UNIT-IV SAFETY IN MATERIAL HANDLING

I.AS/RS SYSTEM
An automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS or AS/RS) consists of a variety of computercontrolled methods for automatically placing and retrieving loads from specific storage locations.
[1]

Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) are typically used in applications where: there is a

very high volume of loads being moved into and out of storage; storage density is important because of space constraints; no value adding content is present in this process; accuracy is critical because of potential expensive damages to the load. AS/RS can be used with standard loads as well as nonstandard loads.[2]

]Overview AS/RS systems are devices designed for automated storage and retrieval of parts and items in manufacturing, distribution, retail, wholesale and institutions. They first originated in the 1980s. [citation
needed]

They are compact units that utilize the unused overhead space of a plant or warehouse, and

convert to live storage of product. Items can be placed on trays or hang from bars, which are attached to chains/drives in order to move up and down. They focus on bringing "goods to the man" rather than manual walking and searching. Space savings, increased productivity/reduced labor, increased accuracy and reduced inventory levels are some of the primary benefits. Ideal for lean manufacturing, sustainability, Six Sigma, Kanban, JIT and other value added methodologies and processes. The equipment required for an AS/RS include a storage & retrieval machine (SRM) that is used for rapid storage and retrieval of material. SRMs are used to move loads vertically or horizontally, and can also move laterally to place objects in the correct storage location. [3] The traditional vending machine is the most common and familiar AS/RS system but because the application is to do with retail sales, the logistic concept of a vending machine is missed. The trend towards just in time production often requires sub-pallet level availability of production inputs, and AS/RS is a much faster way of organizing the storage of smaller items next to production lines. Traditional high bay warehouses are designed with pallet storage in mind, and if goods are being delivered in sub pallet quantities, high bay warehouses are problematic.

Material Handling Institute of America (MHIA), the non-profit trade association for the material handling world, and its members have broken AS/RS into two primary segments: Fixed Aisle and Carousels/Vertical Lift Modules (VLMs). Both sets of technologies provide automated storage and retrieval for parts and items, but use different technologies. Each technology has its unique set of benefits and disadvantages (like everything in the world). Fixed Aisle systems are characteristically larger systems whereas carousels and Vertical Lift Modules are used individually or grouped, but in small to medium-sized applications. Fixed-aisle AS/RS is categorized into three main types: single-masted, double masted, and manaboard. Most are supported on a track and ceiling guided at the top by guide rails or channels to ensure accurate vertical alignment, although some are suspended from the ceiling. The 'shuttles' that make up the system travel between fixed storage shelves to deposit or retrieve a requested load (ranging from a single book in a library system to a several ton pallet of goods in a warehouse system). As well as moving along the ground, the shuttles are able to telescope up to the necessary height to reach the load, and can store or retrieve loads that are several positions deep in the shelving. A semi-automated system can be achieved by utilizing only specialized shuttles within an existing rack system. To provide a method for accomplishing throughput to and from the AS/RS and the supporting transportation system, stations are provided to precisely position inbound and outbound loads for pickup and delivery by the crane. In addition, there are five types of AS/RS devices called Unit-load AS/RS, Mini-load AS/RS, Vertical Lift Modules (VLMs), Horizontal Carousels and Vertical Carousels. These systems are used either as stand-alone units or in integrated workstations called pods or systems. These units are usually integrated with various types of pick to light systems and use either a microprocessor controller for basic usage or inventory management software. These systems are ideal for increasing space utilization up to 90%, productivity levels by 90%, accuracy to 99.9%+ levels and throughput up to 750 lines per hour/per operator or more depending on the configuration of the system. ]Advantages An effective automated storage and retrieval system provides several benefits for supply chain management: • An efficient AS/RS system helps companies cut expenses by minimizing the amount of unnecessary parts and products instorage, and improving organization of the contents of a warehouse. Due to automated processes, it also allows for more storage space due to high-density storage, narrower aisles, etc.[4] • Automation reduces labor costs while lowering workforce requirements and increasing safety. [5]

Modeling and managing the logical representation of the physical storage facilities (e.g. racking, etc.). For example, if certain products are often sold together or are more popular than others, those products can be grouped together or placed near the delivery area to speed up the process of picking, packing and shipping to customers.

Enabling a seamless link to order processing and logistics management in order to pick, pack, and ship product out of the facility.

Tracking where products are stocked, which suppliers they come from, and the length of time they are stored. By analysing such data, companies can control inventory levels and maximize the use of warehouse space. Furthermore, firms are more prepared for the demands and supplies of the market, especially during special circumstances such as a peak season on a particular month. Through the reports generated by an AS/RS system, firms are also able to gather important data that may be put in a model for it to be analyzed.[6]

Man-aboard AS/RS
A man-aboard AS/RS offers significant floorspace savings. This is due to the fact that the storage system heights are no longer limited by the reach height of the order picker. Shelves or storage cabinets can be stacked as high as floor loading, weight capacity, throughput requirements, and/or ceiling heights will permit. Man-aboard automated storage and retrieval systems are far and away the most expensive picker-to-stock equipment alternative. Aisle-captive storage/retrieval machines reaching heights up to 40 feet cost around $125,000. Hence, there must be enough storage density and/or productivity improvement over cart and tote picking to justify the investment. Also, because vertical travel is slow compared to horizontal travel, typical picking rates in man-aboard operations range between 40 and 250 lines per person-hour. The range is large because there is a wide variety of operating schemes for man-aboard systems. Man-aboard systems are typically appropriate for slowmoving items where space is fairly expensive. [edit]Vertical

lift module

The VLM is a board controlled automated vertical lift module. Inventory within the VLM is stored on front and rear tray locations or rails. When a tray is requested, either by entering a tray number in the built in control pad or by requesting a part through software, an extractor travels vertically between the two columns of trays and pulls the requested tray from its location and brings it to an access point. The operator then picks or replenishes stock and the tray is returned to its home upon confirmation. VLM systems are sold in numerous configurations, which could be applied in different industries, logistics, as well as office settings. The VLM systems could be customized to fully utilize the height of

the facility, even through multiple floors. With the capability of multiple access openings on different floors, the VLM system is able to provide an innovative storage and retrieval solution. The rapid movement of the extractor as well as inventory management software can dramatically increase the efficiency of the picking process. This occurs by simultaneously retrieving and storing trays in multiple units. Unlike large AS/RS systems, which require a complete overhaul of the warehouse or production line, the vertical lift modules are modularized, which can be easily integrated into the existing system, or to be rolled out in gradually over different phases. Most common applications include: MRO, order picking, consolidation, kitting, parts handling, buffering, inventory storage, WIP, buffer storage, and many more. VLMs provide floor space savings, increased labor productivity, improved worker ergonomics, and controlled process. Most VLMs offer dynamic space storage which measures the tray every time it's returned to the unit to optimize space, safety features and some offer tilt tray delivery for increased ergonomic accessibility, and laser pointers which indicate the exact item to be picked on each tray. [edit]Horizontal

