‰6 :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪V= =Z V= ‡=j| V= 9= 
& =G@ 9=| $e!$>=0!…a  N=E . +*  p@ VG 1?&@:‬‬
‫‪PB} 1G 1 > GQ‬‬
‫‪= "”
95
: ]^b h™J n:9{ ,@ VG ‡jl :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪T 9=
:U G@: $($>0(a N|E . :  p@ VG 1?&@ :V | ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪V=G =Z V= ‘K,= V=6 $ )S=K
RS 9= . )*
.:   N|E ¢K} . >iBE .‬‬
‫‪:> GQ /K ,+,S gJ: gJ  1 F5i6 ½ NBUG > GQ Ž @ ":/0 'Z p@ V +U2‬‬
‫ ‪"16 ”
6  F5iG ^28 • ":/K,: ! g Pi, )J < 6 VG )’ ; g A6‬‬
‫‪N<O , .i
)U6 M 'Z G@ :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪F =d =G@ 9=| c=,'G V=G > | VG 9U~ 9| $(>0(a N|E . :  p@ VG ‡&@:‬‬
‫|‪? g=J: g=J  5i : ,NBE . hf<5
V > GQ Ž
] : /0 ˜UM V H 9‬‬
‫‪")SK
:? ": /K, )J: !1i‬‬
‫‪V | PQ:‬‬
‫‪= "
g . 178 3* 90: ,1 A{ " ^28 •": < 6 VG /0:‬‬
‫‪,# N|=E ¢=K} . >=iBE . T 9=
:=U =G@ 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫… ‪V= >=il 9* VG V W 9KE 3, V6 … cKE .: … )SK
RS 9 . )*
.:‬‬
‫ ‪ 1G 1 ƒ 
6 V —XJ >K
VG : : VG‬‬
‫‪= "N<O ,RqE U G@ :  VG W 9KE 1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪= "V,ˆ<
: cG

. 178 3* 90: :Ph‰
AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬

‫‪١٥٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺩﻻﻻﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﳌﻦ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺨﻢ ﻓﻴﻜﺘﺐ ﻣﻔﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﺣﺴﻦ ﺧﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻐﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺮﻣﻂ ﺣﺮﻭﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﻠﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ؛ ﻛﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ‪$ :‬ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻨﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺸﻜﻠﻪ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ)‪" :(٣‬ﻧﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺷﻜﻠﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺐ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻒ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪" :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻜ‪‬ﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﱐ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺳﺘﺠﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺍﺩ؛ ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﺳﺘﺠﻴﺰ ﲨﻊ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺷﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﻯ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺪ ﺑﺎﳊﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﻤﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻔﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﺮﺟﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺸﺎﰲ"‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻄﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ع‬

‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ" ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻷﺟﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪1=K, V=6: …e>=0$(a V =
. =6 VG 9< 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

*‪N|====E . :  p@ V====G 1====?&@:  ##>====0(!#a )H====,I <====  . ====KD‬‬
‫‪?ƒ
„ V V,h VG : V l Ž
] /0 6 V +*<  V n V6 $… ,$…>0…$a‬‬
‫‪= "1G ]G • ":•K‬‬
‫‪T 9
:U G@: $… >0…La N|E . :  p@ VG 1?&@ : V | ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪:/=0 Î=K
><} p@ VG c} }k&@ : VG V ‘K, V6 $ N|E ¢K} . >iBE .‬‬
‫]
Ž ‪"1G ]G • ": /K ?N|E . )SK
yi  V VZ
9* p@ VG +<G‬‬
‫‪= "V | PQ:‬‬

‫‪(e Ë ")SK
+2Z F S .± )*5
" $‬‬
‫!‪V= ‘K,= V=6 $…>=0#a N|E . :  p@ VG 1?&@ :N<O ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

١٥٤

.(١)‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺘﻴﺎﱐ‬
.(٢)‫ﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺀﻫﺎ‬‫ ﺃﻧ‬:‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‬
F=5J V= =* V=G y©= : /=0 h=*? V=G 9<= V= Ž9=| : /=0 ˜=UM V= +- p@ VG 
"6  H}Q ":/K ?N|E 
R: 
> W›Q :1 ;N<O PQ:
V=G )@ /•95=• 1=?:: ;NBE +G5J  ?M g&@ + J  M g› 
/95 :1* 
V,E W„ . : 6 W2<6: ,EJ 12<? *
:6M N<O /•95• g:
,1= :@: ,"N|=E +=G5J  ?M g&@ FG" ŽŠ * VG @ :@ :  p@ VG )@

−

_ 
g&M \ ?  /9 S 
"N|E F5J  ?M PJ 90:": 1 
KG F*
g :  p@ VG %@ >

−

V hU} VG /0  … *<
/<@ 32& . Rw*
1?&@ š| ,16  E ‘*, M WÍ )@

−$

yU )<*, ,):6 > H}Q ":N|E cG . * VG V h*? VG V 9< V ˜UM 
= ">2@  : +2K} R@ V,EG P U ">Œ9,@
h=U =G@ 9=| $e>=0…a N|=E . :  p@ V=G 1?&@ : V | ": )*
+,- . /0
: =<,  1= `f
9| ;x¡ •Q  6 ": /K, F,@ V F„  VG V UO 9| 6 

= V l `f
: ƒ 
6: , ^6
VG : !(…>0!aL NE . n \
9* 1?&] :U VG @ 6@ ": )*
+,- . /0 
!(>===0$L 9===<d V===G 9 ===6 . R===‰*
: !((>===0#a N|===E . :  p@
N|=EG =6 „Q =U V=G )J ": /0 ‹ V ‘K, V6  a  §ki
V
. KD*
: 
" j5
”©G : /0 
AB{ PQ:
N=====E . +*=====  p@ V=====G : !((>=====0aL N=====E . n \=====
9=====* 1=====?&@:
. R4‰5 =E : !(#>0#$a N|E . :  p@ VG : e!, ee…>0L#a!
y=2<
. 9=Z@: ! a c=Ud W=:@ AO6 . ^b : L>0 a )SK
yoz
V=G 9<= V= ‹= V= n= V=6 !(a… BE . W'| VG 1K, V6: !#…e>0L$a$

١٥٥

‫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬:‫ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ‬‫ﺤﻤ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻣ‬
.(١)‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ‬
.(٢)‫ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬:‫ﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺃﻧ‬ 
"N|E cG . c^K R9,M Ž,@ T@ : ":/0 U VG V h*? 
AB{ PQ:
§k==i
V =
. ==KD*
1==K, V==6: # a# WM . <f==
1==?&] :< ==6 V==G ==@ ==6@: 
e$>=0L#a! N=E . +*=  p@ VG 1?&@: !ea! V
+<6 .:  a  
!(>=0 La N|=E . :  p@ V=G 1=?&@: !(a… BE . W'| VG 1K, V6:
N|=E c=G P=J 1=}@ ":  9=* V= +=UK2 V= > =GQ V= =Z V= š=
V= ‘K,= V6 
"x ;: 
N<O ,>2 p@ VG š
:1 ;N<O PQ:
V==G nB==Q 9==| !($>==0 …a N|==E . :  p@ V==G 1==?&] :P==Q . N==25& 9==0: 
==D<G P==J < ==6 V==G )@ ": 9==® V== š==
V== 9==,\ V==G 9<== 9==| ‡==j| 9==| > ==GQ 
"x ;:
p@ V=G š=
:1=: ,”
9=5
: ]=^b h=™J n:9{ ,.i
@ VG ‡jl :1 ;N<O Q g: 
= "N<O ,>2
V=G 9=U~ 9| $ >0(a N|E . :  p@ VG 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0 
1G 1 9U~ V ) VG V R9 p@ VG 9| fG
N=====E . +*=====  p@ V=====G : >=====0$ #a V =====
. =====6 V=====G 9<===== ‡=====&@: 
==BE . W'==| V==G : $(>==0!a N|==E .  : p@ V==G : e >==0L#a!
P=J@ ":/=K ?N|=E F=5J V= V,h VG 9U~ Ž
] : /0 )U6 VG R9D6 V ! a… 
" ;: D<G: ›5i5 : ›5J
N=====E . +*=====  p@ V=====G : #!>=====0…(a )S=====K
yoz===== . 9=====* =====G@ ‡=====&@:
V=G )@ ": ‘K,= V=6 L >0#a )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E : e >0L#a! 
= "x ;: D<G Pi, )J V,h 
$ >0!a N|E . :  p@ VG ‡&] :V l :  E VG @ 6@ ": )*
+,- . /0

١٥٦

‫ﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ‬‫ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ؛ ﺇﻧ‬$ :‫ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬،‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‬
.(١)#‫ﺃﺟﻮﺭ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ‬
_ 
=]G
),, • ,+6M Pg k| )J ": /0 ^6 V RÃ
V UO 9| 6
hU G@ 9| 
"V l :  E VG :N|E  g&M  
]^b h™J n:9{ ,n 
^6 :1 ;N<O PQ:
:  E VG V6 _•9G *<f
CU  :156 . ^6 F^O 90:
N====E . +*====  p@ V====G : !( >====0$aL N====E . n \====
9====* 1====?&@ 9====K
+==<E . R ==4
: ##>==0…La )S==K
yoz== . 9==* ==G@: e$>==0LLa!
`,== . J = V=G g==J: #a  §k=i
V =
. ==KD*
1=K, V=6: $ea `,=5
: 
=^6 V= n V6 ee>0$a )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E 1?&@: $ $a( 3f6
• +=6M Pg= =DK /=0 :@ +=6M Pg k| )J 90: ?N|E cG V TD @ ": /0 1}@ n 

_ 1G ),, 
"*<f
: V l :]G 
>0$#!a V
. 6 VG 9<: #L>0……a )SK
yoz . 9* G@ ‡&@:
N====E . +*====  p@ V====G 1====?&@: #a  §k====i
V ====
. ====KD*
1====K, V====6:
_ §, • )J 1}@ ": V l V ‘K, V6 e$e>0LLa! 
"Do v  : N|E c*G ]G 
AB{ PQ: 
9=| 9<= V=G  9=* 9=| $#>=0(a N|=E . :  p@ V=G 1=?&] :9® @ 6@:
_
_ 
"P?@ P^] ;4B6
1
5J X?
)@ ": 9® V š
V pBE 
= "N<O ,>2 p@ VG š
:1 ;N<O PQ:
. :  p@ VG :  # *<
/<@ 32& . Rw*
1?&@ : N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0 
1=}@ ": * VG V h*? VG 9< V ˜UM V hU} VG V (!$>0 (a N|E 
">Œ9,@ ?@ ):g&], H}Q ,]G • ": /K ? N|E cG V y© 
=6 $…>=0#a :  p@ V=G ‡=&@ 9=K ;h=*? V=G 9<= V6 1<U , ‹ ˜UM c^K6 PQ: 
9| +- p@ VG 9| :•0 9< VG  9*: F,@ VG ,\ 9| :/0 š| ^K}• Nfi,
H=}Q ": /K , N|E F5J V * VG y© : /0 h*? VG 9< V Ž9| : /0 ˜UM 
"6 

١٥٧

.(١)"‫ﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‬‫ "ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ؛ ﺇﻧ‬:‫ﺌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬‫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳ‬:‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻲ ﺑﻴﻊ‬‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻳﺸﺪﺩﻭﻥ ﻓ‬$ :‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻘﻴﻖ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
.(٢)#‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‬
.(٣)#‫ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻻ ﻳﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺭﺙ‬$ :‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻐﻲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺐ‬،‫ﺃﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﺎﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬$ :‫ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬،‫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‬:‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ‬
.(٤)#‫ﻟﻪ‬ 
h*? VG 9< V6 1<U , ‹ ˜UM )@ g› D¥ 
9
. 1 4} 
1
Q P ' gJ: ,h*? VG 9< • * VG /© E )@ N|E . Rg
: 1* 
= "e(a ™E 
: VG nBQ 9| (!(>0 #a N|E . :  p@ VG 1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0 
1G 1 +4l VG V U p@ ) : VG yHQ V yo ÅQ 9| 6 VG žl 9| 
= "+º  1
N0@ ‹ ,yHQ :PQ .:
V=G 9<=: !($!>=0(aL N=E . n \=
9* 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0
V =
.:  a  §k=i
V =
. KD*
1K, V6: e!>0$(ea V
. 6
. :  p@ V==G 1==?&@: !(a… ==BE . W'==| V==G g==J: …L$>==0$a( §‰==

