Statutory Construction – the art or process of discovering and expounding the meaning and intention of the authors of the law with respect to its application to a given case, where that intention is rendered doubtful, among others, by reason of the fact that the given case is not explicitly provided for in the law. Justice Martin defines statutory construction as the art of seeking the intention of the legislature in enacting a statute and applying it to a given state of facts. A judicial function is required when a statute is invoked and different interpretations are in contention. Difference between judicial legislation and statutory construction: Where legislature attempts to do several things one which is invalid, it may be discarded if the remainder of the act is workable and in no way depends upon the invalid portion, but if that portion is an integral part of the act, and its excision changes the manifest intent of the act by broadening its scope to include subject matter or territory which was not included therein as enacted, such excision is “judicial legislation” and not “statutory construction”.




Construction is the drawing of conclusions with respect to subjects that are beyond the direct expression of the text, while interpretation is the process of discovering the true meaning of the language used.

Interpretation is limited to exploring the written text. Construction on the other hand is the drawing of conclusions, respecting subjects that lie beyond the direct expressions of the text.

In our system of government: • • • Legislative power is vested in the Congress of the Philippines – the Senate and the House of the Representatives Executive power is vested in the President of the Republic of the Philippines (Art. VII, Sec.1, Phil. Const.) Judicial power is vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law. (Art VIII, Sec. 1, Phil. Const.)

Legislative – makes the law Executive - executes the law Judicial – interprets the law Simply stated, the situs of construction and interpretation of written laws belong to the judicial department. It is the duty of the Courts of Justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government. Supreme Court is the one and only Constitutional Court and all other lower courts are statutory courts and such lower courts have the power to construe and interpret written laws.

1. There must be an actual case or controversy, 2. There is ambiguity in the law involved in the controversy. Ambiguity exists if reasonable persons can find different meanings in a statute, document, etc. A statute is ambiguous if it is admissible of two or more possible meanings.

If the law is clear and unequivocal, the Court has no other alternative but to apply the law and not to interpret. Construction and interpretation of law come only after it has been demonstrated that application is impossible or inadequate without them.





Hermeneutics – the science or art of construction and interpretation. Legal hermeneutics – is the systematic body of rules which are recognized as applicable to the construction and interpretation of legal writings. Dr. Lieber in his work on Hermeneutics gives the classification of the different kinds of interpretation : following

1. Close interpretation – adopted if just reasons connected with the character and formation of the text induce as to take the words in the narrowest meaning. This is generally known as “ literal” interpretation. 2. Extensive interpretation – also called as liberal interpretation, it adopts a more comprehensive signification of the words. 3. Extravagant interpretation – substitutes a meaning evidently beyond the true one. It is therefore not genuine interpretation. 4. Free or unrestricted interpretation – proceeds simply on he general principles of interpretation in good faith, not bound by any specific or superior principle. 5. Limited or restricted interpretation - influenced by other principles than the strictly hermeneutic ones. 6. Predestined interpretation – takes place when the interpreter, laboring under a strong bias of mind, makes the text subservient to his preconceived views and desires.

Most common subjects of construction and interpretation are the constitution and statutes which include ordinances. But we may also add resolutions, executive orders and department circulars.

the written will of the legislature solemnly expressed according to the form necessary to constitute it as the law of the state. “Statute Law” is a term often used interchangeably with the word “statute”. the appropriate committee will conduct public hearings. Statute Law. In the first reading. is broader in meaning since it includes not only statute but also the judicial interpretation and application of the enactment. At this stage. A statute starts with a bill. It is enacted into law by a vote of the legislative body. Then after the public . An “Act” is the appropriate term for it after it has been acted on and passed by the legislature. the bill is read by its number and title only. the bill is referred by the Speaker to the appropriate committee for study. b. A member of the National Assembly may introduce the proposed bill to the Secretary of the National Assembly who will calendar the same for the first reading. After the first reading.CHAPTER II STATUTES LEGISLATIVE PROCEDURES The power to make laws is lodged in the legislative department of the government. however. Passage of a bill in a parliamentary system (unicameral assembly): a. c. Bill – is the draft of a proposed law from the time of its introduction in a legislative body through all the various stages in both houses. It then becomes a statute. HOW DOES A BILL BECOMES A LAW – STEPS A bill before it becomes a law must pass the strict constitutional requirements explicit both in the 1973 Constitution and the 1987 Constitution.