carousels

A horizontal carousel is a series of bins which rotate on an oval track. Every bin has shelves which are adjustable to .75" and can be configured for a myriad of standard and special applications. An operator simply inputs a bin number, part number or cell location and the carousel will rotate via the shortest path. Multiple horizontal carousels integrated with pick to light technology and inventory management software (a pod of carousels) are used for order fulfillment. A wave of orders are sent to the pod. A group of orders are selected to create a batch. The operator simply follows the lights and pick round robin from the carousels and place items in a batch station behind them. Each carousel pre-positions and rotates when picked. By applying the "product to picker" principle, operators do not have to move from their position to prepare the order. When the batch is complete, a new batch is inducted and the process repeated until the wave is complete. Horizontal carousels can save up to 75% of floorspace, increase productivity by 2/3, accuracy levels to 99.9%+ levels and throughput up to 750 lines per hour/operator. Horizontal carousel systems generally outperform robotic systems for a fraction of the cost. Horizontal carousels are the most cost effective AS/RS system available. [citation needed] On a simplistic level, horizontal carousels are also often used as "rotating shelving." 'With simple "fetch" command items are brought to the operator and otherwise wasted space is eliminated. [edit]Installed

applications

 Eye protection. were the more commonly cited movements that caused back injuries. Metal. such as gloves. Because numerous injuries can result from improperly handling and storing materials. or plastic metatarsal guards to protect the instep area from impact or compression.000 workplace accidents resulted in back injuries. In addition. Whether moving materials manually or mechanically. workers should always wear appropriate personal protective equipment and use proper lifting techniques. In 1999. for loads with sharp or rough edges. including the following:    Strains and sprains from lifting loads improperly or from carrying loads that are either too large or too heavy. Employers and employees should examine their workplaces to detect any unsafe or unhealthful conditions. practices. handling. for example. What precautions should workers take when moving materials manually? When moving materials manually. more than 420. your employees should know and understand the potential hazards associated with the task at hand and how to control their workplaces to minimize the danger. and storing of materials. followed by twisting and turning. improperly stacked materials. workers should also be aware of accidents that may result from the unsafe or improper handling of equipment as well as from improper work practices. such as at UNR library. You should make your employees aware of potential injuries that can occur when manually moving materials.Installed applications of this technology can be wide ranging.  When employees cannot see around or over a load. What are the potential hazards for workers? Workers frequently cite the weight and bulkiness of objects that they lift as major contributing factors to their injuries. and Cuts and bruises caused by falling materials that have been improperly stored or by incorrectly cutting ties or other securing devices. To prevent injury from oversize loads. or equipment and take corrective action. such a system is employed to retrieve books. nvolving the moving. . fiber.   Steel-toed safety shoes or boots. workers should attach handles or holders to loads. and various types of equipment. Fractures and bruises caused by being struck by materials or by being caught in pinch points. workers should be able to recognize the methods for eliminating—or at least minimizing—the occurrence of such accidents. In addition. In some libraries. Using the following personal protective equipment prevents needless injuries when manually moving materials:  Hand and forearm protection. Still others in use involve retrieval of bicycles from a bicycle tree. Other hazards include falling objects. workers should seek help in the following:  When a load is so bulky that employees cannot properly grasp or lift it. Bending. or  When employees cannot safely handle a load. as in the case of systems in Japan.

    Do not place extra weight on the rear of a counterbalanced forklift to allow an overload. Employers should make workers aware of such factors as the materials' height and weight. What precautions must workers take to avoid storage hazards? Stored materials must not create a hazard for employees. employers must do the following:  Keep storage areas free from accumulated materials that cause tripping. or explosions. Blocking materials and timbers should be large and strong enough to support the load safely. Although workers may be knowledgeable about powered equipment.  Place stored materials inside buildings that are under construction and at least 6 feet from hoist ways. or inside floor openings and at least 10 feet away from exterior walls. and Pile and cross-tier all stacked loads correctly when possible. . Workers must be aware of both manual handling safety concerns and safe equipment operating techniques. All materials-handling equipment has rated capacities that determine the maximum weight the equipment can safely handle and the conditions under which it can handle that weight. and Equip employees who work on stored grain in silos. Employees should avoid overloading equipment when moving materials mechanically by letting the weight. To prevent creating hazards when storing materials. When picking up items with a powered industrial truck. or that may contribute to the harboring of rats and other pests. workers should not use materials with rounded corners. In addition to materials with cracks. for additional information. Adjust the load to the lowest position when traveling. Personal Protective Equipment (OSHA 3077). workers must do the following:  Center the load on the forks as close to the mast as possible to minimize the potential for the truck tipping or the load falling. What precautions should workers take when moving materials mechanically? Using mechanical equipment to move and store materials increases the potential for employee injuries. how accessible the stored materials are to the user.See OSHA's booklet. Workers should also be cautious when placing blocks under a raised load to ensure that the load is not released before removing their hands from under the load. Employers must ensure that the equipment-rated capacity is displayed on each piece of equipment and is not exceeded except for load testing. fires. and shape of the material being moved dictate the type of equipment used. and the condition of the containers where the materials are being stored when stacking and piling materials. or dry rot for blocking. splintered pieces.   Separate noncompatible material. they should take precautions when stacking and storing material. size. Follow the truck manufacturer's operational requirements. or tanks. Employees should use blocking materials to manage loads safely.  Avoid overloading a lift truck because it impairs control and causes tipping over. with lifelines and safety belts. hoppers.

Falling materials and collapsing loads can crush or pin workers. Use the walkway on the ship’s side away from the side on which cargois being worked. Lay strongbacks flat to prevent tipping over.8. Stand clear when strongbacks and hatch covers are handled on the deck above.6. crowbars. Use the accommodation ladder or brow for boarding or leaving the ship.11.12. or collapsing.16.2. Stand clear of slings being pulled from under loads.3. Disorderly piles create trippingand stumbling hazards. Secure hatch rollers properly.    Stack and level lumber on solidly supported bracing. Secure all lashings to permanent deck fastenings.7. Never depend on movableobjects lying on deck (dunnage. and no more than 20 feet if using a forklift. Do not drop or throw. workers must do the following:  Stack lumber no more than 16 feet high if it is handled manually. Stack hatch covers in an orderly manner. When removing or replacing strongbacks. and other objects into the hoIdby cargo falls or other lines. To help prevent injuries when stacking materials. Do not wear rings.4.17. and so forth). causing injuries or death. falling. keep them between you andthe open hatch.15. slings. Stand in the clear away from suspended loads.10. Be particularly careful when handling objects with sharp or rough edges. or interlocking to prevent it from sliding.13. What safeguards must workers follow when stacking materials? Stacking materials can be dangerous if workers do not follow safety guidelines. When steadying loads. hatch covers. Do not store pipes and bars in racks that face main aisles to avoid creating a hazard to passersby when r SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Wear safety shoes and helmets. Ensure that stacks are stable and self-supporting. Learn and practice proper lifting techniques to .5.14. Lower blocks.In addition. always face them and keep your feet in the clear. and secure it by stacking. Use the ladders in the square of the hatch only when the hoist is not in motion.  Remove all nails from used lumber before stacking.9. bridles. workers should consider placing bound material on racks. blocking.