1= 3K=  V=G  9=* V= R=,d V= n= V6 ! #−! (>0L$−La N|E 
= "1G
V=G : #>=0…$a )S=K
yoz= . 9* G@ 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0$
yoz=== . R4‰5 ===E : (−(… ,!L…>===0 !−$…,e(a N|===E . :  p@
1G 1 > GQ V h‰6 V ‘K, V6 !(a… BE . W'| VG : L#>0#a )SK  

= "”
96 ,> K6± VG h‰6 :1 ;N<O PQ:
‘K,= V=6 ! …>=0L(a N|=E . :  p@ V=G 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0! 
1G 1  E VG 9< V FD  VG V yK 9| š2
V
)S====K
yoz==== . R4‰5 ====E : !(#>====0eaL N====E . n \====
9====* ‡====&@:
c=G . /0  E VG V 50 V ‘K, V6 ! a… BE . W'| VG : …$>0…a

‫‪١٥٨‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺒﻌﻬﺎ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺧﺺ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻬﺬﺏ" ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺯﻭﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺿﺔ" ﻋﻦ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻦ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺘﲔ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ ‪= "?]G 1*5i •: ,1*55J : ,1<* •: ,1<5G ": N|E‬‬
‫‪. R=w*
: !(>0aL NE . n \
9* 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫&‪R4‰5 E : ($−(>0(−!$a N|E . :  p@ VG :  # *<
/<@ 32‬‬
‫‪V=G V= x=^ V= n= V=6 !(a… BE . W'| VG : …>0…a )SK
yoz .‬‬
‫* ‪ 1G 1‬‬
‫‪V=G 9<= V= 50 V 9< V cJ: 9| e>0LLa! NE . +*  p@ VG ‡&@:‬‬
‫?*‪"D<* •: v  ":/0 * VG V h‬‬
‫‪ƒ=
„ A={ )Q 1<* •: ,NBE v  * VG /0 ":  a  §ki
V
. KD*
/0 9o‬‬
‫‪= ">2@  : + i
c6 1<G \ ?  /9, ,1‬‬
‫‪:  p@ VG : ee>0LLa! NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪c=G V= C=¼ 1=}@ ": * VG V 9® V š
V n V6 ($>0($a N|E .‬‬
‫ ‪"1o ; . ­&: ,NBE‬‬
‫‪V ====
. ====6 V====G 9<====: #…>====0…ea )S====K
yoz==== . 9====* ====G@ 1====?&@:‬‬
‫‪. =6 V=G 9< 1?&@:  a  §ki
V
. KD*
1K, V6: …>0$#La‬‬

‪, N|=E v  ": /0 * VG V 9® V š
V ‘K, V6 e>0$#La V‬‬
‫‪"D<* •:‬‬
‫‪12*0 HG §K5, Vi
,N<O ,>2 p@ VG š
:1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫ *‪N|=E . :  p@ V=G )@ 1=2 /9=,: ,!(#a )K I ¥} * VG 1G  E 1}@ /0 : 1‬‬
‫‪_ , ‹: ,* VG V 9® V > * VG V x^ V §:‬‬
‫‪F=*
. 9=® /0 V6 © ‬‬
‫}‪= "1 4‬‬

‫‪١٥٩‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺪﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﹺﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺒﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ع‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ"‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ)‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺤﻒ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﻟﹶﻢ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﻬﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ)‪ (٣‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ")‪ (٤‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﻭﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ع‬

‫‪‬ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﺗﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻬﻞ  ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪. 9=* G@: !(#>0$aL NE . n \
9* 1?&@ : AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪1=K, V=6: #>=0$##a V
. 6 VG 9<: #…>0$ee a )SK
yoz‬‬

*‪V=G : L>0$##a V
. 6 VG 9< 1?&@: #a  §ki
V
. KD‬‬
‫@‪ *<
/<@ 32& . Rw*
: e…>0LLa! NE . +*  p‬‬
‫ ‪−( >0LL−L!a N|E‬‬

‫‪. :  p@ V=G :‬‬

‫( ‪……>=0$a )S=K
yoz= . R4‰5 =E :‬‬

‫‪= "1G 1 *<f
V :  V n V6‬‬
‫ ‪±‬‬
‫‪12 1G W90@³ „Q :<,‬‬
‫‪µ ³ h=- R:=
WX=J: ,WX =
9=* V=G 1= 
0 =6 − x  )Q− F 
yG $‬‬
‫‪W=K
1=0 „Q ;>2 =6‬‬

‪• 1}@ :T™
n4
c6 0 1}@ :/:M :V,6M A, • xH2<
: xXz42
WK
 NBU2‬‬
‫‪µ ³‬‬
‫‪/
)M ;ƒ
„ F*B5 W9 F 
yG ,xXz42
WK
F*B5 V6 1
Q „ 6 1
>2 ,‬‬

‫‡ ‪…e − (# a ‡l VG• "y&9E " :¥} : ,ƒ
„ Pi, )J‬‬
‫! ‪(eË‬‬

‫(‪V=G 1=K, V=6: ( >=0(# =Dd . m=*E V=G ‡=&@ :N<=O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪V=G  9*: $$(e>0($a V
. 6 9
1?&@:  La! 3f6 `, . J‬‬
‫@‪1==?&@: $eae  9==‰G `,== . ==^b 1==K, V==6: e>==0!ea + ==
. 9==Z‬‬

‫‪١٦٠‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ؛ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﻫﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﺸﺮﻉ ﺗﻘﺒﻴﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﺗﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﻓﻌﺔ ﻭﺇﻛﺮﺍﻡ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻪ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪$ :‬ﻟﻮﻻ ﺃﱐ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻳﻘﺒﻠﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﺘﻚ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ع‬

‫ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﺗﻄﻴﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺮﺳﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳛﺮﻡ ﺗﻮﺳﺪﻩ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﻻ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻬﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ)‪ :(٢‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻠﲔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ" ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻖ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻭﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﺮﺍﺳﻲ ﻛﻜﺮﺍﺳﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ")‪.(١‬‬

^‪. =KD*
: #a$ m95 =E . >J=l : eL>=0$#a# h=*i
>=j<E . T k‬‬
‫‪1=?&@:  La! 3f=6 `,= . J  VG 1K, V6: …>0!ea )H,I < ‬‬
‫ ‪)=J ":/=0 +=i26 p@ V=G V= F=,@ V= 9,\ VG Z V  #a! 3f6 `, . J  VG‬‬
‫‪"p WXJ: ,p F5J :/K,: ,i*,: ,1D?:  1<z NBE g&], yD? p@ VG +6i‬‬
‫‪+6i: +i26 p@ VG  9* ‘G ^K} :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪"AB
/? 1 
?: ,X6‬‬
‫‪T k^
P : ": $L(a… 9o :'
cU® . U™¨ /0‬‬
‫ *‪1=}@ D H}Q: ,NBE y*K D ”
+, :
)@ s|X,: ,NBE y*K R@ 12<4, )J 1 
0 :1‬‬
‫‪V= : (a$ =UjE . H=J +=U V=G WX=I `=  y©= E ƒ
g
: ,1D?:  1<z, )J‬‬
‫=© ‪_ =6‬‬
‫ ‪_ =  1== >==2<} • /==0 ?NB==E y==*K‬‬
‫=] ==‪y==*K V== 9==Z@ W==6I y©== 9==0: ,N2 ==
V‬‬
‫ ‪_ 1 Ž<U 6 :/K ?NBE‬‬
‫‪NB=E A54, )J 1}@ yD? CG@ VG +6i V R: Vi
: ,© ‬‬
‫‪= "CG WXJ CG WXJ:/K,: 12 1D?: cz,:‬‬
‫‪=jl . =J„ =6 FG ‚l F5J ($>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪M jl y*K F*B5 FG ‚l F5J #e>0 AB
. >2 6: M‬‬
‫ ‪!#L a‬‬
‫‪):= 9=| (#>0… a N|E . :  p@ VG 1?&@ : V | ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫‪= "1G 1 )4 V F
9* VG 9U~ 9| nBQ VG‬‬

‫‪١٦١‬‬

‫ع‬

‫ﳚﻮﺯ ﲢﻠﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﺇﻛﺮﺍﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﺾ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ؟ ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﹺﻲ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻓﻀﻀﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻫﺐ؛ ﻓﺎﻷﺻﺢ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺺ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﻼﻓﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻇﻬﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ع‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺞ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ؛ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻖ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻩ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﻭﻳﻮﻃﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺰﻳﻘﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺗﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﺘﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻏﺴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺭ؛ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ؛ ﺃﺣﺮﻕ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺣﺮﺍﻕ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻞ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺣﺴﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﺣﺮﺍﻕ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﺑﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺪﻓﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ؛ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﺿﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﻁﺀ ﺑﺎﻷﻗﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪9Z@:  $e#>0$ea( NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪p@ VG 1?&@: # >2<
9K . ^b 1K, V6:  9*−! >0#a y2<
.‬‬
‫ ‪V= mBz
)„¦6  9* V +*2< VG 9 

V cJ: V $$(>0…a N|E . :‬‬

‪ 1G 1 mBz‬‬
‫‪p@ V=G : $…a( h=*i
`,=5
. R=w*
P=J„ ,mBz=
)„¦=6  9* :1 ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫_‬
‫_‬
‫ <‪= "X,9‬‬
‫?| ‪•:‬‬
‫| > ‪1 Jg, ‹: e#a( y,9<5
: –d .‬‬
‫‪. KD*
: >0!ea )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬

‪= "1G 1 >2 6 VG 9 

 9  VG :  V ‘K, V6 !!a! §ki
V‬‬

‫‪١٦٢‬‬

‫ع‬

‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﺼﻴﺤﻒ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﻴﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ع‬

‫ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻨﺎ ﻭﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﲢﺮﻳ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺪﺙ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﺃﻡ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫﴾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪$ :‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻛﱪ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻃﺎﻫﺮ‪.(٣)#‬‬
‫‪G7‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪$ :‬ﺳﺒﻊ ﳚﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ ﺃﺟﺮﻫﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﱪﻩ‪:‬‬
‫‪. :  p@ V=G : $#a( §k=i
=K*^
. 9<= V=G 1=?&@ :V =| ": )=*
+=,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪V=G %=^ V= n= V=6 #a x=
:M +=2| . >=<} G@: !…>0$ea N|E‬‬
‫&
‪= "1G 1  E VG 9< V +26| VG VZ
9* V 9‬‬
‫  
‪#… :+<0‬‬
‫‪KD*
1K, V6: ! …>0……a ]E . ƒ 
6 1?&@ :Ph‰
AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪X6‬‬
‫‪W'| VG iG p@ VG  9* V e >0L a € : V
+<6 .‬‬
‫‪"c^K6  ": KD*
/0‬‬
‫‪y= 9=0: ,Ë=<
p@ V=G )H™=: ,U VG : ,W '| VG >i|: ,W'| VG :U š,9| V6 x? 90:‬‬

‪>=0 −(La y=2‰
x :Q 1G5J . 10 . /K
– <  1Z − T*
M `f‬‬
‫> &‪„Q ;h =, N<=O 1i
: ,N<O V6 28 • D2J 10 š,9l )@ : /K
+2º: ": 1 
KG 1U5‬‬
‫ 
” ‪>=2 " . =KE V=6: ,s=4l x= :@ ,/=I +=2<
H=}Q: ,Fg=iG >=£ V=6 =D6 Ñ=  .‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪>= ,1=*,K . R:=
:P=0 H=J >D5=6 =D V=i, ‹ „Q ,z<G‬‬
‫ ‪Dz<G RK, n^
)@ " A2^E‬‬

