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To my wife, Lisa,
my daughters, Stephanie and Jennifer,
my son, Daniel, my parents, James and Rita,
and my brothers and sisters, Mathew, Ann, David, and Claire.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Preface
This textbook is intended for use in a senior-year undergraduate or first-year
graduate course devoted to structural analyses of laminated polymer-matrix
composite materials and structures. Discussion is framed almost entirely at
the macromechanical (structural) level. Micromechanical issues and analyses
are discussed briefly but are not covered in detail. This allows an expanded
coverage of the structural response of composite beams and plates, as com-
pared to other introductory texts on composite materials. The text contains
ample material for a semester-based (15-week) course. I have used a similar
manuscript for several years to support two sequential quarter-based (10-
week) courses, supplementing this material with one or two laboratory
sessions. Since laboratory exercises depend heavily on the equipment and
materials available to the instructor, these lab sessions are not described in
this book.
It is assumed that the reader has already completed a sophomore- or
junior-level course devoted to the mechanics of isotropic solids. I have made
every effort to extend the concepts of this earlier coursework in a natural and
easily understandable way to the study of anisotropic composites.
Chapter 1 begins with a broad overview of the various types of
commercially available metal, ceramic, and polymer-based composite mate-
rials. This chapter also includes an overview of polymer and fibrous materials
and the manufacturing processes used to produce polymer composites and
v
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
structures. Chapter 2 is devoted to a review of force, stress, and strain tensors
and how these tensors may be transformed from one coordinate system to
another. Although these topics are normally covered in a course on the me-
chanics of isotropic solids, it has been my experience that a review of these
fundamental concepts is almost always required before they can be correctly
applied to the study of anisotropic composites.
Various material properties required to predict the structural perform-
ance of anisotropic composites are introduced in Chapter 3, and the three-
dimensional, anisotropic form of Hooke’s law is developed in Chapter 4. The
three-dimensional form of Hooke’s law is then reduced to the plane stress
(two-dimensional) form in Chapter 5 and applied to unidirectional laminated
composites. Rudimentary elements of plate theory are developed in Chapter 6
and combined with Hooke’s law, resulting in the analysis methodology
commonly known as classical lamination theory (CLT).
Chapter 7 describes composite failure modes and mechanisms, includ-
ing a qualitative description of composite fatigue behaviors and free-edge
effects. The chapter also presents methods of combining macroscopic failure
criteria with CLT to predict first-ply and last-ply failure loads. Chapter 8 is
devoted to statically determinate and indeterminate composite beams. The
chapter begins with the observation that CLT reduces to fundamental beam
theory (as studied during an earlier course on the mechanics of isotropic
solids) when isotropic properties and appropriate dimensions are assumed.
CLT is then used to predict the effective axial and bending rigidities of
composite beams with various cross sections (rectangular, I-, T-, hat-, and
box-beams).
Chapters 9 through 11 address composite plates. Discussion is limited
to symmetric rectangular composite plates, since this topic is extensive and
a complete discussion of nonrectangular and/or nonsymmetric composite
plates or shells deserves a separate text in itself. The equations that govern the
behavior of symmetric and rectangular composite plates are developed in
Chapter 9. Chapter 10 presents several closed-form solutions for specially
orthotropic composite plates. Chapter 11 presents approximate numerical
solutions for generally orthotropic plates (e.g., quasi-isotropic plates); this
includes solutions for the deflections of transversely loaded plates as well as
mechanical and/or thermal buckling due to in-plane loads. Three appendixes
that include material referenced in the main body of the book complete the
text, with the second briefly describing experimental methods used to measure
in-plane composite properties.
While many of these topics are covered in other introductory compo-
sites textbooks, I have included here certain pedagogical features that have, in
my experience, facilitated and enhanced an understanding of the concepts.
For example, the crucially important effects of environment—in particular,
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
the effects due to changes in temperature and/or moisture content—are
integrated throughout Chapters 3 through 11, rather than being confined to
later chapters, as is often the case in composite textbooks. With the exception
of Chapters 1 and 9, each chapter includes numerical example problems that
illustrate the concepts presented. A solutions manual for all homework
problems posed in the text is available for educators using the text in their
courses. I have also created a suite of computer programs that implement the
analyses discussed. These executable programs may be downloaded free of
charge from the following website:
http : ==depts:washington:edu=amtas=computer:html
These programs are meant to enhance the text and are referenced at ap-
propriate points throughout the book. Of course, composite computer pro-
grams are now widely available, both commercially and otherwise, so the
reader may opt to use resources other than those downloaded from the web-
site provided.
Preparation of this book has been a demanding and lengthy endeavor. I
sincerely hope that it will be a worthy addition to the composites literature.
Mark E. Tuttle
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Acknowledgments
I have been fortunate to have worked with talented and inspirational
colleagues throughout my academic and professional career. I would espe-
cially like to acknowledge the lifelong influence of my two major academic
advisors, Professor Emeritus Halbert F. Brinson of the University of Houston
(formerly of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and Profes-
sor John B. Ligon of Michigan Technological University.
There are many others whom I would like to mention by name, but
space does not allow it. To my friends and colleagues at Battelle Columbus
Laboratories, Michigan Tech, Virginia Tech, the University of Washington,
NASA–Langley Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the Society for
Experimental Mechanics: thank you.
Particular thanks are extended to Mr. Rob Albers of the Boeing
Company, who read and gave helpful critiques of initial versions of Chapters
9 through 11. I would also like to thank the staff at Marcel Dekker, Inc.—in
particular Michael Deters, Production Editor, and John Corrigan, Acquis-
itions Editor—for their very professional and competent help throughout
preparation of the final manuscript. Finally, to the many undergraduate and
graduate students who have taken my composites courses or worked with me
during the pursuit of their degrees and who consequently struggled through
and ‘‘edited’’ manuscript versions of this textbook: thank you for your help
and patience.
Mark E. Tuttle
ix
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
1. Introduction
1. Basic Definitions
2. Polymeric Materials
3. Fibrous Materials
4. Commercially Available Forms
5. Manufacturing Processes
6. The Scope of This Book
References
2. Review of Force, Stress, and Strain Tensors
1. The Force Vector
2. Transformation of a Force Vector
3. Normal Forces, Shear Forces, and Free-Body
Diagrams
4. Definition of Stress
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5. The Stress Tensor
6. Transformation of the Stress Tensor
7. Principal Stresses
8. Plane Stress
9. Definition of Strain
10. The Strain Tensor
11. Transformation of the Strain Tensor
12. Principal Strains
13. Strains Within a Plane Perpendicular to a Principal
Strain Direction
14. Relating Strains to Displacement Fields
15. Computer Programs 3DROTATE and
2DROTATE
Homework Problems
References
3. Material Properties
1. Anisotropic vs. Isotropic Materials
2. Material Properties That Relate Stress to Strain
3. Material Properties Relating Temperature to
Strain
4. Material Properties Relating Moisture Content to
Strain
5. Material Properties Relating Stress (or Strain) to
Failure
6. Predicting Elastic Composite Properties Based on
Constituents: The Rule of Mixtures
Homework Problems
References
4. Elastic Response of Anisotropic Materials
1. Strains Induced by Stress: Anisotropic Materials
2. Strains Induced by Stress: Orthotropic and
Transversely Isotropic Materials
3. Strains Induced by a Change in Temperature or
Moisture Content
4. Strains Induced by Combined Effects of Stress,
Temperature, and Moisture
Homework Problems
References
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5. Unidirectional Composite Laminates Subject to Plane Stress
1. Unidirectional Composites Referenced to the
Principal Material Coordinate System
2. Unidirectional Composites Referenced to an
Arbitrary Coordinate System
3. Calculating Transformed Properties Using Material
Invariants
4. Effective Elastic Properties of a Unidirectional
Composite Laminate
5. Failure of Unidirectional Composites Referenced
to the Principal Material Coordinate System
6. Failure of Unidirectional Composites Referenced
to an Arbitrary Coordinate System
7. Computer Programs UNIDIR and UNIFAIL
Homework Problems
References
6. Thermomechanical Behavior of Multiangle Composite
Laminates
1. Definition of a ‘‘Thin Plate’’ and Allowable Plate
Loadings
2. Plate Deformations: The Kirchhoff Hypothesis
3. Principal Curvatures
4. Standard Methods of Describing Composite
Laminates
5. Calculating Ply Strains and Stresses
6. Classical Lamination Theory (CLT)
7. Simplifications Due to Stacking Sequence
8. Summary of CLT Calculations
9. Effective Properties of a Composite Laminate
10. Transformation of the ABD Matrix
11. Computer Program CLT
Homework Problems
References
7. Predicting Failure of a Multiangle Composite Laminate
1. Preliminary Discussion
2. Free-Edge Stresses
3. Predicting Laminate Failure Using CLT
4. Laminate First-Ply Failure Envelopes
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5. Computer Program LAMFAIL
Homework Problems
References
8. Composite Beams
1. Preliminary Discussion
2. Comparing Classical Lamination Theory to
Isotropic Beam Theory
3. Types of Composite Beams Considered
4. Effective Axial Rigidity of Rectangular Composite
Beams
5. Effective Flexural Rigidities of Rectangular
Composite Beams
6. Effective Axial and Flexural Rigidities for
Thin-Walled Composite Beams
7. Statically Determinate and Indeterminate
Axially Loaded Composite Beams
8. Statically Determinate and Indeterminate
Transversely Loaded Composite Beams
9. Computer Program BEAM
Homework Problems
References
9. The Governing Equations of Thin-Plate Theory
1. Preliminary Discussion
2. The Equations of Equilibrium for Symmetric
Laminates
3. Boundary Conditions
4. Representing Arbitrary Transverse Loads as a
Fourier Series
References
10. Some Exact Solutions for Specially Orthotropic Laminates
1. Equations of Equilibrium for a Specially Orthotropic
Laminate
2. In-Plane Displacement Fields in Specially
Orthotropic Laminates
3. Specially Orthotropic Laminates Subject to Simple
Supports of Type S1
4. Specially Orthotropic Laminates Subject to Simple
Supports of Type S4
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5. Specially Orthotropic Laminates With Two Simply
Supported Edges of Type S1 and Two Edges of
Type S2
6. The Navier Solution Applied to a Specially
Orthotropic Laminate Subject to Simple Supports
of Type S4
7. Buckling of Rectangular Specially Orthotropic
Laminates Subject to Simple Supports of
Type S4
8. Thermal Buckling of Rectangular Specially
Orthotropic Laminates Subject to Simple Supports
of Type S1
9. Computer Program SPORTHO
References
11. Some Approximate Solutions for Symmetric Laminates
1. Preliminary Discussion
2. In-Plane Displacement Fields
3. Potential Energy in a Thin Composite Plate
4. Symmetric Composite Laminates Subject to Simple
Supports of Type S4
5. Buckling of Symmetric Composite Plates Subject to
Simple Supports of Type S4
6. Computer Program SYMM
References
Appendixes
A. Finding the Cube-Root of a Complex Number
B. Experimental Methods Used to Measure In-Plane Properties
E
11
, E
22
, r
12
, and G
12
C. Tables of Beam Deflections and Slopes
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
1
Introduction
A broad overview of modern composite materials is provided in this chapter.
The chapter begins with a definition of what is meant by the phrase ‘‘com-
posite material.’’ Separate sections devoted to polymeric materials, fibrous
materials, commercially available forms, and manufacturing techniques are
included. The chapter concludes with a section indicating the scope of the
remaining chapters.
1 BASIC DEFINITIONS
This textbook is devoted to a special class of structural materials often called
‘‘advanced’’ composites. Just what is a ‘‘composite material’’? A casual defi-
nition might be: ‘‘A composite material is one in which two (or more) mate-
rials are bonded together to form a third material.’’ Although not incorrect,
upon further reflection, it becomes clear that this definition is far too broad
because it implies that essentially all materials can be considered as ‘‘compo-
sites.’’ For example, the (nominal) composition of the 2024 aluminum alloy is
93.5% Al, 4.4% Cu, 0.6% Mn, and 1.5% Mg [1]. Hence, according to the
broad definition stated above, this common aluminum alloy could be consid-
ered as a ‘‘composite’’ because it consists of four materials (aluminum, cop-
per, manganese, and magnesium) bonded together at the atomic level to form
the 2024 alloy. In a similar sense, virtually all metal alloys, polymers, and
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
ceramics satisfy this broad definition of a ‘‘composite’’ because all of these
materials contain more than one type of elemental atom.
An important characteristic that is missing in the initial broad definition
is a consideration of physical scale. Another definition of a ‘‘composite mate-
rial,’’ which includes a reference to a physical scale appropriate for present
purposes, is as follows:
Acomposite material is a material systemconsisting of two (or more)
materials, which are distinct at a physical scale greater than about
1Â10
À6
m(1 Am) and which are bonded together at the atomic and/or
molecular levels.
As a point of reference, the diameter of human hair ranges from about
30 to 60 Am. Objects of this size are easily seen with the aid of an optical
microscope. Hence, when composite materials are viewed under an optical
microscope, the distinct constituent materials (or distinct material phases)
that form the composite are easily distinguished. Structural composites
typically consist of a high-strength, high-stiffness reinforcing material, embed-
ded within a relatively low-strength, low-stiffness matrix material. Ideally, the
reinforcing and matrix materials interact to produce a composite whose
properties are superior to either of the two constituent materials alone.
Many naturally occurring materials can be viewed as composites. A
good example is wood and laminated wood products. Wood is a natural
composite, with a readily apparent grain structure. Wood exhibits a higher
stiffness and strength parallel to the grains than transverse to the grains.
In laminated wood products (which range from the large laminated beams
used in a church cathedral to a common sheet of plywood), relatively thin
layers of wood are adhesively bonded together. In plywood, the layers are
arranged such that the grain direction varies from one layer to the next.
Therefore, this laminated wood product has a high stiffness/strength in more
than one direction.
Although composites have been used in a variety of structural applica-
tions for centuries, modern (or ‘‘advanced’’) composites are a relatively recent
development, having been in existence for about 60 years. Modern composites
may be classified according to the size or shape of the reinforcing material
used. Four common classifications of reinforcements are:

Particulates, which are roughly spherical particles with diameters
typically ranging from about 1 to 100 Am

Whiskers, with lengths less than about 10 mm

Short (or ‘‘chopped’’) fibers, with a length ranging from about 10 to
200 mm

Continuous fibers, whose length are, in effect, infinite.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Whiskers, short fibers, and continuous fibers all have very small diam-
eters relative to their length; the diameter of these products ranges fromabout
5 to 200 Am.
Distinctly different types of composites can be produced using any of
the above reinforcements. For example, three types of composites based on
continuous fibers are shown in Fig. 1: unidirectional composites, woven
composites, and braided composites. In a unidirectional composite, all fibers
are aligned in the same direction and embedded within a matrix material.
In contrast, woven composites are formed by first weaving continuous fibers
into a fabric and then embedding the fabric in a matrix. Hence, a single layer
of a woven composite contains fibers in two orthogonal directions. In con-
trast, a single layer in a braided composite typically contains two or three
Figure 1 Different types of composites based on continuous fibers.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
nonorthogonal fiber directions. Braided composites are then formed by
embedding the fabric in a matrix (additional discussion of these types of
composites is provided in Sec. 4).
As implied in Fig. 1, composite products based on continuous fibers are
usually produced in the form of thin layers. A single layer of these products is
called a lamina or ply. The thickness of a single ply formed using unidirec-
tional fibers ranges from about 0.12 to 0.20 mm, whereas the thickness of a
single ply of a woven or braided fabric ranges from about 0.25 to 0.40 mm.
Obviously, a single composite ply is quite thin. To produce a composite
structure with significant thickness, many plies are stacked together to form a
composite laminate. Conceptually any number of plies may be used in the
laminate, but in practice, the number of plies usually ranges from about 10
plies to (in unusual cases) perhaps as many as 200 plies. The fiber represents
the reinforcing material in these composites. Hence, the orientation of the
fibers is, in general, varied from one ply to the next, so as to provide high
stiffness and strength in more than one direction (as is the case in plywood). It
is also possible to use unidirectional, woven, and/or braided plies within the
same laminate. For example, it is common to use a woven or braided fabric as
the two outermost facesheets of a laminate, and to use unidirectional plies at
interior positions.
In all composites, the reinforcement is embedded within a matrix mate-
rial. The matrix may be polymeric, metallic, or ceramic. In fact, composite
materials are often classified on the basis of the matrix material used, rather
than the reinforcing material. That is, modern composites can be catego-
rized into three main types: polymer–matrix, metal–matrix, or ceramic–
matrix composite materials. Usually, the reinforcing material governs the
stiffness and strength of a composite. On the other hand, the matrix material
usually governs thermal stability. Polymeric–matrix composites are used in
applications involving relatively modest temperatures (service temperatures
of, say, 200jC or less). Metal–matrix composites are used at temperatures up
to about 700jC, while ceramic–matrix composites are used at ultra-high
temperatures (up to about 1200jC or greater). The matrix also defines several
additional characteristics of the composite material system. Some additional
roles of the matrix are:

To provide the physical form of the composite

To bind the fibers together

To protect the fibers from aggressive (chemical) environments or
mechanical damage (e.g., due to abrasion, for example)

To transfer and redistribute stresses between fibers, between plies,
and in areas of discontinuities in load or geometry.
To summarize the preceding discussion, there are many types of
composite materials, both natural and man-made. Composites can be clas-
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
sified according to the physical form of the reinforcing material (particu-
late, whisker, short fiber, or continuous fiber reinforcement), by the type of
matrix material used (metal, ceramic, or polymeric matrix), by the orienta-
tion of the reinforcement (unidirectional, woven, or braided), or by some
combination thereof. The temperature the composite material/structure will
experience in service often dictates the type of composite used in a given
application.
The primary focus of this textbook is the structural analysis of polymeric
composite materials and structures. Metal–matrix and ceramic–matrix com-
posites will not be further discussed, although many of the analysis methods
developed herein may be applied to these types of composites as well. Because
our focus is the structural analysis of polymeric composites, we will not be
greatly considered with the behavior of the individual constituent materials.
That is, we will not be greatly concerned with the behavior of an unreinforced
polymer, nor with the behavior of an individual reinforcing fiber. Instead, we
will be concerned with the behavior of the composite formed by combining
these two constituents. Nevertheless, a structural engineer who wishes to use
polymeric composites effectively in practice must understand at least the
rudiments of polymer and fiber science, in much the same way as an engineer
working with metal alloys must understand at least the rudiments of metal-
lurgy. Toward that end, a brief introduction to polymeric and fibrous mate-
rials is provided in Secs. 2 and 3, respectively. At the minimum, the reader
should become acquainted with the terminology used to describe polymeric
and fibrous materials because such terms have naturally been carried over to
the polymeric composites technical community.
2 POLYMERIC MATERIALS
A brief introduction to polymeric materials is provided in this section. This
introduction is necessarily incomplete. The reader interested in a more de-
tailed discussion is referred to the many available texts and/or web-based
resources devoted to modern polymers (e.g., see Refs. 1–4).
2.1 Basic Concepts
The term ‘‘polymer’’ comes from the Greek words poly (meaning ‘‘many’’)
and mers (meaning ‘‘units’’). Quite literally, a polymer consists of ‘‘many
units.’’ Polymer molecules are made up of thousands of repeating chemical
units and have molecular weights ranging from about 10
3
to 10
7
.
As an illustrative example, consider the single chemical mer shown in
Fig. 2. This mer is called ethylene (or ethene), and consists of two carbon
atoms and four hydrogen atoms. The two lines between the carbon (C) atoms
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
indicate a double covalent bond,* whereas the single line between the hydro-
gen (H) and carbon atoms represents a single covalent bond. The chemical
composition of the ethylene mer is sometimes written as C
2
H
4
or CH
2
jCH
2
.
Under proper conditions, the double covalent bond between the two
carbon atoms can be converted to a single covalent bond, which allows each
of the two carbon atoms to form a new covalent bond with a suitable neigh-
boring atom. A suitable neighboring atom would be a carbon atom in a
neighboring ethylene mer, for example. If ‘‘n’’ ethylene mers join together
in this way, the chemical composition of the resulting molecule can be
represented C
2n
H
4n
, where n is any positive integer. Hence, a ‘‘chain’’ of
ethylene mers joins together to form the well-known polymer, polyethylene
(literally, ‘‘many ethylenes’’), as shown in Fig. 3. The process of causing
a monomer to chemically react and form a long molecule in this fashion is
called polymerization.
The single ethylene unit is an example of a monomer (‘‘one mer’’). At
room temperature, a bulk sample of the ethylene monomer is a low-viscosity
fluid. If two ethylene monomers bond together, the resulting chemical entity
has two repeating units and is called a dimer. Similarly, the chemical entity
formed by three repeating units is called a trimer. The molecular weight of a
dimer is twice that of the monomer, the molecular weight of a trimer is three
times that of the monomer, etc. Prior to polymerization, most polymeric
materials exist as relatively low-viscosity fluids known as oligomers (‘‘a few
mers’’). The individual molecules within an oligomer possess a range of
molecular weights, typically containing perhaps 2–20 mers.
It should be clear from the above discussion that a specific molecular
weight cannot be assigned to a polymer. Rather, the molecules within a bulk
sample of a polymer are of differing lengths and hence exhibit a range in
molecular weight. The average molecular weight of a bulk sample of a polymer
is increased as the polymerization process is initiated and progresses. Another
Figure 2 The monomer ethylene.
* As fully described in an introductory chemistry text, a ‘‘covalent bond’’ is formed when two
atoms share an electron pair, so as to fill an incompletely filled valence level.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
measure of the ‘‘size’’ of the polymeric molecule is the degree of polymer-
ization, defined as the ratio of the average molecular weight of the polymer
molecule divided by the molecular weight of the repeating chemical unit
within the molecular chain.
The average molecular weight of a polymeric sample (or, equivalently,
the degree of polymerization) depends on the conditions under which it was
polymerized. Now, all physical properties exhibited by a polymer (e.g.,
strength, stiffness, density, thermal expansion coefficient, etc.) are dictated
by the average molecular weight. Therefore, a fundamental point that must be
appreciated by the structural engineer is that the properties exhibited by any
polymer (or any polymeric composite) depend on the circumstances under
which it was polymerized.
As a general rule, the volume of a bulk sample of a monomer decreases
during polymerization. That is, the bulk sample shrinks as the polymerization
process proceeds. This may have serious ramifications if the polymer is to be
used in structural applications. For example, if a fiber(s) is embedded within
the sample during the polymerization process (as is the case for some fiber-
reinforced polymeric composite systems), then shrinkage of the matrix causes
residual stresses to develop during polymerization. This effect contributes to
so-called cure stresses, which are present in most polymeric composites. As
will be seen in later chapters, cure stresses arise fromtwo primary sources. The
first is shrinkage of the matrix during polymerization, as just described.
The second is stresses that arise due to temperature effects. In this case, the
composite is polymerized at an elevated temperature (say, 175jC) and then
cooled to room temperature (20jC). The thermal expansion coefficient of the
matrix is typically much higher than the fibers, and so during cooldown, the
matrix is placed in tension while the fiber is placed in compression. Cure
stresses due to shrinkage during cure and/or temperature effects can be quite
high relative to the strength of the polymer itself, and ultimately contribute
toward failure of the composite.
Figure 3 The polymer polyethylene.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2.2 Addition vs. Condensation Polymers
Although in the case of polyethylene the repeat unit is equivalent to the
original ethylene monomer, this is not always the case. In fact, in many in-
stances, the repeat unit is derived from two (or more) monomers. A typical
example is nylon 6,6. A typical polymerization process for this polymer is
shown schematically in Fig. 4. Two monomers are used to produce nylon 6,6:
hexamethylene diamine (chemical composition: C
6
H
16
N
2
) and adipic acid
(chemical composition: CO
2
H(CH
2
)
4
CO
2
H). Note that the repeat unit of
nylon 6,6 (hexamethylene adipamide) is not equivalent to either of the two
original monomers.
A low-molecular-weight by-product (i.e., H
2
O) is produced during the
polymerization of nylon 6,6. This is characteristic of condensation polymers.
That is, if both a high-molecular-weight polymer as well as a low-molecular-
weight by-product are formed during the polymerization process, the polymer
is classified as a condensation polymer. Conversely, addition polymers are
those for which no by-product is formed, which implies that all atoms present
in the original monomer(s) occur somewhere within the repeat unit. Generally
speaking, condensation polymers shrink to a greater extent during the poly-
merization process than do addition polymers. Residual stresses caused by
shrinkage during polymerization are often a concern in structural compo-
sites, and hence difficulties with residual stresses can often be minimized if
an addition polymer is used in these applications.
Figure 4 The polymer nylon 6,6.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2.3 Molecular Structure
The molecular structure of a fully polymerized polymer can be roughly
grouped into one of three major types: linear, branched, or crosslinked poly-
mers. The three types of molecular structure are shown schematically in
Fig. 5.
Linear polymers can be visualized as beads on a string, where each bead
represents a repeat unit. It should again be emphasized that the length of these
‘‘strings’’ is enormous; if a typical linear molecule were scaled up to be 10 mm
in diameter, it would be roughly 4 km long. In a bulk sample, these long
macromolecules become entangled and twisted together, much like a bowl of
cooked spaghetti. Obviously, as the molecular weight (i.e., the length) of the
polymer molecule is increased, the number of entanglements is increased. At
the macroscopical scale, the stiffness exhibited by a bulk polymer is directly
related to its molecular weight and number of entanglements.
If all of the repeat units within a linear polymer are identical, the
polymer is called a homopolymer. Polyethylene is a good example of a linear
homopolymer. However, it is possible to produce linear polymers that consist
of two separate and distinct repeat units. Such materials are called copoly-
mers. In linear random copolymers, the two distinct repeat units appear
randomly along the backbone of the molecule. In contrast, for linear block
copolymers, the two distinct repeat units form long continuous segments
within the polymer chain. A good example of a common copolymer is
acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, commonly known as ‘‘ABS.’’
The second major type of polymeric molecular structure is the branched
polymer (see Fig. 5). In branched polymers, relatively short side chains are
bonded to the primary backbone of the macromolecule by means of a co-
valent bond. As before, the stiffness of a bulk sample of a branched polymer is
related to the number of entanglements between molecules. Because the
branches greatly increase the number of entanglements, the macroscopical
stiffness of a branched polymer will, in general, be greater than the macro-
scopical stiffness of a linear polymer of similar molecular weight. In many
branched polymers, the branches consist of the same chemical repeat unit
as the backbone of the molecular chain. However, in some cases, the branch
may have a distinctly different chemical repeat unit than the main backbone
of the molecule. Such materials are called graft copolymers.
Finally, the third major type of molecular structure is the crosslinked
or network polymer (see Fig. 5). During polymerization of such polymers,
a crosslink (i.e., a covalent bond) is formed between individual molecular
chains. Hence, once polymerization is complete, a vast molecular network
is formed. In the limit, a single ‘‘molecule’’ can no longer be identified. A
bulk sample of a highly crosslinked polymer may be thought of as a single
molecule.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 5 Types of polymer molecular structure.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Linear and branched polymers can be visualized as a bowl of cooked
spaghetti. One can imagine that a single spaghetti noodle could be extracted
without damage from the bowl if the noodle were pulled slowly and carefully,
allowing the noodle to ‘‘slide’’ past its neighbors. In much the same way, an
individual molecule could also be extracted (at least conceptually) from a
bulk sample of a linear or branched polymer. However, this is not the case for
a fully polymerized crosslinked polymer. Because the ‘‘individual’’ molecular
chains within a crosslinked polymer are themselves linked together by
covalent bonds, the entire molecular network can be considered to be a
single molecule. Although regions of the chain in a crosslinked polymer may
slide past each other, eventually, relative motion between segments is limited
by the crosslinks between segments.
2.4 Thermoplastic vs. Thermoset Polymers
Suppose a bulk sample of a linear or branched polymer exists as a solid
material at room temperature and is subsequently heated. Due to the increase
in thermal energy, the average distance between individual molecular chains is
increased as temperature is increased. This results in an increase in molecular
mobility and a decrease in macroscopical stiffness. That is, as the molecules
move apart, both the forces of attraction between individual molecules as well
as the degree of entanglement decrease, resulting in a decrease in stiffness at
the macroscopical level. Eventually, a temperature is reached at which the
polymeric molecules can slide freely past each other and the polymer ‘‘melts.’’
Typically, melting does not occur at a single temperature, but rather over a
temperature range of about 15–20jC. A polymer that can be melted (i.e., a
linear or branched polymer) is called a thermoplastic polymer.
The molecular structure of a thermoplastic polymer may be amor-
phous or semicrystalline. The molecular structure of an amorphous ther-
moplastic is completely random (i.e., the molecular chains are randomly
oriented and entangled, with no discernible pattern). In contrast, in a semi-
crystalline thermoplastic, there exist regions of highly ordered molecular
arrays. An idealized representation of a crystalline region is shown in Fig. 6.
As indicated, in the crystalline region, the main backbone of the molecular
chain undulates back and forth such that the thickness of the crystalline
region is usually (about) 100 A
˚
. The crystalline region may extend over an
area with a length dimension ranging from (about) 1000 to 10,000 A
˚
.
Hence, the crystalline regions are typically platelike. The high degree of
order within the crystalline array allows for close molecular spacing, and
hence exceptionally high bonding forces between molecules in the crystal-
line region. At the macroscale, a semicrystalline thermoplastic typically
has a higher strength, stiffness, and density than an otherwise comparable
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
amorphous thermoplastic. No thermoplastic is completely crystalline, how-
ever. Instead, regions of crystallinity are surrounded by amorphous regions,
as shown schematically in Fig. 7. Most semicrystalline thermoplastic are
10–50% amorphous (by volume).
As just described, a thermoplastic can be melted. In contrast, a cross-
linked polymer cannot be melted. If a crosslinked polymer is heated, it will
exhibit a decrease in stiffness at the structural level because the average
distance between individual segments of the molecular network is, in fact,
increased as temperature is increased. However, the crosslinks do not allow
indefinite relative motion between segments, and eventually limit molecular
motion. Therefore, a crosslinked polymer will not melt. Of course, if the
temperature is raised high enough, the covalent bonds that form both the
backbone of the molecular chains as well as the crosslinks are broken,
chemical degradation occurs, and the polymer is destroyed. A polymer that
cannot be melted (i.e., a crosslinked polymer) is called a thermoset polymer.
Three more or less distinct conditions are recognized during polymer-
ization of a thermoset polymer. The original resin or oligomer is typically a
low-viscosity, low-molecular-weight fluid, containing molecules with perhaps
2–10 repeat units. A thermoset resin is said to be A-staged when in this form.
As the polymerization process is initiated (by the introduction of a catalyst,
by an increase in temperature, by the application of pressure, or by some
combination thereof), molecular weight and viscosity increase rapidly. If the
polymerization process is then halted in some manner (say, by suddenly
reducing the temperature), the polymerization process will stop (or be
Figure 6 An idealized representation of a crystalline region in a thermoplastic
polymer.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
dramatically slowed) and the polymer will exist in an intermediate stage. The
thermoset resin is said to be B-staged when in this form. If the polymerization
process is allowed to resume (say, by reheating) and continue until the
maximum possible molecular weight has been reached, the thermoset is said
to be C-staged (i.e., the polymer is fully polymerized).
Suppliers of composites based on thermoset polymers initially B-stage
their product and sell it to their customers in this form. This requires that the
B-staged composite be stored by the customer for months at lowtemperatures
(typically at temperatures below about À15jC or 0jF). Refrigeration is
required so that the thermosetting resin does not polymerize beyond the B-
stage during storage. The polymerization process is reinitiated and completed
(i.e., the composite is C-staged) during the final fabrication of a composite
part, typically through the application of heat and pressure. Most commer-
cially available thermoset composites are C-staged (or ‘‘cured’’) at a temper-
ature of either 120jC or 175jC.
In contrast, composites based on thermoplastic polymers do not require
refrigeration. In this case, the matrix is fully polymerized when delivered to
the customer, and may be stored for months or years without degradation.
Heat and pressure are applied during the final fabrication of a thermoplastic
composite part, but no chemical reaction occurs. That is, heat is applied
Figure 7 Overall molecular structure of a semicrystalline thermoplastic,
showing crystalline and amorphous regions.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
simply to soften/melt the thermoplastic matrix, and pressure is applied to
insure consolidation of the composite part. The temperature required to
soften/melt thermoplastic composites is usually 350jC or higher. Note that
the temperatures required to process thermoplastic composites are signifi-
cantly higher than those required to cure thermoset composites.
2.5 The Glass Transition Temperature
Stiffness and strength are physical properties of obvious importance to the
structural engineer. These properties are temperature-dependent for all
materials, but this is particularly true for polymers. The effect of temperature
on the stiffness of a polymer is summarized in Fig. 8. Thermoset and
thermoplastic polymers exhibit the same general behavior, except that at
high temperatures, thermoplastics melt whereas thermosets do not. All
polymers exhibit a decrease in stiffness near a characteristic temperature
called the glass transition temperature, T
g
. At temperatures well below the T
g
,
polymer stiffness decreases slowly with an increase in temperature. At
temperatures well below the T
g
, polymers are ‘‘glassy’’ and brittle. In
contrast, at temperatures well above the T
g
, all polymers are ‘‘rubbery’’
and ductile. Thus, the T
g
denotes the transition between glassy and rubbery
behaviors. This transition is associated with a sudden increase in mobility of
segments within the molecular chain, and typically occurs over a range of 10–
15jC. At temperatures well below the T
g
, the polymer molecules are closely
packed together and tightly bonded, and cannot easily slide past each other.
Figure 8 Effects of temperature on polymer stiffness.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Consequently, the polymer is ‘‘glassy’’ and exhibits high stiffness and strength
but relatively lowductility. Conversely, at temperatures well above the T
g
, the
molecular spacing is increased such that the molecular chains (or segments of
those chains) are mobile and can readily slide past each other. Consequently,
the polymer is ‘‘rubbery’’ and exhibits relatively lower stiffness and strength
but higher ductility. As implied in Fig. 8, for amorphous thermoplastics, the
change in stiffness (and other physical properties) that occurs as the T
g
is
reached may be one to two orders of magnitude. This astonishing decrease in
stiffness occurs over a temperature range of only a few degrees. A similar
change in properties occurs for semicrystalline thermoplastics and crosslinked
thermosets, although, in general, they are less pronounced. If temperature is
raised high enough, then a thermoplastic polymer will melt. The temperature
region at which melting occurs is denoted T
m
in Fig. 8, although, as previously
discussed, a thermoplastic does not exhibit a unique melting temperature but
rather melts over a temperature range. Young’s modulus tends toward zero as
melting occurs, as implied in Fig. 8. Thermoset polymers cannot be melted,
although the polymer is destroyed if temperature is raised to an excessively
high level.
The T
g
has been illustrated in Fig. 8 by demonstrating the change in
stiffness as temperature is increased. However, many other characteristic
physical properties (density, strength, thermal expansion coefficient, heat ca-
pacity, etc.) also change sharply at this transition. Hence, the T
g
can be
measured by monitoring any of these physical properties as a function of
temperature. The T
g
exhibited by a few common polymers is listed in Table 1.
Table 1 Approximate Glass Transition Temperatures for Some Common Polymers
Typical glass transition
temperature
Polymer jC jF
General character
at room temperature
(22jC or 70jF)
Silicone rubber À123 À190 Rubbery
Polybutadiene À85 À120 Rubbery
Polyisoprene À50 À60 Rubbery
Nylon 6,6 50 122 Rigid
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 85 185 Rigid
Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene 90 195 Rigid
Polystyrene 100 210 Rigid
Polyester 150 300 Glassy
Epoxy 175 350 Glassy
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) 200 400 Glassy
Polyetherimide 215 420 Glassy
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Note that knowledge of the T
g
allows an immediate assessment of the general
nature of the polymer at room temperature.
3 FIBROUS MATERIALS
Reinforcing fibers are the major strengthening element in all polymeric
composites. Abrief introduction to these materials is presented in this section.
The reader interested in additional details is referred to Refs. 5 and 6.
Common continuous fiber materials are:

Glass

Aramid

Graphite or carbon

Polyethylene

Boron

Silicon carbide.
In all cases, the fiber diameters are quite small, ranging from about 5 to
12 Am for glass, aramid, or graphite fibers; from about 25 to 40 Am for
polyethylene fibers; and from about 100 to 200 Am for boron and silicon
carbide fibers.
Some of the terminologies used to describe fibers will be defined here.
The terms fiber and filament are used interchangeably. An end (also called a
strand) is a collection of a given number of fibers gathered together. If the
fibers are twisted, the collection of fibers is called a yarn. The ends are
themselves gathered together to form a tow (also called roving). The fibers are
usually coated with a size (also called a finish). The size is applied for several
reasons, such as:

To bind the fibers in the strand

To lubricate the fibers during fabrication

To serve as a coupling and wetting agent to insure a satisfactory
adhesive bond between the fiber and matrix materials.
There may be thousands of filaments in a single tow and, in fact, tow
sizes are often described in terms of thousands of filaments per tow. For
example, a ‘‘6k tow’’ implies that the tow consists of 6000 individual fibers.
Properties of several types of glass fibers, organic fibers, carbon fibers,
and silicon carbide fibers will be briefly described in the following subsec-
tions. It will be seen that:

Young’s modulus (stiffness) ranges from about 70 GPa for glass
fibers to 700 GPa (or higher) for carbon fibers.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Comparable tensile strengths can be obtained using any of the fibers
listed.

Specific gravity ranges from about 0.97 for polyethylene fiber to
about 2.5 for glass fibers.

Elongation at failure ranges from about 0.3% for some carbon
fibers to about 5% for glass fibers.
The mechanism responsible for these high stiffnesses and strengths
differs from one fiber type to another. For glass fibers, the process of draw-
ing to very small diameters simply reduces the number and size of flaws in
the material, thus increasing strength. For example, glass fibers with a
diameter of about 1 mm (0.04 in.) will commonly have a strength of about
170 MPa (25 ksi); but if this same glass is drawn to a diameter of 10 Am
(0.0004 in.), a strength of about 3450 MPa (500 ksi) will be achieved. For
organic fibers, strengthening is accomplished by stretching the fiber and
thereby aligning the polymer molecules. This produces fibers that are them-
selves anisotropic. For carbon or graphite fibers, strengthening is accom-
plished by aligning the basal planes of adjoining crystals, also producing
an anisotropic fiber.
3.1 Glass Fibers
Glass fibers are fabricated by melting glass marbles at a temperature of
about 1260jC (2300jF) and drawing the melt through platinum bushings
followed by a rapid cooldown and secondary drawing. A sizing is applied
to the fibers, which are then combined into a strand and wound onto a
spool. The two major types of glass fibers are called ‘‘E-glass’’ and ‘‘S-glass.’’
E-glass (alumino borosilicate) is so named (‘‘e’’lectrical glass) because of its
high electrical resistivity. S-glass (magnesium aluminosilicate) is so named
(‘‘s’’tructural glass) because of its high tensile strength. Glass fibers are
usually isotropic. Some mechanical and physical properties typical of E-glass
and S-glass fibers are listed in Table 2.
3.2 Aramid Fibers
The aramid polymer fiber produced by DuPont Corp. and marketed under
the trade name Kevlarkis perhaps the most widely used organic fiber. This
fiber is based on poly( p-phenylene terephthalamide), which is a member of a
family of polymers called ‘‘aramids.’’ Aramid fibers are formed by a con-
densation/elongation process. The resulting fibers are highly anisotropic
because strong covalent bonds are formed in the fiber direction, whereas
weak hydrogen bonds are formed in the transverse direction. This chemical
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
bonding arrangement results in the anisotropic behavior exhibited at the
macroscale. That is, aramid fibers have very high tensile strength, stiffness,
and toughness in the axial direction of the fiber, but relatively low tensile
strength and stiffness in the transverse direction.
Kevlar is commercially available in the following grades:

Kevlar 149: a high-performance, aerospace grade fiber with the
highest modulus of all Kevlar fibers

Kevlar 49: a high-performance, aerospace grade fiber with the
highest strength of all Kevlar fibers

Kevlar 129: a relatively inexpensive fiber with a lower strength and
stiffness than Kevlar 149 and 49, but with a higher percent elongation

Kevlar 29: a relatively inexpensive fiber with a strength and stiffness
lower than Kevlar 129, but a higher percent elongation.
Nominal mechanical and physical properties of Kevlar fibers are listed
in Table 3. Of particular interest is the negative coefficient of thermal
Table 3 Typical Properties of Kevlar Fibers (All Properties in Axial Direction of Fiber)
Property
Kevlar
149
Kevlar
49
Kevlar
129
Kevlar
29
Specific gravity 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44
Young’s modulus,
GPa (Msi)
186 (27) 124 (18) 96 (13.9) 68 (9.8)
Tensile strength,
MPa (ksi)
3440 (500) 3700 (535) 3380 (490) 2930 (425)
Tensile elongation, % 2.5 2.8 3.3 3.6
Coefficient of thermal
expansion, Am/m/jC
(Ain./in./jF)
À2.0 (À1.1) À2.0 (À1.1) À2.0 (À1.1) À2.0 (À1.1)
Table 2 Typical Properties of Glass Fibers
Property E-glass S-glass
Specific gravity 2.60 2.50
Young’s modulus, GPa (Msi) 72 (10.5) 87 (12.6)
Tensile strength, MPa (ksi) 3450 (500) 4310 (625)
Tensile elongation, % 4.8 5.0
Coefficient of thermal expansion,
Am/m/jC (Ain./in./jF)
5.0 (2.8) 5.6 (3.1)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
expansion in the fiber direction. This implies that an increase in temperature
produces a decrease in the length of a Kevlar 49 fiber. This behavior produced
unexpected behavior during cooldown from cure in early applications of the
fiber. Further research indicates that Kevlar 49 has a high positive coefficient
of thermal expansion in the transverse direction, further demonstrating the
anisotropic nature of the fiber.
3.3 Graphite and Carbon Fibers
The terms ‘‘graphite’’ and ‘‘carbon’’ are often used interchangeably within
the composites community. The elemental carbon content of either type of
fiber is above 90%, and the stiffest and strongest fibers have carbon contents
approaching 100%. Some effort has been made to standardize these terms by
defining graphite fibers as those that have:

A carbon content above 95%

Been heat-treated at temperatures in excess of 1700jC (3100jF)

Been stretched during heat treatment to produce a high degree of
preferred crystalline orientation

A Young’s modulus on the order of 345 GPa (50 Msi).
Fibers that do not satisfy all of the above conditions are called carbon
fibers under this standard. However, as stated above, in practice, this defi-
nition is not widely followed, and the terms ‘‘graphite’’ and ‘‘carbon’’ are
often used interchangeably.
Both graphite and carbon fibers are produced by thermal decomposi-
tion of an organic (i.e., polymeric) fiber or ‘‘precursor’’ at high pressures and
temperatures. The three most common precursors are:

Polyacrylonitrile (‘‘PAN’’)

Pitch (a by-product produced during the petroleum distillation
process)

Rayon.
The PAN fiber is probably the most widely used.
Details of the specific steps followed during fabrication of a fiber are
proprietary and can only be described in a general manner. During the
fabrication process, the precursor is first drawn into a thread and then
oxidized at about 260jC (500jF) to form crosslinks and an extended carbon
network. The precursor is then subjected to a carbonization treatment, during
which noncarboneous atoms are driven off. This step typically involves
temperatures of approximately 700jC (1290jF), and is usually conducted
in an inert atmosphere. Finally, during the graphitization process, the fibers
are subjected to a combination of high temperature and tensile elongation.
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The maximum temperature reached during this step determines, in large
part, the strength and/or stiffness that will be achieved. The graphite crystal
is highly anisotropic, with strong covalent bonds in the basal plane and
weak Van der Waals (‘‘secondary’’) bonds perpendicular to the basal plane.
High strengths and stiffnesses are attained by causing the basal planes to be
aligned in the fiber direction. This can be accomplished by controlled stretch-
ing of the precursor during fabrication.
Major developmental efforts have resulted in the ability to produce
fibers with a wide range of stiffnesses and strengths. Fibers are sometimes
classified in terms of the stiffness (i.e., elastic modulus). Mechanical and
physical properties typical of low-modulus, intermediate-modulus, and ultra-
high-modulus fibers are listed in Table 4.
3.4 Polyethylene Fibers
A high-strength, high-modulus polyethylene fiber called Spectrak was
developed at Allied Signal Technologies during the 1980s. Spectra is based
on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). It has a specific
gravity of 0.97, meaning that it is the only reinforcing fiber available that is
lighter than water. Spectra is available in three classifications (Spectra 900,
1000, and 2000) and several grades are available in each class. Nominal
properties are listed in Table 5. The high specific strength of the fiber makes
it particularly attractive for tensile applications. The glass transition tem-
perature of UHMWPE is in the range of À20jC to 0jC, and hence the fiber
is in the rubbery state at room temperatures and exhibits time-dependent
(viscoelastic) behavior. This feature imparts outstanding impact resistance
and toughness, but may lead to undesirable creep effects under long-term
sustained loading. The melting temperature of the fiber is 147jC (297jF),
Table 4 Typical Properties of Commercially Available Graphite Fibers
Property
Low
modulus
Intermediate
modulus
Ultra-high
modulus
Specific gravity 1.8 1.9 2.2
Young’s modulus,
GPa (Msi)
230 (34) 370 (53) 900 (130)
Tensile strength,
MPa (ksi)
3450 (500) 2480 (360) 3800 (550)
Elongation, % 1.1 0.5 0.4
Coefficient of thermal
expansion, Am/m/jC
(Ain./in./jF)
À0.4 (À0.2) À0.5 (À0.3) À0.5 (À0.3)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
and hence the use of polyethylene fibers is limited to relatively modest
temperatures. The thermal expansion coefficients of Spectra fibers have
apparently not been measured. The values listed in Table 5 are estimated
based on the properties of bulk high-molecular-weight polyethylene.
3.5 Boron Fibers
Boron fibers were one of the first high-performance fibers available for use in
composites. They are fabricated by depositing boron on a heated core using
the vapor deposition process. Both tungsten and carbon fiber cores have
been used. Boron fiber diameters range from 0.1 to 0.2 mm (0.004–0.008 in),
which is an order of magnitude larger than glass, aramid, or graphite fibers.
Boron fibers have a Young’s modulus of about 410 GPa (60 Msi) and a tensile
strength of about 3450 MPa (500 ksi). The combination of a large diameter
and high stiffness greatly restricts the bend radius to which the fiber may
be subjected. On the other hand, a large fiber diameter and high modulus
of elasticity contribute to excellent compressive performance for boron-
reinforced composites.
3.6 Ceramic Fibers
The single most outstanding feature offered by ceramic fibers is that they are
resistant to extremely high temperatures while still maintaining competitive
structural properties. An example is a silicon carbide fiber marketed under
the trade name SCS-Ultrak and fabricated by Specialty Materials, Inc.
(Lowell, MA), which can operate at temperatures up to 1200jC (2190jF).
This fiber has a modulus of 415 GPa (60 Msi), a strength of 5865 MPa
(850 ksi), and a specific gravity of 3.0. A second example is an aluminum–
boron–silica fiber fabricated by the 3M Company and marketed under the
trade name Nextelk. This fiber is capable of operating at temperatures up
Table 5 Nominal Properties of Spectra Fibers
Property Spectra 900 Spectra 1000 Spectra 2000
Specific gravity 0.97 0.97 0.97
Young’s modulus,
GPa (Msi)
70 (10) 105 (15) 115 (17)
Tensile strength,
MPa (ksi)
2600 (380) 3200 (465) 3400 (490)
Elongation, % 3.8 3.0 3.0
Coefficient of thermal
expansion, Am/m/jC
(Ain./in./jF)
>70 (>38) >70 (>38) >70 (>38)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
to 1650jC (3000jF). It also exhibits excellent properties, with a modulus of
193 GPa (28 Msi), a strength of 2000 MPa (300 ksi), and a specific gravity of
3.03.
Because ceramic fibers are normally used at temperatures far in excess of
the useable temperature range of polymers, they are rarely used in polymeric
composites. Ceramic fibers will not be further discussed in this book.
4 COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FORMS
4.1 Discontinuous Fibers
Virtually all of the continuous fibers described in Sec. 3 are also available in
the form of discontinuous fibers. Discontinuous fibers are embedded within a
matrix, and may be randomly oriented (in which case the composite is
isotropic at the macroscale) or may be oriented to some extent (in which case
the composite is anisotropic at the macroscale). Orientation of discontinuous
fibers, if it occurs, is usually induced during the fabrication process used to
create the composite material/structure; fiber alignment often mirrors the
flow direction during injection molding, for example. Discontinuous fibers
are roughly classified according to length, as follows:

Milled fibers are produced by grinding the continuous fiber into very
short lengths. For example, milled graphite fibers are available with
lengths ranging from about 0.3 to 3 mm (0.0012–0.12 in.), and milled
glass fibers are available with lengths ranging fromabout 0.4 to 6 mm
(0.0016–0.24 in.).

Chopped fibers (or strands) have a longer length than milled fibers,
and composites produced using chopped fibers usually have higher
strengths and stiffnesses than those produced using milled fibers.
Chopped graphite fibers are available with lengths ranging from
about 3 to 50 mm(0.–2.0 in.), while chopped glass fibers are available
with lengths ranging from about 6 to 50 mm (0.24–2.0 in.).
In general, the mechanical properties of a composite produced using
discontinuous fibers (say, the strength or stiffness) are not as good as those
that can be obtained using continuous fibers. However, discontinuous fibers
allow the use of relatively inexpensive, high-speed manufacturing processes
such as injection molding or compression molding, and have therefore been
widely used in applications in which extremely high strength or stiffness is not
required.
One of the most widely used composites systems based on the use of
discontinuous fibers is known generically as ‘‘sheet molding compound’’
(SMC). In its most common form, SMC consists of chopped glass fibers
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embedded within a thermosetting polyester resin. However, other resin sys-
tems (e.g., vinyl esters or epoxies) as well as other fibers (e.g., chopped graph-
ite or aramid fibers) are occasionally used in SMC material systems.
4.2 Roving Spools
Most continuous fiber types are available in the form of spools of roving
(i.e., roving wound onto a cylindrical tube and ultimately resembling a large
spool of thread). As mentioned in Sec. 3, roving is also known as tow. The
size of tow (or roving) is usually expressed in terms of the number of fibers
contained in a single tow. For example, a specific glass fiber might be avail-
able in the form of 2k, 3k, 6k, or 12k tow. In this case, the product is avail-
able in tows containing from 2000 to 12,000 fibers. Fibers purchased in this
formare usually ‘‘dry’’ and are subsequently combined with a polymer, metal,
or ceramic matrix during a subsequent manufacturing operation such as
filament winding or pultrusion.
4.3 Woven Fabrics
Most types of high-performance continuous fibers can be woven to form a
fabric. Weaving is accomplished using looms specially modified for use with
high-performance fibers, which are stiffer than those customarily used in the
textile industry. Woven fabrics are produced in various widths up to about
120 cm (48 in.), and are available in (essentially) infinite lengths. Two terms
associated with woven fabrics are:

The tow or yarn running along the length of the fabric is called the
warp. The warp direction is parallel to the long axis of the woven
fabric.

The tow or yarn running perpendicular to the warp is called the fill
tow (also called the weft or the woof tow). The fill direction is per-
pendicular to the warp direction.
Some common fabric weaves are shown schematically in Fig. 9. The
plane weave (Fig. 9a) is the simplest fabric pattern and is most commonly
used. The plane weave is produced by repetitively weaving a given warp tow
over one fill tow and under the next. The point at which a tow passes over/
under another tow is called a crossover point. The plane weave pattern results
in a very stable and firm fabric that exhibits minimum distortion (e.g., fiber
slippage) during handling.
A family of woven fabric patterns known as satin weaves provide better
drape characteristics than the plane weave pattern. That is, a satin weave is
more pliable and will more readily conform to complex curved surfaces than
plane weaves. In the crowfoot satin weave (Fig. 9b), one warp tow is woven
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
over three successive fill tows and then under one fill tow. In the five-harness
satin weave, one warp tow passes over four fill tows and then under one fill
tow. Similarly, in an eight-harness satin weave, one warp towpasses over seven
fill tows and then under one fill tow.
The stiffness and strength of woven fabrics are typically less than that
achieved with unidirectional fibers. This decrease is due to fiber waviness.
Figure 9 Some common woven fabrics used with high-performance fibers.
(From Ref. 7.)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
That is, in any woven fabric, the tow is required to pass over/under one (or
more) neighboring tow(s) at each crossover point, resulting in a pre-existing
fiber waviness. Upon application of a tensile load, the fibers within a ply tend
to straighten, resulting in a lower stiffness than would be achieved if the ply
contained straight unidirectional fibers. Further, due to the weave pattern, the
fibers are not allowed to straighten fully and are subjected to bending stresses,
resulting in fiber failures at lower tensile loads than would otherwise be
achieved if the ply contained unidirectional fibers. This effect is most pro-
nounced in the case of simple weaves because each tow passes over/under
each neighboring tow. For simple weaves, the through-thickness distribu-
tion of tow in the warp and fill directions is identical. Consequently, the
strength and stiffness of simple weaves are usually identical in the warp and
fill directions.
In contrast, for satin weaves, the through-thickness distribution of tow
is inherently asymmetric. Referring to Fig. 9a, for example, for the five-
harness satin weave pattern, the warp towis primarily within the ‘‘top’’ half of
the fabric (as sketched), whereas the fill tow is primarily within the lower half.
The asymmetrical through-thickness distribution of tow causes a coupling
between in-plane loading and bending deflections. That is, if a uniformtensile
load is applied to the midplane of a single layer of a satin weave fabric, the
fabric will not only stretch but will also deflect out of plane (i.e., bend).
Similarly, the crossover points are not symmetrically located with respect to
either the warp or fill directions. This causes a coupling between in-plane
loading and in-plane shear strain. That is, an in-plane shear strain is induced if
a uniform tensile load is applied to a single layer of a satin weave fabric [7].
A woven fabric is, in essence, a 2D structure consisting of orthogo-
nal warp and fill tows interlaced within a plane. Weaving or stitching sev-
eral layers of a woven fabric together can produce a woven structure with
a significant thickness. Structures produced in this fashion are called ‘‘3D
weaves.’’
4.4 Braided Fabrics
Note from Sec. 4.3 that woven fabrics contain reinforcing tow in two orthog-
onal directions—the warp and fill directions. In contrast, braided fabrics
typically contain tow oriented in two (or more) nonorthogonal directions.
Three common braiding patterns are shown in Fig. 10. It is apparent from
this figure that a braided fabric contains bias tow that intersects at a total
included angle 2a. The angle a is called either the braid angle or the bias
angle. While the braid angle can be varied over a wide range, there is always
some minimum and maximum possible value that depends on the width of
the tow and details of the braiding equipment used. Note that if a=45j,
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 10 Some common braided fabrics used with high-performance fibers.
(From Ref. 7.)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
then the bias tows are in fact orthogonal and the braided fabric shown in Fig.
10a and b is equivalent to a woven fabric. A braided fabric is described using
the designation nÂn, where n is the number of tows between crossover points.
A 1Â1-bias and a 2Â2-bias braided fabric is shown in Fig. 10a and b,
respectively. A 1Â1 triaxial braided fabric is shown in Fig. 10c. In this case, a
third axial tow is present.
Braided fabrics can be produced in tubular form or as a flat braided
fabric. A concise description of the equipment used to produce braided fab-
rics, as well as a discussion of the maximum and minimum braid angles that
can be achieved, is given in Ref. 8. It is also possible to braid 3D structures,
in which tows are braided to form a (fibrous) structure that is subsequently
infused with a matrix to form the composite. Applications include ‘‘I’’ or
‘‘T’’ cross sections, typically used with resin transfer molding (RTM) to pro-
duce composite stiffeners or beams. In contrast to structures produced using
fabrics (which may be unidirectional, woven, or braided fabrics), in a 3D
braided structure, there are no recognizable layers.
4.5 Preimpregnated Products or ‘‘Prepreg’’
As is obvious from the preceding discussion, at some point during the
fabrication of a polymer composite, the reinforcing fiber must be embedded
within the polymeric matrix. One approach is to combine the fiber and resin
during the manufacturing operation in which the final form of the composite
structure is defined. Three manufacturing processes in which this approach is
taken are filament winding (briefly described in Sec. 5.3), pultrusion (Sec. 5.4),
and resin transfer molding (Sec. 5.5).
An alternative approach is to combine the fiber and matrix in an
intermediate step, resulting in an intermediate product. In this case, either
individual tow or a thin fabric of tow (which may be woven or braided) is
embedded within a polymeric matrix and delivered to the user in this form.
Because the fibers have already been embedded within a polymeric matrix
when delivered, the fibers are said to have been ‘‘preimpregnated’’ with resin,
and products delivered in this condition are commonly known as ‘‘prepreg.’’
The method used to impregnate a large number of unidirectional tows
with resin is illustrated in Fig. 11 [9]. As indicated, tows delivered from a
large number of roving spools are arranged in a relatively narrow band. The
tows are passed through a resin bath and then wound onto a roll. An inert
backing sheet (called a scrim cloth) is placed between layers on the roll to
maintain a physical separation between layers and to aid during subsequent
handling and processing. The tows/fibers are subjected to various surface
pretreatments just prior to entering the resin bath. The pretreatments are
proprietary but are intended to cause good wetting of the fiber by the resin,
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
which ultimately helps ensure good adhesion between the fibers and polymer
matrix in the cured composite. Products produced in this fashion are
commonly known as ‘‘prepreg tape’’ (Fig. 11b). Prepreg tape is available
in width ranging from about 75 to 1220 mm (3–48 in.). Prepreg fabrics,
produced using either woven or braided fabrics instead of unidirectional
tows, are produced using similar techniques and are also available in widths
ranging from about 75 to 1220 mm.
A variety of fabrication methods have been developed based on the
use of prepreg materials. A few such techniques will be described in Sec. 5.
The first commercially successful prepreg materials were based on B-
staged epoxy resins. As discussed in Sec. 2, in the B-staged condition, a
thermoset resin has been partially polymerized, resulting in relatively high
viscosity, which aids in handling B-staged prepreg materials. However, pre-
preg must be kept at low temperatures until used, otherwise the resin con-
tinues to polymerize and slowly harden. This required that the prepreg be
shipped to the user in a refrigerated condition (for small amounts, this is
Figure 11 (a) Method used to impregnate unidirectional tows with resin. (b) A
3-in. wide roll of ‘‘prepreg tape.’’
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
often accomplished using insulated shipping containers and dry ice). Fur-
thermore, the user must keep the stock of prepreg on hand refrigerated until
used. Typically, storage temperatures are required to be À15jC (0jF) or
below. In practice, the prepreg material stock is removed from freezer, the
amount of prepreg necessary is removed from the roll of stock, and the re-
maining stock is returned to the freezer. Hence, the cumulative ‘‘out-time’’
that a given roll of prepreg stock has experienced (i.e., total amount of time a
roll has been out of a freezer) must be monitored and recorded. The need to
store thermoset prepreg in a refrigerated condition and to maintain accurate
records of cumulative out-time is a significant disadvantage because these
factors add significantly to the final cost of the composite structure.
More recently, prepreg materials based on thermoplastic resins have
become commercially available. In this case, the polymeric matrix is a fully
cured thermoplastic polymer, and hence the prepreg does not require refrig-
eration during shipping or storage, which is a distinct advantage.
Heat and/or pressure is applied during the final fabrication of a com-
posite based on prepreg materials. In the case of thermoset prepregs, heat
and pressure serve to complete the polymerization of the polymeric resin
(i.e., the composite is ‘‘C-staged’’). For thermoplastic prepreg, the objective
is not necessarily to complete the polymerization but rather to melt the ther-
moplastic matrix so as to consolidate individual plies within the laminate.
5 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Fiber-reinforced composites may be produced using metallic, ceramic, or
polymeric matrices. However, polymeric composites are the primary focus
of this book, and so techniques used to fabricate metal or ceramic composite
structures will not be discussed. Even with this limitation, a complete review
of the many different manufacturing processes used to produce polymeric
composite materials and structures is beyond the scope of this presentation.
Instead, only the most common manufacturing techniques will be described.
5.1 Layup
Many composites are produced using the tapes or fabrics discussed in Sec. 4.1.
These may be unidirectional tape, woven fabrics, or braided fabrics. These
products are all relatively thin. ‘‘Layup’’ simply refers to the process of
stacking several layers together, much like a deck of cards. Stacking several
layers together produces a laminate of significant thickness. The most direct
method of producing a multi-ply composite laminate is to simply stack the
desired number of layers of fabric by hand, referred to as ‘‘hand layup.’’ The
layers may consist of either ‘‘dry’’ fabrics (i.e., fabrics that have not yet been
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
impregnated with a resin) or prepreg materials. As will be discussed in later
chapters, fiber angles are typically varied from one ply to the next, so as to
insure adequate stiffness in more than one direction.
Whereas hand layup is simple and straightforward, it is labor-intensive
and therefore costly. It can also be very cumbersome if a large structure is
being produced, such as a fuselage panel intended for use in a modern
commercial aircraft. Therefore, various computer-controlled machines that
automate the process of assembling the ply stack using prepreg materials
have been developed. These include tow placement and tape placement
machines (see Fig. 12). In either case, a roll (or rolls) of prepreg material is
mounted on the head of a computer-controlled robot arm or gantry. The
appropriate number of layers of prepreg is placed on a tool surface auto-
matically and in the desired orientation. Although the capital costs of mod-
ern tow placement or tape placement machines may be very high, overall, this
approach is often less costly than hand layup if production quantities are
sufficiently high.
In the case of dry fabrics (which are usually either woven or braided
fabrics), the stack must be impregnated with a low-viscosity polymeric resin
following assembly of the fiber stack. Conceptually, this may be accomplished
by pouring liquidous resin over the dry fiber stack and using a squeegee or
Figure 12 A computer-controlled tape-laying machine, used to produce the
composite skin used in the vertical stabilizer for a Boeing 777 aircraft.
(Copyright n The Boeing Company.)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
similar device to assist the resin to wet the fibers within the stack. This
technique is commonly used in the recreational boat-building industry, for
example. However, as can be imagined, it is very difficult to insure uniform
penetration of the resin and wetting of the fibers through the thickness of
the stack, to insure that no air pockets remain trapped in the stack, and to
avoid distortion of the fiber patterns while forcing resin into the fibrous
assembly. There are also potential health issues associated with continually
exposing workers to nonpolymerized resins. Hence, the technique of im-
pregnating a dry fiber stack using handheld tools such as squeegees is rarely
employed in industries requiring low variability in stiffness and strength and/
or high volumes, such as the aerospace or automotive industries, for exam-
ple. Alternate methods of impregnating a dry fiber stack with resin have been
developed, such as resin transfer molding (discussed in Sec. 5.5). These alter-
nate techniques result in a composite with a much more uniform matrix vol-
ume fraction and almost no void content.
A major advantage of using prepreg materials, of course, is that the
fibers have been impregnated with resin a priori. Therefore, it is much easier to
maintain the desired matrix volume fraction and to avoid entrapped air-
pockets. Further, prepreg material based on a B-staged thermoset are typi-
cally ‘‘tacky’’ (i.e., prepreg materials adhere to neighboring plies much like
common masking tape), and hence once a given ply has been placed in the
desired orientation, it is less likely to move or be distorted relative to neigh-
boring plies than is the case with dry fabrics.
5.2 Autoclave Process Cycles
Following layup (which may be accomplished using hand layup, automatic
tow placement or tape placement machines, or other techniques), the indi-
vidual plies must be consolidated to form a solid laminate. Usually, con-
solidation occurs through the application of pressure and heat. Although a
simple hot press can be used for this purpose, applying pressure and heat
using an autoclave produces highest-quality composites. An autoclave is
simply a closed pressure vessel that can be used to apply a precisely con-
trolled and simultaneous cycle of vacuum, pressure, and elevated tempera-
ture to the laminate during the consolidation process.
Although many variations exist, a typical assembly used to consolidate
a laminate using an autoclave is shown in Fig. 13. Some of the details of the
assembly are as follows:

The final shape of the composite is defined by a rigid tool. A simple
flat tool is shown in Fig. 13, but in practice, the tool is rarely flat
but instead mirrors the contour(s) desired in the final product. For
example, the surface of a tool used to produce the skin of an air-
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
plane wing would possess the curvature(s) necessary to provide an
aerodynamic surface. Various materials may be used to produce
the tool, including steel alloys, aluminum alloys, ceramics, or com-
posite materials.

The tool surface is coated with a release agent. Various liquid or wax
release agents are available, which are either sprayed or wiped onto
the surface. The purpose of the release agent is to prevent adherence
between the tool and the polymeric matrix.

A peel ply is placed next to both upper and lower surfaces of the
composite laminate. The release ply does not develop a strong bond
to the composite, and hence can be easily removed following con-
solidation. The peel ply may be porous or nonporous. Porous peel
plies allow resin to pass through the ply and be adsorbed by an
adjacent bleeder/breather cloth (see below). Note that the surface
texture of the consolidated laminate will be a mirror image of the
peel ply used. For example, Teflon-coated porous glass fabrics are
often used as peel plies, and these fabrics have a clothlike surface
texture. Hence, a composite laminate consolidated with such fab-
rics will exhibit a clothlike surface texture as well.

One or more layers of a breather/bleeder cloth is placed adjacent to
the porous peel ply. The bleeder cloth has the texture of a rather stiff
cotton ball. Its purpose is to allow any gases released to be vented
(hence the adjective breather), and also to adsorb any resin that
passed through the porous peel ply (hence the adjective bleeder). The
breather/bleeder is usually a glass, polyester, or jute cloth.
Figure 13 Typical assembly used to consolidate a polymeric composite lami-
nate using an autoclave (expanded edge view).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

An edge damis placed around the periphery of the laminate. The edge
dam is intended to maintain the position and resin content of the
laminate edges.

A pressure plate (also called a caul plate) is placed over the breather/
bleeder cloth. The pressure plate insures a uniform distribution of
pressures over the surface of the laminate.

The entire assembly is sealed within a vacuum film or bag. Often this
is a relatively thick (say, 5 mm) layer of silicone rubber. Sealant tape
is used to adhere the vacuum film to the tool surface, providing a
pressure-tight seal around the periphery of the vacuum film.

The volume within the vacuum bag is evacuated by means of a vac-
uum port, which is often permanently attached to the silicone rubber
vacuum film. The vacuum port often features a quick-disconnect
fitting, which allows for easy connection to a vacuum pump or line.
Following vacuumbaggingof the laminate, the assemblyis placedwithin
an autoclave, the autoclave is sealed, and the thermomechanical process cycle
that will consolidate the composite is initiated. A bagged composite laminate
being loaded into an autoclave is shown in Fig. 14.
The thermomechanical process cycle imposed using an autoclave varies
from one composite prepreg system to the next, and also depends on part
Figure 14 A vacuum-bagged composite skin used in the tail-section of a
Boeing 777 aircraft, about to be loaded into a large autoclave. (Copyright n The
Boeing Company.)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
configuration (e.g., part thickness). Recall that if the prepreg is based on a B-
stage thermoset resin, then the autoclave is used to complete the polymer-
ization of the resin (i.e., the composite is C-staged). Alternatively, if the
prepreg is based on a thermoplastic, the pressure and heat applied during the
autoclave cycle soften the matrix and insure polymer flow across the ply
interfaces. The laminate is then solidified upon cooling.
A typical cure cycle, suitable for use with standard thermosetting resin
systems such as epoxies, is as follows:

Draw and hold a vacuum within the vacuum bag, resulting in a
pressure of roughly 100 kPa (14.7 psi) applied to the laminate. The
vacuum is typically maintained for about 30 min, and is intended to
remove any entrapped air or volatiles, and to hold the laminate in
place.

While maintaining a vacuum, increase the temperature from room
temperature to about 120jC (250jF), at a rate of about 2.8jC/min
(5jF/min). Maintain this temperature for 30 min. During this 30-min
dwell time, any remaining air or other volatiles are removed.

After 30 min, increase autoclave pressure from atmospheric to about
585 kPa (85 psi), at a rate of 21 kPa/min (3 psi/min). Release vacuum
when autoclave pressure reaches 138 kPa (20 psi).

When an autoclave pressure of 585 kPa is reached, increase the
temperature from 120jC to 175jC (350jF), at a rate of about 2.8jC/
min (5jF/min). Maintain temperature at 175jC for 2 hr. Polymer-
ization of the thermosetting resin matrix is completed during this 2-hr
dwell.

Cool to room temperature at a rate of about 2.8jC/min (5jF/min),
release autoclave pressure, and remove cured laminate from the
autoclave.
Process cycles used with thermoplastic prepregs are similar, except that
higher temperatures (500jC or higher) are involved.
5.3 Filament Winding
Filament winding is an automated process in which tow is wound onto a
mandrel at controlled position and orientation. A filament winder being used
to produce a small rocket motor case is shown in Fig. 15 [10]. During
operation, the mandrel rotates about its axis, and a fiber carriage simulta-
neously moves in a controlled manner along the length of the mandrel. The
angle at which fibers are placed on the mandrel surface is a function of
the mandrel diameter, rate of mandrel rotation, and translational speed of the
fiber carriage. The mandrel can include domed heads to accommodate fiber
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 15 A carbon-epoxy pressure vessel being produced using the filament-
winding process and unidirectional prepreg. The prepreg used in this case is
basedonlarge 50k tows of Zoltek Panex
o
R
35carbon fiber. (a) Aband of prepreg is
wound onto a mandrel, forming a Fhj fiber pattern. (b) Eventually the mandrel is
completely enclosed by one or more Fhj plies. (c) One or more 90j (‘‘hoop’’) plies
are often added to the cylindrical region to resist the high hoop stresses induced
in cylindrical pressure vessels. (Photos provided courtesy of Entec Composite
Machines Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
turnaround at the ends, or to wind the domes of a cylindrical pressure vessel
(as shown in Fig. 15).
If dry tows are used, then the tow must pass through a liquid resin
bath before being wound onto the mandrel. In this case, the process is often
referred to as ‘‘wet’’ winding. Often fiber tension provides sufficient com-
paction of the laminate, and so no additional external pressure is required.
If a thermosetting resin that cures at room temperature is used, following
completion of the winding operation, the structure is simply left in the
winder until polymerization is complete.
Of course, if prepreg tow is used, then the tow is already impregnated
with a resin and is not passed through a resin bath. This process is called
‘‘dry’’ winding. In this case, heat and pressure are normally required to com-
plete polymerization of the resin (in the case of a thermosetting polymer
matrix), or to cause resin flow and consolidation (in the case of a thermo-
plastic polymer matrix). The appropriate heat and pressure are usually
applied using an autoclave.
Filament winding machines are available in highly automated, nu-
merically controlled models (costing millions of dollars), but high-quality
filament winding can also be accomplished for simple shapes and patterns on
inexpensive gear/chain-driven machines similar to a lathe.
For simple wound shapes with open ends (such as tubes), the mandrel is
usually a simple solid cylinder whose surface has been coated with a release
agent. In this case, the mandrel is forced out of the internal cavity after
consolidation of the composite. Mandrel design and configuration become
more complex when a shape with restricted openings at the ends is produced
(such as the pressure tank shown in Fig. 15). In these cases, the mandrel must
somehow be removed after the part is consolidated. Several different types of
mandrel designs are used in these cases, including:

Soluble mandrels, which are made from a material that can be
dissolved in some fashion after the cure process is complete. In this
approach, the mandrel is cast and machined to the desired shape, the
composite part is filament wound over the mandrel, the part is cured,
and the mandrel is then simply dissolved. The wall of the composite
structure must obviously have at least one opening, such that the
dissolved (and now liquidous) mandrel material can be drained from
the internal cavity. Soluble mandrels can be made from metallic
alloys with suitably low-melting temperatures, eutectic salts, sand
with water-soluble binders, or various plasters.

Removable(orcollapsible)mandrels, whichresemblegiant 3Dpuzzles.
That is, the entire mandrel can be taken apart piece by piece. The
composite structure being woundmust have at least one wall opening,
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
which allows the mandrel pieces to be removed from the internal
cavity after cure. Obviously, the mandrel is designed such that no
single piece is larger than the available opening(s).

‘‘Inflatable’’ mandrels, which take on the desired shape when
pressurized and then are simply deflated and removed after winding
and consolidation.