shall become a law. hearings. it shall become a law. it will be submitted to the Prime Minister (President) for approval. Every bill passed by Congress shall be acted upon by the President within thirty (30) days from receipt thereof. the bill is read in its entirety. h. Should there be an unfavorable report of the committee. and if approved by two-thirds of all its members. If he disapproves. Every bill passed by Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof. Only the title of the bill is read and the National Assembly will then vote on the bill. of the subjects of legislation that are being considered. Otherwise. In the second reading.d. if the originating house will agree to pass the bill. The purposes of this constitutional requirements are: • To prevent hodge-podge or log-rolling legislation. g. After the bill has been passed. after the third and final reading at one House where the bill originated. through such publications of legislative proceedings as is usually made. f. CONSTITUTIONAL TEST IN THE PASSAGE OF A BILL Three (3) very important constitutional requirements in the enactment of statute: 1. it shall be sent. the committee shall decide whether or not to report the bill favorably or whether a substitute bill should be considered. Under the present 1987b Constitution. no amendment shall be allowed. e. i. then the proposed bill is dead. The bill is then calendared for the third and final reading. Upon favorable action by the committee. the bill is printed in its final form and copies thereof distributed to each of the members. At this stage. the bill is set for open debates where members of the assembly may propose amendments and insertions to the proposed bill. Under the present set-up. in order that they may . and • To fairly apprise the people. he shall veto it and return the same with his objections to the National Assembly (House where it originated). Immediately after the second reading. • To prevent surprise or fraud upon the legislature. together with the objections to the other house by which it shall be likewise be considered and must be approved by two-thirds of the votes. the bill is returned to the National Assembly and shall be calendared for the second reading. it will go to the other House where it will undergo the same process. After the approval of the bill in its second reading and at least three (3) calendar days before its final passage.

d. Preamble – part of statute explaining the reasons for its enactment and the objects sought to be accomplished. e. b. Usually. Provisos and exceptions may also be found. penalties. Separability Clause – provides that in the event that one or more provisions or unconstitutional. and printed copies thereof in its final form have been distributed to each member three days before its passage. before it becomes a law. if they shall so desire. Body – the main and operative part of the statute containing its substantive and even procedural provisions. from the annihilation which would result from an unrestricted repeal. It is usually prefixed to the statute in the brief summary of its contents. etc. Enacting clause – part of statute which declares its enactment and serves to identify it as an act of legislation proceeding from the proper legislative authority. which is intended to save rights. “Be enacted” is the usual formula used to start this clause. g. General Law – affects the community at large. furnishing the name by which the act is individually known. c. the remaining provisions shall still be in force. Title – the heading on the preliminary part. Effectivity Clause – announces the effective date of the law. Every bill passed by the Congress shall. be presented to the President. Saving Clause – restriction in a repealing act.have opportunity of being heard thereon by petition or otherwise. No bill passed by either House shall become law unless it has passed three readings on separate days. f. pending proceedings. 2. . PARTS OF STATUTE a. h.announces the prior statutes or specific provisions which have been abrogated by reason of the enactment of the new law. KINDS OF STATUTES 1. The executive approval and veto power of the President is the third important constitutional requirement in the mechanical passage of a bill. That which affects all people of the state or all of a particular class. it starts with “whereas”. Repealing Clause . 3.