 ‪W=6Q 1=G ‚5=| 9=0: − H= • − ,š,9=l g= +B
V©U^ ”4 
:12: ,1|; .‬‬
‫_‬
‫@‪"1,  VG nBQ :W6I 1*|{ z,‬‬

‪1BB{: ,y*| VG 9Z@ :+‬‬
‫ *‪= "Rg6v
9 P9?@ ‹ :1 
KG `f
12 32 "Rg6v
š,9|": 
/0 :1‬‬

١٦٣

‫ﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻭﻟﺪ‬،‫ﺍ‬‫ﻰ ﻣﺴﺠﺪ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨ‬،‫ﻼ‬
‫ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺮﺱ ﳔ ﹰ‬،‫ﺍ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﺮ ﺑﺌﺮ‬،‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺮ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﺮﻯ ﻧ‬،‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻤ‬

.(١)#‫ﺙ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﹰﺎ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺭ‬،‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﺗﻪ‬

. :  p@ V==G : #L…>==0!L$a$ 9 ==E .  '==*
1==?&@ :V ==| ": )==*
+==,- . /==0
x=
:M +=2| . >=<} =G@: !#a ‘|:=jE . )*| VG :  …(>0!$#a N|E
)H===,I <===  . ===KD*
: !(e>===0$#(a )S===K
yoz=== . R4‰5 ===E : $!$a
”=}@ V= =50 V  9* VG 9U~ V Ñ} VG VZ
9* V n V6 $!!…>0!La$ 
1G 1 
"6\<
V ><} G@ 1G 4 ,50 š,9| V6 ,- š,9| g": ><} G@ /0 
"N<O ,6'‰
 9* VG 9U~ ": KD*
/0 
"N<O : 6\<
 9* VG 9U~ 1: , '*
P : ":  #a 9o :'
cU® . U™¨ /0:
_ N<O PQ: 
m:v6 ,6'<
9U~ :1 ; 9?
AB=
. +=U,'& V=G : !>=0LLa V =
. 1=?6 VG 1?&@ :, p@ š,9| 1
9Df,:
9 

3, V6 $!!L>0!#a$ )H,I <  . KD*
1K, V6: !…e>0a!
/=0 :/=0 =, p@ V= =-M  9=* =G@ 9=| R='
=} y,g¨ p@ VG n:\6 } >2 6 VG
± ± » V6 V6¦E
±
±
± ± ± 9<G
±±
µ ± ":   / 
l={
³ » ² » «µ ± )Q
_ » » » Pˆ=}:
» ² ³² 3B2,
³ » » » » 1=U2
³ » µ » H=2
² » » ² » 1 » |:
» » » 12U
»
_ » 9=
::
_ ² 1= 6
± ± V6 D?&@
± ± µ VG• 5G
_ » » » :@ P ?@
_ » ² ³ » 1J
1 
6
_ ² » :@ PG
_ ± ² » :@ 1:
» » » ² » +09{
³ » ² » ¼
³ » » y*

³ » » 9j 6
³ » µ » 4B6:
³ » »»
»
_ ² » :@ PG
± ± 9± <G V6 1KB2,
±±
±± ± . 
"1 6
² » ² » ³ ³ » ² » 1 |:
» » » 15B{
µ 

##>0 v
: -v
AB{ . T*
M 1 | š,9l : 

1?6 VG 9 P9?@ ‹ :1 
KG `f
1*K<5 ,1?6 VG• š,9l NE §' : 1*
": La! >2 =6 = ‡*,9=
. /=0 1 =4} 1=}@ y
9=G ;P:'= . >=:  =
)@ =¥
:Ž20
_
_ 
= "6 
, p@ š,9| V6 +U,'& VG : 1?6 VG•:  
6 ”}@ š,9| V6  '*2
:

‫‪١٦٤‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا ‪ 0‬وا ون‬

‫‪ -‬و‪ X -X" >- !B‬ا )‪W‬ز‬

‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ]ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ[)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻧﻮﺭﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪‬ﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ"‪ :‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﲬﺴﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻨﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺜﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺰﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻤﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﺲ ﻋﻴﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺮﻫﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺯﺩ ﺷﻨﻮﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻨﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻤﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲪﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﳋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻀﺮﻣﻮﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺪﻭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺬﺣﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺰﺍﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻄﻔﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﻮ‬
‫ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻌﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻴﺊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺻﻌﺼﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺰﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻘﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺬﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﹺﺑﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻲ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻋﺬﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮﺍﺯﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﱪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻂ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻨﺎﻥ")‪ :(٥‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﳘﺪﺍﻥ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺮﳛﺎﻥ(‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺯﻕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭ)ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺀ(‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻘﺮﻱ(‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻨﺎﻓﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻧﺼﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﹾﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ()‪ :(٦‬ﺍﻟﻐﺪ‪‬ﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺻﻌﺼﻌﺔ‪) :‬ﺍﳊﻔﺪﺓ(‪ :‬ﺍﳋﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺛﻘﻴﻒ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻝ()‪ :(٧‬ﺍﳌﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﻚ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ()‪ :(٨‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ"‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ؛ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺐ؛‬
‫  

‪
   )X™
: cG‬‬
‫  

 ˆ   
‬

‫‪±‬‬
‫‪>=j<6" +z=0 V=6 V0=l V=G :=U V=G =G‬‬
‫‪Ç » Q» 5 ,+}^BK
V6 +z0 V6 +U¥ +2*0 $‬‬
‫‪e! a "F<
yo*0‬‬

‫! »‹ ‪+,:<6 VG q}: ) 9— :+‰
Ž^K: ,+‰
‘<G@: )H» § Jg,‬‬
‫( ‪$(: $(e− $!… Ë‬‬
‫  
‪$ :)HK‬‬
‫‪$ :x 
 #‬‬
‫‪#$ :W<}M  L‬‬

‫‪١٦٥‬‬

‫ﻷﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ؛ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﻤﺰ ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻬﻤﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺯﻳﲔ ﺇﻻ ﻗﻠﻴﻼﹰ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫﴾)‪(٢‬؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﺩﻏﺎﻡ‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻴﲔ؛ ﻛﺎﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫﴾ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺠﺰﻭﻡ‪ :‬ﻟﻐﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻚ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺜﺮ ﳓﻮ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪.(٧‬‬
‫﴾)‪﴿ ،(٦‬‬
‫﴾)‪﴿ ،(٥‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٤‬ﻭ﴿‬
‫﴿‬
‫﴾)‪(٨‬؛ ﻷﻥ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺯﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﺐ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾؛ ﻷﻥ ﻟﻐﺘﻬﻢ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ )ﻣﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻄﻊ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﺐ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫)‪(٩‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾ ؛ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻏﲑ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺣﺸ ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ :(١٢‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻊ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (١٠‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‪ :(١١)﴾ ﴿ ،‬ﻣﻘﺘﺪﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪﴿ ،‬‬

‫  ‪!:ˆl‬‬
‫  ‪(! :9oE‬‬
‫‪L :K*
 $‬‬
‫!  ‪$ :) U /S‬‬
‫(  }–‪ :‬‬
‫   ‪$ :1‬‬
‫‪L :1  #‬‬
‫‪(# :x 
 L‬‬
‫…  
‪ ( :yU‬‬
‫‪( :x ÅI  e‬‬
‫  
‪L( :x‬‬
‫  ‪(# :/4}M‬‬

‫‪١٦٦‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ا ع ا ‪ !6/‬وا ون‬

‫‪ -‬و‪ X -X" >- !B‬ا ب‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻌﺮ‪‬ﺏ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﻛﺜﺮﻭﻥ ‪-‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ)‪ ،(٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٧‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺑﻜﺮ)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ)‪- (٦‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪.(٨‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﺪ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ‪ (٩):‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﺮﰊ ﻣﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺬﺍ)‪ (١٠‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺒﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺷﻲﺀ؛ ﻟﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻋﺠﺰﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﹺﻤﺜﻠﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ)‪ :(١١‬ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺒﺸﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﻄﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻠﻤﺖ ﹺﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻆ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﻭﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﺑﻠﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﻠﻐﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﳐﺎﻟﻄﺔ ﻟﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻟﺴﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫  

™‪
   )X™
: T‬‬
‫ " 

‪($ − ! Ë "+‬‬
‫‪e − a ")*
c6?" $‬‬
‫! "®\
‪… −# a ")SK‬‬
‫( "‪$ Ë ")SK
\jQ‬‬
‫  " 
|*" ‪!# −! Ë‬‬
‫‪h-: , :N,  #‬‬
‫‪!! :Ž2  L‬‬
‫… "®\
‪… −# a ")SK‬‬

‫‪V=6" :")S=K
\=®" .± +=¥42
: "G g=J‬‬
‫‪_ " *2l +<* .± Ž4B : ,+KKBE ² +<*^
.± 6 Ž*@ e‬‬
‫\> @) ¿‪"kJ@ 9K +^* 
G À1‬‬

‫"?‪# − ! a ")*
c6‬‬

‫‪١٦٧‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﻔﺎﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻐﺎﺗ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﹰﺎ ﻏﲑﺕ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﺷﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻭﳏﺎﻭﺭﺍﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺟﺮﺕ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﹺﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺻﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺒﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﲣﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﳉﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﴿ ﴾)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ")‪ :(٢‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﻧﺒﹺﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱄ ﻋﺰﻳﺰﻱ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺳﺒﻘﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ (٣‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﲑﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﺮﺑﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪(٤‬؛ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ :‬ﺃﻛﻼﻡ ﻋﺠﻤﻲ ﻭﳐﺎﻃﺐ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﰊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺻﺮﻑ ﳓﻮ )ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ( ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳏﻞ ﺧﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ؛ ﻓﻼ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺴﻨ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫‪.:  !>=0#!a )S=K
yoz= . 9=* =G@ 1=?&@ : V =| P=Q ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪=KD*
g=J: e…>=0#a –z,• . R*}M VG 1K, V6: $#$a! š,9l ,‬‬‫‪. p•:9=
: (La# h =45
. =,? V=G 1=?&@:  L>=0(La )H=,I <  .‬‬

‪> GQ V )4 V ‘K, V6 #LaL 9DU5
. k
9* VG : !!#>0(a Ci‬‬
‫‪)=G @ T= @ C=5|  U =
= =6 R@ • Ž=J ":/0 * VG V 9® V ?D6 VG‬‬
‫‪"£@95G }@ : /K, , £^ }@ : —9|@ /K ,©G . )H5¹‬‬
‫‪> | p@ VG : gE VG : 9Z VG 9*<
$a# ™E 9
. 15* }  \:‬‬
‫‪s4l ‘
,n:9{ ,?DE VG > GQ PQ .:‬‬
‫‪= "9? Q": ( )SK
yoz . h™J VG sl /0‬‬
‫ ‪! Ë‬‬
‫‪h-: $ :1  $‬‬
‫!  ‪!! :Ž2‬‬

‫‪١٦٨‬‬

‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻴﺴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ")‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﻭﻭﻫﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺒﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺒﺄ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺴﻦ؛ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻋﺬﺑ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺧﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺔ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﻭﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﱯ ج ﻣ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٤‬ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺒﻌﻮﺙ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ‬

‫‪=,? V=G : …… >0a  NE . +*  p@ VG 1?&@ : AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪= "1G 1 Ã6 p@ V nBQ p@ V yo ÅQ V ‘K, V6 !a h 45
.‬‬
‫‪V= 9=Z V=G V= !a h =45
. =,? VG 1?&@ :h*? VG 9< @ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫?*‪)S=K
g /'}@ •
:˜,0 Ž 
0 :/0 h‬‬

‪» ³ VG 9< V h‰E p@ VG 4<? V UK‬‬
‫‪Ç FK<,‬‬
‫‪± ±‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫‪² ³ p=:‬‬
‫‪³ » » } :PJ„ <  /'}] ?G:‬‬