Metal or polymer liners, which are actually a modification of the
inflatable mandrel concept. Liners can be described as metal or
polymer ‘‘balloons’’ and remain in the filament wound vessel after
cure. The liner does not contribute significantly to the strength or
stiffness of the structure. In fact, the wall thickness of the liner is often
so small that an internal pressure must be applied to the liner during
the winding process to avoid buckling of the liner wall. Metal liners
are almost always used in composite pressure vessels, where
allowable leakage rates are very low, or in filament wound chemical
storage tanks, where corrosive liquids are stored.
5.4 Pultrusion
Pultrusion is a fabrication process in which continuous tows or fabrics
impregnated with resin are pulled through a forming die, as shown schemati-
cally in Fig. 16 [10]. If dry tow or fabric is used, then the tow/fabric must
Figure 16 Sketch of a typical pultruder.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
pass through a resin bath prior to entering the forming die. In this case, the
process is called ‘‘wet’’ pultrusion. If prepreg material is used, then there
is no need for a resin bath and the process is called ‘‘dry’’ pultrusion. The
cross-sectional shape is defined by the die and is therefore constant along
the length of the part. The principal attraction of pultrusion is that very
high production rates are possible, as compared to other composite manu-
facturing techniques.
5.5 Resin Transfer Molding
In the resin transfer molding process, a dry fiber preform is placed within a
cavity formed between two rigid molds, as shown in Fig. 17. The dry pre-
form may consist of a 3D braided structure, or may be made by stitching
together multiple layers of 2D woven or braided fabrics. Liquidous resin is
forced into the cavity under pressure via a port located in the upper or lower
mold halves. Air originally within the internal cavity (or other gases that
evolve during cure of the resin) is allowed to escape via one or more air
vents. Alternatively, a vacuum pump may be used to evacuate the internal
cavity, which also assists in drawing the resin into the cavity. When a vacuum
is used, the process is called ‘‘vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding’’
(VARTM). Both the upper and lower molds must be sufficiently rigid so
as to resist the internal pressures applied and to maintain the desired shape
of the internal cavity. Usually, the closed molds are placed within a press,
which provides a clamping pressure to assist in keeping the molds closed.
6 THE SCOPE OF THIS BOOK
A broad overview of modern composite materials has been provided in the
preceding sections. It should be clear from this discussion that modern
Figure 17 Picture/sketch of the RTM process.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
polymeric composite material systems are a multidisciplinary subject, involv-
ing topics drawn frompolymer chemistry, fiber science, surface chemistry and
adhesion, materials testing, structural analysis, and manufacturing tech-
niques, to name a few. It is simply not possible to cover all of these topics
in any depth in a single book. Accordingly, the material presented in this book
represents a small fraction of the scientific and technological developments
that have ultimately led to the successful use of modern composite material
systems. Specifically, the focus of this text is the structural analysis of
laminated, continuous-fiber polymeric composite materials and structures.
Having identified the structural analysis of laminated continuous-fiber
polymeric composites as our focus, we must make still another decision:
At what physical scale should we frame our analysis? The importance of
physical scale has already been discussed in Sec. 1 in conjunction with the
very definition of a ‘‘composite material.’’ Specifically, we have defined a
composite as a material system consisting of two (or more) materials, which
are distinct at a physical scale greater than about 1 Am and which are bonded
together at the atomic and/or molecular levels. Fibers commonly used in
polymeric composites possess diameters ranging from about 5 to 40 Am
(Sec. 3). Therefore, we could perform a structural analysis at a physical scale
comparable to the fiber diameter. Alternatively, laminated polymeric com-
posites consist of well-defined layers (called ‘‘plies’’) of fibers embedded in
a polymeric matrix. The thickness of these layers ranges from about 0.125
to 0.250 mm (Sec. 4). We could therefore elect to begin a structural analy-
sis at a physical scale comparable to the thickness of a single ply.
A distinction is drawn between structural analyses that begin at these
two different physical scales. Analyses that are framed at a physical scale
corresponding to the fiber diameter (or below) are classified as microme-
chanics analyses, whereas those framed at a physical scale corresponding to
a single ply thickness (or above) are classified as macromechanics analyses.
This distinction is comparable to the traditional distinction between metal-
lurgy and continuum mechanics. That is, metallurgy typically involves the
study of the crystalline nature of metals and metal alloys, and is therefore
framed at a physical scale roughly corresponding to atomic dimensions. A
metallurgist might attempt to predict Young’s modulus* of a given metal
alloy, based on knowledge of the constituent atoms and crystalline struc-
ture present in the alloy, for example. In contrast, continuum mechanics is
formulated at a much larger physical scale, such that the existence of indi-
* The definition of various material properties of interest to the structural engineer, such as
Young’s modulus, will be reviewed and discussed in greater detail in Chap. 3.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
vidual atoms is not recognized. In continuum mechanics, a metal or metal
alloy is said to be ‘‘homogeneous’’ even though it actually consists of sev-
eral different atomic species. A structural engineer wishing to apply a solu-
tion based on continuum mechanics would simply measure Young’s
modulus exhibited by the metal alloy of interest, rather than try to predict
it based on knowledge of the atomic crystalline structure.
In much the same way, composite micromechanics analyses are con-
cerned with the predicting properties of composites based on the particular
fiber and matrix materials involved, the spacing and orientation of the fibers,
the adhesion (or lack thereof ) between fiber and matrix, etc. For example,
suppose that a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite is to be produced by
combining graphite fibers with a known Young’s modulus (E
f
) and an epoxy
matrix with a known Young’s modulus (E
m
). An analysis framed at a physi-
cal scale corresponding to the fiber diameter (i.e., a micromechanics analy-
sis) is required to predict the Young’s modulus that will be exhibited by the
composite (E
c
) formed using these two constituents.
In contrast, composite macromechanics analyses are framed at a
physical scale corresponding to the ply thickness (or above). The existence
or properties of individual fibers or the matrix material are not recognized
(in a mathematical sense) in a macromechanics analysis. Instead, the ply is
treated as a homogenous layer whose properties is identical at all points,
although they differ in different directions. Details of fiber or matrix type,
fiber spacing, fiber orientation, etc., are represented in a macromechanics
analysis only indirectly, via properties defined for the composite ply as a
whole, rather than as properties of the individual constituents.
Micromechanics-based structural analyses will not be discussed in any
detail. A simple micromechanics model that may be used to predict ply stiff-
nesses based on knowledge of fiber and matrix properties, called the rule of
mixtures, will be developed in Sec. 6 in Chap. 3. However, the material de-
voted to micromechanics in this text is abbreviated and does not do justice
to the many advances made in this area. The lack of emphasis on microme-
chanical topics is not meant to imply that such analyses are unimportant.
Quite the contrary, micromechanics analyses are crucial during development
of new composite material systems because it is only through a detailed
understanding of the behavior of composites at this physical scale that new
and improved materials can be created. Micromechanics has been mini-
mized herein simply due to space restrictions. The reader interested in learn-
ing more about micromechanics is referred to several excellent texts that
cover this topic in greater detail, a few of which are Refs. 5, 7, 11, and 14.
Finally, then, the scope of this book is macromechanics-based structural
analysis of laminated, continuous-fiber polymeric composites.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
REFERENCES
1. Rodriguez, F. Principles of Polymer Systems; 3rd Ed.; Hemisphere Publ. Co.:
New York, 1989; ISBN 0-89116-176-7.
2. Young, R.J.; Lovell, P.A. Introduction to Polymers; 2nd Ed.; Chapman and
Hall Publ. Co.: New York, 1991; ISBN 0-89116-176-7.
3. Strong, A.B. Plastics: Materials and Processing; 2nd Ed.; Prentice-Hall: Upper
Saddle River, NJ, 2000. ISBN 0-13-021626-7.
4. The Macrogalleria (http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/index.htm), website
maintained by the University of Southern Mississippi and devoted to polymeric
materials.
5. Watt, W., Perov, B.V., Eds. Strong Fibres; Vol. 1. In Handbook of Composite
Materials; Kelly, A., Rabotnov, Y.N., Series Eds.; Elsevier Sci. Publ.: New
York, NY, 1985; ISBN 0-444-87505-0.
6. Donnet, J.-B.; Wang, T.K.; Peng, J.C.M.; Reboillat, M. Carbon Fibers; 3rd Ed.;
Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, NY, 1998; ISBN 0-8247-0172-0.
7. Cox, B.; Flanagan, G. Handbook of Analytical Methods for Textile Compo-
sites. NASA Contractor Report 4750. NASA-Langley Res. Ctr., Hampton,
VA, 1997.
8. Hasselbrack, S.A.; Pederson, C.L.; Seferis, J.C. Evaluation of carbon–fiber
reinforced thermoplastic matrices in a flat braid process. Polym. Compos. 1992,
13 (1), 38–46.
9. Kalpakjian, S. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials; 3rd Ed.;
Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.: Menlo Park CA, 1997; ISBN 0-201-82370-5.
10. Schwartz, M.M. Composite Materials Handbook; New York, NY, McGraw-Hill
Book Co.: 1983; ISBN 0-07-055743-8.
11. Hyer, M.W. Stress Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials; New
York, NY,McGraw-Hill Book Co.: 1998; ISBN 0-07-016700-1.
12. Herakovich, C.T. Mechanics of Fibrous Composites; John Wiley and Sons: New
York, NY, 1998; ISBN 0-471-10636-4.
13. Jones, R.M. Mechanics of Composite Materials; McGraw-Hill Book Co.: New
York, NY, 1975; ISBN 0-07-032790-4.
14. Hull, D. An Introduction to Composite Materials; Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge, UK, 1981; ISBN 0-521-23991-5.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2
Review of Force, Stress, and Strain Tensors
In this chapter, the fundamental definitions of force vectors, stress tensors,
and strain tensors are reviewed. The chapter begins with a discussion of force
vectors, since the concept of ‘‘force’’ is encountered in everyday life and is
therefore very intuitive. Separate sections devoted to stress tensors and strain
tensors are then presented. Certain parallels will be drawn between force
vectors and stress/strain tensors. An important underlying principal is that a
tensor cannot be described in a mathematical sense until a specific coordinate
system is selected for use. Also, a tensor cannot be properly described using
only a single component of the tensor, i.e., all components of a tensor must be
known in order to describe the tensor.
1 THE FORCE VECTOR
Forces can be grouped into two broad categories: surface forces and body
forces. Surface forces are those that act over a surface (as the name implies)
and result from direct physical contact between two bodies. In contrast, body
forces are those that act at a distance and do not result from direct physical
contact of one body with another. The force of gravity is the most common
type of body force. In this text, we are primarily concerned with surface forces;
the effects of body forces (such as the weight of a structure) will be ignored.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
A force is a 3-D vector. A force is defined by a magnitude and a line of
action. In SI units, the magnitude of a force is expressed in Newtons,
abbreviated N, whereas in English units, the magnitude of a force is expressed
in pounds-force, abbreviated lbf. A force vector F acting at a point P and
referenced to a right-handed x–y–z coordinate system is shown in Fig. 1.
Components of F acting parallel to the x–y–z coordinate axes, F
x
, F
yy
, and
F
z
, respectively, are also shown in the figure. The algebraic sign of each force
component is defined in accordance with the algebraically positive direction
of the corresponding coordinate axis. All force components shown in Fig. 1
are algebraically positive since each component ‘‘points’’ in the correspond-
ing positive coordinate direction.
The reader is likely to have encountered several different ways of ex-
pressing force vectors in a mathematical sense. Three methods will be de-
scribed here. The first is called vector notation and involves the use of unit
vectors. Unit vectors parallel to the x-, y-, and z-coordinate axes are typically
labeled ıˆ, j
ˆ
, and k
ˆ
, respectively, and by definition have a magnitude equal to
unity. A force vector F is written in vector notation as follows:
F ¼ F
x
ˆ
i þ F
y
ˆ
j þ F
z
ˆ
k
ð1Þ
The magnitude of the force is given by:
F j j ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
F
2
x
þ F
2
y
þ F
2
z
_
ð2Þ
Figure 1 A force vector F acting at point P. Force components F
x
, F
y
, and F
z
acting parallel to the x–y–z coordinate axes, respectively, are also shown.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
A second method of defining a force vector is through the use of indicial
notation. In this case, a subscript is used to denote individual components of
the vectorial quantity:
F ¼ ðF
x
; F
y
; F
z
Þ
The subscript denotes the coordinate direction of each force component. One
of the advantages of indicial notation is that it allows a shorthand notation to
be used, as follows:
F ¼ F
i
; where i ¼ x; y; or z
ð3Þ
Note that a range has been explicitly specified for the subscript i in Eq. (3).
That is, it is explicitly stated that the subscript i may take on values of x, y, or
z. Usually, however, the range of a subscript(s) is not stated explicitly but
rather is implied. For example, Eq. (3) is normally written simply as:
F ¼ F
i
where it is understood that the subscript i takes on values of x, y, and z.
The third approach is called matrix notation. In this case, individual
components of the force vector are listed within braces in the formof a column
array:
F ¼
F
x
F
y
F
z
_
_
_
_
_
_
ð4Þ
Indicial notation is sometimes combined with matrix notation as follows:
F ¼ F
i
f g
ð5Þ
2 TRANSFORMATION OF A FORCE VECTOR
One of the most common requirements in the study of mechanics is the need to
describe a vector in more than one coordinate system. For example, suppose
all components of a force vector F
i
are known in one coordinate system (say,
the x–y–z coordinate system), and it is desired to express this force vector in a
second coordinate system (say, the xV–yV–zV coordinate system). In order to
describe the force vector in the new coordinate system, we must calculate the
components of the force parallel to the xV-, yV-, and zV-axes—that is, we must
calculate F
xV
, F
yV
, and F
zV
. The process of relating force components in one
coordinate system to those in another coordinate system is called the trans-
formation of the force vector. This terminology is perhaps unfortunate in the
sense that the force vector itself is not ‘‘transformed,’’ but rather our de-
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
scription of the force vector transforms as we change from one coordinate
system to another.
It can be shown (1,2) that the force components in the xV–yV–zV co-
ordinate system ( F
xV
, F
yV
, and F
zV
) are related to the components in the x–y–z
coordinate system ( F
x
, F
y
, and F
z
) according to:
F
xV
¼ c
xVx
F
x
þ c
xVy
F
y
þ c
xVz
F
z
ð6aÞ
F
yV
¼ c
yVx
F
x
þ c
yVy
F
y
þ c
yVz
F
z
F
zV
¼ c
zVx
F
x
þ c
zVy
F
y
þ c
zVz
F
z
The terms c
i Vj
that appear in Eq. (6a) are called direction cosines and equal the
cosine of the angle between the axes of the new and original coordinate
systems. An angle of rotation is defined from the original x–y–z coordinate
system to the new xV–yV–zV coordinate system. The algebraic sign of the angle
of rotation is defined in accordance with the right-hand rule.
Equation (6a) can be succinctly written using the summation conven-
tion as follows:
F
i V
¼ c
i Vj
F
j
ð6bÞ
Alternatively, these three equations can be written using matrix notation as:
F
xV
F
yV
F
zV
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
c
xVx
c
xVy
c
xVz
c
yVx
c
yVy
c
yVz
c
z
V
x
c
zVy
c
zVz
_
_
_
_
F
x
F
y
F
z
_
_
_
_
_
_
ð6cÞ
Note that although values of individual force components vary as we
change from one coordinate system to another, the magnitude of the force
vector [given by Eq. (2)] does not. The magnitude is independent of the
coordinate system used and is called an invariant of the force tensor.
Direction cosines relate unit vectors in the ‘‘new’’ and ‘‘old’’ coordinate
systems. For example, a unit vector directed along the xV-axis (i.e., unit vector
ıˆ V) is related to the unit vectors in the x–y–z coordinate system as follows:
ˆ
iV ¼ c
xVx
ˆ
i þ c
xVy
ˆ
j þ c
xVz
ˆ
k ð7Þ
Since i
ˆ
V is a unit vector, then in accordance with Eq. (2):
ðc
xVx
Þ
2
þ ðc
xVy
Þ
2
þ ðc
xVz
Þ
2
¼ 1 ð8Þ
To this point, we have referred to a force as a vector. A force vector can
also be called a force tensor. The term ‘‘tensor’’ refers to any quantity that
transforms in a physically meaningful way from one Cartesian coordinate
system to another. The rank of a tensor equals the number of subscripts that
must be used to describe the tensor. A force can be described using a single
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
subscript, F
i
, and therefore a force is said to be a tensor of rank one, or equiv-
alently, a first-order tensor. Equations (6a)–(6c) is called the transformation
law for a first-order tensor.
It is likely that the reader is already familiar with two other tensors: the
stress tensor, r
ij
, and the strain tensor, e
ij
. The stress and strain tensors will be
reviewed later in this chapter, but at this point, it can be noted that two
subscripts are used to describe stress and strain tensors. Hence, stress and
strain tensors are said to be tensors of rank two, or equivalently, second-order
tensors.
Example Problem 1
Given. All components of a force vector F are known in a given x–y–z co-
ordinate system. It is desired to express this force in a new xU–yU–zU
coordinate system, where the xU–yU–zU is generated from the original x–y–
z coordinate system by the following two rotations (see Fig. 2):

A rotation of h about the original z-axis (which defines an inter-
mediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system), followed by

A rotation of b about the xV-axis (which defines the final xU–yU–zU
coordinate system).
Problem. (a) Determine the direction cosines c
iUj
relating the original x–y–z
coordinate system to the new xU–yU–zU coordinate system; (b) obtain a general
expression for the force vector F in the xU–yU–zU coordinate system; and (c)
calculate numerical values of the force vector F in the xU–yU–zU coordinate
system if h=20j, b=60j, and F
x
=1000 N, F
y
=200 N, F
z
=600 N.
Solution
Part (a). One way to determine the direction cosines c
iUj
is to rotate unit
vectors. In this approach, unit vectors are first rotated fromthe original x–y–z
coordinate system to the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system, and then
from the xV–yV–zV system to the final xU–yU–zU coordinate system.
Define a unit vector I that is aligned with the x-axis:
I u ð1Þ
ˆ
i
That is, vector I is a vector for which I
x
=1, I
y
=0, and I
z
=0. The vec-
tor I can be rotated to the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system using
Eqs. (6a)–(6c):
I
x
V ¼ c
x
V
x
I
x
þ c
x
V
y
I
y
þ c
x
V
z
I
z
I
y
V ¼ c
y
V
x
I
x
þ c
y
V
y
I
y
þ c
y
V
z
I
z
I
z
V ¼ c
z
V
x
I
x
þ c
z
V
y
I
y
þ c
z
V
z
I
z
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 2 Generation of the xW–yW–zW coordinate system from the x–y–z co-
ordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The direction cosines associated with a transformation from the x–y–z
coordinate system to the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system can be
determined by inspection [see Fig. 2(a)] and are given by:
c
x
V
x
¼ cosine ðangle between x
V
- and x-axesÞ ¼ cos h
c
x
V
y
¼ cosine ðangle between x
V
- and y-axesÞ ¼ cosð90
B
À hÞ ¼ sin h
c
x
V
z
¼ cosine ðangle between x
V
- and z-axesÞ ¼ cosð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
y
V
x
¼ cosine ðangle between the y
V
- and x-axesÞ ¼ cosð90
B
þ hÞ
¼ Àsin h
c
y
V
y
¼ cosine ðangle between the y
V
- and y-axesÞ ¼ cos h
c
y
V
z
¼ cosine ðangle between the y
V
- and z-axesÞ ¼ cosð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
x
¼ cosine ðangle between the z
V
- and x-axesÞ ¼ cosð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
y
¼ cosine ðangle between the z
V
- and y-axesÞ ¼ cosð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
z
¼ cosine ðangle between the z
V
- and z-axesÞ ¼ cosð0
B
Þ ¼ 1
Using these direction cosines:
I
x
V ¼ c
x
V
x
I
x
þ c
x
V
y
I
y
þ c
x
V
z
I
z
¼ ðcos hÞð1Þ þ ðsinhÞð0Þ þ ð0Þð0Þ ¼ cos h
I
y
V ¼ c
y
V
x
I
x
þ c
y
V
y
I
y
þ c
y
V
z
I
z
¼ ðÀsinhÞð1Þ þ ðcos hÞð0Þ þð0Þð0Þ ¼ Àsinh
I
z
V ¼ c
z
V
x
I
x
þ c
z
V
y
I
y
þ c
z
V
z
I
z
¼ ð0Þð1Þ þ ð0Þð0Þ þ ð1Þð0Þ ¼ 0
Therefore, in the xV–yV–zV coordinate system, the vector I is written as:
I ¼ ðcos hÞ
ˆ
i
V
þ ðÀsin hÞ
ˆ
j
V
Now define two additional unit vectors, one aligned with the original y-axis
(vector J ) and one aligned with the original z-axis (vector K), i.e., let J=(1) j
ˆ
and K=(1) k
ˆ
. Transforming these vectors to the xV–yV–zV coordinate system,
again using the direction cosines listed above, results in:
J ¼ ðsin hÞ
ˆ
i
V
þ ðcos hÞ
ˆ
j
V
K ¼ ð1Þ
ˆ
k
V
We now rotate vectors I , J, andK from the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate
systemtothe final xU–yU–zU coordinate system. The directioncosines associated
with a transformation fromthe xV–yV–zV coordinate systemto the final xU–yU–zU
coordinate system are easily determined by inspection [see Fig. 2(b)] and are
given by:
c
xUx
V ¼ 1 c
xUy
V ¼ 0 c
x Uz
V ¼ 0
c
y Ux
V ¼ 0 c
y Uy
V ¼ cos b c
y Uz
V ¼ sin b
c
z Ux
V ¼ 0 c
z Uy
V ¼ Àsin b c
z Uz
V ¼ cos b
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
These direction cosines together with Eqs. (6a)–(6c) can be used to rotate the
vector I from the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system to the final xU–yU–zU
coordinate system:
I
x
W ¼ c
x
W
x
V I
x
V þ c
x
W
y
V I
y
V þ c
x
W
z
V I
z
V ¼ ð1Þðcos hÞ þ ð0ÞðÀsin hÞ þ ð0Þð0Þ
I
x
W ¼ cos h
I
y
W ¼ c
y
W
x
V I
x
V þ c
y
W
y
V I
y
V þ c
y
W
z
V I
z
V ¼ð0ÞðcoshÞ þ ðcosbÞðÀsinhÞ þ ðsinbÞð0Þ
I
y
W ¼ Àcos b sin h
I
z
W ¼ c
z
W
x
V I
x
V þ c
z
W
y
V I
y
V þc
z
W
z
V I
z
V ¼ð0ÞðcoshÞ þðÀsinbÞðÀsinhÞ þðcosbÞð0Þ
I
z
W ¼ sin b sin h
Therefore, in the final xU–yU–zU coordinate system, the vector I is written as:
I ¼ ðcos hÞ
ˆ
i
W
þ ðÀcos b sin hÞ
ˆ
j
W
þ ðsin b sin hÞ
ˆ
k
W
ðaÞ
Recall that in the original x–y–z coordinate system, I is simply a unit vector
aligned with the original x-axis: I u (1)ıˆ. Therefore result (a) defines the
direction cosines associated with the angle between the original x-axis and
the final xU-, yU-, and zU-axes. That is:
c
x
W
x
¼ cosine ðangle between xU- and x-axesÞ ¼ cos h
c
y
W
x
¼ cosine ðangle between yU- and x-axesÞ ¼ Àcos b sin h
c
z
W
x
¼ cosine ðangle between zU- and x-axesÞ ¼ sin b sin h
A similar procedure is used to rotate the unit vectors J and K from the
intermediatexV–yV–zV coordinatesystemtothefinal xU–yU–zU coordinatesystem.
These rotations result in:
J ¼ ðsin hÞ
ˆ
i
W
þ ðcos b cos hÞ
ˆ
j
W
þ ðÀsin b cos hÞ
ˆ
k
W
ðbÞ
K ¼ ð0Þ
ˆ
i
W
þ ðsin bÞ
ˆ
j
W
þ ðcos bÞ
ˆ
k
W
ðcÞ
Since vector J is a unit vector aligned with the original y-axis, J=(1)j
ˆ
, result
(b) defines the direction cosines associated with the angle between the orig-
inal y-axis and the final xU-, yU-, and zU-axes:
c
x
W
y
¼ cosine ðangle between xU- and y-axesÞ ¼ sin h
c
y
W
y
¼ cosine ðangle between yU- and y-axesÞ ¼ cos b cos h
c
z
W
x
¼ cosine ðangle between zU- and y-axesÞ ¼ Àsin b cos h
Finally, result (c) defines the direction cosines associated with the angle
between the original z-axis and the final xU-, yU-, and zU-axes:
c
x
W
z
¼ cosineð angle between xU- and z-axesÞ ¼ 0
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
c
y
W
z
¼ cosine ðangle between yU-and z-axesÞ ¼ sin b
c
z
W
z
¼ cosine ðangle between zU-and z-axesÞ ¼ cos b
Assembling the preceding results, the set of direction cosines relating the
original x–y–z coordinate system to the final xU–yU–zU coordinate system can
be written as:
c
x
W
x
c
x
W
y
c
x
W
z
c
y
W
x
c
y
W
y
c
y
W
z
c
z
W
x
c
z
W
y
c
z
W
z
_
_
_
_
¼
cos h sin h 0
Àcos b sin h cos b cos h sin b
sin b sin h Àsin b cos h cos b
_
_
_
_
Part (b). Since the direction cosines have been determined, transformation
of force vector Fcan be accomplished using any version of Eqs. (6a)–(6c). For
example, using matrix notation, Eq. (6c):
F
x
W
F
y
W
F
z
W
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
c
x
W
x
c
x
W
y
c
x
W
z
c
y
W
x
c
y
W
y
c
y
W
z
c
z
W
x
c
z
W
y
c
z
W
z
_
_
_
_
F
x
F
y
F
z
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
cos h sin h 0
Àcos b sin h cos b cos h sin b
sin b sin h Àsin b cos h cos b
_
_
_
_
F
x
F
y
F
z
_
_
_
_
_
_
F
x
W
F
y
W
F
z
W
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
ðcos hÞF
x
þ ðsin hÞF
y
ðÀcos b sin hÞF
x
þ ðcos b cos hÞF
y
þ ðsin bÞF
z
ðsin b sin hÞF
x
þ ðÀsin b cos hÞF
y
þ ðcos bÞF
z
_
_
_
_
_
_
Part (c). Using the specified numerical values and the results of Part (b):
F
x
W
F
y
W
F
z
W
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
ðcos 20
B
Þð1000NÞ þ ðsin20
B
Þ200N
ðÀcos 60
B
sin20
B
Þð1000NÞ þ ðcos 60
B
cos 20
B
Þð200NÞ þ ðsin60
B
Þð600NÞ
ðsin60
B
sin20
B
Þð1000NÞ þ ðÀsin60
B
cos 20
B
Þð200NÞ þ ðcos 60
B
Þð600NÞ
_
_
_
_
_
_
F
x
W
F
y
W
F
z
W
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
1008N
442:6N
433:4N
_
_
_
_
_
_
Using vector notation, F can now be expressed in the two different coordi-
nate systems as:
F ¼ ð1000 NÞ
ˆ
i þ ð200 NÞ
ˆ
j þ ð600 NÞ
ˆ
k
or equivalently
F ¼ ð1008 NÞ
ˆ
i
W
þ ð442:6 NÞ
ˆ
j
W
þ ð433:4 NÞ
ˆ
k
W
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
where ıˆ, j
ˆ
, k
ˆ
and ıˆ U, j
ˆ
U, k
ˆ
U are unit vectors in the x–y–z and xU–yU–zUcoordinate
systems, respectively. Force vector F drawn in the x–y–z and xU–yU–
zUcoordinate systems is shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b), respectively. The two
descriptions of F are entirely equivalent. A convenient way of (partially)
verifying this equivalence is to calculate the magnitude of the original and
transformed force vectors. Since the magnitude is an invariant, it is inde-
Figure 3 Force vector F drawn in the x–y–z and xW–yW–zW coordinate systems.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
pendent of the coordinate system used to describe the force vector. Using
Eq. (2), the magnitude of the force vector in the x–y–z coordinate system is:
F j j ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
F
2
x
þ F
2
y
þ F
2
z
_
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ð1000NÞ
2
þ ð200NÞ
2
þ ð600NÞ
2
_
¼ 1183 N
The magnitude of the force vector in the xU–yU–zU coordinate system is:
F j j ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
F
x
W ð Þ
2
þ F
y
W
_ _
2
þ F
z
W ð Þ
2
_
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ð1008NÞ
2
þ ð442:6NÞ
2
þ ð433:4NÞ
2
_
¼ 1183N ðagreesÞ
3 NORMAL FORCES, SHEAR FORCES, AND FREE-BODY
DIAGRAMS
A force F acting at an angle to a planar surface is shown in Fig. 4. Since force
is a vector, it can always be decomposed into two force components, a normal
force component and a shear force component. The line-of-action of the nor-
mal force component is orthogonal to the surface, whereas the line-of-action
of the shear force component is tangent to the surface.
Internal forces induced within a solid body by externally applied forces
can be investigated with the aid of free-body diagrams. A simple example is
shown in Fig. 5, which shows a straight circular rod with constant diameter
subjected to two external forces of equal magnitude (R) but opposite direc-
tion. The internal force (F
I
, say) induced at any cross section of the rod can be
investigated by making an imaginary cut along the plane of interest. Suppose
an imaginary cut is made along plane a-a, which is perpendicular to the axis
Figure 4 A force F acting at an angle to a planar surface.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 5 The use of free-body diagrams to determine internal forces acting on
planes a-a and b-b: (a) free-body diagram based on plane a–a–a–a perpendicular
to rod axis; (b) free-body diagram based on plane b–b–b–b, inclined at angle h
to rod axis.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
of the rod. The resulting free-body diagram for the lower half of the rod is
shown in Fig. 5(a), where an x–y–z coordinate system has been assigned such
that the x-axis is parallel to the rod axis, as shown. On the basis of this free-
body diagram, it is concluded that an internal force F
I
= (R)ıˆ+(0)j
ˆ
+(0)k
ˆ
is induced at cross-section a-a. That is, only a normal force of magnitude R is
induced at cross-section a-a, which has been defined to be perpendicular to
the axis of the rod.
On the other hand, the imaginary cut need not be made perpendicular
to the axis of the rod. Suppose the imaginary cut is made along plane b-b,
which is oriented at an angle of h with respect to the axis of the rod. The
resulting free-body diagram for the lower half of the rod is shown in Fig. 5(b).
A new xV–yV–zV coordinate system has been assigned so that the xV-axis is
perpendicular to plane b-b and the zV-axis is coincident with the z-axis—that
is, the xV–yV–zV coordinate system is generated from the x–y–z coordinate
system by a rotation of h about the original z-axis. The internal force F
I
can
be expressed with respect to the xV–yV–zV coordinate system by transforming
F
I
from the x–y–z coordinate system to the xV–yV–zV coordinate system.
This coordinate transformation is a special case of the transformation
considered in Example Problem 1. The direction cosines now become (with
b=0j):
c
x
V
x
¼ cos h c
x
V
y
¼ sin h c
x
V
z
¼ 0
c
y
V
x
¼ Àsin h c
y
V
y
¼ cos h c
y
V
z
¼ 0
c
z
V
x
¼ 0 c
z
V
y
¼ 0 c
z
V
z
¼ 1
Applying Eqs. (6a)–(6c), we have:
F
x
V
F
y
V
F
z
V
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
c
x
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
x
c
y
V
y
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
x
c
z
V
y
c
z
V
z
_
_
_
_
F
x
F
y
F
z
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
cos h sin h 0
Àsin h cos h 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
R
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
ðcos hÞR
ðÀsin hÞR
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
In the xV–yV–zV coordinate system, the internal force is F
I
= (R cos h)ıˆVÀ(R sin
h)j
ˆ
V+(0)k
ˆ
V. Hence, by defining a coordinate system which is inclined to the
axis of the rod, we conclude that both a normal force (R cos h) and a shear
force (R sin h) are induced in the rod.
Although the preceding discussion may seem simplistic, it has been
included in order to demonstrate the following:

A specific coordinate system must be specified before a force vector
can be defined in a mathematical sense. In general, the coordinate
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
system is defined by the imaginary cut(s) used to form the free-body
diagram.

All components of a force must be specified to fully define the force
vector. Furthermore, the individual components of a force change
as the vector is transformed from one coordinate system to another.
These two observations are valid for all tensors, not just for force
vectors. In particular, these observations hold in the case of stress and strain
tensors, which will be reviewed in the following sections.
4 DEFINITION OF STRESS
There are two fundamental types of stress: normal stress and shear stress.
Both types of stress are defined as a force divided by the area over which
it acts.
A general 3-D solid body subjected to a system of external forces is
shown in Fig. 6(a). It is assumed that the body is in static equilibrium, that
is, it is assumed that the sum of all external forces is zero, SF
i
= 0. These
external forces induce internal forces acting within the body. In general,
the internal forces will vary in both magnitude and direction throughout the
body. An illustration of the variation of internal forces along a line within
an internal plane is shown in Fig. 6(b). A small area (DA) isolated from this
plane is shown in Fig. 6(c). Area DA is assumed to be ‘‘infinitesimally small.’’
That is, the area DA is small enough such that the internal forces acting over
DA can be assumed to be of constant magnitude and direction. Therefore,
the internal forces acting over DA can be represented by a force vector which
can be decomposed into a normal force, N, and a shear force, V, as shown
in Fig. 6(c).
Normal stress (usually denoted r) and shear stress (usually denoted s)
are defined as the force per unit area acting perpendicular and tangent to the
area DA, respectively. That is,
r u lim
DA!0
N
DA
s u lim
DA!0
V
DA
ð9Þ
Note that by definition, the area DA shrinks to zero: DA!0. Stresses r and s
are therefore said to exist ‘‘at a point.’’ Also, since internal forces generally
vary from point-to-point (as shown in Fig. 6), stresses also vary from point-
to-point.
Stress has units of force per unit area. In SI units, stress is reported in
terms of Pascals (abbreviated Pa), where 1 Pa=1 N/m
2
. In English units,
stress is reported in terms of pounds-force per square inch (abbreviated psi),
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 6 A solid 3-D body in equilibrium.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
that is, 1 psi=1 lbf/in
2
. Conversion factors between the two systems of mea-
surement are 1 psi=6895 Pa, or equivalently, 1 Pa=0.1450Â10
À3
psi. Com-
mon abbreviations used throughout this text are as follows:
1 Â 10
3
Pa ¼ 1kilo-Pascals ¼ 1kPa 1 Â 10
3
psi ¼ 1kilo-psi ¼ 1ksi
1 Â 10
6
Pa ¼ 1Mega-Pascals ¼ 1 MPa 1 Â 10
6
psi ¼ 1mega-psi ¼ 1Msi
1 Â 10
9
Pa ¼ 1Giga-Pascals ¼ 1GPa
5 THE STRESS TENSOR
A general 3-D solid body subjected to a system of external forces is shown in
Fig. 7(a). It is assumed that the body is in static equilibrium and that body
forces are negligible, that is, it is assumed that the sum of all external forces
is zero, SF
i
= 0. A free-body diagram of an infinitesimally small cube re-
moved from the body is shown in Fig. 7(b). The cube is referenced to an x–
y–z coordinate system, and the cube edges are aligned with these axes. The
lengths of the cube edges are denoted dx, dy, and dz. Although (in general)
internal forces are induced over all six faces of the cube, for clarity, the forces
acting on only three faces have been shown.
The force acting over each cube face can be decomposed into a normal
force component and two shear force components, as illustrated in Fig. 7(c).
Although each component could be identified with a single subscript (since
force is a first-order tensor), for convenience, two subscripts have been used.
The first subscript identifies the face over which the force is distributed,
while the second subscript identifies the direction in which the force is ori-
ented. For example, N
xx
refers to a normal force component which is
distributed over the x-face and which ‘‘points’’ in the x-direction. Similarly,
V
zy
refers to a shear force distributed over the z-face which ‘‘points’’ in the
y-direction.
Three stress components can now be defined for each cube face, in
accordance with Eq. (9). For example, for the three faces of the infinitesimal
element shown in Fig. 7:
Stresses acting on the +x-face:
r
xx
¼ lim
dy;dz!0
N
xx
dydz
_ _
s
xy
¼ lim
dy;dz!0
V
xy
dydz
_ _
s
xz
¼ lim
dy;dz!0
V
xz
dydz
_ _
Stresses acting on the Ày-face:
r
yy
¼ lim
dx;dz!0
N
yy
dxdz
_ _
s
yx
¼ lim
dx;dz!0
V
yx
dxdz
_ _
s
yz
¼ lim
dx;dz!0
V
yz
dxdz
_ _
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 7 Free-body diagrams used to define stress induced in a solid body.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Stresses acting on the +z-face:
r
zz
¼ lim
dx;dy!0
N
zz
dxdy
_ _
s
zx
¼ lim
dx;dy!0
V
zx
dxdy
_ _
s
zy
¼ lim
dx;dy!0
V
zy
dxdy
_ _
Since three force components (and therefore three stress components)
exist on each of the six faces of the cube, it would initially appear that there
are 18 independent force (stress) components. However, it is easily shown
that for static equilibrium to be maintained (assuming body forces are neg-
ligible):

Normal forces acting on opposite faces of the infinitesimal element
must be of equal magnitude and opposite direction, and

Shear forces acting within a plane of the element must be orientated
either ‘‘tip-to-tip’’ [e.g., forces V
xz
and V
zx
in Fig. 7(c)] or ‘‘tail-to-
tail’’ (e.g., forces V
zy
and V
yz
) and be of equal magnitude. That is,
jV
xy
=V
yx
j, jV
xz
=V
zx
j, and jV
yz
=V
zy
j.
These restrictions reduce the number of independent force (stress) com-
ponents from 18 to 6, as follows:
Independent force components Independent stress components
N
xx
r
xx
N
yy
r
yy
N
zz
r
zz
V
xy
ð¼ V
yx
Þ s
xy
ð¼ s
yx
Þ
V
xz
ð¼ V
zx
Þ s
xz
ð¼ s
zx
Þ
V
yz
ð¼ V
zy
Þ s
yz
ð¼ s
zy
Þ
An infinitesimal element showing all stress components is shown in
Fig. 8. We must next define the algebraic sign convention we will use to de-
scribe individual stress components. We first associate an algebraic sign with
each face of the infinitesimal element. A cube face is positive if the outward
unit normal of the face (that is, the unit normal pointing away from the
interior of the element) points in a positive coordinate direction; otherwise,
the face is negative. For example, face (ABCD) in Fig. 8 is a positive face,
while face (CDEF) is a negative face.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Having identified the positive and negative faces of the element, a stress
component is positive if:

The stress component acts on a positive face and points in a positive
coordinate direction, or if