Curative Statute – a form of retrospective legislation which reaches back into the past to operate upon past events. 11. Public law may be general. Affirmative Statute – directs the doing of an act. Public Law – a general classification of law. and to private persons. associations and corporations. Local Law – relates or operates over a particular locality instead of over the whole territory of the state. regulates. or limited in range or confined to a prescribed field of action on operation. Mandatory Statutes – generic term describing statutes which require and not merely permit a course of action. 12. one which is made to affect acts or facts occurring. 4. . Prospective Law – applicable only to cases which shall arise after its enactment. acts or transactions in order to correct errors and irregularities and to render valid and effective many attempted acts which would otherwise be ineffective for the purpose intended. and international law. consisting generally of constitutional. Remedial Statute – providing means or method whereby causes of action may be affectuated. enforces and administers relationships among individuals. 6. or rights occurring. the relations between the state and the people who compose it. local or special law. before it came into force. concerned with the organization of the state. 9. 8. or declares what shall be done in contrast to a negative statute which is one that prohibits the things from being done. criminal. 5. Private Law – defines.2. Special Law – designed for a particular purpose. wrongs redressed and relief obtained. the responsibilities of public officers of the state. 7. Retrospective Law – looks backward or contemplates the past. and the relations of state to one another. Penal Statute – defines criminal offenses specify corresponding fines and punishments. to each other. 3. administrative. or declares what shall not be done. 10.

The Supreme Court held that the “vagueness” doctrine merely requires a reasonable degree of certainty for the statute to be upheld--.not absolute precision or mathematical exactitude. Flexibility. and not a substitute for. The intention to repeal must be clear and manifest. The repeal of a penal law deprives the court of jurisdiction to punish persons charged with a violation of the old penal law prior to its repeal. If the later act covers the whole subject of the earlier one and is clearly intended as a substitute – to be a complete and perfect system in itself. at least. is permissible as long as the metes and bounds of the statute are clearly delineated REPEALS OF STATUTE MAY BE EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED Express repeal – is the abrogation or annulling of a previously existing law by the enactment of a subsequent statute which declares that the former law shall be revoked and abrogated. It violates due process for failure to accord persons fair notice of conduct to avoid. . the later act is to be construed as a continuation of. Implied repeal – when a later statute contains provisions so contrary to irreconcilable with those of the earlier law that only one of the two statutes can stand in force. Statute is repugnant to the Constitution in two (2) respects: 1. It leaves law enforcers unbridled discretions. the first act. Where provision in the two acts on the same subject matter are in an irreconcilable conflict. otherwise.CONCEPT OF VAGUE STATUTES Statues or act may be said to be vague when it lacks comprehensible standards those men “of common intelligence must necessarily guess at its meaning and differ as to its application. and 2. rather than meticulous specificity. 2. Two (2) categories of repeal by implication: 1. Only a law can repeal a law. as a general rule.

5. . 6. The delegate cannot be superior to the principal. not be unfair or oppressive.ORDINANCE Ordinance – an act passed by the local legislative body in the exercise of its law-making authority. not be partial or discriminatory. and not be unreasonable. 4. Must Must Must Must Must Must not contravene the Constitution or any statute. 2. REASON WHY AN ORDINANCE CONTRAVENE A STATUTE SHOULD NOT Local councils exercise only delegated legislative powers conferred on them by Congress as the national law making body. not prohibit but may regulate trade. 3. ROLE OF FOREIGN JURISPRUDENCE Philippine laws must necessarily be construed in accordance with the intention of its own law makers and such intent may be deduced from the language of each law and the context of other local legislation related thereof. TEST OF VALID ORDINANCE 1. be general and consistent with public policy.

definite. to the end that the same may be enforced. and because it is dangerous practice to base the construction upon only a part of it. A statute should be construed as a whole because it is not to be presumed that the legislature has used any useless words. STATUTES AS A WHOLE A cardinal rule in statutory construction is that legislative intent must be ascertained from a consideration of the statute as a whole and not merely of a particular provision. SPIRIT AND PURPOSE OF THE LAW . A word or phrase might easily convey a meaning which is different from the one actually intended. Legislative intent is determined principally from the language of the statute. and express a single. since one portion may be qualified by other portions.CHAPTER III BASIC GUIDELINES IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION OF LAWS LEGISLATIVE INTENT The object of all interpretation and construction of statutes is to ascertain the meaning and intention of the legislature. VERBA LEGIS If the language of the statute is plain and free from ambiguity. that meaning is conclusively presumed to be the meaning which the legislature intended to convey. and sensible meaning.