‪V,g=2‬‬
‫@‪Uj‬‬

=• ‪² » Ô ³‬‬
‫= ‪» µ‬‬
‫‪» ³ y=0‬‬
‫@@‪Ó ± » » » =Uj‬‬
‫=‪³ ³ » Ž2‬‬

‪² »  
K‬‬
‫‪Ò‬‬
‫‪Ó‬‬
‫‪Ó » ² » » 1= ,S‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫‪1 )
yiG )SK
. +,€ Pg 9<G  /'}] {x4 :‬‬
‫»‪³‬‬
‫‪_ ³ 6S‬‬
‫‪Â » » §9‬‬

‫‪_ N<O PQ:‬‬
‫?‪= "m:v6 ,R\ 
9Z VG 9U~ 1 ; 9‬‬

‫‪ §K • x S:  D5? ¼@µ + 
M V6 J„ 6 +,-: ,/K
g 5¹ )@ 
V6 j<
$‬‬
‫‪+KG
+Yq
Ë
¸ +\6‬‬

‫‪y=J V=6 1= )@ :−>=2@  :− }9= ") =
y=J V=6 )SK
.±" :/0 V6 /0 C<6‬‬
‫‪» :Rk^
/0 90:‬‬

) ‪± µ >6M V6 h- s4
: F<
s4
1 34‬‬

‪H= /=K
V=6 P4={: =6 h=¥} ,1=G 3=^ =5‬‬
‫*‘ ‪y=J V=6 )S=K
.±" :N2 =
V=6 yoK
)@ >\ V6 ]^& )„Q‬‬
‫‪µ ;ƒ
gJ ƒ
„ )J „Q: Ï6‬‬

‫‪’ F=<
) =
Q» 15* =} 'o=? •: ,p=<G ”=
6 )*
V6 1 )@ :ƒ
„ 12KG C‬‬

)" ‪» H}Qµ‬‬
‫"?‪5&G … −# a ")*
c6‬‬
‫!  ‪! :> GQ‬‬

‫‪١٦٩‬‬

‫ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﻫﻮ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﹾﺨﻮﻳ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻌﺮ‪‬ﺏ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬
‫﴿ ﴾ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ‬
‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﺼﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﹶﻢ ﻭﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﻭﻳﺄﺗﻮﺍ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﺣﺔ؛‬
‫ﻟﻌﺠﺰﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺚ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻏﱢﺒﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻞ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺨﻮﻓﱢﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺑﻴﻞ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺜﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﹺﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﺂﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳍﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺑﺲ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻛﺢ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﻳﺬﺓ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﻥ؛ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ؛ ﻟﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﹸﻣﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ ‪‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻻ ﺃﻟﺘﺬ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﺒﺲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻛﺮﻳﻪ؛ ﻓﻠﺬﺍ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺑﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺃﺭﻓﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻼﺑﺲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺴﺞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺛﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺮ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺘﱪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﻖ ﺍﳋﻔﻴﻒ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺮ؛ ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺛﻮﺑﻪ ﺃﺛﻘﻞ؛ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺛﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﺛﺨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ؛ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﻘﺼﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳊﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ؛ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻟﻪ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺑﹺﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺃﻭﱃ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﻭﺟﺰ ﻭﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‪.﴾ ﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺁﺧﺮ؛ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻨﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ ﺇﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻟﻔﻈﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﹶﻬﻢ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﻋﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﺒﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺜﺨﲔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺑﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ؛ ﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺪﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻔﻈﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺑﻠﻔﻈﲔ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧ ﱠﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻔﻈﲔ ﺑﹺﻤﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﹺﻬﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻔﻆ ﴿ ﴾ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺼﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻱ ﻓﺼﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ؟! ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫‪Á‬‬
‫‪± µ W0 )
: ,‘*6 p‬‬
‫ ‪Ç ³ h- y
9
g:‬‬
‫ 
*=‬
‫‪Õ ) 2G )SK
/'}@ 1}]G T  –¯ 90 „Q ;>2 6‬‬
‫‡‪( − !( Ë "+ 

" .± <f
g  >2i 90: ,‬‬

‫‪١٧٠‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪-‬ﻋﻨﺪﻱ‪ -‬ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ ﲨﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺃﺻﻮﻟﹸﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ‪ ،-‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻮ‪‬ﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬‫ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻄﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﺠﻤﻴﺔ؛ ﻓﺼﺎﺩﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻟﻴﻘﻲ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻛﺘﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﲰﻴﺘﻪ "ﺍﳌﻬﺬﺏ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮ‪‬ﺏ")‪.(٣‬‬

‫ ‪>|
9* %  :3KŠ ,>2K
  ,… Ë "F<E‬‬
‫ " ‪µ ²‬‬

‫ ") ‪» ,$(− $! ")M‬‬
‫‪6 3 , K 
d 6 pM 6XJ‬‬
‫‪_ yK} Vi
,5&G –q, ‹:‬‬
‫‪» ,12 K<,‬‬
‫}‪» ,9* p@ V  
12K‬‬
‫‪Ô ³ ‹:‬‬
‫‪P, ‹:‬‬

‫‪± ‘ | hU :32<5G ,*^6 $‬‬
‫|‪’!eL ,:M ° ,:hG ,+U2<
5i
  ,*2‬‬

‫‪١٧١‬‬

‫ا ع ا ‪ YZ‬ن)‪  ِ (١‬إا">‬
‫]ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪[:‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻭﻳﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻤﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻠﻪ" ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.(٢)#‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺘﻴﻖ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻠﺤﺴﻦ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ! ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻳﻠﺘﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻲ! ﻓﺘﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻌﻴﺎ ﺑﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻬﻠﻚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ")‪.(٣‬‬
‫]ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﳚﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪[:‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺮﺍﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺻﻴﻐﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﳏﻠﻬﺎ؛‬
‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ‪ ...‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﻛﻜﻮﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺃ ﺃﻭ ﺧﱪ‪‬ﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫  
‪²‬‬
‫ ‪
   )<GM : Rl‬‬
‫‪)S==K
yoz== . 9==* ==G@ 1==?&@ :N<==O P==Q": )==*
+==,- . /==0": )==*
+==,- . /==0‬‬
‫‪V==6: $e!! ,…… >==0!e ,#a  N==E . +*==  p@ V==G :  $>==0L!a‬‬
‫‪ a š,9=l =,- . +=*50 VG 1?&@: $a >2<
)G c6? . k
9* VG 1K,‬‬
‫‪ y&9E . KD*
:‬‬

‫‪. k=
9=* V=G :  #!>=0(#a )H=,I <=  .: $# >0‬‬

‫?‪F^b VG U V j<
n6 V )H2 VG >{ V n V6 $a >2<
)G c6‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1‬‬
‫‪y==B5
c6==? . ==oX<
1== 
0 ,+2==6 ==U V== 1==5, : ,==j<
n==6 :1== ;N<==O P==Q:‬‬
‫‪= "LL‬‬
‫‪V=G 9<=:   >=0L#a )S=K
yoz= . 9* G@ 1?&@ : AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫‪. KD*
: e>0L#a )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E : $L>0 #a V
. 6‬‬
‫‪V=G =Z V= n V6 …La 1K45E : 1K4
. ^b :  …>0 ea )H,I < ‬‬
‫\‪= "1G 1 35 VG CY V 9,‬‬

‫‪١٧٢‬‬

‫ﻭﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﺑﻪ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻮﺍﺗﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ)‪ :(١‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺯﻟﱠﺖ ﺃﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺑﲔ ﺭﺍﻋﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﻟﹶﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ؛‬
‫﴾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﴿‬
‫﴾)‪(٢‬؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻦ ﻋﻄﻒ ﴿‬
‫ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎﺀﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ )ﻣﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺮﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﺮﻯ )ﺃﻥ( ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ)‪ :(٣‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺨﻄﺊ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪﴿ :‬‬‫﴾)‪ (٤‬ﺃﻥ ﺛﹶﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺘﻨﻊ؛ ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﻟـ )ﻣﺎ( ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻄﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻚ ﺛﹶﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬
‫﴾ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ )ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻘﻔﹸﻮﺍ( ﺃﻭ )ﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ(‬
‫ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬‫ﺑﺎﻃﻞ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ)‪ :(٦‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻠ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ؛ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ‪:‬‬
‫﴾)‪ :(٧‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻑ ﻗﺴﻢ‪ .‬ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﻣﻜﻲ)‪ (٨‬ﻭﺳﻜﺖ‬
‫ ﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ‪﴿ :‬‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻨﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻜﻮﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ "‪ L Ë ">K
h 45
" :¥} : ,(…: (# a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫  ‪L# :‬‬
‫‪($… a " *2
‰6" $‬‬
‫!  
‪( :>j‬‬
‫(  ‪  :F '|M‬‬
‫  "‪(! a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫‪( :/4}M  #‬‬
‫‪$e a ")SK
F Q yif6" L‬‬

‫‪١٧٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺒﻄﻠﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻑ ﻟﹶﻢ ﲡﺊ ﺑﹺﻤﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﴿ ﴾ ﻭﺑﺎﺏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ‪] ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ[)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﳎﺮﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺧﱪ ﳏﺬﻭﻑ؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﻠﻚ ﻟﻠﻐﺰﺍﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺘﻬﻢ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻚ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺏ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ﴾)‪(٣‬؛‬
‫ ﻭﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺮﺍﻥ ]ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺫ" ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻗﺮﺃ"[)‪﴿ :(٢‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﻘﹶﺮ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬‫ﺑﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﺗﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺗﺸﺎﺑ‪‬ﻬﺖ(؛ ﺑﺘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺩﻏﻤﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺗﺎﺀ )ﺗﺸﺎﺑ‪‬ﻬﺖ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﺇﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ)‪ :(٤‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺨﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ؛ ﻓﻠﻪ ﻋﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺜﲑ؛ ﻓﺼﻌﺐ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ؛ ﻓﺤﺴﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ؛ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺨﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﺷﻲﺀ؛‬
‫ﻓﻠﻴﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺗﻌﺴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧﻄﺊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿ ﴾)‪] :(٥‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻆ )ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ( ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﺧﻔﺾ‪،‬‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻧﺼﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ[)‪ (٦‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ )ﻗﺎﻝ(‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪.‬‬
‫﴾‪،‬‬
‫﴾)‪ :(٧‬ﺇﻥ ﺧﱪﻩ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳏﺬﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ)‪ :(٨‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺘﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ \‪± " V6 ,‬‬
‫‪(!#: (! a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫ \‪± " V6 ,‬‬
‫‪(!#: (! a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫‪#e:K*
 $‬‬
‫! " ‪±‬‬
‫‪(!L a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫( 
'&‪LL :%‬‬
‫  ‪± " V6‬‬
‫‪µ q5& − 1Z− 
: ,(!… a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫]&‪y‬‬
‫‪!!: ! :Ž2  #‬‬
‫‪(( a " *2
‰6"L‬‬

‫‪١٧٤‬‬

‫﴾)‪ :(١‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﻛﻮﻥ ﴿‬

‫ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﳓﻮ ﴿‬‫ﻟﻼﺳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪ :(٢‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﻛﻮﻥ ﴿ ﴾ ﺗﺎﺑﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﻄﻮﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬
‫ ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﳓﻮ ﴿‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﺑﺈﺿﻤﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﻨﹺﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺪﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﺈﺿﻤﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ)‪ :(٣‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺘﺄﻣﻠﻬﺎ؛ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻄﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻂ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪(٤‬؛ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧﻄﱢﺊ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬‫ﻋﻄﻔﺎ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﻌﺘﺎﻥ؛ ﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻮﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻄﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ﴾)‪] (٥‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻠﺔ[)‪ (٦‬ﺑﻨﺼﺐ‬
‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﺗﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻢ﴾‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻌﺖ ﺑﺬﻱ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪:‬‬
‫﴿‪‬ﺗﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(٧‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﻛﻼﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻳﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﻈﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﲞﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪(٨‬؛ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﴿‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧ‪‬ﻄﺊ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬‫﴾)‪(١٠‬؛ ﻷﻥ ﻋﻄﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٩‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﻄﻮﻓﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﴿‬
‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ﴾)‪ (١١‬ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳎﻲﺀ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫  ‪ :M‬‬
‫ 
*‪$:  :K‬‬
‫‪( … a " *2
‰6" $‬‬
‫!  
‪$:  :‬‬
‫(  ‪ ! :Ë‬‬
‫  ‪(#(a  " *2
‰6" V6‬‬
‫‪(…$ a " *2
‰6" #‬‬
‫‪…( :W<}M  L‬‬
‫…  ‪…( :W<}M‬‬
‫‪… :W:
 e‬‬
‫  
‪… :W:‬‬