The stress component acts on a negative face and points in a negative
coordinate direction
otherwise, the stress component is negative.
This convention can be used to confirm that all stress components
shown in Fig. 8 are algebraically positive. For example, to determine the
algebraic sign of the normal stress r
xx
which acts on face ABCDin Fig. 8, note
that (a) face ABCD is positive and (b) the normal stress r
xx
which acts on this
Figure 8 An infinitesimal stress element (all stress components shown in a
positive sense).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
face points in the positive y-direction. Therefore, r
xx
is positive. As a second
example, the shear stress s
yz
which acts on cube face CDEFis positive because
(a) face CDEF is negative and (b) s
yz
points in the negative z-direction.
The preceding discussion shows that the state of stress at a point is de-
fined by six components of stress: three normal stress components and three
shear stress components. The state of stress is written using matrix notation
as follows:
r
xx
s
xy
s
xz
s
yx
r
yy
s
yz
s
zx
s
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
¼
r
xx
s
xy
s
xz
s
xy
r
yy
s
yz
s
xz
s
yz
r
zz
_
_
_
_
ð10Þ
To express the state of stress using indicial notation, we must first make
the following change in notation:
s
xy
! r
xy
s
xz
! r
xz
s
yx
! r
yx
s
yz
! r
yz
s
zx
! r
zx
s
zy
! r
zy
With this change, the matrix on the left side of the equality sign in Eq. (10)
becomes:
r
xx
s
xy
s
xz
s
yx
r
yy
s
yz
s
zx
s
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
!
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
xy
r
yy
r
yz
r
xz
r
yz
r
zz
_
_
_
_
which can be succinctly written using indicial notation as:
r
ij
; i; j ¼ x; y; or z ð11Þ
In Sec. 1, it was noted that a force vector is a first-order tensor since only
one subscript is required to describe a force tensor, F
i
. FromEq. (11), it is clear
that stress is a second-order tensor (or equivalently, a tensor of rank two) since
two subscripts are required to describe a state of stress.
Example Problem 2
Given. The stress element referenced to an x–y–z coordinate system and
subject to the stress components shown in Fig. 9.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Determine. Label all stress components, including algebraic sign.
Solution. The magnitude and algebraic sign of each stress component are
determined using the sign convention defined above. The procedure will be
illustrated using the stress components acting on face CDEF. First, note that
face CDEFis a negative face since an outward unit normal for this face points
in the negative y-direction. The normal stress which acts on face CDEF has a
magnitude of 50 MPa and points in the positive y-direction. Hence, this stress
component is negative and is labeled r
yy
=À50 MPa. One of the shear stress
components acting on face CDEF has a magnitude of 75 MPa and points in
the positive x-direction. Hence, this stress component is also negative and is
Figure 9 Stress components acting on an infinitesimal element (all stresses in
MPa).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
labeled s
yx
=À75 MPa (or equivalently, s
xy
=À75 MPa). Finally, the second
shear force component acting on face CDEF has a magnitude of 50 MPa and
points in the positive z-direction. Hence, this component is labeled s
yz
=À50
MPa (or equivalently, s
zy
=À50 MPa).
Following this process for all faces of the element, the state of stress
represented by the element shown in Fig. 9 can be written as:
r
xx
s
xy
s
xz
s
yx
r
yy
s
yz
s
zx
s
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
¼
100MPa À75MPa 30MPa
À75MPa À50MPa À50MPa
30MPa À50MPa 25MPa
_
_
_
_
6 TRANSFORMATION OF THE STRESS TENSOR
In Sec. 5, the stress tensor was defined using a free-body diagram of an infini-
tesimal element removed from a 3-D body in static equilibrium. This concept
is again illustrated in Fig. 10(a), which shows the stress element referenced to
an x–y–z coordinate system.
Now, the infinitesimal element need not be removed in the orientation
shown in Fig. 10(a). An infinitesimal element removed from precisely the
same point within the body but at a different orientation is shown in Fig.
10(b). This stress element is referenced to a new xV–yV–zV coordinate system.
The state of stress at the point of interest is dictated by the external loads
applied to the body and is independent of the coordinate system used to
describe it. Hence, the stress tensor referenced to the xV–yV–zVcoordinate
system is equivalent to the stress tensor referenced to the x–y–z coordinate
system, although the direction and magnitude of individual stress compo-
nents will differ.
The process of relating stress components in one coordinate system to
those in another is called the transformation of the stress tensor. This
terminology is perhaps unfortunate in the sense that the state of stress itself
is not ‘‘transformed,’’ but rather our description of the state of stress trans-
forms as we change from one coordinate system to another.
It can be shown (1,2) that the stress components in the new xV–yV–zV
coordinate system (r
iVjV
) are related to the components in the original x–y–z
coordinate system (r
ij
) according to:
r
i
V
j
V ¼ c
i
V
k
c
j
V
l
r
kl
where i; j; k; l ¼ x; y; z ð12aÞ
or equivalently (using matrix notation):
½r
i
V
j
V Š ¼ ½c
i
V
j
Š½r
ij
Š½c
i
V
j
Š
T
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 10 Infinitesimal elements removed from the same point from a 3-D solid
but in two different orientations.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
where [c
iVj
]
T
is the transpose of the direction cosine array. Writing in full
matrix form:
r
x
V
x
V r
x
V
y
V r
x
V
z
V
r
y
V
x
V r
y
V
y
V r
y
V
z
V
r
z
V
x
V r
z
V
y
V r
z
V
z
V
_
_
_
_
¼
c
x
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
x
c
y
V
y
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
x
c
z
V
y
c
z
V
z
_
_
_
_
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
Â
c
x
V
x
c
y
V
x
c
z
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
y
V
y
c
z
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
z
_
_
_
_
ð12bÞ
As discussed in Sec. 2, the terms c
iVj
which appear in Eqs. (12a) and (12b)
are direction cosines and equal the cosine of the angle between the axes of the
x–y–z and xV–yV–zV coordinate systems. Recall that the algebraic sign of an
angle of rotation is defined in accordance with the right-hand rule and that
angles are defined from the x–y–z coordinate system to xV–yV–zV coordinate
system. Equations (12a) and (12b) are called the transformation law for a
second-order tensor.
If an analysis is being performed with the aid of a digital computer,
which nowadays is almost always the case, then matrix notation [Eq. (12b)]
most likely will be used to transform a stress tensor from one coordinate
system to another. Conversely, if a stress transformation is to be accom-
plished using hand calculations, then indicial notation [Eq. (12a)] may be the
preferred choice. To apply Eq. (12a), desired values are first specified for
subscripts iV and jV, and then the terms on the right side of the equality are
summed over the entire range of the remaining two subscripts, k and l. For
example, suppose we wish to write the relationship between r
xVzV
and the stress
components in the x–y–z coordinate system in expanded form. We first
specify that iV=xV and jV=zV, and Eq. (12a) becomes:
r
x
V
z
V ¼ c
x
V
k
c
z
V
l
r
kl
where k; l ¼ x; y; z
We then sum all terms on the right side of the equality by cycling through the
entire range of k and l. In expanded form, we have:
r
x
V
z
V ¼ c
x
V
x
c
z
V
x
r
xx
þ c
x
V
x
c
z
V
y
r
xy
þ c
x
V
x
c
z
V
z
r
xz
þ c
x
V
y
c
z
V
x
r
yx
þ c
x
V
y
c
z
V
y
r
yy
þ c
x
V
y
c
z
V
z
r
yz
þ c
x
V
z
c
z
V
x
r
zx
þ c
x
V
z
c
z
V
y
r
zy
þ c
x
V
z
c
z
V
z
r
zz
ð13Þ
Equations (12a) and (12b) show that the value of any individual stress
component r
iVjV
varies as the stress tensor is transformed from one coordinate
system to another. However, it can be shown (1,2) that there are features of
the total stress tensor that do not vary when the tensor is transformed from
one coordinate system to another. These features are called the stress in-
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
variants. For a second-order tensor, three independent stress invariants exist
and are defined as follows:
First stress invariant ¼ H ¼ r
ii
ð14aÞ
Second stress invariant ¼ U ¼
1
2
r
ii
r
jj
À r
ij
r
ij
_ _
ð14bÞ
Third stress invariant ¼ W ¼
1
6
r
ii
r
jj
r
kk
À 3r
ii
r
jk
r
jk
þ 2r
ij
r
jk
r
ki
_ _
ð14cÞ
Alternatively, by expanding these equations over the range i, j, k=x, y, z and
simplifying, the stress invariants can be written as:
First stress invariant ¼ H ¼ r
xx
þr
yy
þr
zz
ð15aÞ
Second stress invariant ¼ U ¼ r
xx
r
yy
þ r
xx
r
zz
þr
yy
r
zz
À r
2
xy
þr
2
xz
þ r
2
yz
_ _
ð15bÞ
Third stress invariant ¼ W ¼ r
xx
r
yy
r
zz
Àr
xx
r
2
yz
À r
yy
r
2
xz
À r
zz
r
2
xy
þ 2r
xy
r
xz
r
yz
ð15cÞ
The three stress invariants are conceptually similar to the magnitude of a
force tensor. That is, the value of the three stress invariants is independent
of the coordinate used to describe the stress tensor, just as the magnitude of
a force vector is independent of the coordinate system used to describe the
force. This invariance will be illustrated in the following example problem.
Example Problem 3
Given. A state of stress referenced to an x–y–z coordinate is known to be:
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
¼
50 À10 15
À10 25 30
15 30 À5
_
_
_
_
ðksiÞ
It is desired to express this state of stress in an xU–yU–zU coordinate system,
generated by the following two sequential rotations:
(i) Rotation of h=20j about the original z-axis (which defines an
intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system), followed by
(ii) Rotation of b=35j about the xV-axis (which defines the final xU–yU–
zU coordinate system).
Problem. (a) Rotate the stress tensor to the xU–yU–zU coordinate system and
(b) calculate the first, second, and third invariants of the stress tensor using
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
both elements of the stress tensor referenced to the x–y–z coordinate system,
r
ij
, and elements of the stress tensor referenced to the xU–yU–zU coordinate
system, r
iUjU
.
Solution
Part (a). General expressions for direction cosines relating the x–y–z and
xU–yU–zU coordinate systems were determined as a part of Example Problem 1.
The direction cosines were found to be:
c
x
W
x
¼ cos h
c
x
W
y
¼ sin h
c
x
W
z
¼ 0
c
y
W
x
¼ Àcos b sin h
c
y
W
y
¼ cos b cos h
c
y
W
z
¼ sin b
c
z
W
x
¼ sin b sin h
c
z
W
y
¼ Àsin b cos h
c
z
W
z
¼ cos b
Since in this problem h=20j and b=35j, the numerical values of the direc-
tion cosines are:
c
x
W
x
¼ cos ð20
B
Þ ¼ 0:9397
c
x
W
y
¼ sin ð20
B
Þ ¼ 0:3420
c
x
W
z
¼ 0
c
y
W
x
¼ Àcos ð35
B
Þsin ð20
B
Þ ¼ À0:2802
c
y
W
y
¼ cos ð35
B
Þcos ð20
B
Þ ¼ 0:7698
c
y
W
z
¼ sin ð35
B
Þ ¼ 0:5736
c
z
W
x
¼ sin ð35
B
Þsin ð20
B
Þ ¼ 0:1962
c
z
W
y
¼ Àsin ð35
B
Þcos ð20
B
Þ ¼ À0:5390
c
z
W
z
¼ cos ð35
B
Þ ¼ 0:8192
Each component of the transformed stress tensor is now found through the
application of either Eq. (12a) or Eq. (12b). For example, if indicial notation
is used, stress component r
xUzU
can be found using Eq. (13):
r
x
W
z
W ¼ c
x
W
x
c
z
W
x
r
xx
þ c
x
W
x
c
z
W
y
r
xy
þ c
x
W
x
c
z
W
z
r
xz
þ c
x
W
y
c
z
W
x
r
yx
þ c
x
W
y
c
z
W
y
r
yy
þ c
x
W
y
c
z
W
z
r
yz
þ c
x
W
z
c
z
W
x
r
zx
þ c
x
W
z
c
z
W
y
r
zy
þ c
x
W
z
c
z
W
z
r
zz
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
r
x
W
z
W ¼ ð0:9397Þð0:1962Þð50ksiÞ þ ð0:9397ÞðÀ0:5390ÞðÀ10ksiÞ
þð0:9397Þð0:8192Þð15ksiÞ þ ð0:3420Þð0:1962ÞðÀ10ksiÞ
þð0:3420ÞðÀ0:5390Þð25ksiÞ þ ð0:3420Þð0:8192Þð30ksiÞ
þð0Þð0:1962Þð15ksiÞþð0ÞðÀ0:5390Þð30ksiÞþð0Þð0:8192ÞðÀ5ksiÞ
r
x
W
z
W ¼ 28:95ksi
Alternatively, if matrix notation is used, then Eq. (12b) becomes:
r
x
W
x
W r
x
W
y
W r
x
W
z
W
r
y
W
x
W r
y
W
y
W r
y
W
z
W
r
z
W
x
W r
z
W
y
W r
z
W
z
W
_
_
_
_
¼
0:9397 0:3420 0
À0:2802 0:7698 0:5736
0:1962 À0:5390 0:8192
_
_
_
_
50 À10 15
À10 25 30
15 30 À5
_
_
_
_
Â
0:9397 À0:2802 0:1962
0:3420 0:7698 À0:5390
0 0:5736 0:8192
_
_
_
_
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated yields the following:
r
x
W
x
W r
x
W
y
W r
x
W
z
W
r
y
W
x
W r
y
W
y
W r
y
W
z
W
r
z
W
x
W r
z
W
y
W r
z
W
z
W
_
_
_
_
¼
40:65 1:113 28:95
1:113 43:08 À10:60
28:95 À10:60 À13:72
_
_
_
_
ðksiÞ
Notice that the value of r
xUzU
determined through matrix multiplication is
identical to that obtained using indicial notation, as previously described. The
stress element is shown in the original and final coordinate systems in Fig. 11.
Part (b). The first, second, and third stress invariants will nowbe calculated
using components of both r
ij
and r
iUjU
. It is expected that identical values will
be obtained since the stress invariants are independent of the coordinate
system.
First stress invariant:
x–y–z coordinate system:
H ¼ r
ii
¼ r
xx
þ r
yy
þ r
zz
H ¼ ð50 þ 25 À 5Þ ksi
H ¼ 70ksi
xU–yU–zU coordinate system:
H ¼ r
i
W
i
W ¼ r
x
W
x
W þr
y
W
y
W þr
z
W
z
W
H ¼ ð40:65 þ 43:08 À 13:72Þ
H ¼ 70ksi
As expected, the first stress invariant is independent of the coordinate
system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Second stress invariant:
x–y–z coordinate system:
U ¼
1
2
r
ii
r
jj
À r
ij
r
ij
_ _
¼ r
xx
r
yy
þ r
xx
r
zz
þ r
yy
r
zz
À r
2
xy
þ r
2
xz
þr
2
yz
_ _
U ¼
_
ð50Þð25Þ þ ð50ÞðÀ5Þ þ ð25ÞðÀ5Þ À ½ðÀ10Þ
2
þ ð15Þ
2
þ ð30Þ
2
Š
_
ðksiÞ
2
U ¼ À350ðksiÞ
2
xU–yU–zU coordinate system:
U ¼
1
2
r
i
W
i
Wr
j
W
j
W À r
i
W
j
Wr
i
W
j
W
_ _
U ¼ r
x
W
x
Wr
y
W
y
W þ r
x
W
x
Wr
z
W
z
W þr
y
W
y
Wr
z
W
z
W À r
2
x
W
y
W
þ r
2
x
W
z
W
þ r
2
y
W
z
W
_ _
Figure 11 Stress tensor of Example Problem 3 referenced to two different
coordinates (magnitude of all stress components in ksi).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
U ¼
_
ð40:65Þð43:08Þ þ ð40:65ÞðÀ13:72Þ þ ð43:08ÞðÀ13:72Þ
À ½ð1:113Þ
2
þ ð28:95Þ
2
þ ðÀ10:60Þ
2
Š
_
ðksiÞ
2
U ¼ À350ðksiÞ
2
As expected, the second stress invariant is independent of the coordinate
system.
Third stress invariant:
x–y–z coordinate system:
W ¼
1
6
r
ii
r
jj
r
kk
À 3r
ii
r
jk
r
jk
þ 2r
ij
r
jk
r
ki
_ _
W ¼ r
xx
r
yy
r
zz
Àr
xx
r
2
yz
À r
yy
r
2
xz
À r
zz
r
2
xy
þ 2r
xy
r
xz
r
yz
W ¼ ½ð50Þð25ÞðÀ5Þ À ð50Þð30Þ
2
À ð25Þð15Þ
2
À ðÀ5ÞðÀ10Þ
2
þ 2ðÀ10Þð15Þð30ފ ðksiÞ
3
W ¼ À65375ðksiÞ
3
xU–yU–zU coordinate system:
W ¼
1
6
r
i
W
i
Wr
j
W
j
Wr
k
W
k
W À 3r
i
W
i
Wr
j
W
k
Wr
j
W
k
W þ 2r
i
W
j
Wr
j
W
k
Wr
k
W
i
W
_ _
W ¼ r
x
W
x
Wr
y
W
y
Wr
z
W
z
W À r
x
W
x
Wr
2
y
W
z
W
Àr
y
W
y
Wr
2
x
W
z
W
À r
z
W
z
Wr
2
x
W
y
W
þ 2r
x
W
y
Wr
x
W
z
Wr
y
W
z
W
W ¼ ½ð40:65Þð43:08ÞðÀ13:72Þ À ð40:65ÞðÀ10:60Þ
2
À ð43:08Þ
Âð28:95Þ
2
À ðÀ13:72Þð1:113Þ
2
þ 2ð1:113Þð28:95Þ
ÂðÀ10:60ފ ðksiÞ
3
W ¼ À65375ðksiÞ
3
As expected, the third stress invariant is independent of the coordinate
system.
7 PRINCIPAL STRESSES
The definition of a stress tensor was reviewed in Sec. 5, and transformation of
a stress tensor from one coordinate system to another was discussed in Sec. 6.
It can be shown (1,2) that it is always possible to rotate the stress tensor to a
special coordinate system in which no shear stresses exist. This coordinate
system is called the principal stress coordinate system, and the normal stresses
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
that exist in this coordinate system are called the principal stresses. In most
textbooks, principal stresses are denoted r
1
, r
2
, and r
3
. However, as will be
discussed later (see Fig. 2 in Chap. 3) in this textbook, the labels ‘‘1,’’ ‘‘2,’’ and
‘‘3’’ will be used to label the axes in a special coordinate system called the
principal material coordinate system. Therefore, in this text, the axes asso-
ciated with the principal stress coordinate system will be labeled p
1
, p
2
, and p
3
axes, and the principal stresses will be denoted r
p1
, r
p2
, and r
p3
.
Knowledge of the principal stresses induced in an isotropic structure is
of extreme importance, primarily because failure of isotropic materials (e.g.,
yielding and/or fracture) can often be directly related to the magnitude(s) of
the principal stresses. This is not the case for composite structures, however.
As will be seen in later chapters, failure of composite structures is not
governed by principal stresses, and hence the topic of principal stresses is
only of occasional importance to the composite engineer.
Principal stresses may be related to stress components in an x–y–z
coordinate systemusing the free-body diagramshown in Fig. 12. It is assumed
that plane ABC is one of the three principal planes (i.e., n = 1, 2, or 3) and
therefore no shear stress exists on this plane. The line-of-action of principal
stress r
pn
defines one axis of the principal stress coordinate system. The
direction cosines between this principal axis and the x-, y-, and z- axes are c
pnx
,
c
pny
, and c
pnz
, respectively. The surface area of triangle ABC is denoted A
ABC
.
The normal force acting over triangle ABC therefore equals (r
pn
A
ABC
). The
components of the normal force acting in the x-, y-, and z-directions equal
c
pnx
r
pn
A
ABC
, c
pny
r
pn
A
ABC
, and c
pnz
r
pn
A
ABC
, respectively.
The area of the other triangular faces are given by:
Area of triangle ABD=c
pnx
A
ABC
.
Area of triangle ACD=c
pny
A
ABC
.
Area of triangle BCD=c
pnz
A
ABC
.
Summing forces in the x-direction and equating to zero, we obtain:
c
p
n
x
r
p
n
A
ABC
À r
xx
c
p
n
x
A
ABC
Às
xy
c
p
n
y
A
ABC
À s
xz
c
p
n
z
A
ABC
¼ 0
which can be reduced and simplified to:
ðr
p
n
À r
xx
Þc
p
n
x
À s
xy
c
p
n
y
À s
xz
c
p
n
z
¼ 0 ð16aÞ
Similarly, summing forces in the y- and z-directions results in:
Às
xy
c
p
n
x
þ ðr
p
n
À r
yy
Þc
p
n
y
À s
yz
c
p
n
z
¼ 0 ð16bÞ
Às
xz
c
p
n
x
À s
yz
c
p
n
y
þ ðr
p
n
À r
zz
Þc
p
n
z
¼ 0 ð16cÞ
Equations (16a)–(16c) represent three linear homogeneous equations
which must be satisfied simultaneously. Since direction cosines c
p
n
x
, c
p
n
y
, and
c
p
n
z
must also satisfy Eq. (8), and therefore cannot all equal zero, the solu-
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
tion can be obtained by requiring that the determinant of the coefficients
of c
p
n
x
, c
p
n
y
, and c
p
n
z
equal zero:
ðr
p
n
À r
xx
Þ Às
xy
Às
xz
Às
xy
ðr
p
n
À r
yy
Þ Às
yz
Às
xz
Às
yz
ðr
p
n
Àr
zz
Þ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¼ 0
Equating the determinant to zero results in the following cubic
equation:
r
3
p
n
À Hr
2
p
n
þ Ur
p
n
À W ¼ 0 ð17Þ
where H, U, and W are the first, second, and third stress invariants, respec-
tively, and have been previously listed as Eqs. (14a)–(14c) and (15a)–(15c).
Figure 12 Free-body diagram used to relate stress components in the x–y–z
coordinate system to a principal stress.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The three roots of the cubic equation (that is, the three principal stresses) may
be found by application of the standard approach (3), as follows.
Define:
a ¼
1
3
3U À H
2
_ _
b ¼
À1
27
2H
3
À 9HU þ 27W
_ _
A ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À
b
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
b
2
4
þ
a
3
27
_
3
¸
B ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À
b
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
b
2
4
þ
a
3
27
_
3
¸
The three principal stresses [i.e., the three roots of Eq. (17)] are then given by:
r
p
1
; r
p
2
; r
p
3
¼
A þ B þ
H
3
À
A þ B
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À3
p
A À B
2
_ _
þ
H
3
À
A þ B
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À3
p
A À B
2
_ _
þ
H
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð18Þ
By convention, the principal stresses are numbered such that r
p1
is the
algebraically greatest principal stress, whereas r
p3
is the algebraically least.
That is, r
p1
>r
p2
>r
p3
.
Two comments regarding the practical application of either Eq. (17) or
Eq. (18) are appropriate. First, many handheld calculators and computer
software packages feature standard routines to find the roots of nth-order
polynomials. Hence, the three roots of Eq. (17) (that is, the three principal
stresses) may often be found most conveniently through the use of these
standard calculator routines or software packages, rather than through
application of Eq. (18). The second comment is that if the principal stresses
are to be calculated through application of Eq. (18), then calculation of
constants A and B generally involves finding the cube root of a complex
number. The need to find the cube root of a complex number is encountered
infrequently, and hence the reader may not be aware of how to make such a
calculation. For convenience, a process that may be used to find the cube root
of a complex number has been included in Appendix A.
In any event, once the principal stresses are determined, the three sets of
direction cosines (which define the principal coordinate directions) are found
by substituting the three principal stresses given by Eq. (18) into Eqs. (16a)–
(16c) in turn. Since only two of Eqs. (16a)–(16c) are independent, Eq. (8) is
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
used as a third independent equation involving the three unknown constants
c
pnx
, c
pny
, and c
pnz
.
The process of finding principal stresses and direction cosines will be
demonstrated in the following example problem.
Example Problem 4
Given. A state of stress referenced to an x–y–z coordinate is known to be:
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
¼
50 À10 15
À10 25 30
15 30 À5
_
_
_
_
ðksiÞ
Problem. Find (a) the principal stresses and (b) the direction cosines that
define the principal stress coordinate system.
Solution. This is the same stress tensor considered in Example Problem3. As
a part of that problem, the first, second, and third stress invariants were found
to be:
H=70 ksi
U=À350 (ksi)
2
W=À65375 (ksi)
3
Part (a). Determining the principal stresses. In accordance with Eq. (17),
the three principal stresses are the roots of the following cubic equation:
r
3
À 70r
2
À 350r þ 65375 ¼ 0
As discussed earlier, the three roots of this equation can often be found most
conveniently using appropriate handheld calculators or software packages.
In this example solution, the roots will be found through application of Eq.
18. Following this process, we have:
a ¼
1
3
3U À H
2
_ _
¼
1
3
3ðÀ350Þ À ð70Þ
2
_ _
¼ À1983
b ¼
À1
27
2H
3
À 9HU þ 27W
_ _
¼
À1
27
2ð70Þ
3
À 9ð70ÞðÀ350Þ þ 27ðÀ65375Þ
_ _
¼ 31801
A ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À
b
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
b
2
4
þ
a
3
27
_
3
¸
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À
48134
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ð48134Þ
2
4
þ
ðÀ1983Þ
3
27
¸
3
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À15900 þ ið6010Þ
3
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
We find that constant A equals the cube root of the complex number:
z ¼ À15900 þ ið6010Þ
Following the process described in Appendix A, the modulus and argument
of this complex number are:
r ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
a
2
þ b
2
_
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ðÀ15900Þ
2
þ ð6010Þ
2
_
¼ 16998
u ¼ tan
À1
6010
À15900
_ _
¼ tan
À1
ðÀ0:37799Þ ¼ À0:3614 radðorÞ2:780 rad
Since in this case:
a ¼ À15900 < 0
b ¼ 6010 > 0
it is clear that the argument u corresponds to an angle in the second quadrant
of the complex plane (refer to Fig. A.1). Hence, we select u=2.780 rad.
Applying Eq. A.3, we find:
A ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
a þ ib
3
p
¼ exp
lnðrÞ
3
_ _
cos
u
3
_ _
þ i sin
u
3
_ _ _ _
A ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À15900 þ ið6010Þ
3
_
¼ exp
lnð16998Þ
3
_ _
 cos
2:780
3
_ _
þ i sin
2:780
3
_ _ _ _
A ¼ 25:71 0:6005 þ ið0:7996Þ f g
A ¼ 15:44 þ ið20:56Þ
Following an identical procedure, constant B is found to be:
B ¼ 15:44 À ið20:56Þ
We now apply Eq. (18) to find:
r
p
1
; r
p
2
; r
p
3
¼
A þ B þ
H
3
À
A þ B
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À3
p
A À B
2
_ _
þ
H
3
À
A þ B
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À3
p
A À B
2
_ _
þ
H
3
¼
54:21 ksi
À27:72 ksi
43:51 ksi
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Hence, r
p1
=54.21 ksi, r
p2
=43.51 ksi, and r
p3
=À27.72 ksi.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Part (b). Determining the direction cosines. The first two of Eqs. (16a)–
(16c) and Eq. (8) will be used to form three independent equations in three
unknowns. We have:
ðr
p
n
À r
xx
Þc
p
n
x
À s
xy
c
p
n
y
À s
xz
c
p
n
z
¼ 0
Às
xy
c
p
n
x
þ ðr
p
n
À r
yy
Þc
p
n
y
À s
yz
c
p
n
z
¼ 0
ðc
p
n
x
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
n
y
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
n
z
Þ
2
¼ 1
Direction cosines for r
p1
. The three independent equations become:
ð54:21 À 50Þc
p
1
x
þ 10c
p
1
y
À 15c
p
1
z
¼ 0
10c
p
1
x
þ ð54:21 À 25Þc
p
1
y
À 30c
p
1
z
¼ 0
ðc
p
1
x
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
1
y
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
1
z
Þ
2
¼ 1
Solving simultaneously, we obtain:
c
p
1
x
¼ À0:9726 c
p
1
y
¼ 0:1666 c
p
1
z
¼ À0:1620
Direction cosines for r
p2
. The three independent equations become:
ð43:51 À 50Þc
p
2
x
þ 10c
p
2
y
À 15c
p
2
z
¼ 0
10c
p
2
x
þ ð43:51 À 25Þc
p
2
y
À 30c
p
2
z
¼ 0
ðc
p
2
x
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
2
y
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
2
z
Þ
2
¼ 1
Solving simultaneously, we obtain:
c
p
2
x
¼ À0:05466 c
p
2
y
¼ À0:8416 c
p
2
z
¼ À0:5738
Direction cosines for r
p3
. The three independent equations become:
ðÀ27:72 À 50Þc
p
3
x
þ 10c
p
3
y
À 15c
p
3
z
¼ 0
10c
p
3
x
þ ðÀ27:72 À 25Þc
p
3
y
À 30c
p
3
z
¼ 0
ðc
p
3
x
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
3
y
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
3
z
Þ
2
¼ 1
Solving simultaneously, we obtain:
c
p
3
x
¼ À0:8276 c
p
3
y
¼ 0:2259 c
p
3
z
¼ 0:5138
8 PLANE STRESS
A stress tensor is defined by six components of stress: three normal stress
components and three shear stress components. Now, in practice, a state of
stress often encountered is one in which all stress components in one co-
ordinate direction are zero. For example, suppose r
zz
=s
xz
=s
yz
=0, as
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
shown in Fig. 13(a). Since the three remaining nonzero stress components
(r
xx
, r
yy
, and s
xy
) all lie within the x–y plane, such a condition is called a
state of plane stress. Plane stress conditions occur most often because of the
geometry of the structure of interest. Specifically, the plane stress condition
usually exists in thin, platelike structures. Examples include the web of an I-
beam, the body panel of an automobile, or the skin of an airplane fuselage.
Figure 13 Stress elements subjected to a state of plane stress.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
In these instances, the stresses induced normal to the plane of the structure
are very small compared to those induced within the plane of the structure.
Hence, the small out-of-plane stresses are usually ignored, and attention is
focused on the relatively high stress components acting within the plane of
the structure.
Since laminated composites are often used in the form of thin plates or
shells, the plane stress assumption is widely applicable in composite structures
and will be used throughout most of the analyses discussed in this textbook.
Since the out-of-plane stresses are negligibly small, for convenience, an
infinitesimal stress element subjected to plane stress will usually be drawn
as a square rather than a cube, as shown in Fig. 13(b).
Results discussed in earlier sections for general 3-D state of stress will
now be specialized for the plane stress condition. It will be assumed that the
nonzero stresses lie in the x–y plane (i.e., r
zz
=s
xz
=s
yz
=0). This allows the
remaining components of stress to be written in the form of a column array
rather than a 3 Â 3 array:
r
xx
s
xy
0
s
xy
r
yy
0
0 0 0
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ !
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Note that when a plane stress state is described, stress appears to be a first-
order tensor since (apparently) only three components of stress (r
xx
, r
yy
,
ands
xy
) need be specified in order to describe the state of stress. This is, of
course, not the case. Stress is a second-order tensor in all instances, and six
components of stress must always be specified in order to define a state of
stress. When we invoke the plane stress assumption, we have simply assumed
a priori that three stress components (r
zz
, s
xz
, and s
yz
) are zero.
Recall that either Eq. (12a) or Eq. (12b) governs the transformation of a
stress tensor from one coordinate system to another. Equation (12b) is
repeated here for convenience:
r
x
V
x
V r
x
V
y
V r
x
V
z
V
r
y
V
x
V r
y
V
y
V r
y
V
z
V
r
z
V
x
V r
z
V
y
V r
z
V
z
V
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
c
x
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
x
c
y
V
y
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
x
c
z
V
y
c
z
V
z
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
c
x
V
x
c
y
V
x
c
z
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
y
V
y
c
z
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
z
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ðrepeatedÞ ð12bÞ
When transformation of a plane stress tensor is considered, it will be
assumed that the xV–yV–zV coordinate system is generated from the x–y–z
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
system by a rotation h about the z-axis. That is, the z- and zV-axes are co-
incident, as shown in Fig. 14. In this case, the direction cosines are:
c
x
V
x
¼ cos ðhÞ
c
x
V
y
¼ cos ð90
B
ÀhÞ ¼ sin ðhÞ
c
x
V
z
¼ cos ð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
y
V
x
¼ cos ð90
B
þhÞ ¼ Àsin ðhÞ
c
y
V
y
¼ cos ðhÞ
c
y
V
z
¼ cos ð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
x
¼ cos ð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
y
¼ cos ð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
z
¼ cos ð0
B
Þ ¼ 1
If we now (a) substitute these direction cosines into Eq. (12b), (b) label
the shear stresses using the symbol s rather r, and (c) note that r
zz
=
s
xz
=s
yz
=0 by assumption, then Eq. (12b) becomes:
r
x
V
x
V s
x
V
y
V s
x
V
z
V
s
y
V
x
V r
y
V
y
V s
y
V
z
V
s
z
V
x
V s
z
V
y
V r
z
V
z
V
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
cos h sin h 0
Àsin h cos h 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
xx
s
xy
0
s
yx
r
yy
0
0 0 0
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
cos h Àsin h 0
sin h cos h 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated results in:
r
x
V
x
V s
x
V
y
V s
x
V
z
V
s
y
V
x
V r
y
V
y
V s
y
V
z
V
s
z
V
x
V s
z
V
y
V r
z
V
z
V
_
_
_
_
¼
cos
2
hr
xx
þ sin
2
hr
yy
þ 2coshsinhs
xy
Àcoshsinhr
xx
þ coshsinhr
yy
þ ðcos
2
h À sin
2
hÞs
xy
0
Àcoshsinhr
xx
þ coshsinhr
yy
þ ðcos
2
h À sin
2
hÞs
xy
sin
2
hr
xx
þ cos
2
hr
yy
À 2coshsinhs
xy
0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
As would be expected, the out-of-plane stresses are zero: r
zVzV
=s
xVzV
=s
yVzV
=0.
The remaining stress components are:
r
x
V
x
V ¼ cos
2
ðhÞr
xx
þ sin
2
ðhÞr
yy
þ 2cos ðhÞsin ðhÞs
xy
r
y
V
y
V ¼ sin
2
ðhÞr
xx
þ cos
2
ðhÞr
yy
À 2cos ðhÞsin ðhÞs
xy
ð19Þ
s
x
V
y
V ¼ Àcos ðhÞsin ðhÞr
xx
þ cos ðhÞsin ðhÞr
yy
þ ½cos
2
ðhÞ À sin
2
ðhފs
xy
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 14 Transformation of a plane stress element from one coordinate sys-
tem to another.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Equation (19) can be written using matrix notation as:
r
x
V
x
V
r
y
V
y
V
s
x
V
y
V
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
cos
2
ðhÞ sin
2
ðhÞ 2cosðhÞ sinðhÞ
sin
2
ðhÞ cos
2
ðhÞ À2cosðhÞsinðhÞ
ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞ cos ðhÞsinðhÞ cos
2
ðhÞ À sin
2
ðhÞ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð20Þ
It should be kept in mind that these results are valid only for a state
of plane stress. Transformation of a general (3-D) stress/tensor should be
performed using Eq. (12a) or (12b).
The 3 Â 3 array that appears in Eq. (20) is called the transformation
matrix and is abbreviated as [T]:
½TŠ ¼
cos
2
ðhÞ sin
2
ðhÞ 2cosðhÞsinðhÞ
sin
2
ðhÞ cos
2
ðhÞ À2cosðhÞsinðhÞ
ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞ cosðhÞsinðhÞ cos
2
ðhÞ À sin
2
ðhÞ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
ð21Þ
The stress invariants [given by Eqs. (14a)–(14c) or Eqs. (15a)–(15c)]
are considerably simplified in the case of plane stress. Since by definition
r
zz
=s
xz
=s
yz
=0, the stress invariants become:
First stress invariant ¼ H ¼ r
xx
þ r
yy
Second stress invariant ¼ U ¼ r
xx
r
yy
À s
2
xy
Third stress invariant ¼ W ¼ 0
ð22Þ
The principal stresses equal the roots of the cubic equation previously
listed as Eq. (17). In the case of plane stress, this cubic equation becomes (since
W=0):
r
3
À Hr
2
þ Ur ¼ 0 ð23Þ
Obviously, one root of Eq. (23) is r=0. This root corresponds to r
zz
and for present purposes will be labeled r
p3
although it may not be the alge-
braically least principal stress. Thus, in the case of plane stress, the z-axis is a
principal stress direction and r
zz
=r
p3
=0 is one of the three principal
stresses. Since the three principal stress directions are orthogonal, this im-
plies that the remaining two principal stress directions must lie within the
x–y plane.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Removing the known root from Eq. (23), we have the following qua-
dratic equation:
r
2
À Hr þ U ¼ 0 ð24Þ
The two roots of this quadratic equation (that is, the two remaining princi-
pal stresses, r
p1
and r
p2
) may be found by application of the standard ap-
proach (3) and are given by:
r
p
1
; r
p
2
¼
1
2
HF
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
H
2
À 4U
_ _ _
ð25Þ
Substituting Eq. (22) into Eq. (25) and simplifying yields the following:
r
p
1
; r
p
2
¼
r
xx
þr
yy
2
F
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
r
xx
À r
yy
2
_ _
2
þs
2
xy
_
ð26Þ
The angle h
p
between the x-axis and either the p
1
or p
2
axis is given by:
h
p
¼
1
2
arctan
2s
xy
r
xx
À r
yy
_ _
ð27Þ
Example Problem 5
Given. The plane stress element shown in Fig. 15(a).
Problem. (a) Rotate the stress element to a new coordinate system oriented
25j clockwise from the x-axis, and redraw the stress element with all stress
components properly oriented; (b) determine the principal stresses and
principal stress coordinate system, and redraw the stress element with the
principal stress components properly oriented.
Solution
Part (a). The following components of stress are implied by the stress
element shown (note that the shear stress is algebraically negative, in ac-
cordance with the sign convention discussed in Sec. 5):
r
xx
¼ 70 MPa
r
yy
¼ 15 MPa
s
xy
¼ À50 MPa
The stress element is to be rotated clockwise. That is, the +xV-axis is rotated
away from the +y-axis. Applying the right-hand rule, it is clear that this is a
negative rotation:
h ¼ À25
B
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 15 Plane stress elements associated with Example Problem 5.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Equation (20) becomes:
r
x
V
x
V
r
y
V
y
V
s
x
V
y
V
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
cos
2
ðÀ25
B
Þ sin
2
ðÀ25
B
Þ 2cosðÀ25
B
ÞsinðÀ25
B
Þ
sin
2
ðÀ25
B
Þ cos
2
ðÀ25
B
Þ À2cosðÀ25
B
ÞsinðÀ25
B
Þ
ÀcosðÀ25
B
ÞsinðÀ25
B
Þ cosðÀ25
B
ÞsinðÀ25
B
Þ cos
2
ðÀ25
B
Þ À sin
2
ðÀ25
B
Þ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
70
15
À50
_
_
_
_
_
_
r
x
V
x
V
r
y
V
y
V
s
x
V
y
V
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
0:8214 0:1786 À0:7660
0:1786 0:8214 0:7660
0:3830 À0:3830 0:6428
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
70
15
À50
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
98:5
À13:5
À11:1
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
MPa
The rotated stress element is shown in Fig. 15(b).
Part (b). The principal stresses are found through application of Eq. (26):
r
p
1
; r
p
2
¼
70 þ 15
2
F
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
70 À 15
2
_ _
2
þðÀ50Þ
2
¸
¼ 42:5 F 57:1MPa
r
p
1
¼ 99:6MPa
r
p
2
¼ À14:6MPa
The orientation of the principal stress coordinate system is given by Eq. (27):
h
p
¼
1
2
arctan
2ðÀ50Þ
70 À 15
_ _
¼ À31
B
The stress element is shown in the principal stress coordinate system in Fig.
15(c).
9 DEFINITION OF STRAIN
All materials deform to some extent when subjected to external forces and/or
environmental changes. In essence, the state of strain is a measure of the
magnitude and orientation of the deformations induced by these effects. As
in the case of stress, there are two types of strain: normal strain and shear
strain.
The two types of strain can be visualized using the strain element
shown in Fig. 16. Imagine that a perfect square has been physically drawn
on a surface of interest. Initially, angle BABC is exactly
p
2
radians (i.e.,
initially BABC=90j) and sides AB and BC are of exactly equal lengths.
Now suppose that some mechanism(s) causes the surface to deform. The
mechanism(s) which causes the surface to deform need not be defined at
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
this point, but might be external loading (i.e., stresses), a change in tem-
perature, and/or (in the case of polymeric-based materials such as compo-
sites) the adsorption or desorption of water molecules. In any event, since
the surface is deformed, the initially square element drawn on the surface is
deformed as well. As shown in Fig. 16, point A moves to point AV and point
C moves to point CV. It is assumed that the element remains a parallelogram,
i.e., it is assumed that sides AVB and CVB remain straight lines after
deformation. This assumption is valid if the element is infinitesimally small.
In the present context, ‘‘infinitesimally small’’ implies that lengths AB and
CB are small enough such that the deformed element may be treated as a
parallelogram.
Normal strain e
xx
is defined as the change in length of AB divided by the
original length of AB:
e
xx
¼
DAB
AB
ð28Þ
The change in length AB is given by:
DAB ¼ ðAVB À ABÞ
From the figure, it can be seen that the projection of length AVB in the x-
direction, that is, length AUB, is given by:
AWB ¼ AVBcosðBAVBAÞ ð29Þ
Figure 16 2-D element used to illustrate normal and shear strains (deforma-
tions shown are greatly exaggerated for clarity).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
If we now assume that BAVBA is ‘‘small,’’ then we can invoke the small-angle
approximation,* which states that if BAVBA is expressed in radians and is less
than about 0.1745 radians (about 10j), then:
sinðBAVBAÞcBAVBA tanðBAVBAÞcBAVBA cosðBAVBAÞc1
Based on the small-angle approximation, Eq. (29) implies that AUBc
AVB, and therefore the change in length of AB is approximately given by:
DABcðAUB À ABÞ ¼ AUA
Equation (28) can now be written as:
e
xx
¼
AUA
AB
ð30Þ
In an entirely analogous manner, normal strain e
yy
is defined as the
change in length of CB divided by the original length of CB:
e
yy
¼
DCB
CB
Based on the small-angle approximation, the change in length of CB
is approximately given by:
DCB ¼ ðCVB À CBÞcCUC
and therefore:
e
yy
¼
CUC
CB
ð31Þ
As before, the approximation for change in length CB is valid if angle
BCUBC is small.
Recall that the original element shown in Fig. 16 was assumed to be
perfectly square and, in particular, that angle BAVBC is exactly
p
2
radians (i.e.,
initially BAVBC=90j). Engineering shear strain is defined as the change in
angle BABC, expressed in radians:
c
xy
¼ DðBABCÞ ¼ BAVBA þBCVBC ð32Þ
The subscripts associated with a shear strain [e.g., subscripts xy in Eq. (32)]
indicate that the shear strain represents the change in angle defined by line
segments originally aligned with the x- and y-axes.
* The reader is encouraged to personally verify the ‘‘small-angle approximation.’’ For example,
use a calculator to demonstrate that an angle of 5j equals 0.08727 rad, and that sin(0.08727
rad)=0.08716, tan(0.08727 rad)=0.08749, and cos(0.08727 rad)=0.99619. Therefore, in this
example, the small angle approximation results in a maximum error of less than 1%.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
As discussed in the following sections, it is very convenient to describe a
state of strain as a second-order tensor. However, in order to do so, we must
use a slightly different definition of shear strain. Specifically, tensoral shear
strain is defined as:
e
xy
¼
1
2
c
xy
ð33Þ
Since engineering shear strain has been defined as the total change in
angle BAVBC, tensoral shear strain is simply half this change in angle. The
use of tensoral shear strain is convenient because it greatly simplifies the
transformation of a state of strain from one coordinate system to another.
The use of engineering shear strain is far more common in practice, how-
ever. In this text, tensoral shear strain will be used when convenient during
initial mathematical manipulations of the strain tensor, but all final results
will be converted to relations involving engineering shear strain.
Although strains are unitless quantities, normal strains are usually
reported in units of (length/length), and shear strains are usually reported
in units of radians. The values of a strain is independent of the system of units
used, e.g., 1 (m/m)=1 (in/in). Common abbreviations used throughout this
text are as follows:
1 Â 10
À6
meter=meter ¼ 1micrometer=meter ¼ 1 Am=m ¼ 1 Ain=in
1 Â 10
À6
radians ¼ 1 microradians ¼ 1 Arad
We must next define the algebraic sign convention used to describe
individual strain components. The sign convention for normal strains is very
straightforward and intuitive: a positive (or ‘‘tensile’’) normal strain is asso-
ciated with an increase in length, while a negative (or ‘‘compressive’’) normal
strain is associated with a decrease in length.
To define the algebraic sign of a shear strain, we first identify the
algebraic sign of each face of the infinitesimal strain element (the algebraic
sign of face was defined in Sec. 5). An algebraically positive shear strain cor-
responds to a decrease in the angle between two positive faces, or equiva-
lently, to a decrease in the angle between two negative faces.
The above sign conventions can be used to confirm that all strains
shown in Fig. 16 are algebraically positive.
Example Problem 6
Given. The following two sets of strain components:
Set1 :
e
xx
¼ 1000 Am=m
e
yy
¼ À500 Am=m
c
xy
¼ 1500 Arad
Set2 :
e
xx
¼ 1000 Am=m
e
yy
¼ À500 Am=m
c
xy
¼ À1500 Arad
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Determine. Prepare sketches (not to scale) of the deformed strain elements
represented by the two sets of strain components.
Solution. The required sketches are shown in Fig. 17. Note that the only
difference between the two sets of strain components is that in Set 1, c
xy
is
algebraically positive, whereas in Set 2, c
xy
is algebraically negative.
10 THE STRAIN TENSOR
A general 3-D solid body is shown in Fig. 18(a). An infinitesimally small
cube isolated from an interior region of the body is shown in Fig. 18(b). The
cube is referenced to an x–y–z coordinate system, and the cube edges are
aligned with these axes.
Now assume that the body is subjected to some mechanism(s) which
causes the body to deform. The mechanism(s) which causes this deforma-
tion need not be defined at this point, but might be external loading (i.e.,
stresses), a change in temperature, the adsorption or desorption of water
molecules (in the case of polymeric-based materials such as composites), or
any combination thereof.
Since the entire body is deformed, the internal infinitesimal cube is
deformed into a parallelepiped, as shown in Fig. 18(c). It can be shown (1,2)
that the state of strain experienced by the cube can be represented as a
Figure 17 Strain elements associated with Example Problem 6 (not to scale).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 18 Infinitesimal elements used to illustrate the strain tensor.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
symmetric second-order tensor, involving six components of strain: three
normal strains (e
xx
, e
yy
, e
zz
) and three tensoral shear strains (e
xy
, e
xz
, e
yz
). These
six strain components are defined in the same manner as those discussed in
the preceding section. Normal strains e
xx
, e
yy
, and e
zz
represent the change
in length in the x-, y-, and z-directions, respectively. Tensoral shear strains
e
xy
, e
xz
, and e
yz
represent the change in angle between cube edges initially
aligned with the (x-,y-), (x-,z-), and ( y-,z-) axes, respectively. Using matrix
notation, the strain tensor may be written as:
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
_
_
_
¼
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
_
_
_
ð34Þ
Alternatively, the strain tensor can be succinctly written using indicial nota-
tion as:
e
ij
; i; j ¼ x; y; or z ð35Þ
Note that if engineering shear strain is used, then Eq. (34) becomes
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
e
xx
ðc
xy
=2Þ ðc
xz
=2Þ
ðc
xy
=2Þ e
yy
ðc
yz
=2Þ
ðc
xx
=2Þ ðc
yz
=2Þ e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
If engineering shear strain is used, the strain tensor cannot be written using
indicial notation [as in Eq. (35)] due to the 1/2 factor that appears in all off-
diagonal positions.
In Sec. 1, it was noted that a force vector is a first-order tensor since
only one subscript is required to describe a force tensor, F
i
. The fact that
strain is a second-order tensor is evident from Eq. (35) since two subscripts
are necessary to describe a state of strain.
11 TRANSFORMATION OF THE STRAIN TENSOR
Since both stress and strain are second-order tensors, the transformation of
the strain tensor from one coordinate system to another is analogous to the
transformation of the stress tensor, as discussed in Sec. 6. For example, it
can be shown (1,2) that the strain components in the xV–yV–zV coordinate
system (e
iVjV
) are related to the components in x–y–z coordinate system (e
ij
)
according to:
e
i
V
j
V ¼ c
i
V
k
c
j
V
l
e
kl
where k; l ¼ x; y; z ð36aÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Alternatively, using matrix notation, the strain tensor transforms accord-
ing to:
½e
i
V
j
V Š ¼ ½c
i
V
j
Š½e
ij
Š½c
i
V
j
Š
T
which expands as follows:
e
x
V
x
V e
x
V
y
V e
x
V
z
V
e
y
V
x
V e
y
V
y
V e
y
V
z
V
e
z
V
x
V e
z
V
y
V e
z
V
z
V
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
c
x
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
x
c
y
V
y
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
x
c
z
V
y
c
z
V
z
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
c
x
V
x
c
y
V
x
c
z
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
y
V
y
c
z
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
z
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ð36bÞ
The terms c
i Vj
which appear in Eqs. (36a) and (36b) are direction cosines
and equal the cosine of the angle between the axes of the xV–yV–zV and x–y–z
coordinate systems.
As was the case for the stress tensor, there are certain features of the
strain tensor that do not vary when the tensor is transformed from one co-
ordinate system to another. These features are called the strain invariants.
Three independent strain invariants exist and are defined as follows:
First strain invariant ¼H
e
¼ e
ii
ð37aÞ
Second strain invariant ¼ U
e
¼
1
2
e
ii
e
jj
À e
ij
e
ij
_ _
ð37bÞ
Third strain invariant ¼ W
e
¼
1
6
e
ii
e
jj
e
kk
À 3e
ii
e
jk
e
jk
þ 2e
ij
e
jk
e
ki
_ _
ð37cÞ
Alternatively, by expanding these equations over the range i, j, k=x, y, z and
simplifying, the strain invariants can be written as:
First strain invariant ¼ H
e
¼ e
xx
þ e
yy
þ e
zz
ð38aÞ
Second strain invariant ¼ U
e
¼ e
xx
e
yy
þ e
xx
e
zz
þ e
yy
e
zz
À e
2
xy
þ e
2
xz
þe
2
yz
_ _
ð38bÞ
Third strain invariant ¼ W
e
¼ e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
Àe
xx
e
2
yz
À e
yy
e
2
xz
À e
zz
e
2
xy
þ 2e
xy
e
xz
e
yz
ð38cÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Example Problem 7
Given. A state of strain referenced to an x–y–z coordinate is known to be:
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
1000Am=m 500Arad 250Arad
500Arad 1500Am=m 750Arad
250Arad 750Arad 2000Am=m
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
It is desired to express this state of strain in an xU–yU–zU coordinate system,
generated by:
(i) Rotation of h=20j about the original z-axis (which defines an
intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system), followed by
(ii) Rotation of b=35j about the xV-axis (which defines the final xU–
yU–zU coordinate system).
(This coordinate transformation has been previously considered in
Example Problem 3 and is shown in Fig. 10.)
Problem
(a) Rotate the strain tensor to the xU–yU–zU coordinate system and
(b) Calculate the first, second, and third invariants of the strain tensor
using both elements of the strain tensor referenced to the x–y–z
coordinate system, e
ij
, and elements of the strain tensor referenced
to the xU–yU–zU coordinate system, e
i Uj U
.
Solution
Part (a). General expressions for direction cosines relating the x–y–z and
xU–yU–zU coordinate systems were determined as a part of Example Problem 1.
Further, numerical values for the particular rotation h=20j and b=35j were
determined in Example Problem 3 and were found to be:
c
xWx
¼ cos ð20
B
Þ ¼ 0:9397
c
xWy
¼ sin ð20
B
Þ ¼ 0:3420
c
xWz
¼ 0
c
yWx
¼ Àcos ð35
B
Þsin ð20
B
Þ ¼ À0:2802
c
yWy
¼ cos ð35
B
Þcos ð20
B
Þ ¼ 0:7698
c
yWz
¼ sin ð35
B
Þ ¼ 0:5736
c
zWx
¼ sin ð35
B
Þsin ð20
B
Þ ¼ 0:1962
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
c
zWy
¼ Àsin ð35
B
Þcos ð20
B
Þ ¼ À0:5390
c
zWz
¼ cos ð35
B
Þ ¼ 0:8192
Each component of the transformed strain tensor can now be found through
application of Eq. (36a) or Eq. (36b). For example, setting i V=xU, j V=xU, and
expanding Eq. (36a), strain component e
xUxU
is given by:
e
xUxU
¼ c
xUx
c
xUx
e
xx
þ c
xUx
c
xUy
e
xy
þ c
xUx
c
xUz
e
xz
þ c
xUy
c
xUx
e
yx
þ c
xUy
c
xUy
e
yy
þ c
xUy
c
xUz
e
yz
þ c
xUz
c
xUx
e
zx
þ c
xUz
c
xUy
e
zy
þ c
xUz
c
xUz
e
zz
e
xUxU
¼ ð0:9397Þð0:9397Þð1000Þ þ ð0:9397Þð0:3420Þð500Þ
þð0:9397Þð0Þð250Þ þ ð0:3420Þð0:9397Þð500Þ
þð0:3420Þð0:3420Þð1500Þ þ ð0:3420Þð0Þð750Þ
þð0Þð0:9397Þð250Þ þ ð0Þð0:3420Þð750Þ
þð0Þð0Þð2000Þ
e
xUxU
¼ 1380 lm=m
Alternatively, if matrix notation is used, then Eq. (36b) becomes:
e
xUxU
e
xUyU
e
xUzU
e
yUxU
e
yUyU
e
yUzU
e
zUxU
e
zUyU
e
zUzU
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
0:9397 0:3420 0
À0:2802 0:7698 0:5736
0:1962 À0:5390 0:8192
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
1000 500 250
500 1500 750
250 750 2000
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
0:9397 À0:2802 0:1962
0:3420 0:7698 À0:5390
0 0:5736 0:8192
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, there results:
e
xUxU
e
xUyU
e
xUzU
e
yUxU
e
yUyU
e
yUzU
e
zUxU
e
zUyU
e
zUzU
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
1380 Am=m 727 Arad 91 Arad
727 Arad 1991 Am=m 625 Arad
91 Arad 625 Arad 1129 Am=m
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Notice that the value of e
xUxU
determined through matrix multiplication is
identical to that obtained using indicial notation, as expected.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Part (b). The first, second, and third strain invariants will now be calcu-
lated using components of both e
ij
and e
iUjU
. It is expected that identical values
will be obtained since the strain invariants are independent of the coordinate
system.
First strain invariant:
x–y–z coordinate system:
H
e
¼ e
ii
¼ e
xx
þ e
yy
þe
zz
H
e
¼ ð1000 þ 1500 þ 2000Þ Am=m
H
e
¼ 4500Am=m ¼ :004500 m=m
xU–yU–zU coordinate system:
H
e
¼ e
iUiU
¼ e
xUxU
þ e
yUyU
þ e
zUzU
H
e
¼ ð1380 þ 1991 þ 1129Þ Am=m
H
e
¼ 4500Am=m ¼ 0:004500 m=m
As expected, the first strain invariant is independent of the coordinate
system.
Second strain invariant:
x–y–z coordinate system:
U
e
¼
1
2
e
ii
e
jj
Àe
ij
e
ij
_ _
¼ e
xx
e
yy
þ e
xx
e
zz
þ e
yy
e
zz
À e
2
xy
þ e
2
xz
þ e
2
yz
_ _
U
e
¼
_
ð1000Þð1500Þ þ ð1000Þð2000Þ þ ð1500Þð2000Þ
À½ð500Þ
2
þ ð250Þ
2
þ ð750Þ
2
Šg ðAm=mÞ
2
U ¼ 5:625 Â 10
6
ðAm=mÞ
2
¼ 5:625 Â 10
À6
ðm=mÞ
2
xU–yU–zU coordinate system:
U
e
¼
1
2
e
iUiU
e
jUjU
À e
iUjU
e
iUjU
_ _
U
e
¼ e
xUxU
e
yUyU
þ e
xUxU
e
zUzU
þ e
yUyU
e
zUzU
À e
2
xUyU
þe
2
xUzU
þ e
2
yUzU
_ _
U
e
¼ fð1380Þð1991Þ þ ð1380Þð1129Þ þ ð1991Þð1129Þ
À½ð727Þ
2
þ ð91Þ
2
þ ð625Þ
2
Šg ðAm=mÞ
2
U
e
¼ 5:625 Â 10
6
ðAm=mÞ
2
¼ 5:625 Â 10
À6
ðm=mÞ
2
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
As expected, the second strain invariant is independent of the coordi-
nate system.
Third strain invariant:
x–y–z coordinate system:
W
e
¼
1
6
e
ii
e
jj
e
kk
À 3e
ii
e
jk
e
jk
þ 2e
ij
e
jk
e
ki
_ _
W
e
¼ e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
À e
xx
e
2
yz
À e
yy
e
2
xz
À e
zz
e
2
xy
þ 2e
xy
e
xz
e
yz
W
e
¼ ½ð1000Þð1500Þð2000Þ À ð1000Þð750Þ
2
À ð1500Þð250Þ
2
À ð2000Þ
Âð500Þ
2
þ 2ð500Þð250Þð750ފ ðAm=mÞ
3
W ¼ 2:031 Â 10
9
ðAm=mÞ
3
¼ 2:031 Â 10
À9
ðm=mÞ
3
xU–yU–zU coordinate system:
W
e
¼
1
6
e
iUiU
e
jUjU
e
kUkU
À 3e
iUiU
e
jUkU
e
jUkU
þ 2e
iUjU
e
jUkU
e
kUiU
_ _
W
e
¼ e
xUxU
e
yUyU
e
zUzU
À e
xUxU
e
2
yUzU
À e
yUyU
e
2
xUzU
Àe
zUzU
e
2
xUyU
þ 2e
xUyU
e
xUzU
e
yUzU
W
e
¼ ½ð1380Þð1991Þð1129Þ À ð1380Þð625Þ
2
À ð1991Þð91Þ
2
À ð1129Þ
Âð727Þ
2
þ 2ð727Þð91Þð625ފ ðAm=mÞ
3
W ¼ 2:031 Â 10
9
ðAm=mÞ
3
¼ 2:031 Â 10
À9
ðm=mÞ
3
As expected, the third stress invariant is independent of the coordinate
system.
12 PRINCIPAL STRAINS
The definition of the strain tensor was reviewed in Sec. 10, and transfor-
mation of the strain tensor from one coordinate system to another was
discussed in Sec. 11. It can be shown (1,2) that it is always possible to rotate
the strain tensor to a special coordinate system in which no shear strains
exist. This coordinate system is called the principal strain coordinate system,
and the normal strains that exist in this coordinate system are called principal
strains. In most texts, the principal strains are denoted e
1
, e
2
, and e
3
.
However, as will be discussed later (see Fig. 2 in Chap. 3), in this text, the
axis labels ‘‘1,’’ ‘‘2,’’ and ‘‘3’’ will be used to refer to the principal material
coordinate system rather than the directions of principal strain. Therefore,
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
in this text, the axes associated with the principal strain coordinate system
will be labeled p
1
, p
2
, and p
3
axes, and the principal strains will be denoted
e
p1
, e
p2
, and e
p3
.
Since both stress and strain are second-order tensors, the principal
strains can be found using an approach analogous to that used to find prin-
cipal stresses. Specifically, it can be shown (1,2) that the principal strains
must satisfy the following three simultaneous equations:
ðe
p
n
Àe
xx
Þc
p
n
x
À e
xy
c
p
n
y
À e
xz
c
p
n
z
¼ 0 ð39aÞ
Àe
xy
c
p
n
x
þ ðe
p
n
Àe
yy
Þc
p
n
y
À e
yz
c
p
n
z
¼ 0 ð39bÞ
Àe
xz
c
p
n
x
À e
yz
c
p
n
y
þ ðe
p
n
À e
zz
Þc
p
n
z
¼ 0 ð39cÞ
Since direction cosines c
pnx
, c
pny
, and c
pnz
must also satisfy Eq. (8), and
therefore cannot all equal zero, the solution can be obtained by requiring
that the determinant of the coefficients of c
pnx
, c
pny
, and c
pnz
equal zero:
ðe
p
n
Àe
xx
Þ Àe
xy
Àe
xz
Àe
xy
ðe
p
n
À e
yy
Þ Àe
yz
Àe
xz
Àe
yz
ðe
p
n
À e
zz
Þ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¼ 0
Equating the determinant to zero results in the following cubic
equation:
e
3
p
n
ÀH
e
e
2
p
n
þ U
e
e
p
n
À W
e
¼ 0 ð40Þ
where H
e
, U
e
, and W
e
are the first, second, and third strain invariants,
respectively, and have been previously listed as Eqs. (37a)–(37c) and (38a)–
(38c). The three roots of the cubic equation (that is, the three principal
strains) may be found by application of the standard approach (3), as
follows:
Define:
a ¼
1
3
3U
e
ÀH
2
e
_ _
b ¼
À1
27
2H
3
e
À 9H
e
U
e
þ 27W
e
_ _
A ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À
b
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
b
2
4
þ
a
3
27
_
3
¸
B ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À
b
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
b
2
4
þ
a
3
27
_
3
¸
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The three principal strains [i.e., the three roots of Eq. (40)] are then given by:
e
p
1
; e
p
2
; e
p
3
¼
A þ B þ
H
e
3
À
A þ B
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À3
p
A À B
2
_ _
þ
H
e
3
À
A þ B
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À3
p
A À B
2
_ _
þ
H
e
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð41Þ
By convention, the principal strains are numbered such that e
p1
is the
algebraically greatest principal strain, whereas e
p3
is the algebraically least.
That is, e
p1
>e
p2
>e
p3
.
It is appropriate to note that many handheld calculators and computer
software packages now feature standard routines to find the roots of nth-
order polynomials. Hence, the roots of Eq. (40) may often be found more
conveniently using these standard routines, rather than Eq. (41). The cal-
culation of constants A and B that appear in Eq. (41) often involves finding
the cube root of a complex number. The need to find the cube root of a
complex number is encountered infrequently, and hence the reader may not
be aware of how to make such a calculation. For convenience, a process that
may be used to find the cube root of a complex number has been included
in Appendix A.
Once the principal strains are determined, the three sets of direction
cosines (which define the principal coordinate directions) are found by
substituting the three principal strains given by Eq. (41) into Eqs. (39a)–
(39c) in turn. Since only two of Eqs. (39a)–(39c) are independent, Eq. (8) is
used as a third independent equation involving the three unknown constants,
c
p
n
x
, c
p
n
y
, and c
p
n
z
.
The process of finding principal strains and direction cosines will be
demonstrated in the following example problem.
Example Problem 8
Given. A state of strain referenced to an x–y–z coordinate is known to be:
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
1000Am=m 500 Arad 250 Arad
500 Arad 1500 Am=m 750 Arad
250Arad 750 Arad 2000 Am=m
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Problem. Find (a) the principal strains and (b) the direction cosines that
define the principal strain coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Solution. This is the same strain tensor considered in Example Problem7. As
a part of that problem, the first, second, and third strain invariants were found
to be:
H
e
¼ 0:004500 m=m
U ¼ 5:625 Â 10
À6
ðm=mÞ
2
W ¼ 2:031 Â 10
À9
ðm=mÞ
3
Part (a). Determining the principal strains.
In accordance with Eq. (40), the three principal strains are the roots
of the following cubic equation:
e
3
p
n
À ð0:004500Þe
2
p
n
þ ð5:625 Â 10
À6
Þe
p
n
À ð2:031 Â 10
À9
Þ ¼ 0
Following the standard procedure for finding the roots of a cubic equa-
tion, we have:
a ¼
1
3
3U
e
ÀH
2
e
_ _
¼
1
3
3ð5:625 Â 10
À6
Þ À ð0:004500Þ
2
_ _
¼ À1:125 Â 10
À6
b ¼
À1
27
2H
3
e
À 9H
e
U
e
þ 27W
e
_ _
b ¼
À1
27
2ð0:004500Þ
3
À 9ð0:004500Þð5:625 Â 10
À6
Þ
_
þ27ð2:031 Â 10
À9
ފ ¼ À3:435  10
À10
A ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À
b
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
b
2
4
þ
a
3
27
_
3
¸
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
3:435 Â 10
À10
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ðÀ3:435  10
À10
Þ
2
4
þ
ðÀ1:125  10
À6
Þ
3
27
¸
3
¸
¸
¸
_
A ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1:718 Â 10
À10
þ ið1:524 Â 10
À10
Þ
3
_
A ¼ 594:5 Â 10
À6
þ ið146:7 Â 10
À6
Þ
B ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À
b
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
b
2
4
þ
a
3
27
_
3
¸
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
3:435 Â 10
À10
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ðÀ3:435  10
À10
Þ
2
4
þ
ðÀ1:125  10
À6
Þ
3
27
¸
3
¸
¸
¸
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
B ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1:718 Â 10
À10
À ið1:524 Â 10
À10
Þ
3
_
B ¼ 594:5 Â 10
À6
À ið146:7 Â 10
À6
Þ
e
p
1
; e
p
2
; e
p
3
¼
A þ B þ
H
3
À
A þ B
2
þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À3
p
A À B
2
_ _
þ
H
3
À
A þ B
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À3
p
A À B
2
_ _
þ
H
3
¼
2689Am=m
651Am=m
1160Am=m
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Hence, e
p1
=2689 Am/m, e
p2
=1160 Am/m, and e
p3
=651 Am/m.
Part (b). Determining the direction cosines.
Equations (8), (39a), and (39b) will be used to form three independent
equations in three unknowns. We have:
ðe
p
n
À e
xx
Þc
p
n
x
À e
xy
c
p
n
y
À e
xz
c
p
n
z
¼ 0
Àe
xy
c
p
n
x
þ ðe
p
n
Àe
yy
Þc
p
n
y
À e
yz
c
p
n
z
¼ 0
ðc
p
n
x
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
n
y
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
n
z
Þ
2
¼ 1
Direction cosines for e
p1
. The three independent equations become:
ð2689 À 1000Þc
p
1
x
À 500c
p
1
y
À 250c
p
1
z
¼ 0
À500c
p
1
x
þ ð2689 À 1500Þc
p
1
y
À 750c
p
1
z
¼ 0
ðc
p
1
x
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
1
y
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
1
z
Þ
2
¼ 1
Solving simultaneously, we obtain:
c
p
1
x
¼ 0:2872 c
p
1
y
¼ 0:5945 c
p
1
z
¼ 0:7511
Direction cosines for e
p2
. The three independent equations become:
ð1160 À 1000Þc
p
2
x
À 500c
p
2
y
À 250c
p
2
z
¼ 0
À500c
p
2
x
þ ð1160 À 1500Þc
p
2
y
À 750c
p
2
z
¼ 0
ðc
p
2
x
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
2
y
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
2
z
Þ
2
¼ 1
Solving simultaneously, we obtain:
c
p
2
x
¼ 0:5960 c
p
2
y
¼ 0:5035 c
p
2
z
¼ À0:6256
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Direction cosines for e
p3
. The three independent equations become:
ð651 À 1000Þc
p
3
x
À 500c
p
3
y
À 250c
p
3
z
¼ 0
À500c
p
3
x
þ ð651 À 1500Þc
p
3
y
À 750c
p
3
z
¼ 0
ðc
p
3
x
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
3
y
Þ
2
þ ðc
p
3
z
Þ
2
¼ 1
Solving simultaneously, we obtain:
c
p
3
x
¼ À0:7481 c
p
3
y
¼ 0:6286 c
p
3
z
¼ À0:2128
13 STRAINS WITHIN A PLANE PERPENDICULAR TO A
PRINCIPAL STRAIN DIRECTION
It has been seen that a strain tensor is defined by six components of strain:
three normal strain components and three shear strain components. Now, in
practice, there are circumstances in which it is known a priori that both shear
strain components in one direction are zero: e
xz
=e
yz
=0, say (or equivalently,
c
xz
=c
yz
=0). This implies that the z-axis is a principal strain axis. In these
instances, we are primarily interested in the strains induced within the x–y
plane, e
xz
, e
yy
, and e
xy
. Two different circumstances are encountered in which
it is known a priori that the z-axis is a principal strain axis.
In the first case, all three out-of-plane strain components in the z-
direction are known a priori to equal zero. That is, it is known a priori that
e
zz
=e
xz
=e
yz
=0. Not only is the z-axis a principal strain axis in this case, but,
in addition, the principal strain equals zero: e
zz
=e
p3
=0. Since the three
remaining nonzero strain components (e
xx
, e
yy
, and e
xy
) all lie within the x–y
plane, it is natural to call this condition a state of plane strain. Plane strain
conditions occur most often because of the geometry of the structure of
interest. Specifically, the plane strain condition usually exists in internal
regions of very long (or very thick) structures. Examples include solid shafts
or long dams. In these instances, the strains induced along the long axis of the
structure are often negligibly small compared to those induced within the
transverse plane of the structure.
The second case in which the out-of-plane z-axis may be a principal axis
is when a structure is subjected to a state of plane stress. As has been discussed
in Sec. 8, the state of plane stress occurs most often in thin, platelike
structures. In this case, the z-axis is a principal strain axis, and e
zz
is again
one of the principal strains. However, in this second case, the out-of-plane
normal strain does not, in general, equal zero: e
zz
p 0.
It is emphasized that a state of plane stress usually, but not always,
causes a state of strain in which the z-axis is a principal strain axis. This point
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
will be further discussed in Chap. 4. It will be seen there that it is possible for a
material to exhibit a coupling between in-plane stresses and out-of-plane
shear strains. That is, in some cases, stresses acting within the x–y plane (r
xx
,
r
yy
, and/or s
xy
) can cause out-of-plane shear strains (e
xz
and/or e
yz
). In these
instances, the out-of-plane z-axis is not a principal strain axis, although the
out-of-plane stresses all equal zero.
In any event, for present purposes, assume that it is known a priori that
the out-of-plane z-axis is a principal strain axis, and we are primarily inter-
ested in the strains induced within the x–y plane, e
xx
, e
yy
, and e
xy
. We will write
these strains in the form of a column array, rather than a 3Â3 array:
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
e
xx
ðc
xy
=2Þ 0
ðc
xy
=2Þ e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ !
e
xx
e
yy
e
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Note that e
zz
does not appear in the column array. This is not of concern in the
case of plane strain since, in this case, e
zz
=0. However, in the case of plane
stress, it is important to remember that (in general) e
zz
p 0. Although in the
following chapters we will be primarily interested in strains induced within
the x–y plane, the reader is advised to remember that an out-of-plane strain
e
zz
is also induced by a state of plane stress.
The transformation of a general 3-D strain tensor has already been
discussed in Sec. 11. The relations presented there will now be simplified for
the case of transformation of strains within a plane.
Recall that either Eq. (36a) or Eq. (36b) governs the transformation of
a strain tensor from one coordinate system to another. Equation (36b) is
repeated here for convenience:
e
x
V
x
V e
x
V
y
V e
x
V
z
V
e
y
V
x
V e
y
V
y
V e
y
V
z
V
e
z
V
x
V e
z
V
y
V e
z
V
z
V
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
c
x
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
x
c
y
V
y
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
x
c
z
V
y
c
z
V
z
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
c
x
V
x
c
y
V
x
c
z
V
x
c
x
V
y
c
y
V
y
c
z
V
y
c
x
V
z
c
y
V
z
c
z
V
z
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ðrepeatedÞð36bÞ
Assuming that the xV–yV–zV coordinate system is generated from the x–y–z
system by a rotation h about the z-axis, the direction cosines are:
c
x
V
x
¼ cos ðhÞ
c
x
V
y
¼ cos ð90
B
ÀhÞ ¼ sin ðhÞ
c
x
V
z
¼ cos ð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
c
y
V
x
¼ cos ð90
B
þ hÞ ¼ Àsin ðhÞ
c
y
V
y
¼ cos ðhÞ
c
y
V
z
¼ cos ð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
x
¼ cos ð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
y
¼ cos ð90
B
Þ ¼ 0
c
z
V
z
¼ cos ð0
B
Þ ¼ 1
Substituting these direction cosines into Eq. (36b) and noting that by
assumption, e
xz
=e
yz
=0, we have:
e
x
V
x
V e
x
V
y
V e
x
V
z
V
e
y
V
x
V e
y
V
y
V e
y
V
z
V
e
z
V
x
V e
z
V
y
V e
z
V
z
V
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
cos h sin h 0
Àsin h cos h 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
yx
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
cos h Àsin h 0
sin h cos h 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated results in:
e
x
V
x
V e
x
V
y
V e
x
V
z
V
e
y
V
x
V e
y
V
y
V e
y
V
z
V
e
z
V
x
V e
z
V
y
V e
z
V
z
V
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¼
cos
2
he
xx
þ sin
2
he
yy
þ 2cos hsinhe
xy
Àcos hsinhe
xx
þ cos hsinhe
yy
þ ðcos
2
h À sin
2
hÞe
xy
0
Àcos hsinhe
xx
þ cos hsinhe
yy
þ ðcos
2
h À sin
2
hÞe
xy
sin
2
he
xx
þ cos
2
he
yy
À 2cos hsinhe
xy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
As would be expected, e
xVzV
=e
yVzV
=0. The remaining strain components are:
e
x
V
x
V ¼ cos
2
ðhÞe
xx
þ sin
2
ðhÞe
yy
þ 2cosðhÞsinðhÞe
xy
e
y
V
y
V ¼ sin
2
ðhÞe
xx
þ cos
2
ðhÞe
yy
À 2cosðhÞsinðhÞe
xy
ð42Þ
e
x
V
y
V ¼ ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞe
xx
þ cosðhÞsinðhÞe
yy
þ ½cos
2
ðhÞ þ sin
2
ðhފe
xy
e
z
V
z
V ¼ e
zz
Tensoral shear strains were used in Eqs. (36a) and (36b) for mathemat-
ical convenience; that is, tensoral shear strains have been used so that rotation
of the strain tensor could be accomplished using the normal transformation
law for a second-order tensor. Since engineering shear strains are far more
commonly used in practice, we will now convert our final results, Eq. (42), to
ones which involve engineering shear strain (c
xy
). Recall from Sec. 9 that
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
e
xy
¼
1
2
c
xy
. Hence, to convert Eq. (42), simply replace e
xy
with
1
2
c
xy
every-
where, resulting in:
e
x
V
x
V ¼ cos
2
ðhÞe
xx
þ sin
2
ðhÞe
yy
þ cosðhÞsinðhÞc
xy
e
y
V
y
V ¼ sin
2
ðhÞe
xx
þ cos
2
ðhÞe
yy
À cosðhÞsinðhÞc
xy
ð43Þ
c
x
V
y
V
2
¼ ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞe
xx
þ cosðhÞsinðhÞe
yy
þ ½cos
2
ðhÞ þ sin
2
ðhފ
c
xy
2
e
z
V
z
V ¼ e
zz
Equation (43) relates the components of strain in two different coordinate
systems within a single plane and will be used extensively throughout the re-
mainder of this text.
The first three of Eq. (43) can be written using matrix notation as:
e
x
V
x
V
e
y
V
y
V
c
x
V
y
V
2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
cos
2
ðhÞ sin
2
ðhÞ 2 cosðhÞsinðhÞ
sin
2
ðhÞ cos
2
ðhÞ À2 cosðhÞsinðhÞ
ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞ cosðhÞ sinðhÞ cos
2
ðhÞ À sin
2
ðhÞ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
ð44Þ
Compare Eq. (44) with Eq. (20). In particular, note that the trans-
formation matrix, [T], which was previously encountered during the discus-
sion of plane stress in Sec. 8, also appears in Eq. (44).
The strain invariants [given by Eqs. (37a)–(37c) or Eqs. (38a)–(38c)] are
considerably simplified when the out-of-plane z-axis is a principal axis. Since
by definition e
xz
¼
c
xz
2
¼ e
yz
¼
c
yz
2
¼ 0, the strain invariants become:
First strain invariant ¼ H
e
¼ e
xx
þ e
yy
þ e
zz
Second strain invariant ¼ U
e
¼ e
xx
e
yy
þ e
xx
e
zz
þ e
yy
e
zz
À
c
2
xy
4
ð45Þ
Third strain invariant ¼ W
e
¼ e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
Àe
zz
c
4
xy
4
The principal strains equal the roots of the cubic equation previously
listed as Eq. (40). Substituting Eq. (45) into Eq. (40) reduces to:
e
3
p
n
À ðe
xx
þ e
yy
þe
zz
Þe
2
p
n
þ ðe
xx
e
yy
þ e
xx
e
zz
þ e
yy
e
zz
À
c
2
xy
4
Þe
p
n
Àðe
xx
e
yy
e
zz
À e
zz
c
2
xy
4
Þ ¼ 0 ð46Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
One root of Eq. (23) is e
pn
=e
zz
. For present purposes, this root will be
labeled e
p3
although it may not be the algebraically least principal strain. In
the case of plane strain, e
p3
=e
zz
=0.
Removing the known root from Eq. (46), we have the following qua-
dratic equation:
e
2
p
n
À ðe
xx
þ e
yy
Þe
pn
þ ðe
xx
e
yy
À
c
2
xy
4
Þ ¼ 0
The two roots of this quadratic equation (that is, the two remaining prin-
cipal strains, e
p1
and e
p2
) may be found by application of the standard ap-
proach (3) and are given by:
e
p
1
; e
p
2
¼
e
xx
þe
yy
2
F
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
e
xx
Àe
yy
2
_ _
2
þ
c
xy
2
_ _
2
¸
ð47Þ
The angle h
p
e
between the x-axis and either the p
1
or p
2
axis is given by:
h
p
e
¼
1
2
arctan
c
xy
e
xx
À e
yy
_ _
ð48Þ
Example Problem 9
Given. A state of plane strain is known to consist of:
e
xx
¼ 500Am=m
e
yy
¼ À1000Am=m
c
xy
¼ À2500Arad
Problem. (a) Prepare a rough sketch (not to scale) of the deformed strain
element in the x–y coordinate system; (b) determine the strain components
which correspond to an xV–yV coordinate system, oriented 25j CCW from the
x–y coordinate system, and prepare a rough sketch (not to scale) of the
deformed strain element in the xV–yV coordinate system; and (c) determine
the principal strain components that exist within the x–y plane, and prepare
a rough sketch (not to scale) of the deformed strain element in the principal
strain coordinate system.
Solution
Part (a). Asketch showing the deformed strain element (not to scale) in the
x–y coordinate system is shown in Fig. 19(a). Note that:
The length of the element side parallel to the x-axis has increased
(corresponding to the tensile strain e
xx
=500 Am/m).
The length of the element side parallel to the y-axis has decreased (cor-
responding to the compressive strain e
yy
=À1000 Am/m).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 19 Strain elements associated with Example Problem 9 (all deforma-
tions shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The angle defined by x–y axes has increased (corresponding to the
negative shear strain c
xy
=À2500 Arad).
Part (b). Since the xV-axis is oriented 25j CCW from the x-axis, in
accordance with the right-hand rule, the angle of rotation is positive, i.e.,
h=+25j. Substituting this angle and the given strain components in Eq. (44):
e
x
V
x
V
e
y
V
y
V
c
x
V
y
V
2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
cos
2
ð25
B
Þ sin
2
ð25
B
Þ 2cosð25
B
Þsinð25
B
Þ
sin
2
ð25
B
Þ cos
2
ð25
B
Þ À2cosð25
B
Þsinð25
B
Þ
Àcosð25
B
Þsinð25
B
Þ cosð25
B
Þsinð25
B
Þ cos
2
ð25
B
Þ À sin
2
ð25
B
Þ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Â
500
À1000
À2500
2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated results in:
e
x
V
x
V
e
y
V
y
V
c
x
V
y
V
2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
À725 Am=m
225 Am=m
À1378 Arad
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
A sketch showing the deformed strain element (not to scale) in the xV–yV
coordinate system is shown in Fig. 19(b). Note that:
The length of the element side parallel to the xV-axis has decreased
(corresponding to the compressive strain e
xVxV
=À725 Am/m).
The length of the element side parallel to the yV-axis has increased (cor-
responding to the tensile strain e
yVyV
=225 Am/m).
The angle defined by the xV–yV axes has increased (corresponding to the
negative shear strain c
xVyV
=2756 Arad).
Part (c). The principal strains are found through application of Eq. (47):
e
p
1
; e
p
2
¼
500 À 1000
2
F
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
500 þ 1000
2
_ _
2
þ
À2500
2
_ _
2
¸
e
p
1
¼ 1208Am=m
e
p
2
¼ À1708Am=m
The orientation of the principal strain coordinate system is given by Eq. (48):
h
p
e
¼
1
2
arctan
À2500
500 þ 1000
_ _
¼ À29:5
B
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
A sketch showing the deformed strain element (not to scale) in the principal
strain coordinate system is shown in Fig. 19(c). Note that:
The length of the element side parallel to the p
1
-axis has increased
(corresponding to the tensile principal strain e
p1
=1208 Am/m).
The length of the element side parallel to the p
2
-axis has decreased
(corresponding to the compressive principal strain e
p2
=À1708
Am/m).
The angle defined by the principal strain axes has remained precisely
p/2 radians (i.e., 90j) since in the principal strain coordinate system,
the shear strain is zero.
14 RELATING STRAINS TO DISPLACEMENT FIELDS
Most analyses considered in this text begin with the consideration of the
displacement fields induced in the structure of interest. That is, mathematical
expressions that describe the displacements induced at all points within a
structure by external loading and/or environmental changes will be assumed
or otherwise specified. Strains induced in the structure will then be inferred
from these displacement fields.
In the most general case, three displacement fields are involved. Spe-
cifically, these are the displacements in the x-, y-, and z-directions, typically
denoted as the u-, v-, and w-displacement fields, respectively. In general, all
three displacement fields are functions of x, y, and z:
Displacements in the x-direction: u=u(x,y,z).
Displacements in the y-direction: v=v(x,y,z).
Displacements in the z-direction: w=w(x,y,z).
However, if the out-of-plane z-axis is a principal strain axis, then u and v
are (at most) functions of x and y only, while w is (at most) a function of z
only. In this case:
Displacements in the x-direction: u=u(x,y).
Displacements in the y-direction: v=v(x,y).
Displacements in the z-direction: w=w(z).
A detailed derivation of the relationship between displacements and
strains is beyond the scope of this review, and the interested reader is re-
ferred to Frederick and Chang (1) or Fung (2) for details. It can be shown
that the relationship between displacement fields and the strain tensor de-
pends upon the magnitude of derivatives of displacement fields (also called
displacement gradients). If displacement gradients are arbitrarily large, then
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
the associated level of strain is said to be finite, and each component of the
strain tensor is related nonlinearly to displacement gradients as follows:
e
xx
¼
Bu
Bx
þ
1
2
Bu
Bx
_ _
2
þ
Bv
Bx
_ _
2
þ
Bw
Bx
_ _
2
_ _
e
yy
¼
Bv
By
þ
1
2
Bu
By
_ _
2
þ
Bv
By
_ _
2
þ
Bw
By
_ _
2
_ _
e
zz
¼
Bw
Bz
þ
1
2
Bu
Bz
_ _
2
þ
Bv
Bz
_ _
2
þ
Bw
Bz
_ _
2
_ _
c
xy
¼
Bu
By
þ
Bv
Bx
þ
Bu
Bx
_ _
Bu
By
_ _
þ
Bv
Bx
_ _
Bv
By
_ _
þ
Bw
Bx
_ _
Bw
By
_ _
c
xz
¼
Bu
Bz
þ
Bw
Bx
þ
Bu
Bx
_ _
Bu
Bz
_ _
þ
Bv
Bx
_ _
Bv
Bz
_ _
þ
Bw
Bx
_ _
Bw
Bz
_ _
c
yz
¼
Bw
By
þ
Bv
Bz
þ
Bu
By
_ _
Bu
Bz
_ _
þ
Bv
By
_ _
Bv
Bz
_ _
þ
Bw
By
_ _
Bw
Bz
_ _
The expressions listed above define what is known as Green’s strain tensor
(also known as the Lagrangian strain tensor).
In most cases encountered in practice, however, displacement gradients
are very small, and consequently the products of displacement gradients
are negligibly small and can be discarded. For example, it can usually be
assumed that:
Bu
Bx
_ _
2
c0
Bv
Bx
_ _
2
c0
Bw
Bx
_ _
2
c0
Bu
Bx
_ _
Bu
By
_ _
c0; etc:
When displacement gradients are very small, the level of strain is said to be
infinitesimal, and each component of the strain tensor is linearly related to
displacement gradients as follows:
e
xx
¼
Bu
Bx
ð49aÞ
e
yy
¼
Bv
By
ð49bÞ
e
zz
¼
Bw
Bz
ð49cÞ
c
xy
¼
Bv
Bx
þ
Bu
By
ð49dÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
c
xz
¼
Bw
Bx
þ
Bu
Bz
ð49eÞ
c
yz
¼
Bw
By
þ
Bv
Bz
ð49f Þ
For most analyses considered in this text, we will assume that strains
are infinitesimal and are related to displacement fields in accordance with
Eqs. (49a)–(49f). The one exception occurs in Chap. 11, where it will be nec-
essary to include nonlinear terms in the strain–displacement relationships.
As stated above, most analyses begin with the consideration of the
displacement fields induced in a structure of interest. Strain fields implied by
these displacements are then calculated in accordance with Eqs. (49a)–(49f).
This process insures that strain fields are consistent with displacements. Con-
sider the opposite approach. Specifically, suppose that mathematical expres-
sions for strain fields are assumed, perhaps on the basis of engineering
judgment. In this case, it is possible that the assumed strain fields correspond
to physically unrealistic displacement fields. For example, displacement fields
inferred from assumed strain fields may imply that the solid body has voids
and/or overlapping regions, a physically unrealistic circumstance. A system
of six equations known as the compatibility conditions can be developed that
guarantee that assumed expressions for the six components of strain do,
in fact, correspond to physically reasonable displacement fields u(x,y,z),
v(x,y,z), and w(x,y,z). To develop the compatibility conditions, differentiate
Eq. (49d) twice, once with respect to x and once with respect to y. We obtain:
B
2
c
xy
BxBy
¼
B
3
u
BxBy
2
þ
B
3
v
Bx
2
By
From Eqs. (49a) and (49b), it is easily seen that:
B
2
e
xx
By
2
¼
B
3
u
BxBy
2
B
2
e
yy
Bx
2
¼
B
3
v
Bx
2
By
Combining these results, we see that expressions for the strain components
e
xx
, e
yy
, and c
xy
correspond to physically reasonable displacement fields (i.e.,
‘‘are compatible’’) only if they satisfy:
B
2
c
xy
BxBy
¼
B
2
e
xx
By
2
þ
B
2
e
yy
Bx
2
ð50aÞ
Equation (50a) is the first compatibility condition. Following a similar pro-
cedure using Eqs. (49e) and (49f), we obtain:
B
2
c
yz
ByBz
¼
B
2
e
yy
Bz
2
þ
B
2
e
zz
By
2
ð50bÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
B
2
c
xz
BxBz
¼
B
2
e
xx
Bz
2
þ
B
2
e
zz
Bx
2
ð50cÞ
These are the second and third compatibility conditions. Next, the following
expressions are obtained using Eqs. (49a), (49d), (49e), and (49f), respectively:
B
3
u
BxByBz
¼
B
2
e
xx
ByBz
B
3
u
BxByBz
¼
B
2
c
xy
BxBz
À
B
3
v
Bx
2
Bz
B
3
u
BxByBz
¼
B
2
c
xz
BxBy
À
B
3
w
Bx
2
By
B
3
w
Bx
2
By
þ
B
3
v
Bx
2
Bz
¼
B
2
c
yz
Bx
2
Combining these four expressions, we find that assumed expressions for
strain components e
xx
, c
xy
, c
xz
, and c
yz
, are compatible if:
2
B
2
e
xx
ByBz
¼
B
Bx
Bc
xy
Bz
þ
Bc
xz
By
À
c
yz
Bx
_ _
ð50dÞ
This is the fourth compatibility condition. The final two compatibility con-
ditions are developed using a similar process and are given by:
2
B
2
e
yy
BxBz
¼
B
By
Bc
yz
Bx
À
Bc
xz
By
þ
c
xy
Bz
_ _
ð50eÞ
2
B
2
e
zz
BxBy
¼
B
Bz
Bc
yz
Bx
þ
Bc
xz
By
À
c
xy
Bz
_ _
ð50f Þ
15 COMPUTER PROGRAMS 3DROTATE AND 2DROTATE
A review of the force, stress, and strain tensors has been presented in this
chapter. These concepts will be applied routinely throughout the remainder
of this text, as we develop a macromechanics-based analysis of structural
composite materials and structures. It will be seen that the transformation
of stress andstraintensors is of particular importance. Indeed, nearlyall analy-
ses of composite materials and structures presented herein require multiple
transformations of stress and strain tensors from one coordinate system to
another.
Two computer programs, 3DROTATE and 2DROTATE, that can be
used to perform transformations of force, stress, or strain tensors have been
developed to accompany this text. These programs can also be downloaded
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
at no cost from the following website: http://debts.washington.edu/amtas/
computer.html. Program 3DROTATE performs the calculations necessary
to transform a force, stress, or strain tensor from the x–y–z coordinate
system to the xU–yU–zU coordinate system, where the xU–yU–zU coordinate
system is generated from the x–y–z coordinate system by (up to) three
successive rotations. Derivation of the direction cosines that relate these two
coordinate systems is left as a student exercise, but are listed in Homework
Problem2. Program3DROTATEalso calculates the angles betweenthe x–y–z
and xU–yU–zU coordinate axes, invariants of the force, stress, or strain tensors,
and principal stresses and strains. All of the numerical results discussed in
Example Problems 1, 3, and 7 can be obtained through the use of program
3DROTATE.
The second program, 2DROTATE, can be used to rotate stresses within
a plane (as discussed in Sec. 8) and/or strains within a plane (as discussed
in Sec. 13). For the most part, thin platelike composite structures will be
considered in this textbook. Therefore, it can usually be assumed that the
direction normal to the surface of the composite is a direction of principal
stress or strain. Hence, most of the stress or strain transformations consid-
ered in this text involve rotations within a plane. Most of the numerical results
discussed in Example Problems 5 and 9 can be obtained through the use of
program 2DROTATE.
HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
In the following problems, the phrase ‘‘solve by hand’’ means that numerical
solutions should be obtained using a pencil, paper, and nonprogrammable
calculator. Solutions obtained by hand will then be compared to numerical
results returned by appropriate computer programs. This process will insure
understanding of the mathematical processes involved.
1. Solve part (c) of Example Problem 1 by hand based on the rotation
angles listed below. In each case, calculate the magnitude of the
transformed force vector. Confirm your calculations using program
3DROTATE.
(a) h=60j b=À45j.
(b) h=60j b=45j.
(c) h=À60j b=À45j.
(d) h=À60j b=45j.
(e) h=À45j b=60j.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
(f ) h=À45j b=À60j.
(g) h=45j b=60j.
(h) h=45j b=À60j.
2. Consider an xVVV–yVVV–zVVV coordinate system, which is generated from
an x–y–z coordinate system by the following three rotations:

A rotation of about the original z-axis, which defines an intermediate
xV–yV–zV coordinate system [see Fig. 2(a)], followed by

A rotation of b about the xV-axis, which defines an intermediate xVV–
yVV–zVV coordinate system [see Fig. 2(b)], followed by

Arotation of wabout the yVV-axis, which defines the final xVVV–yVVV–zVVV
coordinate system.
Show that the xVVV–yVVV–zVVV and x–y–z coordinate systems are related by
the following direction cosines:
c
x
VVV
x
c
x
VVV
y
c
x
VVV
z
c
y
VVV
x
c
y
VVV
y
c
y
VVV
z
c
z
VVV
x
c
z
VVV
y
c
z
VVV
z
_
_
_
_
¼
coswcosh À sinwsinbsinh coswsinh þ sinwsinbcosh Àsinwcosb
Àcosbsinh cosbcosh sinb
sinwcosh þ coswsinbsinh sinwsinh À coswsinbcosh coswcosb
_
_
_
_
3. The force vector discussed in Example Problem 1 is given by:
F ¼ 1000i
ˆ
þ 200j
ˆ
þ 600k
ˆ
Using Eq. (6c), express F in a new coordinate system defined by three
successive rotations, as listed below, using the direction cosines listed
in Problem 2. In each case, compare the magnitude of the transformed
force vector to the magnitudes calculated in Example Problem 1. Solve
these problems by hand and then confirm your calculations using
program 3DROTATE.
(a) h=60j b=À45j w=25j.
(b) h=60j b=À45j w=À25j.
(c) h=60j b=45j w=À25j.
(d) h=60j b=45j w=25j.
(e) h=À60j b=À45j w=25j.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
4. Solve Example Problem 3 by hand using the following rotation
angles:
(a) h=20j b=À35j.
(b) h=À20j b=35j.
(c) h=À20j b=À35j.
Confirm your calculations using program 3DROTATE.
5. Use Eq. (12a) to obtain an expression (in expanded form) for the fol-
lowing stress component [in each case, the expanded expression will be
similar to Eq. (13)]:
(a) r
xVxV
.
(b) r
xVyV
.
(c) r
yVyV
.
(d) r
yVzV
.
(e) r
zVzV
.
6. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the stress invariants for the
stress tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example
Problem 3. (Note: this stress tensor is similar to the one considered in
Example Problem 3 except that the algebraic sign of all three normal
stresses has been reversed.):
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
¼
À50 À10 15
À10 À25 30
15 30 5
_
_
_
_
ðksiÞ
7. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the stress invariants for the
stress tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example
Problem 3. (Note: this stress tensor is similar to the one considered in
Example Problem 3 except that the algebraic sign of all three shear
stresses has been reversed.):
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
¼
50 10 À15
10 25 À30
À15 À30 À5
_
_
_
_
ðksiÞ
8. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the stress invariants for the
stress tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Problem 3. (Note: this stress tensor is similar to the one considered in
Example Problem 3 except that the algebraic sign of all stress compo-
nents has been reversed.):
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
_
_
_
_
¼
À50 10 À15
10 À25 À30
À15 À30 5
_
_
_
_
ðksiÞ
9. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the strain invariants for the
strain tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example
Problem 7. (Note: this strain tensor is similar to the one considered in
Example Problem 7 except that the algebraic sign of all shear strain
components has been reversed.):
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
1000 Am=m À500 Arad À250 Arad
À500 Arad 1500 Am=m À750 Arad
À250 Arad À750 Arad 2000 Am=m
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
10. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the strain invariants for the
strain tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example
Problem 7. (Note: this strain tensor is similar to the one considered in
Example Problem 7 except that the algebraic sign of all normal strain
components has been reversed.):
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
À1000 Am=m 500 Arad 250 Arad
500 Arad À1500 Am=m 750 Arad
250 Arad 750 Arad À2000 Am=m
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
11. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the strain invariants for the
strain tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example
Problem 7. (Note: this strain tensor is similar to the one considered in
Example Problem 7 except that the algebraic sign of all strain compo-
nents has been reversed.):
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
À1000 Am=m À500 Arad À250 Arad
À500 Arad À1500 Am=m À750 Arad
À250 Arad À750 Arad À2000 Am=m
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
REFERENCES
1. Frederick, D.; Chang, T.S. Continuum Mechanics; Scientific Publishers, Inc:
Cambridge, MA, 1972.
2. Fung, Y.C. A First Course In Continuum Mechanics; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Engle-
wood Cliffs, NJ, 1969.
3. Consult any handbook of mathematical functions and tables, for example, CRC
Basic Mathematical Tables; Shelby, S.M. The Chemical Company: Cleveland,
OH, 1970.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
3
Material Properties
In this chapter, various material properties required to predict the perform-
ance of composite structures are introduced. The chapter begins with a
general discussion of isotropic vs. anisotropic material behaviors. It will be
pointed out that most composites can be classified as either orthotropic or
transversely isotropic materials. Sections devoted to those material properties
of primary interest to structural engineers then follow. Specifically, separate
sections are presented, which describe material properties that allow an
engineer to:

Relate stress to strain

Relate temperature to strain

Relate moisture content to strain

Relate stress (or strain) to failure.
In each section, material properties will first be defined for anisotropic
materials. These general definitions will then be applied to the case of
composites (i.e., they will be specialized for the case of orthotropic or
transversely isotropic materials).
1 ANISOTROPIC VS. ISOTROPIC MATERIALS
The phrase material property refers to a measurable constant that is character-
istic of a particular material and can be used to relate two disparate quantities
117
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
of interest. Material properties that describe the ability of a material to
conduct electricity, to transmit (or reflect) visible light, to transfer heat, or to
support mechanical loading, to name but a few, have been defined. Material
properties of interest herein are those used by engineers during the design of
composite structures. Two specific examples are Young’s modulus, E and
Poisson’s ratio v. These two familiar material properties, which will be
reviewed and further discussed in Sec. 2, are used to relate the stress and
strain tensors.
The adjectives ‘‘anisotropic’’ and ‘‘isotropic’’ indicate whether a mate-
rial exhibits a single value for a given material property. More specifically, if
the properties of a material are independent of direction within the material,
then the material is said to be isotropic. Conversely, if the material properties
vary with direction within the material, then the material is said to be
anisotropic.
To clarify this statement, suppose that three test specimens are ma-
chined from a large block at three different orientations, as shown in Fig. 1.
The geometry of the three specimens is assumedtobe identical, sothat the only
difference between specimens is the original orientation of each specimen
within the ‘‘parent’’ block. Now suppose that the axial stiffness (i.e., Young’s
modulus E) is measured for each specimen. Young’s modulus measured using
specimen 1 will be denoted E
xx
(i.e., subscripts are used to indicate the original
orientation of specimen 1 within the parent block). Similarly, Young’s
modulus measured using specimens 2 and 3 will be denoted E
yy
and E
zz
,
respectively.
If the parent block consists of an isotropic material, then Young’s
modulus measured for each specimen will be identical (to within engineering
accuracies)—for isotropic materials: E
xx
= E
yy
= E
zz
.
In this case, an identical value of Young’s modulus is measured in the x-,
y-, and z-directions, and is independent of direction within the material. In
contrast, if the parent block is an anisotropic material, a different Young’s
modulus will, in general, be measured for each specimen—for anisotropic
materials: E
xx
p E
yy
p E
zz
.
In this case, the value of Young’s modulus depends on the direction
within the material the modulus is measured. For anisotropic materials, a
similar dependence on direction can occur for any material property of
interest (Poisson’s ratio, thermal expansion coefficients, ultimate strengths,
etc).
It is the microstructural features of a material that determine whether it
exhibits isotropic or anisotropic behavior. Consequently, to classify a given
material as isotropic or anisotropic, one must first define the physical scale of
interest. For example, it is well known that metals and metal alloys are made
up of individual grains, and that the atoms that exist within these grains are
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
arranged in well-defined crystalline arrays. The most common crystalline
arrays are the body-centered cubic (BCC), the face-centered cubic (FCC), or
the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure [1]. Due to the highly ordered
and symmetrical atomic structures that exist within these arrays, an individual
grain exhibits different properties in different directions, and hence is aniso-
tropic. That is to say, if material properties are defined at a physical scale on
Figure 1 Illustration of method used to determine whether a material is iso-
tropic or anisotropic.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
the order of a grain diameter or smaller, then all metals or metal alloys must be
defined as anisotropic materials.
It does not necessarily follow, however, that a metal or metal alloy will
exhibit anisotropic behavior at the structural level. This is because individual
grains are typically very small, and the orientation of the atomic crystalline
arrays usually varies randomly from one grain to the next. As a typical case, it
is not uncommon for a steel alloy to exhibit an average grain diameter of 0.044
mm (0.0017 in.), or roughly 8200 grains/mm
3
(134 Â10
6
grains/in.
3
) [1]. If the
grains are randomly oriented, which is a common case, then at the structural
level (say, at a physical scale >1 mm), the steel alloy will exhibit isotropic
properties even though the constituent grains are anisotropic. Conversely, if a
significant percentage of grains is caused to be oriented by some mechanism
(such as cold rolling, for example), then the same steel alloy will be anisotropic
at the structural level.
Polymeric composites are anisotropic at the structural level, and the
microstructural features that lead to this anisotropy are immediately ap-
parent. Specifically, it is the uniform and symmetrical orientation of the
reinforcing fibers within a ply that leads to anisotropic behavior. As a simple
example, suppose two specimens are machined from a thin unidirectional
composite plate consisting of high-strength fibers embedded within a rela-
tively flexible polymeric matrix, as shown in Fig. 2a and b. Note that the
coordinate system used to describe the plate has been labeled the 1–2–3 axes.
In this case, the 1-axis is defined to be parallel to the fibers, the 2-axis is defined
to lie within the plane of the plate and is perpendicular to the fibers, and the 3-
axis is defined to be normal to the plane of the plate. Note that fibers are
arranged symmetrically about the 1–3 and 2–3 planes. The 1–2–3 coordinate
system will henceforth be referred to as the principal material coordinate
system. Referring to Fig. 2a, specimen 1 is machined such that the fibers are
aligned with the long axis of the specimen, whereas in specimen 2, the fibers
are perpendicular to the axis of the specimen. Obviously, Young’s modulus
measured for these two specimens will be quite different. Specifically, the
modulus measured for specimen 1 will approach that of the fibers, whereas the
modulus measured for specimen 2 will approach that of the polymeric matrix.
Therefore, E
11
> >E
22
, and Young’s modulus varies with direction within the
material, satisfying the definition of an anisotropic material.
The principal material coordinate system is not always aligned with the
fiber direction, as shown in Fig. 2c and d. In this case, the thin composite plate
is formed using a braided fabric. As discussed in Sec. 4 of Chap. 1, braided
fabrics contain fibers oriented in two (or more) nonorthogonal directions. The
three principal material coordinate axes lie within planes that are symmetrical
with respect to the fiber array. As before, the 1- and 2-axes lie within the plane
of the plate, and the 3-axis is defined normal to the plane of the plate.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
One of the most unusual features of anisotropic materials is that they
can exhibit coupling between normal stresses and shear strains, as well as
coupling between shear stress and normal strains. A physical explanation of
howthis coupling occurs in the case of a unidirectional composite is presented
in Fig. 3. Aspecimen in which the unidirectional fibers are oriented at an angle
of 45j with respect to the x-axis is shown, and a small square element fromthe
gage region is isolated. Because the element is initially square and, in this
example, the fibers are defined to be at an angle of 45j, fibers are parallel to
diagonal AC of the element. In contrast, fibers are perpendicular to diagonal
BD. This implies that the element is stiffer along diagonal AC than along
diagonal BD.
Figure 2 Illustration of the principal material coordinate system for thin com-
posite laminates.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Now assume that a tensile stress is applied, causing the square element
(as well as the specimen as a whole) to deform. Because the stiffness is higher
along diagonal AC than along diagonal BD, the length of diagonal AC is
increased to a lesser extent than that of diagonal BD. Hence, the initially
square element deforms into a parallelogram, as shown in the figure. Note
that:

The length of the square element is increased in the x-direction
(corresponding to a tensile strain, e
xx
).

The length of the square element is decreased in the y-direction
(corresponding to a compressive strain e
yy
, and associated with the
Poisson effect).

BDABis no longer p/2 rad, which indicates that a shear strain c
xy
has
been induced.
Figure 3 A 45j off-axis composite specimen used to explain the origin of cou-
pling effects.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Hence, in this example, the normal stress r
xx
has induced two normal strains
(e
xx
and e
yy
) as well as a shear strain c
xy
. Hence, coupling exists between r
xx
and c
xy
, as stipulated.
The couplings between normal stresses and shear strains (as well as
couplings between shear stresses and normal strains) will be explained in a
formal mathematical sense in Chap. 4. However, two important conclusions
can be drawn from the physical explanation shown in Fig. 3. First, note that
the specimen shown is subjected to normal stress r
xx
only. In particular, note
that no shear stress exists in the x–y coordinate system (s
xy
= 0). Con-
sequently, the in-plane principal stresses applied to the specimen are r
p
1
=r
xx
and r
p
2
=r
yy
=0, and the principal stress coordinate systemis defined by the
x–y coordinate system. However, a shear strain does exist in the x–y
coordinate system (c
xy
p 0). Consequently, the x–y coordinate system is
not the principal strain coordinate system. We conclude, therefore, that the
principal stress coordinate system is not aligned with the principal strain
coordinate system. This is generally true for all anisotropic materials and is in
direct contrast to the behavior of isotropic materials because for isotropic
materials, the principal stress and principal strain coordinate systems are
always coincident.
Secondly, note that the physical argument used above to explain the
origin of the coupling effect hinges on the fact that the fiber direction differs
fromthe direction of the applied stress r
xx
. Specifically, the fibers are oriented
45j away from the direction of the applied stress r
xx
. If the fibers were aligned
with either the x- or y-axis, then a coupling between r
xx
and c
xy
would not
occur. We conclude that the unusual coupling effects exhibited by composites
only occur if stress and strain are referenced to a nonprincipal material
coordinate system.
Anisotropic materials are classified according to the number of planes of
symmetry defined by the microstructure. The principal material coordinate
axes lie within the planes of symmetry. For example, in the case of unidirec-
tional composites, three planes of symmetry can be defined: the 1–2 plane, the
1–3 plane, and the 2–3 plane. Composites fall within one of two classifications
of anisotropic behavior. Specifically, composites are either orthotropic mate-
rials or transversely isotropic materials (the distinction between orthotropic
and transversely isotropic materials will be further discussed in Sec. 2).
During the composite structural analyses discussed in this text, the composite
will be called ‘‘anisotropic’’ if the coordinate system of reference is a non-
principal material coordinate system. Use of the term ‘‘anisotropic’’ will
therefore signal the possibility of couplings between normal stresses and shear
strains, and couplings between shear stresses and normal strains. If, instead, a
structural analysis is referenced to the principal material coordinate system,
the composite will be called either orthotropic or transversely isotropic.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Although many kinds of material properties may be defined, in this text
we are only interested in those properties commonly used by structural
engineers. The properties needed to perform a structural analysis of compo-
site structures will be defined in the following sections. In each section, a
general definition of the material property will be given, suitable for use with
anisotropic materials. That is, the properties of a composite material when
referenced to a nonprincipal material coordinate systemwill be discussed first.
These general definitions will then be specialized to the principal material
coordinate system (i.e., they will be specialized for the case of orthotropic or
transversely isotropic composites).
Typical values of the properties discussed in this chapter measured at
room temperatures are listed for glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, and graphite/
epoxy in Table 3. These properties do not represent the properties of any
specific commercial composite material system, but rather should be viewed
as typical values. Due to ongoing research and development activities within
the industry, the properties of composites are improved more or less
continuously. Therefore, the properties listed in Table 3 may not reflect
those of currently available materials. The properties that appear in the table
will be used in example and homework problems throughout the remainder
of this text.
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES THAT RELATE STRESS
TO STRAIN
Both stress and strain are second-order tensors, as discussed in Chap. 2. The
material properties used to relate the stress and strain tensors are inferred
from experimental measurements. Conceptually, two different experimental
approaches may be taken. In the first approach, the material of interest is
subjected to a well-defined stress tensor, and components of the resulting
strain tensor are measured. In the second approach, the material of interest is
subjected to a well-defined strain tensor, and the components of the resulting
stress tensor are measured. Froman experimental standpoint, it is far easier to
impose a well-defined stress tensor than a well-defined strain tensor, and
hence the first approach is almost always used in practice.
Recall that there are two fundamental types of stress components:
normal stress and shear stress. As a consequence, two fundamental types of
tests are used to relate stress to strain—specifically, a test that involves the
application of a known normal stress component and a test involving
application of a known shear stress component. In either case, a stress tensor
is imposed in which five of the six stress components equal zero, and the
resulting six components of the strain tensor are measured.
Tests that involve application of a known normal stress component are
called uniaxial tests. In a typical case, a single normal stress component is
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
applied to a test specimen (say, r
xx
), while insuring that the remaining five
stress components are zero (r
yy
= r
zz
= s
xy
= s
xz
= s
yz
= 0). The six com-
ponents of strain caused by r
xx
are measured, which allows the calculation of
various material properties relating a normal stress component to the strain
tensor.
In contrast, tests that involve application of a known shear stress
component are called pure shear tests. In a typical case, a single shear stress
component is applied to a test specimen (say, s
xy
), while insuring that the
remaining five stress components are zero (r
xx
= r
yy
= r
zz
= s
xz
= s
yz
= 0).
The six components of strain caused by s
xy
are measured, which allows the
calculation of various material properties relating a shear stress component to
the strain tensor.
A detailed description of experimental methods used to impose a
specified state of stress is beyond the scope of the present discussion. It
should be mentioned, however, that some of the stress states discussed below
are very difficult to achieve in practice. For example, because composites are
usually produced in the form of thin platelike structures, it is very difficult to
impose well-defined stresses acting normal to the plane of the composite, or to
measure the strain components induced normal to the plane of the composite
by a given state of stress.
For present purposes, these very real practical difficulties will be
ignored. It will simply be assumed that the stress tensors discussed have been
induced in the test specimen, and that methods to measure the resulting strain
components involved are available. A number of international and industrial
organizations publish annual test standards that describe available exper-
imental arrangements in detail. Some of the best known standards are those
published by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM
tests standards that describe techniques to measure composite material
properties relevant to the present discussion are listed in Table 1. There are
also many composite test methods used routinely in industrial, governmental,
or university composite laboratories that have not as yet been standardized by
organizations such as the ASTM. New test methods are being developed
continuously, and the reader should be alert for new methods and test
standards as they become available.
2.1 Uniaxial Tests
Referring to Fig. 1, suppose a uniaxial test is conducted using specimen 1 (i.e.,
material properties are measured in the x-direction). As the test proceeds,
stress r
xx
is increased from zero to some maximal level, and the components
of strain induced as a result of this stress are measured. An idealized plot of
strain data collected during a uniaxial test of an anisotropic material is shown
in Fig. 4, where it is has been assumed that the magnitude of stress is relatively
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Table 1 ASTM Test Standards for Determining Elastic Moduli of
Polymeric Composites and Related Standards
Designation Title
D3039 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer
Matrix Composite Materials
D5450 Standard Test Method for Transverse Tensile Properties
of Hoop Wound Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders
D695 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of
Rigid Plastics
D3410 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of
Polymer Matrix Composite Materials with Unsupported
Gage Section by Shear Loading
D5467 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of
Unidirectional Polymer Matrix Composites Using
a Sandwich Beam
D5449 Standard Test Method for Transverse Compressive
Properties of Hoop Wound Polymer Matrix
Composite Cylinders
D3518 Standard Practice for In-Plane Shear Response
of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by Tensile
Test of a +45j Laminate
D5379 Standard Test Method for Shear Properties of
Composite Materials by the V-Notched Beam Method
D4255 Standard Guide for Testing In-Plane Shear Properties
of Composite Laminates
D5448 Standard Test Method for In-Plane Shear Properties
of Hoop Wound Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders
Related standards
D5687 Standard Guide for Preparation of Flat Composite Panels
with Processing Guidelines for Specimen Preparation
D638 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics
D882 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin
Plastic Sheeting
D4018 Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous
Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows
D2343 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Glass
Fiber Strands, Yarns, and Rovings Used in
Reinforced Plastics
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
low, such that a linear relationship exists between the stress component r
xx
and the resulting strains. Strains induced at high nonlinear stress levels,
including failure stresses, will be considered in Sec. 5. Note that for an
anisotropic material, stress r
xx
will induce all six components of strain: e
xx
,
e
yy
, e
zz
, c
xy
, c
xz
, and c
yz
. This is not the case for isotropic materials; a uniaxial
stress r
xx
applied to an isotropic material will not induce any shear strains
(c
xy
=c
xz
=c
yz
=0); furthermore, the transverse normal strains will be
identical (e
yy
=e
zz
). Hence, for anisotropic material, there is an unusual
coupling between normal stress and shear strain, which would not be expected
based on previous experience with isotropic materials.
As would be expected, as the magnitude of r
xx
is increased, the mag-
nitude of all resulting strain components is also increased. Because stress r
xx
causes six distinct components of strain for an anisotropic material, six ma-
terial properties must be defined in order to relate r
xx
to the resulting strains.
Let us first consider material properties relating normal stress r
xx
to
normal strains e
xx
, e
yy
, and e
zz
. The relationship between r
xx
and normal
strain e
xx
is characterized by Young’s modulus E
xx
(also called the ‘‘modulus
of elasticity’’):
E
xx
u
r
xx
e
xx
ð1Þ
Young’s modulus is simply the slope of the r
xx
vs. e
xx
curve shown in
Fig. 4. In words, Young’s modulus is defined as ‘‘the normal stress r
xx
divided
Figure 4 Idealized plot of the six strain components caused by the application
a uniaxial stress r
xx
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
by the resulting normal strain e
xx
, with all other stress components equal to
zero.’’ Subscripts xx have been used to indicate the direction in which
Young’s modulus has been measured. Because we have restricted our
attention to the linear region of the stress–strain curve, Eq. (1) is only valid
at relatively low, linear stress levels.
The relationship between the two transverse strains (e
yy
and e
zz
) and e
xx
is defined by Poisson’s ratio:
v
xy
u
Àe
yy
e
xx
v
xz
u
Àe
zz
e
xx
ð2Þ
In words, Poisson’s ratio v
xy
(or v
xz
) is defined as ‘‘the negative of the trans-
verse normal strain e
yy
(or e
zz
) divided by the axial normal strain e
xx
, both of
which are induced by stress r
xx
, with all other stresses equal to zero.’’
As before, subscripts have been used to indicate the uniaxial stress
condition under which Poisson’s ratio is measured. The first subscript
indicates the direction of stress, and the second subscript indicates the
direction of transverse strain. For example, in the case of v
xy
, the first
subscript x indicates that a uniaxial stress r
xx
has been applied, and the
second subscript y indicates that transverse normal strain e
yy
has been used to
calculate Poisson’s ratio.
Combining Eqs. (1) and (2), a relationship between r
xx
and transverse
strains e
yy
and e
zz
is obtained:
e
yy
¼ À
v
xy
E
xx
r
xx
e
zz
¼ À
v
xz
E
xx
r
xx
ð3Þ
Now consider material properties relating normal strain e
xx
to shear
strains c
xy
, c
xz
, and c
yz
. Material properties relating normal strains to shear
strains were discussed by Lekhnitski [2] and are called ‘‘coefficients of mutual
influence of the second kind.’’ In this text, they will be denoted using the
symbol g, and are defined as follows:
g
xx;xy
u
c
xy
e
xx
g
xx;xz
u
c
xz
e
xx
g
xx;yz
u
c
yz
e
xx
ð4Þ
In words, the coefficient of mutual influence of the second kind g
xx,xy
(or
g
xx,xz
, or g
xx,yz
) is defined as ‘‘the shear strain c
xy
(or c
xz
, or c
yz
) divided by the
normal strain e
xx
, both of which are induced by normal stress r
xx
, when all
other stresses equal zero.’’
Subscripts have once again been used to indicate the stress condition
under which the coefficient of mutual influence of the second kind is
measured. The first set of subscripts indicates the direction of stress, and
the second set of subscripts indicates the shear strain used to calculate the
coefficient. For example, in the case of g
xx,xy
, the first two subscripts xx
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
indicate that a normal stress r
xx
has been applied, and the second two
subscripts xy indicate that c
xy
has been used to calculate the coefficient.
Combining Eqs. (1) and (4), a relationship between r
xx
and shear strain
c
xy
, c
xz
, or c
yz
is obtained:
c
xy
¼
g
xx;xy
e
xx
r
xx
c
xz
¼
g
xx;xz
e
xx
r
xx
c
yz
¼
g
xx;yz
e
xx
r
xx
ð5Þ
Equations (1)–(5) define six properties measured in the x-direction,
using specimen 1. Referring again to Fig. 1, analogous results are obtained
when properties are measured in the y- and z-directions, using specimens 2
and 3:
Properties Measured Using Specimen 2 (s
yy
Applied)
E
yy
u
r
yy
e
yy
ðorÞ e
yy
¼
1
E
yy
r
yy
v
yx
u
Àe
xx
e
yy
ðorÞ e
xx
¼ À
v
yx
E
yy
r
yy
v
yz
u
Àe
zz
e
yy
ðorÞ e
zz
¼ À
v
yz
E
yy
r
yy
g
yy;xy
u
c
xy
e
yy
ðorÞ c
xy
¼
g
yy;xy
e
yy
r
yy
g
yy;xz
u
c
xz
e
yy
ðorÞ c
xz
¼
g
yy;xz
e
yy
r
yy
g
yy;yz
u
c
yz
e
yy
ðorÞ c
yz
¼
g
yy;yz
e
yy
r
yy
ð6Þ
Properties Measured Using Specimen 3 (s
zz
Applied):
E
zz
u
r
zz
e
zz
ðorÞ e
zz
¼
1
E
zz
r
zz
v
zx
u
Àe
xx
e
zz
ðorÞ e
xx
¼ À
v
zx
E
zz
r
zz
v
zy
u
Àe
yy
e
zz
ðorÞ e
yy
¼ À
v
zy
E
zz
r
zz
g
zz;xy
u
c
xy
e
zz
ðorÞ c
xy
¼
g
zz;xy
e
zz
r
zz
g
zz;xz
u
c
xz
e
zz
ðorÞ c
xz
¼
g
zz;xz
e
zz
r
zz
g
zz;yz
u
c
yz
e
zz
ðorÞ c
yz
¼
g
zz;yz
e
zz
r
zz
ð7Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2.2 Pure Shear Tests
If a pure shear stress (say, s
xy
) is applied to an anisotropic material, six
components of strain will be induced. An idealized plot of strain data
collected during a pure shear test of an anisotropic material is shown
schematically in Fig. 5, where it is assumed that magnitude of shear stress is
relatively low such that a linear relationship exists between the stress
component s
xy
and the resulting strains. Strains induced at high nonlinear
stress levels, including failure stresses, will be considered in Sec. 5. Once again,
the stress–strain response of an anisotropic material differs markedly from
that of an isotropic material. Specifically, for an anisotropic material, stress
s
xy
will induce all six components of strain: e
xx
, e
yy
, e
zz
, c
xy
, c
xz
, and c
yz
. If an
isotropic material is subjected to a pure shear stress s
xy
, only one strain
component is induced (c
xy
); all other strain components are zero (e
xx
=
e
yy
=e
zz
=c
xz
=c
yz
=0). Hence, for anisotropic material, there is an unusual
coupling between shear stress and normal strain, as well as an unusual
coupling between shear stress in one plane (say, the x–y plane) and out-of-
plane shear strains (c
xz
and c
yz
). Neither of these coupling effects occurs in
isotropic materials.
As would be expected, as the magnitude of s
xy
is increased during the
test, the magnitude of the resulting strains is also increased. Because stress s
xy
causes six distinct components of strain, six material properties must be
defined in order to relate s
xy
to the resulting strains.
Figure 5 Idealized plot of the six strain components caused by the application
a pure shear stress s
xy
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Let us first consider material properties relating shear stress s
xy
to shear
strains c
xy
,c
xz
, and c
yz
. The relationship between s
xy
and shear strain c
xy
is
characterized by the shear modulus G
xy
:
G
xy
u
s
xy
c
xy
ð8Þ
In words, the shear modulus is defined as ‘‘the shear stress s
xy
divided by
the resulting shear strain c
xy
, with all other stress components equal to zero.’’
Because we have restricted our attention to linear stress levels, Eq. (8) is only
valid at relatively low, linear shear stress levels.
The relationship between transverse strains (c
xz
, c
yz
) and c
xy
is charac-
terized by Chentsov coefficients, which will be denoted using the symbol l in
this text:
l
xy;xz
u
c
xz
c
xy
l
xy;yz
u
c
yz
c
xy
ð9Þ
In words, the Chentsov coefficient l
xy
,
xz
(or l
xy
,
yz
) is defined as ‘‘the
shear strain c
xz
(or c
yz
) divided by the shear strain c
xy
, both of which are
induced by shear stress s
xy
, with all other stresses equal to zero.’’ The first set
of subscripts indicates the stress component, and the second set of subscripts
indicates the out-of-plane shear strain used to calculate the Chentsov co-
efficient. For example, in the case of l
xy
,
xz
the subscripts xy indicate that a
pure shear stress s
xy
has been applied, and the second two subscripts xz
indicate that c
xz
has been used to calculate the coefficient.
A comparison between Eqs. (2) and (9) reveals that Chentsov coeffi-
cients are directly analogous to Poisson’s ratio. Poisson’s ratio is defined as a
ratio of normal strains caused by a normal stress, whereas Chentsov coef-
ficients are defined as a ratio of shear strains caused by a shear stress.
Combining Eqs. (8) and (9), a relationship between s
xy
and shear strain
c
xz
or c
yz
is obtained:
c
xz
¼
l
xy;xz
G
xy
s
xy
c
yz
¼
l
xy;yz
G
xy
s
xy
ð10Þ
Finally, consider material properties relating shear stress s
xy
to normal
strains e
xx
, e
yy
, and e
zz
. Material properties relating shear stress to normal
strains were discussed by Lekhnitski [2] and are called ‘‘coefficients of mutual
influence of the first kind.’’ In this text, they will be denoted using the symbol
g, and are defined as follows:
g
xy;xx
u
e
xx
c
xy
g
xy;yy
u
e
yy
c
xy
g
xy;zz
u
e
zz
c
xy
ð11Þ
In words, the coefficient of mutual influence of the first kind g
xy
,
xx
(or
g
xy
,
yy
, or g
xy
,
zz
) is defined as ‘‘the normal strain e
xx
(or e
yy
, or e
zz
) divided by
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
the shear strain c
xy
, both of which are induced by shear stress s
xy
, when all
other stresses equal zero.’’ The first set of subscripts indicates the stress
component applied, and the second set indicates the normal strain used to
calculate the coefficient. For example, in the case of g
xy
,
xx
, the first subscripts
xy indicate that shear stress s
xy
has been applied, and the second set of
subscripts xx indicates that e
xx
has been used to calculate the coefficient.
Combining Eqs. (8) and (11), a relationship between s
xy
and normal
strain e
xx
, e
yy
, or e
zz
is obtained:
e
xx
¼
g
xy;xx
G
xy
s
xy
e
yy
¼
g
xy;yy
G
xy
s
xy
e
zz
¼
g
xy;zz
G
xy
s
xy
ð12Þ
Equations (8)–(12) define six properties measured when a pure shear
stress s
xy
is applied. Analogous material properties are defined during tests in
which pure shear s
xz
or s
yz
is applied.
Properties Measured Using Pure Shear t
xz
G
xz
u
s
xz
c
xz
ðorÞ c
xz
¼
1
G
xz
s
xz
l
xz;xy
u
c
xy
c
xz
ðorÞ c
xy
¼
l
xz;xy
G
xz
s
xz
l
xz;yz
u
c
yz
c
xz
ðorÞ c
yz
¼
l
xz;yz
G
xz
s
xz
g
xz;xx
u
e
xx
c
xz
ðorÞ e
xx
¼
g
xz;xx
G
xz
s
xz
g
xz;yy
u
e
yy
c
xz
ðorÞ e
yy
¼
g
xz;yy
G
xz
s
xz
g
xz;zz
u
e
zz
c
xz
ðorÞ e
zz
¼
g
xz;zz
G
xz
s
xz
ð13Þ
Properties Measured Using Pure Shear t
yz
G
yz
u
s
yz
c
yz
ðorÞ c
yz
¼
1
G
yz
s
yz
l
yz;xy
u
c
xy
c
yz
ðorÞ c
xy
¼
l
yz;xy
G
yz
s
yz
l
yz;xz
u
c
xz
c
yz
ðorÞ c
xz
¼
l
yz;xz
G
yz
s
yz
g
yz;xx
u
e
xx
c
yz
ðorÞ e
xx
¼
g
yz;xx
G
yz
s
yz
g
yz;yy
u
e
yy
c
yz
ðorÞ e
yy
¼
g
yz;yy
G
yz
s
yz
g
yz;zz
u
e
zz
c
yz
ðorÞ e
zz
¼
g
yz;zz
G
yz
s
yz
ð14Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2.3 Specialization to Orthotropic and Transversely Isotropic
Composites
As previously shown in Fig. 2a and b, for unidirectional composites, the
principal material coordinate system is defined by the fiber direction. That is,
the 1-axis is defined parallel to the fiber direction, the 2-axis is perpendicular
to the fibers and lies within the plane of the composite, and the 3-axis is
perpendicular to the fibers and lies out of plane. In other cases, such as the
braided composite shown in Fig. 2c and d, the 1–2–3 principal material
coordinate systemis not aligned with the fiber direction, but is instead defined
by planes of symmetry associated with the fiber architecture involved. For all
composite fabrics based on continuous fibers and typically encountered in
practice (i.e., unidirectional, woven, or braided fabrics), the principal material
coordinate system is readily identified.
We will now consider those properties that are measured when the
composite is referenced to the principal material coordinate system. It will be
seen later that properties of an anisotropic composite (i.e., a composite
referenced to a nonprincipal material coordinate system) can always be
related to those measured relative to the 1–2–3 coordinate system. To simplify
our discussion, we will assume that the composite under consideration is a
unidirectional composite, and hence that the 1–2–3 axes are parallel and
perpendicular to the fibers.
A stress element representing a unidirectional composite subjected to
uniaxial tensile stress r
11
is shown in Fig. 6. The deformed shape of the
element is also shown. Note that:

The element has increased in length in the l-direction, corresponding
to a tensile strain e
11
.