Matters already decided on the merits cannot be relitigated again and again. but omits to make any provision for a case or object which is analogous to those enumerated. when court has once laid down a principle. The rule of “casus omissus pro omisso habendus est” can operate and apply only if and when the omission has been clearly established. • • When the reason of the law ceases. . CASUS OMISSUS When a statute makes specific provisions in regard to several enumerated cases or objects. or which stands upon the same reason. and is therefore within the general scope of the statute. disregarding or modifying. Doctrine of necessary implications.When the interpretation of a statute according to the exact and literal import of its words would lead to absurd or mischievous consequences. the strict letter of the law. it is called a “casus omissus”. it should be construed according to its spirit and reason. or would thwart or contravene the manifest purpose of the legislature in its enactment. Stare Decisis. “Stare decisis et non quieta movere” (follow past precedents and do not disturb what has been settled. What is implied in a statute is as much a part thereof as that which is expressed. Such omissions or defects cannot be supplied by the courts. Follow past precedents and do not disturb what has been settled. the law itself ceases. STARE DECISIS It is the doctrine that. and it appears that such case or object was omitted by inadvertence or because it was overlooked or unforeseen. and apply it to all future cases. where facts are substantially the same. regardless of whether the parties and properties are the same. so far as may be necessary.

GENERAL AND SPECIAL TERMS General terms in a statute are to receive a general construction. • If the law makes no distinction. COURTS SHOULD NOT DISTINGUISH When the law does not distinguish.CHAPTER IV CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION OF WORDS AND PHRASES WHEN THE LAW DOES NOT DISTINGUISH. courts should not distinguish. is a corollary of the principle that general words and phrases of a statute should ordinarily be accorded their natural and general significance. The rule. . General terms or provisions in a statute may be restrained and limited by specific terms or provisions with which they are associated. neither should the Court. EXCEPTIONS IN THE STATUTE When the law does not make any exception. courts may not except something unless compelling reasons exist to justify it. founded on logic. unless retrained by the context or by plain inferences from the scope and purpose of the act. The courts should administer the law not as they think it ought to be but as they find it and without regard to consequences.

But this rule must be discarded where the legislative intention is plain to the contrary. This rule is commonly called the “ejusdem generis” rule. because it teaches us that broad and comprehensive expressions in an act. such general words are not to be construed in their widest extent. or “any others”. Except: • When there is manifest of injustice • When there is no reason for exception. such as “and all others”. “Expressio unius est exclusio alterius”. thing. or consequence is tantamount to an express exclusion of all others. but are to be held as applying only to persons or things of the same general kind or class as those specifically mentioned. Rule of ejusdem generis merely a tool of statutory construction resorted to when legislative intent is uncertain. GENERAL TERMS (EJUSDEM GENERIS) FOLLOWING SPECIAL TERMS It is a general rule of statutory construction that where general words follow an enumeration of persons or things. by words of a particular and specific meaning.Special terms in a statute may sometimes be expanded to a general signification by the consideration that the reason of the law is general. ASSOCIATED WORDS (NOSCITUR SOCIIS) . are usually to be restricted to persons or things “of the same kind” or class with those specially named in the preceding words. EXPRESS MENTION AND IMPLIED EXCLUSION It is a general rule of statutory construction that the express mention of one person.

its correct construction may be made specific by considering the company of terms in which it is found or with which it is associated. its object and consequences that would follow from construing it one way or the other. USE OF NEGATIVE WORDS Negative words and phrases regarded as mandatory while those affirmative are mere directory. and operates to confer discretion while the word “shall” is imperative. THE USE OF THE WORD “MAY” AND “SHALL” IN THE STATUTE Use of the word “may” in the statute generally connotes a permissible thing. THE USE OF THE TERM “AND” AND THE WORD “OR” “And” means conjunction connecting words or phrases expressing the idea that the latter is to be added or taken along with the first.” “to wit. and in such cases. operating to impose a duty which may be enforced.” or “that is to say.” . The term “shall” may be either as mandatory or directory depending upon a consideration of the entire provision in which it is found. “Or” is a disjunctive particle used to express as alternative or to give a choice of one among two or more things. USE OF THE WORD “MUST” The word “must” in a statute like “shall” is not always imperative and may be consistent with an exercise discretion.Where a particular word is equally susceptible of various meanings. The word “shall” emphasizes mandatory character and means imperative. operating to impose a duty which may be enforced. means “in other words. It is also used to clarify what has already been said.

