Chemistry 2A In-Class Worksheet Topics: Grams-to-Moles-to-Molecules problems
Information: • Pages 1-4 are examples. • Page 5 is a set of Grams-to-Moles-to-Molecules problems • Avogadro's number: 6.02 x 1023 objects = 1 mole; the objects are molecules, ions or atoms. • Once you have tried the problems by category, you need to SCRAMBLE them and see if you can still do the problems correctly! That is how they will appear on the exam! Helpful HINTS: In these problems look for two things: 1) from what unit to what unit? and 2) does the object stay the same, or does the object change? (e.g. molecules to molecules is when the object stays the same, molecules to atoms is when the object changes). EXAMPLES Involving Atoms: When dealing with atoms by themselves, for example, atoms of a noble gas (Ar, Xe, Kr) or atoms in a metal (Cu, Zn, Na) and not as part of a molecule or polyatomic ion, then we do not convert to ions or molecules. Example1 How many moles of Ar are there in a sample of gas that contains 2.84 x 1025 Ar atoms? Overall: We are starting with units of Ar atoms and our answer should be in units of moles of Ar. The object stays the same. Since Ar is by itself, we cannot convert to a larger unit at the molecular level. We go straight to moles using Avogadro's number. Step 1: Convert atoms to moles. 2.84 x 1025 Ar atoms x 1 mole Ar 6.02 x 1023 Ar atoms = 47.2 moles Ar
Example 2 If we had a sample of 32.5 grams of copper, how many copper atoms would be in the sample? Overall: We are going from units of grams of Cu to individual Cu atoms. Large to small. We always convert from Large to small going through MOLES. The object stays the same. Step 1: Find the Molar Mass (units of gram/mole) and convert from grams to moles Step 2: Use Avogadro's number. The object in this problem is atoms, because a metal Cu is thought of in terms of individual atoms rather than in a molecule. Convert from moles to atoms. 32.5 g Cu x 1 mole Cu x 6.02 x 1023 Cu atoms = 3.08 x 1023 Cu atoms 63.55 g Cu 1 mole Cu Example 3 If we put 5.76 x 1028 atoms of Zn on a gram balance, what would the balance read? Overall: Again, Zn is an isolated atom, not part of a molecule or polyatomic ion so we don't have to convert through ions or molecules. The object stays the same. We are going from units of individual atoms to grams: small to large. Step 1: Convert atoms to moles, using Avogadro's number. The object is atoms, because Zn is made of individual atoms. Step 2: Convert moles to grams using the molar mass. x 65.38 g Zn = 6.26 x 106 g Zn 5.76 x 1028 atoms Zn x x 1 mole Zn 23 6.02 x 10 Zn atoms 1 mole Zn
We can do that once we are in the molecular view. Step 1: Convert individual ions to moles using Avogadro's number. Cr2O72-).