The element has decreased in width in the 2- and 3-directions,
corresponding to compressive strains e
22
and e
33
, respectively.

The deformed element is a rectangular parallelepiped. That is, due to
the symmetrical distribution of fibers with respect to the 1-, 2-, and 3-
coordinate axes, in the deformed condition, all angles remained p/2
rad (90j). Hence, all shear strains equal zero (c
12
=c
13
=c
23
=0).
Applying Eqs. (1), (2), and (4), we have:
E
11
u
r
11
e
11
ð15aÞ
v
12
u
Àe
22
e
11
ð15bÞ
v
13
u
Àe
33
e
11
ð15cÞ
g
11;12
¼ g
11;13
¼ g
11;23
¼ 0 ð15dÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Because no shear strains are induced by r
11
, the coefficients of mutual
influence of the second kind all equal zero. This is only true when the
composite is referenced to the principal material coordinate system. That is,
uniaxial stress acting in a nonprincipal coordinate system will cause a shear
strain, as previously shown in Fig. 3, for example. Therefore, the coefficients
of mutual influence of the second kind do not equal zero for anisotropic
composites (i.e., if the composite is referenced to a nonprincipal material
coordinate system). Methods of calculating composite material properties in
nonprincipal coordinate systems will be presented in Chap. 4.
Similarly, material properties measured when stress r
22
is applied are:
E
22
u
r
22
e
22
ð16aÞ
v
21
u
Àe
11
e
22
ð16bÞ
v
23
u
Àe
33
e
22
ð16cÞ
g
22;12
¼ g
22;13
¼ g
22;23
¼ 0 ð16dÞ
Figure 6 Deformations induced in a unidirectional composite by uniaxial stress
r
11
(deformations are shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Once again, due to the symmetrical distribution of fibers, stress r
22
does
not induce any shear strains, so the coefficients of mutual influence of the
second kind all equal zero.
As previously mentioned, due to the thin platelike nature of composites,
it is difficult in practice to apply a well-defined out-of-plane uniaxial stress r
33
,
or to measure the resulting normal strain induced in the out-of-plane direction
e
33
. Assuming that these practical difficulties are overcome, the material
properties measured when stress r
33
is applied are:
E
33
u
r
33
e
33
ð17aÞ
v
31
u
Àe
11
e
33
ð17bÞ
v
32
u
Àe
22
e
33
ð17cÞ
g
33;12
¼ g
33;13
¼ g
33;23
¼ 0 ð17dÞ
For unidirectional composites, both the 2- and 3-axes are defined to be
perpendicular to the fibers, and hence properties measured in the 2- and 3-
directions are typically similar in magnitude. In fact, if the distribution of
fibers in the 2- and 3-directions is identical at the microlevel, then properties
measured in these directions will be equal: E
22
=E
33
, v
12
=v
13
, v
21
=v
31
, and
v
23
= v
32
. If this occurs, then the composite is classified as a transversely
isotropic material. In contrast, if the distribution of fibers differs in the 2- and
3-directions, or if the composite under consideration is a woven or braided
composite, then properties measured in the 2- and 3-directions will not be
identical and the composite is classified as an orthotropic material.
Optical micrographs showing the fiber distribution in the 2–3 plane for a
unidirectional graphite–polyimide laminate are shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 7a was
taken at a magnification of 150Â, and shows the fiber distribution in four
adjacent plies. The fiber angles are (from left to right) 0j, 45j, 90j, and À45j.
Fig. 7b was obtained for the same laminate but at higher magnification
(300Â), and shows fiber angles (from left to right) of 0j, 45j, and 90j. As
indicated, for this laminate, thin resin-rich zone exists between plies. The
thickness of the resin-rich zone varies from one laminate to the next, depend-
ing on the material system, stacking sequence, and processing conditions used
to produce the laminate. If the resin-rich zone is very thin (say, less than about
1/10 the ply thickness) and if the fibers are uniformly distributed within the
interior of each ply, the composite will respond as a transversely isotropic
material. If these conditions do not exist (if the thickness of the resin-rich zone
is an appreciable fraction of the ply thickness, or if the distribution of fibers in
the 2- and 3-directions differs substantially), then E
33
will differ from E
22
, and
the composite will respond as an orthotropic material.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Let us now consider properties measured through the application of a
pure shear stress in the principal material coordinate system. A stress element
representing a unidirectional composite subjected to a pure shear stress s
12
is
shown in Fig. 8. The deformed shape of the element is also shown. Note that:

The angle originally defined by the 1–2 axes has decreased, cor-
responding to a positive shear strain c
12
.
Figure 7 Optical micrographs of fibers within several plies of a [0/45/90/
À45]
2s
graphite–polyimide (IM7/K3B) composite laminate. Note the resin-rich
zone between plies.
Figure 8 Deformations induced in a unidirectional composite by pure shear
stress s
12
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Due to the symmetrical distribution of fibers with respect to the 1-, 2-,
and 3-coordinate axes, in the deformed condition, all remaining
angles remained p/2 rad (90j). Hence, the remaining two shear
strains equal zero (c
13
= c
23
= 0).

The length, width, and thickness of the element have not changed;
hence, all normal strain are zero (e
11
= e
22
= e
33
= 0).
Applying Eqs. (8)–(10), we have:
G
12
u
s
12
c
12
ð18aÞ
l
12;13
¼ l
12;23
¼ 0 ð18bÞ
g
12;11
¼ g
12;22
¼ g
12;33
¼ 0 ð18cÞ
Because only c
12
is induced by s
12
, the Chentsov coefficients as well as
the coefficients of mutual influence of the first kind are all equal to zero. This is
only true when the composite is referenced to the principal material coor-
dinate system. That is, a shear stress acting in a nonprincipal material
coordinate system will, in general, cause both normal strains and shear
strains. Therefore, neither the Chentsov coefficients nor the coefficients of
mutual influence of the first kind equal zero if the composite is referenced to a
nonprincipal material coordinate system. Methods of calculating composite
material properties in nonprincipal coordinate systems will be presented in
Chap. 4.
Once again, due to the thin platelike nature of composites, in practice, it
is difficult to apply well-defined out-of-plane shear stress s
13
or s
23
, or to
measure the resulting shear strains induced in the out-of-plane direction c
13
or
c
23
. Assuming that these practical difficulties were overcome, the material
properties measured when stress s
13
is applied are:
G
13
u
s
13
c
13
ð19aÞ
l
13;12
¼ l
13;23
¼ 0 ð19bÞ
g
13;11
¼ g
13;22
¼ g
13;33
¼ 0 ð19cÞ
If the fibers are not uniformly distributed within the 2–3 plane, or if the
composite is based on woven or braided fabrics, then the composite will
behave as an orthotropic material and G
12
p G
13
. If the composite is based on
a unidirectional fabric and fibers are uniformly distributed, then the compo-
site is transversely isotropic and G
12
= G
13
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Following an analogous process, material properties measured when s
23
is applied are:
G
23
u
s
23
c
23
ð20aÞ
l
23;12
¼ l
23;23
¼ 0 ð20bÞ
g
23;11
¼ g
23;22
¼ g
23;33
¼ 0 ð20cÞ
A total of 12 material properties have been defined above for ortho-
tropic or transversely isotropic composites: three Young’s moduli (E
11
, E
22
,
and E
33
), six Poisson’s ratios (v
12
, v
13
, v
21
, v
23
, v
31
, and v
32
), and three shear
moduli ( G
12
, G
13
, and G
23
). However, it will be seen later that for orthotropic
composites, only nine of these 12 properties are independent, and for trans-
versely isotropic composites, only five of the 12 properties are independent.
Therefore, only nine material properties must be measured to fully character-
ize the elastic response of orthotropic composites; for transversely isotropic
composites, only five material properties must be measured.
The number of material properties required in most practical engineer-
ing applications of composite is reduced further still. For reasons that will be
explained later, it is usually appropriate to assume that a composite structure
is subjected to a state of plane stress. Ultimately, this means that we only
require material properties in one plane. Hence, whereas an orthotropic
composite possesses nine distinct elastic material properties (and a trans-
versely isotropic composite possesses five), in practice, only four of these
properties are ordinarily required: E
11
, E
22
, v
12
, and G
12
. Most of the ASTM
test standards listed in Table 1 describe techniques used to measure these
properties. Also, a brief summary of common experimental methods used to
measure in-plane properties is provided in Appendix B. Typical values for
several composite material systems are listed in Table 3.
As a final comment, an often overlooked fact is that the elastic proper-
ties of composites usually differ in tension and compression (in fact, this is true
for many materials, not just for composites). For example, for polymeric
composites, it is not uncommon for E
22
measured in tension to differ by 10–
15% from that measured in compression. Materials that exhibit this behavior
are called ‘‘bimodulus materials.’’ Although it is possible to account for these
differences during a structural analysis (e.g., see Ref. 3), the bimodulus
phenomenon is a significant complication and will not be accounted for
herein. Throughout this text, it will be assumed that in-plane elastic properties
E
11
, E
22
, v
12
, and G
12
are identical in tension and compression. The reader
should be aware that these differences usually exist, however. If in practice the
measured response of a composite structure differs from the predicted
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
behavior, the discrepancy may well be due to differences in elastic properties
in tension vs. compression.
3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES RELATING TEMPERATURE
TO STRAIN
If an unconstrained anisotropic composite is subjected to a uniform change
in temperature DT, six components of strain will be induced: e
xx
T
, e
yy
T
, e
zz
T
,
c
xy
T
, c
xz
T
, and c
yz
T
. The superscript ‘‘T’’ has been used to indicate that these
strains are caused solely by a change in temperature. Note that three of these
strains are shear strains; for anisotropic materials, a change in temperature
will, in general, cause shear strains to develop. Strains induced solely by a
change in temperature are referred to as ‘‘free thermal strains’’ or simply
‘‘thermal strains.’’ Properties that relate strains to temperature change are
called coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs).
As previously discussed, it is the microstructural features of a material
that determine whether it exhibits isotropic or anisotropic behavior. The
contention that a change in temperature will induce shear strains may seem
unusual (because isotropic materials do not exhibit such behavior), but can be
easily explained in the case of unidirectional composites. An initially square
unidirectional composite is shown in Fig. 9, where it has been assumed that
the fibers are oriented at an angle of 45j with respect to the x-axis. Because the
composite is initially square and, in this example, the fibers are defined to be at
an angle of 45j, fibers are parallel to diagonal AC and are perpendicular to
diagonal BD. Now, the coefficient of thermal expansion exhibited by high-
performance fibers is typically very low(or even slightly negative), whereas for
Figure 9 Deformations caused in a 45j unidirectional composite by a uniform
change in temperature DT (deformations are shown greatly exaggerated for
clarity).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
most polymers, it is relatively high. For example, the coefficient of thermal
expansion of graphite fibers is about À1 Am/mjC, whereas for epoxies, it is on
the order of 30 Am/m jC. Therefore, assuming that the composite shown in
Fig. 9 consists of a graphite/epoxy system, then an increase in temperature
will cause a slight decrease in the length of diagonal AC, but will cause a
relatively large increase in the length of diagonal BD. Hence, the initially
square composite deforms into a parallelogram, as shown in the figure. The
fact that angle BDABhas increased reveals that a shear strain c
xy
(in this case,
a negative shear strain c
xy
) has been induced by the change in temperature DT.
Hence, there is a coupling between the change in temperature and shear
strains, as stipulated. Note that this physical explanation of the coupling
between a uniform change in temperature and shear strain indicates that this
coupling only occurs if strain is referenced to a nonprincipal material co-
ordinate system.
An idealized plot of the six strain components induced in an anisotropic
composite by a change in temperature is shown in Fig. 10. As would be
Figure 10 Idealized plot of the six strain components caused by a change in
temperature DT.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
expected, as DT is increased, the magnitude of all strain components also
increases. For modest changes in temperature (say, DT<200 jC), the change
in temperature is linearly related to the resulting thermal strain components.
That is, the slopes of the six strain vs. DT curves shown in Fig. 10 are constant
at relatively low levels of DT. At high levels of DT, the slopes of the curves
typically increase. For polymeric composites, the temperature at which the
curves become nonlinear is related to the glass transition temperature T
g
of
the polymeric matrix (the glass transition temperature of a polymer is
discussed in Sec. 2 of Chap. 1). Most composite structures are designed to
operate at temperatures below the T
g
; hence, we will focus our attention on
the linear range shown in Fig. 10.
Because a change in temperature causes six strains to develop for
anisotropic composites, six coefficients of thermal expansion must be defined:
a
xx
u
e
T
xx
DT
a
yy
u
e
T
yy
DT
a
zz
u
e
T
zz
DT
a
xy
u
c
T
xy
DT
a
xz
u
c
T
xz
DT
a
yz
u
c
T
yz
DT
ð21Þ
Because we have limited our discussion to the linear range shown in Fig.
10, the coefficients of thermal expansion defined by Eq. (21) equal the slopes
of the corresponding strain vs. DT curves within the linear range. These
properties will henceforth be called linear coefficients of thermal expansion. In
SI units, they are usually reported in terms of Am/m jC or Arad/jC (for
normal or shear strains, respectively). In English units, they are usually
reported in terms of Ain./in. jF or Arad/jF. A CTE can be converted from
SI units to English units by multiplying by the factor 5/9. For example, a CTE
of 15 Am/m jC equals 8.3 Ain./in. jF.
Equation (21) can be easily rearranged and written in matrix form as
follows:
e
T
xx
c
T
xy
c
T
xz
c
T
yx
e
T
yy
c
T
yz
c
T
zx
c
T
zy
e
T
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼ ðDTÞ
a
xx
a
xy
a
xz
a
xy
a
yy
a
yz
a
xz
a
yz
a
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð22Þ
The reader should note that the strains caused by a change in temper-
ature can be transformed from one coordinate system to another, in exactly
the same way that mechanically induced strains are transformed. In partic-
ular, any of the strain transformation equations reviewed in Chap. 2 (e.g., Eq.
(36), Eq. (41), Eq. (43), Eq. (44), or Eq. (47)) can be used to transform
thermally induced strains from one coordinate system to another.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
3.1 Specialization to Orthotropic and Transversely Isotropic
Composites
We will now apply these general definitions to the case of a unidirectional
composite referenced to the principal material coordinate system. It will be
seen later that CTEs of an anisotropic composite (i.e., a composite referenced
to a nonprincipal material coordinate system) can always be related to those
measured in the 1–2–3 coordinate system. Although unidirectional compo-
sites are used in the following discussion, a equivalent discussion applies to
woven or braided composites, when referenced to the principal material
coordinate system.
A unidirectional composite subjected to a uniform change in temper-
ature DT and referenced to the 1–2–3 coordinate system is shown in Fig. 11.
Because the fibers are distributed symmetrically with respect to the 1 - , 2-, and
3-coordinate axes, a change in temperature does not cause a shear strain to
develop. Hence, in the principal material coordinate system, Eq. (21)
becomes:
a
11
¼
e
T
11
DT
a
22
¼
e
T
22
DT
a
33
¼
e
T
33
DT
a
12
¼ a
13
¼ a
23
¼ 0 ð23Þ
As before, if the fibers are distributed uniformly throughout the 2–3
plane, then a
22
=a
33
and the composite will be transversely isotropic. If the
fibers are not uniformly distributed, then a
22
pa
33
, and the composite will be
orthotropic. Woven or braided composites are always orthotropic because
Figure 11 Deformations induced in a unidirectional composite by a change in
temperature DT (deformations are shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
the distribution of fibers in the 2-direction differs substantially from that in
the 3-direction.
Experimental methods of measuring thermal expansion coefficients for
polymeric composites have not been standardized by organizations such as
the ASTM. In practice, the in-plane thermal expansion coefficients exhibited
by polymeric composites are most commonly determined through the use of
resistance foil strain gages. Strain gage manufacturers often provide recom-
mendations for measuring thermal expansion coefficients using strain gages
(e.g., see Ref. 4). Typical CTEs for several common polymeric composites are
included in Table 3.
4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES RELATING MOISTURE
CONTENT TO STRAIN
It is possible for water molecules to diffuse into (or out of ) the overall
molecular structure of polymeric materials. In other words, the moisture
content of polymeric-based materials, including composites, slowly varies as
the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere varies. The moisture
content of a polymer is usually expressed as a percentage by weight, and
typically ranges from
f
0% to as high as
f
5%.
From a structural point of view, the effects of a change in moisture
content are analogous to those caused by a change in temperature. For
example, a plot of strains as a function of moisture content would resemble
Fig. 10, except that DMwould be plotted along the horizontal axis rather than
DT. Hence, if an unconstrained anisotropic composite is subjected to a
uniform change in moisture content DM, then six components of strain will
be induced: e
xx
M
, e
yy
M
, e
zz
M
, c
xy
M
, c
xz
M
, and c
yz
M
. The superscript ‘‘M’’ has been
used to indicate that these strains are caused solely by a change in moisture
content. Strains induced by a change in moisture content are sometimes
referred to as hygroscopic strains, and can be just as large as or larger than
those associated with a change in temperature.
In this text, it will be assumed that strain is linearly related to changes in
moisture content. Properties that relate strains to changes in moisture content
will be called linear coefficients of moisture expansion, abbreviated as
‘‘CMEs,’’ and will be denoted using the symbol b. Because a change in
moisture content causes six strains to develop for anisotropic composites, six
CMEs must be defined:
b
xx
u
e
M
xx
DM
b
yy
u
e
M
yy
DM
b
zz
u
e
M
zz
DM
b
xy
u
c
M
xy
DM
b
xz
u
c
M
xz
DM
b
yz
u
c
M
yz
DM
ð24Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The units of the CMEs are typically Am/m/%M or Arad/%M. Equa-
tion (24) can be easily rearranged and written in matrix form as follows:
e
M
xx
c
M
xy
c
M
xz
c
M
yx
e
M
yy
c
M
yz
c
M
zx
c
M
zy
e
M
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼ ðDMÞ
b
xx
b
xy
b
xz
b
xy
b
yy
b
yz
b
xz
b
yz
b
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð25Þ
A comparison between Eqs. (24) and (21), or between Eqs. (25) and (23)
will reinforce the fact that strains induced by a change in moisture content are
analogous (in a mathematical sense) to those caused by a change in temper-
ature.
4.1 Specialization to Orthotropic and Transversely
Isotropic Composites
In the principal material coordinate system, there is no coupling between a
change in moisture content and shear strains. Hence, in the principal material
coordinate system, Eq. (24) becomes:
b
11
u
e
M
11
DM
b
22
u
e
M
22
DM
b
33
u
e
M
33
DM
b
12
¼ b
13
¼ b
23
¼ 0
ð26Þ
If the composite is based on a unidirectional fabric and fibers are
distributed uniformly throughout the 2–3 plane, then b
22
=b
33
and the
composite will be transversely isotropic. If the fibers are not uniformly
distributed, or if the composite is based on woven or braided fabrics, then
b
22
p b
33
and the composite will be orthotropic. Recommended experimental
methods of measuring linear coefficients of moisture expansion are described
in the ASTM standard D5229 [5]. Typical CMEs for several common
polymeric composites are included in Table 3.
5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES RELATING STRESS (OR STRAIN)
TO FAILURE
Material properties that relate stress or strain to failure are measured during
either a uniaxial test or a pure shear test. These properties are referred to
collectively as material strengths. Before we begin our discussion of material
strengths for composite materials, let us briefly review the definitions of
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
material strengths customarily used by engineers to report the failure
response of conventional structural materials such as metals or metal alloys.
Three idealized plots of the axial strain e
xx
measured during a uniaxial
test are shown in Fig. 12a–c. These figures are similar to Fig. 4, except that
now: (a) only one of the strain components caused by r
xx
has been plotted
(specifically, only e
xx
has been plotted), and (b) data have been included at
high nonlinear stress levels, up to and including the stress level at which the
specimen fractures into two (or more) pieces. Materials that exhibit a stress–
strain response similar to Fig. 12a are called brittle materials. As indicated,
for a brittle material, the stress–strain curve is nearly linear at all stress levels,
up to and including the final fracture stress. In fact, a perfectly brittle material
exhibits no nonlinear behavior at all; stress is linearly related to strain at all
levels, up to final fracture. In contrast, Fig. 12b and c shows the stress–strain
behavior for ductile materials. The characteristic feature that distinguishes
the two material types is that a ductile material exhibits a far larger region of
nonlinear behavior prior to failure than does a brittle material. A second
distinction is that the maximum strain a ductile material can withstand prior
Figure 12 Idealized plots of the axial strain q
xx
caused by application of a tensile
uniaxial stress j
xx
. (a) Stress-strain plot for a brittle material. (b) Stress-strain plot
for a modestly ductile material. (c) Stress-strain plot for a highly ductile material.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 12 Continued.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
to final fracture is (in general) far higher than that of a brittle material. The
toughness of a material is defined as the area under the entire stress–strain
curve. Hence, brittle materials typically possess a low toughness when
compared with ductile materials.
Four common measures of material strengths (illustrated in Fig. 12c) in
terms of stress are the proportional limit r
p
the percent offset yield strength r
y
,
the ultimate strength r
u
, and the fracture strength r
f
. Although the axial strain
that corresponds to each of these stress levels can also be defined as a measure
of strength, typically only the percent offset yield strain e
y
and the fracture
strain e
f
are customarily used in this fashion. Many materials exhibit distinctly
different strengths in tension vs. compression. Hence, in this text, a super-
script ‘‘T’’ or ‘‘C’’ will be used to indicate whether a given strength has been
measured in tension or compression, respectively. For example, because Fig.
12 represents stress–strain curves measured in tension, the superscript asso-
ciated with all measures of strength that appear in these figures includes the
character ‘‘T.’’
The proportional limit r
pT
xx
is defined as the maximum stress level at
which stress is linearly related to strain. However, for many materials, the
deviation from linearity is so gradual that it is difficult to precisely identify
the proportional limit based on experimental measurements. In these cases,
the stress level at which significant nonlinear behavior begins is defined based
on the ‘‘offset method.’’ A line parallel to the initial (linear) region of the
stress–stain curve is drawn on the stress–strain curve, but is offset along the
strain axis by some standard amount. The stress level at which this offset line
intersects the experimental stress–strain curve is defined as the percent offset
yield strength r
yT
xx
. A strain offset of either 0.001 or 0.002 m/m (0.1% or 0.2%
strain, respectively) is most commonly used, and hence yield strengths
measured in this manner are reported as the 0.1% offset yield strength or
the 0.2% offset yield strength, respectively. The ultimate strength r
uT
xx
is
defined as the maximum stress the material can withstand. The fracture stress
r
fT
xx
is defined as the stress that exists at final fracture.
Note from Fig. 12 that a given material may not exhibit all four types of
material strength. For example, for modestly ductile materials (Fig. 12b),
fracture usually occurs at the maximum stress level, and hence for this type of
material, there is no distinction between the ultimate strength and the fracture
strength. For brittle materials (Fig. 12a), there may be little or no nonlinear
behavior prior to fracture, and hence a yield strength is not defined and only
the fracture strength (or ultimate strength) would be reported.
All of the above definitions may be applied to the data collected during a
pure shear test as well. An idealized plot of the shear strain c
xy
measured
during a pure shear test of a modestly ductile material is shown in Fig. 13. This
figure is similar to Fig. 5, except that now: (a) only one of the strain
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
components (c
xy
) caused by s
xy
has been plotted, and (b) data have been
included at high nonlinear stress levels, including the shear stress level at
which the specimen fractures into two (or more) pieces.
Because anisotropic materials may exhibit different strengths in differ-
ent directions, strength must be measured in three orthogonal directions; the
x-, y-, and z-directions. It is possible for anisotropic materials, including many
composites, to exhibit brittle behavior in one direction (say, the x-direction)
but ductile behavior in other directions (the y-direction and/or z-direction).
5.1 Specialization to Unidirectional Composites
Strengths measured for composites are referenced to the principal material 1–
2–3 coordinate system. In the case of unidirectional composites, strengths are
measured parallel to the fibers (i.e., parallel to the 1-axis) and transverse to the
fibers (parallel to the 2- and 3-axes). As would be anticipated, the strength of a
composite in the 1-direction is determined primarily by the strength of the
Figure 13 Idealized plot of the shear strain c
xy
caused by application of pure
shear stress s
xy
, including the shear fracture stress and strains s
xy
fP
and c
xy
fP
, and
the shear yield stress and strain s
xy
yP
and c
xy
yP
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
fibers, whereas strengths in the 2- and 3-directions are determined primarily
by the strength of the matrix. Most fibers used in polymeric composites, such
as graphite or glass fibers, are nearly perfectly brittle materials. Therefore,
most unidirectional polymeric composites exhibit a brittle failure response in
the 1-direction. Prior to about 1980, most commercially available polymeric
composites were based on relatively brittle thermoset matrices such as
epoxies. Consequently, composite material systems available prior to about
1980 exhibited a brittle response in the 2- and 3-directions as well, and
exhibited a low overall toughness.
Substantial research efforts to develop tougher composite material
systems were conducted throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and new-generation
composite material systems with substantially increased toughness are now
commercially available. This increase in toughness was accomplished pri-
marily by replacing the brittle polymeric matrices with tougher (i.e., more
ductile) polymers or polymer blends. Two approaches were used. In the first
approach, the toughness of inherently brittle thermosets (such as epoxies) was
increased through the addition of a second ductile rubber phase. This resulted
in a class of toughened matrices called ‘‘rubber-toughened’’ epoxies. The
second approach was to replace the inherently brittle thermoset matrix with a
more ductile thermoplastic polymer.* Examples of this latter approach
include the use polyketone, polyamide, or polyimide polymers as matrix
materials. From a purely structural standpoint, the net result of these
developments is that most new composite material systems exhibit a ‘‘mod-
estly ductile’’ response to failure in the 2- and 3-directions, qualitatively
similar to Fig. 12b. Consequently, new-generation composites exhibit a
much-improved toughness relative to older systems.
Methods to characterize the strengths of composite for purposes of
structural design have not been widely standardized within the composites
industry. Therefore, in this text, composite strengths will be described
using terminology similar to that traditionally used with metals and metal
alloys.
A r
11
vs. e
11
curve measured for most unidirectional polymeric compo-
sites resembles Fig. 12a. That is, in the fiber direction, unidirectional compo-
sites exhibit nearly perfectly brittle behavior, although very modest nonlinear
behavior may begin to occur at stress levels approaching final fracture. Due to
the limited nonlinear response, it is not appropriate to define a yield stress in
the 1-direction. Throughout this text, it will be assumed that a uniaxial stress
in the fiber direction r
11
causes failure due to fracture. That is, at failure, the
* The difference between a thermoset and a thermoplastic polymer is discussed in Sec. 2.4 of
Chap. 1.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
specimen breaks into two or more pieces. The stress that causes fracture is
denoted r
11
fT
or r
11
fC
, depending on whether r
11
is tensile or compressive,
respectively. Similarly, the strain at failure is denoted e
11
fT
or e
22
fC
. Because very
little nonlinear behavior occurs prior to failure, it is possible to relate the
fracture stress and strain using Young’s modulus. That is, for most compo-
sites, the measured fracture stress and measured fracture strain in the 1-
direction may be related (to within engineering accuracies) using Young’s
modulus:
r
fT
11
iðE
11
Þðe
fT
11
Þ r
fC
11
iðE
11
Þðe
fC
11
Þ
On the other hand, for most modern unidirectional polymeric compo-
sites, both the r
22
vs. e
22
and the r
33
vs. e
33
curves resemble Fig. 12b. That is,
the response measured in the 2- and 3-directions is usually ‘‘modestly
ductile.’’ In this case then, ‘‘failure’’ may be defined either on the basis of a
tensile yield stress/strain (i.e., on the basis of yielding), or a tensile fracture
stress/strain (i.e., on the basis of fracture).
In this text, the stress and strain values present at the onset of yielding
will be denoted (r
yT
22
; e
yT
22
; r
yT
33
; e
yT
33
Þ or ðr
yC
22
; e
yC
22
; r
yC
33
; e
yC
33
Þ; where the superscript
‘‘T’’ or ‘‘C’’ has once again been used to indicate whether the yield stress/
strain is measured in tension or compression, respectively. Note that it is
possible to relate the tensile yield stress and strain (to within engineering
accuracy) using Young’s modulus:
r
yT
22
iðE
22
Þðe
yT
22
Þ r
yC
22
iðE
22
Þðe
yC
22
Þ
r
yT
33
iðE
33
Þðe
yT
33
Þ r
yC
33
iðE
33
Þðe
yC
33
Þ
The stress and strain values present at fracture are denoted (r
22
fT
, e
22
fT
,
r
33
fT
, e
33
fT
) or ðr
fC
22
; e
fC
22
; r
fC
33
; e
fC
33
Þ: Because most modern composites exhibit a
modestly ductile response in the 2- and 3-directions, the fracture stress is less
than the value that would be calculated using a failure strain and Young’s
modulus:
r
fT
22
< ðE
22
Þðe
fT
22
Þ r
fC
22
< ðE
22
Þðe
fC
22
Þ
r
fT
33
< ðE
33
Þðe
fT
33
Þ r
fC
33
< ðE
33
Þðe
fC
33
Þ
Shear stress–strain curves (i.e., a plot of s
12
vs. c
12
, s
13
vs. c
13
, or s
23
vs.
c
23
) for unidirectional composites typically exhibit a shape somewhere
between Fig. 12b and c. That is, the shear response is usually more ductile
than that measured for normal stress in the 2-direction, and in some cases may
be considered to be ‘‘highly ductile.’’ In the principal material coordinate
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
system (e.g., in the 1–2 coordinate system), the shear response is insensitive to
the algebraic sign of the shear stress. That is, in the 1–2 coordinate system, an
identical s
12
vs. c
12
curve will be measured regardless of whether s
12
is positive
or negative.* As before, a ‘‘shear failure’’ may be defined on the basis of a
yield shear stress/strain or a shear fracture stress/strain, depending on
application. In this text, the shear stress and strain at yielding will be denoted
s
12
y
and c
12
y
(or s
13
y
and c
13
y
, or s
23
y
and c
23
y
), whereas the shear stress and strain at
fracture will be denoted s
12
f
and c
12
f
(or s
13
f
and c
13
f
, or s
23
f
and c
23
f
). As before,
the yield shear stress/strain may be related using the shear modulus, but the
shear fracture stress/strain may not:
s
y
12
iðG
12
Þðc
y
12
Þ s
y
13
iðG
13
Þðc
y
13
Þ s
y
23
iðG
23
Þðc
y
23
Þ
s
f
12
< G
12
ð Þðc
f
12
Þ s
f
13
< ðG
13
Þðc
f
13
Þ s
f
23
< ðG
23
Þðc
f
23
Þ
The preceding discussion is for orthotropic composites. Following the
discussion presented in Sec. 2, if the composite is transversely isotropic, then
the following strengths are related as indicated:
r
yT
22
¼ r
yT
33
r
yC
22
¼ r
yC
33
r
fT
22
¼ r
fT
33
r
fC
22
¼ r
fC
33
s
y
12
¼ s
y
13
s
f
12
¼ s
f
13
Recommended methods of measuring in-plane composite strengths are
included in most of the ASTM test standards previously listed in Table 1.
Additional ASTM testing standards related specifically to failure of poly-
meric composites are listed in Table 2. Due to the thin platelike nature of
composites, it is difficult to apply well-defined out-of-plane stresses, or to
measure the resulting out-of-plane strains. Hence, in practice, the yield and
fracture stresses associated with the out-of-plane 3-direction are measured
infrequently. Typical yield and fracture strengths measured in the 1–2 plane
for three common polymeric composites at roomtemperatures are included in
Table 3. These properties do not represent the properties of any specific
commercial composite material system, but rather should be viewed as typical
values. In fact, due to ongoing research and development activities, the failure
* However, in a general nonprincipal material coordinate system, the shear strength is sensitive
to the algebraic sign of the shear stress. This important point will be further discussed in Secs. 5
and 6 of Chap. 5.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
strengths of composites are improved more or less continuously. Therefore,
the properties shown in Table 3 may not reflect those of currently available
materials.
Note that the failure strengths listed in Table 3 represent values
measured at room temperatures. This will become an important factor in
later chapters. In particular, in Chap. 7, we will consider methods of
predicting failure of general composite laminates with multiple fiber angles.
As will be seen, failure predictions for a multiangle composite laminate
depend (in part) on the difference between the temperature at which the
laminate is consolidated (this temperature is called the ‘‘cure temperature’’
throughout this text) and the ‘‘service temperature’’ at which the failure
prediction is desired. For example, if a composite laminate is cured at a
temperature of 175jC and then cooled to room temperature (20jC), the
laminate has experienced a temperature change of À155jC during cooldown.
Failure predictions for the laminate are then based on the temperature
difference of À155jC, and on failure strengths measured at room temper-
ature. If, instead, a composite is cured at 175jC and then cooled to some
other service temperature, say, 100jC, then the laminate has experienced a
temperature change of À75jC and failure predictions for the laminate are
based on failure strengths measured at 100jC.
It is pertinent to point out that the matrix-dominated tensile strengths
exhibited by polymeric composites are often lower than the failure strength
of the polymeric matrix alone. For example, the tensile strength of a
Table 2 ASTM Test Standards Related to Failure of Polymeric Composites
(see also Table 1)
Designation Title
D3479 Standard Test Method for Tension–Tension Fatigue of Polymer
Matrix Composite Materials
D5766 Standard Test Method for Open Hole Tensile Strength of
Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
D2344 Standard Test Method for Apparent Interlaminar Shear Strength
of Parallel Fiber Composites by Short-Beam Method
D5528 Standard Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture
Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites
E1922 Standard Test Method for Translaminar Fracture Toughness of
Laminated Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
D2290 Standard Test Method for Apparent Tensile Strength of Ring or
Tubular Plastics and Reinforced Plastics by Split Disk Method
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
nonreinforced bulk epoxy is commonly about 70 MPa (10 ksi), whereas from
Table 3, we see that graphite–epoxy typically possesses a matrix-dominated
tensile strength on the order of 50 MPa (7.25 ksi). Even more pronounced is
the reduction in tensile strain at fracture: for a nonreinforced bulk epoxy, the
tensile strain at fracture commonly ranges from about 1% to 5% (10,000–
50,000 Am/m), whereas for graphite–epoxy, the matrix-dominated tensile
strain at fracture (e
22
fT
) rarely exceeds about 0.7% (7000 Am/m). The relatively
low matrix-dominated strengths exhibited by polymeric composites can be
explained on the basis of micromechanics analyses [6–9]. Briefly, two factors
lead to low matrix-dominated tensile strengths. The first is thermal stresses
induced at the microlevel during cooldown from cure temperatures. Recall
that the thermal expansion coefficient of most high-performance fibers is very
low and, in fact, is often slightly negative. For example, thermal expansion
coefficients of glass, Kevlar, and graphite fibers are about 5, À2, and À0.5
Am/m jC, respectively (see Sec. 3 of Chap. 1). In contrast, the thermal ex-
pansion coefficient of polymers is quite high and usually exceeds 30 Am/m jC.
Consequently, during cooldown from cure temperatures, the matrix is re-
strained from thermal contraction by the fibers, leading to self-equilibrating
Table 3 Nominal Material Properties for Common Unidirectional Composites
Property Glass/epoxy Kevlar/epoxy Graphite/epoxy
E
11
55 GPa (8.0 Msi) 100 GPa (15 Msi) 170 GPa (25 Msi)
E
22
16 GPa (2.3 Msi) 6 GPa (0.90 Msi) 10 GPa (1.5 Msi)
v
12
0.28 0.33 0.30
G
12
7.6 GPa (1.1 Msi) 2.1 GPa (0.30 Msi) 13 GPa (1.9 Msi)
r
11
fT
1050 MPa (150 ksi) 1380 MPa (200 ksi) 1500 MPa (218 ksi)
r
11
fC
690 MPa (100 ksi) 280 MPa (40 ksi) 1200 MPa (175 ksi)
r
22
yT
45 MPa (5.8 ksi) 35 MPa (2.9 ksi) 50 MPa (7.25 ksi)
r
22
yC
120 MPa (16 ksi) 105 MPa (15 ksi) 100 MPa (14.5 ksi)
r
22
fT
55 MPa (7.0 ksi) 45 MPa (4.3 ksi) 70 MPa (10 ksi)
r
22
fC
140 MPa (20 ksi) 140 Msi (20 ksi) 130 MPa (18.8 ksi)
s
12
y
40 MPa (4.4 ksi) 40 MPa (4.0 ksi) 75 MPa (10.9 ksi)
s
12
f
70 MPa (10 ksi) 60 MPa (9 ksi) 130 MPa (22 ksi)
a
11
6.7 Am/m jC
(3.7 Ain./in. jF)
À3.6 Am/m jC
(À2.0 Ain./in. jF)
À0.9 Am/m jC
(À0.5 Ain./in. jF)
a
22
25 Am/m jC
(14 Ain./in. jF)
58 Am/m jC
(32 Ain./in. jF)
27 Am/m jC
(15 Ain./in. jF)
b
11
100 Am/m %M
(100 Ain./in. %M)
175 Am/m %M
(175 Ain./in. %M)
50 Am/m %M
(50 Ain./in. %M)
b
22
1200 Am/m %M
(1200 Ain./in. %M)
1700 Am/m %M
(1700 Ain./in. %M)
1200 Am/m %M
(1200 Ain./in. %M)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
tensile stresses in the matrix and compressive stresses in the fibers. The
second factor is the stress-concentrating effect of the fibers. Because most
advanced composites are produced with a fiber volume fraction of about
0.65, the tensile stresses induced within the matrix surrounding a fiber are not
dictated strictly by the CTE mismatch between matrix and fiber but are also
influenced by the presence neighboring fibers. Together, these two factors
give rise to thermal stresses at the microlevel that are generally tensile in the
matrix and compressive in the fibers. The magnitude of the thermal stresses
induced in the fiber is very low relative to the fiber strength. However, the
magnitude of the tensile stresses induced in the matrix represents a sub-
stantial fraction of the tensile strength of the matrix alone. Numerical mi-
cromechanics analyses based on the finite element method have shown that
thermal matrix stresses can often be 50–60% of the bulk matrix tensile
strength [11–14]. Hence, these thermal stresses are responsible for the low
matrix-dominated tensile strengths and tensile strain at fractures exhibited by
composites. They also explain in a qualitative sense why the magnitudes of
matrix-dominated compressive strengths are invariably higher than matrix-
dominated tensile strengths (i.e., r
22
yC
>r
22
yT
and r
22
fC
>r
22
fT
).
6 PREDICTING ELASTIC COMPOSITE PROPERTIES BASED
ON CONSTITUENTS: THE RULE OF MIXTURES
Various material properties exhibited by composites at the structural level
have been described in preceding sections. These properties are usually
measured for a composite material of interest, using one or more of the
ASTM (or equivalent) test standards listed in Tables 1 and 2. However, in
practice, the need to predict composite material properties exhibited at the
structural level also arises. That is, in practice, there is a need to predict
composite properties at the structural level based on properties of the
individual constituent materials (i.e., the fiber and matrix). As a typical
example, suppose a new high-performance graphite fiber has recently been
developed, and properties of the fiber itself have been measured. Naturally,
the structural engineer is interested in determining whether this new fiber will
lead to improvements in composite material properties at the structural level.
The potential improvement in properties can, of course, be evaluated directly,
by embedding the new fiber in a polymeric matrix of interest and by
measuring the properties exhibited by the new composite material system.
However, creating and testing the new material system in this fashion is time-
consuming and expensive. A need to estimate the properties that will be
provided by the new fiber exists, so as to justify the time and money that will
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
be invested during the development of the composite material system based
on the new graphite fiber.
As described in Sec. 6 of Chap. 1, an analysis performed at a physical
scale corresponding to the fiber diameter is classified as a micromechanics
analysis. In the present instance, we wish to use a micromechanics-based
analysis to predict composite properties at the structural level. A simple
micromechanics model that can be used to make this prediction is called the
rule of mixtures and is developed as follows.
Consider the representative composite element shown in Fig. 14. As
indicated, the element consists of unidirectional fibers embedded within a
polymeric matrix. The principal material coordinate system, labeled the 1–
2–3 coordinate system, is defined by the fiber direction. It is assumed that
the fibers are evenly spaced, and that the matrix is perfectly bonded to the
fiber.
If a force F
11
is applied to the element, as shown in Fig. 14a, the length of
the element is increased by an amount DL and the width of the element is
decreased by an amount DW. Force F
11
is related to the average stress
imposed in the 1-direction by F
11
=r
11
A, where A is the cross-sectional area
of the element. Furthermore, the sumof forces present in the matrix and fibers
must equal the total applied force, which implies:
r
11
A ¼ r
f
A
f
þr
m
A
m
ð27Þ
where A
f
is the total cross-sectional area of the fibers presented within the
element and A
m
is the cross-sectional area of the matrix. The strain in the 1-
direction is associated with the change in length (DL), and is identical in fiber
and matrix because the fiber and matrix are assumed to be perfectly bonded.
That is:
e
f
¼ e
m
¼ e
11
¼
DL
L
Stresses are assumed to be related to strains according to:
r
11
¼ e
11
E
11
ð28aÞ
r
f
¼ e
f
E
f
¼ e
11
E
f
ð28bÞ
r
m
¼ e
m
E
m
¼ e
11
E
m
ð28cÞ
The expressions for stresses r
f
and r
m
are only approximate. In reality, a
triaxial state of stress is induced rather than a uniaxial stress state, as implied
by Eqs. (28b) and (28c), due to the mismatch in fiber and matrix properties as
well as the presence of adjacent fibers. Properly accounting for this (and
other) complicating factors requires a rigorous analysis that is beyond the
scope of the brief introduction presented here. Therefore, we will assume that
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 14 Representative composite element used to derive rule-of-mixtures
equations. (a) Composite element deformed by a load F
11
, acting parallel to the
fiber direction. (b) Composite element deformed by a load F
22
, acting perpen-
dicular to the fiber direction. (c) Composite element deformed by shear load F
12
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
fiber and matrix stresses are given by Eqs. (28b) and (28c) despite their
shortcomings. Substituting these expressions into Eq. (27) and rearranging,
we find:
E
11
¼ E
f
A
f
A
þE
m
A
m
A
This expression allows us to predict E
11
based on properties of the
constituents (E
f
and E
m
) and the area fractions of fiber and matrix (A
f
/A)
and (A
m
/A). If no voids are present, then:
A ¼ A
f
þA
m
Usually, rule-of-mixtures expressions are written in terms of volume
fractions rather than area fractions. Volume fractions are given by:
V
f
¼
A
f
A
V
m
¼
A
m
A
¼
A ÀA
f
A
¼ ð1 ÀV
f
Þ
where V
f
is the volume fraction of fibers and V
m
= (1ÀV
f
) is the volume
fraction of matrix material. Consequently, the predicted value of E
11
based on
the rule of mixtures approach is given by:
E
11
¼ E
m
þV
f
ðE
f
ÀE
m
Þ ð29Þ
Polymeric composites used in practice are typically produced with a
fiber volume fraction V
f
of about 0.65, although it can be lower (say, V
f
=
0.30), depending on application and the manufacturing process used to
consolidate the composite. Equation (29) shows that if E
f
) E
m
(which is
usually the case), then to a first approximation, E
11
cV
f
E
f
. The value of E
11
is dictated primarily by the fiber modulus E
f
and fiber volume fraction V
f
. E
11
is therefore called a fiber-dominated property of the composite.
Now consider the Poisson effect exhibited by the composite element
shown in Fig. 14a. As per our normal definition, the average Poisson ratio is
defined as the negative of the transverse normal strain (e
22
) divided by axial
normal strain (e
11
), both of which are caused by r
11
:
v
12
¼
Àe
22
e
11
The transverse normal strain associated with the change in width of the
entire element (DW) is given by:
e
22
¼
DW
W
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The change in width can also be written as the sum of the change in
width of the fibers present in the element DW
f
and the change in width of the
matrix present DW
m
. These are approximated as follows:
DW
f
¼ ÀWV
f
v
f
e
f
¼ ÀWV
f
v
f
e
11
DW
m
¼ ÀWV
m
v
m
e
m
¼ ÀWV
m
v
m
e
11
where v
f
and v
m
are Poisson ratios of the fiber and matrix, respectively.
Hence, the transverse strain is given by:
e
22
¼
DW
W
¼ À V
f
v
f
þðV
m
Þv
m
½ Še
11
Applying the definition of Poisson’s ratio for the composite as a whole,
we have:
v
12
¼
Àe
22
e
11
¼ V
f
v
f
þV
m
v
m
Noting as before that V
m
=(1ÀV
f
), the predicted value for Poisson’s
ratio v
12
based on the rule of mixtures becomes:
v
12
¼ v
m
ÀV
f
ðv
m
Àv
f
Þ ð30Þ
Measurement of Poisson’s ratio of the matrix material v
m
is a straight-
forward matter. However, measuring Poisson’s ratio of the fiber v
f
is more
difficult due to the small fiber diameters involved. Experimentally measured
values of v
f
are often unavailable, even for fibers widely used in practice. The
data that are available imply that both v
m
and v
f
are algebraically positive,
and also that v
m
>v
f
. Hence, Eq. (30) implies that the composite Poisson ra-
tio v
12
varies linearly with fiber volume fraction V
f
, and that Poisson’s ratio
of the composite is less than that of the matrix (v
12
<v
m
) because usually
(v
m
Àv
f
)>0.
Assuming an identical fiber distribution in the 1–2 and 1–3 planes, then
an identical analysis can be conducted to predict Poisson’s ratio v
13
, which will
result in an identical expression: v
13
=v
12
.
Next, consider prediction of the transverse modulus E
22
based on the
rule-of-mixtures approach. A composite element subjected to a force applied
perpendicular to the fibers, force F
22
, is shown in Fig. 14b. This force is related
to the average stress imposed in the 2-direction by F
22
= r
22
A. We assume
that an identical and uniformstress r
22
is induced in both the fiber and matrix.
Once again, this assumption is approximate at best; in reality, a triaxial state
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
of stress is induced in both the fiber and matrix. Based on this assumption, the
strains induced in the fiber and matrix perpendicular to the 1-axis are:
e
f
¼
r
22
E
f
e
m
¼
r
22
E
m
The transverse length represented by the fibers present in the element
equals V
f
W, whereas the transverse length represented by the matrix equals
V
m
W. Hence, the change in width W caused by the application of r
22
is:
DW¼ ðV
f

r
22
E
f
þðV
m

r
22
E
m
The average transverse strain caused by r
22
is:
e
22
¼
DW
W
¼ r
22
V
f
E
f
þ
V
m
E
m
_ _
Young’s modulus E
22
as predicted by the rule of mixtures therefore
becomes:
E
22
¼
r
22
e
22
¼
1
V
f
E
f
þ
V
m
E
m
_ _
¼
E
f
E
m
E
m
V
f
þE
f
V
m
As before, if no voids are present, then V
m
=(1ÀV
f
), and we obtain:
E
22
¼
E
f
E
m
E
f
ÀV
f
ðE
f
ÀE
m
Þ
ð31Þ
For most polymeric composite material systems, E
f
> >E
m
. Nevertheless,
Eq. (31) shows that E
22
is dictated primarily by E
m
, and is only modestly
affected by the fiber modulus E
f
. Indeed, even in the limit (i.e., as E
f
!l), the
predicted value of E
22
is only increased to:
E
22 E
f
!l
¼
E
m
1 ÀV
f
¸
¸
¸
¸
Because V
f
is usually about 0.65, this result shows that E
22
is still less
than three times the matrix modulus E
m
, even if the composite is produced
using a fiber whose stiffness is infinitely high (E
f
!l). E
22
is therefore called
a matrix-dominated property of the composite.
Assuming an identical fiber distribution in the 1–2 and 1–3 planes,
then an identical analysis can be conducted to predict Young’s modulus
in the 3-direction E
33
, resulting in an identical expression. Hence, E
33
=E
22
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
As before, E
33
is dictated primarily by E
m
and is a matrix-dominated
property.
Now consider the shear modulus G
12
. An element subjected to a pure
shear force F
12
is shown in Fig. 14c. This force is related to the average shear
stress according to F
12
=s
12
A. In a rule-of-mixture analysis, it is assumed that
an identical shear stress is induced in both the fibers and matrix regions. This
assumption is approximate at best. Nevertheless, on the basis of this
assumption, the shear strains induced in fiber and matrix are given by:
c
f
¼
s
12
G
f
c
m
¼
s
12
G
m
where G
f
and G
m
are the shear moduli of the fiber and matrix, respectively.
The total shear strain is given by:
c
12
¼ V
f
c
f
þV
m
c
m
¼ V
f
s
12
G
f
_ _
þV
m
s
12
G
m
_ _
The shear modulus predicted by the rule of mixtures is then:
G
12
¼
s
12
c
12
¼
1
V
f
G
f
þ
V
m
G
m
_ _
¼
G
f
G
m
G
m
V
f
þG
f
V
m
Assuming no voids are present, then V
m
=(1ÀV
f
), and we obtain:
G
12
¼
G
f
G
m
G
f
ÀV
f
ðG
f
ÀV
m
Þ
ð32Þ
Comparing Eq. (32) with Eq. (31), it is seen that the shear modulus is
related to fiber and matrix properties in a manner similar to E
22
and E
33
. The
value of G
12
is dictated primarily by the shear modulus of the matrix G
m
, and
is considered a matrix-dominated property. Assuming an identical fiber
distribution in the 1–2 and 1–3 planes, then G
13
=G
12
.
To summarize, the analysis presented above allows prediction of elastic
moduli E
11
, v
12
=v
13
, E
22
=E
33
, and G
12
=G
13
, based on knowledge of the
fiber modulus E
f
, matrix modulus E
m
, and fiber volume fraction V
f
. Although
not presented here, a rule-of-mixture approach can also be used to predict
thermal expansion coefficients a
1
and a
2
, or moisture expansion coefficients b
1
and b
2
(e.g., see Chap. 3 of Ref. 11).
The analysis presented above is only one of several micromechanics-
based models that have been proposed. The rule of mixtures is certainly the
simplest approach, but unfortunately is often the least accurate. In general,
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
E
11
and v
12
=v
13
are reasonably well predicted by Eqs. (29) and (30), respec-
tively. However, matrix-dominated properties E
22
=E
33
and G
12
=G
13
are
generally underpredicted by Eqs. (31) and (32). The accuracy of these pre-
dictions is not high because many important factors have not been accounted
for. A partial listing of factors not accounted for include:

The more or less random distribution and spacing of fibers present in
a real composite

The triaxial state of stress induced in both matrix and fiber due to the
mismatch in fiber/matrix properties.

Differences in fiber distribution in the 1–2 and 1–3 planes

The adhesion (or lack thereof ) between fiber and matrix

Variations in fiber cross-sections from one fiber to the next

The presence of voids or other defects

The anisotropic nature of many high-performance fibers (e.g.,
Young’s modulus parallel and transverse to the long axis of the
fiber usually differs).
A rigorous closed-form analytical solution that accounts for all of these
factors (as well as others) is probably impossible to obtain. Consequently,
most advanced micromechanics analyses are performed numerically using
finite element methods. Because the primary objective of this book is to
investigate composite materials at the structural (i.e., macroscopic) level, only
the simple rule of mixtures is presented herein. The reader interested in
learning more about micromechanics analyses is referred to the many ex-
cellent texts that discuss this topic in greater detail, a few of which are listed
here as Refs. 6, 9–13.
HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
1. An orthotropic material is known to have the following elastic properties:
E
xx
¼ 100GPa E
yy
¼ 200GPa E
zz
¼ 75GPa
v
xy
¼ 0:20 v
xz
¼ À0:25 v
yz
¼ 0:60
G
xy
¼ 60GPa G
xz
¼ 75GPa G
yz
¼ 50GPa
g
xx;xy
¼ À0:30 g
xx;xz
¼ 0:25 g
xx;yz
¼ 0:30
g
yy;xy
¼ 0:60 g
yy;xz
¼ 0:75 g
yy;yz
¼ 0:20
g
zz;xy
¼ À0:20 g
zz;xz
¼ À0:05 g
zz;yz
¼ À0:15
l
xy;xz
¼ À0:10 l
xy;yz
¼ À0:05 g
xz;yz
¼ 0:10
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
(a) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r
xx
=300 MPa is
applied?
(b) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r
yy
=300 MPa is
applied?
(c) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r
zz
=300 MPa is
applied?
(d) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s
xy
=100 MPa is
applied?
(e) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s
xz
=100 MPa is
applied?
(f ) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s
yz
=100 MPa is
applied?
2. An orthotropic material is known to have the following elastic properties:
E
11
¼ 100GPa E
22
¼ 200GPa E
33
¼ 75GPa
v
12
¼ 0:20 v
13
¼ À0:25 v
23
¼ 0:60
G
12
¼ 60GPa G
13
¼ 75GPa G
23
¼ 50GPa
(a) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r
11
=300 MPa is
applied?
(b) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r
22
=300 MPa is
applied?
(c) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r
33
=300 MPa is
applied?
(d) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s
12
=100 MPa is
applied?
(e) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s
13
=100 MPa is
applied?
(f ) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s
23
=100 MPa is
applied?
3. A tensile specimen is machined from an anisotropic material. The speci-
men is referenced to an x–y–z coordinate system, as shown in Fig. 15a.
The cross-section of the specimen is initially a ‘‘perfect’’ 5Â5 mm square.
In addition, ‘‘perfect’’ 5Â5 mm squares are drawn on the x–y and x–z
surfaces of the specimen, as shown. A uniaxial tensile stress r
xx
=700
MPa is then applied, causing the specimen to deform as shown in Fig.
15b–d. Determine the values of E
xx
, v
xy
, v
xz
, g
xx
,
xy
, g
xx,xz
, and g
xx,yz
that
correspond to these deformations.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Table 4 The [0]
8
Specimen (Width=1.251 in.; Thickness=0.048 in.)
Load (1 bf) Axial strain (Ain./in.) Trans strain (Ain./in.)
0 0 0
260 192 À61
630 454 À146
1220 860 À279
1910 1335 À433
2600 1807 À587
4100 2784 À930
Figure 15 Tensile specimen described in Problem 3 (deformations shown
greatly exaggerated for clarity). (a) Tensile specimen machined from an aniso-
tropic material. (b) Change in cross-section. (c) Change in dimensions on x–y
face. (d) Change in dimensions on x–z face.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
4. Load vs. strain data collected during two different composite tensile tests
are shown in Tables 4 and 5. Use linear regression to determine the
following properties for this composite material:
(a) Determine E
11
and v
12
using the data collected using the [0]
8
specimen (Table 4).
(b) Determine E
22
using the data collected using the [90]
16
specimen (Table 5).
(c) Determine the value of v
21
for this composite material system.
Table 5 The [90]
16
Specimen (Width=
1.254 in.; Thickness=0.090 in.)
Load (1 bf) Axial strain (Ain./in.)
0 0
64 300
102 539
172 923
275 1489
385 2072
Figure 16 Tensile specimen described in Problem 5.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5. A thin tensile specimen is machined from a material with unknown
properties. A ‘‘perfect’’ square with dimensions 5Â5 mm is drawn on
one surface of the specimen, as shown in Fig. 16. A tensile stress of 500
MPa is then applied, causing the square to deform. Determine E
xx
, v
xy
,
and g
xx,xy
for this material.
6. A ‘‘perfect’’ square with dimensions 1Â1 mm is drawn on the surface of a
plate. The temperature of the plate is then uniformly increased by 300jC,
causing the square to deform as shown in Fig. 17. Determine the
corresponding strains e
xx
, e
yy
, and e
xy
, and coefficients of thermal
expansion a
xx
, a
yy
, and a
xy
.
REFERENCES
1. Dieter, G.E. Mechanical Metallurgy; New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1986;
ISBN0-07-016893-8.
2. Lekhnitski, S.G. Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Body; Holden-Day: San
Francisco, 1963.
3. Bert, C.W.; Reddy, J.N.; Reddy, V.S.; Chao, W.C. Analysis of thick rectangular
plates laminated of bimodulus composite materials. AIAA J. 1981, 19 (10), 1342–
1349.
4. Measurement of Thermal Expansion Coefficient, M-M Tech Note 513;
Measurement Group, Inc.: Raleigh, NC, USA (available at the Measure-
ment Group website at: http://www.measurementsgroup.com/guide/indexes/
tn_index.htm).
5. Standard Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium
Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, Test Standard 5229;
Figure 17 Deformed square described in Problem 6.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
American Society for Testing and Materials: West Conshohocken, PA, USA
(may also be accessed via the ASTM website at: http://www.astm.org/).
6. Hyer, M.W. Stress Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials; McGraw-
Hill Book Co.: New York, NY; 1998; ISBN 0-07-016700-1.
7. Herakovich, C.T. Mechanics of Fibrous Composites; John Wiley and Sons: New
York, NY, 1998; ISBN 0-471-10636-4.
8. Hull, D. An Introduction to Composite Materials; Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge, Great Britain, 1981; ISBN 0-521-23991-5.
9. Gibson, R.F. Principles of Composite Material Mechanics; McGraw-Hill Inc.:
New York, NY, 1994; ISBN0-07-023451-5.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
4
Elastic Response of Anisotropic Materials
In this chapter, we will consider the strains induced in anisotropic materials
when subjected to arbitrary combinations of stress, uniform changes in
temperature, and/or uniformchanges in moisture content. The chapter begins
with a consideration of the strains induced by stress under constant environ-
mental conditions. A ‘‘generalized’’ form of Hooke’s law, which relates strain
to stress for any anisotropic material, will be developed. Next, Hooke’s law
will be specialized for two particular types of anisotropy. First, for ortho-
tropic materials, and then for transversely isotropic materials.
Attention will then be focussed on strains caused by uniform changes in
temperature or moisture content. As before, relationships for anisotropic
materials will be developed first, and will then be specialized to the case of
orthotropic and transversely isotropic materials.
Finally, the strains induced by the combined effects of stress, temper-
ature, and moisture will be discussed.
1 STRAINS INDUCED BY STRESS: ANISOTROPIC
MATERIALS
Areviewof the stress and strain tensors has been provided in Chap. 2. Stress is
a symmetrical second-order tensor. In tensoral notation, stress is written as
167
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
r
ij
, where subscripts i and j take on values of x, y, and z. Alternatively, the
stress tensor can be written using matrix notation as:
r
ij
¼
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
2
4
3
5
ð1Þ
Because the stress tensor is symmetrical (i.e., r
yx
=r
xy
, r
zx
=r
xz
, and
r
zy
= r
yz
), only six independent stress components appear in Eq. (1).
Similarly, strain is a symmetrical second-order tensor e
ij
and can be
written as:
e
ij
¼
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
2
6
4
3
7
5 ¼
ðe
xx
Þ ðc
xy
=2Þ ðc
xz
=2Þ
ðc
yx
=2Þ ðe
yy
Þ ðc
yz
=2Þ
ðc
zx
=2Þ ðc
zy
=2Þ ðe
zz
Þ
2
6
4
3
7
5 ð2Þ
Only six independent strain components appear in Eq. (2). Also, the
tensoral shear strain components equal one-half the more commonly used
engineering shear strain components, that is,
e
xy
¼ e
yx
¼
c
xy
2
¼
c
yx
2
; e
xz
¼ e
zx
¼
c
xz
2
¼
c
zx
2
; e
yz
¼ e
zy
¼
c
yz
2
¼
c
zy
2
ð3Þ
For any elastic solid, the strain and stress tensors are related as follows
(assuming temperature and moisture content remain constant):
e
ij
¼ S
ijkl
r
kl
ð4Þ
All subscripts that appear in Eq. (4) take on values of x, y, and z.
Equation (4) is called generalized Hooke’s law, and is valid for any elastic solid
under constant environmental conditions. It is seen that the strain and stress
tensors are related via the fourth-order compliance tensor S
ijkl
. Because strains
are unitless quantities, from Eq. (4), it is seen that the units of S
ijkl
are 1/
(stress) (i.e., either 1/Pa or 1/psi).
Because the compliance tensor is described using four subscripts and
because each subscript may take on three distinct value (e.g., x, y, or z), it
would initially appear that 3
4
=81 independent terms appear within the
compliance tensor. However, due to symmetry of both the strain and stress
tensors, it will be shown belowthat the compliance tensor consists of (at most)
36 material constants.
It will be very convenient to express Eq. (4) using matrix notation.
However, because S
ijkl
is a fourth-order tensor (and hence can be viewed as
having ‘‘four dimensions’’), we cannot expand S
ijkl
as a two-dimensional
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
matrix directly. To expand Eq. (4), we must first define the components of
stress and strain using contracted notation, as follows:
e
xx
! e
1
r
xx
! r
1
e
yy
! e
2
r
yy
! r
2
e
zz
! e
3
r
zz
! r
3
c
yz
¼ c
zy
! e
4
r
yz
¼ r
zy
! r
4
c
xz
¼ c
zx
! e
5
r
xz
¼ r
zx
! r
5
c
xy
¼ c
yx
! e
6
r
xy
¼ r
yx
! r
6
ð5Þ
Notice that the symmetry of the strain and stress tensors (c
yz
=c
xz
, etc.)
is embedded within the very definition of contracted notation. Also note that
the shear strain components (e
4
, e
5
, and e
6
) represent engineering shear strains,
rather than tensoral shear strains. Based on this change in notation, we can
now write Eq. (4) as:
e
j
¼ S
ij
r
j
where i; j ¼ 1À6 ð6Þ
In contracted notation, the strain and stress tensors are expressed with a
single subscript (i.e., e
i
and r
j
), and hence in Eq. (6), they appear to be first-
order tensors. This is, of course, not the case. Both strain and stress are
second-order tensors. We are able to write them as using contracted notation
only because they are both symmetrical tensors. Similarly, contracted nota-
tion allows us to refer to individual components of the fourth-order com-
pliance tensor expressed using only two subscripts. We will henceforth refer to
S
ij
as the compliance matrix, and the use of contracted notation will be
implied.
Expanding Eq. (6), we have:
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
e
5
e
6
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
S
11
S
12
S
13
S
14
S
15
S
16
S
21
S
22
S
23
S
24
S
25
S
26
S
31
S
32
S
33
S
34
S
35
S
36
S
41
S
42
S
43
S
44
S
45
S
46
S
51
S
52
S
53
S
54
S
55
S
56
S
61
S
62
S
63
S
64
S
65
S
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
4
r
5
r
6
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð7Þ
In contracted notation, the compliance matrix has six rows and six
columns, so it is now clear that it consists of 36 independent material
constants (at most), as previously stated. Furthermore, through a consider-
ation of strain energy, it can be shown [1] that the compliance matrix must
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
itself be symmetrical. That is, all terms in symmetrical off-diagonal positions
must be equal:
S
21
¼ S
12
S
31
¼ S
13
S
32
¼ S
23
S
41
¼ S
14
S
42
¼ S
24
S
43
¼ S
34
S
51
¼ S
15
S
52
¼ S
25
S
53
¼ S
35
S
54
¼ S
45
S
61
¼ S
16
S
62
¼ S
26
S
63
¼ S
36
S
64
¼ S
46
S
65
¼ S
56
ð8Þ
Hence, although the compliance matrix for an anisotropic composite
consists of 36 material constants, only 21 of these constants are independent.
Substituting the original strain and stress terms (defined in Eq. (5)) into
Eq. (7), we have:
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
c
yz
c
xz
c
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
S
11
S
12
S
13
S
14
S
15
S
16
S
21
S
22
S
23
S
24
S
25
S
26
S
31
S
32
S
33
S
34
S
35
S
36
S
41
S
42
S
43
S
44
S
45
S
46
S
51
S
52
S
53
S
54
S
55
S
56
S
61
S
62
S
63
S
64
S
65
S
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
xx
r
yy
r
zz
r
yz
r
xz
r
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð9Þ
The individual constants that appear in the compliance matrix can be
easily related to the material properties defined in Chap. 3 by invoking the
principal of superposition. That is, because we have restricted our attention to
linear elastic behavior, an individual component of strain caused by several
stress components acting simultaneously can be obtained by adding the strain
caused by each stress component acting independently. For example, the
strains e
xx
caused by each stress component independently are given by:
r
xx
causes ðfrom Eq: 3:1Þ e
xx
¼
1
E
xx
r
xx
r
yy
causes ðfrom Eq: 3:6Þ e
xx
¼ À
m
yx
E
yy
r
yy
r
zz
causes ðfrom Eq: 3:7Þ e
xx
¼ À
m
zx
E
zz
r
zz
s
yz
causes ðfrom Eq: 3:14Þ e
xx
¼
g
yz;xx
G
yz
s
yz
s
xz
causes ðfrom Eq: 3:13Þ e
xx
¼
g
xz;xx
G
xz
s
xz
s
xy
causes ðfrom Eq: 3:12Þ e
xx
¼
g
xy;xx
G
xy
s
xy
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
To determine the strain e
xx
induced if all stress components act
simultaneously, simply add up the contribution to e
xx
caused by each stress
individually, to obtain:
e
xx
¼
1
E
xx

r
xx
þ
Àm
yx
E
yy

r
yy
þ
Àm
zx
E
zz

r
zz
þ
g
yz;xx
G
yz

s
yz
þ
g
xz;xx
G
xz

s
xz
þ
g
xy;xx
G
xy

s
xy
ð10aÞ
Using an identical procedure, the remaining five strain components
caused by an arbitrary combination of stresses are:
e
yy
¼
Àm
xy
E
xx

r
xx
þ
1
E
yy

r
yy
þ
Àm
zy
E
zz

r
zz
þ
g
xz;yy
G
yz

s
yz
þ
g
xz;yy
G
xz

s
xz
þ
g
xy;yy
G
xy

s
xy
ð10bÞ
e
zz
¼
Àm
xz
E
xx

r
xx
þ
Àm
yz
E
yy

r
yy
þ
1
E
zz

r
zz
þ
g
yz;zz
G
yz

s
yz
þ
g
xz;zz
G
xz

s
xz
þ
g
xy;zz
G
xy

s
xy
ð10cÞ
c
yz
¼
g
xx;yz
E
xx

r
xx
þ
g
yy;yz
E
yy

r
yy
þ
g
zz;yz
E
zz

r
zz
þ
1
G
yz

s
yz
þ
l
xz;yz
G
xz

s
xz
þ
l
xy;yz
G
xy

s
xy
ð10dÞ
c
xz
¼
g
xx;xz
E
xx

r
xx
þ
g
yy;xz
E
yy

r
yy
þ
g
zz;xz
E
zz

r
zz
þ
l
yz;xz
G
yz

s
yz
þ
1
G
xz

s
xz
þ
l
xy;xz
G
xy

s
xy
ð10eÞ
c
xy
¼
g
xx;xy
E
xx

r
xx
þ
g
yy;xy
E
yy

r
yy
þ
g
zz;xy
E
zz

r
zz
þ
l
yz;xy
G
yz

s
yz
þ
l
xz;xy
G
xz

s
xz
þ
1
G
xy

s
xy
ð10f Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Equation (10a)–(10f) can be assembled in matrix form:
pc
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
c
yz
c
xz
c
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
1
E
xx