23. Report all injuries.18. Step down from elevators. Never walk backwards. Report all defects in tools.22. or arguments while workingcargo. and get immediate first aid or medicalattention.24. do not jump.21. materials. Do not smoke in holds and storerooms.20. practical jokes. Do not engage in horseplay.19. however slight. Know the location of firefighting equipment. . and equipment.prevent strains and sprains.

consists of determining "how a product should be moved from one place to another. 18 lbs. or more. confine the flow of materials . paper or cotton bags of rice. SECTION ONE GRAVITY APPLICATION Probably no other type of conveyor is applied to so many gravity materials handling uses as roller and wheel conveyor. roller conveyor should not be used for conveying burlap bags of coffee beans. or as long as 100 ft. Conveyors. in aluminum) are to be handled and where semi-rigid filled multi-wall paper bags or bales are to be handled. handling various packaged materials efficiently for distances as short as 2 ft. wheel conveyor may be substituted where a portable type gravity conveyor is required. however. in an over-simplified. Most items are best handled on roller conveyor. where light weight containers (38 lbs. and. cotton bags of flour or freshly filled paper bags of cement because the type of material mentioned has a tendency to drape over rollers. for the least cost and with the least amount of manual effort". which you may encounter.ection One: Gravity Conveyors Section Two: Powered Belt Conveyors Section Three: Live Roller Conveyors Section Four: Chain Conveyors Section Five: Supports Section Six: Couplings Section Seven: Accessories Section Eight: Useful Formulas Section Nine: Essential Information Required Section Ten: A Brief History of Conveyor FORWARD The package conveyor business has been in existence for almost one hundred years. it will be up to you to sift through to determine the best conveyor for your particular application. This publication will merely give you an idea of the uses of the many different types of conveyors available. in steel. when properly applied. It is extremely difficult to put in to writing the many years of problem solving experienced by "old-timers" in this industry. within the shortest allowable period of time. basically. per ft. In general. no two solutions are identical. We hope that this publication will help to guide you to the best possible solution to the many material handling problems. per ft. Material handling engineering. Any item from light bulbs to bagged cement to heavy castings can be moved on gravity.

[1] The forklift has since become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing operations. Fork lift trucks • • • Hand pallet truck . a fork truck.no power system of any kind Walkie low lift truck[5] . usually Electrically Powered [citation needed] Rider low lift truck[5] . or a forklift) is a powered industrialtruck used to lift and transport materials. The modern forklift was developed in the 1960s by various companies including the transmission manufacturing company Clark and the hoist company Yale & Towne Manufacturing.usually Electrically Powered .powered pallet truck.A forklift truck (also called a lift truck.

butane.[citation needed] • Electric Forklifts .• • • • Towing tractor[5] . Electric forklifts are primarily used indoors on flat. North American Engines come with advanced emission control systems.comes in Stand on End Control. and Sit Down Center Control. Two Stroke Compression Ignition. which are common in North America.Powered by lead-acid batteries. also known as a pallet truck. the forks are separated vertically from the front wheels. The front wheels are mounted inside the end of the forks.comes in Stand on End Control. Forklifts built in countries like Iran or Russia will typically have no emission control systems. and generally regarded as safer[citation needed] • Electric Counterbalanced truck[5]. which is the most numerous[citation needed] • Internal Combustion Engine Powered Counterbalanced Forklift [5]. which is the most numerous. or propane fueled. The pallet is only lifted enough to clear the floor for subsequent tras Safe workload of wire rea WIRE ROPE SAFE WORKING LOADThe term safe working load (SWL) of wire ropemeans the load that can be applied and still . even surfaces. Electric forklift batteries last 6 consecutive hours or througho A pallet jack. usually Electrically Powered. named because the forks can extend to reach the load. Four Stroke Spark Ignition (common). pump truck.usually Electrically Powered Rider stacker[5] . or jigger is a tool used to lift and move pallets. natural gas. reach trucks and pallet jacks.Maybe Internal Combustion Engine or Electric Powered Walkie stacker[5] . stackers. There are two variants.usually Electrically Powered Reach truck [5]. designed for small aisles. scissor lifts. several types of forklifts are electric: cushion tire forklifts. order pickers. Engines may be diesel. Stand on Center Control. Stand on Center Control. and Four Stroke Compression Ignition (common). kerosene. gasoline. moving carriage. and as the hydraulic jack is raised.Variant on a Rider Stacker forklift. and moving mast which are common in the rest of the world. forcing the load upward until it clears the floor. and may be either Two Stroke Spark Ignition. and Sit Down Center Control.

obtain themost efficient service and also prolong the life of therope. compute the SWL formula: (.5). worn.NOTE: Do NOT downgrade the SWL of wire ropedue to being old. multiplied by8 (D x D x 8 = SWL in tons). or in poor condition.Example: The wire rope is 1/2 inch in diameter.5 x 8 = 2 tons).The SWL of the 1/2-inch wire rope is 2 tons.5 x .Next.The formula for computing the SWL of a wirerope is the diameter of the rope squared.Compute the SWL for the rope. Wire ropein these conditions should be cut up an Wire rope information page .The first step is to convert the 1/2 into decimalnumber by dividing the bottom number of the fractioninto the top number of the fraction: ( 1 divided by 2 = .

the 6 represents the number of outer strands each made up of thin wires . 2. FC means 'fibre core' .often blue or green in colour. . a galvanised steel 6mm diameter wire rope has a breaking strength of just over 2000kg . Types of wire rope The most common type of wire rope is called a galvanised steel 6/19 FC wire rope .if you fit eyelets to a length of wire rope.in the early days this was a sisal string but in 2011 it is a plastic string . For example. you are effectively damaging this wire rope (by stretching) and it can no longer be described as 'new'.this translates to a 'Safe Working Limit (or Load)' of 400kg (= 20% of 2000kg).1.the 19 tells you the number of thin wires in each strand. For this reason. Breaking strength of wire ropes and Safe Working Load There is a lot of information about this on the internet . 3. then subject it to a tensometer test to confirm that this wire rope with eyelets fitted is sufficiently strong. the Certificates of Compliance which we supply (if requested) with every rope certify that the wire rope used conforms to international standards and that the eyelets are fitted using equipment and techniques which comply with international standards. Testing of wire ropes This provides an interesting dilemma .the convention is to 'de-rate' the wire rope to 20% of its ultimate breaking strength.

5. I have seen a set of wire ropes where a cheap grease had actually caused the galvanised steel wires to rust rapidly (presumably this grease contained some corrosive substance) . In theory. Spray grease can be useful for reaching inaccessible parts of the wire-rope after installation. but when used on crank-up towers the wire ropes flex a lot when wound onto and off winch drums. 6mm.) and/or the year of manufacture is usually stamped on the ferrules at one end of every rope.stainless steel is prone to 'work hardening' and breaking without warning.keep these areas well greased. around pulleys etc.W. along with a unique rope identification number.engineeringtoolbox. Use plenty grease and rub it into the ropes. In many other applications the stainless steel rope does not flex regularly and is therefore perfectly safe. More information can be found here : http://www. There lies the danger .in practice most common pulleys will be suitable for several different wire diameters. the design is such that the wire ropes rub against parts of the tower sections as they are raised or lowered . Maintenance Wire ropes should be kept well greased at all times. 6. There have been numerous documented cases recently of stainless steel wire ropes on crank-up towers breaking without warning.wire ropes will quickly wear and could break if they rub excessively against metal parts of the tower.shiny and 'new' for most of their life. 8mm etc . Make sure *every* part of the wire rope is greased.html 4.L. making stainless steel an unsuitable material for the purpose. . often where an electric winch system is used to frequently raise and lower the tower.com/wire-rope-strength-d_1518. Installation Follow the installation instructions carefully .The Safe Working Load (S.ordinary high-melting point grease is suitable but beware of cheap varieties. different pulleys (sheaves) should be used for each different diameter of wire rope 5mm. Why not stainless steel wire ropes ? Stainless steel wire ropes look great . For example on Versatowers.