‫﴾ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻔﺔ‬

‫‪١٧٥‬‬

‫﴾)‪ :(١‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ]ﻫﻨﺎ[ ﻋﻠﻰ ﴿ ﴾‪،‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧﻄﺊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫]ﻭﻳﺒﺘﺪﺉ[ ﴿‬
‫﴾)‪.(٢‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺑﲔ؛ ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫﴾)‪(٣‬؛ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﱪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺮﺟﺢ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﹸﺮﺉ ﻭﻟﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ)‪:(٤‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﺘﻤﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﻈﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻭﻻﻫﺎ؛ ﳓﻮ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺢ ﻛ ﱟ‬
‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪،‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٥‬ﻓـ ﴿ ﴾ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﴿‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٧‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻋﺮﺏ‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٦‬ﻭﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﴿‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴿ ﴾ ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻇﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﺨﻠﻔﻪ؛ ﺗﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ)‪ :(٨‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧﻄﺊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿ ﴾)‪ :(٩‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﺔ؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺳﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ‬‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؛ ﻟﻜﺘﺒﺖ ﻣﻔﺼﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(١٠‬‬
‫﴾ ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻬﺎ ‪-‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ‪-‬؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺫﺍﻥ(‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬‫﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺧﱪ )ﺇﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﺑﺮﺳﻢ )ﺇﻥ( ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻭ )ﻫﺬﺍﻥ( ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺃ ﺧﱪﻩ ﴿‬
‫ 
*‪ :K‬‬
‫ 
‪:9j‬‬
‫‪## :K*
 $‬‬
‫! "‪(…( a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫(  ‪(L :1‬‬
‫   ‪(… :1‬‬
‫‪(L :1  #‬‬
‫‪(…( a " *2
‰6" L‬‬
‫…  ‪L :) }I‬‬
‫‪ $ :1  e‬‬

‫‪١٧٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ)‪ :(١‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺒﻬﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪ :(٢‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺏ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻴﻴﺰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧﻄﺊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳏﺼﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳏﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺏ ﺑﻌﺪ )ﺃﻓﻌﻞ( ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ‬
‫﴾)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺃﻣﺪ( ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ؛ ﻣﺜﻞ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ)‪ :(٤‬ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ‪.‬‬
‫] [﴾)‪ :(٦‬ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧﻄﺊ ﻣﻜﻲ)‪ (٥‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﴿‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻑ ﻧﻌﺖ ﳌﺼﺪﺭ ]ﳏﺬﻭﻑ[)‪(٧‬؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﻄﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻛﺈﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ(؛‬
‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺒﻄﻠﻮﺍ ﺻﺪﻗﺎﺗﻜﻢ ﻣﺸﺒﻬﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ‪.‬‬
‫﴾)‪(٨‬؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﳓﻮ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻻﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ‬
‫﴿‬
‫)‪(٩‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﻨﹺﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻦ؛ ﲞﻼﻑ ﴿‬
‫﴾ ؛‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﳚﺘﻨﺐ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻟﻔﻆ )ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪﺓ( ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ ﻗﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﺪﻟﻪ ﺑـ )ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ(‬
‫ﻭ)ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ( ﻭ)ﺍﳌﻘﺤﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﺸﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻟﻔﻆ )ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ( ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﻛﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻓﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻛﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻃﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ "‪(…L a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫ 
‪ :NDi‬‬
‫‪L :Vd  $‬‬
‫! "‪(…… a " *2
‰6‬‬
‫( "‪$… a ")SK
F Q yif6‬‬
‫  
*‪ ! :K‬‬
‫‪(…… a " *2
‰6" V6 #‬‬
‫‪$# :K*
 L‬‬
‫… 
*‪$#:K‬‬

‫‪١٧٧‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ‬
‫ﲣﺼﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺃﻗﻀﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﺒﺎﻃﻞ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﺒﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻌﲔ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺪﻩ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺎﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺗﺮﻙ؛ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ‪-‬ﻣﻊ ﺇﻓﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ -‬ﺃﺑﺘﺮ ﺧﺎﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻧﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﻐﻲ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﹺﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧﺎﻟﻂ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﺍﻕ ﺣﻼﻭﺓ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ ﺍﳉﺎﰲ؛ ﻓﻌﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﹺﻤﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫≅ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﺫﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ؛ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﹾﻤﺘﻤﺴ‪‬ﻚ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻭﻝ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫﴾ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻈﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﴿ ﴾‬
‫ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬‬‫ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ )ﺭﺟﻊ(؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺟﻌﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ؛ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻘ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫﴾ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ‬
‫ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‪﴿ :‬‬‫"ﺇﺫ" ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﳝﻨﻌﻪ؛ ﻟﻠﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺪﺭ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ" ﻭ"ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺮﻩ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫]ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪[:‬‬

‫ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺧﻼﺋﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪:‬‬

‫~‪9<G 6: $e Ë ">¥<
]*
" c E 1G5J .± g /| \   9* 9U‬‬
‫ }‪µ ³ 1*5J 6 ¥‬‬
‫ 
^‪… −L :n‬‬
‫‪e :-  $‬‬

‫‪١٧٨‬‬

‫ ﻣﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ)‪.(١‬‬‫ ﻭﺍﳊﻮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﻬﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬‫ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﱪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ)‪.(٣‬‬‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺟﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺸ ﹴﻮ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﻞ)‪.(٤‬‬‫ ﻭﳋﺼﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻗﺴﻲ ﻓﺤﺮﺭﻩ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬ﻭ"ﺗﻔﺴﲑ" ﺃﰊ ﺣﻴﺎﻥ)‪ (٥‬ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻥ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫ ‪+<*^
,+ 

+ ¦6 ,V6z
A 
{ > |  :3KB5G *^6 ,")SK
F Q yif6" 1U :‬‬

™}‪’!e( +‬‬

‫
‪$LL a "V,Ã4E K*"  92® ˆ .± ")SK
F Q" F5J 1‬‬
‫‪^ > GQ :3KB5G +<* 1
: ,‘
Xd  yUd + |  +<* 16 ,/: 956 *^6 $‬‬
‫ ‪° b‬‬
‫! ‪µ ² :5J9
3KB5G *^6 ")E 9
" Ph 4 :‬‬
‫( ‪/: 956 *^6 : ,"¢BE ² B*
" :1U :‬‬

‫‪١٧٩‬‬

‫ا ع ا )دي وا ‪ YZ‬ن ِ  ‪ >\$C‬وروا‪>G‬‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪$ :‬ﺧﺬﻭﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﻟ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰊ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ‪#‬؛ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻭﺀ ﺑﹺﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﻟ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﱃ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺬ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﻬﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻈﻮﻩ ﻭﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﺑﺌﺮ ﻣﻌﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﹸﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﰊ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺘ‪‬ﻲ‪.(٣)#‬‬
‫≅  

<ˆ‪
   ):‬‬
‫‪V6 x K
FG )SK
yoz F5J !#$>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫@{‪9=* yoz= V=6 F=G +GB
yoz F5J ! !>0 AB
. >2 6:  *
FB‬‬
‫  ‪< 6 VG‬‬
‫‪+=}<6 ©G :'- FG R\‰E F5J $L e>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪ „Q X=
c=º . K
F*B5 FG 9? E F5J  ##>0 AB
. >2 6 1?&@:‬‬
‫_‬
‫?=‪x =K
:>=¨ /=K, ,+=?l ;X‬‬
‫}'
Ž ‪‘<*=  =*
š<G ":/0  ”}@ V +
\} ‘U2 EG‬‬
‫<‪6 −  : − :WK
/K ,+}<6 ©G :¨ /K, ©G 9 ,) J„: y >2 G V6 )| >¨ ª‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪X={ . D= ‬‬
‫‪>D=2  =*
9= !>=25K , *2
+?| . ):\5® VB} H}Q }@ >J,Q‬‬

‰‪= " 9‬‬
‫‪V6 x K
FG )SK
yoz F5J !##>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫@{‪p@ yoz= V=6 F=G FB=
yoz F5J ! (>0 AB
. >2 6:  *
FB‬‬

‫‪١٨٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ‪.(١)#‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﲔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻜﺮ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺎﺯﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﺲ‪$ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻤﻌﻪ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ :#‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﲨﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ؛ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﺮﻗﻬﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ؟ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﹶﻟﻘ‪‬ﻲ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﻭﺍﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻤﻞ ﻟﻪ ﲨﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ؛ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣ‪‬ﺘﻤﺴ‪‬ﻚ ﻟﹶﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﺎ ﻻ ﻧﺴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﲪﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﱠﻤﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟!‬
‫ﺳﻠﻤﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻥ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﲑ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳛﻔﻈﻪ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻔﻆ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻔﻆ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻜ ﱡﻞ ﺍﻟﻜ ﱠﻞ ‪-‬ﻭﻟﻮ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪-‬؛ ﻛﻔﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻼﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﲨﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻤﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻤﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻼﻭﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﹺﺠﻤﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻘﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ؛ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺗﺼﺪﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺷﺘﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻔﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻋﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺣﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺼﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﲨﻌﻪ ﺣﻔﻈﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ‪،‬‬
‫‪= " <J VG‬‬
‫‪V6 x K
FG )SK
yoz F5J !#L>0 AB
. Rw*
1?&@ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫@{‪= " *
FB‬‬

‫‪١٨١‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﲨﻌﻮﻩ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻗﻠﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻔﺼﺢ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﲨﻌﻪ ‪-‬ﺑﹺﻤﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ :‬ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ج‪ -‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ؛ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻔﺼﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻤﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺣﲔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺁﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻀﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﲨﻊ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻀﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻤﻊ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲜﻤﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﹺﻤﻮﺟﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ)‪ :(١‬ﻭﰲ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻇﻬﺮ ﱄ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺈﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﺨﺰﺭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺱ ﻓﻘﻂ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻠﺘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻇﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﺰﺭﺝ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻓﺘﺨﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﳋﺰﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺱ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﺰ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ‪ :‬ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻟﺖ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ‪ :‬ﺧﺰﻳ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻏﺴﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻨﻈﻠﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﲪﺘﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺑ‪‬ﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻷﻓﻠﺢ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﺰﺭﺝ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﲨﻌﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﻤﻌﻪ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮﻭﻫﻢ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ "‪( −( a… "R*
A5‬‬
‫‪. xz=
1K, V6: …($>0$…a( 9 E . <, G@ 1?&@ : V | ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫ ‪R:=B^
1=?&@: $ La  3f=6 `, . J  VG gJ: (#e>0$ a# 5wE‬‬
‫‪1=K, V=6: /H=<
'=J−a$ +=}  G@: a! .: $#!ae yifE –; .‬‬
‫ ‪$!LL>=0ea! h=*i
>=j<E . T k=^
1=?&@: $$a# 3f=6 `,= . J  VG‬‬
‫‪=G@: …ea! m95 =E . >J=l 1?&@: (#>0$La# 5wE . xz
1K, V6:‬‬
‫}<> ‪k=
9=* VG : $#>0$$!a )SK
yoz . R4‰5 E : …$a )D*{@ `, .‬‬
‫‪. xz=
: $ La  .: $$a# 3f=6 `,= . J = V=G : $La F<5• .‬‬
‫ ‪V= +=G: p@ V=G 9<= V= x=^ V=G F
9* V n V6 (#>0$#a# 5wE‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1 ƒ 
6 VG ”}@ V 50‬‬
‫‪V= 1= x=^ V=G F=
9=* 1=G =4 ": 1= @−!La  =M : =o ‰
. ^0 9=
/0‬‬
‫‪"50‬‬
‫‪"P?¹ ‹: ,‘wf
°;  AB{ š,9| g":>Jl /0:‬‬