Àm
yx
E
yy

Àm
zx
E
zz

g
yz;xx
G
yz

g
xz;xx
G
xz

g
xy;xx
G
xy

Àm
xy
E
xx

1
E
yy

Àm
zy
E
zz

g
yz;yy
G
yz

g
xz;yy
G
xz

g
xy;yy
G
xy

Àm
xz
E
xx

Àm
yz
E
yy

1
E
zz

g
yz;zz
G
yz

g
xz;zz
G
xz

g
xy;zz
G
xy

g
xx;yz
E
xx

g
yy;yz
E
yy

g
zz;yz
E
zz

1
G
yz

l
xz;yz
G
xz

l
xy;yz
G
xy

g
xx;xz
E
xx

g
yy;xz
E
yy

g
zz;xz
E
zz

l
yz;xz
G
yz

1
G
xz

l
xy;xz
G
xy

g
xx;xy
E
xx

g
yy;xy
E
yy

g
zz;xy
E
zz

l
yz;xy
G
yz

l
xz;xy
G
xz

1
G
xy

2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
xx
r
yy
r
zz
s
yz
s
xz
s
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð11Þ
By comparing Eqs. (9) and (11), it can be seen that the individual
components of the compliance matrix are directly related to the material
properties measured during uniaxial tests or pure shear tests:
S
11
¼
1
E
xx
S
22
¼
1
E
yy
S
33
¼
1
E
zz
S
44
¼
1
G
yx
S
55
¼
1
G
xz
S
66
¼
1
G
xy
S
21
¼ S
12
¼
Àm
xy
E
xx
¼
Àm
yx
E
yy
S
31
¼ S
13
¼
Àm
xz
E
xx
¼
Àm
zx
E
zz
S
32
¼ S
23
¼
Àm
yz
E
yy
¼
Àm
zy
E
zz
S
41
¼ S
14
¼
g
xx;yz
E
xx
¼
g
yz;xx
G
yz
S
42
¼ S
24
¼
g
yy;yz
E
yy
¼
g
yz;yy
G
yz
S
43
¼ S
34
¼
g
zz;yz
E
zz
¼
g
yz;zz
G
yz
S
51
¼ S
15
¼
g
xx;xz
E
xx
¼
g
xz;xx
G
xz
S
52
¼ S
25
¼
g
yy;xz
E
yy
¼
g
xz;yy
G
xz
S
53
¼ S
35
¼
g
zz;xz
E
zz
¼
g
xz;zz
G
xz
S
54
¼ S
45
¼
l
yz;xz
E
yz
¼
l
xz;yz
G
xz
S
61
¼ S
16
¼
g
xx;xy
E
xx
¼
g
xy;xx
G
xy
S
62
¼ S
26
¼
g
yy;xy
E
yy
¼
g
xy;yy
G
xy
S
63
¼ S
36
¼
g
zz;xy
E
zz
¼
g
xy;zz
G
xy
S
64
¼ S
46
¼
l
yz;xy
E
yz
¼
l
xy;yz
G
xy
S
65
¼ S
56
¼
l
xz;xy
G
xz
¼
l
xy;xz
G
xy
ð12Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Because the compliance matrix must be symmetric, Eq. (12) shows that
many of the properties of anisotropic materials are related through the
following inverse relationships:
m
xz
E
xx
¼
m
yx
E
yy
m
xz
E
xx
¼
m
zx
E
zz
m
yz
E
yy
¼
m
zy
E
zz
g
xx;yz
E
xx
¼
g
yz;xx
G
yz
g
yy;yz
E
yy
¼
g
yz;yy
G
yz
g
zz;yz
E
zz
¼
g
yz;zz
G
yz ð13Þ
g
xx;xz
E
xx
¼
g
xz;xx
G
xz
g
yy;yz
E
yy
¼
g
yz;yy
G
yz
g
zz;xz
E
zz
¼
g
xz;zz
G
xz
l
yz;xz
G
yz
¼
l
xz;yz
G
xz
g
xx;xy
E
xx
¼
g
xy;xx
G
xy
g
yy;xy
E
yy
¼
g
xy;yy
G
xy
g
zz;xy
E
zz
¼
g
xy;zz
G
xy
l
yz;xy
G
yz
¼
l
xy;yz
G
xy
l
xz;xy
G
xz
¼
l
xy;xz
G
xy
The inverse relationships are very significant from an experimental
point of view because they dramatically reduce the number of tests that must
be performed in order to determine the value of the many terms that appear
within the compliance matrix of an anisotropic composite. Specifically, if the
compliance matrix were not symmetrical, and hence if the inverse relation-
ships did not exist, then 36 tests would be required to measure all components
of the compliance matrix. The fact that the compliance matrix must be
symmetrical reduces the number of tests required to 21. Of course, this is still
a large number of tests. Fortunately, because the principal material coor-
dinate system of composites is readily apparent, the elastic properties of
composites are usually measured relative to the principal material coordinate
system rather than an arbitrary (nonprincipal) coordinate system. As dis-
cussed in Sec. 2, this further reduces the number of tests required. The 21
terms within the compliance matrix of an anisotropic composite can then be
calculated based on properties measured relative to the principal material
coordinate system.
Thus far, we have discussed Hooke’s law in the form of ‘‘strain–stress’’
relationships. That is, given values of the components of stress, we can
calculate the resulting strains using Eq. (9) or Eq. (11), for example. In
practice, we are often interested in the opposite problem. That is, a common
circumstance in practice is that the components of strain induced in a
structure have been measured, and we wish to calculate the stresses that
caused these strains. In this case, we need a ‘‘stress–strain’’ form of Hooke’s
law. The stress–strain form of Hooke’s law can be obtained by simply
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
inverting previous results. For example, inverting Hooke’s law given by Eq.
(6), we have:
r
i
¼ C
ij
e
j
where i; j ¼ 1À6 ð14Þ
C
ij
is called the ‘‘stiffness matrix.’’* The stiffness matrix is the mathe-
matical inverse of the compliance matrix C
ij
=S
ij
À1
. In expanded form, Eq.
(14) is written as:
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
4
r
5
r
6
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
21
C
22
C
23
C
24
C
25
C
26
C
31
C
32
C
33
C
34
C
35
C
36
C
41
C
42
C
43
C
44
C
45
C
46
C
51
C
52
C
53
C
54
C
55
C
56
C
61
C
62
C
63
C
64
C
65
C
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
e
5
e
6
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð15Þ
The stiffness matrix is symmetrical (C
21
=C
12
, C
31
=C
13
, etc.). The units
of each stiffness term are the same as stress (either Pa or psi).
2 STRAINS INDUCED BY STRESS: ORTHOTROPIC
AND TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MATERIALS
As discussed in Sec. 2 of Chap. 3, many of the unusual couplings between
stress and strain exhibited by composites referenced to an arbitrary coordi-
nate system do not occur if the stress and strain tensors are referenced to the
principal material coordinate system. In this text, a material referenced to an
arbitrary (nonprincipal) coordinate system is called ‘‘anisotropic’’ whereas if
the same material is referenced to the principal material coordinate system, it
is called either an ‘‘orthotropic’’ or ‘‘transversely isotropic’’ material.
All of the following coupling terms are zero for orthotropic or trans-
versely isotropic materials:

Coefficients of mutual influence of the second kind:
g
11;12
¼ g
11;13
¼ g
11;23
¼ g
22;12
¼ g
22;13
¼ g
22;23
¼ g
33;12
¼ g
33;13
¼ g
33;23
¼ 0
* The variable names assigned to the compliance and stiffness matrices in this chapter have
evolved over many years and are widely used within the structural mechanics community. The
reader should note that, unfortunately, the symbol ‘‘S’’ is customarily used to refer to the
compliance matrix, whereas the symbol ‘‘C’’ is customarily used to refer to the stiffness matrix.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Coefficients of mutual influence of the first kind:
g
12;11
¼ g
12;22
¼ g
12;23
¼ g
13;11
¼ g
13;22
¼ g
13;33
¼ g
23;11
¼ g
23;22
¼ g
23;33
¼ 0

Chentsov coefficients:
l
12;13
¼ l
12;23
¼ l
13;12
¼ l
13;23
¼ l
23;12
¼ l
23;13
¼ 0
Because these coupling terms do not exist, Hooke’s law for orthotropic
or transversely isotropic materials is simplified considerably relative to that of
an anisotropic material. For an orthotropic material, Hooke’s law becomes
(compare with Eq. (11)):
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
1
E
11

Àm
21
E
22

Àm
31
E
33

0 0 0
Àm
21
E
11

1
E
22

Àm
32
E
33

0 0 0
Àm
13
E
11

Àm
23
E
22

1
E
33

0 0 0
0 0 0
1
G
23

0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
13

0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
12

2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
Alternatively, Eq. (16) may be
ð16Þ
written as:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
S
11
S
12
S
13
0 0 0
S
12
S
22
S
23
0 0 0
S
13
S
23
S
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 S
44
0 0
0 0 0 0 S
55
0
0 0 0 0 0 S
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð17Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The fact that the compliance matrix must be symmetrical (S
21
=S
12
,
etc.) has been included in Eq. (17). Each compliance termin Eq. (17) is related
to the more familiar engineering properties as follows:
S
11
¼
1
E
11
S
22
¼
1
E
22
S
33
¼
1
E
33
S
44
¼
1
G
23
S
55
¼
1
G
13
S
66
¼
1
G
12
S
21
¼ S
12
¼
Àm
12
E
11
¼
Àm
21
E
22
S
31
¼ S
13
¼
Àm
13
E
11
¼
Àm
31
E
33
S
32
¼ S
23
¼
Àm
23
E
22
¼
Àm
32
E
33
ð18Þ
It can be seen that only nine independent material constants exist for an
orthotropic material. The set of nine independent constants can be viewed as:
ðS
11
; S
22
; S
33
; S
44
; S
55
; S
66
; S
12
; S
13
; and S
23
Þ
or, equivalently, as:
ðE
11
; E
22
; E
33
; m
12
; m
13
; m
23
; G
12
; G
13
; and G
23
Þ
Equation (17) is the strain–stress form of Hooke’s law suitable for use
with orthotropic materials. To obtain a stress–strain relationship, Eq. (17) is
inverted, resulting in:
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
C
11
C
12
C
13
0 0 0
C
12
C
22
C
23
0 0 0
C
13
C
23
C
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 C
44
0 0
0 0 0 0 C
55
0
0 0 0 0 0 C
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð19Þ
Individual components within the stiffness matrix for an orthotropic
material are related to the compliance terms as follows:
C
11
¼
S
22
S
33
À S
2
23
S
C
12
¼
S
13
S
23
À S
12
S
33
S
C
13
¼
S
12
S
33
À S
13
S
22
S
C
22
¼
S
11
S
33
À S
2
13
S
C
23
¼
S
12
S
13
À S
11
S
23
S
C
33
¼
S
11
S
22
À S
2
12
S
C
44
¼
1
S
44
C
55
¼
1
S
55
C
66
¼
1
S
66
ð20Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
where:
S ¼ S
11
S
22
S
33
À S
11
S
2
23
À S
22
S
2
13
À S
33
S
2
12
þ 2S
12
S
13
S
23
Alternatively, the stiffness terms may be calculated using the elastic
properties described in Sec. 2 of Chap. 3:
C
11
¼
ðE
22
À m
2
23
E
33
ÞE
2
11
X
C
12
¼
ðm
12
E
22
þ m
13
m
23
E
33
ÞE
11
E
22
X
C
13
¼
ðm
12
m
23
þ m
13
ÞE
11
E
22
E
33
X
C
22
¼
ðE
11
À m
2
13
E
33
ÞE
2
22
X
ð21Þ
C
23
¼
ðm
23
E
11
þ m
12
m
13
E
22
ÞE
22
E
33
X
C
33
¼
ðE
11
À m
2
12
E
22
ÞE
22
E
33
X
C
44
¼ G
23
C
55
¼ G
13
C
66
¼ G
12
where:
X ¼ E
11
E
22
À m
2
12
E
2
22
À m
2
13
E
22
E
33
À m
2
23
E
11
E
33
À 2m
12
m
13
m
23
E
22
E
33
Hooke’s law for transversely isotropic materials is simplified further-
more because in this case, E
22
=E
33
, m
12
=m
13
, m
21
=m
31
, m
23
=m
32
, and
G
12
=G
13
. Also, it can also be easily shown that for transversely isotropic
composites, G
23
¼
E
22
2ð1þm
23
Þ
. Hence, for transversely isotropic composites, Eq.
(16) reduces to:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
1
E
11

Àm
21
E
22

Àm
21
E
22

0 0 0
Àm
21
E
11

1
E
22

Àm
32
E
22

0 0 0
Àm
12
E
11

Àm
23
E
22

1
E
22

0 0 0
0 0 0
2ð1 þ m
23
Þ
G
22

0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
12

0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
12

2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð22Þ
which may also be written as:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
S
11
S
12
S
12
0 0 0
S
12
S
22
S
23
0 0 0
S
12
S
23
S
22
0 0 0
0 0 0 2ðS
22
À S
23
Þ 0 0
0 0 0 0 S
66
0
0 0 0 0 0 S
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð23Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
It can be seen that only five independent material constants exist for a
transversely isotropic material. The set of five independent constants can be
viewed as:
ðS
11
; S
22
; S
66
; S
12
; and S
23
Þ
or, equivalently, as:
ðE
11
; E
22
; m
12
; m
23
; and G
12
Þ
Equation (23) is the strain–stress form of Hooke’s law suitable for use
with transversely isotropic composites. To obtain a stress–strain relationship,
Eq. (23) is inverted, resulting in:
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
C
11
C
12
C
12
0 0 0
C
12
C
22
C
23
0 0 0
C
12
C
23
C
22
0 0 0
0 0 0 2ðC
22
À C
23
Þ 0 0
0 0 0 0 C
66
0
0 0 0 0 0 C
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð24Þ
Individual components within the stiffness matrix for a transversely
isotropic composite are related to the compliance terms, as follows:
C
11
¼
S
22
þ S
33
X
C
12
¼
ÀS
12
X
C
22
¼
S
11
S
22
À S
2
12
XðS
22
À S
23
Þ
C
23
¼
S
2
12
À S
11
S
23
XðS
22
À S
23
Þ
C
66
¼
1
S
66
ð25Þ
where:
V ¼ S
11
ðS
22
þ S
23
Þ À 2S
2
12
Alternatively, the stiffness terms may be calculated using the elastic
properties described in Sec. 2 of Chap. 3:
C
11
¼
E
2
11
ð1 À m
23
Þ
X
C
12
¼
m
12
E
11
E
22
X
C
22
¼
E
22
ðE
11
À m
2
12
E
22
Þ
Xð1 þ m
23
Þ
C
23
¼
E
22
ðm
23
E
11
þ m
2
12
E
22
Þ
Xð1 þ m
23
Þ
C
44
¼
C
22
À C
23
2
¼
E
22
2ð1 þ m
23
Þ
C
66
¼ C
12
ð26Þ
where:
X ¼ E
11
ð1 À m
23
Þ À 2m
2
12
E
22
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Example Problem 1
The properties of a composite material are known to be:
E
11
¼ 170 GPa E
22
¼ 10 GPa E
33
¼ 8 GPa
m
12
¼ 0:30 m
13
¼ 0:35 m
23
¼ 0:40
G
12
¼ 13 GPa G
13
¼ 10 GPa G
23
¼ 8 GPa
Note that nine distinct material properties have been specified, indicat-
ing that this composite material is orthotropic. Determine the strains caused
by the following state of stress:
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
350 MPa
35 MPa
15 MPa
30 MPa
10 MPa
25 MPa
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
Solution. Because the composite is orthotropic, strains are calculated using
Eq. (17), where each termwithin the compliance matrix is calculated using Eq.
(18):
S
11
¼
1
E
11
¼
1
170 GPa
¼
5:88
10
12
Pa
S
22
¼
1
E
22
¼
1
10 GPa
¼
100:0
10
12
GPa
S
33
¼
1
E
33
¼
1
8 GPa
¼
125:0
10
12
Pa
S
44
¼
1
G
23
¼
1
8 GPa
¼
125:0
10
12
Pa
S
55
¼
1
G
13
¼
1
10 GPa
¼
100
10
12
Pa
S
66
¼
1
G
12
¼
1
13 GPa
¼
76:9
10
12
Pa
S
21
¼ S
12
¼
Àm
12
E
11
¼
À0:030
170 GPa
¼
À1:76
10
12
Pa
S
31
¼ S
13
¼
Àm
13
E
11
¼
À0:35
170 GPa
¼
À2:06
10
12
Pa
S
32
¼ S
23
¼
Àm
23
E
22
¼
À0:40
10 GPa
¼
À40:0
10
12
Pa
In this case, Eq. (17) becomes:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
5:88 À1:76 À2:06 0 0 0
À1:76 100:0 À40:0 0 0 0
À2:06 À40:0 125:0 0 0 0
0 0 0 125:0 0 0
0 0 0 0 100:0 0
0 0 0 0 0 76:9
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
1
10
12
Pa

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Â
350
35
15
30
10
25
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð10
6
PaÞ ¼
1966 Am=m
2284 Am=m
À246 Am=m
3750 Arad
1000 Arad
1923 Arad
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
Example Problem 2
The properties of a composite material are known to be:
E
11
¼ 25 Msi E
22
¼ E
33
¼ 1:5 Msi
m
12
¼ m
13
¼ 0:30 m
23
¼ 0:40
G
12
¼ G
13
¼ 2:0 Msi
Note that only five distinct material properties have been specified,
indicating that this composite material is transversely isotropic. Determine
the strains caused by the following state of stress:
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
50 ksi
5 ksi
2 ksi
4 ksi
1:5 ksi
3:5 ksi
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
Solution. Because the composite is transversely isotropic, strains are calcu-
lated using Eq. (22). Individual terms within the compliance matrix are:
S
11
¼
1
E
11
¼
1
25 Msi
¼
40:0
10
9
psi
S
22
¼ S
33
¼
1
E
22
¼
1
1:5 Msi
¼
667
10
9
psi
S
44
¼
1
G
23
¼
2ð1 þ m
23
Þ
E
22
¼
2ð1 þ 0:40Þ
1:5 Msi
¼
1866
10
9
psi
S
55
¼ S
66
¼
1
G
12
¼
1
2:0 Msi
¼
500
10
9
psi
S
12
¼ S
21
¼ S
13
¼ S
31
¼
Àm
12
E
11
¼
À0:30
25 Msi
¼
À12:0
10
9
psi
S
23
¼ S
32
¼
Àm
23
E
22
¼
À0:40
1:5 Msi
¼
À266
10
9
psi
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Equation (17) becomes:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
40:0 À12:0 À12:0 0 0 0
À12:0 667 À266 0 0 0
À12:0 À266 667 0 0 0
0 0 0 800 0 0
0 0 0 0 500 0
0 0 0 0 0 500
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
1
10
9
psi

Â
50
5
2
4
1:5
3:5
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð10
3
psiÞ ¼
1966 Ain:=in:
2203 Ain:=in:
À596 Ain:=in:
3200 Arad
750 Arad
1750 Arad
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
Example Problem 3
An orthotropic composite is subjected to a state of stress that causes the
following state of strain:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
À1500 Am=m
2000 Am=m
1000 Am=m
À2500 Arad
500 Arad
À2000 Arad
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
Determine the stresses that caused these strains (use material properties
listed in Example Problem 1).
Solution. Because the composite is orthotropic, stresses are calculated using
Eq. (19). The stiffness matrix can be obtained by: (a) inverting the compliance
matrix determined as a part of Example Problem 1, (b) through the use of Eq.
(20), or (c) through the use of Eq. (21). All three methods are entirely
equivalent, and which procedure is selected for use is simply a matter of
convenience. Equation (21) will be used in this example:
X ¼ E
11
E
22
À m
2
12
E

22
À m
2
13
E
22
E
33
À m
2
23
E
11
E
33
À 2m
12
m
13
m
23
E
22
E
33
X ¼ fð170Þð10Þ À ð0:30Þ
2
ð10Þ
2
À ð0:35Þ
2
ð10Þð8Þ À ð0:40Þ
2
ð170Þð8Þ
À2ð0:30Þð0:35Þð0:40Þð10Þð8ÞgðGPaÞ
2
X ¼ 1457ðGPaÞ
2
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
C
11
¼
ðE
22
À m
2
23
E
33
ÞE
2
11
X
¼
fð10 GPaÞ À ð0:40Þ
2
ð8 GPaÞgð170 GPaÞ
2
1457ðGPaÞ
2
¼ 172:98 GPa
C
12
¼
ðm
12
E
22
þ m
13
m
23
E
33
ÞE
11
E
22
X
¼
fð0:30Þð10 GPaÞ þ ð0:35Þð0:40Þð8 GPaÞgð170 GPaÞð10 GPaÞ
1457ðGPaÞ
2
¼ 4:808 GPa
C
13
¼
ðm
12
m
23
þ m
13
ÞE
11
E
22
E
33
X
¼
fð0:30Þð0:40Þ þ ð0:35Þð170 GPaÞgð10 GPaÞð8 GPaÞ
1457ðGPaÞ
2
¼ 4:387 GPa
C
22
¼
ðE
11
þ m
2
13
E
33
ÞE
2
22
X
¼
fð170 GPaÞ À ð0:35Þ
2
ð8 GPaÞgð10 GPaÞ
1457ðGPaÞ
2
¼ 11:602 GPa
C
23
¼
ðm
23
E
11
þ m
12
m
13
E
22
ÞE
22
E
33
X
¼
fð0:40Þð170 GPaÞ þ ð0:35Þð0:35Þð10 GPaÞgð10 GPaÞð8 GPaÞ
1457ðGPaÞ
2
¼ 3:792 GPa
C
33
¼
ðE
11
À m
2
12
E
22
ÞE
22
E
33
X
¼
fð170 GPaÞ À ð0:30Þ
2
ð10 GPaÞgð10 GPaÞð8 GPaÞ
1457ðGPaÞ
2
¼ 9:286 GPa
C
44
¼ G
23
¼ 8 GPa C
55
¼ G
13
¼ 10 GPa C
66
¼ G
12
¼ 13 GPa
Applying Eq. (19), the stresses are:
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
172:98 4:808 4:387 0 0 0
4:808 11:602 3:792 0 0 0
4:387 3:792 9:286 0 0 0
0 0 0 8:0 0 0
0 0 0 0 10:0 0
0 0 0 0 0 13:0
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
ðGPaÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Â
À1500 Am=m
2000 Am=m
1000 Am=m
À2500 Arad
500 Arad
À2000 Arad
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
À245:5 MPa
19:78 MPa
10:29 MPa
À20:0 MPa
5:00 MPa
À26:0 MPa
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
Example Problem 4
A transversely isotropic composite is subjected to a state of stress that causes
the following state of strain:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
À1250 Ain:=in:
À1000 Ain:=in:
À500 Ain:=in:
À2500 Arad
À1000 Arad
2000 Arad
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
Determine the stresses that caused these strains (use material properties
listed in Example Problem 2)
Solution. Because the composite is transversely isotropic, stresses are calcu-
lated using Eq. (24). The stiffness matrix can be obtained by: (a) inverting the
compliance matrix determined as a part of Example Problem 2, (b) through
the use of Eq. (25), or (c) through the use of Eq. (26). All three methods are
entirely equivalent, and which procedure is selected for use is simply a matter
of convenience. Equation (26) will be used in this example:
X ¼ E
11
ð1 À m
23
Þ À 2m
2
12
E
22
X ¼ ð25 MsiÞð1 À 0:40Þ À 2ð0:30Þ
2
ð1:5 MsiÞ ¼ 14:73 Msi
C
11
¼
E
2
11
ð1 À m
23
Þ
X
¼
ð25 MsiÞ
2
ð1 À 0:40Þ
14:73 Msi
¼ 25:46 Msi
C
12
¼
m
12
E
11
E
22
X
¼
ð0:30Þð25 MsiÞð1:5 MsiÞ
14:73 Msi
¼ 0:7637 Msi
C
22
¼
E
22
ðE
11
À m
2
12
E
22
Þ
Xð1 þ m
23
Þ
¼
ð1:5 MsiÞ
È
ð25 MsiÞ À ð0:30Þ
2
ð1:5 MsiÞ
É
14:73 Msið1 þ 0:40Þ
¼ 1:809 Msi
C
23
¼
E
22
ðm
23
E
11
þ m
2
12
E
22
Þ
Xð1 þ m
23
Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
¼
ð1:5 MsiÞ
È
ð0:40Þð25 MsiÞ þ ð0:30Þ
2
ð1:5 MsiÞ
É
14:73Msið1 þ 0:40Þ
¼ 0:7372 Msi
C
44
¼
E
22
2ð1 þ m
23
Þ
¼
ð1:5 MsiÞ
2ð1 þ 0:40Þ
¼ 0:5357 Msi
C
66
¼ G
12
¼ 2:0 Msi
Applying Eq. (24), the stresses are:
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
25:46 0:7637 0:7637 0 0 0
0:7637 1:809 0:07372 0 0 0
0:7637 0:7372 1:809 0 0 0
0 0 0 0:5357 0 0
0 0 0 0 2:0 0
0 0 0 0 0 2:0
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
ðMsiÞ
Â
À1250 Ain:=in:
À1000 Ain:=in:
À500 Ain:=in:
À2500 Arad
À1000 Arad
À2000 Arad
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
À32:97 ksi
À3:13 ksi
À2:60 ksi
À1:34 ksi
À2:00 ksi
4:00 ksi
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
3 STRAINS INDUCED BY A CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE
OR MOISTURE CONTENT
Material properties relating strains to a uniform change in temperature and a
uniform change in moisture content were defined in Secs. 3 and 4 of Chap. 3,
respectively. For anisotropic materials, strains caused by a change in temper-
ature are given by Eq. (3.22), repeated here for convenience:
e
T
xx
e
T
xy
e
T
xz
e
T
yx
e
T
yy
e
T
yz
e
T
zx
e
T
zy
e
T
zz
2
6
4
3
7
5 ¼ DT
a
xx
a
xy
a
xz
a
yx
a
yy
a
yz
a
zx
a
zy
a
zz
2
6
4
3
7
5 ðrepeatedÞð3:22Þ
Similarly, strains caused by a change in moisture content are given by
Eq. (3.25), repeated here for convenience:
e
M
xx
c
M
xy
c
M
xz
c
M
yx
e
M
yy
c
M
yz
c
M
zx
c
M
zy
e
M
zz
2
6
4
3
7
5 ¼ ðDMÞ
b
xx
b
xy
b
xz
b
xy
b
yy
b
yz
b
xz
b
yz
b
zz
2
6
4
3
7
5 ðrepeatedÞð3:25Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
As before, the strain tensors must be symmetric. This allows the use of
contracted notation, and hence Eqs. (3.22) and (3.25) can be written in the
form of column arrays:
e
T
xx
e
T
yy
e
T
zz
c
T
yx
c
T
xz
c
T
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼ DT
a
xx
a
yy
a
zz
a
yz
a
xz
a
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ðandÞ
e
M
xx
e
M
yy
e
M
zz
c
M
yx
c
M
xz
c
M
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼ DT
b
xx
b
yy
b
zz
b
yz
b
xz
b
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð27Þ
In the case of an orthotropic material a
12
=a
13
=a
23
=b
12
=b
13
=
b
23
=0, and Eq. (27) becomes:
e
T
11
e
T
22
e
T
33
c
T
23
c
T
13
c
T
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼ DT
a
11
a
22
a
33
0
0
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ðandÞ
e
M
11
e
M
22
e
M
33
c
M
23
c
M
13
c
M
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼ DT
b
11
b
22
b
33
0
0
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð28Þ
In addition to these simplifications, for a transversely isotropic material
with symmetry in the 2–3 plane, a
33
=a
22
and b
33
=b
22
. Hence, for a trans-
versely isotropic material, Eq. (28) becomes:
e
T
11
e
T
22
e
T
33
c
T
23
c
T
13
c
T
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼ DT
a
11
a
22
a
22
0
0
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ðandÞ
e
M
11
e
M
22
e
M
33
c
M
23
c
M
13
c
M
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼ DT
b
11
b
22
b
22
0
0
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð29Þ
4 STRAINS INDUCED BY COMBINED EFFECTS OF STRESS,
TEMPERATURE, AND MOISTURE
The strains induced by stress under constant environmental conditions for
anisotropic materials were discussed in Sec. 1, and a similar discussion for
the case of orthotropic and transversely isotropic materials was presented in
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Sec. 2. Strains induced by a uniform change in temperature or moisture
content in the absence of stress was discussed for all three material
classifications in Sec. 3.
We will now consider the strains induced if all of these mechanisms
occur simultaneously. That is, we wish to consider the strains induced by the
combined effects of stress, a uniform change in temperature, and a uniform
change in moisture content. We will call this the total strain. Rigorously
speaking, the total strain tensor (e
ij
) is a nonlinear coupled function of these
three mechanisms:
e
ij
¼ fðr; T; MÞ
The function f( ) is a nonlinear function of stress, temperature, and
moisture content, even though we have limited our attention to linear rela-
tionships between strain and these three mechanisms. That is, we have
defined:

Young’s modulus as the slope of linear region of the stress–strain
curve (Sec. 2 of Chap. 3)

The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as the slope of the linear
region of the strain–DT curve (Sec. 3 of Chap. 3)

The coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) as the slope of the
linear region of the strain–DT curve (Sec. 4 of Chap. 3).
Despite these assumptions of linearity, the strain response may still be a
coupled function of stress, temperature, and moisture because a change in one
variable may cause a change in the other two. For example, for all polymer-
based materials, an increase in temperature will ordinarily cause a decrease in
Young’s modulus. Similarly, an increase in moisture content often causes an
increase in CTEs and a decrease in Young’s modulus.
These coupling effects are ignored throughout this text. It is assumed
that the strain response is an uncoupled function of stress, temperature, and
moisture. For example, we assume that Young’s modulus is measured under
some standard environmental condition (say, at room temperature and 0%
moisture content), and that subsequent changes in temperature or moisture
content are relatively modest such that Young’s modulus may be assumed to
remain constant. Based on these assumptions, the total strain tensor induced
in a structure is simply the sum of the strains induced by each of mechanism
acting independently:
e
ij
¼ e
r
ij
þ e
T
ij
þ e
M
ij
ð30Þ
The superscripts j, T, and Mused in Eq. (30) indicate that the individual
components of strain are caused by the application of stress, by a uniform
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
change in temperature, and by a uniform change in moisture content,
respectively.
Based on this assumption, for anisotropic materials, the total strain is
obtained by superimposing Eqs. (9) and (27):
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
c
yz
c
xz
c
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
S
11
S
12
S
13
S
14
S
15
S
16
S
21
S
22
S
23
S
24
S
25
S
26
S
31
S
32
S
33
S
34
S
35
S
36
S
41
S
42
S
43
S
44
S
45
S
46
S
51
S
52
S
53
S
54
S
55
S
56
S
61
S
62
S
63
S
64
S
65
S
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
xx
r
yy
r
zz
s
yz
s
xz
s
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
þDT
a
xx
a
yy
a
zz
a
yz
a
xz
a
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
þDM
b
xx
b
yy
b
zz
b
yz
b
xz
b
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð31Þ
Equation (31) allows the prediction of the strains induced by the
simultaneous effects of stress and uniform changes in temperature and/or
moisture content. In practice, the inverse problem is often encountered. That
is, a common circumstance is that the strains, the change in temperature, and
the change in moisture content have been measured, and we wish to calculate
stresses. This can be accomplished by inverting Eq. (31) according to the laws
of matrix algebra, resulting in:
r
xx
r
yy
r
zz
s
yz
s
xz
s
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
21
C
22
C
23
C
24
C
25
C
26
C
31
C
32
C
33
C
34
C
35
C
36
C
41
C
42
C
43
C
44
C
45
C
46
C
51
C
52
C
53
C
54
C
55
C
56
C
61
C
62
C
63
C
64
C
65
C
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
Â
e
xx
ÀDTa
xx
ÀDMb
xx
e
yy
ÀDTa
yy
ÀDMb
yy
e
zz
ÀDTa
zz
ÀDMb
zz
c
yz
ÀDTa
yz
ÀDMb
yz
c
xz
ÀDTa
xz
ÀDMb
xz
c
xy
ÀDTa
xy
ÀDMb
xy
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð32Þ
where the stiffness matrix C
ij
=S
ij
À1
, as discussed in Sec. 1.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Following an analogous procedure, the strains induced in an ortho-
tropic material by the combined effects of stress, a uniform change in
temperature, and/or a uniform change in moisture content can be found by
superimposing Eqs. (17) and (28):
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
S
11
S
12
S
13
0 0 0
S
12
S
22
S
23
0 0 0
S
13
S
23
S
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 S
44
0 0
0 0 0 0 S
55
0
0 0 0 0 0 S
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
þDT
a
11
a
22
a
33
0
0
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
þDM
b
11
b
22
b
33
0
0
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð33Þ
Inverting Eq. (33), we obtain:
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
C
11
C
12
C
13
0 0 0
C
12
C
22
C
23
0 0 0
C
13
C
23
C
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 C
44
0 0
0 0 0 0 C
55
0
0 0 0 0 0 C
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
Â
e
11
ÀDTa
11
ÀDMb
11
e
22
ÀDTa
22
ÀDMb
22
e
33
ÀDTa
33
ÀDMb
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð34Þ
As discussed in preceding chapters, an implicit assumption in Eqs. (33)
and (34) is that the strain tensor, stress tensor, and material properties are all
referenced to the principal material coordinate system of the orthotropic
material (i.e., the 1–2–3 coordinate system). If an orthotropic is referenced to
a nonprincipal material coordinate system, then the relation between strain,
stress, temperature, and moisture content is given by Eq. (31) or Eq. (32).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Finally, the strains induced in a transversely isotropic material by the
combined effects of stress, a uniformchange in temperature, and/or a uniform
change in moisture content can be found by superimposing Eqs. (23) and
(29):
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
S
11
S
12
S
12
0 0 0
S
12
S
22
S
23
0 0 0
S
12
S
23
S
22
0 0 0
0 0 0 2ðS
22
À S
23
Þ 0 0
0 0 0 0 S
66
0
0 0 0 0 0 S
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
þDT
a
11
a
22
a
22
0
0
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
þDM
b
11
b
22
b
22
0
0
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð35Þ
Inverting Eq. (35), we have:
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
¼
C
11
C
12
C
13
0 0 0
C
12
C
22
C
23
0 0 0
C
12
C
23
C
22
0 0 0
0 0 0 ðC
22
À C
23
Þ=2 0 0
0 0 0 0 C
66
0
0 0 0 0 0 C
66
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
Â
e
11
ÀDTa
11
ÀDMb
11
e
22
ÀDTa
22
ÀDMb
22
e
33
ÀDTa
22
ÀDMb
22
c
23
c
13
c
12
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð36Þ
Once again, Eqs. (35) and (36) are valid only if referenced to the
principal material coordinate system of the transversely isotropic material
(i.e., the 1–2–3 coordinate system). If a transversely isotropic material is
referenced to a nonprincipal material coordinate system, then the relation
between strain, stress, temperature, and moisture content is given by Eq. (31)
or Eq. (32).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
An anisotropic material with the following properties is considered in
problems 1–4:
E
xx
¼ 100 GPa E
yy
¼ 200 GPa E
zz
¼ 75 GPa
v
xy
¼ 0:20 v
xz
¼ À0:25 v
yz
¼ 0:60
G
xy
¼ 60 GPa G
xz
¼ 75 GPa G
yz
¼ 50 GPa
g
xx;xy
¼ À0:30 g
xx;xz
¼ 0:25 g
xx;yz
¼ 0:30
g
yy;xy
¼ 0:60 g
yy;xz
¼ 0:75 g
yy;yz
¼ 0:20
g
zz;xy
¼ À0:20 g
zz;xz
¼ À0:05 g
zz;yz
¼ À0:15
l
xy;xz
¼ À0:10 l
xy;yz
¼ À0:05 g
xz;yz
¼ 0:10
a
xx
¼ 5 Am=m ÀjC a
yy
¼ 10 Am=m ÀjC a
zz
¼ 20 Am=m À jC
a
xy
¼ À5 Arad=jC a
xz
¼ 15 Arad=jC a
yz
¼ 25 Arad=jC
b
xx
¼300 Am=m%M b
yy
¼ 60 Am=m%M b
zz
¼1200 Am=m%M
b
xy
¼150 Arad=%M b
xz
¼À1000 Arad=%M b
yz
¼À350 Arad=%M
1. Calculate the compliance matrix, S
ij
.
2. Calculate the stiffness matrix, C
ij
=S
ij
À1
. (Performthis calculation using a
suitable software package such as Maple, Matlab, Mathematica, etc.)
3. Consider the following stress tensor:
r
ij
¼
r
xx
r
xy
r
xz
r
yx
r
yy
r
yz
r
zx
r
zy
r
zz
2
4
3
5
¼
75 10 À25
10 À90 30
À25 30 25
2
4
3
5
ðMPaÞ
(a) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor, assuming no
change in temperature or moisture content (i.e., assume
DT=DM=0).
(b) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor and a temper-
ature increase of 100jC (assume DM=0).
(c) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor and a 2%
increase in moisture content (assume DT=0).
(d) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor, a temperature
increase of 100jC, and a 2% increase in moisture content.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
4. Consider the following strains:
e
xx
¼ 1500 Am=m e
yy
¼ À2000 Am=m e
zz
¼ À1750 Am=m
c
xy
¼ 750 Arad c
xz
¼ À500 Arad c
yz
¼ 850 Arad
(a) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, assuming no
change in temperature or moisture content (i.e., assuming
DT=DM=0).
(b) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, if these strains
were caused by the simultaneous effects of stress and a temperature
decrease of 100jC (assume DM=0).
(c) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, if these strains
were caused by the simultaneous effects of stress, a temperature
decrease of 100jC, and a 2% increase in moisture content.
An orthotropic material with the following properties is considered in
problems 5–8:
E
11
¼ 100 GPa E
22
¼ 200 GPa E
33
¼ 75 GPa
m
12
¼ 0:20 m
13
¼ À0:25 m
23
¼ 0:60
G
12
¼ 60 GPa G
13
¼ 75 GPa G
23
¼ 50 GPa
a
11
¼ 1 Am=mjC a
22
¼ 25 Am=mjC a
33
¼ 15 Am=mjC
b
11
¼ 100 Am=m%M b
22
¼ 600 Am=m%M b
33
¼ 1000 Am=m%M
5. Calculate the compliance matrix, S
ij
.
6. Calculate the stiffness matrix, C
ij
.
7. Consider the following stress tensor:
r
ij
¼
r
11
r
12
r
13
r
21
r
22
r
23
r
31
r
32
r
33
2
6
4
3
7
5 ¼
75 10 À25
10 À90 30
À25 30 25
2
4
3
5
ðMPaÞ
(a) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor, assuming no
change in temperature or moisture content (i.e., assume DT=
DM=0).
(b) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor and a temper-
ature increase of 100jC (assume DM=0).
(c) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor and a 2%
increase in moisture content (assume DT=0).
(d) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor, a temperature
increase of 100jC, and a 2% increase in moisture content.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
8. Consider the following strains:
e
11
¼ À2000 Am=m e
22
¼ 3000 Am=m e
33
¼ 1500 Am=m
c
12
¼ 750 Arad c
13
¼ À1000 Arad c
23
¼ 1250 Arad
(a) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, assuming no
change in temperature or moisture content (i.e., assuming
DT=DM=0).
(b) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, if these strains
were caused by the simultaneous effects of stress and a temperature
decrease of 100jC (assume DM=0).
(c) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, if these strains
were caused by the simultaneous effects of stress, a temperature
decrease of 100jC, and a 2% increase in moisture content.
REFERENCE
1. Jones, R.M. Mechanics of Composite Materials; Hemisphere Publ. Co.: New
York, NY, 1975; ISBN 0-89116-490-1.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5
Unidirectional Composite Laminates Subject
to Plane Stress
This chapter is devoted to the elastic behavior and failure response of
unidirectional composite laminates. In the present context, the term ‘‘uni-
directional’’ is meant to imply that although the laminates considered may
contain many plies, the principal material coordinate system in all plies is
oriented in the same direction. It is also assumed that the laminate is thin and
platelike, such that a state of plane stress exists.
Four primary topics are addressed in this chapter. First, in Sec. 1, the
elastic response of a unidirectional composite referenced to the principal ma-
terial coordinate system and subject to a plane stress state will be described.
This will lead to a so-called ‘‘reduced’’ formof Hooke’s law. Second, in Secs. 2
and 3, the elastic response of a unidirectional composite referenced to an
arbitrary (nonprincipal) coordinate system is discussed, which will lead to the
definition of the ‘‘transformed, reduced’’ form of Hooke’s law. The ‘‘effec-
tive’’ elastic properties of a unidirectional composite laminate are then
discussed in Sec. 4. We then turn our attention to the prediction of composite
failure. In Sec. 5, several macromechanics-based failure theories are defined
and used to predict the failure of a unidirectional laminate referenced to the
principal material coordinate system. These theories are then used to predict
the failure of a unidirectional composite laminate referenced to an arbitrary
(nonprincipal) coordinate system in Sec. 6.
193
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
1 UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES REFERENCED TO THE
PRINCIPAL MATERIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
The strains induced in an orthotropic material subjected to a general 3-D
stress tensor, a uniform change in temperature, and/or a uniform change in
moisture content were described in Chap. 4. The strain response is summa-
rized by Eq. (33) of Chap. 4, repeated here for convenience:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
13
0 0 0
S
12
S
22
S
23
0 0 0
S
13
S
23
S
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 S
44
0 0
0 0 0 0 S
55
0
0 0 0 0 0 S
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
r
11
r
22
r
33
s
23
s
13
s
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
þDT
a
11
a
22
a
33
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
þDM
b
11
b
22
b
33
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Three mechanisms that contribute to the total strains appear in the
above equation: strains caused by stress, strains caused by a uniform change
in temperature (DT), and strains caused by a uniform change in moisture
content (DM). Equation (33) of Chap. 4 is valid for any orthotropic material,
as long as the strain tensor, stress tensor, and material properties are all
referenced to the principal 1–2–3 coordinate system. Let us now consider the
strains induced in an orthotropic material by a state of plane stress. Assuming
that r
33
=s
23
=s
13
=0, Eq. (33) of Chap. 4 becomes:
e
11
e
22
e
33
c
23
c
13
c
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
13
0 0 0
S
12
S
22
S
23
0 0 0
S
13
S
23
S
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 S
44
0 0
0 0 0 0 S
55
0
0 0 0 0 0 S
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
r
11
r
22
0
0
0
s
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
þDT
a
11
a
22
a
33
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
þDM
b
11
b
22
b
33
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð1Þ
Note that Eq. (1) shows that in the case of plane stress, the out-of-plane shear
strains are always equal to zero (c
23
=c
13
=0). It is customary to write the
expressions for the remaining four strain components as follows:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þDT
a
11
a
22
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þDM
b
11
b
22
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð2aÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
and
e
33
¼ S
13
r
11
þ S
23
r
22
þDTa
33
þDMb
33
ð2bÞ
Equations (2a) and (2b) are called the reduced forms of Hooke’s law for
an orthotropic composite. They are only valid for a state of plane stress and
are called ‘‘reduced’’ laws because we have reduced the allowable stress tensor
from three dimensions to two dimensions. The 3Â3 array in Eq. (2a) is called
the reduced compliance matrix. Note that despite the reduction from three to
two dimensions, we have retained the subscripts used in the original com-
pliance matrix. For example, the element that appears in the (3,3) position of
the reduced compliance matrix is labeled S
66
. The definition of each com-
pliance term is not altered by the reduction fromthree to two dimensions, and
each term is still related to the more familiar engineering constants (E
11
, E
22
,
v
12
, etc.) in accordance with Eq. (18) of Chap. 4.
Inverting Eq. (2a), we obtain:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
Q
11
Q
12
0
Q
12
Q
22
0
0 0 Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
11
ÀDTa
11
ÀDMb
11
e
22
ÀDTa
22
ÀDMb
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð3Þ
The 3Â3 array that appears in Eq. (3) is called the reduced stiffness
matrix and equals the inverse of the reduced compliance matrix:
Q
11
Q
12
0
Q
12
Q
22
0
0 0 Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_u
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
À1
ð4Þ
Note that we are now using a different symbol to denote stiffness. That
is, the original 3-D stiffness matrix was denoted C
ij
(as in Eq. (19) of Chap. 4,
for example), whereas the reduced stiffness matrix is denoted Q
ij
. This change
in notation is required because individual members of the reduced stiffness
matrix are not equal to the corresponding members in the original stiffness
matrix. That is, Q
11
p C
11
, Q
12
p C
12
, Q
22
p C
22
, and Q
66
p C
66
. Relations
between Q
ij
and C
ij
can be derived as follows. From Eq. (19) of Chap. 4, it can
be seen that for an orthotropic material subjected to an arbitrary state of
stress:
r
11
¼ C
11
e
11
þ C
12
e
22
þ C
13
e
33
ð5aÞ
and
r
33
¼ C
13
e
11
þ C
23
e
22
þ C
33
e
33
ð5bÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
However, the reduced stiffness matrix relates stress to strain under conditions
of plane stress by definition. Setting r
33
=0 and solving Eq. (5b) for e
33
, we
have:
e
33
¼
À C
13
e
11
þ C
23
e
22
ð Þ
C
33
ð6Þ
The out-of-plane strain e
33
must be related to in-plane strains e
11
and e
22
in
accordance with Eq. (6), otherwise, a state of plane stress does not exist in the
composite. Substituting Eq. (6) into Eq. (5a) and simplifying, we have:
r
11
¼
C
11
C
33
À C
2
13
C
33
_ _
e
11
þ
C
12
C
33
À C
13
C
23
C
33
_ _
e
22
ð7Þ
On the other hand, from Eq. (3), r
11
is given by (with DT=DM=0):
r
11
¼ Q
11
e
11
þ Q
12
e
22
ð8Þ
Comparing Eqs. (7) and (8), it is immediately apparent that:
Q
11
¼
C
11
C
33
À C
2
13
C
33
ð9aÞ
Q
12
¼
C
12
C
33
À C
13
C
23
C
33
ð9bÞ
Using a similar procedure, it can be shown that:
Q
22
¼
C
22
C
33
À C
2
23
C
33
ð9cÞ
Q
66
¼ C
66
ð9dÞ
In essence, the definition of elements of the Q
ij
matrix differs from those of the
C
ij
matrix because the Q
ij
matrix is defined for plane stress conditions only,
whereas C
ij
can be used for any stress state.
Elements of the reduced stiffness matrix may be related to the elements
of the compliance matrix by either substituting Eq. (20) of Chap. 4 in Eqs.
(9a)–(9d), or by simply performing the matrix inversion indicated in Eq. (4).
In either case, it will be found that:
Q
11
¼
S
22
S
11
S
22
À S
2
12
Q
12
¼ Q
21
¼
ÀS
12
S
11
S
22
À S
2
12
Q
22
¼
S
11
S
11
S
22
À S
2
12
Q
66
¼
1
S
66
ð10Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Alternatively, the elements of the reduced stiffness matrix are related to
more familiar engineering constants as follows:
Q
11
¼
E
2
11
E
11
À m
2
12
E
22
Q
12
¼ Q
21
¼
m
12
E
11
E
22
E
11
À m
2
12
E
22
Q
22
¼
E
11
E
22
E
11
À m
2
12
E
22
Q
66
¼ G
12
ð11Þ
Equations (1)–(11) were developed assuming that the composite is an
orthotropic material. Now consider the response of a transversely isotropic
composite subjected to a state of plane stress. As before, we assume that
r
33
=s
23
=s
13
=0. From Eq. (34) of Chap. 4, it is seen that the out-of-plane
shear strains equal zero (c
23
=c
13
=0), and the remaining four strains can be
written as:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þDT
a
11
a
22
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þDM
b
11
b
22
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð12aÞ
and
e
33
¼ S
12
r
11
þ S
23
r
22
þDTa
22
þDMb
22
ð12bÞ
Comparing Eq. (12a) with Eq. (2a), it is seen that the relationship
between in-plane strains (e
11
, e
22
, and c
12
) and in-plane stress components
(r
11
, r
22
, and s
12
) is identical for orthotropic and transversely isotropic
materials. In fact, identical results are obtained for the out-of-plane normal
strain as well since for a transversely isotropic material, S
13
=S
12
, a
33
=a
22
,
and b
33
=b
22
, and therefore Eq. (2b) is equivalent to Eq. (12b). Consequently,
Eq. (3) can also be applied to a transversely isotropic material. Equations
(9a)–(9d) are also still applicable except that for a transversely isotropic
material (with symmetry in the 2–3 plane), C
33
=C
22
and C
13
=C
12
.
Inverting Eq. (12a), we obtain:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
Q
11
Q
12
0
Q
12
Q
22
0
0 0 Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
11
ÀDTa
11
ÀDMb
11
e
22
ÀDTa
22
ÀDMb
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Since this result is identical to Eq. (3), it is seen once again that the relationship
between in-plane strains (e
11
, e
22
, and c
12
) and in-plane stress components
(r
11
, r
22
, and s
12
) is identical for orthotropic and transversely isotropic
materials.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Example Problem 1
Determine the strains induced in a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite
subjected to the in-plane stresses shown in Fig. 1. Assume that DT=DM=0
and use material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
Solution. The magnitude of each stress component is indicated in Fig. 1.
Based on the sign conventions reviewed in Sec. 5 of Chap. 2, the algebraic sign
of each stress component is:
r
11
¼ 200 MPa r
22
¼ À30 MPa s
12
¼ À50 MPa
Strains can be calculated using either Eq. (2a) or Eq. (12a). Since DT=
DM=0, we have:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Each termwithinthe reduced compliance matrix is calculated using Eq. (18) of
Chap. 4:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
1
E
11
Àm
12
E
11
0
Àm
12
E
11
1
E
22
0
0 0
1
G
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Figure 1 Unidirectional composite subjected to in-plane stresses (magnitudes
of in-plane stresses shown).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
From Table 3 of Chap. 3:
E
11
¼ 170 GPa E
22
¼ 10 GPa
m
12
¼ 0:30 G
12
¼ 13 GPa
Using these values:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
5:88 Â 10
À12
À1:76 Â 10
À12
0
À1:76 Â 10
À12
100 Â 10
À12
0
0 0 76:9 Â 10
À12
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
1
Pa
_ _
Â
200 Â 10
6
À30 Â 10
6
À50 Â 10
6
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Pa ð Þ
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, we obtain:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
1230 Am=m
À3350 Am=m
À3850 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Example Problem 2
Determine the strain induced in a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite
subjected to
(a) The in-plane stresses shown in Fig. 1.
(b) A decrease in temperature DT=À155jC.
(c) An increase in moisture content DM=0.5%.
Use material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
Solution. This problem involves three different mechanisms that contribute
to the total strain induced in the laminate: the applied stresses, the temper-
ature change, and the change in moisture content. The total strains induced
by all three mechanisms can be calculated using either Eq. (2a) or Eq. (12a):
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þDT
a
11
a
22
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þDM
b
11
b
22
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Numerical values for the stresses and reduced compliance matrix are given in
Example 1, and the linear thermal and moisture expansion coefficients for
graphite–epoxy are (from Table 3 of Chap. 3):
a
11
¼ À0:9 Am=m=
o
C
a
22
¼ 27 Am=m=
o
C
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
b
11
¼ 150 Am=m=%M
b
22
¼ 4800 Am=m=%M
Hence, Eq. 2(a) or Eq. (12a) becomes:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
5:88 Â 10
À12
À1:76 Â 10
À12
0
À1:76 Â 10
À12
100 Â 10
À12
0
0 0 76:9 Â 10
À12
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
200 Â 10
6
À30 Â 10
6
À50 Â 10
6
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ À155 ð Þ
À0:9 Â 10
À6
27 Â 10
À6
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ 0:5 ð Þ
Â
150 Â 10
À6
4800 Â 10
À6
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, we obtain:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
1230 Am=m
À3350 Am=m
À3850 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ
140 Am=m
À4185 Am=m
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ
75 Am=m
2400 Am=m
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
1445 Am=m
À5135 Am=m
À3850 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
An implicit assumption in this problem is that the composite is free to expand
or contract, as dictated by changes in temperature and/or moisture content.
Consequently, neither DT nor DM affects the state of stress, but rather affects
only the state of strain. Conversely, if the composite is not free to expand or
contract, then a change in temperature and/or moisture content does con-
tribute to the state of stress, as illustrated in Example Problem 3.
Example Problem 3
A thin, unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite laminate is firmly mounted
within an infinitely rigid square frame, as shown in Fig. 2. The coefficients of
thermal and moisture expansion of the rigid frame equal zero.
The composite is initially stress-free. Subsequently, however, the com-
posite/frame assembly is subjected to a decrease in temperature DT=À155jC
and an increase in moisture content DM=0.5%. Determine the stresses
induced in the composite by this change in temperature and moisture content.
Use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3 and ignore the
possibility that the thin composite will buckle if compressive stresses occur.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Solution. According to the problem statement, the frame is ‘‘infinitely rigid’’
and is made of a material whose thermal and moisture expansion coefficients
equal zero. Consequently, the frame will retain its original shape, regardless
of the temperature change, moisture change, or stresses imposed on the frame
by the composite laminate. Furthermore, the composite is ‘‘firmly mounted’’
within the frame. Together, these stipulations imply that the composite does
not change shape, although changes in temperature and moisture content
have occurred. Consequently, the total strains experienced by the composite
equal zero:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
0
0
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
The stresses induced can be calculated using Eq. (3):
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
Q
11
Q
12
0
Q
12
Q
22
0
0 0 Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
11
ÀDTa
11
ÀDMb
11
e
22
ÀDTa
22
ÀDMb
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
The terms within the reduced stiffness matrix are calculated in accordance
with Eq. (11):
Q
11
¼
E
2
11
E
11
À m
2
12
E
22
¼
170 GPa ð Þ
2
170 GPa À 0:30 ð Þ
2
10 GPa ð Þ
¼ 170:9 GPa
Figure 2 Unidirectional composite laminate mounted within an infinitely rigid
frame.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Q
12
¼ Q
21
¼
m
12
E
11
E
22
E
11
À m
2
12
E
22
¼
0:30 ð Þ 170 GPa ð Þ 10 GPa ð Þ
170 GPa À 0:30 ð Þ
2
10 GPa ð Þ
¼ 3:016 GPa
Q
22
¼
E
11
E
22
E
11
À m
2
12
E
22
¼
170 GPa ð Þ 10 GPa ð Þ
170 GPa À 0:30 ð Þ
2
10 GPa ð Þ
¼ 10:05 GPa
Q
66
¼ G
12
¼ 13 GPa
Hence, in this case, Eq. (3) becomes:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
170:9 Â 10
9
3:016 Â 10
9
0
3:016 Â 10
9
10:05 Â 10
9
0
0 0 13:0 Â 10
9
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
0 À À155 ð Þ À0:9 Â 10
À6
_ _
À 0:5 ð Þ 150 Â 10
À6
_ _
0 À À155 ð Þ 27 Â 10
À6
_ _
À 0:5 ð Þ 4800 Â 10
À6
_ _
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
Â
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
À31:36 MPa
17:29 MPa
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
The reader may initially view this example to be somewhat unrealistic.
After all, the frame has been assumed to be ‘‘infinitely rigid.’’ In reality, an
infinitely rigid material (i.e., one for which E!l) does not exist. Further-
more, it is assumed that the thermal expansion coefficient for the frame is zero,
which is also not valid for most real materials (the assumption that the
moisture expansion coefficient is zero is true for metals and metal alloys).
Despite these unrealistic assumptions, this example problem illustrates
a common occurrence in composite laminates. Specifically, most modern
composites are cured at an elevated temperature (for example, many
graphite–epoxy systems are cured at 175jCc350jF). The composite can
normally be considered to be stress- and strain-free at the cure temperature.
After the cure is complete, the composite is typically cooled to room
temperatures, say 20jCc70jF, which corresponds to a temperature de-
crease of DT=À155jCcÀ280jF. Also, the moisture content immediately
after the cure can usually be assumed to equal 0%, but will slowly increase
following exposure to normal humidity levels over subsequent days or
weeks. Although adsorption of moisture rarely causes a significant gain in
weight (most composites adsorb a maximum of 3–4% moisture by weight,
even if totally immersed in water), even this slight gain in moisture content
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
can nevertheless cause significant strains to develop. If a DT and/or DM
occur, and if the unidirectional composite is not free to expand or contract
as dictated by these changes, then thermal- and/or moisture-induced stresses
will develop.
2 UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES REFERENCED TO AN
ARBITRARY COORDINATE SYSTEM
A unidirectional composite referenced to two different coordinate systems
is shown in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3(a), the composite is referenced to the principal
material coordinate system (i.e., the 1–2 coordinate system), and in this case,
either Eqs. (2a) and (2b) or Eq. (3) may be used to relate strains and stresses
within the composite.
In Fig. 3(b), however, the composite is referenced to an arbitrary
(nonprincipal) x–y coordinate system. This is often called an ‘‘off-axis’’ spec-
imen since the specimen is referenced to an arbitrary x–y coordinate system
rather than the principal 1–2 coordinate system. Suppose we wish to relate
strains and stresses referenced to the x–y coordinate system. For example,
suppose we know the stresses r
xx
, r
yy
, and s
xy
, as well as the material
properties referenced to the principal material coordinate system (E
11
, E
22
,
m
12
, etc.), and wish to calculate strains e
xx
, e
yy
, and c
xy
. In this case, neither
Eqs. (2a) and (2b) nor Eq. (3) can be used directly since they require that the
stresses and strains be referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system.
We can perform this calculation using a three-step process. Specifically,
we can:
(a) Transform the known stresses from the x–y coordinate system to
the 1–2 coordinate system (using Eq. 20 of Chap. 2, for example),
which will give us the stress components r
11
, r
22
, and s
12
that
correspond to the known values of r
xx
, r
yy
, and s
xy
.
(b) Apply Eq. (2a) to obtain in-plane strains e
11
, e
22
, and c
12
.
(c) Transform the calculated strains (e
11
, e
22
, and c
12
) from the 1–2
coordinate system back to the x–y coordinate system, finally
obtaining the desired strains e
xx
, e
yy
, and c
xy
.
This three-step process is a rigorously valid procedure. However, it will later
be seen that during the analysis of a multi-angle composite laminate, the
process of transforming strains/stresses from an arbitrary x–y coordinate
system to the 1–2 coordinate system (and vice versa) must be performed for
each ply in the laminate. Since this transformation is encountered so
frequently, it becomes cumbersome to apply the three-step process for every
ply. Instead, it is very convenient to simply develop a formof reduced Hooke’s
law suitable for use in an arbitrary x–y coordinate system. In effect, we will
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 3 A unidirectional composite referenced to two different coordinate
systems.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
transform Hooke’s law from the 1–2 coordinate system to an arbitrary x–y
coordinate system.
To simplify our discussion, assume for the moment that no change in
environment occurs, i.e., assume that DT=DM=0. In this case, Eq. (2a)
becomes:
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð13Þ
Equation (13) can be rewritten as:
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð14Þ
In Eq. (14), we have employed the so-called ‘‘Reuter matrix’’ (named
after the person who suggested this approach [1]) to, in effect, divide the shear
strain by a factor of (1/2) within the strain array. Let:
R ½ Š ¼
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ and ð Þ S ½ Š ¼
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
so that Eq. (14) can be written in the following abbreviated form:
R ½ Š
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ S ½ Š
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
The transformation of strains within a plane from an x–y coordinate
systemto another xV–yV coordinate systemwas discussed in Sec. 13 of Chap. 2.
Adopting Eq. (44) of Chap. 2 for our use here (i.e., using axes labels 1 and 2,
rather than xV and yV, respectively), we have:
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
sin
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ T ½ Š
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Similarly, the transformation of stress within a plane was discussed in Sec. 8 of
Chap. 2, and Eq. (20) of Chap. 2 can be adopted as follows:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
sin
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ T ½ Š
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
As pointed out in Chap. 2, the identical transformation matrix, [T], is used to
relate strains and stresses in the two coordinate systems:
T ½ Š ¼
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
sin
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Inserting these transformation relationships into Eq. (14), we have:
R ½ Š T ½ Š ¼
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ S ½ Š T ½ Š
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð15Þ
To simplify Eq. (15), first multiply both sides of Eq. (15) by the inverse of the
Reuter matrix, [R]
À1
, and then by the inverse of the transformation matrix,
[T]
À1
:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ T ½ Š
À1
R ½ Š
À1
S ½ Š T ½ Š
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð16Þ
where:
R ½ Š
À1
¼
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1=2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
and
T ½ Š
À1
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
sin
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
We next extract the factor of (
1