the rope is potentially dangerous and should be replaced immediately.in the early days this was a sisal string but in 2011 it is a plastic string . frequency of use. Types of wire rope The most common type of wire rope is called a galvanised steel 6/19 FC wire rope .the most common indicator of when a wire rope needs replacement is when one or more of the thin outer wires break . Testing of wire ropes . etc) . Inspection and replacement A well-maintained set of wire ropes should last at least 5 years or more (depending on correct installation.often blue or green in colour.often these small sharp wire ends are difficult to see (especially with a grease covering) so the only way to detect them may be to run your hand along the rope and feel for them (caution .if you feel even 1 small outer wire broken. Another area where wire ropes fray and show signs of wear is just beside the eyelets/ferrules at the ends. local weather conditions.the 6 represents the number of outer strands each made up of thin wires .the 19 tells you the number of thin wires in each strand. Again look/feel for small broken wires. ________________________________________________ Wire rope information page 1. correct loading for the wire diameter. 2.7. FC means 'fibre core' .can/will be painful !) Don't hesitate .

stainless steel is prone to 'work hardening' and breaking without warning.This provides an interesting dilemma . then subject it to a tensometer test to confirm that this wire rope with eyelets fitted is sufficiently strong. Why not stainless steel wire ropes ? Stainless steel wire ropes look great . For this reason. There have been numerous documented cases recently of stainless steel wire ropes on crank-up towers breaking without warning.W. the Certificates of Compliance which we supply (if requested) with every rope certify that the wire rope used conforms to international standards and that the eyelets are fitted using equipment and techniques which comply with international standards.if you fit eyelets to a length of wire rope. but when used on crank-up towers the wire ropes flex a lot when wound onto and off winch drums. 3. a galvanised steel 6mm diameter wire rope has a breaking strength of just over 2000kg . around pulleys etc. The Safe Working Load (S.engineeringtoolbox.the convention is to 'de-rate' the wire rope to 20% of its ultimate breaking strength. along with a unique rope identification number. More information can be found here : http://www.) and/or the year of manufacture is usually stamped on the ferrules at one end of every rope. In many other applications the stainless steel rope does not flex regularly and is therefore perfectly safe. For example. Breaking strength of wire ropes and Safe Working Load There is a lot of information about this on the internet . For . you are effectively damaging this wire rope (by stretching) and it can no longer be described as 'new'. 5.shiny and 'new' for most of their life. often where an electric winch system is used to frequently raise and lower the tower. There lies the danger .html 4.com/wire-rope-strength-d_1518.L.this translates to a 'Safe Working Limit (or Load)' of 400kg (= 20% of 2000kg). Installation Follow the installation instructions carefully .wire ropes will quickly wear and could break if they rub excessively against metal parts of the tower. making stainless steel an unsuitable material for the purpose.

frequency of use. the rope is potentially dangerous and should be replaced immediately. etc) . different pulleys (sheaves) should be used for each different diameter of wire rope 5mm.in practice most common pulleys will be suitable for several different wire diameters.the most common indicator of when a wire rope needs replacement is when one or more of the thin outer wires break .if you feel even 1 small outer wire broken. Use plenty grease and rub it into the ropes. Maintenance Wire ropes should be kept well greased at all times.often these small sharp wire ends are difficult to see (especially with a grease covering) so the only way to detect them may be to run your hand along the rope and feel for them (caution . In theory.keep these areas well greased. Again look/feel for small broken wires. I have seen a set of wire ropes where a cheap grease had actually caused the galvanised steel wires to rust rapidly (presumably this grease contained some corrosive substance) . 7.example on Versatowers. Make sure *every* part of the wire rope is greased. Inspection and replacement A well-maintained set of wire ropes should last at least 5 years or more (depending on correct installation. 8mm etc . Another area where wire ropes fray and show signs of wear is just beside the eyelets/ferrules at the ends. the design is such that the wire ropes rub against parts of the tower sections as they are raised or lowered . Spray grease can be useful for reaching inaccessible parts of the wire-rope after installation. correct loading for the wire diameter. 6.can/will be painful !) Don't hesitate .ordinary high-melting point grease is suitable but beware of cheap varieties. local weather conditions. ________________________________________________ . 6mm.

101 . Don’t place obstruction in means of escape. Incidents of such fire risk have increased enormously.Owing to the rapid growth of industries. 1. Welding/Hot work should be carried out under proper fire watch. Store flammable liquids gases. Don’t use damaged cords and avoid temporary connections. If adequate fire prevention measures are taken the losses can be minimized. all traces of flammable material must be removed to a safe distance. 3. Where hazardous chemicals are used/stored. Keep chemicals in cool and dry place away from heat. Notice invited f of Canteen-Kio purpose of sale RFP bids invited undertaking co Socio-economic households in j clusters in delh 4. correctly labeled. Maintain good house keeping. ensure adequate ventilation and prohibit smoking. Before welding operation. complexities of fire risk have increased enormously. Latest New An Approach to Plan 2012-17 Delhi Geo-Spat Infrastructure A Guideline for W Do’s Don’ts 1. 3. 7. Regular fire drills should be carried out.2010 Fire is a Good Servant.Prevent Fire IN CASE OF FIRE • Raise an alarm and inform the Fire Brigade on Telephone No. 6. Don’t plug to many electrical appliances in one socket. chemicals in stable racks. Don’t smoke in prohibited areas. 4. solvents. But a Bad Master . loss of production. Incidents of such fires not only result in huge loss offire and property but also cause dislocation of work. Keep all machinery clean and lubricate it to avoid friction and overheating. DOWNLOAD PRECAUTIONS FOR REFERENCE Last Updated : 06 May. 2. Ensure cigarettes are extinguished before disposal Use fuses and circuit breakers of correct capacity. unemployment and so many other kinds of suffering. 2. The Delhi Muni Corporation (Am 2011(Delhi Act Local Servi Feedback Grievances 9. 5. 8.

• Attack the fire with available equipment. • Close all doors and windows behind you.O. IN THE INTEREST OF YOUR OWN SAFETY • You must know the escape routes. • Availability of fire fighting equipment in the premises do not prevent out break of fire. • Do not shout or run. • No objection certificate from Delhi Fire Service is not a guarantee against the out break of fire. This tends to cause panic. • If two nozzles are used to throw water on to the fire. HELP THE FIREMEN TO HELP YOU • Give way to fire engines to enable them to reach at the incident quickly. • Report to the person incharge at the assembly point. IF YOU HEAR THE FIRE ALARM • Leave the premises by the nearest available exit. • You do not need a coin to communicate on this number. • Guide firemen to water sources ie. They help in minimizing the losses due to fire if maintained and operated immediately. It takes only 4 minutes to empty a water tender. effectively and efficiently. . pounds. YOU SHOULD KNOW THAT • About 600 litres of water flow through a nozzle in a minute. • Call the Fire Brigade • The services of the Fire Bridgade are provided free of cost Dial 101 irrespective of the size of the fire. Tube wells. • Allow them to use your telephone to communicate with the control room.C. how to operate fire alarm and how to use first aid fire fighting equipments. in case of fire. if you can do so without undue risk. • Don’t park your cars/truck close to fire hydrants/underground static water tanks. even when you use the P. • Hydraulic Platform/turn table ladders can reach to a height of 60m/45m under most favourable operating conditions. • A water tender carries 4500 litres of water only. static tanks etc. • Do not use lift as a means of escape.