. Again.59 x 1012 phophate ions x 1 molecule Na3PO4 = 2. or we can ask questions about the smaller units that make up a molecule: either atoms. Mg2+) or polyatomic ions (e. We do not need to go to moles or grams for this. we found the moles of sodium ions. Example 4 How many molecules of Na3PO4 were dissolved into water.46 x 10-2 moles Na1+ x 22. Step 1: Convert grams to moles using the molar mass. given in example 5 . Mg2+) or polyatomic ions (e. Step 1:Count the number of phosphate ions in the molecule and use that as your conversion factor. The object changes. We are going from sodium ions to sodium ions so we don't have to change objects at all. the central quantity that we use whenever we go from the molecular view to the big view. We can choose grams.) ions? Overall: We are going from individual ions to individual molecules. There are no molecules involved in this problem at all. 6. 2.02 x 1023 Na1+ ions 6. Both of these units are in the molecular or smallest view.g. Example 7 How many atoms (total) are in 25.g.99 g Na1+ 1 mole Na1+ = 1. = 3. In example 5. by counting the atoms in one molecule. Cr2O72-).46 x 10-2 moles of Na1+
Example 6 What is the mass of the sodium ions contained in the solution described in Example 5? Overall: We are going from individual sodium ions.889 x 1022 Na1+ ions x 1 mole Na1+ 6. if the solution of water and Na3PO4 contains 2. We can start from that information and go from the moles to the mass using the molar mass of Na.889 x 1022 Na1+ ions? Overall: We are going from individual sodium ions to moles of sodium ions. the objects and the units are the same thing. the object stays the same. Freitas
EXAMPLES Involving Ions: monatomic ions (e. or vice versa.Chemistry 2A In-Class Worksheet
Dr.g.ion Example 5 How many moles of sodium ions are in a solution that contains 3. to grams of sodium ions.59 x 1012 phophate (PO43. we may be asked for information about the molecule as a unit.49 g Na1+
EXAMPLES Involving Atoms and Ions within Molecules: When dealing with molecules.g. monatomic ions (e.59 x 1012 molecule Na3PO4 1 PO43. The object is ions. and unit of mass will work. We are also going from molecular view to the big view. The molar mass of a monatomic ion is approximately the same as the molar mass of its atom. In this instance. We need to convert atoms to moles. Since the unit isn't specified. We also need to convert from molecules to atoms.97 grams of carbon monoxide? Overall: We are going from grams (big view) to atoms (molecular view) and we are going from molecules of CO to atoms (the object changes).
Step 2: Convert moles Na2SO4 to molecules of Na2SO4 using Avogadro's number.02 x 1023 objects. 25.5 grams of Na2SO4? Overall: We are going from grams of Na2SO4 (big view) to individual ions of Na1+ (molecular view). In order to go between big view and molecular view.798 x 1018 hydrogen phosphate ions HPO42. and we go from units of individual ions to moles. Use this conversion factor to convert between molecules and moles.12 x 1024 atoms total 28.
. the smaller component of the molecule. Na1+. The object changes.ions in one molecule of K2HPO4. Step 2 In one mole there are 6.02 x 1023 Na2SO4 molecules x 2 Na1+ ions 142.06 x 1023 Na1+ ions
Example 9 How many moles of potassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) are there if some potassium hydrogen phosphate has been dissolved in water and there are 5. Convert from ions to molecules.97 g CO x 1 mole CO x 6.02 x 1023 molecules. Step 1: Convert grams Na2SO4 to moles Na2SO4 using the molar mass. Step 3: Convert molecules to atoms by counting the number of atoms in the molecule and using that as the conversion factor. Also note that we are changing objects: going from grams of a molecule Na2SO4 to monatomic ions.02 x 1023 molecules CO x 2 atoms (total) = 1. So once we convert to moles.Chemistry 2A In-Class Worksheet
Dr. Determine the number of Na1+ ions in one molecule and use that as your conversion factor to find individual ions of sodium. Step 1 Determine the number of HPO42. we will have to convert to molecules before converting to ions.5 grams of Na2SO4 x 1 mole Na2SO4 x 6. our object is a molecule because K2HPO4 is a molecule . The object is a molecule because Na2SO4 is a molecule. Freitas
Step 2: Convert moles to molecules (since our object here is a molecule of CO) using Avogadro's number. In this problem. the central quantity. 12.01 g CO 1 mole CO 1 molecule CO
Example 8 How many sodium ions are in 12. 1 mole = 6.in that solution? Overall: We need to go from individual ions (a part of a molecule) to the larger unit of molecule then to moles. we need to convert through moles. Step 3: Now we are in individual molecules.04 g Na2SO4 1 mole Na2SO4 1 Na2SO4 molecule = 1. therefore in this instance.