2
) from the shear strain within the strain array
using the [R]
À1
matrix:
R ½ Š
À1
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ T ½ Š
À1
R ½ Š
À1
S ½ Š T ½ Š
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð17Þ
Multiplying both sides of Eq. (17) by the [R] matrix, we arrive at our
final result:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ R ½ Š T ½ Š
À1
R ½ Š
À1
S ½ Š T ½ Š
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð18Þ
Equation (18) represents an ‘‘off-axis’’ version of Hooke’s Law. That is,
it relates the strains induced in the arbitrary x–y coordinate system (e
xx
, e
yy
,
and c
xy
) to the stresses in the same x–y coordinate system(r
xx
, r
yy
, and s
xy
) via
material properties referenced to the principal 1–2 coordinate system (repre-
sented by the [S] matrix) and the fiber angle h (represented by the trans-
formation matrix [T]). Completing the matrix algebra indicated, we obtain:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ S
_ ¸
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð19Þ
where:
S
_ ¸
¼ R ½ Š T ½ Š
À1
R ½ Š
À1
S ½ Š T ½ Š
Equation (19) is known as transformed reduced Hooke’s law. It is called
‘‘transformed’’ because Eq. (19) has been transformed from the 1–2 coor-
dinate system to the x–y coordinate system, and ‘‘reduced’’ because we have
reduced the allowable state of stress from three dimensions to two dimen-
sions [i.e., Eq. (19) is only valid for a plane stress state]. Matrix [S] is called
the transformed reduced compliance matrix.* In expanded form, Eq. (19) is
written as:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
16
S
21
S
22
S
26
S
61
S
62
S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð20Þ
* In common parlance, the [
ÀÀ
S] matrix is often called the ‘‘S-bar’’ matrix.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
where:
S
11
¼S
11
cos
4
hþ 2S
12
þS
66
ð Þcos
2
h sin
2
hþS
22
sin
4
h
S
12
¼S
21
¼S
12
cos
4
hþsin
4
h
_ _
þ S
11
þS
22
ÀS
66
ð Þcos
2
h sin
2
h
S
16
¼S
61
¼ 2S
11
À2S
12
ÀS
66
ð Þcos
3
h sin hÀ 2S
22
À2S
12
ÀS
66
ð Þ cos h sin
3
h
S
22
¼S
11
sin
4
hþ 2S
12
þS
66
ð Þcos
2
h sin
2
hþS
22
cos
4
h
S
26
¼S
62
¼ 2S
11
À2S
12
ÀS
66
ð Þcos h sin
3
hÀ 2S
22
À2S
12
ÀS
66
ð Þcos
3
h sin h
S
66
¼2 2S
11
þ2S
22
À4S
12
ÀS
66
ð Þ cos
2
h sin
2
hþS
66
cos
4
hþsin
4
h
_ _
ð21Þ
Three important observations should be made regarding the trans-
formed reduced compliance matrix. First, we have retained the original
subscripts used in our earlier discussion of 3-D states of stress and strain.
For example, the term that appears in the (3,3) position of the transformed
reduced compliance matrix is labeled S
66
. Secondly, the [S ] matrix is
symmetric. Therefore, S
21
¼ S
12
, S
61
¼ S
16
, and S
62
¼ S
26
, as indicated in
Eq. (21). Third, the [S] matrix is fully populated. That is, (in general) none of
the terms within the [S] matrix equal zero, in contrast to the [S] matrix where
four off-diagonal terms equal zero [see Eq. (2a)]. This simply reveals the
anisotropic nature of unidirectional composites. Following the convention
adopted earlier, a unidirectional composite laminate referenced to the princi-
pal 1–2 coordinate system is referred to as an orthotropic (or transversely
isotropic) material, whereas if the same material is referenced to an arbitrary
(nonprincipal) x–y coordinate system, it is called an anisotropic material.
Since neither S
16
nor S
26
is equal to zero for an anisotropic composite, a
coupling exists between shear stress and normal strains. That is, a shear stress
s
xy
will cause normal strains e
xx
and e
yy
to occur, as indicated by Eq. (20). This
coupling does not occur for orthotropic or transversely isotropic composites
(or for that matter, for isotropic materials).
Let us now include thermal and moisture strains in the transformed,
reduced form of Hooke’s law. In the 1–2 coordinate system, in-plane thermal
strains are given by:
e
T
11
e
T
22
c
T
12
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼ DT
a
11
a
22
0
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
ð22Þ
As has been previously discussed, in the 1–2 coordinate system, a
uniform change in temperature does not produce a shear strain, i.e., a
12
=0.
Now, thermally induced strains can be transformed from one coordinate
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
system to another in exactly the same way as mechanically induced strains are
transformed. That is, we can relate thermal strains in the 1–2 coordinate
system to the x–y coordinate system using the transformation matrix:
e
T
11
e
T
22
c
T
12
=2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
sin
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Â
e
T
xx
e
T
yy
c
T
xy
=2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
Inverting this expression, we have:
e
T
xx
e
T
yy
c
T
xy
=2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼ T ½ Š
À1
e
T
11
e
T
22
0
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
sin
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Â
e
T
11
e
T
22
c
T
12
=2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
ð23Þ
Substituting Eq. (22) in this result, completing the matrix multiplication
indicated, and simplifying the resulting expressions, we obtain:
e
T
xx
e
T
yy
c
T
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼ DT
a
xx
a
yy
a
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
ð24Þ
where:
a
xx
¼ a
11
cos
2
h ð Þ þ a
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
a
yy
¼ a
11
sin
2
h ð Þ þ a
22
cos
2
h ð Þ ð25Þ
a
xy
¼ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ a
11
À a
22
ð Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
In Sec. 6, we will define the properties of a unidirectional composite laminate
when referenced to an arbitrary x–y coordinate system. As further discussed
there, Eq. (25) defines the effective coefficients of thermal expansion for an
anisotropic composite laminate. Note that for anisotropic composites, a
coupling exists between a uniform change in temperature and shear strain.
That is, a change in temperature causes shear strain c
xy
T
as well as normal
strains e
xx
T
and e
yy
T
.
In the 1–2 coordinate system, the in-plane strains caused by a uniform
change in moisture content are given by:
e
M
11
e
M
22
c
M
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ DM
b
11
b
22
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð26Þ
As was the case for thermal strains, we wish to express strains induced by DM
in an arbitrary x–y coordinate system. Using the identical procedure as
before, moisture strains in the x–y coordinate system are given by:
e
M
xx
e
M
yy
c
M
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ DM
b
xx
b
yy
b
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð27Þ
where:
b
xx
¼ b
11
cos
2
h ð Þ þ b
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
b
yy
¼ b
11
sin
2
h ð Þ þ b
22
cos
2
h ð Þ ð28Þ
b
xy
¼ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ b
11
À b
22
ð Þ
In Sec. 6, we will define the effective properties of a unidirectional
composite laminate when referenced to an arbitrary x–y coordinate system.
As further discussed there, Eq. (28) defines the effective coefficients of
moisture expansion for an anisotropic composite laminate.
We can now calculate the strains induced by the combined effects of
stress, a uniform change in temperature, and a uniform change in moisture
content. Specifically, adding Eqs. (20), (24), and (27) together, we obtain:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
16
S
12
S
22
S
26
S
16
S
26
S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þDT
a
xx
a
yy
a
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þDM
b
xx
b
yy
b
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
ð29Þ
Equation (29) allows the calculation of the in-plane strains induced by
any combination of in-plane stresses, a uniform change in temperature, and a
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
uniform change in moisture content. If instead we have measured the total
strains induced by a known DT, DM, and unknown in-plane stresses, we can
calculate the stresses that caused these strains by inverting Eq. (29) to obtain:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
xx
ÀDTa
xx
ÀDMb
xx
e
yy
ÀDTa
yy
ÀDMb
yy
c
xy
ÀDTa
xy
ÀDMb
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
ð30Þ
where:
Q
11
¼ Q
11
cos
4
h þ 2 Q
12
þ 2Q
66
ð Þcos
2
h sin
2
h þ Q
22
sin
4
h
Q
12
¼ Q
21
¼ Q
12
cos
4
h þ sin
4
h
_ _
þ Q
11
þ Q
22
À 4Q
66
ð Þcos
2
h sin
2
h
Q
16
¼ Q
61
¼ Q
11
À Q
12
À 2Q
66
ð Þcos
3
h sin h
À Q
22
À Q
12
À 2Q
66
ð Þ cos h sin
3
h
Q
22
¼ Q
11
sin
4
h þ 2 Q
12
þ 2Q
66
ð Þcos
2
h sin
2
h þ Q
22
cos
4
h
Q
26
¼ Q
62
¼ Q
11
À Q
12
À 2Q
66
ð Þcos h sin
3
h
À Q
22
À Q
12
À 2Q
66
ð Þcos
3
h sin h
Q
66
¼ Q
11
þ Q
22
À 2Q
12
À 2Q
66
ð Þcos
2
h sin
2
h þ Q
66
cos
4
h þ sin
4
h
_ _
ð31Þ
The [
ÀÀ
Q] matrix is called the transformed, reduced stiffness matrix.* This name
again reminds us that we have reduced our analysis to the 2-D plane stress
case, and that we have transformed Hooke’s law from the 1–2 coordinate
system to an arbitrary x–y coordinate system. Note that the [
ÀÀ
Q] matrix is (in
general) fully populated. This reflects the anisotropic nature of unidirectional
composites when referenced to a nonprincipal material coordinate system.
Also, the [
ÀÀ
Q] matrix is symmetric, so that
ÀÀ
Q
21
¼
ÀÀ
Q
12
,
ÀÀ
Q
61
¼
ÀÀ
Q
16
, and
ÀÀ
Q
62
¼
ÀÀ
Q
26
, as indicated in Eq. (31).
The reader should note that the functional form of the equations that
define the elements of the transformed reduced stiffness matrix, i.e., Eq. (31),
is not identical to the functional formof the equations defining the elements of
the transformed reduced compliance matrix, Eq. (21). That is, Eq. (31) cannot
be transformed into Eq. (21) by a simple substitution of S
11
for Q
11
, S
12
for
Q
12
, S
22
for Q
22
, etc. This difference in functional form is due to the fact that
we have defined both the stiffness and compliance matrices in terms of
* In common parlance, the [
ÀÀ
Q] matrix is often called the ‘‘Q-bar’’ matrix.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
engineering shear strains, rather than tensoral shear strains. The use of Eqs.
(29) and (30) to solve simple problems involving off-axis composite laminates
is demonstrated in Example Problems 4 to 6.
Example Problem 4
Determine the strains induced in the off-axis graphite–epoxy composite sub-
jected to the in-plane stresses shown in Fig. 4. Assume that DT=DM=0 and
use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
Solution. This problem is analogous to Example Problem 1 except that we
are now considering the behavior of an off-axis composite. The magnitude of
each stress component is indicated in Fig. 4. Based on the sign conventions
reviewed in Sec. 5 of Chap. 2, the algebraic sign of each stress component is:
r
xx
¼ 200 MPa r
yy
¼ À30 MPa s
xy
¼ À50 MPa
Fiber angles are measured from the +x-axis to the +1-axis (or equivalently,
from the +y-axis to the +2-axis). In accordance with the right-hand rule, the
fiber angle in Fig. 4 is algebraically positive: h=+30j.
Strains are calculated using Eq. (29). Since DT=DM=0, we have:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
16
S
12
S
22
S
26
S
16
S
26
S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
Figure 4 A 30j off-axis composite subjected to in-plane stresses (magnitudes
of in-plane stresses shown).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Recall that the elements of the reduced compliance matrix, the [S] matrix,
were calculated as a part of Example Problem 1. Each term within the
transformed reduced compliance matrix, the [S ] matrix, can therefore be
calculated via a straightforward application of Eq. (21). The calculation of
S
11
, for example, proceeds as follows:
S
11
¼ S
11
cos
4
h þ 2S
12
þ S
66
ð Þcos
2
h sin
2
h þ S
22
sin
4
h
S
11
¼ 5:88 Â 10
À12
_ _
cos
4
30
B
ð Þ
þ 2 À1:76 Â 10
À12
_ _
þ 76:9 Â 10
À12
_ _
cos
2
30
B
ð Þsin
2
30
B
ð Þ
þ 100:0 Â 10
À12
_ _
sin
4
30
B
ð Þ
S
11
¼ 23:32 Â 10
À12
Pa
À1
_ _
Calculating the remaining elements of the S matrix in similar fashion and
applying Eq. (29), we find:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
23:32 Â 10
À12
4:327 Â 10
À12
À33:72 Â 10
À12
4:327 Â 10
À12
70:38 Â 10
À12
À47:79 Â 10
À12
À33:72 Â 10
À12
À47:79 Â 10
À12
101:3 Â 10
À12
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
1
Pa
_ _
200 Â 10
6
À30 Â 10
6
À50 Â 10
6
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Pa ð Þ
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, we obtain:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
6220 Am=m
1144 Am=m
À10375 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Example Problem 5
Determine the strains induced in the off-axis graphite–epoxy composite
subjected to (a) the in-plane stresses shown in Fig. 4, (b) a decrease in
temperature DT=À155jC, and (c) an increase in moisture content
DM=0.5%. Use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
Solution. This problem involves three different mechanisms that contribute
to the total strain induced in the laminate: the applied stresses, the temper-
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
ature change, and the change in moisture content. The total strains induced by
all three mechanisms can be calculated using Eq. (29):
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
16
S
12
S
22
S
26
S
16
S
26
S
66
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þDT
a
xx
a
yy
a
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þDM
b
xx
b
yy
b
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
Numerical values for the stresses and transformed reduced compliance matrix
are given in Example 4. The linear thermal and moisture expansion coef-
ficients for graphite–epoxy, referenced to the x–y coordinate system, are
calculated using Eqs. (25) and (28), respectively.
The thermal expansion coefficients are:
a
xx
¼ a
11
cos
2
h ð Þ þ a
22
sin
2
h ð Þ ¼ À0:9 Â 10
À6
_ _
cos
2
30j ð Þ
þ 27 Â 10
À6
_ _
sin
2
30j ð Þ
a
xx
¼ 6:1 Am=m=
o
C
a
yy
¼ a
11
sin
2
h ð Þ þ a
22
cos
2
h ð Þ ¼ À0:9 Â 10
À6
_ _
sin
2
30j ð Þ
þ 27 Â 10
À6
_ _
cos
2
30j ð Þ
a
yy
¼ 20:0 Am=m=
o
C
a
xy
¼ 2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ a
11
À a
22
ð Þ ¼ 2 cos 30j ð Þsin 30j ð Þ
 À0:9  10
À6
À 27 Â 10
À6
_ _
a
xy
¼ À24:2 Arad=
o
C
The moisture expansion coefficients are:
b
xx
¼ b
11
cos
2
h ð Þ þ b
22
sin
2
h ð Þ ¼ 150 Â 10
À6
_ _
cos
2
30j ð Þ
þ 4800 Â 10
À6
_ _
sin
2
30j ð Þ
b
xx
¼ 1313 Am=m=%M
b
yy
¼ b
11
sin
2
h ð Þ þ b
22
cos
2
h ð Þ ¼ 150 Â 10
À6
_ _
sin
2
30j ð Þ
þ 4800 Â 10
À6
_ _
cos
2
30j ð Þ
b
yy
¼ 3638 Am=m=%M
b
xy
¼ 2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ b
11
À b
22
ð Þ ¼ 2 cos 30j ð Þsin 30j ð Þ
 150  10
À6
À 4800 Â 10
À6
_ _
b
xy
¼ À4027 Arad=%M
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Hence, Eq. (29) becomes:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
23:32 Â 10
À12
4:327 Â 10
À12
À33:72 Â 10
À12
4:327 Â 10
À12
70:38 Â 10
À12
À47:79 Â 10
À12
À33:72 Â 10
À12
À47:79 Â 10
À12
101:3 Â 10
À12
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
200 Â 10
6
À30 Â 10
6
À50 Â 10
6
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ À155 ð Þ
6:1 Â 10
À6
20:0 Â 10
À6
À24:2 Â 10
À6
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ 0:5 ð Þ
Â
1313 Â 10
À6
3638 Â 10
À6
À4027 Â 10
À6
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, we obtain:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
6220 Am=m
1144 Am=m
À10375 Arad
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þ
À946 Am=m
À3100 Am=m
3751 Arad
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þ
657 Am=m
1819 Am=m
À2014 Arad
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
5931 Am=m
À137 Am=m
À8638 Arad
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
An implicit assumption in this problem is that the composite is free to expand
or contract, as dictated by changes in temperature and/or moisture content.
Consequently, neither DT nor DM affects the state of stress, but rather affects
only the state of strain. Conversely, if the composite is not free to expand or
contract, then a change in temperature and/or moisture content does con-
tribute to the state of stress, as illustrated in Example Problem 6.
Example Problem 6
A thin off-axis graphite–epoxy composite laminate is firmly mounted within
an infinitely rigid square frame, as shown in Fig. 5. The coefficients of thermal
and moisture expansion of the rigid frame equal zero.
The composite is initially stress-free. Subsequently, however, the com-
posite/frame assembly is subjected to a decrease in temperature DT=À155jC
and an increase in moisture content DM=0.5%. Determine the stresses
induced in the composite by this change in temperature and moisture content.
Ignore the possibility that the thin composite will buckle if compressive
stresses occur.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Solution. As discussed in Example Problem 3, the situation described in this
problem is very often encountered in composite materials, despite somewhat
unrealistic assumptions regarding an ‘‘infinitely rigid’’ frame with zero
thermal expansion coefficients. Since the frame is ‘‘infinitely rigid’’ and is
made of a material whose thermal and moisture expansion coefficients equal
zero, the frame will retain its original shape. Since the off-axis composite is
‘‘firmly mounted’’ within the frame, the composite does not change shape,
although changes in temperature and moisture content have occurred.
Consequently, the total strains experienced by the composite equal zero:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
0
0
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
The stresses induced can be calculated using Eq. (30):
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
ÀÀ
Q
11
ÀÀ
Q
12
ÀÀ
Q
16
ÀÀ
Q
12
ÀÀ
Q
22
ÀÀ
Q
26
ÀÀ
Q
16
ÀÀ
Q
26
ÀÀ
Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
xx
ÀDTa
xx
ÀDMb
xx
e
yy
ÀDTa
yy
ÀDMb
yy
c
xy
ÀDTa
xy
ÀDMb
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Recall that the elements of the reduced stiffness matrix, the [ Q] matrix, were
calculated as a part of Example Problem 3. Each term within the transformed
Figure 5 Off-axis composite laminate mounted within an infinitely rigid frame.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
reduced stiffness matrix, the [
ÀÀ
Q] matrix, can therefore be calculated via a
straightforward application of Eq. (31). Calculation of
ÀÀ
Q
11
, for example,
proceeds as follows:
ÀÀ
Q
11
¼ Q
11
cos
4
h þ 2 Q
12
þ 2Q
66
ð Þ cos
2
h sin
2
h þ Q
22
sin
4
h
ÀÀ
Q
11
¼ 170:9 Â 10
9
_ _
cos
4
30j ð Þ
þ 2 3:016 Â 10
9
þ 2 13:0 Â 10
9
_ _ _ _
cos
2
30j ð Þsin
2
30j ð Þ
þ 10:05 Â 10
9
_ _
sin
4
30j ð Þ
ÀÀ
Q
11
¼ 107:6 Â 10
9
Pa
Calculating the remaining elements of the [
ÀÀ
Q] matrix in similar fashion, and
using the thermal and moisture expansion coefficients referenced to the x–y
coordinate system (calculated as a part of Example Problem 5), we find:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
107:6 Â 10
9
26:1 Â 10
9
48:1 Â 10
9
26:1 Â 10
9
27:2 Â 10
9
21:5 Â 10
9
48:1 Â 10
9
21:5 Â 10
9
36:0 Â 10
9
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
0 À À155 ð Þ 6:1 Â 10
À6
_ _
À 0:5 ð Þ 1313 Â 10
À6
_ _
0 À À155 ð Þ 20:0 Â 10
À6
_ _
À 0:5 ð Þ 3638 Â 10
À6
_ _
0 À À155 ð Þ À24:2 Â 10
À6
_ _
À 0:5 ð Þ À4027 Â 10
À6
_ _
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
19:0 MPa
À5:04 MPa
21:1 MPa
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
3 CALCULATING TRANSFORMED PROPERTIES USING
MATERIAL INVARIANTS
The stresses and strains in a unidirectional composite referenced to an
arbitrary x–y coordinate system may be related using either Eq. (29) or Eq.
(30). Equation (29) involves the use of the transformed reduced compliance
matrix, [S], and individual elements within the [S] matrix are calculated in
accordance with Eq. (21). Alternatively, Eq. (30) involves the use of the
transformed reduced stiffness matrix, [
ÀÀ
Q], and individual elements of the [
ÀÀ
Q]
matrix are calculated in accordance with Eq. (31).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Now, both Eqs. (21) and (31) involve trigonometric functions raised to a
power (i.e., sin
4
h, cos
4
h, cos h sin
3
h, etc.). These equations can be simplified
somewhat through the use of the following trigonometric identities:
sin
4
h ¼
1
8
3 À 4 cos 2h þ cos 4h ð Þ
cos
4
h ¼
1
8
3 þ 4 cos 2h þ cos 4h ð Þ
cos h sin
3
h ¼
1
8
2 sin 2h À sin 4h ð Þ
cos
2
h sin
2
h ¼
1
8
1 À cos 4h ð Þ
cos
3
h sin h ¼
1
8
2 sin 2h þ sin 4h ð Þ
ð32Þ
For example, substituting these identities into Eq. (21) and simplifying
result in:
S
11
¼ U
S
1
þ U
S
2
cos 2h þ U
S
3
cos
4
h
S
12
¼ S
21
¼ U
S
4
À U
S
3
cos 4h
S
16
¼ S
61
¼ U
S
2
sin 2h þ 2U
S
3
sin 4h ð33Þ
S
22
¼ U
S
1
À U
S
2
cos 2h þ U
S
3
cos 4h
S
26
¼ S
62
¼ U
S
2
sin 2h À 2U
S
3
sin 4h
S
66
¼ U
S
5
À 4U
S
3
cos 4h
The terms U
i
S
which appear in Eq. (33) are called compliance invariants and
are defined as follows:
U
S
1
¼
1
8
3S
11
þ 3S
22
þ 2S
12
þ S
66
ð Þ
U
S
2
¼
1
2
S
11
À S
22
ð Þ
U
S
3
¼
1
8
S
11
þ S
22
À 2S
12
À S
66
ð Þ ð34Þ
U
S
4
¼
1
8
S
11
þ S
22
þ 6S
12
À S
66
ð Þ
U
S
5
¼
1
2
S
11
þ S
22
À 2S
12
þ S
66
ð Þ
The superscript S is used to indicate that these quantities are calculated using
members of the reduced compliance matrix [S]. They are called compliance
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
invariants because they define the elements of the compliance matrix that are
independent of coordinate system. In this sense, compliance invariants are
analogous to stress and strain invariants, which were discussed in Secs. 6 and
11 of Chap. 2, respectively.
In a similar manner, substituting the trigonometric identities listed as
Eq. (32) into Eq. (31) and simplifying result in:
Q
11
¼ U
Q
1
þ U
Q
2
cos 2h þ U
Q
3
cos 4h
Q
12
¼ Q
21
¼ U
Q
4
À U
Q
3
cos 4h
Q
16
¼ Q
61
¼
1
2
U
Q
2
sin 2h þ U
Q
3
sin 4h ð35Þ
Q
22
¼ U
Q
1
À U
Q
2
cos 2h þ U
Q
3
cos 4h
Q
26
¼ Q
62
¼
1
2
U
Q
2
sin 2h À U
Q
3
sin 4h
Q
66
¼ U
Q
5
À U
Q
3
cos 4h
where the stiffness invariants, U
i
Q
, are defined as:
U
Q
1
¼
1
8
3Q
11
þ 3Q
22
þ 2Q
12
þ 4Q
66
ð Þ
U
Q
2
¼
1
2
Q
11
À Q
22
ð Þ
U
Q
3
¼
1
8
Q
11
þ Q
22
À 2Q
12
À 4Q
66
ð Þ ð36Þ
U
Q
4
¼
1
8
Q
11
þ Q
22
þ 6Q
12
À 4Q
66
ð Þ
U
Q
5
¼
1
8
Q
11
þ Q
22
À 2Q
12
þ Q
66
ð Þ
The superscript Q is used to indicate that these quantities are calculated using
members of the reduced stiffness matrix [ Q]. The reader should note that the
functional forms of the stiffness invariants defined in Eq. (36) are not identical
to those of the compliance invariants defined in Eq. (34). The difference in
functional form can be traced to the use of engineering shear strain rather
than tensoral shear strain.
A comparison of Eqs. (21) and (33) reveals that the use of compliance
invariants does indeed simplify the calculation of elements of the [S] matrix,
although, mathematically, the two equations are entirely equivalent. Sim-
ilarly, a comparison of Eqs. (31) and (35) shows that the use of the stiffness
invariants simplifies the calculation of the terms within the [Q] matrix. At this
point, this simplification may seem to be a trivial matter since, in practice,
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
elements of the [S] and [Q] matrices are calculated with the aid of a digital
computer and do not require hand calculation. However, in Chap. 6, it will be
shown that in special circumstances, the use of stiffness invariants leads to a
convenient method of transforming the stiffness of multi-angle composite
laminates from one coordinate system to another. Hence, in these special
cases, the use of the invariant formulation is advantageous. Further discus-
sion of the invariant approach will be deferred to Chap. 6.
Example Problem 7
Problem. Use the material invariants [i.e., Eqs. (33) and (34)] to calculate the
transformed reduced compliance matrix for a 30j graphite–epoxy laminate.
Use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
Solution. From Example Problem 1, the reduced compliance matrix for this
material system is:
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
_
_
_
_
¼
5:88 Â 10
À12
À1:76 Â 10
À12
0
À1:76 Â 10
À12
100:0 Â 10
À12
0
0 0 76:9 Â 10
À12
_
_
_
_
1
Pa
_ _
The compliance invariants may be calculated using these values and
Eq. (34):
U
S
1
¼
1
8
3S
11
þ 3S
22
þ 2S
12
þ S
66
ð Þ ¼
1
8
_
3 5:88 Â 10
À12
_ _
þ3 100:0 Â 10
À12
_ _
þ 2 À1:76 Â 10
À12
_ _
þ 76:9 Â 10
À12
_
¼ 48:9 Â 10
À12
U
S
2
¼
1
2
S
11
À S
22
ð Þ ¼
1
2
5:88 Â 10
À12
À 100:0 Â 10
À12
_ ¸
¼ À47:1 Â 10
À12
U
S
3
¼
1
8
S
11
þ S
22
À 2S
12
À S
66
ð Þ ¼
1
8
_
5:88 Â 10
À12
þ 100:0 Â 10
À12
À2 À1:76 Â 10
À12
_ _
À 76:9 Â 10
À12
_
¼ 4:06 Â 10
À12
U
S
4
¼
1
8
S
11
þ S
22
þ 6S
12
À S
66
ð Þ ¼
1
8
_
5:88 Â 10
À12
þ 100:0 Â 10
À12
þ6 À1:76 Â 10
À12
_ _
À 76:9 Â 10
À12
_
¼ 2:296 Â 10
À12
U
S
5
¼
1
2
S
11
þ S
22
À 2S
12
þ S
66
ð Þ ¼
1
2
_
5:88 Â 10
À12
þ 100:0 Â 10
À12
À2 À1:76 Â 10
À12
_ _
þ 76:9 Â 10
À12
_
¼ 93:17 Â 10
À12
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Using the first equation of Eq. (33) and setting h=30j:
S
11
¼ U
S
1
þ U
S
2
cos 2h þ U
S
3
cos 4h ¼ 48:9 Â 10
À12
_ _
þ À47:1 Â 10
À12
_ _
cos 60j ð Þ þ 4:06 Â 10
À12
_ _
cos 120j ð Þ
¼ 23:3 Â 10
À12
Pa
À1
Similarly, using the second equation of Eq. (33) and setting h=30j:
S
12
¼ S
21
¼ U
S
4
À U
S
3
cos 4h
¼ 2:296 Â 10
À12
_ _
À 4:06 Â 10
À12
_ _
cos 120j ð Þ
¼ 4:33 Â 10
À12
Pa
À1
The additional terms within the [S] matrix are calculated using the rest of
Eq. (33). A summary of our results is:
½SŠ ¼
23:3 Â 10
À12
4:33 Â 10
À12
À33:7 Â 10
À12
4:33 Â 10
À12
70:4 Â 10
À12
À47:8 Â 10
À12
À33:7 Â 10
À12
À47:8 Â 10
À12
101:3 Â 10
À12
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
1
Pa
_ _
Note that the [S] matrix is identical to that calculated in Example Problem 4.
4 EFFECTIVE ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL
COMPOSITE LAMINATE
The definitions of common engineering material properties were reviewed in
Chap. 3. In this section, these concepts will be used to define the ‘‘effective’’
properties of a unidirectional composite laminates referenced to an arbitrary
x–y coordinate system.
4.1 Effective Properties Relating Stress to Strain
Let us first consider the elastic properties measured during uniaxial tests.
Consider the unidirectional composite laminate subjected to a uniaxial stress
r
xx
, as shown in Fig. 6. The strains induced in this laminate can be determined
using Eq. (29). Assuming that DT=DM=0 (and hence that thermal and
moisture strains are zero), and also noting that by definition, r
yy
=s
xy
=0, Eq.
(29) becomes for this case:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
16
S
12
S
22
S
26
S
16
S
26
S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
xx
0
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
In-plane strains caused by uniaxial stress r
xx
are therefore given by:
e
xx
¼ S
11
r
xx
ð37aÞ
e
yy
¼ S
12
r
xx
ð37bÞ
c
xy
¼ S
16
r
xx
; ð37cÞ
In Sec. 2 of Chap. 3, Young’s modulus was defined as ‘‘the normal stress
r
xx
divided by the resulting normal strain e
xx
, with all other stress components
equal zero.’’ Applying this definition to the unidirectional laminate shown in
Fig. 6, Young’s modulus in the x-direction is given by:
E
xx
¼
r
xx
e
xx
¼
r
xx
S
11
r
xx
¼
1
S
11
ð38aÞ
Inserting the relation for Q
11
listed in Eq. (22), we have:
E
xx
¼
1
S
11
cos
4
h þ 2S
12
þ S
66
ð Þ cos
2
h sin
2
h þ S
22
sin
4
h
ð38bÞ
Since each of the compliance terms (S
11
, S
12
, etc.) can also be related to the
more familiar engineering constants using Eq. (18) of Chap. 4, Young’s
modulus can also be written as:
E
xx
¼
1
cos
4
h ð Þ
E
11
þ
1
G
12
À
2m
12
E
11
_ _
cos
2
h sin
2
h þ
sin
4
h
E
22
ð38cÞ
Figure 6 Unidirectional composite laminate subjected to uniaxial stress r
xx
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
In Sec. 2 of Chap. 3, Poisson’s ratio v
xy
was defined as ‘‘the negative of
the transverse normal strain e
yy
divided by the axial normal strain e
xx
, both of
which are induced by stress r
xx
, with all other stresses equal zero.’’ Poisson’s
ratio for the unidirectional laminate shown in Fig. 6 is therefore given by:
v
xy
¼
Àe
yy
e
xx
¼
ÀS
12
S
11
ð39aÞ
Using Eq. (22), this can be written as:
v
xy
¼
À S
12
cos
4
h þ sin
4
h
_ _
þ S
11
þ S
22
À S
66
ð Þ cos
2
h sin
2
h
_ _
S
11
cos
4
h þ 2S
12
þ S
66
ð Þ cos
2
h sin
2
h þ S
22
sin
4
h
ð39bÞ
or equivalently, using Eq. (18) of Chap. 4:
v
xy
¼
v
12
E
11
cos
4
h þ sin
4
h
_ _
À
1
E
11
þ
1
E
22
À
1
G
12
_ _
cos
2
h sin
2
h
cos
4
h ð Þ
E
11
þ
1
G
12
À
2v
12
E
11
_ _
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ þ
sin
4
h ð Þ
E
22
ð39cÞ
InSec. 2 of Chap. 3, the coefficient of mutual influence of the secondkind
g
xx,xy
was definedas ‘‘the shear strainc
xy
dividedby the normal straine
xx
, both
of which are induced by normal stress r
xx
, when all other stresses equal zero.’’
For a unidirectional composite laminate, g
xx,xy
is therefore given by:
g
xx;xy
¼
c
xy
e
xx
¼
S
16
S
11
ð40aÞ
which may be written as:
g
xx;xy
¼
2S
11
À 2S
12
À S
66
ð Þ cos
3
h sin h À 2S
22
À 2S
12
À S
66
ð Þ cos h sin
3
h
S
11
cos
4
h þ 2S
12
þ S
66
ð Þ cos
2
h sin
2
h þ S
22
sin
4
h
ð40bÞ
or equivalently:
g
xx;xy
¼
2
E
11
þ
2v
12
E
11
À
1
G
12
_ _
cos
3
h ð Þ sin h ð Þ À
2
E
22
þ
2v
12
E
11
À
1
G
12
_ _
cos h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ
cos
4
h ð Þ
E
11
þ
1
G
12
À
2v
12
E
11
_ _
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ þ
sin
4
h ð Þ
E
22
ð40cÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
An identical procedure can be employed to define the properties
measured during a uniaxial test in which only r
yy
is applied. In this case,
Eq. (29) becomes:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
16
S
12
S
22
S
26
S
16
S
26
S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
0
r
yy
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
In-plane strains are:
e
xx
¼ S
12
r
yy
ð41aÞ
e
yy
¼ S
22
r
yy
ð41bÞ
c
xy
¼ S
26
r
yy
ð41cÞ
These strains can be used to define the Young’s modulus E
yy
, Poisson’s ratio
v
yx
, and coefficient of mutual influence of the second kind g
yy,xy
:
E
yy
¼
1
S
22
ð42aÞ
v
yx
¼
ÀS
12
S
22
ð42bÞ
g
yy;xy
¼
S
26
S
22
ð42cÞ
If desired, these relations can be expanded in terms of compliances referenced
to the 1–2 coordinate system using Eq. (22) or written in terms of measured
engineering properties using Eq. (18) of Chap. 4.
Next, consider the effective material properties measured during a pure
shear test. A composite laminate subjected to pure shear stress s
xy
is shown in
Fig. 7. Assuming that DT=DM=0, Eq. (29) becomes:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
S
11
S
12
S
16
S
12
S
22
S
26
S
16
S
26
S
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
0
0
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Hence, the strains caused by a pure shear stress are given by:
e
xx
¼ S
16
s
xy
ð43aÞ
e
yy
¼ S
26
s
xy
ð43bÞ
c
xy
¼ S
66
s
xy
ð43cÞ
In Sec. 2 of Chap. 3, the shear modulus was defined as ‘‘the shear stress
s
xy
divided by the resulting shear strain c
xy
, with all other stress components
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
equal zero.’’ Applying this definition to the laminate shown in Fig. 7, the shear
modulus referenced to the x–y coordinate axes is given by:
G
xy
¼
s
xy
c
xy
¼
1
S
66
ð44Þ
As before, this expression can be expanded in terms of compliances
referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system using Eq. (21) or written in terms of
measured engineering properties using Eq. (18) of Chap. 4.
The coefficient of mutual influence of the first kind g
xy,xx
(or g
xy,yy
) was
defined as ‘‘the normal strain e
xx
(or e
yy
) divided by the shear strain c
xy
, both
of which are induced by shear stress s
xy
, when all other stresses equal zero.’’
For a unidirectional composite laminate, the coefficient of mutual influence of
the first kind g
xy,xx
is therefore given by:
g
xy;xx
¼
e
xx
c
xy
¼
S
16
S
66
ð45aÞ
while g
xy,yy
is given by:
g
xy;yy
¼
e
yy
c
xy
¼
S
26
S
66
ð45bÞ
Chentsov coefficients were defined in Sec. 2 of Chap. 3 as ‘‘the shear
strain c
xz
(or c
yz
) divided by the shear strain c
xy
, both of which are induced by
Figure 7 Unidirectional composite subjected to pure shear stress s
xy
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
shear stress s
xy
, with all other stresses equal zero.’’ For a thin composite
laminate, the principal material coordinate system lies within the plane of the
laminate, and hence there is no coupling between a shear stress acting within
the x–y plane (s
xy
) and out-of-plane shear strains (c
xz
or c
yz
). Consequently,
Chentsov coefficients are always equal to zero for thin composite laminates.
4.2 Effective Properties Relate Temperature or Moisture
Content to Strain
As discussed in Sec. 3 of Chap. 3, the linear coefficients of thermal expansion
are measured by determining the strains induced by a uniform change in
temperature and forming the following ratios:
a
xx
¼
e
T
xx
DT
a
yy
¼
e
T
yy
DT
a
xy
¼
c
T
xy
DT
ð46Þ
The superscript T is included as a reminder that the strains involved are those
caused by a change in temperature only. The strains induced in a unidirec-
tional laminate subjected to a change in temperature can be determined using
Eq. (29). Assuming that r
xx
=r
yy
=s
xy
=DM=0, Eq. (29) becomes for this
case:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ DT
a
xx
a
yy
a
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð47Þ
Hence, the thermal expansion coefficients for a unidirectional laminate are
given by Eq. (25), repeated here for convenience:
a
xx
¼ a
11
cos
2
h ð Þ þ a
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
a
yy
¼ a
11
sin
2
h ð Þ þ a
22
cos
2
h ð Þ
a
xy
¼ 2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ a
11
À a
22
ð Þ
Similarly, the linear coefficient of moisture expansion is measured by
determining the strains induced by a uniform change in moisture content and
forming the following ratios:
b
xx
¼
e
M
xx
DM
b
yy
¼
e
M
yy
DM
b
xy
¼
c
M
xy
DM
ð48Þ
The superscript Mis included as a reminder that the strains involved are those
caused by a change in moisture only. The strains induced in a unidirectional
laminate subjected to a change in moisture content can be determined using
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Eq. (29). Assuming that r
xx
=r
yy
=s
xy
=DT=0, Eq. (29) becomes for this
case:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ DM
b
xx
b
yy
b
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð49Þ
Hence, the moisture expansion coefficients for a unidirectional laminate are
given by Eq. (28), repeated here for convenience:
b
xx
¼ b
11
cos
2
h ð Þ þ b
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
b
yy
¼ b
11
sin
2
h ð Þ þ b
22
cos
2
h ð Þ
b
xy
¼ 2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ b
11
À b
22
ð Þ
Example Problem 8
Plot the effective properties listed below for a unidirectional hj graphite–
epoxy laminate, for all fiber angles ranging 0jVh V90j:
(a) Effective Young’s moduli, E
xx
and E
yy
.
(b) Effective Poisson’s ratio, v
xy
and v
yx
.
(c) Effective shear modulus G
xy
.
(d) Coefficients of mutual influence of the first kind, g
xy,xx
and g
xy,yy
.
(e) Coefficients of mutual influence of the second kind, g
xx,xy
and g
yy,xy
.
(f) Coefficients of thermal expansion, a
xx
, a
yy
, and a
xy
.
(g) Coefficients of moisture expansion, b
xx
, b
yy
, and b
xy
.
Use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
Solution. Plots of the effective elastic properties for unidirectional hj graph-
ite–epoxy laminates are presented in Figs. 8–14.
5 FAILURE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES REFERENCED
TO THE PRINCIPAL MATERIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
Fundamental material strengths for a unidirectional composite were dis-
cussed in Sec. 5 of Chap. 3. Recall that material strengths are measured under
simple states of stress, usually either a uniaxial stress state or a pure shear
stress state. Also, high-performance fibers are often very brittle, whereas
modern polymeric matrices are fairly ductile. Consequently, most fiber-
reinforced polymeric composites exhibit brittle behavior in the 1-direction,
qualitatively similar to Fig. 12(a) of Chap. 3, but relatively ductile behavior in
the 2- and 3-directions, qualitatively similar to Fig. 12(b) and c of Chap. 3. A
brief summary of experimental methods used to measure properties in the 1–2
plane is provided in Appendix B.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 8 A plot of the effective Young’s moduli E
xx
and E
yy
for unidirectional
graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.
Figure 9 A plot of the effective Poisson ratios v
xy
and v
yx
for unidirectional
graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 10 A plot of the effective shear modulus G
xy
for unidirectional
graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.
Figure 11 A plot of the effective coefficients of mutual influence of the first
kind g
xy,xx
and g
xy,yy
for unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber
angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 12 A plot of the effective coefficients of mutual influence of the second
kind g
xx,xy
and g
yy,xy
for unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber
angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.
Figure 13 A plot of the effective coefficients of thermal expansion a
xx
, a
yy
, and
a
xy
for unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging over
0jVh V90j.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
In this section, we will discuss failure criteria that are commonly used to
predict failure of composites under general 3-D or 2-D states of stress. It will
be assumed that the composite is brittle in the 1-direction, but ductile in the
2- and 3-directions. That is, in the fiber direction, ‘‘failure’’ is assumed to
involve fracture, whereas transverse to the fibers, ‘‘failure’’ is assumed to
involved yielding, defined on the basis of a % strain offset. Both orthotropic
and transversely isotropic composites will be considered. For the orthotropic
case, failure predictions will be based on the combinations of the following
fundamental material strengths:

Fracture stress in the 1-direction: r
11
fT
, r
11
fC
.

Yield stress in the 2- and 3-directions: r
22
yT
, r
22
yC
, r
33
yT
, r
33
yC
, s
12
y
, s
13
y
,
s
23
y
.
If the composite is transversely isotropic, then the number of independent
material strengths involved is reduced, since in this case:
r
yT
22
¼ r
yT
33
r
yC
22
¼ r
yC
33
s
y
12
¼ s
y
13
Recall that all of these strengths may vary with temperature.
Figure 14 A plot of the effective coefficients of moisture expansion b
xx
, b
yy
,
and b
xy
for unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging
over 0jVh V90j.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The need for ‘‘failure criteria’’ in engineering analysis and design is often
misunderstood. In essence, the objective of any failure criterion is to account
for potential coupling effects of individual stress components on the yielding
and/or fracture phenomenon. This statement applies to both anisotropic and
isotropic materials. To explain what is meant by the phrase ‘‘coupling effects
between individual stress components,’’ consider the two different tests of
unidirectional composite shown in Fig. 15. A composite subjected to uniaxial
stress r
11
is shown in Fig. 15(a). This is, of course, the very state of stress used
during the measurement of the fundamental material strength r
11
fT
(as
Figure 15 An illustration of what is meant by ‘‘coupling effects’’ of stress on
the failure phenomenon.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
discussed in Sec. 5 of Chap. 3). In this case then, we do not need to invoke any
failure criterion to predict when failure occurs: failure occurs when r
11
is
increased to r
11
fT
, by definition. However, consider a more general state of
stress, such as the state of plane stress shown in Fig. 15(b). In this test, two
additional components of stress (r
22
and s
12
) are applied prior to the appli-
cation of r
11
. It is assumed that the combination of r
22
and s
12
does not cause
failure prior to the application of r
11
. While maintaining r
22
and s
12
at
constant values, stress r
11
is increased until failure occurs. It is for this more
general state of stress that a failure criterion is required. That is, does the
application r
22
and/or s
12
change the value of r
11
at which failure occurs?
‘‘Coupling effects’’ refer to the fact that the application of r
22
and/or s
12
often
does alter the value of r
11
necessary to cause failure. If the test represented by
Fig. 8(b) is conducted and r
11
p r
11
fT
at failure, then a coupling effect has oc-
curred, i.e., the presence of r
22
and s
12
has changed the value of r
11
necessary
to cause failure. Conversely, if the test depicted in Fig. 15(b) is performed and
r
11
=r
11
fT
at failure, then no coupling has occurred. Experimental measure-
ments have shown that the coupling phenomenon is much more significant
in some materials than it is in others. This is unfortunate because it implies
that it is not possible to develop a ‘‘universal’’ failure criterion that can be
applied to all materials. Furthermore, there is no way of predicting a priori
whether coupling effects are pronounced for a given material or not. For
metals, the general trend is that coupling effects are less pronounced in brittle
materials (such as cast irons) than in ductile materials (such as aluminum
alloys). The question as to whether this general trend holds in the case of
composites is complicated by the fact that composites are (usually) brittle in
the fiber direction but ductile transverse to the fiber. It is generally accepted
that coupling effects do exist in composites, but at the present state of the art,
one is well advised to perform experimental measurements to evaluate the
level of coupling for each composite material system of interest.
Many failure criteria applicable to composites have been proposed in
the literature. Three of the most common will be described in the following
subsections: the maximum stress failure criterion, the Tsai–Hill failure
criterion, and the Tsai–Wu failure criterion. As will be seen, the maximum
stress criterion does not account for coupling effects, whereas potential
coupling effects are accounted for in the Tsai–Hill and Tsai–Wu criteria.
5.1 The Maximum Stress Failure Criterion
According to this criterion, a given state of stress will not cause a unidirec-
tional composite to fail if all of the following nine inequalities are satisfied:
À1*r
fC
11
< r
11
< r
fT
11
ð50Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
ðandÞ
À1*r
yC
22
< r
22
< r
yT
22
ðandÞ
À1*r
yC
33
< r
33
< r
yT
33
ðandÞ
js
12
j < s
y
12
ðandÞ
js
13
j < s
y
13
ðandÞ
js
23
j < s
y
23
According to the maximum stress failure criterion, failure (i.e., fracture in the
fiber direction or yield-like behavior transverse tothe fiber) is predictedstrictly
on the basis of individual stress components. Thus, failure is assumed to be
independent of any coupling effects between individual stress components.
In the case of plane stress (r
33
=s
13
=s
23
=0), the maximum stress
failure criterion reduces to the following five inequalities:
À1*r
fC
11
< r
11
< r
fT
11
and ð Þ
À1*r
yC
22
< r
22
< r
yT
22
and ð Þ
s
12
j j < s
y
12
ð51Þ
The maximum stress failure criterion is most commonly applied in the
form of Eq. (51) since in most cases, an individual composite ply can be
assumed to be in a state of plane stress.
5.2 The Tsai–Hill Failure Criterion
The von Mises yield criterion is widely used to predict yielding of isotropic
metals and metal alloys.* In 1950, Hill [2] proposed a modified version of the
* The von Mises yield criterion is also mathematically equivalent to the ‘‘octahedral shear
stress’’ and ‘‘distortional energy’’ yield criteria.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
von Mises criterion for use with orthotropic metals. Subsequently, Tsai [3]
applied this method to predict failure of unidirectional polymeric composites,
and the resulting theory is now known within the polymeric composites
community as either the ‘‘Tsai–Hill’’ failure criterion or as the ‘‘quadratic’’
failure criterion. For general 3-D states of stress, the Tsai–Hill criterion
predicts that failure of an orthotropic composite will not occur if the following
inequality is satisfied:
r
11
ð Þ
2
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
r
22
ð Þ
2
r
yT
22
_ _
2
þ
r
33
ð Þ
2
r
yT
33
_ _
2
þ
s
23
ð Þ
2
s
y
23
_ _
2
þ
s
13
ð Þ
2
s
y
13
_ _
2
þ
s
12
ð Þ
2
s
y
12
_ _
2
Àr
11
r
22
1
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
1
r
yT
22
_ _
2
À
1
r
yT
33
_ _
2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Àr
11
r
33
1
r
fT
11
_ _
2
À
1
r
yT
22
_ _
2
þ
1
r
yT
33
_ _
2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Àr
22
r
33
À1
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
1
r
yT
22
_ _
2
þ
1
r
yT
33
_ _
2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ < 1
ð52Þ
In the case of plane stress conditions (r
33
=s
13
=s
23
=0), the Tsai–Hill
criterion reduces to:
r
11
ð Þ
2
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
r
22
ð Þ
2
r
yT
22
_ _
2
þ
s
12
ð Þ
2
s
y
12
_ _
2
À r
11
r
22
1
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
1
r
yT
22
_ _
2
À
1
r
yT
33
_ _
2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ < 1 ð53Þ
It is interesting to note that according to the Tsai–Hill failure criterion,
failure of orthotropic composites is sensitive to the out-of-plane strength term
(r
33
yT
), even for plane stress conditions.
If the composite is transversely isotropic (that is, if r
33
yT
=r
22
yT
), then Eq.
(53) reduces to:
r
11
ð Þ
2
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
r
22
ð Þ
2
r
yT
22
_ _
2
þ
s
12
ð Þ
2
s
y
12
_ _
2
À
r
11
r
22
r
fT
11
_ _
2
< 1 ð54Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
A potential advantage of the Tsai–Hill failure criterion is that coupling
effects between individual stress components are accounted for, in contrast
with the maximum stress failure criterion. On the other hand, most com-
posites exhibit significantly different failure strengths in tension and com-
pression (as indicated in Table 3 of Chap. 3), and so a shortcoming of the
Tsai–Hill failure criterion is that it does not directly account for these dif-
ferences. That is, an implicit assumption of the Tsai–Hill criterion (as well as
the original von Mises criterion) is that failure strengths in tension and
compression have equal magnitudes. Hence, only tensile strengths r
11
fT
, r
22
yT
,
and r
33
yT
appear in Eqs. (53) and (54). Differences in tensile and compressive
strengths can be accounted for ‘‘artificially’’ in the Tsai–Hill criterion by
using the appropriate compressive strength if a stress component involved is
compressive. Suppose, for example, that a failure prediction is required for a
transversely isotropic composite subjected to three stress components r
11
,
r
22
, and s
12
, and also that r
11
is tensile but r
22
is compressive. In such a case,
the differences in tensile/compressive strengths can be accounted for by using
the tensile strength in the 1-direction, r
11
fT
, but the compressive strength in
the 2-direction, r
22
yC
.
While the Tsai–Hill criterion can be modified in this way to account for
differences in tensile and compressive strengths, it would be ideal if a failure
criterion was available that accounts for both coupling effects and differences
in tensile and compressive strengths ‘‘automatically.’’ One such criterion is
the Tsai–Wu criterion, described in the next paragraph.
5.3 The Tsai–Wu Failure Criterion
Tsai and Wu [4] developed their criterion by postulating that the strength of a
unidirectional composite can be treated mathematically as a tensoral quan-
tity, in much the same way as stress or strain tensors. For general 3-Dstates of
stress, the Tsai–Wu criterion predicts that failure will not occur if the
following inequality is satisfied:
X
1
r
11
þ X
2
r
22
þ X
3
r
33
þ X
11
r
2
11
þ X
22
r
2
22
þ X
33
r
2
33
þ X
44
s
2
23
þX
55
s
2
13
þ X
66
s
2
12
þ 2X
12
r
11
r
22
þ 2X
13
r
11
r
33
þ 2X
23
r
22
r
33
< 1
ð55Þ
Most of the constants that appear in this inequality (i.e., X
1
, X
2
, X
3
, X
11
, etc.)
can be determined based on fundamental strength measurements (i.e., r
11
fT
,
r
11
fC
, r
22
yT
, r
22
yC
, etc.). First, consider a uniaxial strength measurement in which
only stress r
11
is applied (that is, a test in which r
11
p 0, r
22
=r
33
=s
23
=s
13
=s
12
=0). Stress r
11
is increased monotonically from zero until
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
failure occurs. If r
11
is tensile, then at the moment of failure, r
11
=r
11
fT
, and the
Tsai–Wu criterion reduces to:
X
1
r
fT
11
þ X
11
r
fT
11
_ _
2
¼ 1
Conversely, if r
11
is compressive, then at the moment of failure, r
11
=Àr
11
fC
(where the measured compressive strength, r
11
fC
, is treated as an algebraically
positive number), and the Tsai–Wu criterion reduces to:
ÀX
1
r
fC
11
þ X
11
Àr
fC
11
_ _
2
¼ 1
Solving for X
1
and X
11
, we find:
X
1
¼
1
r
fT
11
À
1
r
fC
11
X
11
¼
1
r
fT
11
r
fC
11
ð56Þ
Similarly, if failure is measured during two uniaxial stress tests in which only
r
22
is applied, we find:
X
2
¼
1
r
yT
22
À
1
r
yC
22
X
22
¼
1
r
yT
22
r
yC
22
ð57Þ
Using measurements obtained during two tests in which only r
33
is applied:
X
3
¼
1
r
yT
33
À
1
r
yC
33
X
33
¼
1
r
yT
33
r
yC
33
ð58Þ
Three additional constants are determined using measured shear strengths:
X
44
¼
1
s
y
23
_ _
2
X
55
¼
1
s
y
13
_ _
2
X
66
¼
1
s
y
12
_ _
2
ð59Þ
Only three coefficients remain to be determined, X
12
, X
13
, and X
23
. Several
methods of determining these coefficients have been suggested, but thus far,
no one technique has gained widespread acceptance. Two methods that have
been proposed will be discussed here.
Conceptually, the most straightforward approach is through the use of
additional biaxial testing. For example, X
12
can be determined by conducting
a biaxial test in which r
11
=r
22
=r and r
33
=s
23
=s
13
=s
12
=0. The magnitude
of biaxial stresses (r) is increased until failure occurs (i.e., increased until
either fracture or yielding occurs). For simplicity, let us assume that failure
occurs due to yielding and denote the onset of yielding using the superscript y.
At the moment of failure then, the stresses applied are r
11
=r
22
=r
y
and
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
r
33
=s
23
=s
13
=s
12
=0. Substituting these values into the Tsai–Wu criterion
and solving for X
12
results in:
X
12
¼
1
2 r
y
ð Þ
2
1 À X
1
þ X
2
ð Þr
y
À X
11
þ X
22
ð Þ r
y
ð Þ
2
_ _
ð60Þ
At least conceptually, X
13
and X
23
can also be determined in a similar manner.
Two additional biaxial tests to failure would be required, where in one test,
r
11
=r
33
=r, and in the second test, r
22
=r
33
=r. These data would then
allow the calculation of X
13
and X
23
, respectively. In practice, however, these
tests would be very difficult to perform. Since composites are usually quite
thin, it is especially difficult to apply well-defined out-of-plane stress compo-
nents (i.e., r
33
, s
13
, or s
23
). Hence, in most instances, determining X
13
or X
23
in
this manner is impractical.
A second approach is to assume that X
12
, X
13
, and X
23
can be calculated
as follows:
X
12
¼
À1
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
X
11
X
22
_
¼
À1
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
r
fT
11
r
fC
11
r
yT
22
r
yC
22
_
X
13
¼
À1
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
X
11
X
33
_
¼
À1
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
r
fT
11
r
fC
11
r
yT
33
r
yC
33
_
X
23
¼
À1
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
X
22
X
33
_
¼
À1
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
r
yT
22
r
yC
22
r
yT
33
r
yC
33
_
ð61Þ
The basis of this approach is that if Eq. (61) is enforced and isotropic
strengths are assumed (i.e., if r
11
fT
=r
11
fC
=r
22
yT
=r
22
yC
=r
33
yT
=r
33
yC
=r
y
, and s
y
12
¼ s
y
13
¼ s
y
23
¼ r
y
=
ffiffiffi
3
p
), then the Tsai–Wu criterion reduces to the original von
Mises criterion for isotropic materials. This approach holds some intellectual
appeal since it ‘‘makes sense’’ that a failure criterion proposed for use with an
orthotropic material should reduce to a well-known isotropic yield criterion if
isotropic strengths are assumed. It is also a convenient assumption since X
12
,
X
13
, and X
23
are now calculated using fundamental strength data and hence
the need to perform any additional testing is avoided. However, there is little
data available to assess the validity of these assumptions and so the accuracy
of failure predictions obtained using this approach is unknown.
As discussed earlier, in most practical applications, composites are
subjected to a state of plane stress within the 1–2 plane. In this case, the
Tsai–Wu criterion reduces to:
X
1
r
11
þ X
2
r
22
þ X
11
r
2
11
þ X
22
r
2
22
þ X
66
s
2
12
þ 2X
12
r
11
r
22
< 1 ð62Þ
Hence, in the plane stress case, six constants are involved, five of which can
be calculated using readily available strength data (r
11
fT
, r
11
fC
, r
22
yT
, etc.). Only
one problematic coefficient remains, X
12
. This term can be determined using
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
an off-axis specimen (which is, in effect, a biaxial test). For example, suppose a
uniaxial stress r
xx
is applied to a unidirectional composite specimen in which
the fibers are oriented at h=45j with respect to the direction of loading.
Under these conditions, the stresses in the 1–2 coordinate system are easily
calculated:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
cos
2
45j ð Þ sin
2
45j ð Þ 2cos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ
sin
2
45j ð Þ cos
2
45j ð Þ À2cos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ
Àcos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ cos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ cos
2
45j ð Þ À sin
2
45j ð Þ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
xx
0
0
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
or
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
r
xx
cos
2
45j ð Þ
r
xx
sin
2
45j ð Þ
Àr
xx
cos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
r
xx
=2
r
xx
=2
Àr
xx
=2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
The strength of the 45j off-axis specimen is measured by increasing
stress r
xx
until failure occurs. Let us assume that failure occurs due to yielding
and denote the stress level at which failure occurs as r
xx
=r
xx
y
. At failure, the
ply stresses are r
11
=r
22
=Às
12
=r
xx
y
/2. Substituting these stresses into Eq.
(62) and solving for X
12
, we find:
X
12
¼
1
2 r
y
xx
ð Þ
2
4 À r
y
xx
2 X
1
þ X
2
ð Þ þ r
y
xx
X
11
þ X
22
þ X
66
ð Þ
_ _ _ ¸
ð63Þ
While this example has been based on a 45j off-axis specimen, a similar
approach can be used with any hj off-axis specimen.
From an analytical standpoint, the Tsai–Wu failure criterion is an
improvement over the other two failure criteria considered. First, unlike the
maximum stress failure criterion, the coupling effects between individual
stress components are accounted for in the Tsai–Wu criterion. Second, unlike
the Tsai–Hill criterion, differences in tensile and compressive strengths are
automatically and naturally accounted for via the X
1
, X
11
, X
2
, X
22
, X
3
, and
X
33
terms.
6 FAILURE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES REFERENCED
TO AN ARBITRARY COORDINATE SYSTEM
In this section, the three failure criteria introduced in Sec. 5 will be used to
predict failure of unidirectional composites subjected to a state of plane
stress, where stress components r
xx
, r
yy
, and s
xy
are referenced to an arbi-
trary x–y coordinate system. There are, of course, an infinite number of
different combinations of r
xx
, r
yy
, and s
xy
that (collectively) define a state of
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
plane stress. For illustrative purposes, two simple stress states will be con-
sidered: first, a state of uniaxial stress (i.e., r
xx
p 0, r
yy
=r
xy
=0), and second,
a state of pure shear (s
xy
p 0, r
xx
=r
yy
=0).
Numerical results for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite will be
used to facilitate these comparisons. The following failure strengths are taken
from Table 3 of Chap. 3 and are typical for graphite–epoxy at room temper-
ature:
r
fT
11
¼ 1500 MPa r
yT
22
¼ 50 MPa s
y
12
¼ 75 MPa
r
fC
11
¼ 1200 MPa r
yC
22
¼ 100 MPa
6.1 Uniaxial Stress
An off-axis composite ply subjected to a uniaxial stress r
xx
has been
previously shown in Fig. 6. The stresses induced in the 1–2 coordinate system
by stress r
xx
can be determined using Eq. (20) of Chap. 2:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ 2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
sin
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
r
xx
0
0
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
or equivalently:
r
11
¼ r
xx
cos
2
h ð Þ
r
22
¼ r
xx
sin
2
h ð Þ ð64Þ
s
12
¼ Àr
xx
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
6.1.1 Maximum Stress Criterion
Substituting Eq. (64) into Eq. (50), we obtain:
À
r
fC
11
cos
2
h ð Þ
< r
xx
<
r
fT
11
cos
2
h ð Þ
ðandÞ
Àr
yC
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
< r
xx
<
r
yT
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
ðandÞ
r
xx
j j <
s
y
12
cosðhÞsin h ð Þ
ð65Þ
According to the maximum stress criterion, failure will not occur if
these five inequalities are satisfied. The predicted tensile and compressive
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
failure strengths, r
xx
fT
and r
xx
fC
, respectively, for a hj off-axis graphite–epoxy
laminate are therefore the smallest values returned by the following expres-
sions:*
Tensile strength:
r
fT
xx
¼
r
fT
11
cos
2
h ð Þ
¼
1500 MPa
cos
2
h ð Þ
ð66aÞ
r
fT
xx
¼
r
yT
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
¼
50 MPa
sin
2
h ð Þ
ð66bÞ
r
fT
xx
¼
s
y
12
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¼
75 MPa
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ð66cÞ
Compressive strength:
r
fC
xx
¼
r
fC
11
cos
2
h ð Þ
¼
1200 MPa
cos
2
h ð Þ
ð67aÞ
r
fC
xx
¼
r
yC
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
¼
100 MPa
sin
2
h ð Þ
ð67bÞ
r
fC
xx
¼
s
y
12
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¼
75 MPa
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ð67cÞ
Note that the superscript fT or fC has been used to denote the failure strength
of the unidirectional composite. It should be understood that in this context,
‘‘failure’’ may represent fracture of the fibers or yielding of the matrix.
Equations (66a)–(66c) and (67a) (67b) (67c) were used to create the failure
envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate shown in Fig. 16.
Equations (66a)–(66c) and (67a) (67b) (67c) bound the ‘‘safe’’ region. The
reader should note the following:

The failure envelope shown in Fig. 16 is valid for a uniaxial state of
stress only. Specifically, Fig. 16 is valid only if:
r
xx
p 0
r
yy
¼ r
zz
¼ s
xy
¼ s
xz
¼ s
yz
¼ 0
As will be seen later, failure envelopes for other states of stress differ
substantially from Fig. 16.
* As before, compressive strength is treated as an algebraically positive number.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The mode of failure depends on whether r
xx
is tensile or compressive,
and also on the fiber angle h:
If r
xx
is tensile, then:
Matrix failure is predicted for: À90j<h<À33.7j and 33.7j<h
<90j.
Shear failure is predicted for: À33.7j<h<À2.9j and 2.9j<h
<33.7j.
Fiber failure is predicted for: À2.9j<h<2.9j.
If r
xx
is compressive, then:
Matrix failure is predicted for: À90j<h<À53.1j and 53.1j<h
<90j.
Shear failure is predicted for: À53.1j<h<À3.6j and 3.6j<h
<53.1j.
Fiber failure is predicted for: À3.6j<h<3.6j.
Fiber failures are predicted for only a very narrow range of fiber angles. This
implies that failure of a unidirectional composite subjected to a uniaxial state
of stress will almost always occur due to matrix or shear failures, rather than
Figure 16 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate
subjected to a uniaxial stress r
xx
, based on the maximum stress criterion.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
fiber failure. In general, fiber failure will only occur when the composite is
tested under carefully controlled laboratory conditions in which the uniaxial
stress is aligned with the fiber direction to within a fewdegrees. Also, note that
the fiber angle at which a change from shear failure to matrix failure occurs
differs in tension and compression.
6.1.2 Tsai–Hill Criterion
According to the Tsai–Hill criterion, failure of an orthotropic composite
subjected to plane stress conditions is governed by Eq. (53), whereas failure of
a transversely isotropic composite is governed by Eq. (54). For present
purposes, we have assumed that the composite is transversely isotropic.
Substituting Eq. (64) into Eq. (54), the Tsai–Hill failure criterion predicts
that failure will not occur if the following inequality is satisfied:
r
xx
<
cos
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_ ¸
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
sin
4
h ð Þ
r
yT
22
_ _
2
þ
cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
s
f
12
_ _
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
À1=2
ð68Þ
As previously noted, the Tsai–Hill criterion does not automatically account
for differences in tensile and compressive strengths. A failure envelope for a
unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite will be generated using tensile or
compressive strengths, as appropriate. Thus, the tensile strength predicted by
the Tsai–Hill criterion is:
r
fT
xx
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_ ¸
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
sin
4
h ð Þ
r
yT
22
_ _
2
þ
cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
s
f
12
_ _
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
À1=2
Similarly, the compressive strength predicted by the Tsai–Hill criterion is:
r
fC
xx
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_ ¸
r
fC
11
_ _
2
þ
sin
4
h ð Þ
r
yC
22
_ _
2
þ
cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
s
f
12
_ _
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
À1=2
Substituting the strength values that have been assumed for graphite–epoxy,
we have:
r
fT
xx
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_ ¸
1500 MPa ð Þ
2
þ
sin
4
h ð Þ
50 MPa ð Þ
2
þ
cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
75 MPa ð Þ
2
_ _
À1=2
ð69aÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
r
fC
xx
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_ ¸
1200 MPa ð Þ
2
þ
sin
4
h ð Þ
100 MPa ð Þ
2
þ
cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
75 MPa ð Þ
2
_ _
À1=2
ð69bÞ
A failure envelope based on Eqs. (69a) and (69b) is shown in Fig. 17. As
before, it is important to realize that this failure envelope is valid for a uniaxial
state of stress only. Failure envelopes obtained using the Tsai–Hill criterion
but for other states of stress differ substantially from Fig. 17.
6.1.3 Tsai–Wu Criterion
The Tsai–Wu criterion for the case of plane stress is given by Eq. (62).
Substituting Eq. (64) into Eq. (62), we obtain:
r
f
xx
_ _
2
X
11
cos
4
h ð Þ þ X
22
sin
4
h ð Þ þ cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ X
66
þ 2X
12
ð Þ
_ ¸
þr
f
xx
X
1
cos
2
h ð Þ þ X
2
sin
2
h ð Þ
_ ¸
À 1 ¼ 0
ð70Þ
Figure 17 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate
subjected to a uniaxial stress r
xx
, based on the Tsai–Hill criterion.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The constants that appear in Eq. (70) are calculated using the strength
properties that have been assumed for graphite–epoxy and Eqs. (56)–(59),
as appropriate:
X
1
¼
1
r
fT
11
À
1
r
fC
11
¼
1
1500 MPa
À
1
1200 MPa
¼
À10
À6
6000 Pa
X
11
¼
1
r
fT
11
r
fC
11
¼
1
1500 MPa ð Þ 1200 MPa ð Þ
¼
10
À15
1800 Pa
2
X
2
¼
1
r
yT
22
À
1
r
yC
22
¼
1
50 MPa
À
1
100 MPa
¼
10
À6
100 Pa
X
22
¼
1
r
yT
22
r
yC
22
¼
1
50 MPa ð Þ 100 MPa ð Þ
¼
10
À15
5 Pa
2
X
66
¼
1
s
y
12
_ _
2
¼
1
75 MPa
_ _
2
¼
10
À12
5625 Pa
2
As previously discussed, there is no widely accepted technique used to
calculate X
12
. For present purposes, X
12
will be calculated in accordance with
Eq. (61):
X
12
¼
À1
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
X
11
X
22
_
¼
À1
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
10
À15
1800 Pa
2
_ _
10
À15
5 Pa
2
_ _
¸
¼
À
ffiffiffiffiffi
10
p
600 Pa
2
_ _
10
À15
_ _
Substituting these values into Eq. (70), we obtain:
r
f
xx
_ _
2
_
10
À15
_ _
cos
4
h ð Þ
1800 Pa
2
þ
10
À15
_ _
sin
4
h ð Þ
5 Pa
2
þ cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
Â
10
À12
5625 Pa
2
À
10
À15
_ _ ffiffiffiffiffi
10
p
300 Pa
2
_ __
þ r
f
xx
À10
À6
cos
2
h ð Þ
6000 Pa
þ
10
À6
sin
2
h ð Þ
100 Pa
_ _
À 1 ¼ 0
ð71Þ
Equation (71) is a second-order polynomial in the unknown failure stress,
r
xx
f
. For any given fiber angle h, there will be two roots to this equation. The
predicted tensile strength equals the algebraically positive root, whereas the
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
predicted compressive strength equals the negative root. For example, for a
fiber angle h=30j, Eq. (71) becomes:
r
f
xx
_ _
2 4417 Â 10
À20
Pa
2
_ _
þ r
f
xx
2375 Â 10
À12
Pa
_ _
À 1 ¼ 0
The two roots of this expression are found to be (125.9Â10
6
Pa, À179.7Â10
6
Pa). Hence, the strengths predicted by the Tsai–Wu criterion for a 30j
graphite–epoxy specimen are:
r
fT
xx
¼ 125:9 MPa
r
fC
xx
¼ 179:7 MPa
A failure envelope based on the Tsai–Wu criterion for a unidirectional
graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to a uniaxial state of stress is shown in
Fig. 18. This figure is analogous to those obtained using the maximum stress
criterion and the Tsai–Hill criterion (Figs. 16 and 17, respectively). As before,
Figure 18 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate
subjected to a uniaxial stress r
xx
, based on the Tsai–Wu criterion.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
it is important to realize that this failure envelope is valid for a uniaxial state of
stress only. Failure envelopes based on the Tsai–Wu criterion but for other
states of stress differ substantially from Fig. 18.
6.1.4 Comparison
The failure envelopes for uniaxial stress obtained on the basis of the three
failure criteria considered are compared directly in Fig. 19, and an expanded
viewof just the first quadrant is presented in Fig. 20. It is apparent that similar
predictions are obtained on the basis of all three criteria, although a
significant numerical difference occurs at low fiber angles, near the region
at which the failure mode shifts from fiber failure to shear matrix failure.
However, one should not conclude that the failure criterion described above
always leads to similar predictions. In fact, depending on the state of stress
considered, the predicted failure envelopes may differ substantially. One
stress state that exhibits this effect is the state of pure shear stress, considered
in the following subsection.
Figure 19 Comparison of the failure envelopes for a unidirectional graphite–
epoxy laminate subjected to a uniaxial stress r
xx
, obtained using the maximum
stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure criteria.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
6.2 Pure Shear Stress States
It was mentioned in Sec. 5 of Chap. 3 that the shear strength of composites is
sensitive to the algebraic sign of the shear stress when referenced to a
nonprincipal material coordinate system. This sensitivity would not be
expected based on previous experience with isotropic materials since the
shear strength of isotropic materials is not sensitive to algebraic sign. We are
now in a position to explain this phenomenon. An off-axis composite ply
subjected to a pure shear stress state is shown in Fig. 21. The stresses induced
in the 1–2 coordinate system can be determined using Eq. (20) of Chap. 2:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
cos
2
h ð Þ sin
2
h ð Þ 2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
sin
2
h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
Àcos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
0
0
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
or equivalently:
r
11
¼ 2s
xy
cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ
Figure 20 Comparison of the failure envelopes (first quadrant only) for a
unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to a uniaxial stress r
xx
,
obtained using the maximum stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure criteria.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
r
22
¼ À2s
xy
cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ
s
12
¼ s
xy
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
_ ¸
ð72Þ
6.2.1 Maximum Stress Criterion
Substituting Eq. (72) into Eq. (51), we obtain:
Àr
fC
11
2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
< s
xy
<
r
fT
11
2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
ð73aÞ
(and)
Àr
yC
22
2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
< s
xy
<
r
yT
22
2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
ð73bÞ
(and)
s
xy
¸
¸
¸
¸
<
s
y
12
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
ð73cÞ
Equations (73a)–(73c) will now be used to generate a failure envelope for a
graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to pure shear. With reference to Eqs.
(73a)–(73c), the following subtleties in these calculations should be noted:

Over the range 0j<h<90j, both the cosine and sine functions return
algebraically positive values. Consequently, for this range, a positive
Figure 21 Unidirectional composite subjected to pure shear stress s
xy
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
shear stress s
xy
will induce a tensile value r
11
and a compressive value
for r
22
. However,

Over the range À90j<h<0j, the cosine function returns a positive
value, whereas the sine function returns a negative value. Over this
range, a positive shear stress s
xy
will induce a compressive stress r
11
but tensile stress r
22
.
Of course, if a negative shear stress s
xy
is applied rather than a positive shear
stress, then the algebraic signs of all stress components are reversed. These
subtleties are important during the application of Eqs. (73a)–(73c) because
composite strengths typically differ in tension and compression.
With these observations in mind, the following equations may be used
to generate a failure envelope for a graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to pure
shear, based on the strength properties previously listed:
Positive shear strengths:

For 0j<h<90j:
s
P
xy
¼
r
fT
11
2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ
¼
1500 MPa
2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ
ð74aÞ
s
P
xy
¼
r
yC
22
2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ
¼
100 MPa
2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ
ð74bÞ
s
P
xy
¼
s
y
12
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
¼
75 MPa
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
ð74cÞ

For À90j<h<0j:
s
P
xy
¼
r
fC
11
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¼
1200 MPa
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
ð74dÞ
s
P
xy
¼
r
yT
22
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¼
50 MPa
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
ð74eÞ
s
P
xy
¼
s
y
12
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
¼
75 MPa
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
ð74f Þ
Negative shear strengths:

For 0j<h<90j:
s
N
xy
¼
r
fC
11
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¼
1200 MPa
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
ð75aÞ
s
N
xy
¼
r
yT
22
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¼
50 MPa
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
ð75bÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
s
N
xy
¼
s
y
12
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
¼
75 MPa
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
ð75cÞ

For À90j<h<0j:
s
N
xy
¼
r
fT
11
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¼
1500 MPa
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
ð75dÞ
s
N
xy
¼
r
yC
22
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
¼
100 MPa
2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
ð75eÞ
s
N
xy
¼
s
y
12
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
¼
75 MPa
cos
2
h ð Þ À sin
2
h ð Þ
ð75f Þ
Equations (74a)–(74f ) and (75a)–(75f ) were used to create the failure
envelope shown in Fig. 22. Note the following.

The failure envelope shown in Fig. 22 is valid for a pure shear stress
state only. Failure envelopes for other states of stress differ sub-
stantially (for example, compare Figs. 16 and 22, both of which are
based on the maximum stress failure criterion).
Figure 22 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate
subjected to a pure shear stress s
xy
, based on the maximum stress criterion.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

None of the curves shown in Fig. 22 is associated with fiber failure.
The magnitudes of the critical shear stress values returned by Eqs.
(74a), (74d), (75a), or (75d) are all large enough that they do not ap-
pear in Fig. 22 due to the scale used for the vertical axis. These results
indicate that failure of a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate sub-
jectedto a pure shear stress state will never occur due to fiber failure.

The shear strength of an off-axis unidirectional composite depends
on algebraic sign of the shear stress. For example, a 45j specimen is
predicted to have a positive shear strength of 100 MPa and a negative
shear strength of 50 MPa.

The predicted mode of failure depends on whether s
xy
is positive or
negative as well as on fiber angle h.
If s
xy
is positive, then:
Shear failure is predicted for À90j<h<À73.2j.
Matrix failure is predicted for À73.2j<h<À16.8j.
Shear failure is predicted for À16.8j<h<26.6j.
Matrix failure is predicted for 26.6j<h<63.4j.
Shear failure is predicted for 63.4j<h<90j.
If s
xy
is negative, then:
Shear failure is predicted for À90j<h<À63.4j.
Matrix failure is predicted for À63.4j<h<26.6j.
Shear failure is predicted for À26.6j<h<16.8j.
Matrix failure is predicted for 16.8j<h<73.2j.
Shear failure is predicted for 73.2j<h<90j.
6.2.2 Tsai–Hill Criterion
Substituting Eq. (72) into Eq. (54), we obtain:
s
2
xy
4 cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
2
r
fT
11
_ _
2
þ
1
r
yT
22
_ _
2
À
1
2 s
y
12
_ _
2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ þ
cos
4
h ð Þ þ sin
4
h ð Þ
s
y
12
_ _
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
< 1
ð77Þ
Equating the left-hand side to unity and solving for s
xy
:
s
xy
¼
1
4 cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
2
r
fT
11
ð Þ
2
þ
1
r
yT
22
ð Þ
2
À
1
2 s
y
12
ð Þ
2
_ _
þ
cos
4
h ð Þ þ sin
4
h ð Þ
s
y
12
_ _
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1=2
ð78Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Recall that the Tsai–Hill criterion does not automatically account for differ-
ences in tensile and compressive stresses. Therefore, to predict shear strengths
using Eq. (78), the failure strengths used must be selected according to
whether r
11
and r
22
are positive or negative.
Positive shear strengths:

For À90j<h<0j, both r
11
and r
22
are positive; therefore, use
r
11
fT
and r
22
yT
.

For 0j<h<90j, r
11
is positive and r
22
is negative; therefore,
use r
11
fT
and r
22
yC
.
Negative shear strengths:

For À90j<h<0j, both r
11
and r
22
are negative; therefore, use
r
11
fC
and r
22
yC
.

For 0j<h<90j, r
11
is negative and r
22
is positive; therefore,
use r
11
fC
and r
22
yT
.
A failure envelope based on these failure strengths and Eq. (78) is shown in
Fig. 23.
Figure 23 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate sub-
jected to a pure shear stress s
xy
, based on the Tsai–Hill criterion.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
6.2.3 Tsai–Wu Criterion
Substituting Eq. (72) into Eq. (62), we obtain:
s
2
xy
X
66
cos
4
h ð Þ þ sin
4
h ð Þ
_ ¸
þ 2 cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ 2X
11
þ 2X
22
ð79Þ
_ _
À4X
12
À X
66
__
þ 2s
xy
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ X
1
À X
2
½ Š < 1
Numerical values for constants X
1
, X
2
, X
11
, etc., were calculated in Sec. 6.1.3
(based on strengths assumed for graphite–epoxy). Substituting these values in
the left-hand side of Eq. (79) and equating to unity, we obtain:
s
2
xy
10
À12
5625Pa
2
cos
4
h ð Þ þ sin
4
h ð Þ
_ ¸
þ cos
2
h ð Þsin
2
h ð Þ
_
Â
67 Â 10
À15
150Pa
2
À
ffiffiffiffiffi
10
p _ _
10
À15
_ _
75Pa
2
_ __
Às
xy
cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ
61 Â 10
À6
3000
_ _
¼ 1
ð80Þ
Equation (80) is a second-order polynomial in the unknown shear failure
stress, s
xy
f
. For a given fiber angle, h, there are two roots to this equation. The
predicted positive shear strength, s
xy
fP
, equals the algebraically positive root,
whereas the predicted negative shear strength, s
xy
fN
, equals the negative root.
For example, for a fiber angle h=30j, Eq. (80) becomes:
s
f
xy
_ _
2
202:8 Â 10
À18
Pa
2
_ _
À s
f
xy
88:05 Â 10
À10
Pa
_ _
À 1 ¼ 0
The two roots of this expression are found to be (95.22 Â 10
6
Pa, À51.8 Â 10
6
Pa). Hence, the shear strengths predicted by the Tsai–Wu criterion for a 30j
graphite–epoxy laminate are:
s
fP
xy
¼ 95:2 MPa
s
fN
xy
¼ 51:8 MPa
A failure envelope based on the Tsai–Wu criterion for a unidirectional
graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to a pure shear stress state is shown in
Fig. 24. This figure is analogous to those obtained using the maximum stress
criterion and the Tsai–Hill criterion (Figs. 22 and 23, respectively).
6.2.4 Comparisons
The failure envelopes for pure shear stress obtained on the basis of the three
failure criteria considered are compared directly in Fig. 25, and an expanded
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
view of just the first quadrant is presented in Fig. 26. The difference between
predictions obtained using the three failure criteria is more striking in pure
shear than was the case in uniaxial stress (e.g., compare Figs. 20 and 26).
Predictions on the basis of the Tsai–Hill and Tsai–Wu criteria are similar,
although some difference exists. The maximum stress criterion predicts local
maximums in shear strength near fiber angles of h=27j and 64j. These
maximums are associated with the previously noted change in failure mode,
from a shear failure mode to a matrix failure mode (or vice versa).
7 COMPUTER PROGRAMS UNIDIR AND UNIFAIL
The results derived in this chapter will be used extensively throughout the
remainder of this text. As is already abundantly clear, the calculations
associated with any thermomechanical analysis of an anisotropic composite
are tedious and time-consuming if performed using a hand calculator.
Consequently, most composite analyses are performed with the aid of a
digital computer.
Two computer programs have been developed to supplement the ma-
terial presented in this chapter: UNIDIR and UNIFAIL. These programs
Figure 24 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate sub-
jected to a pure shear stress s
xy
, based on the Tsai–Wu criterion.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
can be downloaded at no cost from the following website: http://depts.
washington.edu/amtas/computer.html.
The analyses that can be performed with the aid of these programs will
be discussed in the following subsections. Both programs require the user to
provide various numerical values required during the calculations performed.
The user must define these values using a consistent set of units. For example,
program UNIDIR requires the user to input elastic moduli, thermal expan-
sion coefficients, and moisture expansion coefficients for the composite
material system of interest. Using the properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3
and based on the SI system of units, the following numerical values would be
input for graphite–epoxy:
E
11
¼ 170 Â 10
9
Pa E
22
¼ 10 Â 10
9
Pa v
12
¼ 0:30
G
12
¼ 13 Â 10
9
Pa
a
11
¼ À0:9 Â 10
À6
m=m
o
C a
22
¼ 27:0 Â 10
À6
m=m
o
C
b
11
¼ 150:0 Â 10
À6
m=m%M b
22
¼ 4800 Â 10
À6
m=m%M
Figure 25 Comparison of the failure envelopes for a unidirectional graphite–
epoxy laminate subjected to pure shear stress s
xy
, obtained using the Maximum
Stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure criteria.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
If the analysis requires the user to input numerical values for stresses, then
stresses must be input in pascals (not in MPa). A typical value would be
r
xx
=200Â10
6
Pa. If, instead, the analysis requires the user to input numerical
values for strains, then strains must be input in m/m (not in Am/m). A typical
value would be e
xx
=2000Â10
À6
m/m=0.002000 m/m. All temperatures
would be input in jC.
In contrast, if the English system of units was used, then the following
numerical values would be input for the same graphite–epoxy material
system:
E
11
¼ 25:0 Â 10
6
psi E
22
¼ 1:5 Â 10
6
psi v
12
¼ 0:30
G
12
¼ 1:9 Â 10
6
psi
a
11
¼ À0:5 Â 10
À6
in:=in:
o
F a
22
¼ 15 Â 10
À6
in:=in:
o
F
b
11
¼ 150:0 Â 10
À6
in:=in:%M b
22
¼ 4800 Â 10
À6
in:=in:%M
If the analysis requires the user to input numerical values for stresses, then
stresses must be input in psi (not in ksi). A typical value would be r
xx
=30,000
psi. If, instead, the analysis requires the user to input numerical values for
Figure 26 Comparison of the failure envelopes (first quadrant only) for a
unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to a uniaxial stress r
xx
,
obtained using the maximum stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure criteria.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
strains, then strains must be input in in./in. (not in Ain./in.). A typical value
would be e
xx
=2000Â10
À6
in./in.=0.002000 in./in. All temperatures would be
input in jF.
7.1 Program UNIDIR
Program UNIDIR may be used to predict the elastic behavior of unidirec-
tional composites and is based on the material presented in 1 Secs. 2 Secs. 3
Secs. 4. Two different types of analyses may be performed. The program may
be used in either of the following:

Calculating total strains (e
xx
, e
yy
, c
xy
) caused by a specified com-
bination of stresses (r
xx
, r
yy
, s
xy
), a uniform temperature change
(DT), and a uniform change in moisture content (DM). Calculations
performed as a part of Example Problems 1, 2, 4, and 5 are typical of
this type of analysis.

Calculating stresses (r
xx
, r
yy
, s
xy
) caused by a specified combination
of total strains (e
xx
, e
yy
, c
xy
), a uniformtemperature change (DT), and
a uniform change in moisture content (DM). Calculations performed
as a part of Example Problems 3 and 6 are typical of this type of
analysis.
The program also determines the effective properties of a unidirectional
composite based on the definitions described in Sec. 4. An implicit assumption
in these calculations is that all material properties (E
11
, a
11
, b
11
, etc.) input by
the user correspond to the temperature and moisture content dictated by DT
and DM.
7.2 Program UNIFAIL
Program UNIFAIL may be used to obtain failure predictions for unidirec-
tional composites based on the maximum stress, Tsai–Hill, or Tsai–Wu
failure criteria introduced in Sec. 5. Two different types of analyses may be
performed. The program may be used in either of the following:

Calculating predicted uniaxial and shear strengths of a unidirectional
laminate with a specified fiber angle h.