• Don’t park your cars/truck close to fire hydrants/underground static water tanks. But a Bad Master . • Call the Fire Brigade • The services of the Fire Bridgade are provided free of cost Dial 101 irrespective of the size of the fire. in case of fire. This tends to cause panic.Prevent Fire IN CASE OF FIRE • Raise an alarm and inform the Fire Brigade on Telephone No. even when you use the P. Fire is a Good Servant. static tanks etc. 101 • Attack the fire with available equipment. IF YOU HEAR THE FIRE ALARM • Leave the premises by the nearest available exit.O. how to operate fire alarm and how to use first aid fire fighting equipments. • Close all doors and windows behind you. HELP THE FIREMEN TO HELP YOU • Give way to fire engines to enable them to reach at the incident quickly. IN THE INTEREST OF YOUR OWN SAFETY • You must know the escape routes. pounds. • A water tender carries 4500 litres of water only. • You do not need a coin to communicate on this number.• Non-informing fire service about the fire incident is a cognizable offence.C. Tube wells. • Allow them to use your telephone to communicate with the control room. if you can do so without undue risk. • Guide firemen to water sources ie. • Report to the person incharge at the assembly point. • Do not use lift as a means of escape. YOU SHOULD KNOW THAT • About 600 litres of water flow through a nozzle in a minute. • Do not shout or run. .

. • Non-informing fire service about the fire incident is a cognizable offence. • Hydraulic Platform/turn table ladders can reach to a height of 60m/45m under most favourable operating conditions. It takes only 4 minutes to empty a water tender. • No objection certificate from Delhi Fire Service is not a guarantee against the out break of fire. effectively and efficiently. • Availability of fire fighting equipment in the premises do not prevent out break of fire.• If two nozzles are used to throw water on to the fire. They help in minimizing the losses due to fire if maintained and operated immediately.

• Keep smoke/Fire Check doors closed. • Fire Rescue drills should be carried out at regular intervals. observe the following basic precautions. Therefore. • Welding /Cutting jobs should be carried out under strict supervision. • Faculty electrical appliances should be repaired/replaced immediately. • Don’t plug too many electrical appliances in one socket. • Impart elementary fire fighting training to occupants. • Keep means of escape clear of obstructions. • Switches and fuses should conform to correct rating of circuit.Fire Precautions in High Rise Buildings The threat of fire in High Rise Buildings is constant and if adequate precautionary measures are not taken. • All receptacles for waste should be emptied at regular intervals. Don’ts • Don’t dispose off lighted cigarette ends carelessly. Do’s • Good House Keeping must be ensured. • Always use ashtrays while smoking and deposit smoked butts in them after extinguishing. the consequences can be grave. • Emergency organization must be setup. • Don’t paint fire detector/sprinkler heads .

• Never light flowerpot (anar) while holding it. And never leave open fire unattended. • Don’t throw matches. cigarette ends or pipe ash into waste pipe baskets. • Never reach for any article over a fire. • Papers. • Never light fireworks under confinement in a metal container. agarbattis or candles on the floor or near combustible material. • Turn off the cylinder valve and burned knob of the gas stove after cooking.Fire Precautions in Residential Area Do’s • Keep your house neat and clean. wires switches and sockets. • Keep the escape routes/staircases free of any obstructions. used cigarettes and bidis. • Don’t leave spray cans on or near heaters or in direct sunlight they could explode. • Don’t wear loose. • Don’t place oil laps. • Keep LPG stoves on raised platform Never on the floor. • Don’t keep crackers in you pocket or use fireworks inside the house. Don’ts • Don’t middle with electrical fixtures like plugs. • Don’t refill a burning stove. • Keep matches. . • Use metal ashtrays while smoking to dispose off matches. • Use only one electrical appliance in one socket. flowing clothes while cooking specially avoid synthetic clothing. In case of Burn Injuries Due to Fire. Handle crackers with care. lighters and crackers away from children. Pour Water Over Burn Till Pain Subsides. • Keep a bucket of water handy while using fireworks. clothes and flammable liquids should be kept away from heaters/stoves/open choolahs.

Fire Safety Precautions Against Electricity .

S.About 60% fires are of electric origin on account of electric short circuit. therefore. if proper instructions are not followed. It can lead to serious fire and fatal accidents. Switch off power supply to de-energise the equipment. • Fuses and switches should be mounted on metallic cubicles for greater safety against fire. overloading. • Switch off appliance after use and remove the plug from the socket. dry powder or Halon extinguishers. • Replace broken plugs and switches. • Switch off the electric supply of the fire affected areas. Such incidents can be minimized to a great extent if adequate fire precautions are observed. CO2. It is. certified appliances. Instruction for Fire Safety in Respect of Temporary Structures/Pandals • The height of the ceiling of the pandal should not be less than 3 metres. • Don’t allow appliances cords to dangle. improper electrical wiring. carelessness and ignorance etc. They get crushed. • Use good quality fuses of correct rating. • Don’t lay wires under carpets. mats or doorways. . mats or doorways. Use dry sand. illegal tapping of electrical wires. • Switch off he ‘Main’ switch when leaving home for a long duration. appliances. Don’ts • Don’t use substandard fixtures. resulting in short circuiting.I. overheating. • Don’t place bare wire ends in a socket. use or nonstandard appliances. miniature circuit breakers and earth leakage circuit breakers. • Margins of at least 3 metres should be kept on all sides-away from any preexisting walls or buildings. necessary to act fast. Do’s • Use I. • Don’t lay wires under carpets. They get crushed. • No synthetic materials or synthetic ropes should be used in such structures. Raise an alarm for help. • Never have temporary or naked joints on wiring. • Use one socket for one appliance. resulting in short circuiting. Electrical fires spread rapidly especially in buildings and cause loss of lives and property. • Keep the electrical wires away from hot and wet surface.

electric substations. • Structure should be erected reasonably away from railway lines.5 metres). furnaces or other hazardous places and a minimum distance of 15 metres should be maintained. • First-aid fire extinguishers or water buckets must be installed at strategic points inside and outside of the pandal. • No combustible material like wood shavings. flammable and explosive chemicals and similar materials should be permitted to be stored in the vicinity or inside the pandal.• No structure should be erected underneath any live electrical line. straw.There should be provision for stand by emergency light. • Exits on all sides of the pandal shall be kept sufficiently wide (minimum 1. .

First-aid fire extinguishers or water buckets must be installed at strategic points inside and outside of the pandal. which are having clearance from fire service . 200/ enhances these charges on 1st April every year as per the present policy. Therefore. subject to availability on payment of prescribed charges which at present is Rs.I. The fire engines are provided. straw. which they are booking for various functions are having valid No Objection certificate from fire department. Sheets) from the remaining area of the temporary structure. • Kitchen must be segregated by providing separation walls of noncombustible material (G. • The height of the ceiling of the pandal should not be less than 3 metres.I. such functions be held in those premises only. Kitchen must be segregated by providing separation walls of noncombustible material (G. • Margins of at least 3 metres should be kept on all sides-away from any preexisting walls or buildings. • Exits on all sides of the pandal shall be kept sufficiently wide (minimum 1. • There should be provision for stand by emergency light.• No fireworks display with open flames of any kind should be permitted close to the temporary structure/pandal. • No structure should be erected underneath any live electrical line. electric substations. Sheets) from the remaining area of the temporary structure Fire safety during public/private functions Frequent requests are received by Delhi Fire Service for providing fire safety for providing fire safety cover in the public/private functions. • Structure should be erected reasonably away from railway lines. 3000/ per day or part thereof. flammable and explosive chemicals and similar materials should be permitted to be stored in the vicinity or inside the pandal. • No combustible material like wood shavings. • No fireworks display with open flames of any kind should be permitted close to the temporary structure/pandal. furnaces or other hazardous places and a minimum distance of 15 metres should be maintained.5 metres). • No synthetic materials or synthetic ropes should be used in such structures. The public should ensure that the auditorium/stadiums. Rs.