If months are designated by their name. and nights from sunset to sunrise. or to qualify or restrain its generality. and the last day included (Art. months of thirty days. . the first day shall be excluded. In computing a period. or to exclude some possible ground of misinterpretation of its extent. they shall be computed by the number of days which they respectively have. 13. New Civil Code). days or nights. months. FUNCTION OF THE PROVISO Proviso is a clause or part of a clause in the statute.COMPUTATION OF TIME When the laws speak of years. “Provided” is the word used in introducing a proviso. the office of which is either to except something from the enacting clause. it shall be understood that years are of three hundred sixty five days each. days of twenty –four hours. A “week” means a period of seven consecutive days without regard to the day of the week on which it begins.

We interpret and apply the law in consonance with justice. a law is supposed to have been carefully studied and determined to be constitutional before it was finally enacted. PRESUMPTION AGAINST INJUSTICE The law should never be interpreted in such a way as to cause injustice as this never within the legislative intent. the Courts will presume that it was the intention of the legislature to enact a valid. and one which should change the prior law no further than may be necessary to effectuate the specific purpose of the act in question. sensible and just law. as the joint act of the legislative and executive authorities.CHAPTER V PRESUMPTIONS IN AID OF CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION PRESUMPTIONS In construing a doubtful or ambiguous statute. PRESUMPTION AGAINST UNCONSTITUTIONALITY Laws are presumed constitutional. there must be a clear and unequivocal breach of the constitution. To justify nullification of law. . The theory is that. All laws are presumed valid and constitutional until or unless otherwise ruled by the Court.

freedom. Sec. In the absence of an express repeal. (Art. yielding like robots to the literal command without regard to its cause and consequence. PRESUMPTION AGAINST IMPLIED REPEALS The two laws must be absolutely incompatible.Judges do not and must not unfeelingly apply the law as it is worded. II. PRESUMPTION AGAINST INEFFECTIVENESS In the interpretation of a statute. cooperation. the Court should start with the assumption that the legislature intended to enact an effective statute. a subsequent law cannot be construed as repealing a prior law unless an irreconcilable inconsistency and repugnancy exists in terms of the new and old laws. justice. 2. Constitution). before the inference of implied repeal may be drawn. and clear finding thereof must surface. PRESUMPTION AGAINST INTERNATIONAL LAW VIOLATION OF Philippines as democratic and republican state adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace. . PRESUMPTION AGAINST ABSURDITY Statutes must receive a sensible construction such as will give effect to the legislative intention so as to avoid an unjust and absurd conclusion. Presumption against undesirable consequences were never intended by a legislative measure. equality. Phil. and amity with all nations.

.CHAPTER VI INTRINSIC AIDS IN CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION INTRINSIC AIDS The term “intrinsic” means internal or within. punctuation. Intrinsic aids. are those aids within the statute. chapter and section headings. and interpretation. Intrinsic aids are resorted to only if there is ambiguity. therefore. the preamble. context or body. one must go back to the parts of the statute: the title. In resorting to intrinsic aids.

If there is any doubt as to the meaning of the statute.CHAPTER VII EXTRINSIC AIDS IN CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION EXTRINSIC AIDS These are existing aids from outside sources. contemporaneous construction by executive officers. the interpreter must first find that out within the statute. individual statements by members of congress. meaning outside of the four corners of the statute. . and construction by the bar. Extrinsic aids resorted to by the courts are history of the enactment of the statute. Other sources of extrinsic aids can be the reports and recommendations of legislative committees. judicial construction. and the author of the law. opinions and rulings of officials of the government called upon to execute or implement administrative laws. actual proceedings of the legislative body. Extrinsic aids therefore are resorted to after exhausting all the available intrinsic aids and still there remain some ambiguity in the statute. public policy.