Generating a data file that can subsequently be used to produce
failure envelopes for unidirectional composites subjected to several
types of plane stress conditions.
Note that the program UNIFAIL itself does not create a failure envelope.
Rather, the program creates a file (named Envelop.txt) that contains the
stress(es) predicted to cause failure of a unidirectional composite as a function
of fiber angle, based on the particular failure criterion specified by the user. A
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
failure envelope may then be created using a second software package to
‘‘import’’ the data generated by the program UNIFAIL and then plotting
failure stress vs. fiber angle. For example, any of the failure envelopes
presented in Sec. 6 may be easily recreated in this way. As before, an implicit
assumption is that failure strengths (r
11
fT
, a
22
yT
, etc.) input by the user corre-
spond to the values exhibited by the composite at the temperature and mois-
ture content of interest. Also, in the present context, ‘‘failure’’ may represent
fracture of the fibers or yielding of the matrix.
HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
Notes: (a) In the following problems, the phrase ‘‘by hand calculation’’ means
that solutions are to be obtained using a calculator, pencil, and paper. (b)
Computer programs UNIDIR and/or UNIFAIL are referenced in many of
the following problems. As described in Sec. 7, these programs can be
downloaded from the following website: http://depts.washington.edu/
amtas/computer.html.
1. Calculate the reduced compliance matrix for the materials listed below,
first by hand calculation and then using program UNIDIR. Use the
material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
(a) Glass/epoxy.
(b) Kevlar/epoxy.
(c) Graphite/epoxy.
2. Calculate the reduced stiffness matrix for the materials listed below, first
by hand calculation and then using program UNIDIR. Use the material
properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
(a) Glass/epoxy.
(b) Kevlar/epoxy.
(c) Graphite/epoxy.
3. A thin unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate is simultaneously
subjected to a uniform temperature change DT=À175jC, an increase in
moisture content DM=0.5%, and the following in-plane stresses:
r
11
¼ 350 MPa
r
22
¼ 40 MPa
s
12
¼ 60 MPa
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Determine the resulting strains (e
11
, e
22
, and c
12
), first by hand calcu-
lation and then using program UNIDIR. Use the material properties
listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.
4. Repeat Problem 3 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
5. Repeat Problem 3 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
6. A thin unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate is simultaneously
subjected to a uniform temperature change DT=À275jF and an un-
known plane stress state. The following strains are measured as a result
(moisture content remains constant):
e
11
¼ À1250 Ain:=in:
e
22
¼ 2000 Ain:=in:
c
12
¼ 0
Determine the stresses (r
11
, r
22
, and s
12
), first by hand calculation and
then using program UNIDIR. Use the material properties listed in
Table 3 of Chap. 3.
7. Repeat Problem 6 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
8. Repeat Problem 6 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
9. A square unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate with dimen-
sions 1Â1 m is clamped between four infinitely rigid walls, as shown in
Fig. 27. Material properties are listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3. Initially, the
clamped composite is stress-free, but the temperature is subsequently
decreased by 100jC. The thermal expansion coefficient of the rigid walls
is zero, so the rigid walls do not expand or contract.
(a) Calculate the stresses (r
11
, r
22
, s
12
) induced by this change in
temperature, first by hand calculation and then using
program UNIDIR.
(b) Predict whether the composite will fail based on the maxi-
mum stress failure criterion.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
10. Repeat Problem 9 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
11. Repeat Problem 9 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
12. A 1Â1 m square unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate is
placed within a cavity defined by four rigid walls, as shown in Fig. 28.
An initial gap of 0.050 mm exists between all edges of the ply and the
walls. The composite ply adsorbs 1.5% moisture, causing the ply to
expand and completely fill the cavity. Temperature remains constant.
The rigid walls do not adsorb moisture, and hence do not expand or
contract. Assuming the ply does not buckle, calculate the stresses (r
11
,
r
22
, s
12
) caused by the change in moisture content.
13. Repeat Problem 12 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
14. Repeat Problem 12 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
15. A perfectly square unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate is
mounted in a frame consisting of four infinitely rigid frame members,
Figure 27 Clamped composite laminate considered in Problems 9, 10, and 11.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
as shown in Fig. 29(a). The frame members are pinned at each corner.
Since the laminate is perfectly square, the angle defined by corners ABC
is initially 90j (precisely).
A force F is then applied to two diagonal corners, as shown in Fig. 29(b).
After F is applied, angle ABC is measured to be 89.50j (precisely). Both
temperature and moisture content remain constant. What stresses (r
11
,
r
22
, s
12
) are induced in the panel?
16. Repeat Problem 15 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
17. Repeat Problem 15 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
18. Create a plot of the following effective properties for a unidirectional
glass/epoxy composite, with fiber angles ranging from À90j to +90j.
(a) E
xx
and E
yy
.
(b) v
xy
and v
yx
.
Figure 28 A composite laminate placed within a cavity defined by four rigid
walls (considered in Problems 12, 13, and 14).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
(c) G
xy
.
(d) g
xy,xx
and g
xy,yy
.
(e) g
xx,xy
and g
yy,xy
.
(f ) a
xx
, a
yy
, and a
xy
.
(g) b
xx
, b
yy
, and b
xy
.
Suggested solution procedure: use program UNIDIR (repeatedly) to
calculate the required properties in increments of 5j (that is, calcu-
late for h=0j, 5j, 10j, 15j, 20j, etc.) and then plot these calcu-
lations.
19. Repeat Problem 18 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
Figure 29 Unidirectional composite laminate considered in Problems 15, 16,
and 17.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
20. (a) Using hand calculation, predict the positive and negative shear
strengths for a unidirectional 45j glass/epoxy composite laminate
based on the maximum stress failure criterion.
(b) Use program UNIFAIL to predict the positive and negative shear
strengths for a unidirectional 45j glass/epoxy composite laminate
based on the maximum stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure cri-
teria. Compare these results with your calculations obtained in part
(a).
21. Repeat Problem 20 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
22. Repeat Problem 20 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
23. On the same graph, plot failure envelopes for a unidirectional glass/
epoxy composite laminate for the following two conditions:
(a) Unidirectional stress: r
xx
, r
yy
=s
xy
=0
(b) Biaxial normal stress: r
yy
=r
xx
/10, s
xy
=0
Use the Tsai–Hill failure criterion. Suggested solution procedure: use
program UNIFAIL (twice) to generate data files corresponding to the
specified loading conditions, and then plot these data files.
24. Repeat Problem 23 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
25. Repeat Problem 23 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-
nate.
REFERENCES
1. Reuter, R.C. Concise property transformation relations for an anisotropic lami-
na. J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 5, April 1971, 270–272.
2. Hill, R. The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity; New York, Oxford University
Press, 1998.
3. Tsai, S.W. Strength theories of filamentary structures. In: Fundamental Aspects
of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composites; Schwartz, R.T., Schwartz, H.S., eds;
Wiley Interscience: New York, 1968; 3–11.
4. Tsai, S.W.; Wu, E.M. A general theory of strength for anisotropic materials. J.
Compos. Mater., Vol. 5, January 1971, 58–80.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
6
Thermomechanical Behavior of Multiangle
Composite Laminates
Thin composite laminates in which the principal material coordinate system
of all plies is aligned were considered in Chap. 5. The behavior of laminates,
wherein the alignment of the principal material system varies from one ply to
the next, will be considered in this chapter. In essence, we will combine the
results of Chap. 5 with traditional ‘‘thin-plate theory.’’ This combination will
result in an analysis technique commonly known as ‘‘classical lamination
theory’’ (CLT).
1 DEFINITION OF A ‘‘THIN PLATE’’ AND ALLOWABLE PLATE
LOADINGS
A ‘‘thin plate’’ with in-plane dimensions a and b and thickness t is shown
schematically in Fig. 1. The plate can be considered ‘‘thin’’ if the plate
thickness is less than about one-tenth the in-plane dimensions (i.e., if t<a/
10 and t<b/10). An x–y–z coordinate systemis defined as indicated. Note that
the origin of the x–y–z coordinate system is positioned at the geometrical
center of the plate, such that the midplane (or midsurface) of the plate lies
within the plane z =0. Consequently, the plate exists within the space defined
by the planes z = Àt/2 and z = +t/2.
We will assume that the thin plate is subjected to plane stress conditions.
Therefore, we will only consider plate loadings that result in a plane stress
265
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
state within the plate. Furthermore, in this chapter, we will only consider
uniformly distributed loads. That is, we will assume that the loads are constant
and uniformly distributed along the edge of the plate. The more general case
in which loads vary along the edge of the plate will be considered in Chap. 10.
Six types of uniformly distributed loads that give rise to plane stress
conditions within the x–y plane are shown in Fig. 2. All load components are
shown in an algebraically positive sense. Because the line-of-action of all load
vectors shown in Fig. 2 lies within the x–y plane, these load components are
often referred to as in-plane loads.
First, consider load components N
xx
, N
yy
, and N
xy
. Two subscripts are
used to identify these load components. The algebraic sense of each compo-
nent is interpreted in a manner analogous to that previously used to identify
the algebraic sense of individual stress components (discussed in Sec. 2.5).
That is, the first subscript indicates the face of the plate a given load acts upon,
whereas the second subscript indicates the line of action of the load. Apositive
load is one that:

Acts on a positive face and points in a positive coordinate direction,
or

Acts on a negative face and points in a negative coordinate direction.
The algebraic sense of normal loads N
xx
and N
yy
(Fig. 2a) is readily
apparent and intuitive: A positive (tensile) normal load is one that tends to
cause the plate to stretch. The algebraic sense of shear loads N
xy
and N
yx
(Fig.
2b) is not as immediately apparent, but application of the sign convention just
Figure 1 A ‘‘thin plate’’ with in-plane dimensions a and b and thickness t.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 2 Schematic of allowable plate loadings: (a) in-plane normal forces N
xx
and N
yy
, (b) in-plane shear forces N
xy
and N
yx
, (c) bending moment M
xx
, (d)
bending moment M
yy
, (e) in-plane torques M
xy
and M
yx
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
described will confirm that the shear loads shown in Fig. 2b are indeed
positive. That is, two of the shear loads shown are acting on a positive face and
point in a positive coordinate direction, whereas two of the shear loads shown
act on a negative face and point in a negative coordinate direction. Because
individual load components are not allowed to vary spatially (i.e., loads are
assumed to be constant and uniformly distributed along each edge of the
plate), statical equilibrium requires that the shear loads acting along the x-
edge and y-edge be orientated tip-to-tip and tail-to-tail, as shown in Fig. 2b.
Furthermore, the magnitude of the shear loads must be identical, jN
xy
j =
jN
yx
j. These requirements are also analogous to those of shear stresses acting
on an infinitesimal stress element, as discussed in Sec. 2.5. It is emphasized
that N
xx
, N
yy
, and N
xy
are all defined as distributed loads, expressed in units of
force/plate length (such as N/m or lbf/in.).
The remaining loads shown in Fig. 2 (M
xx
, M
yy
, and M
xy
) are bending
moments (or torques) distributed along the edge of the plate. Load compo-
nents M
xx
and M
yy
are uniformly distributed bending moments acting along
the x-edge and y-edge of the plate, respectively, as shown in Fig. 2c and d.
These loads are shown in an algebraically positive sense. The subscripts
assigned to M
xx
and M
yy
may seempuzzling at first because, for example, M
xx
represents a bending moment acting about the y-axis. However, M
xx
is
directly related to the distribution of r
xx
through the thickness of the plate,
as will be shown below. Because M
xx
arises due to the distribution of r
xx
(or
vice versa), it is customary to use the same subscripts for both entities.
Unfortunately, the convention used to assign an algebraic sign to distributed
bending moments varies from one author to the next, and in fact can be
arbitrarily chosen. The sign convention used herein is most commonly used in
the study of composite plates. An algebraically positive distributed bending
moment is defined as one that tends to cause tensile stresses in the positive z-
face of the plate and compressive stresses in the negative z-face. Referring to
Fig. 2c and noting that the positive z-direction is downward as drawn, it is
seen that M
xx
tends to cause tensile stresses in the positive z-face (i.e., the
lower face) of the plate. Hence, M
xx
is positive as drawn. A similar
observation holds for M
yy
, as shown in Fig. 2d.
Finally, loads M
xy
and M
yx
are defined as uniformly distributed in-
plane moments (or torques) acting along neighboring edges of the plate, as
shown in Fig. 2d. It will be shown belowthat M
xy
and M
yx
are directly related
to in-plane shear stresses s
xy
and s
yx
, respectively. Because M
xy
and M
yx
arise
due to the distribution of s
xy
and s
yx
, it can be shown that for statical
equilibrium to be maintained, jM
xy
j = jM
yx
j. An algebraically positive
distributed torque is defined as one that tends to cause a positive shear stress
in the positive z-face (i.e., the lower face) of the plate.
Recall that the units of an applied moment or torque are force–length
(such as NÁm or lbfÁin). Because M
xx
, M
yy
, and M
xy
all represent uniformly
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
distributed moments acting along the plate edge, they are all expressed in units
of force–length/plate length (such as NÁm/m or lbfÁin/in).
It is expected that most readers will have considered the behavior of
isotropic prismatic beams during earlier studies. It is therefore instructive to
contrast the definitions just given for a thin plate, as well as the loads applied
thereon, to those encountered in fundamental beam theory. As previously
shown in Fig. 1, a ‘‘thin plate’’ is defined as a structure whose thickness, t, is
much less than the in-plane dimensions a and b. That is, t<<a,b. In contrast, a
beamis a structure for which two dimensions are small compared to the third.
Hence, a beam can be described as a structure in which one of the in-plane
dimensions, say width b, is of the same order as the thickness t. Hence, the
thin plate shown in Fig. 1 is ‘‘converted’’ to a beam if we allow bct<<a. In
this way, we describe a beam with rectangular cross-section bÂt and length a,
as shown in Fig. 3. The beamis called ‘‘prismatic’’ if the cross-section remains
constant along the length of the beam (i.e., if b and t remain constant along
length a).
Regarding the description of applied loading, in the case of thin plates,
all loading conditions are specified in terms of distributed loads, as described
in preceding paragraphs. For example, in SI units, N
xx
is expressed in terms of
Newtons per meter, whereas M
xx
is expressed in terms of Newton meter per
meter. In contrast, in fundamental beam theory, point loads are often
specified. For a beam, a normal load is often expressed in terms of Newtons,
whereas bending moments (or torques) are expressed in terms of Newton
meter. Loads that correspond to N
xx
and M
xx
, when applied to a beam, have
also been shown in Fig. 3. They have been denoted as N
b
xx
and M
b
xx
, where the
superscript ‘‘b’’ is used to denote that these loads are defined in the sense
traditionally used in beam theory and therefore have different units than the
Figure 3 Aprismatic beamwithrectangular cross-section (compare withFig. 1).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
distributed loads used in plate theory. Because the width of the beam is b, the
two load definitions are related according to N
b
xx
=bN
xx
and M
b
xx
=bM
xx
. As
mentioned above, the sign convention used to define an algebraically positive
bending moment varies from one author to the next, and can be arbitrarily
selected. The bending moment applied to the beam shown in Fig. 3 is
considered to be positive according to the sign convention used throughout
this text. This corresponds to the convention most commonly used in the
study of composite plates. However, according to the sign convention used in
many textbooks devoted to fundamental beam theory, the bending moment
shown in Fig. 3 would be considered as negative. Hence, the sign convention
used to describe bending moments in this and other textbooks devoted to
composites differs from the sign convention used in many textbooks devoted
to beam theory. The reader must simply be aware of this potential source of
confusion, and carefully note which convention has been used when compar-
ing the results described in this text to those developed elsewhere.
Let us now return to the topic of thin plates. We wish to relate the
external distributed loads applied to the plate to the resulting internal stresses.
An edge viewof a plate loaded only by distributed load N
xx
and moment M
xx
is shown in Fig. 4a. A free-body diagram of a section of the plate is shown in
Fig. 4b. The free-body diagram has been drawn showing the distributed load
N
xx
and distributed moment M
xx
on the left-hand side, and the resulting
internal stress r
xx
on the right-hand side. The plate is assumed to be in statical
equilibrium. Therefore, SF=0, and the force per unit width associated with
the distribution of stress r
xx
through the thickness of the plate must be exactly
balanced by the distributed load N
xx
. Let the free-body diagramhave a width
of ‘‘1’’ and consider an incremental strip of height dz. The cross-sectional area
dA of this strip is dA=1dz. The incremental force dF
xx
associated with the
stress acting over this thin strip is dF
xx
=dN
xx
1=r
xx
dA=r
xx
dz. We can now
relate the total distributed force N
xx
acting on the left-hand side of the free-
body diagram to the distribution of r
xx
acting on the right-hand side by
simply ‘‘adding up’’ the forces acting over all incremental strips; that is, we
integrate over the thickness of the plate:
N
xx
¼
_
þt=2
Àt=2
dN
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
r
xx
dz ð1aÞ
In an entirely equivalent manner, we can relate distributed forces N
yy
and N
xy
to stresses r
yy
and s
xy
, respectively:
N
yy
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
r
yy
dz ð1bÞ
N
xy
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
s
xy
dz ð1cÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Now consider moment M
xx
. As before, the plate is assumed to be in
statical equilibrium, and hence moments acting about the y-axis must sum to
zero: SM
y
=0. Again consider an incremental strip of height dz, which is
located a distance z fromthe midsurface. The incremental distributed moment
dM
xx
contributed by N
xx
acting over the incremental strip is dM
xx
=dN
xx
z=
r
xx
zdz. We can obtain the total moment acting on the right-hand side of the
free-body diagram by integrating over the thickness of the plate:
M
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
r
xx
zdz ð2aÞ
In an entirely equivalent manner, we can relate moments M
yy
and M
xy
to
stresses r
yy
and s
xy
, respectively:
M
yy
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
r
yy
zdz ð2bÞ
M
xy
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
s
xy
zdz ð2cÞ
Figure 4 Edge view of a thin plate subjected to loads N
xx
and M
xx
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Equations (1a) (1b) (1c) (2a) (2b) (2c) show that the uniformly distributed
loads and moments applied to the plate edge are directly related to the stresses
within the plate. Distributed loads N
xx
, N
yy
, and N
xy
are commonly called
stress resultants, and moments M
xx
, M
yy
, and M
xy
are commonly called
moment resultants.
2 PLATE DEFORMATIONS: THE KIRCHHOFF HYPOTHESIS
Let us now consider the deformation of a thin, flat plate. Fig. 5 represents a
(magnified) viewof the edge of the plate in both the ‘‘initial’’ and ‘‘deformed’’
positions. The positive x-direction is to the right, the positive y-direction is out
of the plane of the figure, and the positive z-direction is downward, which is
consistent with the original definition shown in Fig. 1. Although we will
eventually apply our results to a composite laminate, for the moment, we will
not consider the existence of individual plies, and therefore the ply interfaces
are not shown in the figure. If the flat plate is loaded and/or is subjected to a
change in environment, it will be deformed and (in general) will become
curved, as shown in the figure. We will base our analysis on the Kirchhoff
hypothesis, which states that a ‘‘straight line that is initially perpendicular to
the midplane of the plate remains straight and perpendicular to the midplane
of the plate after deformation.’’ For example, let us consider straight line b–o–
d. This line is shown in Fig. 5, in the sketch of both the initial and deformed
positions of the plate. In accordance with the Kirchhoff hypothesis, line b–o–
Figure 5 Initial and deformed positions of a flat plate.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
d has been drawn perpendicular to the midplane in both the initial and
deformed positions. In effect, we have assumed that out-of-plane shear strains
are zero (c
xz
=c
xz
=0), which is equivalent to saying that we have assumed
that the z-axis is a principal strain axis.
We are interested in describing the displacement of an arbitrary point
‘‘c,’’ which is located within the thickness of the plate at some distance z
c
from
the midsurface. Point ‘‘c’’ is shown in Fig. 5, and lies along line b–o–d. Denote
the displacement of point ‘‘o’’ in the x-direction and z-direction as distances
u
o
and w
o
, respectively. From the figure, it can be seen that the distance point
‘‘c’’ has moved in the x-direction, u
c
, is approximately given by:
u
c
iu
o
À z
c
sin a ð3Þ
where a is the angle formed by the plate midplane and the x-axis in the
deformed condition. Equation (3) is approximate because we have ignored
any change in plate thickness (i.e., we have ignored any change in distance z
c
that may have occurred during deformation of the plate). If we now further
assume that angle a is small, then we can simplify Eq. (3) using the small-angle
approximation, which states that if a is expressed in radians and is less than
about 0.1745 rad (about 10j), then:
sin aia tan aia cos ai1 ð4Þ
Based on this assumption, Eq. (3) can be written as:
u
c
iu
o
À z
c
a ð5Þ
Now, fromFig. 5, it can be seen that tan a=dw/dx. Applying the small-angle
approximation once more, we can say that tan a ia idw=dx. Substituting
this result in Eq. (5), we obtain:
u
c
¼ u
o
À z
c
dw
dx
ð6Þ
To summarize, we have expressed the displacement in the x-direction of
arbitrary point ‘‘c’’ (which we have called distance u
c
) as a function of the
displacement in the x-direction of a point on the plate midsurface (distance
u
o
), the position of point c with respect to the midsurface (length z
c
), and the
slope of the plate midsurface dw/dx.
We will also require an expression for the displacement of point ‘‘c’’ in
the y-direction. We will denote the displacement of point ‘‘c’’ in the y-
direction as v
c
. Using a procedure that is entirely equivalent to that just
described, it can be shown that:
v
c
¼ v
o
À z
c
dw
dy
ð7Þ
Equations (6) and (7) represent the displacements of point ‘‘c’’ in the x-
direction and y-direction, respectively, and followdirectly fromthe Kirchhoff
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
hypothesis. We can now determine the infinitesimal in-plane strains at point
‘‘c’’, in accordance with Eq. (49) of Chap. 2:
e
xx
¼
Bu
Bx
e
yy
¼
Bv
By
c
xy
¼
Bv
Bx
þ
Bu
By
ð8Þ
Substituting Eqs. (6) and (7) into Eq. (8), we obtain the following expressions
for the strains induced at point ‘‘c’’:
e
c
xx
¼
Bu
o
Bx
À z
c
B
2
w
Bx
2
e
c
yy
¼
Bv
o
By
À z
c
B
2
w
By
2
ð9Þ
c
c
xy
¼
Bu
o
By
þ
Bv
o
Bx
À 2z
c
B
2
w
BxBy
Let:
e
o
xx
¼
Bu
o
Bx
ð10aÞ
e
o
yy
¼
Bv
o
By
ð10bÞ
c
o
xy
¼
Bu
o
By
þ
Bv
o
Bx
ð10cÞ
j
xx
¼ À
B
2
w
Bx
2
ð10dÞ
j
yy
¼ À
B
2
w
By
2
ð10eÞ
j
xy
¼ À2
B
2
w
BxBy
ð10f Þ
where e
o
xx
; e
o
yy
; and c
o
xy
are the in-plane strains that exist at the midplane of the
plate. The terms j
xx
, j
yy
, and j
xy
are called midplane curvatures, and represent
the rate of change of the slope of the midplane of the plane.
The reader is likely to have encountered the concept of midplane cur-
vatures during earlier studies of fundamental beam theory. Unfortunately,
the algebraic sign convention used to define curvatures varies fromone author
to the next. The sign convention used throughout this text and defined by Eqs.
(10a–10f ) is most commonly used in the study of composite plates. However,
in many textbooks devoted to beam theory, curvatures are defined using the
opposite sign convention. For example, in beamtheory curvature, j
xx
is often
defined as j
xx
=+B
2
w/Bx
2
, rather than j
xx
=ÀB
2
w/Bx
2
as indicated above.
Also, in some textbooks devoted to plate theory, j
xy
is defined as j
xy
=+B
2
w/
BxBy, rather than as j
xy
=À2B
2
w/BxBy as indicated in Eq. (10f ). These
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
unfortunate deviations from one author to the next have developed over
many years, and a universal agreement on algebraic signs or even the
fundamental definition of j
xy
is not likely to occur for the foreseeable future.
The reader must simply be aware of these potential sources of confusion, and
carefully note that the convention has been used when comparing the results
described in this text to those developed elsewhere. Returning now to the
discussion of through-thickness strains, note from Fig. 5 that point ‘‘c’’ is
located at an arbitrary distance z from the neutral surface. We will therefore
discontinue the use of the subscript ‘‘c’’ in Eq. (9). Substituting Eqs. (10a–10f)
in Eq. (9), we obtain:
e
xx
¼ e
o
xx
þ zj
xx
e
yy
¼ e
o
yy
þ zj
yy
ð11Þ
c
xy
¼ c
o
xy
þ zj
xy
Equation (11) can be conveniently written in matrix form as:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þ z
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
ð12Þ
Equation (12) is the primary result we require for present purposes from
classical thin-plate theory. It allows us to calculate the infinitesimal in-plane
strains (e
xx
,e
yy
,c
xy
) induced at any position z through the thickness of the
plate, based on the midplane strains (e
o
xx
; e
o
yy
; c
o
xy
) and midplane curvatures
(j
xx
,j
yy
,j
xy
). Note that this result is based strictly on the Kirchhoff hypoth-
esis. We have made no assumptions regarding the mechanism(s) that caused
the flat plate to deform. Hence, Eq. (12) is valid if the plate is deformed by a
change in temperature, a change in moisture content, externally applied
mechanical loads, or any combination thereof. Also, we have made no
assumptions regarding material properties. Equation (12) is therefore valid
for isotropic, transversely isotropic, orthotropic, or anisotropic thin plates.
Example Problem 1
A thin plate with a thickness of 1 mm is subjected to mechanical loads, a
change in temperature, and a change in moisture content. Strain gages are
used to measure the surface strains induced in the plate. They are found to be:
at z ¼ Àt=2 ¼ À0:5 mm : e
xx
¼ 250 Am=m; e
yy
À 1500 Am=m; c
xy
¼ 1000 Arad
at z ¼ þt=2 ¼ þ0:5 mm : e
xx
¼ À250 Am=m; e
yy
À 1100 Am=m; c
xy
¼ 800 Arad
What midplane strains and curvatures are induced in the plate?
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Solution. To solve this problem, we simply apply Eq. (12) to both surfaces of
the plate. For example, using the measured strains for e
xx
, we have:
at z ¼ Àt=2 ¼ À0:0005 m : e
xx
¼ 250 Am=m ¼ e
o
xx
À ð0:0005Þj
xx
at z ¼ þt=2 ¼ þ0:0005 m : e
xx
¼ À250 Am=m ¼ e
o
xx
þ ð0:0005Þj
xx
Solving simultaneously, we find:
e
o
xx
¼ 0 Am=m; j
xx
¼ À0:50 rad=m
Using a similar approach utilizing the measured values for e
yy
and c
xy
, we
find:
e
o
yy
¼ À1300 Am=m; j
yy
¼ 0:40 rad=m
c
o
xy
¼ 900 Arad; j
xy
¼ À0:20 rad=m
3 PRINCIPAL CURVATURES
In Sec. 2, we invoked the Kirchhoff hypothesis, according to which it is
assumed that a straight line that is initially perpendicular to the midplane of
the plate remains straight and perpendicular to the midplane after deforma-
tion. The Kirchhoff hypothesis has ultimately allowed us to calculate the in-
plane strains referenced to the x–y coordinate system (e
xx
, e
yy
, and c
xy
)
induced at any position z through the thickness of a thin plate, using either
Eq. (11) or Eq. (12). These equations are valid for any combination of
midplane strains (e
o
xx
, e
o
yy
, and c
o
xy
) and midplane curvatures (j
xx
, j
yy
, and j
xy
).
In this section, we will consider a special case. Specifically, we will
consider a state of deformation in which the midplane strains are zero: e
o
xx
¼
e
o
yy
¼ c
o
xy
¼ 0. In this special case, Eq. (12) becomes:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼ z
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
ð13Þ
This state of deformation is known as pure bending. When a thin plate is in a
state of pure bending, all midplane strains are zero (e
o
xx
¼ e
o
yy
¼ c
o
xy
¼ 0) and
the midplane of the plate is called the neutral surface.
Equation (13) gives the in-plane strains referenced to the x–y coordinate
system. Referring to Fig. 6, suppose we wish to express these strains relative to
a newxV–yVcoordinate system, obtained by rotating through angle a about the
z-axis. As noted in Sec. 2, the Kirchhoff hypothesis implies that c
xz
=c
yz
=0.
Therefore, the z-axis is a principal strain axis. Consequently, we can rotate in-
plane strains from the x–y coordinate system to the new xV–yV coordinate
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
system using Eq. (44) of Chap. 2 (developed in Sec. 13 of Chap. 2), repeated
here for convenience:
e
x Vx V
e
y Vy V
c
xVy V
2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
cos
2
ðaÞ sin
2
ðaÞ 2cosðaÞ sinðaÞ
sin
2
ðaÞ cos
2
ðaÞ À2cosðaÞ sinðaÞ
ÀcosðaÞ sinðaÞ cosðaÞ sinðaÞ cos
2
ðaÞ À sin
2
ðaÞ
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
ð2:44Þ
Substituting Eq. (13) into Eq. (44) of Chap. 2, we can write:
e
x VxV
e
y Vy V
c
xVy V
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼ z
j
xVxV
j
y Vy V
j
x Vy V
_
_
_
_
_
_
ð14Þ
where:
j
xVxV
j
y Vy V
j
xVy V
2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
cos
2
ðaÞ sin
2
ðaÞ 2cosðaÞ sinðaÞ
sin
2
ðaÞ cos
2
ðaÞ À2cosðaÞ sinðaÞ
ÀcosðaÞ sinðaÞ cosðaÞ sinðaÞ cos
2
ðaÞ À sin
2
ðaÞ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
ð15Þ
Note that midplane curvatures in the xV–yV coordinate system are related to
curvatures in the x–y coordinate system by means of the familiar transforma-
tion matrix [T]. This reveals that midplane curvatures can be treated as a
second-order tensor, and can be transformed from one coordinate system to
Figure 6 In-plane coordinate system xV–yV, obtained by rotating through angle
a about the z-axis.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
another in exactly the same way as the strain tensor (or stress tensor) is
transformed.
The in-plane principal strains and the orientation of the principal strain
coordinate systemcan also be determined using Eqs. (47) and (48) of Chap. 2,
respectively, repeated here for convenience:
e
p
1
; e
p
2
¼
e
xx
þ e
yy
2
F
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
e
xx
þ e
yy
2
_ _
2
þ
c
xy
2
_ _
2
¸
ð2:47Þ
h
p
e
¼
1
2
arctan
c
xy
e
xx
À e
yy
_ _
ð2:48Þ
Substituting Eq. (13) into Eq. (47) of Chap. 2, we find that for pure bending,
the in-plane principal strains are given by:
e
p
1
; e
p
2
¼ z
ðj
xx
þ j
yy
Þ
2
F
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ffi
ðj
xx
þ j
yy
Þ
2
_ _
2
þ
j
xy
2
_ _
2
¸
_
_
_
_
ð16Þ
Substituting Eq. (13) into Eq. (48) of Chap. 2, we find that the orientation of
the principal strain coordinate system is given by:
h
p
e
¼
1
2
arctan
j
xy
j
xx
À j
yy
_ _
ð17Þ
Noting that j
xx
, j
yy
, and j
xy
are midplane values, Eq. (16) shows that
principal strains are linear functions of z. In contrast, Eq. (17) shows that,
for the case of pure bending, the orientation of the principal strain coordinate
system is constant and does not vary with through-thickness position, even
though the principal strains do vary with z.
A simplified expression for the principal strains is obtained by writing
Eq. (16) as:
e
p1
¼ j
p
1
ð18Þ
e
p2
¼ j
p
2
where j
p
1
and j
p
2
are called principal curvatures and are given by:
j
p
1
; j
p
2
¼ z
ðj
xx
þ j
yy
Þ
2
F
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ðj
xx
þ j
yy
Þ
2
_ _
2
þ
j
xy
2
_ _
2
¸
_
_
_
_
ð19Þ
For the case of pure bending, the principal curvatures occur in the same
coordinate system as the principal strains. Hence, Eq. (17) gives the orienta-
tion of the coordinate systemin which the principal curvatures exist. Because
shear strain is zero in the principal strains coordinate system, j
p
1
p
2
=0 as well.
A physical interpretation of the preceding results can be obtained
through sketches of deformed strain elements parallel to the x–y plane, as
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
was done in Sec. 2.13 (in particular, refer to Sample Problem2.9). Athin plate
reference to an x–y–z coordinate systemis shown in Fig. 7a. Arectangular 3D
element cut out of this plate by two pairs of planes parallel to the x–z and y–z
planes is also shown. The dimensions of the element in the x-direction and y-
direction are dx and dy, respectively, whereas the height of the element equals
the plate thickness t. Assuming this plate is subjected to pure bending, then the
strains induced at any position z, relative to the x–y coordinate system, can be
calculated using Eq. (13).
Consider as representative examples three 2Dstrain elements parallel to
the x–y plane and located at positions defined by:

z=t/2 (element a–b–c–d, shown in Fig. 7b)

z=0 (element e–f–g–h, shown in Fig. 7c)

z=+t/2 (element i–j–k–l, shown in Fig. 7d).
In each case, we imagine a 2D strain element whose sides are parallel
to the x-axis and y-axis prior to deformation. As the plate is deformed, the
length of the element sides increases or decreases, in accordance with the
algebraic sign of strains e
xx
and e
yy
, and the angle between adjacent faces of
Figure 7 Illustration of strains induced at the three through-thickness positions
z = Àt/2, 0, and +t/2 by pure bending (deformations shown greatly exag-
gerated for clarity).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
the element changes from p/2 rad (i.e., 90j), in accordance with the algebraic
sign of c
xy
.
First, consider strain element i–j–k–l, located at z=+t/2 (Fig. 7d). For a
state of pure bending, the strains induced at this through thickness position
are given by Eq. (13):
e
xx
j
z ¼ t=2
¼ tj
xx
=2
e
yy
j
z ¼ t=2
¼ tj
yy
=2
c
xy
j
z ¼ t=2
¼ tj
xy
=2
Assume for illustrative purposes that all curvatures are positive (j
xx
,j
yy
,
j
xy
>0). This implies that all strains induced at z=+t/2 are algebraically
positive. A sketch of a deformed element that corresponds to these assump-
tions is shown (not to scale) in Fig. 7d. In the deformed condition, the lengths
of the element sides have increased because e
xx
and e
yy
are positive, and angle
j–i–l has decreased because c
xy
is positive.
Now consider strain element e–f–g–h, located at the midplane of the
plate z=0. Because we have assumed a state of pure bending, the strains at the
midplane are zero, and consequently element e–f–g–h is not deformed, as
shown in Fig. 7c.
Finally, consider strain element a–b–c–d, located at z=Àt/2 (Fig. 7b).
Using Eq. (13), the strains induced at this position are:
e
xx
j
z ¼ Àt=2
¼ Àtj
xx
=2
e
yy
j
z ¼ Àt=2
¼ Àtj
yy
=2
c
xy
j
z ¼ Àt=2
¼ Àtj
xy
=2
Because we have already assumed that all midplane curvatures are positive,
these results show that all strains induced at z=Àt/2 are algebraically
negative. Asketch of the deformed element that corresponds to this condition
is shown (not to scale) in Fig. 7b. Note that in this case, the lengths of the
element sides have decreased because e
xx
and e
yy
are negative, and angle b–a–d
has increased because c
xy
is negative.
The deformed 2D strains elements shown in Fig. 7b–d are assembled to
create a sketch of the entire 3D element in Fig. 8. Note that, in accordance
with the Kirchhoff hypothesis, the four line segments that define the vertical
edges of the element (line segments a–e–i, b–f–j, c–g–k, and d–h–l) remain
straight lines after deformation. However, the transverse planes are no longer
plane after deformation. For example, plane b–j–h–c has been twisted during
deformation of the plate. Inspection of Figs. 7b–d and 8 reveals that trans-
verse planes do not remain plane after deformation due to curvature j
xy
. That
is, if j
xy
p 0, shear strain c
xy
varies with through-thickness position z, in
accordance with Eq. (13). It is this through-thickness variation in c
xy
that
leads to twisting of the transverse planes. For this reason, j
xy
is known as the
twist curvature.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
We will nowrepeat this process for a rectangular 3Delement referenced
to the principal strain coordinate system, as shown in Fig. 9a. Once again, we
assume that the plate is subjected to pure bending. The principal strains
induced at any position z can therefore be calculated using Eq. (18). We
consider three 2D strain elements located at through-thickness positions
z=Àt/2, 0, and +t/2. A 2D sketch of the deformed strain elements at these
three positions is shown in Fig. 9b–d. Because the element is aligned with the
principal strain coordinate system, no shear strain is induced in any element
(i.e., all corner angles equal p/2 rad before and after deformation). Assuming,
for illustrative purposes, that both principal strains are positive (j
p
1
,j
p
2
>0),
the principal strains induced at z=+t/2 are tensile (Fig. 9d), whereas the
principal strains induced at z=Àt/2 are compressive (Fig. 9b). No deforma-
tions occur at z=0 because we have assumed pure bending and the midplane
is therefore the neutral surface. The deformed 2D strains elements shown in
Fig. 9b–d are assembled to create a sketch of the deformed 3D element in
Fig. 10. As before, the four line segments that define the vertical edges of the
element (line segments a–e–i, b–f–j, c–g–k, and d–h–l) remain straight lines
after deformation. However, in contrast to Fig. 8, the planes in which these
line segment lie remain plane after deformation. Twisting of these transverse
planes does not occur. When referenced to the coordinate systemin which the
principal curvatures exist, the transverse planes of the strain element simply
rotate about the neutral surface.
Asummary of the results presented in this section is as follows. We have
found that curvatures can be treated as second-order tensors, and can be
rotated fromone coordinate systemto another using the same process as that
Figure 8 A 3D strain element assembled from the 2D deformed elements
shown in Fig. 7b–d (deformations shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 10 A 3D strain element assembled from 2D deformed elements
referenced to the principal strain coordinate system; compare with Fig. 8
(deformations shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).
Figure 9 Illustration of principal strains induced at the three through-thickness
positions z=Àt/2, 0, and +t/2 by pure bending; compare with Fig. 7 (deform-
ations shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
used to transformthe strain or stress tensors. For a thin plate governed by the
Kirchhoff hypothesis, midplane curvatures transform according to Eq. (15).
In general, three midplane curvatures are induced in a thin plate: j
xx
, j
yy
, and
j
xy
. Curvature j
xy
is called the twist curvature because it represents a twisting
of a plane transverse to the midplane of the plate. The principal curvatures j
p
1
and j
p
1
are the maximumand minimumcurvatures, respectively, induced at a
given point in a plate. Equation (17) gives the orientation of the coordinate
system in which the principal curvatures exists, and no twisting occurs in this
coordinate system(the twist curvature equals zero in the principal coordinate
system). For a thin plate in pure bending, the orientation of the principal
strain coordinate system is constant through the thickness of the plate, and
the principal curvatures are induced in this coordinate system.
The reader should note that the results in this section are valid for the
special case of pure bending. Some of the results presented above are not valid
for the case of general nonuniform plate bending. For example, if the mid-
plane is not the neutral surface (i.e., if e
o
xx
,e
o
yy
,c
o
xy
p 0), then it can be shown
that the orientation of the principal strain coordinate system is not constant
but rather varies as a function of z. However, even in this more general case,
midplane curvatures transform according to Eq. (15), and principal curva-
tures are given by Eq. (19).
A more detailed discussion of principal strains and curvatures under
general conditions will not be presented because these topics are not of
immediate interest. The results presented in this section for pure bending will
be applied in Chap. 8, where the topic of composite beams is considered.
4 STANDARD METHODS OF DESCRIBING COMPOSITE
LAMINATES
A magnified edge view of a thin composite laminate that contains n plies is
shown in Fig. 11. The figure is similar to the edge viewof a thin plate shown in
Fig. 4, except that nowthe ply interface positions are shown. The thickness of
ply k will be denoted t
k
. The origin of the x–z axes lies at the geometrical
midsurface of the laminate, and so the outer surfaces of the laminate exist at
z=Àt/2 and z=+t/2, where t equals total thickness of the laminate. Total
thickness of the laminate equals the sum of all ply thicknesses: t ¼ S
n
k ¼ 1
t
k
.
Note that a ply interface does not necessarily exist at the midplane of the
laminate, as indicated in Fig. 11.
We will require a method of specifying the coordinate position of each
ply interface with respect to the laminate midplane. By convention, we will
denote the coordinate position of the outermost laminate surface in the
negative z-direction as position z
0
(i.e., z
0
u Àt/2). Note that z
0
is always an
algebraically negative number. The coordinate position of the interface
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
between plies 1 and 2 is denoted z
1
, and z
1
=z
0
+t
1
. Similarly, the coordinate
position of the interface between plies 2 and 3 is denoted z
2
, and z
2
=z
1
+t
2
,
etc. For an n-ply laminate, the outermost surface of the laminate in the
positive z-direction is will be labeled z
n
; obviously, z
n
=+t/2. Note that in all
cases, z
n
is an algebraically positive number. Also note that the total thickness
of the laminate equals (z
n
Àz
0
), and the thickness of an individual ply k is
t
k
=(z
k
Àz
kÀ1
). For example, the thickness of ply 2 is t
2
=(z
2
Àz
1
).
We also need a method of consistently describing the stacking sequence
of a composite laminate. That is, we need to develop a method of indicating
the orientation of the principal material coordinate system of each ply with
respect to the x-axis, and the order in which they appear. As discussed in
previous chapters, a ply may contain unidirectional fibers, or may consist of a
woven or braided fabric. In these latter two cases, there are two or more fiber
directions present within each ply, although the orientation of the principal
material coordinate systemis always evident due to the symmetrical pattern of
the fiber architecture. For simplicity in the following discussion, it will be
assumed that all plies are composed of unidirectional fibers. In this case, the
angle between the principal material coordinate system and the x-axis is
equivalent to the angle between the fibers and the x-axis. Hence, in the
discussion to follow, we will simply refer to the ‘‘fiber angle’’ in each ply. It
should be understood that this angle actually refers to the orientation of the
principal material coordinate system. This terminology is adopted simply
Figure 11 An edge view of an n-ply laminate showing ply interface positions.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
because the phrase ‘‘fiber angle’’ is more concise than the phrase ‘‘principal
material coordinate system angle.’’
To describe the stacking sequence of a laminate, we list fiber angles
within square brackets ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’. The fiber angle (in degrees) of ply 1 is
listed first, followed by the fiber angle of ply 2, ply 3, etc. Each fiber angle will
be separated by a slash ‘‘/’’. For example, a four-ply laminate consisting of
plies with fiber angles of 0j, 45j, À20j, and 90j is shown in Fig. 12a. This
laminate is denoted [0/45/À20/90]
T
. The subscript ‘‘T’’ has been used to
indicate that the ‘‘total’’ laminate has been described (i.e., a fiber angle is listed
for all plies within the laminate within the square brackets). In practice, it is
common to encounter laminates with 10, 20, 30, or (in unusual cases) even
hundreds of plies. In such cases, it becomes very tedious to list all fiber angles
within the laminate. Fortunately, for many reasons (some of which will be
described later in this chapter), composite laminates are usually designed with
some systematic pattern of fiber angles, which allows us to abbreviate the
listing of ply fiber angles that appear within the laminate. It is easiest to
introduce these abbreviations with a series of examples. Consider the eight-
ply laminate shown in Fig. 12b. In this case, the fiber angles are (starting from
ply 1) 0j, +45j, À45j, 90j, 90j, À45j, +45j, and 0j. This is an example of a
symmetrical laminate because the fiber angles are symmetrical about the
laminate midplane. This laminate is denoted [0/F45/90]
s
. The subscript ‘‘s’’
indicates that the four fiber angles listed appear symmetrically about the
midplane, and hence a total of eight plies exist within the laminate, even
though only four angles are listed.
Anine-ply laminate containing fiber angles 0j, 30j, À60j, 10j, 45j, 10j,
À60j, 30j, and 0j is shown in Fig. 12c. This laminate is symmetrical about the
geometrical midplane, but because an odd number of plies is present, the
midplane passes through the center of the 45j ply (ply 5). This laminate is
denoted [0/30/À60/10/45]
s
. That is, a bar is used to indicate that the midplane
passes through the 45j ply, and hence ‘‘4 1/2’’ plies exist symmetrically about
the midplane of this laminate.
A 10-ply laminate containing fiber angles 20j, À30j, À30j, 20j, 0j, 0j,
20j, À30j, À30j, and 20j is shown in Fig. 12d. This laminate is symmetrical
about the midplane, but also contains a symmetrical pattern within both
halves of the laminate. In this case, the laminate is denoted [(20/À30)
s
/0]
s
. The
subscript ‘‘s’’ appears twice: first to indicate that fiber angles 20j and À30j
appear symmetrically within one-half of the laminate, and the second to
indicate that the entire laminate is symmetrical about the midplane.
Afinal example is the 10-ply laminate shown in Fig. 12e. In this case, the
fiber angles are 20j, À30j, 20j, À30j, 0j, 0j, À30j, 20j, À30j, and 20j. This
laminate is denoted [(20/À30)
2
/0]
s
, where the subscript ‘‘2’’ indicates that the
fiber pattern listed within the parentheses occurs twice. Note that this
laminate is similar but not identical to that shown in Fig. 12d.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 12 Edge view of several composite laminates illustrating stacking
sequences: (a) [0/45/À20/90]
T
, (b) [0/F45/90]
s
, (c) [0/30/À60/10/45]
s
, (d)
[(20/À30)
s
/0]
s
, (e) [(20/À30)
2
/0]
s
.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Sample Problem 2
A½(0/F30/90)
2
/45/20Š
s
laminate is fabricated using a graphite–epoxy material
system. Each ply has a thickness of 0.125 mm. Determine the number of plies
in the laminate, the total laminate thickness, and the z-coordinate of each ply
interface.
Solution. An ordered listing of all fiber angles that appear in the laminate is
as follows:
½0j; 30j; À30j; 90j; 0j; 30j; À30j; 90j; 45j; 20j; 45j; 90j; À30j; 30j; 0j; 90j; À30j; 30j; 0Š
z z z
ply 1 ply 10 ply 19
ðmidplaneÞ
The laminate contains a total of 19 plies, the fiber angles appear symmetrically
about the midplane of the laminate, and the midplane passes through the
center of the 20j ply. Because all plies are made of the same composite
material system, they all have the same thickness. The total laminate thickness
is therefore t = 19 (0.125 mm)=2.375 mm.
Ply interface positions are:
Note that the total laminate thickness equals the difference between z
19
and z
0
, as expected: t=z
19
Àz
0
=1.1875 mmÀ(À1.1875 mm)=2.375 mm.
5 CALCULATING PLY STRAINS AND STRESSES
The theory developed to this point allows calculation of the elastic strains and
stresses present at any through-thickness position within a multiangle com-
posite laminate subjected to known midplane strains and curvatures. A sum-
mary of how strains and stresses are calculated is as follows.
Laminate Description: A composite laminate is described by specifying:

The laminate stacking sequence (i.e., the number of plies within a
laminate and the fiber angles of each ply)

The material properties and thickness of each ply.
z
0
=Àt/2=À1.1875 mm z
1
=z
0
+t
1
=À1.0625 mm z
2
=z
1
+t
2
=À0.9375 mm
z
3
=z
2
+t
3
=À0.8125 mm z
4
=z
3
+t
4
=À0.6875 mm z
5
=z
4
+t
5
=À0.5625 mm
z
6
=z
5
+t
6
=À0.4375 mm z
7
=z
6
+t
7
=À0.3125 mm z
8
=z
7
+t
8
=À0.1875 mm
z
9
=z
8
+t
9
=À0.0625 mm z
10
=z
9
+t
10
=0.0625 mm z
11
=z
10
+t
11
=0.1875 mm
z
12
=z
11
+t
12
=0.3125 mm z
13
=z
12
+t
13
=0.4375 mm z
14
=z
13
+t
14
=0.5625 mm
z
15
=z
14
+t
15
=0.6875 mm z
16
=z
15
+t
16
=0.8125 mm z
17
=z
16
+t
17
=0.9375 mm
z
18
=z
17
+t
18
=1.0625 mm z
19
=z
18
+t
19
=1.1875 mm
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Note that the plies are not necessarily all of the same material type. For
example, some plies within a laminate may be of graphite–epoxy whereas
others may be glass–epoxy.
Once the stacking sequence and thickness of each ply have been
specified, the total laminate thickness and interface positions throughout
the laminate may be determined, as previously illustrated in Fig. 11. Also, the
transformed reduced stiffness matrix ½ QŠ can be calculated for each ply in
accordance with Eq. (31) of Chap. 5.
Ply Strains: Strains are calculated using the laminate strains and curvatures
(e
o
xx
; e
o
yy
; c
o
xy
) and (j
xx
,j
yy
,j
xy
), respectively, in accordance with the Kirchhoff
hypothesis (Eq. (12)). For example, the strains induced in a distance z
k
from
the laminate midplane are:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z¼z
k
¼
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ z
k
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Note that these strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system. If desired,
these strains can be rotated fromthe x–y coordinate systemto the ‘‘local’’ 1–2
coordinate systemfor each ply (defined by the ply fiber angle) using Eq. (44) of
Chap. 2:
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
_
_
_
_
_j
z ¼ z
k
¼ ½TŠ
k
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
_
_
_
_
_j
z¼z
k
¼
cos
2
ðhÞ sin
2
ðhÞ 2cosðhÞ sinðhÞ
sin
2
ðhÞ cos
2
ðhÞ À2cosðhÞ sinðhÞ
ÀcosðhÞ sinðhÞ cosðhÞ sinðhÞ cos
2
ðhÞ À sin
2
ðhÞ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
k
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_j
z ¼ z
k
Ply Stresses: Once ply strains are determined, ply stresses are calculated
using Hooke’s law, as discussed in Sec. 5.2. For example, the stresses induced
at a distance z
k
from the laminate midplane are calculated using Eq. (30) of
Chap. 5:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z¼z
k
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z¼z
k
e
xx
ÀDTa
xx
ÀDMb
xx
e
yy
ÀDTa
yy
ÀDMb
yy
c
xy
ÀDTa
xy
ÀDMb
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z ¼ z
k
Note that the material properties used in this calculation (specifically, ½ QŠ, a
ij
,
and b
ij
) are properties of the ply that exists at position z
k
, and in particular are
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
functions of the ply fiber angle h. Because fiber angle generally varies fromone
ply to the next, these material properties also vary from one ply to the next.
If desired, stresses can be rotated from the x–y coordinate system to the
‘‘local’’ 1–2 coordinate system for each ply using Eq. (20) of Chap. 2:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
_
_
_
_
_j
z¼z
k
¼ ½TŠ
z¼z
k
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_j
z¼z
k
A numerical example that illustrates these calculations is presented in
the following Sample Problem.
Sample Problem 3
Assume that the panel considered in Sample Problem1 is actually an eight-ply
[0/30/90/À30]
s
graphite–epoxy laminate. Assume that the laminate was
initially flat and stress-free (i.e., ignore possible preexisting stresses/strains
due to temperature and/or moisture changes). Determine the strains and
stresses induced at each ply interface. Use material properties listed in Table 3
of Chap. 3, and assume that the thickness of each ply is 0.125 mm.
Solution. FromSample Problem1, the midplane strains and curvatures are:
e
o
xx
¼ 0 Am=m j
xx
¼ À0:50 rad=m
e
o
yy
¼ À1300 Am=m j
yy
¼ 0:40 rad=m
c
o
xy
¼ 900 Arad j
xy
¼ À0:20 rad=m
To determine ply interface positions, first note that the total laminate
thickness is:
t ¼ ð8 pliesÞð0:125 mmÞ ¼ 1:0 mm ¼ 0:001 m
A total of nine ply interface positions must be determined because there are
eight plies in the laminate. Following the numbering scheme discussed in Sec.
4 and referring to Fig. 11, ply interface positions are:
z
0
=Àt/2=À(0.001 m)=À0.000500 m
z
1
=z
0
+t
1
=À0.000500 m+0.000125 m=À0.000375 m
z
2
=z
1
+t
2
=À0.000375 m+0.000125 m=À0.000250 m
z
3
=z
2
+t
3
=À0.000250 m+0.000125 m=À0.000125 m
z
4
=z
3
+t
4
=À.000125 m+0.000125 m=0.000000 m
z
5
=z
4
+t
5
=0.000000 m+0.000125 m=0.000125 m
z
6
=z
5
+t
6
=0.000125 m+0.000125 m=0.000250 m
z
7
=z
6
+t
7
=0.000250 m+0.000125 m=0.000375 m
z
8
=z
7
+t
7
=0.000375 m+0.000125 m=0.000500 m
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Strain Calculations. Strains are calculated using Eq. (12), and can be
determined at any through-thickness position. Usually, strains of greatest
interest are those induced at the ply interface locations. For example, strains
present at the outer surface of ply 1 (i.e., strains present at z
o
=À0.000500 m)
are:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_j
z¼z
0
¼
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ z
0
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
0
À1300 Â 10
À6
m=m
900 Â 10
À6
m=m
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þ ðÀ0:000500 mÞ
À0:50 rad=m
0:40 rad=m
À0:20 rad=m
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
j
z¼z
0
¼
250 Am=m
À1500 Am=m
1000 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Similarly, strains present at the interface between plies 1 and 2 (i.e., strains
present at z
1
=À0.000375 m) are:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_j
z¼z
1
¼
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þ z
1
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
0
À1300 Â10
À6
m=m
900 Â 10
À6
m=m
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ ðÀ0:000375 mÞ
À0:50 rad=m
0:40 rad=m
À0:20 rad=m
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_j
z¼z
1
¼
188 Am=m
À1450 Am=m
975 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Strains present at all remaining interfaces are calculated in exactly the same
fashion. Strains calculated at all ply interfaces are summarized in Table 1 and
are plotted in Fig. 13. Note that all three strain components (e
xx
, e
yy
, and c
xy
)
are predicted to be linearly distributed through the plate thickness. This linear
distribution is a direct consequence of the Kirchhoff hypothesis, which is a
good approximation as long as the plate is ‘‘thin.’’ In fact, identical strain
distributions would be predicted for any thin plate subjected to the midplane
strains and curvatures specified in Sample Problem1. For example, we would
predict the identical strains if an aluminum plate were under consideration
rather than a laminated composite plate.
The strains listed in Table 1 and plotted in Fig. 13 are referenced to the
global x–y coordinate system. As will be seen, knowledge of ply strains
referenced to the local 1–2 coordinate system(defined by the fiber angle within
each ply) is often required. Transformation of the strain tensor from one
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
coordinate system to another was reviewed in Chap. 2 and, in particular,
strains can be rotated from the x–y coordinate system to the 1–2 coordinate
system using Eq. (44) of Chap. 2. In practice, strains are usually calculated at
both the ‘‘top’’ and ‘‘bottom’’ interface for each ply. Example calculations for
plies 1 and 2 are listed below:
Ply 1. Because h
1
=0j, the x–y and 1–2 coordinate systems are coincident,
and therefore the description of the strain tensor is identical in both coor-
dinate systems. This can be confirmed through application of Eq. (44) of
Chap. 2:
Top interface:
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
0
¼
cos
2
h
1
sin
2
h
1
2 cos h
1
sin h
1
sin
2
h
1
cos
2
h
1
À2 cos h
1
sin h
1
Àcos h
1
sin h
1
cos h
1
sin h
1
cos
2
h
1
À sin
2
h
1
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
0
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
0
¼
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
250 Am=m
À1500 Am=m
ð1000 AradÞ=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply1
z ¼ z
0
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
0
¼
250 Am=m
À1500 Am=m
1000 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
0
Table 1 Ply Interface Strains in a [0/À30/90/30]
s
Graphite-Epoxy Laminate
Subjected to the Midplane Strains and Curvatures Discussed in Sample
Problem 1
z-coordinate (mm) e
xx
(Am/m) e
yy
(Am/m) c
xy
(Arad)
À0.500 250 À1500 1000
À0.375 188 À145 975
À0.250 125 À1400 950
À0.125 62 À1350 925
0.0 0 À1300 900
0.125 À62 À1250 875
0.250 À125 À1200 850
0.375 À188 À1150 825
0.500 À250 À1100 800
Strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 13 Through-thickness strain plots dictated by the midplane strains and
curvatures discussed in Sample Problem 1. Strains are referenced to the x–y
coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Bottom interface:
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
1
¼
cos
2
h
1
sin
2
h
1
2cos h
1
sin h
1
sin
2
h
1
cos
2
h
1
À2cos h
1
sin h
1
Àcos h
1
sin h
1
cos h
1
sin h
1
cos
2
h
1
À sin
2
h
1
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
1
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
1
¼
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
188 Am=m
À1450 Am=m
ð975 AradÞ=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
1
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
1
¼
188 Am=m
À1450 Am=m
975 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼ z
1
Ply 2. In this case, h
2
=30j and consequently the description of strain in the
x–y and 1–2 coordinate systems differs substantially. Applying Eq. (44) of
Chap. 2, we have:
Top interface:
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
cos
2
h
2
sin
2
h
2
2 cos h
2
sin h
2
sin
2
h
2
cos
2
h
2
À2 cos h
2
sin h
2
Àcos h
2
sin h
2
cos h
2
sin h
2
cos
2
h
2
À sin
2
h
2
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
cos
2
ð30jÞ sin
2
ð30jÞ 2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ
sin
2
ð30jÞ cos
2
ð30jÞ À2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ
Àcosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cos
2
ð30jÞ Àsin
2
ð30jÞ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Â
188 Am=m
À1450 Am=m
ð975 AradÞ=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
0:750 0:250 0:866
0:250 0:750 À0:866
À0:433 0:433 0:500
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
188 Am=m
À1450 Am=m
ð975 AradÞ=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
200 Am=m
À1463 Am=m
À931 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Bottom interface:
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
2
¼
cos
2
h
2
sin
2
h
2
2 cos h
2
sin h
2
sin
2
h
2
cos
2
h
2
À2 cos h
2
sin h
2
Àcos h
2
sin h
2
cos h
2
sin h
2
cos
2
h
2
Àsin
2
h
2
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
2
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
2
¼
cos
2
ð30jÞ sin
2
ð30jÞ 2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ
sin
2
ð30jÞ cos
2
ð30jÞ À2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ
Àcosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cos
2
ð30jÞ À sin
2
ð30jÞ
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Â
125 Am=m
À1400 Am=m
ð950 AradÞ=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
2
e
11
e
22
c
12
=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
2
¼
0:750 0:250 0:866
0:250 0:750 À0:866
À0:433 0:433 0:500
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
125 Am=m
À1400 Am=m
ð950 AradÞ=2
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
2
e
11
e
22
c
12
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
2
¼
155 Am=m
À1430 Am=m
À846 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
2
Ply strains referenced to the local 1–2 coordinate systems at all interface
locations are summarized in Table 2 and plotted in Fig. 14. Comparing Figs.
12 and 13, it is apparent that the through-thickness strain distributions no
longer appear linear or continuous when referenced to the 1–2 coordinate
system. This is of course illusionary, in the sense that strains appear to be dis-
continuous only because the coordinate system used to describe the through-
thickness strain is varied from one ply to the next.
Stress Calculations. Because strains are now known at all ply interface
positions, we can calculate stresses at these locations using Eq. (30) of Chap.
5, with DT=DM=0. During these calculations, we will require the trans-
formed reduced stiffness matrix for each ply. Using graphite–epoxy material
properties fromTable 2 of Chap. 3 and Eqs. (11) and (31) of Chap. 5, we find:
For 0j plies:
Q
_ ¸
0j plies
¼
170:9 Â 10
9
3:016 Â 10
9
0
3:016 Â 10
9
10:05 Â 10
9
0
0 0 13:00 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
ðPaÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
For 30j plies:
Q
_ ¸
30j plies
¼
107:6 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
48:3 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
27:22 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
48:3 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
36:05 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
ðPaÞ
For 90j plies:
Q
_ ¸
90j plies
¼
10:05 Â 10
9
3:016 Â 10
9
0
3:016 Â 10
9
170:9 Â 10
9
0
0 0 13:00 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
ðPaÞ
For À30j plies:
Q
_ ¸
30j plies
¼
107:6 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
À48:3 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
27:22 Â 10
9
À21:52 Â 10
9
À48:3 Â 10
9
À21:52 Â 10
9
36:05 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
ðPaÞ
Table 2 Ply Interface Strains in a [0/-30/90/30]
s
Graphite-Epoxy Laminate
Subjected to the Midplane Strains and Curvatures Discussed in Sample
Problem 1
Ply number z-coordinate (mm) e
11
(Am/m) e
22
(Am/m) c
12
(Arad)
Ply 1 À0.500 250 À1500 1000
À0.375 188 À1450 975
Ply 2 À0.375 200 À1463 À931
À0.250 155 À1430 À846
Ply 3 À0.250 À1400 125 À950
À0.125 À1350 63 À925
Ply 4 À0.125 À691 À596 1686
0.000 À715 À585 1576
Ply 5 0.000 À715 À585 1576
0.125 À738 À574 1466
Ply 6 0.125 À1250 À62 À875
0.250 À1200 À125 À850
Ply 7 0.250 À26 À1299 À506
0.375 À71 À1267 À421
Ply 8 0.375 À188 À1150 825
0.500 À250 À1100 800
Strains are referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system local to individual plies.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 14 Through-thickness strain plots dictated by the midplane strains and
curvatures discussed in Sample Problem 1. Strains are referenced to the 1–2
coordinate system.
Stresses present at the outer surface of ply 1 (i.e., strains present at
z
0
=À0.000500 m) can now be calculated:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
0
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
z ¼z
0
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
170:9 Â10
9
3:016 Â 10
9
0
3:016 Â10
9
10:05 Â 10
9
0
0 0 13:00 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
250 Am=m
À1500 Am=m
1000 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
38:2 MPa
À14:3 MPa
13 MPa
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
To calculate stresses at the interface between plies 1 and 2 (i.e., at z
1
=
À0.000375 m), we must specify whether we are interested in the stresses within
ply 1 or ply 2. That is, according to our idealized model, a ply interface is
treated as a plane of discontinuity in material properties. Ply 1 ‘‘ends’’ at z =
z
1
(À)
, whereas ply 2 ‘‘begins’’ at z=z
1
(+)
. Hence, the stresses within ply 1 at z =
z
1
(À)
are:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
1
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
1
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
z ¼z
1
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
1
¼
170:9 Â10
9
3:016 Â 10
9
0
3:016 Â10
9
10:05 Â 10
9
0
0 0 13:00 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
188 Am=m
À1450 Am=m
975 Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
1
¼
27:8 MPa
À14:0 MPa
12:7 MPa
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
The stresses within ply 2 (a 30j ply) at z=z
1
(+)
are:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
z ¼z
1
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
107:6 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
48:3 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
27:22 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
48:3 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
36:05 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
188 Am=m
À1450 Am=m
975 Arad
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
29:5 MPa
À13:6 MPa
13:0 MPa
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Stresses are calculated at all remaining ply interfaces in exactly the same
fashion. Ply interface stresses are summarized in Table 3 and are plotted in
Fig. 15. Obviously, stresses are not linearly distributed through the thickness
of the laminate, even when referenced to the global x–y coordinate system. In
general, all stress components exhibit a sudden discontinuous change at all ply
interface positions. The abrupt change in stresses at ply interfaces is due to the
discontinuous change in the Q
_ ¸
matrix from one ply to the next. In turn, the
discontinuous change in Q
_ ¸
occurs because the fiber angle (in general)
changes from one ply to the next. Indeed, in this example problem, the same
fiber angle occurs in only two adjacent plies (namely, plies 4 and 5, both of
which have a fiber angle of À30j), and inspection of Fig. 15 shows that the
Table 3 Ply Interface Stresses in a [0/30/90/30]
s
Graphite-Epoxy Laminate
Subjected to the Midplane Strains and Curvatures Discussed in Sample Problem 1
Ply
number
z-coordinate
(mm)
r
xx
(MPa)
r
yy
(MPa)
s
xy
(MPa)
Q
(MPa)
A
(MPa)
2
Ply 1 À0.500 38.2 À14.3 13.0 23.9 À715
À0.375 27.8 À14.0 12.7 13.8 À550
Ply 2 À0.375 29.3 À13.6 13.0 15.7 À567
À0.250 22.7 À14.4 10.1 8.3 À429
Ply 3 À0.250 À2.97 À239. 12.4 À242 556
À0.125 À3.44 À231 12.0 À234 651
Ply 4 À0.125 À73.0 À55.0 59.4 À128 487
0.000 À77.2 À54.7 60.4 À132 575
Ply 5 0.000 À77.2 À54.7 60.4 À132 575
0.125 À81.4 À54.5 61.4 À136 666
Ply 6 0.125 À4.40 À214 11.4 À218 812
0.250 À4.90 À205 11.0 À210 884
Ply 7 0.250 À3.82 À17.6 À1.20 À21.4 65.8
0.375 À10.4 À18.4 À4.03 À28.8 175
Ply 8 0.375 À35.5 À12.1 10.7 À47.6 315
0.500 À46.0 À11.8 10.4 À57.8 435
Stresses are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 15 Through-thickness stress plots predicted for a [0/30/90/À30]
s
graphite-epoxy laminate subjected to the midplane strains and curvatures
discussed in Sample Problem 1. Stresses are referenced to the x–y coordinate
system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
interface between plies 4 and 5 is the only interface for which the stresses do
not change abruptly.
It has been mentioned that the linear strain distributions shown in Fig.
13 would be the same for any thin plate, regardless of the material the plate is
made of. The same statement cannot be made for stress distributions. In
general, through-thickness stress distributions for isotropic plates (e.g., an
isotropic aluminum plate) are linear and continuous, unless high nonlinear
stresses occur, in which case the stress distribution may not be linear but will
nevertheless be continuous. In contrast, the stress distributions in laminated
composite plates are usually discontinuous. The only conditions under which
a linear and continuous stress distribution is encountered is when: (a) the
laminate is subjectedtoelastic stress/strainlevels, and(b) whenthe Q
_ ¸
matrix
does not vary from one ply to the next (i.e., for unidirectional laminates in
which the fiber angle does not vary from one ply to the next).
Knowledge of ply stresses referenced to the local 1–2 coordinate system
(defined by the fiber angle within each ply) is often required. Transformation
of the stress tensor from one coordinate system to another was reviewed in
Chap. 2 and, in particular, stresses can be rotated from the x–y coordinate
system to the 1–2 coordinate system using Eq. (20) of Chap. 2. Typically,
stresses are calculated at both the ‘‘top’’ and ‘‘bottom’’ interfaces for all plies.
For example, rotation of the ply stresses that exist within ply 2 at the interface
between plies 1 and 2 (i.e., at z=z
1
=À0.375 mm) proceeds as follows:
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
cos
2
h
2
sin
2
h
2
2 cos h
2
sin h
2
sin
2
h
2
cos
2
h
2
À2 cos h
2
sin h
2
Àcos h
2
sin h
2
cos h
2
sin h
2
cos
2
h
2
À sin
2
h
2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
1
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
cos
2
ð30jÞ sin
2
ð30jÞ 2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ
sin
2
ð30jÞ cos
2
ð30jÞ À2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ
Àcosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cos
2
ð30jÞ Àsin
2
ð30jÞ
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
29:3 MPa
À13:6 MPa
13:0 MPa
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
1
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
0:750 0:250 0:866
0:250 0:750 À0:866
À0:433 0:433 0:500
_
_
_
_
29:3 MPa
À13:6 MPa
13:0 MPa
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
1
r
11
r
22
s
12
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
1
¼
29:8 MPa
À14:1 MPa
À12:1 MPa
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 2
z ¼z
1
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Ply interface stresses referenced to local 1–2 coordinate systems are
summarized in Table 4 and plotted in Fig. 16. Once again, stresses are not
linearly distributed through the thickness of the laminate, and instead exhibit
a sudden discontinuous change at all ply interface positions.
Stress invariants can be used to confirm that the ply stresses referenced
to the x–y coordinate system and listed in Table 3 are equivalent to the ply
stresses referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system, as listed in Table 4. The
concept of ‘‘stress invariants’’ was discussed in Chap. 2. The stress invariants
for the case of plane stress are given by Eq. (22) of Chap. 2, repeated here for
convenience:
First stress invariant ¼ Q ¼ r
xx
þ r
yy
Second stress invariant ¼ A ¼ r
xx
r
yy
À s
2
xy
Third stress invariant ¼ C ¼ 0
ðrepeatedÞ ð2:22Þ
For plane stress conditions, the third stress invariant always equals zero, and
so Ccannot be used to evaluate whether two plane stress states are equivalent.
The first and second stress invariants, Q and A, respectively, have been
calculated using the ply stress components referenced to both the x–y and 1–2
Table 4 Ply Interface Stresses in a [0/-30/90/30]
s
Graphite-Epoxy Laminate
Subjected to the Midplane Strains and Curvatures Discussed in Sample
Problem 1
Ply
number
z-coordinate
(mm)
r
11
(MPa)
r
22
(MPa)
s
12
(MPa)
Q
(MPa)
A
(MPa)
2
Ply 1 À0.500 38.2 À14.3 13.0 23.9 À715
À0.375 27.8 À14.0 12.7 13.8 À550
Ply 2 À0.375 29.8 À14.1 À12.1 15.7 À567
À0.250 22.2 À13.9 À11.0 8.3 À429
Ply 3 À0.250 À239 À2.97 À12.4 À242 556
À0.125 À231 À3.44 À12.0 À234 651
Ply 4 À0.125 À120 À8.08 21.9 À128 487
0.000 À124 À8.04 20.5 À132 575
Ply 5 0.000 À124 À8.04 20.5 À132 575
0.125 À128 À8.00 19.1 À136 666
Ply 6 0.125 À214 À4.40 À11.4 À218 812
0.250 À205 À4.88 À11.0 À210 884
Ply 7 0.250 À8.31 À13.1 À6.58 À21.4 65.8
0.375 À15.9 À13.0 À5.47 À28.8 175
Ply 8 0.375 À35.5 À12.1 10.7 À47.6 315
0.500 À46.0 À11.8 10.4 À57.8 435
Stresses are referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure 16 Through-thickness stress plots predicted for a [0/30/90/À30]
s
graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to the midplane strains and curvatures
discussed in Sample Problem 1. Stresses are referenced to the 1–2 coordinate
system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
coordinate systems. Values calculated for Qand Aare included in the last two
columns of both Tables 3 and 4. Identical values are obtained in all cases,
indicating the equivalence of the ply stress states described using the two
different coordinate systems.
6 CLASSICAL LAMINATION THEORY (CLT)
Stress and moment resultants were introduced in Sec. 1. As was discussed, a
thin plate subjected to any combination of stress and moment resultants will
experience a state of plane stress. Deformations of a thin plate were then
considered in Sec. 2. There the Kirchhoff hypothesis was invoked, which
allows us to calculate the in-plane strains induced at any location through the
thickness of a thinplate. Inthis section, we will combine the material presented
in Secs. 1 and 2, as well as certain material presented in Chap. 5. This will lead
tothe ability torelate stress andmoment resultants tothe resulting strains (and
hence stresses) induced within a thin composite plate. This combination of
analysis tools is commonly known as classical lamination theory (CLT).
Stress and moment resultants represent the mechanical loads applied to
a laminate. Obviously then, stress and moment resultants will induce strains
within the laminate. However, strains may also be induced by environmental
factors as well, as discussed in earlier chapters. Of particular importance for
polymeric composite laminates are strains due to a change in temperature
(DT) and/or strains due to a change in moisture content (DM). To simplify
our discussion, we will first develop CLT by assuming that constant environ-
mental conditions exist (i.e., we will initially assume DT=DM=0). We will
then consider how to account for a change in temperature and/or a change in
moisture content.
6.1 Constant Environmental Conditions
The stresses r
xx
inducedina thincomposite laminate are relatedtostress
resultant N
xx
in accordance with Eq. (1a), repeated here for convenience:
N
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
r
xx
dz ðrepeatedÞ ð1aÞ
The composite laminate consists of n plies, and the fiber angle may vary from
one ply to the next. The stresses in any ply (say, in ply number k) are related to
ply strains in accordance with Eq. (30) of Chap. 5, which, for DT=DM=0,
becomes:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
k
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
21
Q
22
Q
26
Q
61
Q
62
Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
k
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
k
ð20Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The subscript k in Eq. (20) indicates that the stresses, transformed reduced
stiffness matrix, and strains are all for ply number k, where 1 V k V n and
n = number of plies in the laminate.
From Eq. (20), the stress r
xx
induced in ply k is:
ðr
xx
Þ
k
¼ Q
11
e
xx
þ Q
12
e
yy
þ Q
16
c
xy
_ _
k
Substituting this relationship into Eq. (1a), we have:
N
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
e
xx
þ Q
12
e
yy
þ Q
16
c
xy
_ _
k
dz ð21Þ
The strains induced in ply k can be related to the midplane strains and
curvatures via the Kirchhoff hypothesis, in accordance with Eq. (11) or Eq.
(12). Substituting Eqs. (11) and (12) into Eq. (21), we obtain:
N
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
e
o
xx
þ Q
12
e
o
yy
þ Q
16
c
o
xy
þ zQ
11
j
xx
þ zQ
12
j
yy
þ zQ
16
j
xy
_ _
dz
ð22Þ
We cannot integrate Eq. (22) directly because the integrand is a discontinuous
function of z. That is, the transformed reduced stiffness terms Q
11
, Q
12
, and
Q
16
are all directly related to the ply material properties and fiber angle h (see
Eq. (31) of Chap. 5). Because the ply material and/or fiber angle may change
fromone ply to the next, the transformed reduced stiffness terms also change,
and hence are discontinuous functions of z. Note, however, that the midplane
strains and curvatures are not functions of z, but instead are constants for a
given laminate. Hence, they may be brought out fromunder the integral sign.
Equation (15) can therefore be broken into six individual integrals:
N
xx
¼ e
o
xx
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
_ _
k
dz þ e
o
yy
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
12
_ _
k
dz
þ c
o
xy
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
16
_ _
k
dz þ j
xx
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
_ _
k
dz
þ j
yy
_
t=2
Àt=2
z Q
12
_ _
k
dz þ j
xy
z Q
16
_ _
k
dz
ð23Þ
Because the transformed stiffness terms are constant over each ply thickness,
each of the six integrals in Eq. (23) can be evaluated in a ‘‘piecewise’’ fashion:
N
xx
¼ e
o
xx
Q
11
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
dz þ Q
11
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
dz þ Q
11
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
dz þ
: : :
_
þ Q
11
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
dz þ Q
11
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
dz
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
þe
o
yy
Q
12
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
dz þ Q
12
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
dz þ Q
12
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
dz þ
: : :
_
þ Q
12
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
dz þ Q
12
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
dz
_
þc
o
xy
Q
16
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
dz þ Q
16
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
dz þ Q
16
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
dz þ
: : :
_
þ Q
16
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
dz þ Q
16
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
dz
_
þj
xx
Q
11
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
zdz þ Q
11
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
zdz þ Q
11
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
zdz þ
: : :
_
þ Q
11
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
zdz þ Q
11
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
zdz
_
þj
yy
Q
12
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
zdz þ Q
12
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
zdz þ Q
12
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
zdz þ
: : :
_
þ Q
12
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
zdz þ Q
12
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
zdz
_
þj
xy
Q
16
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
zdz þ Q
16
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
zdz þ Q
16
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
zdz þ
: : :
_
þ Q
16
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
zdz þ Q
16
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
zdz
_
ð24Þ
Although Eq. (24) may appear daunting at first, closer inspection reveals that
evaluation of Eq. (24) is actually a simple matter. All integrals that appear in
Eq. (24) are of one of the following two forms, both of which are easily
evaluated:
_
z
k
z
kÀ1
dz ¼ ðz
k
À z
kÀ1
Þ
or
_
z
k
z
kÀ1
zdz ¼
1
2
ðz
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
Þ
Hence, evaluating all integrals that appear in Eq. (24), we obtain:
N
xx
¼ e
o
xx
Q
11
_ _
1
z
1
À z
0
½ Š þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
À z
1
½ Š þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
3
À z
2
½ Š þ
: : :
_
þ Q
11
_ _
n
z
n
À z
nÀ1
½ Š
_
þe
o
yy
Q
12
_ _
1
z
1
À z
0
½ Š þ Q
12
_ _
2
z
2
À z
1
½ Š þ Q
12
_ _
3
z
3
À z
2
½ Š þ
: : :
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
þ Q
12
_ _
n
z
n
À z
nÀ1
½ Š
_
þc
o
xy
Q
16
_ _
1
z
1
À z
0
½ Š þ Q
16
_ _
2
z
2
À z
1
½ Š þ Q
16
_ _
3
z
3
À z
2
½ Š þ
: : :
_
þ Q
16
_ _
n
z
n
À z
nÀ1
½ Š
_
þ
1
2
j
xx
Q
11
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : :
þ Q
11
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
þ
1
2
j
yy
Q
12
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : :
þ Q
12
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
þ
1
2
j
xy
Q
16
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
_
þ. . . þ Q
16
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
ð25Þ
Equation (25) can be simplified substantially by defining the following terms:
A
11
¼ Q
11
_ _
1
z
1
À z
0
½ Š þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
À z
1
½ Š þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
3
À z
2
½ Š þ
: : :
_
þ Q
11
_ _
n
z
n
À z
nÀ1
½ Š
_
A
12
¼ Q
12
_ _
1
z
1
À z
0
½ Š þ Q
12
_ _
2
z
2
À z
1
½ Š þ Q
12
_ _
3
z
3
À z
2
½ Š þ
: : :
_
þ Q
12
_ _
n
z
n
À z
nÀ1
½ Š
_
A
16
¼ Q
16
_ _
1
z
1
À z
0
½ Š þ Q
16
_ _
2
z
2
À z
1
½ Š þ Q
16
_ _
3
z
3
À z
2
½ Š þ
: : :
_
þ Q
16
_ _
n
z
n
À z
nÀ1
½ Š
_
B
11
¼
1
2
Q
11
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
þ
: : :
_
þ Q
11
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
B
12
¼
1
2
Q
12
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
þ
: : :
_
þ Q
12
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
B
16
¼
1
2
Q
16
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
þ
: : :
_
þ Q
16
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
With these definitions, Eq. (25), becomes:
N
xx
¼ A
11
e
o
xx
þ A
12
e
o
yy
þ A
16
c
o
xy
þ B
11
j
xx
þ B
12
j
yy
þ B
16
j
xy
ð26aÞ
Following an entirely analogous procedure for stress resultants N
yy
and N
xy
,
it can be shown that:
N
yy
¼ A
21
e
o
xx
þ A
22
e
o
yy
þ A
26
c
o
xy
þ B
21
j
xx
þ B
22
j
yy
þ B
26
j
xy
ð26bÞ
N
xy
¼ A
61
e
o
xx
þ A
62
e
o
yy
þ A
66
c
o
xy
þ B
61
j
xx
þ B
62
j
yy
þ B
66
j
xy
ð26cÞ
where:
A
ij
¼

n
k¼1
Q
ij
_ _
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
ð Þ ð27aÞ
B
ij
¼
1
2