Such incidents can be minimized if the following fine precautions are observed. Basic Fire Precautions in Rural Areas Every year thousands of fires occur in villages and farms resulting in heavy losses and depletion of stock of the most valuable and vitally required harvested crops meant for caving the teaming million from starvation. In many cases. • Maintain good house keeping. • Before welding operation. Incidents of such fire risk have increased enormously. • Don’t place obstruction in means of escape. correctly labeled. • Regular fire drills should be carried out Don’ts • Don’t smoke in prohibited areas. • Keep all machinery clean and lubricate it to avoid friction and overheating. • Don’t use damaged cords and avoid temporary connections. Do’s . • Welding/Hot work should be carried out under proper fire watch. • Don’t plug to many electrical appliances in one socket. chemicals in stable racks. unemployment and so many other kinds of suffering. complexities of fire risk have increased enormously. loss of production. ensure adequate ventilation and prohibit smoking. • Where hazardous chemicals are used/stored. • Keep chemicals in cool and dry place away from heat.Fire Protections in Industries Owing to the rapid growth of industries. even lives are lost. Incidents of such fires not only result in huge loss of fire and property but also cause dislocation of work. solvents. all traces of flammable material must be removed to a safe distance. If adequate fire prevention measures are taken the losses can be minimized. Do’s • Store flammable liquids gases. Ensure cigarettes are extinguished before disposal • Use fuses and circuit breakers of correct capacity.

the minimum age 6f. It contains detailed provisions regarding the health. • While building up hay stacks.. ponds. all over India. in India. FACTORIES ACT The object of the Factories Act is to regulate the conditions of work in manufacturing establishments coming within the definition of the term "factory" as used in the Act. • Burning of waste material. the Factories Act applies to factories belonging to the Central or any State Government. • Keep combustible materials such as fuel wood. the hours of work. build up the stacks near tube wells. grass land. o (v) If possible. as defined in. • The dwellings and huts should be constructed as far as possible with noncombustible materials. 116.• Extinguish cigarette/bidi ends and match sticks before disposal.--Sec. 1934 and 1948. 1922. This was followed by new Acts in 1891. workers. The provisions of the Amendment have been quoted and summarised at the appropriate . (i). spirits etc. safety and welfare of workers inside factories. 1911. APPLICATION OF THE ACT The Factories Act of 1948 came into force on 1st April 1949. relating to the subject was passed in 1881. In 1976 the Act was amended extensively. The first Act. It applies to factories. The Act is based on the . or were working on any day of .places in this chapter. river or other water sources. The term Factory is defined in Section 2 (m) of the Act as follows: "Factory means any premises including the precincts thereof. the Act. stubble etc. • Provide spark arrestors on Tractor Exhaust pipe. including the State of Jammu and Kashmir.Factory. in a separate room. Unless 'otherwise provided. • Electric installations should be carried out by a qualified electrician. rubbish. The Act of 1948 is more comprehensive than the previous Acts. leave with pay etc. DEFINITIONS UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT .provisions of the Factories Act of Great Britain passed in 1937. oil paints. whereon ten or more workers are working. should always be done away from the residence under proper supervision. ensure that o (i) A minimum distance of 20m from stack to stack or stack to residences is maintained o (ii) Height of stack should not be more than 8m. o (iii) Limit one stack to a maximum of 20 tonnes o (iv) Keep water drums and few buckets near hay stacks. The Act has been amended several times.

. breaking up. Explanation. altering. or (vi) preserving or storing any article in cold storage. or bottle washing works come within the Act. Hune The following undertakings have been held to be manufacturing processesbidi-making.carpet beating. finishing or breaking up ships or vessels . demolishing. a railway running shed or a hotel. or (v) constructing. This term is defined in Section 2(k) in a very wide sense. water. if mechanical power is used. a railway running shed. repairing.] Under Section 85. photogravure or other similar processes or book binding . 2. . For the corresponding section of the English Act. or is ordinarily so carried on.___ but does not include a mine subject to the operation of the Indian Mines Act. be taken into account. It iIicludes : (i) making. transport. packing. finishing. mobile unit belonging to the armed forces of the Union. [Clause 2(m) as amended in 1976. restaurant or eating place. or (Hi) generating. It employs the prescribed minimum number of "workers" viz. 1952 (Act XXXV of 1952). the State Government is empowered to declare any establishment carrying on a manufacturing process to be a factory for the purposes of the Act even though it employs less than the prescribed minimum number of workers. a hotel. cleaning. refitting. Summary: From Sec. sewage or any other substance. It is not a mine coming within the purview of the Indian Mines Act of 1952. and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power.-For computing the number of workers for the purposes of this clause all the workers in different relays in a day shall. conversion of raw-films into finished products. provided that the manufacturing process is not being carried on by the owner only with the aid of his family. ornamenting. oiling. and twenty if no "power" is used. reconstructing. restaurant or eating place. Patterson v. or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months. . washing. 3. or (iii) (iv) composing types for printing. printing by letter press. the preparation of . or (ii) whereon twenty or more workers are working. delivery or disposal. It is sufficient if the prescribed number of workers were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months. It is a place where a "manufacturing process" is carried on. sale. or otherwise treating or adopting any article or substance with a view to its use. ten if "'power" is used. and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power or is ordinarily so carried on. it was held that the different processes enumerated in the clauses are merely illustrative so that laundries. Manufacturing Process. lithography. 2(m) of the Act it follows that m establishment comes within the definition of a Factory if the conditions stated below are satisfied : 1.the preceding twelve months. or a mobile unit belonging to the armed forces of the Union. transforming or transmitting power. or (ii)pumping oil.

--Sec."Sec."--Sec. 2 ( e) .eatables in the kitchen of a restaurant . motor or other appliance which generates or otherwise provides power. "Transmission machinery means any shaft. Adult. or connected 'with. clutch. Transmission machinery. system of pulleys. ° Adolescent. "Prime mover means any engine. 2(h). "Adult means a person who has completed his eighteenth year of age". Worker. transmission machinery and all other appliances whereby power is generated.process. "Power means electrical energy. is not observed. as amended in 1976. or in any other kind of work incidental to. is a manufacturing process. or any other form of energy which is mechanically transmitted and is not generated by human or animal agency."--Sec. or in cleaning any part of the machinery or premises used for a manufacturing process. are workers within the meaning of the Act.'driving belt or other appliance or device by which the motion of a prime mover is transmitted to or received by any machinery or appliance". Calendar Year. Prime mover. ."--Sec. coupling.does not include any member of the armed forces of Union. "Adolescent means a person who ha$ completed his fifteenth year of age °but has not completed his eighteenth year. References to the time of the day in the ° Act are to the Indian Standard Time. ''Child means a person who has net completed his fifteenth year of age. 2(d). In case of a factory worker there must be a relationship between the employer and the employed. Explanation: Worker means any person engaged in any work connected with or incidental to a manufacturing . transformed. The term 'worker'. Child.S. 2(dd)." --Sec. 2(g). 3. 2 ( c) . . transmitted or applied. The term includes persons engaged directly and. wheel. Machinery. the State Government can by rules define the local mean time. 2(a). The term includes clerical workers and persons paid by piece rates in a factory." --Sec. "Worker means a person employed. manual labour. 2(1). In areas where the I.--Sec. ° Day. "Calendar Year means the period of twelve months beginning with the first day of January in any year. "Day means a period of twenty four hours beginning at midnight. the manufacturing process" or the subject of the manufacturing process but does not include any member of the armed forces of the Union. directly or by or through any agency (including a contractor) with or without the knowledge of the principal employer." Sec. also those who are engaged through an agency (including a contractor with or without the knowledge of the principal employer). 2(b). "Young Person means a person who is either a child or an adolescent. . . drum pulley. 2(j). even though done by. Power.--Sec. " Apprentices. whether remunerated or not. use of a refrigerator for adapting any article with a view to its sale. Thus the definition is wide. whether for remuneration or not in any manufacturing process. Young Person.T. The scraping out of salt and grading them."-Sec. "Machinery includes prime movers."--Sec. 2(i).