PREAMBLE AS INTRINSIC AID . one must go back to the parts of the statute. If the language of the statute is clear and unequivocal.CHAPTER VI INTRINSIC AIDS IN CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION INTRINSIC AIDS The very term “intrinsic” means internal or within. therefore. are those aids within the statute. In resorting to intrinsic aids. there is no need to resort to intrinsic aids. Intrinsic aids. THE TITLE OF THE LAW IS A VALUABLE INTRINSIC AID IN DETERMINING LEGISLATIVE INTENT TEXT OF THE STATUTE AS INTRINSIC AID Subtitle of the statute as intrinsic aid in determining legislative intent.

• Opinions and rulings of officials of the government called upon to execute or implement administrative laws. circumstances and conditions it sought to remedy. Preamble used as a guide in determining the intent of the lawmaker. must be enforced. and • The author of the law Other sources of extrinsic aids are: • Reports and recommendations of legislative committees. meaning outside from the four corners of the statute. Extrinsic aids are resorted to after exhausting all the available intrinsic aids and still there remain some ambiguity in the statute. • Public policy. and . • Individual statements by members of congress. CHAPTER VII EXTRINSIC AIDS IN CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION EXTRINSIC AIDS Extrinsic aids are existing aids from outside sources. • Contemporaneous construction by executive officers charged with implementing and enforcing the provisions of the statutes unless such interpretation is clearly erroneous. Extrinsic aids resorted to by the courts are: • History of the enactment of the statute. • Judicial construction. • Actual proceedings of the legislative body.The intent of the law as culled from its preamble and from the situation.

for under these circumstances. The best interpreter of the law or any of its provisions is the author of the law. On the other hand. however. The meaning of the statute may be extended to matters which come within the spirit or reason of the law or within the evils which the law seeks to suppress or correct. such as the history of its enactment. But the rule of strict construction is not applicable where the meaning of the statute is certain and unambiguous . courts may examine both the printed pages of the published Act as well as those extrinsic matters that may aid in construing the meaning of the statute. Liberal interpretation or construction of the law or rules. there are many statutes which will be liberally construed. While it is true that litigation is not a game of technicalities. applies only in proper cases and under justifiable causes and circumstances. Individual statements by members of Congress on the floor do not necessarily reflect legislative intent. CHAPTER VIII STRICT AND LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES GENERAL PRINCIPLES If a statute should be strictly construed. it is equally true that every case must be prosecuted in accordance with the prescribed procedure to insure an orderly and speedy administration of justice. there is no need for construction. . nothing should be included within the scope that does not come clearly within the meaning of the language used. the reasons of the passage of the bill and purposes to be accomplished by the measure.• Construction by the bar It is a well-accepted principle that where a statute is ambiguous.

that which operates in favor of a party accused under its provisions is to be preferred. tax statutes must be construed strictly against the government and liberally in favor of the taxpayer. Thus. NATURALIZATION LAW Naturalization laws should be rigidly enforced and strictly construed in favor of the government and against the applicant. Accordingly. are not to be presumed beyond what the applicable statute expressly and clearly declares. TAX LAWS Taxation is a destructive power which interferes with the personal and property rights of the people and takes from them a portion of their property for the support of the government. in case of doubt. . for taxes. INSURANCE LAW Contracts of Insurance are to be construed liberally in favor of the insured and strictly against the insurer. Any claim for exemption from a tax statute is strictly construed against the taxpayer and liberally in favor of the state. in the interpretation of a penal statute. If the statute is ambiguous and admits of two reasonable but contradictory constructions. being burdens.PENAL STATUTES Penal laws are to be construed strictly against the state and in favor of the accused. the tendency is to subject it to careful scrutiny and to construe it with such strictness as to safeguard the right of the accused. Hence. ambiguity in the words of an insurance contract should be interpreted in favor of its beneficiary.