‫‪١٨٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ" ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻠﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻔﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ" ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﲎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺣﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳎﻤﻊ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﳐﻠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺮﺡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﲨﻌﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ‬
‫ج‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﲨﻌﻪ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻧﹺﻲ[)‪.(١‬‬
‫≅ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪:‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫ﻇﻔﺮﺕ ﺑﺎﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﲨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﳑﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ "ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ")‪ :(٣‬ﺃﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻛﲔ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪/==? >¨==?: ,T k==^
:  '==*
: ==<, ==G@ P : ": !ae 9==o :'
c==U® . ==U™¨ /==0:‬‬
‫ 
‪= "AB‬‬
‫ ‪µ q5& 
: ,(a… "R*
A5" V6‬‬
‫]&‪y‬‬

‫ ‪± ,/0 gJ‬‬
‫‪_ 1 yK} Rg
9E .:‬‬
‫‪V=G :=U :x K
V6 V,&]5E <G 9:‬‬
‫‪µ :j| VG /0 :4}S‬‬

<‪( a… +0: W@: * VG 9<: Ë‬‬

‫‪9 =E . nB=Q: !(#aL §k=i
=K*^
. 9< VG 1?&@ : V | ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫(‪x=
:M +=2| . ><} G@ $ >0$!a( h*i
>j<E . T k^
: $L>0$!a‬‬
‫‪‘=J VG yz4
V $La  *
yo• .: $ea$ §ki
V
. KD*
:  $a‬‬
‫‪ 1G 1‬‬
‫‪T==™E : ==|€ . >=={ p@ V==G 1==: $$ (#>==0($La  N==E . +*==  p@ V==G 1==?&@:‬‬
‫ ‪>0$…a‬‬

‫‪$#>=0$(a( h=*i
>=j<E . T k=^
+*=  p@ V=G 3, V6: $$‬‬

‫‪$La  =*
y=o• . =KD*
1=K, V=6: (…>0 a V
. :  G@ 1?&@:‬‬
‫‪V=G 9= 

 – d VG cJ: V $$ #>0!ea  T™E : |€ . >{ p@ VG 1?&@:‬‬
‫*‪ 1G D +0: W@ V R}M X& VG VZ
9*: “9? 59| /0 cº VG  9‬‬

‫‪١٨٣‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺛﺘﻨﹺﻲ ﺟﺪﰐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻳﺰﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﲨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪] ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ[)‪ (١‬ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺣﲔ ﻏﺰﺍ ﺑﺪﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﺄﺫﻥ‬
‫ﱄ ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻌﻚ ﺃﺩﺍﻭﻱ ﺟﺮﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺃﹸﻣﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﻣﺮﺿﺎﻛﻢ ﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻬﺪﻱ ﱄ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪$ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻚ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ .#‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ج ﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺆﺫﻥ‪] ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺆﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ[)‪ (٢‬ﻏﻤﻬﺎ ﻏﻼﻡ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺩﺑﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻘﺘﻼﻫﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺇﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ‪] ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻡ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻤﻬﺎ ﻏﻼﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﺎﺭﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺘﻼﻫﺎ ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﺮﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﹺﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻠﺒﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺎ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺼﻠﻮﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ[)‪ .(٣‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪$ :‬ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﺑﻨﺎ ﻧﺰﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺪﺓ‪.(٤)#‬‬
‫ ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻬﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ؛ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﹺﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ")‪(٥‬؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﹸﰊ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪/=0 j= V=G  9=* VG 9U~ 9| /0 ‘i 6 VG C  9| ($ VBE . UU5
1?&@:‬‬
‫|‪1=G D +0: W@ V R9? 9| /0 cº VG  9* VG 9 

9| /0 ‘J VG yz4
9‬‬
‫‬
‫‪9=* V=G 9=U~  9=* =G@ ]*}@ sl  9* G@ }k&@ $ea$ §ki
V
. KD*
1?&@:‬‬
‫  
‪V= c=º V=G 9 

 *,b :  VG  9*  *z
”}, VG 9Z@  TD*{M 4‬‬
‫ 
‪ 1G D +,}M +0: W@ V R}M X& VG <, VZ
9*: ƒ 
6 ŽG‬‬
‫‪(…>0 :  p@ V AB{ . T*
M 1 | š,9l :‬‬
‫ *‪V=6 ,=5
: , 9=* +*=  p@ VG• NE . c0: X? VG VZ
9* +, :
. 1 
0 :1‬‬
‫ €| •‪= "1K, V6 P : &€ : ,1 P : /:M ,T k^2
h*i
>j<E : >{ p@ VG‬‬
‫  ‪…,$#a ¥} : !−!a‬‬

‫‪١٨٤‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٨٥‬‬

‫ا ع ا  وا ‪ YZ‬ن ِ  ا   وا زل ‪ 0‬أ‪]-6‬‬

‫ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻮ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺳﻨﺔ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺴ‪‬ﻤﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ)‪ (١‬ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻫﻨﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﻴﻒ ﻏﲑ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ ﻭﺃﺟﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﺪﺛﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ؛ ﻛﺎﻷﻋﻤﺶ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺸﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﲑﻩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ؛ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﲑﻩ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ‪‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ؛ ﻛـ "ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﲑ"‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺒﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ)‪ (٣‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ)‪ (٤‬ﻭﺍﹾﻟﻤﺼﺎﻓﺤﺎﺕ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻵﺧﺬ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺬ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱄ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻴﺎﻥ؛ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ ﺑﹺﻤﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻻ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺕ ﻷﻣﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﺪﺛﲔ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﲬﺴﻮﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﻩ‪:‬‬
‫≅  
‪
   ):ˆ<
: Rl‬‬
‫ " ‪# −(… a "R: 
,9‬‬
‫_‬
‫‪1=5,: „Q m9= V=6 y=0@ 9=<G 1=5D? h=- V=6 X™=6‬‬
‫ ‪>2 =6 `=  V= š,9| ƒ
cK, )@ :+K E‬‬
‫‪ ( a "R: 
,9 " >2 6 V m’G‬‬

‫‪_ >2 6 `  h- `  V š,9| ƒ
cK, )@ :/9*
$‬‬
‫‪š,9=l ƒ=
„ .± >2 =6 `=  y™6 : ,X™6‬‬
‫" ‪− ( a "R: 
,9‬‬

‫‬

‫_‬
‫‪9=<
V=6 X™=6‬‬
‫! ‪pB={ ‘=G: ƒG cK, šBG 1G0 V6 :@ pB
Q» mQ 9 +20 : : E‬‬
‫‪a "R: 
,9 " 1G: >2 6 ‘G c0: 6 y™6‬‬

‫‪ # −‬‬

‫‪1= 1= g&] H2 =6‬‬
‫( ‪ŽB={ ƒ}]J ,+B6 ƒ
)i ƒwf
 : E Pg cK )@ :+BE‬‬
‫_‬
‫" ‪ # a "R: 
,9‬‬

‫‪١٨٦‬‬

‫ﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ ﺑﺄﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ؛ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺿﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻡ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺰﻭﻝ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺠﱪ ﺑﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﻔﻆ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺗﻘﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟ ﹼﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؛‬
‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺑﹺﻤﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻔﻀﻮﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٨٧‬‬

‫ا ع ا   وا ا"! وا &‪ %‬وا دس وا "! وا ‪ 0‬وا ‪ YZ‬ن‬
‫ ا ‪ /‬ا‪ G‬وا ‪ .‬ر وا‪CP‬د وا ذ وا   ع وا رج‬

‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳋﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ؛‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ")‪ :(١‬ﻛﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺢ ﺳﻨﺪﻫﺎ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺭﺩ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﻞ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻟﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻞ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ؛ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺫﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻋﻤﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﺡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﱐ ﻭﻣﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺪﻭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺷﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺷﺎﻣﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ")‪ :(٢‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﺘﺮ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺰﻯ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﻨﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻧﻘﻠﺖ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ؛ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﻤﺎﻉ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺻﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ؛ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ‪-‬ﻟﺸﻬﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ -‬ﺗﺮﻛﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻨﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺑﻂ‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ"؛ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻓﺼﺢ ﺃﻡ ﻓﺼﻴﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺠﻤﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻡ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺷﺎﻉ ﻭﺫﺍﻉ ﻭﺗﻠﻘﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺘﱪ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ؛ ﻛﺈﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﴿ ﴾)‪،(٣‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻧﺼﺐ ﴿‬
‫ﻭ﴿ ﴾)‪ ،(٤‬ﻭﺧﻔﺾ ﴿‬
‫≅  

™‪
   ):ˆ<
: cG
: 
: ”6b : cG 
: š 
™
: T‬‬

‫ " 
ˆ ‪ −… a "ˆ<
 x K
.±‬‬
‫ ‪#! Ë‬‬
‫‪(! :K*
 $‬‬
‫! 
*‪ # :K‬‬

‫‪١٨٨‬‬

‫﴾)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﱐ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺸﻰ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻴﺲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺛﺒﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﺢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ؛ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺮﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻓﺸﻮ ﻟﻐﺔ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻧﻌﻨﹺﻲ ﺑـ "ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ"‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫)‪(٦‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬
‫ﺏ﴾‬
‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ﴾ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻭﺍﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺰ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻭﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ؛ ﻛﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺠﺮﹺﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺈﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪﴿ :‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ﴾)‪ (٧‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﺀﺓ؛ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ )ﻣﻦ(؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﳌﻜﻰ‪ .....‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﻓﺸﺎﺫ؛ ﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪّﻳ ﹺﻦ﴾؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻻ"؛ ﻧﻌﻨﹺﻲ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪‬ﺍ؛ ﻛـ ﴿ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻨﺎ‪" :‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺑﻼ ﺃﻟﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﳊﺬﻑ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪‬ﺍ؛ ﳊﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻠﻚ﴾)‪.(٨‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﴿ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫﴾؛ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ؛ ﳓﻮ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫﴾؛ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﲡﺮﺩﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﺬﻓﻪ ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ي ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳍﺠﺎﺀ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻬﻢ ﺛﺎﻗﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺘﺒﻮﺍ ﴿ ﴾ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ؛ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﲔ ‪-‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ -‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻌﺘﺪﻻﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﴰﺎﻡ ﳏﺘﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ؛ ﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺕ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫﴾ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ)‪ (٩‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﴿ ﴾‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﲔ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﴿‬
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‫‪١٨٩‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ)‪(١‬؛ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺪﻏﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺃﻭ ﳏﺬﻭﻑ ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﹶﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺪﻭﺍ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫﴾)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﴿ ﴾‬
‫﴾)‪ (٢‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ ﻭﻭﺍﻭ ﴿‬
‫ﻭﺣﺬﻑ ﻳﺎﺀ ﴿‬
‫ﻭﳓﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﺓ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻐﺘﻔﺮ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻮ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻤﺸﻴﻪ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺷﻬﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻠﻘﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﲞﻼﻑ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻧﹺﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳ‪‬ﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺣﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﻮﻍ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻭﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻨﺎ‪" :‬ﻭﺻﺢ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻫﺎ"؛ ﻧﻌﻨﹺﻲ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺑﻂ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪...‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺬ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﺘﻒ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻋﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﳎﻲﺀ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﳜﻔﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻨﲔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺇﺫ ﻣﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج؛ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺷﺮﻃﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ؛ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺷﺎﻣﺔ ‪ :‬ﺷﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺋﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺓ؛ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﺑﹺﻬﺬﺍ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻧﻜﲑ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﹶﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ 
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9 E‬‬