02 x 1023 molecules K2HPO4 1 ion HPO42= 9.02 x 1023 molecules KClO3 = 2.55 g KClO3 1 mole KClO3
.x 1 molecule K2HPO4 x 1 mole K2HPO4 6. The object is molecules because KClO3 is a molecule. We always need to use Avogadro's number to bridge the big view and the molecular view. Freitas
EXAMPLE Involving just Molecules:
Example 10 How many molecules of KClO3 are there if a sample of KClO3 has a mass of 0.798 x 1018 HPO42. The object doesn't change.5147 g. Overall: We are going from grams (big view) to molecules (molecular view).Chemistry 2A In-Class Worksheet 5.63 x 10-6 mole K2HPO4
Dr. 0. Note that we are going from grams of KClO3 to individual molecules of KClO3.5147 g KClO3 x 1 mole KClO3 x 6. so we do not have to break this down into smaller units. Step 2: Convert moles to molecules using Avogadro's number.53 x 1021 molecules KClO3 122. Step 1: Convert grams to moles using the molar mass.
54 x 108 HCN molecules. 1.75 x 105 molecules Zn(NO2)2 14. Example 9. 2. What is the mass of 3. 1.54 grams? 2.09x 10-15 moles HCN. 1. if the solution of water and Zn(NO2)2 contains 350.2 x 1017 potassium ions? 7. opposite of ex. with the added step of converting grams to moles. 8. 2. 1. 10. Ex. 4 Ans. see the list below the problems.08 grams of Al(OH)3? 16. How many moles of sodium are there when you have 6. Ans. when dissolved in water. 8.84 x 1016 carbonate ions? 6. Ans.03 x 1022 atoms Pb. How many nitrogen atoms are in 12. 3. Opposite of Example 10 Ans. How many sulfite ions are present in 12.84 x 1015 hydroxide ions? 8. Ex.35 x 1022 molecules of SrCrO4. 1 with molecules instead of atoms.77 x 1023 atoms Xe. How many oxygen atoms are in 35. 12. Ex. 15. or opposite of ex. See ex. how many moles of HCN are there?
HINTS and Answers
1. 13.00x 103 g sulfite ions. 4.5 moles of Na2SO3? 17.Chemistry 2A In-Class Worksheet For hints to solving each problem. 1.17 x 10-7 g KOH 8.68 x 1029 atoms of mercury on a gram balance. when dissolved in water.35 x 1030 atoms of iron? 3. What is the mass of the Mg3N2 molecules in problem 9? 11. and answers. What is the mass in grams of 9. Example 9 Ans. 1. 9. the sample produces 3. 5 Ans. If we have 6. What is the mass of the sulfite ions contained in 12. 7. 3 Ans.047 x 1028 atoms of sodium? 4. Ex.73 x 109 ions total.56 x 1022 N atoms. 8. 4 Ans. If we put 3.
Dr.00 x 105 moles Na. 9. Opposite of Example 10. 3.25 x 10-13 g Mg3N2 11. How many individual atoms are in a sample of xenon that has a mass of 38.45 x 108 molecules of Mg3N2 ? 10. Ex. the sample produces 9.
17. 4.6 x 10-5 g K2HPO4 7. Ans. 7 Ans.12 x 1023 O atoms. 3 Ans.5 and 6 Ans. Example 10 Ans.86 g? 9.72 x 10-8 moles calcium carbonate 6. What is the mass of a sample of K2HPO4 if. Example 9. 7 Ans.798 x 1045 dihydrogen (H2) molecules? 5. Ex.27 x 1022 g H2 5. Ans. Ans. See Ex. 16. 18.53 x 1024
sulfite ions. 7.67 x 108 g Fe.54 g? 13. Freitas
Sample Problems: 1. 3 Ans. How many molecules of SrCrO4 are in a sample of SrCrO4 that has a mass of 24.5 grams of Zn(NO2)2? 15. Ex. How many ions (total) are in 7. Don't forget to scramble these problems! Do them out of order to determine if you really understand the concepts. opposite of Ex.5 moles of Na2SO3? 18. How many moles of CaCO3 are there if a sample contains 2. 4.000 nitrite ions? 14. Ans. 1. but stop at moles instead of going to grams. See Ex. with the added step of converting grams to moles.23 x 108 g Hg. How many atoms are in a sample of lead that weighs 3. How many molecules of Zn(NO2)2 were dissolved into water. 1. What is the mass of a sample of KOH if. 9. 1. what would the sample weigh? 12.