(2) the name and address of the occupier . An occupier of factory may be an owner. (5) the nature of the manufacturing process to be carried on in the factory during the next twelve months . In case of a ship. heat or dust or fumes injurious to health. He should also control the management. APPROVAL. send to the Chief Inspector of Factories a written notice containing the following particulars: ( 1 ) the name and situation of factory . and where the said affairs are entrusted to a managing agent. and (ii) the owner of the ship or his agent or master or other officers-in-charge in the ship or any person who contracts with such owner. ( 6) the total rated horse power installed or to be installed in the factory. (3) the name and address of the owner of the premises or building (including the precincts thereof) . the submission of. Where work of the same kind is carried out by two or more sets of workers working during different periods of the day." --Sec. 2(r)."-Sec.--Sec. such agent shall be deemed to be the occupier of the factory. ( 4) the address to which communications relating to factory may be sent . THE INSPECTI0N STAFF . each of such sets is called a "relay" and each of such periods is called a "shift. plans or any class or description of factories to the Chief Inspector or the State Government. Section 7 provides that the occupier of a factory must. because the plans and specifications of the factory must insure proper measures of health. for the purposes of this Act. The Act imposes several duties and responsibilities on the occupier of the factory. 2(f). 2(n). Section 6 provides that the State Government may make rules requiring. The rules stated above are enforced . Notice by occupier.-Sec. "Occupier" of a factory means the person who has ultimate control over the affairs of the factory. (7) the name of the manager of the factory for the purposes of this Act . Shift and Relay. 1976. and the plans and specifications of a factory and its location. which is being repaired or on maintenance work is being carried out in dry dock which is available for hire. (9) such other particulars as may be prescribed. (8) the number of workers likely to be employed in the factory . "Week means a period of seven days beginning 'at midnight on Saturday night or such other night as may be approved in writing Jar a particular area by the Chief Inspector of Factories. 2(n) added by The Factories (Amendment) Act. a lessee or a mere licensee but he must have the right to occupy the property. at least 15 days before he begins to occupy or use any premises as a factory. (See below). the following persons for certain section of the Act will be deemed to be occupier (i) the owner of the dock. workers.Week. LICENCING AND REGISTRATION It is necessary to obtain a" licence before a factory is started. agent or master or other officers-in-charge to carry out the repair or maintenance work. safety and welfare of the . The Amendment of 1976 provides that any replacement and addition to the factory will not be allowed if it does not reduce the I minimum clear space required for safe working around the plant or machinery or adversely affect the environmental conditions from the evolution or emission of steam. Occupier. which shall not include the rated – horse power or any separate stand-by plant.

Obstructing an Inspector. and . Whoever wilfully obstructs an Inspector in the exercise of any power conferred on him by or under this Act. No person can act as an Inspector if . The certifying surgeon has the following duties under the Act and the rules framed under it.-Sec. If any rule is violated they take steps like prosecuting the guilty persons etc.be certifying surgeons for the purposes of the Act for specified local areas or for specified factories or class of factories. . It is the duty of factory inspectors to enforce the provisions of the Factories Act and other industrial laws.(d) exercise such other powers as may be prescribed for carry ing out the purposes of this Act. 10(3).of young persons. Joint Chief Inspectors and Deputy Chief Inspectors. . Additional Chief Inspectors.-Sec.he is or becomes directly or indirectly interested in a factory or in any process or business carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith. or which he has reason to believe is used. The examination of persons engaged in factories in dangerous . (b) make examination of the premises. The examination and certification .directly or indirectly.!es made thereunder. (c) require the production of any prescribed register and any other document relating to the factory. or fails to produce on demand by an Inspector any registers Of other documents in his custody kept in pursuance of this Act or of any ru.The Factories Act empowers the State Government to appoint Inspectors. Powers of Inspectors. For this purpose they inspect factories periodically. and place which is used. 95. Duties. with such assistants. or conceals or prevents any worker in a factory from appearing before. The onus is on the prosecution to show that a person has obstructed an inspector. Duties of Inspector. an Inspector. 2. an Inspector may take a sample of any subs tance. for the purpose of finding out whether the substance is injurious and if the factory is violating any of the provisions of the Act. shall be punishable ~with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to Rs. or being examined by. Every District Magistrate is an Inspector for his district. and take on the spot or otherwise statements of any person which he may consider necessary for carrying out the purposes of the Act. factory . The State Government may by order in writing and subject to specified conditions. 300 or with both. plant and machinery. exempt any person or class of persons from the provisions of this sub-section in respect of any factory or class or description of factories. being persons in the service of the Government or any local or other public authority. 1. No person can be a certifying surgeon for a factory or industry in which he is interested . an Inspector may exercise the following powers within the local limits for which he is appointed : (a) enter. No person shall be compelled under this section to answer any question or give any evidence tending to incriminate himself. as he thinks fit. Section 9 provides that subject to any rules made in this behalf. Under Section 91. Chief Inspectors of Factories. CERTIFYING SURGEONS Section 10 provides that the State Government may appoint qualified medical practitioners to . used or intended to be used in a factory. as a.

-sec.. The summary of the provisions are explained below : Summary of the provisions of the Factories Act. In calculating the space. When washable water paint is used they must be painted once every three years and washed at least every period of six months. 7. (iii) young persons are. 2. The waste materials produced from the manufacturing process must be effectively disposed off-Sec. No such points shall be within 20 ft. All supply' points of such water must be marked "drinking water". 5.which work is carried on in factories do not affect the health of the workers injuriously. washing place . Ventilation 'and Temperature. There must be provision for adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air: The temperature must be kept at a comfortable level. 4. an account is to be taken of space above 14 ft. Effective measures must be adopted to prevent glare or formation of shadows which might cause eyestrain. The water used for this purpose must be pure. (~r 55 cubic metres) of space per worker.ft. Drainage shall be provided. viz. 1. 17. For factories built afterwards. Dust and Fume. (or 75 cubic metres) of space. there must be at least 500 c.' as amended in 1976.-Sec. 6.-Sec. Artificial humidification. Arrangements must be made to provide a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. (or 5 metres) from the floor.-8ec. It must be.-Sec. Disposal of wastes and effluents. 12. 11. Cleanliness.occupations or processes. 16. The exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines must be conducted outside the factory. gives off injurious or offensive dust and fume steps must be taken so that they are not inhaled or accumulated. and the outflow of drains etc. 14. partitions and ceilings must be repainted at least once in five years. or other conditions of work prevailing therein. The State Government can frame rules .regarding the process of humidification etc. 3. (iv) PROVISIONS REGARDING THE HEALTH OF WORKERS Sections 11 to 20 of the Act contain certain provisions intended to ensure that the conditions under .5 metres) of any latrine. . Inside walls. In factories existing before the commencement of the Act there must be at least 350 c. There must be no overcrowding in a factory. 15. The floors must be cleaned. Every factory shall be kept clean and free from dirt. 13. Drinking water.. (i) cases of illness have occurred which it is reasonable to believe are due to the nature of the manufacturing process carried on. (or 7. Hot parts of machines must be 'separated and insulated. (ii) by reason of any change in the manufacturing process carried on or in the substances used therein there is a likelihood of injury to the health of workers employed in that manufacturing process .--Sec. If the . Lighting.ft. or about to be employed in any work which is likely to cause injury to their health. . Medical supervision of factories in cases where such supervision had been prescribed owing to the dangerous nature of the work carried on or for any other reason. OverCrowding. 3. 8. Factories must be well lighted. taken from some source of drinking water supply.manufacturing process used. relating -to the health of workers are stated below.