‫‪١٩٠‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻌﱪﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺣﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﻌﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺗﻘﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ؛ ﺍﳒﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻜﻲ)‪ :(١‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺟﺎﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﻂ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻗﺴﻢ ﺻﺢ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ ﻭﺻﺢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﳋﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺒﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﻪ؛‬‫ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﻟﹶﻤﺎ ﺃﲨﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﺑﺈﲨﺎﻉ ﺑﻞ ﲞﱪ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺟﺎﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺒﺌﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺇﺫ ﺟﺤﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻗﺴﻢ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺛﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﳋﻂ‪.‬‬‫﴾‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻛﺜﲑ؛ ﻛـ ﴿ ﴾ ﻭ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿‬
‫﴾‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﱠ ﹶﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﹶﻰ﴾)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭ﴿‬
‫﴿ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ﴾)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺫ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﲨﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﳍﺬﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺨﺸ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ﴾)‪(٤‬؛ ﺑﺮﻓﻊ )ﺍﷲ( ﻭﻧﺼﺐ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ(‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﻨﹺﻲ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻻ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‪) :‬ﻣﻌﺎﺋﺶ(؛ ﺑﺎﳍﻤﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻘﻞ ﺃﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺭﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﺃﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻘﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻘﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳎﻠﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
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‫‪À‬‬

‫‪١٩١‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺼﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ؛ ﻛﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺇﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﴿‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺇﲨﺎﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫﴾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮﻩ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﺃﺗﻘﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲢﺮﺭ ﱄ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﲨﻊ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﻃﺆﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﺎﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻬﻤﻪ‬
‫ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺷﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﺍﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻓﺮﺵ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻨ‪‬ﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﲑ" ﻟﻠﺪﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺒﹺﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻋﺒﻪ "ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ"‬
‫ﻣﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ"ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ"؛ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺸﺘﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ" ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ" ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ؛‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ‪‬ﻣَﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺼﺐ )ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻙ ﻧ‪‬ﻌﺒﺪ؛ ﺑﺒﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ؛ ﻛﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻬﺮ ﱄ ﺳﺎﺩﺱ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ؛ ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﳏﻘﻘﻮﻥ ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻗﺮﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻜﺘﺒﻪ ﻣﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺬﺏ‪.‬‬
‫≅ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪‬ﺍ)‪ (١‬ﰲ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﺟﺰﺍﺋﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ ‪1=K4
/={@ "y=6€ +=‰G –; yo =
+=G?Q" =¥} ,=¥} )S=K
=* .±  =5
° v  .±‬‬
‫‪±‬‬

‪>D6 1}’ ;#e − ( Ë T<2‬‬

‫> ‪_ 12K} 6 c6 056 ;")SK
V6  6 yJ )@ %X& •" :
/0‬‬
‫‪+6=  p@ V=G V 4}S‬‬
‫‪µ³‬‬

‫‪١٩٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﳏﻠﻪ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻪ؛ ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﳏﻘﻘﻲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ؛ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‬
‫ﰲ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﳑﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻞ ﲨﻠﻪ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻠﻪ؛ ﻓﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻧﻘﻞ ﺁﺣﺎﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﻭﹶﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ؛ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻗﻄﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﲝﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﳏﻠﻪ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ؛ ﳉﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ؛ ﻓﻸﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻧﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﻞ؛ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬‫﴾‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؛ ﻣﺜﻞ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ؛ ﻓﻸﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﻞ؛ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ"‪ :‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻤﲔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺮﺁﻥ ‪-‬‬
‫ﺣﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ -‬ﲞﱪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺮﻩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻤﲔ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﻮﻍ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺃﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺻﻮﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻗﺮﺃ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰉ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻄﺌﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺈﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻗﻮﻟﹶﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺭﻭﻩ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﹶﻢ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺑﹺﻤﻨﻊ ﻛﻮﻧﹺﻬﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﲞﻂ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻨﻌﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ؛ ﻛﺄﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺸﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﻟﹶﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻗﺮﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺯﻭﺍ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﲞﻄﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻴﻴﺰ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻗﺮﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻐﺮ‪‬ﺭﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻟﹶﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻗﺮﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻟﻠﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺟﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻐﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺑﻪ ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻪ؛ ﻟﻜﺘﺒﺖ ﺑﲔ‬
‫‪y6] ;R'd VG :‬‬

‫‪١٩٣‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻮﺫﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ؛‬
‫ﺑﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺣﺎﺻ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﺰﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﹺﻤﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻷﻏﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﳛﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻼﺹ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺣ‪‬ﻔﻆ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺣﻜﱠﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﻪ؛ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺟﺤﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﹺﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺃﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﺐ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﺑﺈﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﳚﺪﻩ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲰﻌﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻬﺬﺏ"‪ :‬ﺃﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﺫﺗﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺤﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻛﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﹾﻤﺤﻠﻰ")‪ :(١‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺯ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﺫﺗﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ")‪ :(٢‬ﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﲪﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﻪ‪$ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﺫﺗﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﻪ‪.(٣)#‬‬
‫ ‪$ a‬‬
‫ "‪#!$ −#! aL "R*
A5‬‬
‫‪. 9=Z@: $ee>=0! a  N=E . +*=  p@ V=G 1=?&@ :AB={ ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫ ‪AB=====
. )=====*| V=====G : $a yif=====E –; . R:=====B^
: …a( 9 =====E‬‬
‫‪: =<J V=G pM Ž20 :/0 ˜*| VG \ V +
9› VG >{ V n V6 !!…>0#!ae‬‬
‫‪y,k? )@ Tk&@   / )@ 9D @ :/K ? 14B6 . ‘ „<E 5i, • )J < 6 VG )Q‬‬
‫ ‪=6 /=K} VB= =D52K =
FG „@ y0} :/K D52K {324
FG „@} y0 :1
/0‬‬
‫‪" *
/0‬‬
‫‪{=
F=G „=@ y=0} = h =4 FG h 45
F5J ! …$>0 AB
. Rw*
‡&@:‬‬
‫|‪\ V >{ 9|: ˜*| VG \ V +G*
p@ VG 9* 9| )4 9|  9* VG  9‬‬
‫‪Ž
] :p@ /K , gJ: gJ :/K, < 6 VG m&@ )Q ,gE G@ , :Ž20 ; <J VG p@ Ž
] :/0‬‬

١٩٤

‫ﻲ "ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ" ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻓ‬
‫ﻚ‬
 ‫ﺤ‬‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻳ‬$ :‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
.(١)#‫ﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‬‫ ﺇﻧ‬:‫ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬،‫ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻌﻮﺫﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﻔﻪ‬
،‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﺫﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‬$ :‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ 
"  / /0 HJ /K} VB :/0 Ž2K ½ y0 :½ /K ?   /
1=K, V=6: $#!>=0L(a 9 =E . R9=Ul 1=?&@ =6 1=G ,W=›Q  g=J: g=J /K, 1 
0:
: R9=Ul /=0 $…!a §k=i
V
. KD*
gJ: a yifE –; . R:B^

V=G p@ Ž
]= :/=K, ˜=*| VG \ <U ¼@ +
9› VG >{: +G*
p@ VG 9*  /0 )4 
Ž
] TQ :/0 ?NBE V6 HDiY < 6 VG m&@ )Q ,gE G@ , :Ž2K ;‘ „<E V <J 
"  / /0 HJ /K} VB Ž2K ;y0 :½ y0 :/0   / 
< =6 V=G )@ x=DK4
: x =K
V=6 h™J 9 Df6 g ": (#a! h 45
. h™J VG /0 : 9o
c=? 9=0 1=2<
>= P9  5, ‹:  *
V6 HD<U , ‹ 12<2 14B6 . ‘ „<E 5i, • )J 
o= Q :g=4}: ,+=UoM N|=E . =—5*@  +GB=
)’= +Hd /0 Q ƒ
„ 1 
0 V 
= "+E : 9Ul : ƒ
gJ n€
. T k^
: …a( 9 E  P9o :\ . 9Z@ VG  9* 1?&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0
V=G : !#!a$ )D*={]G ‘9=BE =K* . `f=
=G@: …(e>=0$(a… h*i
>j<E
˜=UM 3=, V=6 $ a( 3f=6 `,= . J  VG : A5−#!aL h 45
. 1,:6 
1G 1 9,', VG VZ
9* V nBQ p@ V 
>0#a € : V
+<6 . KD*
1K, V6: L…a# WM . <f
1?&@:
h====*i
>====j<E . T k====^
: #(!>====0#a +===,9E ====*&@ . +*====  V====G 1===?&@:
:/=0 9=,', V=G VZ
9=* V= nBQ p@ V R™
)4 V n V6 …!L>0$!a… 
"16 ”
6 1G ^28 • ":/K,: !NBE V6 ‘ „<E ƒY  9* Ž,@
9* V nBQ p@ V +*<  V ‘K, V6 …!…>0!$a… h*i
>j<E . T k^
1?&@: 
"1 ”
6 1 ^2& •@ :/K !14B6 V6 ‘ „<E ƒY )J 1}@ : 9* V VZ

/==?  9==* /==?: ,T k==^
: 9==Z@ V==G  9==* P :": !…a# 9==o :'
c==U® . ==U™¨ /==0 
= "K T k^
/?: ,AB

١٩٥

.(١)#‫ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﹺﻬﻤﺎ‬،‫ﺫ ﺑﹺﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﻌﻮ‬‫ﻳﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟ‬‫ ﺇﻧ‬:‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬
.‫ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻲ‬‫ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ج ﻗﺮﺃ ﺑﹺﻬﻤﺎ ﻓ‬،‫ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ‬

9 ==E . ==<, ==G@: (L >==0…a( 9 ==E .  '==*
1==?&@ : V ==| ": )==*
+==,- . /==0 
…ea! 3f=6 `,= . J = V=G 1=K, V=6: += 
<
= 
^E −$#…(>0!L!a( 
#$a( 3f=6 `, . J  VG …(L>0$(a… h*i
>j<E . T k^
1?&@: 
1G 1 < 6 VG V +UK2 V > GQ V W › VG Ž2
 > GQ VG ) | V n V6
@=0 1}@  *
V A{ 90: , *
FB{@ V6 9|@ 12  9* cG5, ‹ WXi
g ":  '*
/0 
"NBE . 55*@: ,X
. H› 
"K H¨?: ,T k^
:  '*
P : ": !…a# 9o :'
cU® . U™¨ /0: 
L$aL ™E 9
. 
1BB{:
y=2
W=0 . R\:=E : L!a =€ T<6 –; . R:B^
1?&@ 9K ›  *
X{ 6@:
. p =M VG : …!>0$!a$ 1™,9| = ‡ Ã
*<
G@: iM ‚o5}−(!a
AB======
. )======*| V======G : …>======0e$#a$: !$…>======0$La >======j<E
. R\=d V=G 1=K, V=6: !a V =
. ^0 9
: !!L,!$>0e,LLa 
m95 =E . >J=l : $(,$!a V =
. ^0 9=
1=?&@:  #!>0!(La 3KB5

1==?&@: ($a ==iM ‚o==5} . s==l 1==K, V==6: (a: (ea: $e(a
V= n= V=6 ! La! ¢=
. R9=| 
: ( #>=0($a )H,I <  . KD*

‘5<J=
. @=K, )=J   /= )@ ":+f=o V= U V 9< VG CY V F,@ VG CY
{9|@   y0}=G  
. @K,: {):i
Œ@ , y0}: M ƒG > A* 9<G  , ‘52 

"{
FG „@ y0}: {324
FG „@ y0}: 
= "P?¹ ‹: , ‘wf
°;  AB{ š,9| g": >Jl /0 
= "V | š,9| g": (!a iM ‚o5} . sl /0:
/==? V==6 F==,@ V==G C==Y )’== ; Ž==< g==": 1== 
KG #a 3==KB5
A==K . *g==
P ==0: 
= "‘BB