to give relief to the workman and/or his dependents in the event that the former should die or sustain in an injury. . speedy and inexpensive disposition of every action and proceeding.LABOR AND SOCIAL LEGISLATIONS Doubts in the interpretation of Workmen’s Compensation and Labor Code should be resolved in favor of the worker.e.. The sympathy of the law on social security is towards its beneficiaries and the law by its own terms. ELECTION RULES Statute providing for election contests are to be liberally construed to the end that the will of the people in the choice of public officer may not be defeated by mere technical objections. when he is no longer capable of earning his livelihood. i. RULES OF COURT Rule of court shall be liberally construed in order to promote their objective of securing a just. requires a construction of utmost liberality in their favor. RETIREMENT LAWS Retirement laws are liberally interpreted in favor of the retiree because the intention is to provide for the retiree’s sustenance and comfort. It should be liberally construed to attain their laudable objective.

The Civil Code of the Philippines follows the above rule thus: Laws shall have no retroactive effect. that is.CHAPTER IX PROSPECTIVE AND RETROSPECTIVE STATUTES GENERAL PRINCIPLES Prospective statute – is a statute which operates upon acts and transactions which have not occurred when the statute takes effect. PENAL STATUTES . Retroactive legislation is looked upon with disfavor. or attaches new disabilities in respect of transaction already past. as a general rule and properly so because of its tendency to be unjust and oppressive. unless the contrary is provided. Retrospective or retroactive law – is one which takes away or impairs vested rights acquired under existing laws. which regulates the future. or creates new obligations and imposes new duties. unless the legislative intent to the contrary is made manifest either by the express terms of the statute or by necessary implication. A sound canon of statutory construction is that statutes operate prospectively only and never retrospectively.

366. However. and which are designed to give effect to contracts and other transactions between private parties which otherwise would fail of producing their intended consequences by reason of some statutory disability or failure to comply with some technical requirement. However. Felonies and misdemeanors are punished under the laws in force at the time of their commission. it can be given retroactive effect if it is favorable to the accused who is not a habitual criminal. RPC). PROCEDURAL LAWS ARE RETROSPECTIVE Statutes regulating the procedure of the Court will be construed as applicable to actions pending and undermined at the time of their passage. They are therefore retroactive in their character. . (Art. (Art.Penal statutes as a rule are applied prospectively. Procedural provisions of the Local Government Code are retrospective. Rules of Procedure should not be given retroactive effect if it would result in great injustice and impair substantive right. CURATIVE STATUTES They are those which undertake to cure errors and irregularities and administrative proceedings. RPC). as an exception. 22.

or to the same class of persons or things. Statutes in pari materia are to be construed together. if statutes of equal theoritical application to a particular case cannot be reconciled. STATUTES IN PARI MATERIA Statutes that relate to the same subject matter. each legislative act is to be interpreted with reference to other acts relating to the same matter or subject. However. the statute of later date must prevail being a later expression of legislative will. GENERAL AND SPECIAL STATUTES Sometimes we find statutes treating a subject in general terms and another treating a part of the same subject in particularly detailed manner. conflicting clauses and provisions may arise. or have the same purpose or object. If such situation may occur.CHAPTER X CONFLICTING STATUTES EFFECT SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE ENTIRE STATUTE It may happen that in a statute. the statute must be construed as a whole. .

A statute is superior to an administrative circular. Where the instrument is susceptible of two interpretations. It is a well-settled rule that a substantive law cannot be amended by a procedural law. the former prevails as latest expression of legislative intent. When there is irreconcilable repugnancy between a proviso and the body of a statute. A general law cannot repeal a special law. STATUTE AND ORDINANCE If there is conflict an ordinance and a statute. In case of conflict between a general provision of a special law and a particular provision of a general law. one which will make it invalid and illegal and another which will make it valid and legal. This is so even if the general statute is later enactment of the legislature and broad enough to include the cases in special law unless there is manifest intent to repeal or alter the special law.If both statutes are irreconcilable. The enactment of a later legislation which is general law cannot be construed to have repealed a special law. the latter will prevail. the general statute must give way to the special or particular provisions as an exception to the general provisions. the latter prevails. In case of conflict between an administrative order and the provisions of the Constitutions. the latter interpretation should be adopted. thus the later cannot repeal or amend it. the ordinance must give way. .

