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‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ University of Aden Faculty of Engineering Even Semester Examination (2012-2013) Subject: Discrete

Maths Date: / /2013 Class : B2CS/B2CSE Time : 2 hours ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ANSWER ANY FOUR QUESTIONS 1# (i) Given that A  B  A  C . Is it necessary thus B = C (ii) Give examples of a strongly_ connected and a weakly_ connected graphs? (iii) Is ( Z+ , - ) a semi graph, an abelian group, or a ring?

2# (a) Prove, using induction, that n(n + 1) is an even number for every positive integer n. (b) Find the next 3 numbers in the following sequences; (i) 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, …….. , ……., ……. (ii) 96, 48, 24, 12,…..…, ……., ……… 3# (a) What are the sizes, orders, and degree sequence for L6 , and M9 graphs? (b) Out of 30 students in the CS class, 15 take the oop course, 8 take the discrete course and 6 take a digital course. It is known that 3 students take all the three courses. Show that 7 or more students take none of the courses. 4# (a) Show that the following proposition is a contradiction;    p  q    p  q   using: (i) Logical equivalences, (ii) Truth table (b) Does there are a simple graphs with five vertices of the following degrees: (i) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (ii) 3, 3, 3, 3, 2 5# (a) Let O(x) be the predicate “Omer has visited x.” Write each of the following in terms of B(x). (i) Omer has visited Aden. (ii) Omer has not visited Mecca. (iii) Omer has not visited any city. (iv) If Omer has visited Aden, then he’s been to Yemen. (b) Find all the cut_edges and cut_vertices in the following graphs: a d e b c c d a b

6# (a) Let A = {a, b, c, d }. Give an example (draw a digraph) of a relation on the set A that satisfies each of the following combinations of properties: (i) Not anti-symmetric and not transitive. (ii) Reflexive, Symmetric and Anti-symmetric. (b) Define, with suitable binary operations, each of the following; (i) the Field, and (ii) the Group. ‫تمنياتي بالتوفيق‬