n
k¼1
Q
ij
_ _
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ _
ð27bÞ
and i, j =1, 2, or 6. Because subscripts i and j may take on one of three values,
both A
ij
and B
ij
can be written as 3 Â 3 matrices. Also, recall that the
transformed reduced stiffness matrix is symmetrical (see Eq. (31) of Chap. 5).
Hence, both A
ij
and B
ij
are also symmetrical:
A
ij
¼
A
11
A
12
A
16
A
21
A
22
A
26
A
61
A
62
A
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
A
11
A
12
A
16
A
12
A
22
A
26
A
16
A
26
A
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
B
ij
¼
B
11
B
12
B
16
B
21
B
22
B
26
B
61
B
62
B
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
B
11
B
12
B
16
B
12
B
22
B
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Equation (26a) (26b) (26c) can be written in matrix form as follows:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
A
16
A
12
A
22
A
26
A
16
A
26
A
66
B
11
B
12
B
16
B
12
B
22
B
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð28Þ
To summarize our results to this point, Eq. (28) relates the stress resultants
applied to a composite laminate to the resulting midplane strains and
curvatures via the A
ij
and B
ij
matrices. The values of each term within the
A
ij
and B
ij
matrices depend on the material properties and fiber angle of each
ply (i.e., they depend on terms within the Q
ij
matrix) as well as the stacking
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
sequence (i.e., the distance z
k
of each ply from the laminate midplane), in
accordance with Eq. (27a) (27b). In practice then, if the midplane strains and
curvatures induced in a laminate under constant environmental conditions
are measured, then the stress resultants that caused these strains and
curvatures can be calculated using Eq. (28).
This entire process must now be repeated for the moment resultants.
The stresses r
xx
induced in a thin composite laminate are related to moment
resultant M
xx
in accordance with Eq. (2a), repeated here for convenience:
M
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
r
xx
zdz ðrepeatedÞ ð2aÞ
Substituting the expression for r
xx
from Eq. (20), we obtain:
M
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
e
xx
þ Q
12
e
yy
þ Q
16
c
xy
_ _
k
zdz ð29Þ
Each strain that appears in Eq. (29) can be related to the midplane strains and
curvatures via the Kirchhoff hypothesis. Hence, substituting either Eq. (11) or
Eq. (12), we have:
M
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
zQ
11
e
o
xx
þ zQ
12
e
o
yy
þ zQ
16
c
o
xy
þ z
2
Q
11
j
xx
þ z
2
Q
12
j
yy
þ z
2
Q
16
j
xy
_ _
dz
ð30Þ
Equation (30) is similar to Eq. (22). Once again, this integral cannot be
evaluated directly because the integrand is a discontinuous function of z.
However, (a) noting that the midplane strains and curvatures are not
functions of z and can be brought outside the integral sign, and then (b)
evaluating the integral in a ‘‘piecewise’’ fashion through the thickness of the
laminate, we obtain:
M
xx
¼ e
o
xx
Q
11
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
zdz þ Q
11
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
zdz þ Q
11
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
zdz þ
: : : :
_
þ Q
11
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
zdz þ Q
11
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
zdz
_
þe
o
yy
Q
12
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
zdz þ Q
12
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
zdz þ Q
12
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
zdz þ
: : : :
_
þ Q
12
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
zdz þ Q
12
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
zdz
_
þc
o
xy
Q
16
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
zdz þ Q
16
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
zdz þ Q
16
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
zdz þ
: : : :
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
þ Q
16
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
zdz þ Q
16
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
zdz
_
þj
xx
Q
11
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
z
2
dz þ Q
11
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
z
2
dz þ Q
11
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
z
2
dz þ
: : : :
_
þ Q
11
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
z
2
dz þ Q
11
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
z
2
dz
_
þj
yy
Q
12
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
z
2
dz þ Q
12
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
z
2
dz þ Q
12
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
z
2
dz þ
: : : :
_
þ Q
12
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
z
2
dz þ Q
12
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
z
2
dz
_
þj
xy
Q
16
_ _
1
_
z
1
z
0
z
2
dz þ Q
16
_ _
2
_
z
2
z
1
z
2
dz þ Q
16
_ _
3
_
z
3
z
2
z
2
dz þ
: : : :
_
þ Q
16
_ _
nÀ1
_
z
nÀ1
z
nÀ2
z
2
dz þ Q
16
_ _
n
_
z
n
z
nÀ1
z
2
dz
_
ð31Þ
The piecewise integrals that appear in Eq. (31) are of one of the following two
forms, both of which are easily evaluated:
_
z
k
z
kÀ1
zdz ¼
1
2
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ _
or
_
z
k
z
kÀ1
z
2
dz ¼
1
3
z
3
k
À z
3
kÀ1
_ _
Hence, evaluating all integrals, we obtain:
M
xx
¼
1
2
e
o
xx
Q
11
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : : :
þ Q
11
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
þ
1
2
e
o
yy
Q
12
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : : :
þ Q
12
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
þ
1
2
c
o
xy
Q
16
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : : :
þ Q
16
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
þ
1
3
j
xx
Q
11
_ _
1
z
3
1
À z
3
0
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
3
2
À z
3
1
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
3
3
À z
3
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : : :
þ Q
11
_ _
n
z
3
n
À z
3
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
þ
1
3
j
yy
Q
12
_ _
1
z
3
1
À z
3
0
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
2
z
3
2
À z
3
1
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
3
z
3
3
À z
3
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : : :
þ Q
12
_ _
n
z
3
n
À z
3
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
þ
1
3
j
xy
Q
16
_ _
1
z
3
1
À z
3
0
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
2
z
3
2
À z
3
1
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
3
z
3
3
À z
3
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : : :
þ Q
16
_ _
n
z
3
n
À z
3
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
ð32Þ
The first three quantities on the right-hand side of the equality sign involve the
previously defined terms B
11
, B
12
, and B
16
. We now define three new terms,
associated with the last three quantities:
D
11
¼
1
3
Q
11
_ _
1
z
3
1
À z
3
0
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
3
2
À z
3
1
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
3
3
À z
3
2
_ ¸
þ
: : : :
_
þ Q
11
_ _
n
z
3
n
À z
3
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
D
12
¼
1
3
Q
12
_ _
1
z
3
1
À z
3
0
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
2
z
3
2
À z
3
1
_ ¸
þ Q
12
_ _
3
z
3
3
À z
3
2
_ ¸
þ
: : : :
_
þ Q
12
_ _
n
z
3
n
À z
3
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
D
16
¼
1
3
Q
16
_ _
1
z
3
1
À z
3
0
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
2
z
3
2
À z
3
1
_ ¸
þ Q
16
_ _
3
z
3
3
À z
3
2
_ ¸
þ
: : : :
_
þ Q
16
_ _
n
z
3
n
À z
3
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
Hence, Eq. (32) can be written in the following simplified form:
M
xx
¼ B
11
e
o
xx
þ B
12
e
o
yy
þ B
16
c
o
xy
þ D
11
j
xx
þ D
12
j
yy
þ D
16
j
xy
ð33aÞ
Following an entirely equivalent procedure for M
yy
and M
xy
, it can be shown
that:
M
yy
¼ B
21
e
o
xx
þ B
12
e
o
yy
þ B
26
c
o
xy
þ D
21
j
xx
þ D
22
j
yy
þ D
26
j
xy
ð33bÞ
M
xy
¼ B
61
e
o
xx
þ B
62
e
o
yy
þ B
66
c
o
xy
þ D
61
j
xx
þ D
62
j
yy
þ D
66
j
xy
ð33cÞ
The B
ij
terms that appear in Eqs. (33a) (33b) (33c) have been previously
encountered and are given by Eq. (27b). The new terms D
ij
are given by:
D
ij
¼
1
3

n
k ¼1
Q
ij
_ _
k
z
3
k
À z
3
kÀ1
_ _
ð34Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The D
ij
terms can be written as a symmetrical 3 Â 3 matrix:
D
ij
¼
D
11
D
12
D
16
D
21
D
22
D
26
D
61
D
62
D
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ¼
D
11
D
12
D
16
D
12
D
22
D
26
D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Equations (33) can be written in matrix form as follows:
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
B
11
B
12
B
16
B
12
B
22
B
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
D
11
D
12
D
16
D
12
D
22
D
26
D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð35Þ
Equation (35) relates the moment resultants applied to a composite
laminate to the resulting midplane strains and curvatures via the B
ij
and D
ij
matrices. The value of each termwithin the B
ij
and D
ij
matrices depends on the
material properties and fiber angle of each ply (i.e., they depend on terms
within the Q
ij
matrix) as well as the stacking sequence (i.e., the distance z
k
of
each ply fromthe laminate midplane), in accordance with Eqs. (27b) and (34).
In practice then, if the midplane strains and curvatures induced in a laminate
under constant environmental conditions are measured, then the moment
resultants that caused these strains and curvatures can be calculated using Eq.
(35).
It is customary to combine Eqs. (28) and (35) and express them together
in matrix form:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
A
16
B
11
B
12
B
16
A
12
A
22
A
26
B
12
B
22
B
26
A
16
A
26
A
66
B
16
B
26
B
66
B
11
B
12
B
16
D
11
D
12
D
16
B
12
B
22
B
26
D
12
D
22
D
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð36Þ
Equation (36) will sometimes be written in abbreviated form as:
N
M
_ _
¼
A B
B D
_ _
e
o
j
_ _
The 6 Â 6 array that appears in Eq. (36) is called the ‘‘ABD matrix.’’ Because
each of the individual matrices that make up the total ABD matrix is in itself
symmetrical (e.g., A
12
=A
21
, B
12
=B
21
, D
12
=D
21
, etc.), the entire ABDmatrix
is also symmetrical.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
It should be noted that the above results are applicable to thin laminates
fabricated using any combination of ply materials. Because the A
ij
, B
ij
, and D
ij
matrices are each calculated based on a summation over all plies, and
individual ply properties (represented by the Q
ij
matrix) are embedded within
these summations, both ply material type and fiber angle can vary from one
ply to the next. Hence, the ABD matrix for any thin plate can be calculated
using (Eq. (27a), (27b), and (34). For example, the ABD matrix for ‘‘hybrid’’
laminates (i.e., laminates fabricated using two different prepreg material
systems) are calculated using (Eq. (27a), (27b), and (34).
The A
ij
matrix relates in-plane stress resultants to in-plane midplane
strains. For this reason, the A
ij
terms are called extensional stiffnesses.
Similarly, the D
ij
matrix relates moment resultants to midplane curvatures,
and elements within the D
ij
matrix are therefore called bending stiffness. The
B
ij
matrix relates in-plane stress resultants to midplane curvatures, and also
relates moment resultants to the in-plane midplane strains. The B
ij
terms are
called coupling stiffnesses. For an isotropic plate, the coupling stiffnesses are
always zero.
The stress and moment resultants can be thought of as ‘‘stress-like’’
quantities because they are directly related to the stresses through the
thickness of the laminate via Eqs. (1) and (2). On the other hand, the midplane
strains and curvatures are ‘‘strain-like’’ quantities because they can be used to
calculate the strains at any position through the thickness of the laminate via
Eqs. (11) and (12). Hence, Eq. (36) relates ‘‘stress-like’’ quantities to ‘‘strain-
like’’ quantities, and in this sense can be thought of as ‘‘Hooke’s law’’ for a
composite laminate.
Equation (36) is in convenient form if we measure midplane strains and
curvatures and wish to calculate the stress and moment resultants that caused
these strains and curvatures. Suppose, instead, that the stress and moment
resultants are known and we wish to calculate the midplane strain and
curvatures that will be caused by these known loads. In this case, we must
invert Eq. (36) to obtain a relationship of the form:
e
o
j
_ _
¼
A B
B D
_ _
À1
N
M
_ _
ð37Þ
In this text, the inverse of the ABD matrix will be called the abd matrix:
a b
b d
_ _
¼
A B
B D
_ _
À1
Methods of inverting the [ABD] matrix analytically are discussed in
several composite texts, including Refs. 1, 2, and 3. However, in practice, the
ABD matrix is most often inverted numerically with the aid of a digital
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
computer because many commercial software packages (e.g., MATLAB,
Maple, Mathematica, etc.) that can invert a 6Â6 matrix routinely are
available nowadays.
Written out in full, Eq. (37) is:
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
a
16
b
11
b
12
b
16
a
12
a
22
a
26
b
21
b
22
b
26
a
16
a
26
a
66
b
61
b
62
b
66
b
11
b
21
b
61
d
11
d
12
d
16
b
12
b
22
b
62
d
12
d
22
d
26
b
16
b
26
b
66
d
16
d
26
d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð38Þ
The reader should carefully inspect the subscripts used in Eq. (38). Note that
the [abd] matrix is symmetrical. Furthermore, the individual 3 Â 3 matrices
that appear in the upper left-hand quadrant and lower right-hand quadrant of
the [abd] matrix, a
ij
and d
ij
, respectively, are also symmetrical. However, the
3 Â3 matrix that appears in the upper right-hand quadrant is not symmetrical
(b
12
p b
21
, b
16
p b
61
, and b
26
p b
62
). Also, the 3 Â 3 matrix in the lower left-
hand quadrant is the transpose of the 3 Â 3 matrix that appears in the upper
right-hand quadrant.
Example Problem 4
Determine the [ABD] and [abd] matrices for a [30/0/90]
T
graphite-epoxy
laminate. Use material properties listed for graphite-epoxy in Table 3 of
Chap. 3, and assume that each ply has a thickness of 0.125 mm.
Solution. Aside view of the laminate is shown in Fig. 17. The total laminate
thickness t = 3 (0.125 mm) = 0.375 mm. Because all three plies are of the
same material, the thickness of each ply is identical: t
1
=t
2
=t
3
=0.125 mm.
Figure 17 Side viewof the [30/0/90]
T
laminate consideredinSample Problem4.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Note that because an odd number of plies are used, the origin of the x–y–z
coordinate system exists at the midplane of ply 2. The ply interface
coordinates can be calculated as:
z
0
¼ Àt=2 ¼ À 0:375mm ð Þ=2 ¼ À0:1875mm ¼ À0:0001875m
z
1
¼ z
0
þ t
1
¼ À0:1875mm þ 0:125mm ¼ À0:0625mm ¼ À0:0000625m
z
2
¼ z
1
þ t
2
¼ À0:0625mm þ 0:125mm ¼ 0:0625mm ¼ 0:0000625m
z
3
¼ z
2
þ t
3
¼ 0:0625mm þ0:125mm ¼ 0:1875mm ¼ 0:0001875m
We will also require the transformed reduced stiffness matrix for each ply.
Elements of the [Q]
k
matrices are calculated using Eq. (31) of Chap. 5* and are
equal to:
For ply 1 (the 30j ply):
Q
_ ¸
30
j
ply
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
107:6 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
48:13 Â10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
27:22 Â 10
9
21:52 Â10
9
48:13 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
36:05 Â10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Pa ð Þ
For ply 2 (the 0j ply):
Q
_ ¸
0
B
ply
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
107:9 Â 10
9
3:016 Â 10
9
0
3:016 Â 10
9
10:05 Â 10
9
0
0 0 13:00 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Pa ð Þ
*
The Q
_ ¸
matrix for a 30j graphite-epoxy ply was calculated as a part of Example Problem 5.6
of Chap. 5.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
For ply 3 (the 90j ply):
Q
_ ¸
90
B
ply
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
10:05 Â 10
9
3:016 Â 10
9
0
3:016 Â 10
9
170:9 Â 10
9
0
0 0 13:00 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Pa ð Þ
We can now calculate each member of the A
ij
, B
ij
, and D
ij
matrices, in
accordance with (Eq. (27a), (27b), and (34), respectively.
.
Using Eq. (27a), element A
11
is calculated as follows:
A
11
¼

3
k ¼1
Q
11
_ _
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
ð Þ
A
11
¼ Q
11
_ _
1
z
1
À z
0
ð Þ þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
À z
1
ð Þ þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
3
À z
2
ð Þ
A
11
¼ 107:6 Â 10
9
_ _
À:0000625 þ 0:0001875 ð Þ þ 170:9 Â 10
9
_ _
 0:0000625 þ 0:0000625 ð Þ þ 10:05 Â10
9
_ _
 0:0001875 À 0:0000625 ð Þ
A
11
¼ 36:07 Â 10
6
Pa À m
The remaining elements of the A
ij
matrix are found in similar fashion:
A
ij
¼
36:07 4:012 6:016
4:012 26:02 2:690
6:016 2:690 7:756
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ Â10
6
Pa À m ð Þ
.
Using Eq. (27b), element B
11
is calculated as follows:
B
11
¼
1
2

3
k ¼1
Q
11
_ _
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ _
B
11
¼
1
2
Q
11
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ _
þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ _
þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ _
_ _
B
11
¼
1
2
107:6 Â 10
9
_ _
À:0000625 ð Þ
2
þ À0:0001875 ð Þ
2
_ _ _
þ 170:9 Â 10
9
_ _
0:0000625 ð Þ
2
À À0:0000625 ð Þ
2
_ _
þ 10:05 Â 10
9
_ _
0:0001875 ð Þ
2
À 0:0000625 ð Þ
2
_ __
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
B
11
¼ À1:524 Â 10
3
Pa Àm
2
The remaining elements of the B
ij
matrix are found in similar fashion:
B
ij
¼
À1:524 À0:3601 À0:7521
À0:3601 2:245 À0:3362
À0:7521 À0:3362 À0:3601
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ Â10
3
Pa À m
2
_ _
In passing, in this example, it appears that B
12
is numerically equal to B
66
. This
is not true, in general. In this problem, the apparent numerical equivalence is
due to the fact that only four significant digits have been used. Nevertheless,
for laminates produced using a single material system, it is often (but not
always) the case that B
12
cB
66
. This common occurrence can be traced to the
fact the functional form and magnitude of Q
12
and Q
66
are similar (see Eq.
(31) of Chap. 5). Because B
12
and B
66
are directly related to Q
12
and Q
66
,
respectively, their values are often nearly identical. Also, in Sec. 6.2, it will be
seen that all elements within the B
ij
matrix are zero for symmetrical laminates.
Hence, for symmetrical laminates, these two terms are, in fact, numerically
equal, that is, B
12
=B
66
=0 for symmetrical laminates.
.
Using Eq. (34), element D
11
is calculated as follows:
D
11
¼
1
3

3
k ¼1
Q
11
_ _
k
z
3
k
À z
3
k À1
_ _
D
11
¼
1
3
Q
11
_ _
1
z
3
1
À z
3
0
_ _
þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
3
2
À z
3
1
_ _
þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
3
3
À z
3
2
_ _
_ _
D
11
¼
1
3
107:6 Â10
9
_ _
À:0000625 ð Þ
3
À À0:0001875 ð Þ
3
_ _ _
þ 170:9 Â10
9
_ _
þ 0:0000625 ð Þ
3
À À0:0000625 ð Þ
3
_ _
þ 10:05 Â10
9
_ _
0:0001875 ð Þ
3
À 0:0000625 ð Þ
3
_ __
D
11
¼ 0:2767Pa À m
3
The remaining elements of the D
ij
matrix are found in similar fashion:
D
ij
¼
0:2767 0:0620 0:1018
0:0620 2:513 0:0455
0:1018 0:0455 0:1059
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Pa À m
3
_ _
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The [ABD] matrix can now be assembled:
ABD ½ Š ¼
36:07 Â 10
6
4:012 Â 10
6
6:016 Â 10
6
À1524 À360:1 À752:1
4:012 Â 10
6
26:02 Â 10
6
2:690 Â 10
6
À360:1 2245 À336:2
6:016 Â 10
6
2:690 Â 10
6
7:756 Â 10
6
À752:1 À336:2 À360:1
À1524 À360:1 À752:1 0:2767 0:0620 0:1018
À360:1 2245 À336:2 0:0620 2:513 0:0455
À752:1 À336:2 À360:1 0:1018 0:0455 0:1059
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
The [abd] matrix is obtained by inverting the [ABD] matrix, and is found
to be:
abd ½ Š ¼
3:757 Â 10
À8
À1:964 Â 10
À9
À1:038 Â10
À8
1:440 Â 10
À4
3:905 Â 10
À6
8:513 Â 10
À5
À1:964 Â 10
À9
1:037 Â 10
À7
À4:234 Â10
À8
À1:866 Â 10
À5
À6:361 Â 10
À4
4:268 Â 10
4
À1:038 Â 10
À8
À4:234 Â 10
À8
2:004 Â10
À7
3:661 Â 10
À4
3:251 Â 10
À4
À1:851 Â 10
À5
1:440 Â 10
À4
À1:866 Â 10
À5
3:661 Â10
À4
7:064 À3:122 Â 10
À2
À4:572
3:905 Â 10
À6
À6:361 Â 10
À4
3:251 Â10
À4
À3:122 Â 10
À2
6:429 À3:620
8:513 Â 10
À5
4:268 Â 10
4
À1:851 Â10
À5
À4:572 À3:620 17:41
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Example Problem 5
A [30/0/90]
T
graphite-epoxy laminate is subjected to the following stress and
moment resultants:
N
xx
¼ 50 kN=m N
yy
¼ À10 kN=m N
xy
¼ 0 N=m
M
xx
¼ 1 N À m=m M
yy
¼ À1 N À m=m M
xy
¼ 0 N À m=m
Determine the following quantities caused by these stress and moment
resultants:
(a) Midplane strains and curvatures
(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system
(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system.
Use material properties listed for graphite-epoxy in Table 3 of Chap. 3
and assume that each ply has a thickness of 0.125 mm.
Solution. Note that this is the same laminate considered in Example
Problem 4. A side view of the laminate appears in Fig. 17.
(a) Midplane strains and curvatures. The [abd] matrix for this laminate
was calculated as a part of Example Problem 4. Hence, midplane strains
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
and curvature may be obtained through application of Eq. (38), which
becomes:
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
3:757 Â 10
À8
À1:964 Â 10
À9
À1:038 Â 10
À8
1:440 Â 10
À4
3:905 Â 10
À6
8:513 Â 10
À5
À1:964 Â 10
À9
1:037 Â 10
À7
À4:234 Â 10
À8
À1:866 Â 10
À5
À6:361 Â 10
À4
4:628 Â 10
4
À1:038 Â 10
À8
À4:234 Â 10
À8
2:004 Â 10
À7
3:661 Â 10
À4
3:251 Â 10
À4
À1:851 Â 10
À5
1:440 Â 10
À4
À1:866 Â 10
À5
3:661 Â 10
À4
7:064 À3:122 Â 10
À2
À4:572
3:905 Â 10
À6
À6:361 Â 10
À4
3:251 Â 10
À4
À3:122 Â 10
À2
6:429 À3:620
8:513 Â 10
À5
4:628 Â 10
4
À1:851 Â 10
À5
À4:572 À3:620 17:41
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Â
50 Â 10
3
À10 Â 10
À3
0
1
À1
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Completing this matrix multiplication, we obtain:
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
2039Am=m
À518Am=m
À55Arad
14:48m
À1
0:096m
À1
À1:323m
À1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply strains may now be
calculated using Eq. (12). For example, strains present at the outer surface of
ply 1 (i.e., strains present at z
0
= À0.0001875 m) are:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_j
z ¼z
0
¼
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ z
0
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
¼
2038 Â10
À6
m=m
À518 Â10
À6
m=m
À55 Â 10
À6
m=m
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þ À0:0001875m ð Þ
14:48rad=m
0:096rad=m
À1:328rad=m
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
j
z ¼z
0
¼
À677Am=m
À536Am=m
194Arad
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Strains calculated at the remaining ply interface positions are summarized in
Table 5.
(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system. The Q
_ ¸
matrix for all
plies was calculated as a part of Example Problem 4. Ply stresses may now be
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
calculated using Eq. (30) of Chap. 5, with DT=DM=0. The stresses present
at the outer surface of ply 1 (i.e., at z=z
0
) are:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
0
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
j
z ¼z
0
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
107:6 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
48:13 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
27:22 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
48:13 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
36:05 Â 10
9
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
À677 Â 10
À6
À536 Â 10
À6
194 Â 10
À6
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
j
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
À77:5MPa
À28:1MPa
À37:1MPa
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Stresses calculated at remaining ply interface positions are summarized
in Table 6.
Table 5 Ply Interface Strains in a [30/0/90] Graphite-Epoxy Laminate Caused
by the Stress and Moment Resultants Specified in Example Problem 5
z-coordinate (mm) e
xx
(Am/m) e
yy
(Am/m) c
xy
(Arad)
À0.1875 À677 À536 194
À0.0625 1133 À524 28
0.0625 2943 À512 À137
0.1875 4753 À500 À303
Strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.
Table 6 Ply Interface Stresses in a [30/0/90]
T
Graphite-Epoxy Laminate Caused
by the Stress and Moment Resultants Specified in Example Problem 5
Ply number z-coordinate (mm) r
xx
(MPa) r
yy
(MPa) s
xy
(MPa)
Ply 1 À0.1875 À77.5 À28.1 À37.1
À0.0625 109.7 15.9 44.3
Ply 2 À0.0625 192.1 À1.85 0.366
0.0625 501.5 3.73 À1.78
Ply 3 0.0625 28.0 À78.6 À1.78
0.1875 46.3 À71.1 À3.93
Stresses are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
6.2 Including Changes in Environmental Conditions
Recall that we simplified the analysis leading up to Eq. (36) by assuming that
DT=DM=0. We will nowconsider howto predict the behavior of a laminate
subjected to a change in temperature and/or moisture content as well as
external mechanical loads.
To begin, the stresses in any ply (say, in ply number k) are related to ply
strains in accordance with Eq. (30) of Chap. 5:
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
k
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
21
Q
22
Q
26
Q
61
Q
62
Q
66
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
k
e
xx
ÀDTa
xx
ÀDMb
xx
e
yy
ÀDTa
yy
ÀDMb
yy
c
xy
ÀDTa
xy
ÀDMb
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
k
ðrepeatedÞ ð5:30Þ
Stress r
xx
in ply k is given by:
r
xx
¼ Q
11
e
xx
ÀDTa
xx
ÀDMb
xx
f g þ Q
12
e
yy
ÀDTa
yy
ÀDMb
xx
_ _
ð39Þ
þ Q
16
c
xy
ÀDTa
xy
ÀDMb
xy
_ _
Stress resultant N
xx
is related to r
xx
via Eq. (1a). Substituting Eq. (39) into Eq.
(1a), we have:
N
xx
¼
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
e
xx
þ Q
12
e
yy
þ Q
16
c
xy
_ _
k
dz
ÀDT
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
c
xy
_ _
k
dz ð40Þ
ÀDM
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
b
xx
þ Q
12
b
yy
þ Q
16
b
xy
_ _
k
dz
The first integral on the right-hand side of the equality sign is identical to Eq.
(21), and after evaluation (using the same techniques as previously described)
will result in Eq. (26a). The second and third integrals were not previously
encountered because they involve DT and DM, which were previously
assumed to equal zero. Using methods similar to those used previously, it
can be shown that the second integral may be written as:
DT
_
t=2
Àt=2
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
c
xy
_ _
k
dz
¼ DT

n
k ¼1
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
This quantity is called a thermal stress resultant, and will be denoted N
xx
T
.
That is,
N
T
xx
¼ DT

n
k ¼1
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
ð41aÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Similarly, the third integral in Eq. (40) can be evaluated to give the moisture
stress resultant, denoted N
M
xx
:
N
M
xx
¼ DM

n
k ¼1
Q
11
b
xx
þ Q
12
b
yy
þ Q
16
b
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
ð42aÞ
Hence, after evaluating all integrals, Eq. (40) may be written as:
N
xx
¼ A
11
e
o
xx
þ A
12
e
o
yy
þ A
16
c
o
xy
þ B
11
j
xx
þ B
12
j
yy
þ B
16
j
xy
À N
T
xx
À N
M
xx
ð43aÞ
This result should be compared to Eq. (26a). It will be seen that the inclusion
of temperature and/or moisture changes has resulted in the addition of two
new terms (N
T
xx
and N
M
xx
); otherwise, our earlier results remain unchanged.
If an analogous procedure is now followed for the remaining stress and
moment resultants, using Eqs. (1b), (1c), (2a), (2b), and (2c), five additional
thermal stress/moment resultants and five additional moisture stress/moment
resultants will be identified, as follows:
N
T
yy
u DT

n
k ¼1
Q
12
a
xx
þ Q
22
a
yy
þ Q
26
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
ð41bÞ
N
T
xy
u DT

n
k ¼1
Q
16
a
xx
þ Q
26
a
yy
þ Q
66
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
ð41cÞ
M
T
xx
u
DT
2

n
k ¼1
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ ¸ _ _
ð41dÞ
M
T
yy
u
DT
2

n
k ¼1
Q
12
a
xx
þ Q
22
a
yy
þ Q
26
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ ¸ _ _
ð41eÞ
M
T
xy
u
DT
2

n
k ¼1
Q
16
a
xx
þ Q
26
a
yy
þ Q
66
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ ¸ _ _
ð41f Þ
N
M
yy
u DM

n
k ¼1
Q
12
b
xx
þ Q
22
b
yy
þ Q
26
b
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
ð42bÞ
N
M
xy
u DM

n
k ¼1
Q
16
b
xx
þ Q
26
b
yy
þ Q
66
b
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
ð42cÞ
M
M
xx
u
DM
2

n
k ¼1
Q
11
b
xx
þ Q
12
b
yy
þ Q
16
b
xy
_ ¸
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ ¸
_ _
ð42dÞ
M
M
yy
u
DM
2

n
k ¼1
Q
12
b
xx
þ Q
22
b
yy
þ Q
26
b
xy
_ ¸
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ ¸
_ _
ð42eÞ
M
M
xy
u
DM
2

n
k ¼1
Q
16
b
xx
þ Q
26
b
yy
þ Q
66
b
xy
_ ¸
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ ¸
_ _
ð42f Þ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
In each case, the corresponding thermal and moisture resultants will be
subtracted from the right-hand side of Equations (26a) (26b) (26c) and
(33a) (33b) (33c)) and (26a) (26b) (26c) and (33a) (33b) (33c). Finally, the
response of a composite laminate subjected to mechanical loads, a change in
temperature, and a change in moisture content can be written in a formsimilar
to Eq. (36):
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
A
16
B
11
B
12
B
16
A
12
A
22
A
26
B
12
B
22
B
26
A
16
A
26
A
66
B
16
B
26
B
66
B
11
B
12
B
16
D
11
D
12
D
16
B
12
B
22
B
26
D
12
D
22
D
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
N
T
xy
M
T
xx
M
T
yy
M
T
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
N
M
xy
M
M
xx
M
M
yy
M
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð44Þ
Equation (44) will sometimes be abbreviated as:
N
M
_ _
¼
A B
B D
_ _
e
o
j
_ _
À
N
T
M
T
_ _
À
N
M
M
M
_ _
Equation (44) is comparable to Eq. (36), except we have now included the
effects due to a change in temperature and/or moisture content. Equation (44)
can be viewed as ‘‘Hooke’s law’’ for a composite laminate, in the sense that it
may be used to relate stresslike quantities (i.e., stress and moment resultants)
to strainlike quantities (i.e., midplane strains and curvatures). Inverting Eq.
(44), we obtain:
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
a
16
b
11
b
12
b
16
a
12
a
22
a
26
b
21
b
22
b
26
a
16
a
26
a
66
b
61
b
62
b
66
b
11
b
21
b
61
d
11
d
12
d
16
b
12
b
22
b
62
d
12
d
22
d
26
b
16
b
26
b
66
d
16
d
26
d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
þ N
T
xy
þ N
M
xy
M
xx
þ M
T
xx
þ M
M
xx
M
yy
þ M
T
yy
þ M
M
yy
M
xy
þ M
T
xy
þ M
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð45Þ
where, as before:
a b
b d
_ _
¼
A B
B D
_ _
À1
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
A subtlety embedded fact within the preceding discussion is that most
composites are subjected to a significant state of stress prior to the application
of any external mechanical loading. That is, most modern composite material
systems are cured at an elevated temperature (common cure temperatures are
either 120jCor 175jC), and are nominally stress-free at the cure temperature.
Once the polymerization process is complete, the composite is cooled to room
temperatures (say, 20jC) and, consequently, the composite experiences a
uniformchange in temperature of DT=À100jCor À155jCduring cooldown.
In general, this change in temperature results in thermal stress and/or moment
resultants to develop, causing thermal stresses within all plies of the laminate.
These thermal stresses can be quite high, and contribute toward failure of the
laminate.*
A further complicating factor is related to measurement of strains. In
most practical situations, strain measurement devices (e.g., resistance foil
strain gages) are bonded to a composite material or structure after cooldown to
room temperature. Hence, in practice, the reference state of a strain measure-
ment device mounted on a laminate at roomtemperature does not necessarily
correspond to the stress-free (or strain-free) state of the composite. This
complication will be further explored in Chap. 7. At this point, it will simply
be noted that a significant difficulty arises when prediction of nonlinear
behavior (or more generally, the prediction of composite failure) is required
based on measured laminate strains.
Example Problem 6
A [30/0/90]
T
graphite-epoxy laminate is cured at 175jC and then cooled to
room temperature (20 jC). Determine:
(a) Midplane strains and curvatures
(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system
(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system
which are induced during cooldown. Use material properties listed for
graphite-epoxy in Table 3 of Chap. 3, assume that each ply has a thickness
of 0.125 mm, and assume no change in moisture content (i.e., assume DM=0).
* Determination of the ‘‘stress-free temperature’’ is actually more complex than is implied here.
It is true that thermal stresses begin to develop as cooldown begins, but because polymeric
materials exhibit viscoelastic characteristics at these elevated temperatures, the matrix will
creep, initially relieving thermal stresses somewhat. As temperature is decreased further, the
viscoelastic nature of the matrix is rapidly decreased, and thermal stresses develop as described.
A second factor is that all polymers exhibit some shrinkage during the polymerization process
(see Sec. 1.2), and this shrinkage results in additional stresses similar to thermal stresses. As a
rule of thumb, the stress-free temperature is often estimated to be 20–50jC below the final cure
temperature. Nevertheless, this complication will be ignored in this text; it will be assumed that
the final cure temperature defines the stress-free temperature.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Solution. Note that this is the same laminate considered in Sample Problem
4. A side view of the laminate appears in Fig. 17.
(a) Midplane strains and curvatures. The laminate has experienced a
change in temperature DT = (20–175) = À155jC and, consequently, is sub-
jected thermal stress and moment resultants. However, no external loads are
applied and there has been no change in moisture content; therefore, the stress
and moment resultants and the moisture stress and moment results are zero:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
N
M
xy
M
M
xx
M
M
yy
M
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
0
0
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
The effective thermal expansion coefficients for each ply are calculated using
Eq. (25) of Chap. 5, repeated here for convenience:
a
xx
¼ a
11
cos
2
h ð Þ þ a
22
sin
2
h ð Þ
a
yy
¼ a
11
sin
2
h ð Þ þ a
22
cos
2
h ð Þ
a
xy
¼ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ a
11
À a
22
ð Þ
ð5:25Þ
From Table 3 of Chap. 3, the thermal expansion coefficients for graphite-
epoxy (relative to the 1–2 coordinate system) are a
11
= À0.9 Am/m jC and
a
22
= 27Am/m jC. Therefore:
For ply 1 (the 30j ply):
a
1 ð Þ
xx
¼ À0:9Am=m À
B
C ð Þ cos
2
30
B
ð Þ þ 27Am=m À
B
C ð Þ sin
2
30
B
ð Þ
¼ 6:08Am=m À
B
C
a
1 ð Þ
yy
¼ À0:9Am=m À
B
C ð Þ sin
2
30
B
ð Þ þ 27Am=m À
B
C ð Þ cos
2
30
B
ð Þ
¼ 20:0Am=m À
B
C
a
1 ð Þ
xy
¼ 2cos 30 ð Þ sin 30 ð Þ À0:9 À 27 ð ÞAm=m À
B
C ½ Š ¼ À24:2Arad=
B
C
For ply 2 (the 0j ply):
a
2 ð Þ
xx
¼ À0:9Am=m À
B
C ð Þ cos
2
0
B
ð Þ þ 27Am=m À
B
C ð Þ sin
2
0
B
ð Þ
¼ À0:9Am=m À
B
C
a
2 ð Þ
yy
¼ À0:9Am=m À
B
C ð Þ sin
2
0
B
ð Þ þ 27Am=m À
B
C ð Þ cos
2
0
B
ð Þ
¼ 27:0Am=m À
B
C
a
2 ð Þ
xy
¼ 2cos 0
B
ð Þ sin 0
B
ð Þ À0:9 À 27 ð ÞAm=m À
B
C ½ Š ¼ 0Arad=
B
C
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
For ply 3 (the 90j ply):
a
3 ð Þ
xx
¼ À0:9Am=m À
B
C ð Þ cos
2
90
B
ð Þ þ 27Am=m À
B
C ð Þ sin
2
90
B
ð Þ
¼ 27:0Am=m À
B
C
a
3 ð Þ
yy
¼ À0:9Am=m À
B
C ð Þ sin
2
90
B
ð Þ þ 27Am=m À
B
C ð Þ cos
2
90
B
ð Þ
¼ À0:9Am=m À
B
C
a
3 ð Þ
xy
¼ 2cos 90
B
ð Þ sin 90
B
ð Þ À0:9 À 27 ð ÞAm=m À
B
C ½ Š ¼ 0Arad=
B
C
Both the ply interface positions as well as the Q
ij
matrices for each ply were
calculated as a part of Example Problem 4. Hence, we now have all the
information needed to calculate the thermal stress and moment resultants,
using Eqs. (41a)–(41f). For example, Eq. (41a) is evaluated as follows:
N
T
xx
u DT

n
k ¼1
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
N
T
xx
¼ DT
__
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
1
z
1
À z
0
½ Š
_
þ
_
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
2
z
2
À z
1
½ Š
_
þ Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
3
z
3
À z
2
½ Š
_ __
N
T
xx
¼ À155 ð Þ
_
107:6 Â10
9
_ _
6:08 Â 10
À6
_ _
þ 26:06 Â 10
9
_ _
20:0 Â 10
À6
_ _ _ _
þ 48:13 Â 10
9
_ _
À24:2 Â 10
À6
_ _¸_
À0:0625 þ 0:1875 ð Þ Â10
À3
¸_
þ 170:9 Â 10
9
_ _
À0:9 Â 10
À6
_ _
þ 3:016 Â10
9
_ _
27:0 Â 10
À6
_ _ _ _
þ 0 ð Þ 0 ð Þ
¸_
0:0625 þ0:0625 ð Þ Â 10
À3
¸_
þ 10:05 Â10
9
_ _
27 Â 10
À6
_ _ _ _
þ 3:016 Â 10
9
_ _
À0:9 Â 10
À6
_ _
þ 0 ð Þ 0 ð Þ
¸_
0:1875 À0:0625 ð Þ Â 10
À3
¸_
_
N
T
xx
¼ 4060N=m
The remaining thermal stress and moment resultants are calculated in similar
fashion, eventually resulting in:
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
N
T
xy
M
T
xx
M
T
yy
M
T
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
À4060N=m
À7360N=m
2860N=m
À0:62N À m=m
0:62N À m=m
À0:36N À m=m
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
We can now calculate midplane strains and curvature using Eq. (45), which
becomes:*
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
3:757 Â 10
À8
À1:964 Â 10
À9
À1:038 Â 10
À8
1:440 Â 10
À4
3:905 Â 10
À6
8:513 Â 10
À5
À1:964 Â 10
À9
1:037 Â 10
À7
À4:234 Â 10
À8
À1:866 Â 10
À5
À6:361 Â 10
À4
4:628 Â 10
4
À1:038 Â 10
À8
À4:234 Â 10
À8
2:004 Â 10
À7
3:661 Â 10
À4
3:251 Â 10
À4
À1:851 Â 10
À5
1:440 Â 10
À4
À1:866 Â 10
À5
3:661 Â 10
À4
7:064 À3:122 Â 10
À2
À4:572
3:905 Â 10
À6
À6:361 Â 10
À4
3:251 Â 10
À4
À3:122 Â 10
À2
6:429 À3:620
8:513 Â 10
À5
4:628 Â 10
4
À1:851 Â 10
À5
À4:572 À3:620 17:41
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Â
À4060
À7360
2860
À0:62
0:62
À0:36
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
À285Am=m
À1424Am=m
908Arad
À2:16m
À1
10:9m
À1
À9:4m
À1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply strains may nowbe
calculated using Eq. (12). For example, strains present at the outer surface of
ply 1 (i.e., strains present at z
o
=À0.0001875 m) are:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z ¼z
0
¼
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ z
0
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¼
À285 Â 10
À6
m=m
À1424 Â 10
À6
m=m
908 Â 10
À6
m=m
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
þ À0:0001875m ð Þ
À2:16rad=m
10:9rad=m
À9:4rad=m
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
*The [abd] matrix for a [30/0/90]
T
graphite-epoxy laminate was calculated in Sample Problem 3.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z ¼z
0
¼
120Am=m
À3468Am=m
2672Am=m
_
_
_
_
_
_
Strains calculated at the remaining ply interface positions are summa-
rized in Table 7.
(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply stresses may now
be calculated using Eq. (30) of Chap. 5, with DM=0. The stresses present at
the outer surface of ply 1 are (i.e., at z=z
0
):
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 1
z ¼z
0
e
xx
ÀDTa
xx
e
yy
ÀDTa
yy
c
xy
ÀDTa
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z ¼z
0
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 1
z¼z
0
¼
107:6 Â10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
48:13 Â 10
9
26:06 Â10
9
27:22 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
48:13 Â10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
36:05 Â 10
9
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
Â
ð120Þ À ðÀ155Þð6:08Þ ½ Š  10
À6
ðÀ3468Þ À ðÀ155Þð20:0Þ ½ Š  10
À6
ð2672Þ À ðÀ155ÞðÀ24:2Þ ½ Š  10
À6
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
53MPa
À5:2MPa
4:8MPa
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Stresses calculated at the remaining plies and ply interface positions are
summarized in Table 8.
Table 7 Ply Interface Strains in a [30/0/90]
T
Graphite-Epoxy
Laminate Caused by a Cooldown from 175jC to 20jC
z-coordinate (mm) e
xx
(Am/m) e
yy
(Am/m) c
xy
(Arad)
À0.1875 120 À3468 2672
À0.0625 À150 À2100 1500
0.0625 À420 À750 320
0.1875 À690 620 À860
Strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Example Problem 7
A [30/0/90]
T
graphite-epoxy laminate is cured at 175 jC and cooled to room
temperature (20 jC). Initially, the moisture content of the laminate is zero.
However, the laminate is subjected to a humid environment for several weeks,
resulting in an increase of moisture content of 0.5% (by weight). Determine:
(a) Midplane strains and curvatures
(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system
(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system
which are present following the increase in moisture content. Use material
properties listed for graphite-epoxy in Table 3 of Chap. 3, and assume that
each ply has a thickness of 0.125 mm.
Solution. Note that this is the same laminate considered in Sample Problem
6, and the midplane strains and curvatures, ply strains, and ply stresses that
will be induced immediately upon cooldown by the change in temperature
have already been calculated. These quantities will all be modified due to the
slow diffusion of water molecules into the epoxy matrix.
(a) Midplane strains and curvatures. The laminate has experienced a change
in moisture content DM=+0.5% and, consequently, is subjected moisture
stress and moment resultants. The effective moisture expansion coefficients
for each ply are calculated using Eq. (28) of Chap. 5, repeated here for
convenience:
b
xx
¼ b
11
cos
2
ðhÞ þ b
22
sin
2
ðhÞ
b
yy
¼ b
11
sin
2
ðhÞ þ b
22
cos
2
ðhÞ ð5:28Þ
b
xy
¼ 2cosðhÞsinðhÞðb
11
À b
22
Þ
Table 8 Ply Interface Stresses in a [30/0/90]
T
Graphite-Epoxy
Laminate Caused by a Cooldown from 175jC to 20jC
Ply number z-coordinate (mm) r
xx
(MPa) r
yy
(MPa) s
xy
(MPa)
Ply 1 À0.1875 53 À5.2 4.8
À0.0625 3.1 À0.53 À21
Ply 2 À0.0625 À43 20 19
0.0625 À85 33 4.1
Ply 3 0.0625 35 À140 4.1
0.1875 37 92 À11
Stresses are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
From Table 3 of Chap. 3, the moisture expansion coefficients for graphite-
epoxy (relative to the 1–2 coordinate system) are b
11
=150 Am/m %M and
b
22
=4800 Am/m %M. Therefore:
For ply 1 (the 30j ply):
b
ð1Þ
xx
¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ cos
2
ð30
B
Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ sin
2
ð30
B
Þ
¼ 1310Am=mÀ %M
b
ð1Þ
yy
¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞsin
2
ð30
B
Þ þ ð4800Am=m À%MÞcos
2
ð30
B
Þ
¼ 3640Am=mÀ %M
b
ð1Þ
xy
¼ 2cosð30Þsinð30Þ ð150 À4800ÞAm=m À %M ½ Š ¼À4030Arad=%M
For ply 2 (the 0j ply):
b
ð2Þ
xx
¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ cos
2
ð0
B
Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ sin
2
ð0
B
Þ
¼ 150Am=mÀ %M
b
ð2Þ
yy
¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ sin
2
ð0
B
Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ cos
2
ð0
B
Þ
¼ 4800Am=mÀ %M
b
ð2Þ
xy
¼ 2cosð0
B
Þ sinð0
B
Þ ð150 À 4800ÞAm=m À %M ½ Š ¼ 0Arad=%M
For ply 3 (the 90j ply):
b
ð3Þ
xx
¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ cos
2
ð90
B
Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ sin
2
ð90
B
Þ
¼ 4800Am=m À %M
b
ð3Þ
yy
¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ sin
2
ð90
B
Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ cos
2
ð90
B
Þ
¼ 150Am=m À %M
b
ð3Þ
xy
¼ 2cosð90
B
Þsinð90
B
Þ ð150 À 4800Þ Am=m À %M ½ Š ¼ 0Arad=%M
Both the ply interface positions as well at the [Q] matrices for each ply were
calculated as a part of Example Problem 4. Hence, we now have all the
information needed to calculate the moisture stress and moment resultants,
using Eqs. (42a)–(42f). For example, Eq. (42a) is evaluated as follows:
N
M
xx
¼ DM

3
k ¼1
Q
11
b
xx
þ Q
12
b
yy
þ Q
16
b
xy
_ ¸
k
z
k
À z
kÀ1
½ Š
_ _
N
M
xx
¼ DM Q
11
b
xx
þ Q
12
b
yy
þ Q
16
b
xy
_ ¸
1
z
1
À z
0
½ Š
_ _ _
þ Q
11
b
xx
þ Q
12
b
yy
þ Q
16
b
xy
_ ¸
2
z
2
À z
1
½ Š
_ _
þ Q
11
b
xx
þ Q
12
b
yy
þ Q
16
b
xy
_ ¸
3
z
3
À z
2
½ Š
_ __
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
N
M
xx
¼ ðþ0:5Þ ð½ð107:6 Â10
9
Þð1312 Â 10
À6
Þ
_
þð26:06 Â 10
9
Þð3638 Â 10
À6
Þ þ ð48:13 Â 10
9
ÞðÀ4027 Â10
À6
Þ
½ðÀ0:0625 þ 0:1875Þ Â10
À3
ŠÞ þ ð½ð170:9  10
9
Þð150 Â10
À6
ފ
þð3:016 Â 10
9
Þð4800 Â 10
À6
Þ þ ð0Þð0ފ½ð0:0625 þ 0:0625Þ
Â10
À3
ŠÞ þ ð½ð10:05 Â10
9
Þð4800 Â 10
À6
Þ þ ð3:016 Â 10
9
Þ
Âð150 Â10
À6
Þ þ ð0Þð0ފ½ð0:1875 À 0:0625Þ Â10
À3
ŠÞ
_
N
T
xx
¼ 8190 N=M
The remaining thermal stress and moment resultants are calculated in similar
fashion, eventually resulting in:
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
N
T
xy
M
T
xx
M
T
yy
M
T
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
8190 N=m
8460 N=m
À233 N=m
0:05 N À m=m
À0:05 N À m=m
0:03 N À m=m
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
We can now calculate midplane strains and curvatures using Eq. (45), which
becomes:
*
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
3:757 Â 10
À8
À1:964 Â 10
À9
À1:038 Â 10
À8
1:440 Â 10
À4
3:905 Â 10
À6
8:153 Â 10
À5
À1:964 Â 10
À9
1:037 Â 10
À7
À4:234 Â 10
À8
À1:866 Â 10
À5
À6:361 Â 10
À4
4:628 Â 10
4
À1:038 Â 10
À8
À4:234 Â 10
À8
2:004 Â 10
À7
3:661 Â 10
À4
3:251 Â 10
À4
À1:851 Â 10
À5
1:440 Â 10
À4
À1:866 Â 10
À5
3:661 Â 10
À4
7:064 À3:122 Â 10
À2
À4:572
3:905 Â 10
À6
À6:361 Â 10
À4
3:251 Â 10
À4
À3:122 Â 10
À2
6:429 À3:620
8:513 Â 10
À5
4:628 Â 10
4
À1:851 Â 10
À5
À4:572 À3:620 17:41
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Â
À4060 þ 8190
À7360 þ 8460
2860 À 233
À0:62 þ 0:05
0:62 À 0:05
À0:36 þ 0:03
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
*
The [abd] matrix for a [30/0/90]
T
graphite-epoxy laminate was calculated in Sample Problem
3, and the thermal stress and moment resultants were calculated in Sample Problem 5.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
18Am=m
À509Am=m
420Arad
À1:0m
À1
5:0m
À1
À4:4m
À1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply strains may now be
calculated using Eq. (12). For example, strains present at the outer surface of
ply 1 (i.e., strains present at z
0
=À0.0001875 m) are:
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z¼z
0
¼
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þ z
0
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¼
18 Â 10
À6
m=m
À509 Â 10
À6
m=m
420 Â 10
À6
m=m
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
þ À0:0001875m ð Þ
Â
À1:0rad=m
5:0rad=m
À4:4rad=m
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
c
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z¼z
0
¼
206Am=m
À1450Am=m
1240Am=m
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
Strains calculated at the remaining ply interface positions are summa-
rized in Table 9.
Table 9 Ply Interface Strains in a [30/0/90]
T
Graphite-Epoxy Laminate
Caused by the Combined Effects of Cooldown from 175jC to 20jC
and an Increase in Moisture Content of +0.5%
z-coordinate (mm) e
xx
(Am/m) e
yy
(Am/m) c
xy
(Arad)
À0.1875 206 À1450 1240
À0.0625 80 À820 690
0.0625 À44 À190 150
0.1875 À170 440 À400
Strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply stresses may nowbe
calculated using Eq. (30) of Chap. 5. The stresses present at the outer surface
of ply 1 are (i.e., at z=z
0
):
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
Q
11
Q
12
Q
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
26
Q
16
Q
26
Q
66
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 1
z ¼z
0
e
xx
ÀDTa
xx
ÀDMb
xx
e
yy
ÀDTa
yy
ÀDMb
yy
c
xy
ÀDTa
xy
ÀDMb
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z ¼z
0
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
107:6 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
48:13 Â 10
9
26:06 Â 10
9
27:22 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
48:13 Â 10
9
21:52 Â 10
9
36:05 Â 10
9
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
Â
ð206Þ À ðÀ155Þð6:08Þ À ð0:5Þð1312Þ ½ Š  10
À6
ðÀ1450Þ À ðÀ155Þð20:0Þ À ð0:5Þð3638Þ ½ Š  10
À6
ð1240Þ À ðÀ155ÞðÀ24:2Þ À ð0:5ÞðÀ4027Þ ½ Š Â10
À6
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
r
xx
r
yy
s
xy
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ply 1
z ¼z
0
¼
25MPa
À2:4MPa
2:2MPa
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
Stresses calculated at the remaining plies and ply interface positions are
summarized in Table 10.
Acomparison of the results obtained in Example Problems 6 and 7 leads
to the following observation: The initial ply stresses and strains caused by
cooldown fromcure temperatures to roomtemperatures are partially relieved
Table 10 Ply Interface Stresses in a [30/0/90]
T
Graphite-Epoxy Laminate
Caused by the Combined Effects of Cooldown from 175jC to 20jC
and an Increase in Moisture Content of +0.5%
Ply number z-coordinate (mm) r
xx
(MPa) r
yy
(MPa) s
xy
(MPa)
Ply 1 À0.1875 25 À2.2 2.2
À0.0625 1.4 À0.24 À9.9
Ply 2 À0.0625 À20 9.3 9.0
0.0625 À40 15 1.9
Ply 3 0.0625 16 À65 1.9
0.1875 17 43 À5.2
Stressed are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
by the subsequent adsorption of moisture. Although the interaction between
temperature and moisture effects obviously depends on the details of the
situation (material properties involved, stacking sequence, magnitudes of DT
and DM, etc.), this observation is often true. That is, the thermal stresses
predicted to develop in a multiangle laminate during cooldown are usually
predicted to be relieved somewhat by subsequent adsorption of moisture.
7 SIMPLIFICATIONS DUE TO STACKING SEQUENCE
Eqs. (44) and (45) summarize the response of a multiangle composite laminate
due to the combined effects of uniform mechanical loading, uniform changes
in temperature, and/or uniform changes in moisture content. The primary
objective of this section is to show that these equations may be substantially
simplified through proper selection of the laminate stacking sequence. Before
these simplifications are discussed, however, it is illustrative to consider the
simplest case of all-specifically, let us consider Eqs. (44) and (45) when applied
to a plate of total thickness t made from an isotropic material.
Recall that for isotropic materials, all properties are independent of
direction. For present purposes, let:
E
11
¼ E
22
¼ E
m
12
¼ m
21
¼ m
G
12
¼ G
a
11
¼ a
22
¼ a
b
11
¼ b
22
¼ b
Also recall that for isotropic materials, only two of the elastic moduli are
independent. That is:
G ¼
E
2ð1 þ mÞ
If these interrelations between material properties are enforced, then Eq. (44)
reduces to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 0 0 0
A
12
A
11
0 0 0 0
0 0
A
11
À A
12
2
_ _
0 0 0
0 0 0 D
11
D
12
0
0 0 0 D
12
D
11
0
0 0 0 0 0
D
11
À D
12
2
_ _
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
N
T
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
N
M
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(46)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
where:
A
11
¼
Et
1 À m
2
A
12
¼ mA
11
¼
mEt
1 À m
2
D
11
¼ D
22
¼
Et
3
12ð1 À m
2
Þ
D
12
¼ mD
11
¼
mEt
3
12ð1 À m
2
Þ
D
66
¼
ðD
11
À D
12
Þ
2
¼
Et
3
24ð1 þ mÞ
N
T
¼ DT
Eta
ð1 À mÞ
_ _
N
M
¼ DM
Etb
ð1 À mÞ
_ _
The constant D
11
is often called the flexural rigidity of an isotropic plate.
Taking the inverse of Eq. (46), we find:
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
0 0 0 0
a
12
a
11
0 0 0 0
0 0 2 a
11
À a
12
ð Þ 0 0 0
0 0 0 d
11
d
12
0
0 0 0 d
12
d
11
0
0 0 0 0 0 2 d
11
À d
12
ð Þ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
þ N
M
N
yy
þ N
T
þ N
M
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð47Þ
where:
a
11
¼
1
A
11
1 À m
2
ð Þ
¼
1
Et
a
12
¼ Àma
11
Àm
A
11
1 À m
2
ð Þ
¼
Àm
Et
d
11
¼ d
22
¼
1
D
11
1 À m
2
ð Þ
¼
12
Et
3
d
12
¼ Àmd
11
¼
Àm
D
11
1 À m
2
ð Þ
¼
À12m
Et
3
d
66
¼ 2 d
11
À d
12
ð Þ ¼
24 1 þ m ð Þ
Et
3
Comparing Eqs. (44) and (45) with Eqs. (46) and (47), it is apparent that
multiangle composite laminates may exhibit unusual coupling effects, as
compared to the more familiar behavior of isotropic plates. For example,
referring to Eq. (45), it can be seen that application of a normal stress resultant
N
xx
will (in general) induce a midplane shear strain cj
xy
and curvatures j
xx
,
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
j
yy
, and j
xy
, due to the presence of the a
16
, b
11
, b
12
, and b
16
terms, respectively.
Physically, these means that a uniformin-plane uniaxial loading will cause in-
plane shear strains as well as out-of-plane curvatures in a composite plate (i.e.,
the plate will bend). These couplings do not exist for isotropic panels, as
indicated by Eq. (47).
Unusual couplings between thermal resultants and laminate strains and
curvatures also exist, and are immediately apparent in practice. As previously
discussed, most modern composite material systems are cured at elevated
temperatures and are subsequently cooled to room temperatures. Therefore,
thermal stress and moment resultants (N
ij
T
and M
ij
T
, respectively) develop
during cooldown. Equation (45) shows that the thermal stress resultants N
ij
T
and M
ij
T
will cause curvatures j
xx
, j
yy
, and j
xy
to develop upon cooldown.
Physically, this means that (in general) a composite laminate that is flat at the
elevated cure temperature will bend and warp as it is cooled to room
temperature. Coupling effects due to moisture stress and moment resultants,
N
ij
T
and M
ij
T
, are analogous to those associated with thermal stress and
moment resultants. Thus, even if a composite laminate is cured and used at
the same temperature (so that N
ij
T
=M
ij
T
=0), the laminate may still bend or
warp if the surrounding humidity causes the moisture content of the laminate
to change with time.
Because coupling effects greatly complicate the design of composite
structures, it is of interest to determine whether these coupling effects can be
reduced or eliminated. It will be seen that it is indeed possible to reduce or
eliminate many of these coupling effects through proper selection of the
laminate stacking sequence. Common stacking sequences used to eliminate
coupling effects are described in separate sections below.
7.1 Symmetrical Laminates
A symmetrical laminate is one that possesses both geometrical and material
symmetry about the midplane. In a symmetrical laminate, plies located
symmetrically about the laminate midplane are of the same material, have
the same thickness, and have the same fiber angle. Several examples of
symmetrical stacking sequences have been previously shown in Fig. 12. For
a symmetrical n-ply laminate, the material and fiber angle used in ply 1 is
identical to that used in ply n, the material and fiber angle used in ply 2 is
identical to that used ply n-1, etc.
Use of a symmetrical stacking sequence results in three major simpli-
fications to Eqs. (44) and (45). Specifically, for a symmetrical laminate:
All coupling stiffnesses equal zero (B
ij
=0).
All thermal moment resultants equal zero (M
ij
T
=0).
All moisture moment resultants equal zero (M
ij
M
=0).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
To demonstrate that coupling stiffnesses are zero for a symmetrical
laminate, consider the coupling stiffness B
11
. From Eq. (27b), B
11
is given by:
B
11
¼
1
2

n
k¼1
Q
11
_ _
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ _
In expanded form, B
11
is given by:
B
11
¼
1
2
Q
11
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
_
þ
: : :
þ Q
11
_ _
nÀ2
z
2
nÀ2
À z
2
nÀ3
_ ¸
þ Q
11
_ _
nÀ1
z
2
nÀ1
À z
2
nÀ2
_ ¸
ð48Þ
þ Q
11
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
g
Because the laminate is assumed to be symmetrical, it must be that:
Q
11
_ _
1
¼ Q
11
_ _
n
Q
11
_ _
2
¼ Q
11
_ _
nÀ1
ð49aÞ
Q
11
_ _
3
¼ Q
11
_ _
nÀ2
Á
Á
Á
etc:
Also, due to symmetry, the ply interface positions are located symmetrically
about the midplane, and hence (recalling that z
0
<0 and z
n
>0):
z
0
¼ Àz
n
z
1
¼ Àz
nÀ1
z
2
¼ Àz
nÀ2
ð49bÞ
Á
Á
Á
etc:
Together, the relations listed as Eqs. (49a) and (49b) imply that for any
symmetrical laminate:
Q
11
_ _
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
¼ À Q
11
_ _
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
Q
11
_ _
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
¼ À Q
11
_ _
nÀ1
z
2
nÀ1
À z
2
nÀ2
_ ¸
ð50Þ
Q
11
_ _
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
¼ À Q
11
_ _
nÀ2
z
2
nÀ2
À z
2
nÀ3
_ ¸
Á
Á
Á
etc:
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Substituting Eq. (50) into Eq. (48), it is seen that B
11
=0. Similar results may
be demonstrated for all other coupling stiffnesses, and hence B
ij
= 0 for any
symmetrical laminate, as stated.
To demonstrate that thermal moment resultants are zero for a symmet-
rical laminate, consider the thermal moment resultant M
T
xx
. From Eq. (42d),
M
T
xx
is given by:
M
T
xx
¼
DT
2

n
k ¼1
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
k
z
2
k
À z
2
kÀ1
_ ¸ _ _
In expanded form, M
T
xx
is given by:
M
T
xx
¼
DT
2
_
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
þ Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
þ Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
þ. . . . . . ð51Þ
þ Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
nÀ2
z
2
nÀ2
À z
2
nÀ3
_ ¸
þ Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
nÀ1
z
2
nÀ1
À z
2
nÀ2
_ ¸
þ Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
_
Because the laminate is assumed to be symmetrical, it must be that:
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
1
z
2
1
À z
2
0
_ ¸
¼ À Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
n
z
2
n
À z
2
nÀ1
_ ¸
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
2
z
2
2
À z
2
1
_ ¸
¼ À Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
nÀ1
z
2
nÀ1
À z
2
nÀ2
_ ¸
Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
3
z
2
3
À z
2
2
_ ¸
¼ À Q
11
a
xx
þ Q
12
a
yy
þ Q
16
a
xy
_ ¸
nÀ2
z
2
nÀ2
À z
2
nÀ3
_ ¸
Substituting Eq. (52) into Eq. (51), it is seen that M
xx
T
=0 for a symmetrical
laminate. Similar results may be demonstrated for M
yy
T
and M
xy
T
, and
hence all thermal moment resultants equal zero for any symmetrical lami-
nate, as stated. Therefore, a symmetrical laminate will not bend or warp
when subjected to a uniform change in temperature. In particular, a sym-
metrical laminate will not warp or bend during cooldown from the cure
temperature.
(52)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
An identical procedure may be used to prove that all moisture moment
resultants are zero for a symmetrical laminate.
In summary then, for symmetrical laminates, Eqs. (44) and (45) reduce
to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
A
16
0 0 0
A
12
A
22
A
26
0 0 0
A
16
A
26
A
66
0 0 0
0 0 0 D
11
D
12
D
16
0 0 0 D
12
D
22
D
26
0 0 0 D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
N
T
xy
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
N
M
xy
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
a
16
0 0 0
a
12
a
22
a
26
0 0 0
a
16
a
26
a
66
0 0 0
0 0 0 d
11
d
12
d
16
0 0 0 d
12
d
22
d
26
0 0 0 d
16
d
26
d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
þ N
T
xy
þ N
M
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð53bÞ
Due to these dramatical simplifications, symmetrical laminates are
almost always used in practice. In those rare circumstances in which the use
of a nonsymmetrical laminate is required for some reason, it is best to place
the nonsymmetrical ply (or plies) at or near the laminate midplane, which
will minimize the coupling stiffnesses and thermal and moisture moment
resultants.
It is noted in passing that unidirectional composite laminates [h]
n
are
symmetrical and hence B
ij
=M
ij
T
=M
ij
M
=0 for unidirectional laminates. In
addition, for the case of [0j]
n
or [90j]
n
laminates, A
16
=A
26
=D
16
=D
26
=N
T
xy
=N
M
xy
¼ 0.
7.2 Cross-Ply Laminates
Composite laminates that contain plies with fiber angles of 0j or 90j only are
called ‘‘cross-ply’’ laminates. Inspection of Eq. (31) of Chap. 5 reveals that for
any 0j or 90j ply, Q
16
=Q
26
¼ 0. From(Eq. (27a) (27b) and (34) it is seen that
A
16
, A
26
, B
16
, B
26
, D
16
, and D
26
all involve a summation of terms involving Q
16
and Q
26
, and hence all of these terms also equal zero for cross-ply laminates.
Furthermore, fromEq. (25) of Chap. 5, it is seen that a
xy
=0 for any 0j or 90j
ply, and fromEq. (38) of Chap. 5 that b
xy
=0 for any 0j or 90j ply. FromEqs.
(42c), (42d), (42e), and (42f), it is seen that N
T
xy
¼ M
T
xy
¼ N
M
xy
¼ M
M
xy
¼ 0 for
(53a)
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
cross-ply laminates (because Q
16
¼ Q
26
¼ a
xy
¼ b
xy
¼ 0Þ . For cross-ply
laminates then, Eqs. (44) and (45) reduce to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 B
11
B
12
0
A
12
A
22
0 B
12
B
22
0
0 0 A
66
0 0 B
66
B
11
B
12
0 D
11
D
12
0
B
12
B
22
0 D
12
D
22
0
0 0 B
66
0 0 D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
0
M
T
xx
M
T
yy
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
0
M
M
xx
M
M
yy
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð54aÞ
and
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
0 b
11
b
12
0
a
12
a
22
0 b
21
b
22
0
0 0 a
66
0 0 b
66
b
11
b
21
0 d
11
d
12
0
b
12
b
22
0 d
12
d
22
0
0 0 b
66
0 0 d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
M
xx
þ M
T
xx
þ M
M
xx
M
yy
þ M
T
yy
þ M
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð54bÞ
If a cross-ply laminate is also symmetrical, then all remaining coupling
stiffnesses equal zero, as well as all remaining thermal and moisture moment
resultants. Hence, for symmetrical cross-ply laminates, Eqs. (54a) and (54b)
are further simplified to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 0 0 0
A
12
A
22
0 0 0 0
0 0 A
66
0 0 0
0 0 0 D
11
D
12
0
0 0 0 D
12
D
22
0
0 0 0 0 0 D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð55aÞ
(and)
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
0 0 0 0
a
12
a
22
0 0 0 0
0 0 a
66
0 0 0
0 0 0 d
11
d
12
0
0 0 0 d
12
d
22
0
0 0 0 0 0 d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð55bÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Note from Eqs. (55a) and (55b) that symmetrical cross-ply laminates do not
exhibit any coupling stiffnesses. That is:
A
16
¼ A
26
¼ D
16
¼ D
26
¼ B
ij
¼ 0
or, equivalently,
a
16
¼ a
26
¼ d
16
¼ d
26
¼ b
ij
¼ 0
Laminates that do not possess these coupling stiffnesses are called specially
orthotropic laminates. The fact that symmetrical cross-ply laminates are
specially orthotropic will become an important factor in Chaps. 9 and 10,
where the mechanical response of such laminates subjected to varying loads
will be considered.
7.3 Balanced Laminates
A laminate is ‘‘balanced’’ if, for every ply with fiber angle h, there exists a
second ply whose fiber angle is Àh. The two plies must be otherwise identical,
(i.e. they must be composed of the same material and have the same thickness).
Inspection of Eq. (31) of Chap. 5 reveals that the Q
16
and Q
26
terms for these
balanced plies will always be of equal magnitude but opposite algebraic sign
(i.e., Q
16
j
h
¼ ÀQ
16
j
Àh
and Q
26
j
h
¼ ÀQ
26
j
Àh
Þ. Consequently, from Eq. (27a),
A
16
=A
26
=0 for a balanced laminate. Further, from Eqs. (25) and (28) of
Chap. 5, it is seen that a
xy
and b
xy
for the two balanced plies will always be of
equal magnitude but opposite algebraic sign (i.e., a
xy
j
h
¼ Àa
xy
j
Àh
and b
xy
j
h
¼ Àb
xy
j
Àh
Þ . Consequently, from Eqs. (42c) and (43), N
T
xy
=N
M
xy
=0 for a
balanced laminate. Equations (44) and (45) are therefore simplified to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 B
11
B
12
B
16
A
12
A
22
0 B
12
B
22
B
26
0 0 A
66
B
16
B
26
B
66
B
11
B
12
B
16
D
11
D
12
D
16
B
12
B
22
B
26
D
12
D
22
D
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
0
M
T
xx
M
T
yy
M
T
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
0
M
M
xx
M
M
yy
M
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð56aÞ
and
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
0 b
11
b
12
b
16
a
12
a
22
0 b
21
b
22
b
26
0 0 a
66
b
61
b
62
b
66
b
11
b
12
b
61
d
11
d
12
d
16
b
12
b
22
b
62
d
12
d
22
d
26
b
16
b
26
b
66
d
16
d
26
d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
M
xx
þ M
T
xx
þ M
M
xx
M
yy
þ M
T
yy
þ M
M
yy
M
xy
þ M
T
xy
þ M
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð56bÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
If a balanced laminate is also symmetrical, then Eqs. (56a) and (56b) are
simplified to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 0 0 0
A
12
A
22
0 0 0 0
0 0 A
66
0 0 0
0 0 0 D
11
D
12
D
16
0 0 0 D
12
D
22
D
26
0 0 0 D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð57aÞ
and
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
0 0 0 0
a
12
a
22
0 0 0 0
0 0 a
66
0 0 0
0 0 0 d
11
d
12
d
16
0 0 0 d
12
d
22
d
26
0 0 0 d
16
d
26
d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð57bÞ
7.4 Balanced Angle-Ply Laminates
The definition of a ‘‘balanced’’ laminate was given in Sec. 7.4. A balanced
angle-ply laminate is really just a special class of balanced laminates; it is
discussed in a separate subsection because of an additional simplification that
occurs.
All plies in an angle-ply laminate have a fiber angle of the same
magnitude. That is, all plies within an angle-ply laminate have a fiber angle
of either+h or Àh, where the value h is the same for all plies. In general, for an
angle-ply laminate, the number of plies with fiber angle+h may differ from
the number of plies with fiber angle Àh. However, a balanced angle-ply
laminate must have an equal number of plies with fiber angle+h and Àh, so as
to satisfy the preceding definition of a balanced laminate. Carefully note the
distinction between a balanced laminate and balanced angle-ply laminate. A
balanced laminate may involve more than one ‘‘distinct’’ fiber angle. For
example, a [35/65/-35/-65]
T
laminate is balanced (although not symmetrical),
and A
16
=A
26
=0 for this laminate. In contrast, a balanced angle-ply laminate
may involve only one ‘‘distinct’’ angle. A stacking sequence of either [35/-35/
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
35/-35]
T
or [65/65/-65/-65]
T
result in balanced angle-ply laminates, for
example.
The following simplifications occur for a balanced angle-ply laminate:
B
11
¼ B
22
¼ B
66
¼ M
T
xx
¼ M
T
yy
¼ M
T
xx
¼ M
T
yy
¼ 0
In addition, the simplifications that exist for any balanced laminate
(A
16
=A
26
=N
xy
T
=N
xy
M
=0) also occur for a balanced angle-ply laminate.
Equations (44) and (45) are therefore simplified to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 0 0 B
16
A
12
A
22
0 0 0 B
26
0 0 A
66
B
16
B
26
0
0 0 B
16
D
11
D
12
D
16
0 0 B
26
D
12
D
22
D
26
B
16
B
26
0 D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
0
0
0
M
T
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
0
0
0
M
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð58aÞ
and
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
0 0 0 b
16
a
12
a
22
0 0 0 b
26
0 0 a
66
b
16
b
62
b
66
0 0 b
61
d
11
d
12
d
16
0 0 b
62
d
12
d
22
d
26
b
16
b
26
0 d
16
d
26
d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
þ M
T
xy
þ M
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð58bÞ
If a balanced angle-ply laminate is also symmetrical, then Eqs. (58a) and (58b)
are simplified still further to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 0 0 0
A
12
A
22
0 0 0 0
0 0 A
66
0 0 0
0 0 0 D
11
D
12
D
16
0 0 0 D
12
D
22
D
26
0 0 0 D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð59aÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
and
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
0 0 0 0
a
12
a
22
0 0 0 0
0 0 a
66
0 0 0
0 0 0 d
11
d
12
d
16
0 0 0 d
12
d
22
d
26
0 0 0 d
16
d
26
d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð59bÞ
7.5 Quasi-Isotropic Laminates
A quasi-isotropic laminate is one that satisfies the following conditions:

Three or more distinct fiber angles must be present within a laminate.
The number of distinct fiber angles will be denoted m, and hence if a
laminate is quasi-isotropic, then m z 3.

The m distinct fiber angles must appear at equal increments of (180/
m) degrees.

An equal number of plies must be present at each of the m distinct
fiber angles.
It can be shown (see Ref. 2) that if the three conditions are met, then
members of the A
ij
matrix for the laminate are related as follows:
A
11
¼ A
22
A
66
¼
1
2
ðA
11
À A
12
Þ A
16
¼ A
26
¼ 0
Now, these same relations between extensional stiffness also hold for an
isotropic plate (see Eq. (46)). Hence, laminates that satisfy the above
conditions are called quasi-isotropic laminates. Also, for a quasi-isotropic
laminate, N
T
xy
¼ M
T
xy
¼ N
M
xy
¼ M
M
xy
¼ 0 . In this case, Eqs. (44) and (45)
reduce to:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 B
11
B
12
B
16
A
12
A
22
0 B
12
B
22
B
26
0 0
A
11
À A
12
2
_ _
B
16
B
26
B
66
B
11
B
12
B
16
D
11
D
12
D
16
B
12
B
22
B
26
D
12
D
22
D
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
0
M
T
xx
M
T
yy
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
0
M
M
xx
M
M
yy
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð60aÞ
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
a
11
a
12
0 b
11
b
12
b
16
a
12
a
22
0 b
21
b
22
b
26
0 0 2 a
11
À a
12
ð Þ b
61
b
62
b
66
b
11
b
21
b
61
d
11
d
12
d
16
b
12
b
22
b
62
d
12
d
22
d
26
b
16
b
26
b
66
d
16
d
26
d
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
N
xx
þ N
T
xx
þ N
M
xx
N
yy
þ N
T
yy
þ N
M
yy
N
xy
M
xx
þ M
T
xx
þ M
M
xx
M
yy
þ M
T
yy
þ M
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð60bÞ
The simplest possible quasi-isotropic laminate contains three plies, oriented
at equal increments of (180j/3)=60j. For example, [0/60/À60]
T
or [60/0/
À60]
T
laminates are quasi-isotropic. Probably the most common quasi-
isotropic laminate involves four distinct fiber angles (m=4). These laminates
must have ply angles oriented at increments of (180j/4)=45j. Typical
stacking sequences in this case are [0/45/90/À45]
T
or [45/0/À45/90]
T
. Al-
though the extensional stiffnesses for these laminates are ‘‘quasi-isotropic’’,
they still exhibit coupling stiffnesses (i.e., B
ij
p 0); furthermore, the bending
stiffnesses are not isotropic (e.g., D
11
p D
22
).
If a quasi-isotropic laminate is also symmetrical (e.g., [0/45/90/À45]
s
),
then the coupling stiffnesses B
ij
=0, and all remaining thermal moment
resultants and moisture moment resultants equal zero. Hence, Eqs. (60a)
and (60b) are simplified still further:
N
xx
N
yy
N
xy
M
xx
M
yy
M
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
A
11
A
12
0 0 0 0
A
12
A
11
0 0 0 0
0 0
A
11
À A
12
2
_ _
0 0 0
0 0 0 D
11
D
12
D
16
0 0 0 D
12
D
22
D
26
0 0 0 D
16
D
26
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
o
xx
e
o
yy
c
o
xy
j
xx
j
yy
j
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
T
xx
N
T
yy
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
À
N
M
xx
N
M
yy
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð61aÞ
e
o
xx