. imperious. EXCEPTIONS Some constitutions are merely declarations of policies. or by the executive branch or entered into by private persons for private purposes is null and void and without any force or effect. that law or contract whether promulgated by the legislative. Their provisions command the legislature to enact laws and carry out the purposes of the framers who merely establish an outline of government providing for the different departments of the governmental machinery and securing certain fundamental and inalienable rights of citizens. and unalterable except by the authority from which it emanates. Under the doctrine of constitutional supremacy. if a law or contract violates any norm of the constitution.CHAPTER XI CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE CONSTITUTION A constitution is a system of fundamental law for the governance and administration of a nation. It is supreme. absolute. ALL PROVISIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION ARE SELFEXECUTING.

They were both considered as natural-born citizens. sought to be prevented or remedied. the Constitution should be considered self-executing rather than non-self-executing. The proper interpretation of the Constitution depends more on how it was understood by the people adopting it than the framer’s understanding thereof. 2. or whether.Thus a constitutional provision is self-executing if the nature and extent of the right conferred and the liability imposed are fixed by the constitution itself. PROHIBITORY PROVISIONS GIVEN LITERAL AND STRICT INTERPRETATION Guidelines in construction and interpretation of the constitution are stressed: 1. . The Court in construing a Constitution should bear in mind the object sought to be accomplished by its adoption. One provision of the Constitution is to be separated from all the others. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION ON NATURAL-BORN CITIZENS OF THE PHILIPPINES GIVEN RETROACTIVE EFFECT Under THE 1973 Constitution. those born of Filipino fathers and those born of Filipino mothers with an alien father were placed on equal footing. unless the contrary is clearly intended. subordinated to the will of the law-making body. In case of doubt. and the evils. 3. The constitutional provision is curative in nature. but that all provisions bearing upon a particular subject are to be brought into view and to be interpreted as to effectuate the great purposes of the instrument. to be considered alone. Non-self-executing provisions would give the legislature discretion to determine when. if any. Unless it is expressly provided that a legislative act is necessary to enforce a constitutional mandate. the presumption now is that all provisions of the constitution are self-executing. they shall be effective.

IT CAN BE EXPRESS. Judicial decisions applying or interpreting the laws or the Constitution shall form part of the legal system of the Philippines. The title expresses the general subject and all the provisions are germane to the general subject. SPECIAL PROVISION PREVAILS OVER A GENERAL ONE Lex specialis derogant generali SUPREMA LEX It is time-honored that the Constitution is the Supreme Law of the land. STARE DECISIS The rule of precedents. IT CAN BE IMPLIED. the statute shall yield to the Constitution. IT CAN BE ORAL.THE CONSTITUTION MUST BE CONSTRUED IN ITS ENTIRETY AS ONE. IT CAN BE WRITTEN. RESIGNATION OF THE PRESIDENT UNDER THE 1987 CONSTITUION IS NOT GOVERNED BY ANY FORMAL REQUIREMENT AS TO FORM. Hence. It is the law of all laws. if there is conflict between a statute and the Constitution. SINGLE DOCUMENT LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION OF ONE TITLE OF ONE SUBJECT A liberal construction of the “one title-one subject” rule has been invariably adopted by the court so as not to cripple or impede legislation. .

the intention to revoke must be clear and manifest. not in the Judicial department. CHAPTER XII RECENT CASES ON STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION • The term “may” is indicative of a mere possibility. • When the law speaks in clear and categorical language. there is no occasion for interpretation. Such rule is founded on the tenderness of the law for the rights of individuals and on the plain principle that the power of punishment is vested in the Congress. an opportunity or an option. . • The abrogation or repeal of a law cannot be assumed.CONCLUSION The fundamental principle of constituitonal construction is to give effect to the intent of the framers of the organic law and of the people adopting it. • An implied repeal is predicated on a substantial conflict between the new and prior laws. • Penal laws must be construed strictly.

• Statutes that are remedial. do not fall… . It must see to it that the mandate is obeyed. no discretion is left to the judiciary. or that do not create new or take away vested rights.• Where a requirement is made explicit and unambiguous terms.

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