‫‪١٩٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ]ﻭﺃﺛﺒﺘﺘﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ[)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ" ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻌﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻛﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪$ :‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‪.#‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﲪﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ ‪$‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‪ #‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ؛ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﻍ؛ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺘﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺗﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ")‪ :(٢‬ﻇﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﺫﺗﲔ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻮ‪‬ﺫ ﺑﹺﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻃﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﻪ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻟﻈﻨﻪ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﲔ ﳐﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ؛ ﻟﻘﺼﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﺇﺳﻘﺎﻃﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺤﻔﻪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﺴﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ ‪R,d }@ yHQ  !a( 9 E . 9Z@ D?&@ X
. H› x K
": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪Ž=}B +=20 D¥
.: )*K5<, 
: 4 .   / c6 J y? /0 :/0 xX<
p@ V‬‬
‫}'
‪„=@ Ž2K 324
FG „@ y0 /K *i6 FŸ R9<G V6 KB2 5
'}:   / +‬‬

‫‪  /= =@K =
F=G „=@ y=0 /=0 >= 1<6 £@0:   / @K 324
FG‬‬
‫‪"H› @0 Ž2{ Ž}@ „Q ": /0 1<6 £@0:‬‬
‫‪"AB
/? 1 
?: ,9Z@ P :": !La# 9o :'
cU® . U™¨ /0‬‬
‫‪"AB{ PQ ": #!aL R*
A5 . sl /0:‬‬
‫‪= "16 ,'
: ,L a$ "5M NfJ : `f
/0‬‬
‫ ‪$! −$$ Ë‬‬
‫‪V=6 (#(>=0$a )S=K
yoz= . 9=* G@ 1?&@ :N<O PQ ": )*
+,- . /0 $‬‬
‫‪F,@ 3,‬‬

‫‪١٩٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ")‪ :(١‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮﺗﺎﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﹾﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ ج ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺠﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲣﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج؛ ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ؛‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﺑﹺﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻈﺮ؛ ﻟ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺷﺎﻣﺔ ‪-‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ؛ ﻛﺎﳌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﳍﻤﺰﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ؛ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﻴﻔﺘﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﲣﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﳍﻤﺰﺓ؛ ﻓﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺐ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ؛ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺗﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫‪Wf 3, V6 #(>0 a +,9E *&@ . +*  VG 1?&@:‬‬
‫‪==}Q >==D2
: ,‘ „==<E : F==5i
+==Š 14B==6 . ==<J V==G p@ ==5J : /==0 V,h== V==G V== ==—XJ‬‬
‫} ‪"‘ „<E : F5i
+Š VD6 )H™ 5J: ,< 6 VG VDJ :  9*<} m,Q >D2
: ,ƒ<5‬‬
‫‪X=
F=5J . R\:=E q} VG 9U~: 9Z VG 9* Q ea ™E 9
. 15* } 
 \:‬‬
‫‪1G 1 V,h VG 9U~ 3, V6 N|E . R*}M VG :‬‬
‫‪yB5
+4Š: oX<2
 ! yB5
c6? :¥} /Q 1 Vi
V,h VG Q AB{ PQ:‬‬
‫‪= "0 <2
#L‬‬
‫ ‪$ −$L a‬‬
‫ ‪± µ ,‰E Pg:‬‬

‪ g= 
G >o=K
É=4
WX=i
‘=G n=4
.± 12={@   H}Qµ ÌJ'
J„ 5‬‬
‫‪y=@ /0 )J ƒ
g
: ,)<G5
: +GB
1<, • ,95*6 y4 : WXJ g: ,/ 9
s42
‘G:‬‬

‪n2r h- : ,<, 1
Q: ,@9G 16 , WXJ )SK
:+‬‬

‫‪1=G5J .± +4=
= / 9=
s=42
: É=4
WX=i
‘G nµ V6 /| ^Kf
+6X<
1*5J 6 :¥} :‬‬
‫"‪9<G 6: #… Ë "+,:B^
–;": ,(( −(! Ë "1K4
/{@ Jg6‬‬

‫‪١٩٨‬‬

‫ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺷﺎﻣﺔ)‪ :(١‬ﻇﻦ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺭﻳﺪﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻃﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺏ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﺸﺎﰲ"‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺘﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﲡﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺷﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺧﻂ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ؛‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻓﹸﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻦ ﺍﳓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﲑ" ﻭ"ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺒﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺗﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺷﺮﺡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﺝ"‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﲡﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲡﻮﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﺫ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﲡﻮﺯ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ؛ ﻻ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﺗﺸﺘﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‬‫ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ‪،‬‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﺮﺉ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻮﺍﺫ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﺷﺎﺫﱠﺍ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ"‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﲨﻊ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻣﻊ"‪" :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺓ"‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪" :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﻧﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺓ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺗﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻄﻔﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ)‪ (٢‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻻ ﲣﺎﻟﻒ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ " ‪! Ë "'?
9 E‬‬
‫ ‪±‬‬
‫‪c*
 x K
c6 ˆ<2
+UU5E : ,FK<,: N2&: 4<? p@ x 0 :<,‬‬

‫‪١٩٩‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﰊ ﻳﺸﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺫﻧﺖ ﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﺉ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺒﹺﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻭﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﻭﺧﻠﻒ؛ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج‪ ،‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺎﺑﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﻀﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ‬‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﻈﺎﻡ ﺃﺟﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻳﻔﺮﻏﻮﻥ ﺟﻬﺪﻫﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ‬‫ﻟﻔﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﻌﺎﻧﹺﻬﻢ ]ﻓ‪‬ﻲ[ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺳﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻳﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺇﻋﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺯﻩ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺑﹺﻤﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺟ‪‬ﻌﻠﺖ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬‫﴾)‪ (١‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺰﻻ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ؛ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳜﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬‬
‫ﻟﻐﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﳎﻤﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﴿ﻳﻄﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹶﻥ﴾‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﳌﻌﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪" :‬ﻓﹶﺎﻣ‪‬ﻀﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾﻛ ﹺﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ")‪ (٣‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪:‬‬
‫﴿ ﴾‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﻻ ﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ"‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ‪ :‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﻴﲔ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﻛﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺣﻔﺼﺔ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ")‪ ،(٤‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪:‬‬
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‫‪٢٠٢‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻣﻔﺴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻭﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺤﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ؟‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺩﱏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺒﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫]ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ [:‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻨﻴﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﰊ "ﺃﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳﻞ")‪ (٢‬ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﻓﺎﺩﺕ ﻣﻌ‪‬ﻨﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺍﺋﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻞ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﲔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ" ﻋﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺰﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺐ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﺔ ﺧﱪ‬
‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ؛ ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺰﻳ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻜﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ "ﲨﻊ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻣﻊ"‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺍﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ "ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ")‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ﳛﺘﺞ ﺑﹺﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ‬
‫‪± ² ª‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫»»‬
‫‪µ ± » VD=i,‬‬
‫‪» ² » » )Q‬‬

*‰‪² ± x‬‬
‫Š ‪³ » ² » Ô‬‬
‫ ‪» ± ²‬‬
‫‪» » >i 5‬‬
‫=’) ‪»µ‬‬
‫@) » » ‪_ Ê‬‬

‪» » » ‰5*5‬‬
‫‪³ ± ² ³ •:‬‬
‫‪µ Ê ± ² ³ V=6:‬‬
‫ ‪» ² Ê =l‬‬
‫»»‬

=‪» » }9‬‬
‫ ‪² ³ » » » i‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫‪± V6±‬‬
‫‪±‬‬
‫|>" =‬
‫‪µ ± » ² ± 9<G‬‬
‫»‪²‬‬
‫‪Â µ 4‬‬‫‪Â ³ » VD JQ‬‬

‫  
‪$$‬‬

‫=> ‪+ 
= .± g=&@ 1=}@ Ž=U2‬‬
‫ @‪µ ³ ,>=2@  : ,1=U5, ‹» 1=}@ Q» $( a ")=¥
NfJ" .±  ‬‬
‫‪NDi
 G D5 +w }  ª, 
G W6I +<6? .± +U2‬‬

‫‪:Ph‰
V | ": )*
+,- . /0$‬‬
‫@&‡ *‪< =6 V=G %=| . /=0 T g=U¨ nBQ p@ V U<6 V …$a h 45
. n \
9‬‬
‫}‪"K} ƒ
gi ": nBQ G@ /0 {<G556 W,@ +X W‬‬
‫‪^K}X
;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪. •=0 ˜=UM : nBQ p@ V U<6 }k&@  e$>0(!aL NE . n \
9* ‡&@:‬‬
‫|‪"K} ƒ
gJ: ":nBQ G@ /0 {<G556 W,@ +X W} < 6 VG %‬‬
‫‪^K}X
;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪. =‰2G /=K, x^ Ž<U /0 ‚,? VG V  e>0($aL NE . n \
9* ‡&@:‬‬
‫‪"K} ƒ
gJ: ":/0 ,{<G556 W,@ +X W 97 ‹ VU} < 6 VG x 0‬‬
‫‪^K}X
;N<O PQ:‬‬

‫‪٢٠٣‬‬

‫ﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺩﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺘﺒ‪‬ﺎ؛‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪" :‬ﺍﳊﺠﺔ" ﻷﰊ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭ"ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ" ﳌﻜﻲ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭ "ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ" ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬
‫"ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺤﺘﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺫ" ﻻﺑﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﻨﻲ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺟﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺷﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻓﺎﺋﺪﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﺢ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﺴﻘﻄﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺮﺿﻲ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻫﺪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﻴﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ" ﻋﻦ ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺑﺎﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ؛ ﻟﹶﻢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ؛ ﻓﻀ‪‬ﻠﺖ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪. =KD*
: $ea# h =45
. =,? V=G :  e!>=0(!aL N=E . n \
9* ‡&@:‬‬

‪"{<G556} < 6 VG x 0 . ": /0 9® V ‘K, V6 $ea# §ki
V‬‬
‫‪+26 < 6 VG V 9® +, : ;N<O PQ:‬‬
‫‪V cJ: V $ea# h 45
. ,? VG : +, 
}−… a$ NE . +*  p@ VG ‡&@:‬‬
‫‪CD5} <G556 W,@ +X W  9* @0 /0 *<f
V G? V )4‬‬
‫‪"c^K6 ": …a +, 9
. sl /0‬‬
‫‪m:v6 ,4<d G? :1: :Ž20‬‬
‫‪>=0L#a$ N=E . +*=  p@ V=G ‡&@:‬‬

‫‪. =KD*
: $ea# h =45
. =,? V=G : $‬‬


‪4J . W,@ +X™
W{ V > GQ Ž
] /0 ) VG V n V6  eae §ki
V‬‬
‫ 
‪"{<G556 W,@ +X W}  x 0 . ": /0 ?‘U‬‬
‫‪AB{ PQ:‬‬
‫‪,NB=E >= =D54 
wE „  x K
Pg: Wi|M : h 45
. @:  x K
¥} : `f
/0‬‬
‫‪= "!?ƒ
„  /9, 6 Ž* yD ,DUi| ` } <, • £:X ` }:‬‬
‫ *‪ 92® cG@ . c‬‬
‫ ‪,)z=6 V,9=
=~ 3KB5G c* ,"Djj|: D22: c*
 x K
P?: V Nfi
" 1U‬‬
‫‪+}™
+<*^
,’!e! ,+ 

+ ¦6‬‬

‫‪N={} R9j
 3KB5G c* "D –z,I :  x K
„   P?: ‘* .± 5BE ³²" 1U $‬‬
‫‪ˆ
: +*^2
‘J'   ,’!e ,+}™
+<*^
,1oX6\:‬‬

‫‪٢٠٤‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﺎﻥ ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻮﺩ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﲨﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﹺﻲ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﰒ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺅﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺷﺎﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﺑﲔ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﴿ ﴾ ﻭ﴿ ﴾‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻘﻂ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﹺﻤﺤﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﲔ‪ .‬ﺍ’‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪G7‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻐﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻜﺮﻫﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻟ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻼﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﺬﺍ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺮﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪c=J: 9=| $eL >=0!!a  N=E . +*  p@ VG ‡&@ :AB{ ": )*
+,- . /0‬‬
‫‪= ")X @K, HJ /K,: )X x 0 /K, )@ PJ ": > GQ V 6 V )4 V‬‬