9. 9. except In certain cases. Casing of new machinery.g. There are detailed rules as to how such safety is to be secured. 7..-Sec. encased or otherwise effectively guarded e.Sec. Every factory must provide' sufficient number of latrines and urinals. . 27 8. All floors. 4. 24. lifts. Striking gear and devices for cutting off power. There must be separate provision for male and female workers.Sec. 19. chains etc. carried on the maximum safe working speed of every revolving machinery connected therewith must be notified. electric generators. 10. bolt. . Handrails shall be . 2l. There are similar provisions regarding lifting machines. Where any operation is carried on at a pressure higher than the atmospheric pressure. 30. Where grinding is . stairs and means of access.-Sec. Every hoist and lift must be so constructed as to be safe. 23.Revolving machinery.parts. moving . steps. 22. 2.-Sec.-Sec.sec. 28. steps must be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure is not exceed~cL-. . 5. certain parts must be sunk.of prime movers and flywheels connected to every prime mover. In every factory suitable devices for cutting off power in emergencies from running machinery shall be provided and maintained in every workroom. Summary of the provisions of the Factories Act regarding the safety of the workers are stated below: (Sections 2l to 41) . Work on or near machinery in motion must be carried out only by specially trained adult male workers wearing tightly fitting c1othes. No young person shall work at any danger()us machine' unless he has been specially instructed as to the dangers and the precautions to be observed. 18. Moving parts of a self-acting machine must not be allowed to come within 45 cms. Hoists. stairs. of any fixed structure which is not part of the machine. PROVISIONS REGARDING THE SAFETY OF WORKERS Sections 21 to 40A.g. toothed gearing etc. Latrine and urinals must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. Women and children near cotton Openers. 6. 1. and is under the supervision of some person having thorough knowledge and experience of the machine. Factories employing more than 250 workers must cool the water during the hot weather.. Women and children must not be allowed to work near cot/On openers. In factories. Self-acting machines. In all machinery installed after the commencement of the Act. 40B and 41 of the Act lay down rules for the purpose of securing the safety of workers. chains. Pressure plant. -sec. employing more than 250 workers. Steps must be taken to see that the safe speed is not exceeded. Employment of young persons on dangerous machines . etc.-Sec. passage and gangways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained.etc.~. 25. 29. they shall be of prescribed sanitary types. All dangerous machinery must be securely fenced e. Fencing ot machinery. has received sufficient training about th~ work. 3. ropes and lifting tackle . 26. Latrines and Urinals. set screw.-Sec. Work on or near machinery in motion. Floors. 31. 11.--sec.

Explosive or inflammable gas etc. He can also direct the adoption of the measure necessary to make them safe. sumps. he may serve on the occupier or manager or both in writing specifying the measures to be done before the specified date. Pits. disease or any other hazard to health of the persons employed in the factory . Safety Officers. 33. Effective screen or suitable goggles shall be provided to protect the eyes of the worker from fragments thrown off in course of any manufacturing process and from excessive light if any. 36 and 36A. is in such a state of disrepair that it is likely to affect the health and welfare of the workers. Excessive weights. prevent the accumulation of substances and exclude all possible sources of ignition.-8ecs. Precautions against dangerous fumes. 19. 14. 4OA.-8ec.-Sec.volts shall be used. dust. No person shall be allowed to enter any chamber. Such places shall be cooled by ventilation before any person is allowed to enter. 38 18. unless it is equipped with a manhole or other means of going out. poisoning. etc. sumps. Windows and doors shall be constructed to open outwards. 15. Extra precautionary measures are to be taken where such substances are worked at greater than the atmospheric.-Sec. In such space no portable electric light of more than 24 . Fire escapes shall be provided. 32. the use of the building or machine can be prohibited. 34. Specifications of defectives etc. the inspector of factories can ask fer the holding of tests to determine how they can be made safe.-Sec. 16. 35. Rules. Protection of eyes. 12.be present. 40. Safe means of access shall be provided to the place where the worker will carry on any work. shall be provided. Arrangements must be made to give warning in case or fire -sec. Only a lamp or light of flame proof construction can be used in such space. 39. 20. If the Inspector of Factories thinks that any building in a factory. pressure. 13. fume. Maintenance of Buildings. part of it. 40B. tank etc. 41. . where a manufacturing process produces inflammable gas. 17. or any. openings in floors etc.-Sec. openings in floors etc. Pits. The means of exit in case of the fire shall be clearly marked in red letters. reviving apparatus etc.-Sec. The State Government may make rules providing for the use of such further devices for safety as may be necessary. and safety of buildings and machinery . The State Government may notify to the occupier to employ a number of Safety Officers in a factory (i) wherein one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed. 21. 37. Sec. If any building or machine is in a defective or dangerous condition. steps must be taken to enclose the machine concerned. must be securely covered or fenced. No worker shall be made to carry a load so heavy as to cause him injury. For people entering such space suitable breathing apparatus. or (ii) wherein any manufacturing process or operation which involves the risk of bodily injury.provided where necessary. Precaution in case of fire.-Secs. where dangerous fumes are likely to . In case of immediate danger. Sec.

.

The results can be disastrous. If young children are playing in a room fitted with a Combustion heater or other heating appliance. heater or in a kitchen. metal instruments.Don’ts • Don’t be careless about disposal of cigarettes/bidi butts. They are also among the most vulnerable to accidents and fire. sockets are covered so that children cannot put wires. . ensure that the appliance is screened so that children cannot crawl or put their hands on hot elements or hot materials. Keep matches and cigarette lighters out of reach of children. their fingers into sockets. The following safety hints shall be borne in mind Never leave children alone near an open fire. • Hay stacks should not be built up near the railway lines or roads. • Naked lamps or kitchen fires should never be allowed to burn while retiring to bed. Elder children may use fire or play with matches. • Electric wiring should not pass over hay stacks. Fire Precautions for Children Children are our most valued possessions.

Don’ts • Don’t dispose off lighted cigarette ends carelessly. • Keep smoke/Fire Check doors closed. • Impart elementary fire fighting training to occupants. • Keep means of escape clear of obstructions. observe the following basic precautions. • All receptacles for waste should be emptied at regular intervals. • Welding /Cutting jobs should be carried out under strict supervision. • Emergency organization must be setup. the consequences can be grave.Fire Precautions in High Rise Buildings The threat of fire in High Rise Buildings is constant and if adequate precautionary measures are not taken. • Always use ashtrays while smoking and deposit smoked butts in them after extinguishing. Therefore. Do’s • Good House Keeping must be ensured. • Faculty electrical appliances should be repaired/replaced immediately. • Switches and fuses should conform to correct rating of circuit. • Fire Rescue drills should be carried out at regular intervals. • Don’t plug too many electrical appliances in one socket. • Don’t paint fire detector/sprinkler .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.