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To my wife, Lisa,

my daughters, Stephanie and Jennifer,

my son, Daniel, my parents, James and Rita,

and my brothers and sisters, Mathew, Ann, David, and Claire.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Preface

This textbook is intended for use in a senior-year undergraduate or ﬁrst-year

graduate course devoted to structural analyses of laminated polymer-matrix

composite materials and structures. Discussion is framed almost entirely at

the macromechanical (structural) level. Micromechanical issues and analyses

are discussed brieﬂy but are not covered in detail. This allows an expanded

coverage of the structural response of composite beams and plates, as com-

pared to other introductory texts on composite materials. The text contains

ample material for a semester-based (15-week) course. I have used a similar

manuscript for several years to support two sequential quarter-based (10-

week) courses, supplementing this material with one or two laboratory

sessions. Since laboratory exercises depend heavily on the equipment and

materials available to the instructor, these lab sessions are not described in

this book.

It is assumed that the reader has already completed a sophomore- or

junior-level course devoted to the mechanics of isotropic solids. I have made

every eﬀort to extend the concepts of this earlier coursework in a natural and

easily understandable way to the study of anisotropic composites.

Chapter 1 begins with a broad overview of the various types of

commercially available metal, ceramic, and polymer-based composite mate-

rials. This chapter also includes an overview of polymer and ﬁbrous materials

and the manufacturing processes used to produce polymer composites and

v

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

structures. Chapter 2 is devoted to a review of force, stress, and strain tensors

and how these tensors may be transformed from one coordinate system to

another. Although these topics are normally covered in a course on the me-

chanics of isotropic solids, it has been my experience that a review of these

fundamental concepts is almost always required before they can be correctly

applied to the study of anisotropic composites.

Various material properties required to predict the structural perform-

ance of anisotropic composites are introduced in Chapter 3, and the three-

dimensional, anisotropic form of Hooke’s law is developed in Chapter 4. The

three-dimensional form of Hooke’s law is then reduced to the plane stress

(two-dimensional) form in Chapter 5 and applied to unidirectional laminated

composites. Rudimentary elements of plate theory are developed in Chapter 6

and combined with Hooke’s law, resulting in the analysis methodology

commonly known as classical lamination theory (CLT).

Chapter 7 describes composite failure modes and mechanisms, includ-

ing a qualitative description of composite fatigue behaviors and free-edge

eﬀects. The chapter also presents methods of combining macroscopic failure

criteria with CLT to predict ﬁrst-ply and last-ply failure loads. Chapter 8 is

devoted to statically determinate and indeterminate composite beams. The

chapter begins with the observation that CLT reduces to fundamental beam

theory (as studied during an earlier course on the mechanics of isotropic

solids) when isotropic properties and appropriate dimensions are assumed.

CLT is then used to predict the eﬀective axial and bending rigidities of

composite beams with various cross sections (rectangular, I-, T-, hat-, and

box-beams).

Chapters 9 through 11 address composite plates. Discussion is limited

to symmetric rectangular composite plates, since this topic is extensive and

a complete discussion of nonrectangular and/or nonsymmetric composite

plates or shells deserves a separate text in itself. The equations that govern the

behavior of symmetric and rectangular composite plates are developed in

Chapter 9. Chapter 10 presents several closed-form solutions for specially

orthotropic composite plates. Chapter 11 presents approximate numerical

solutions for generally orthotropic plates (e.g., quasi-isotropic plates); this

includes solutions for the deﬂections of transversely loaded plates as well as

mechanical and/or thermal buckling due to in-plane loads. Three appendixes

that include material referenced in the main body of the book complete the

text, with the second brieﬂy describing experimental methods used to measure

in-plane composite properties.

While many of these topics are covered in other introductory compo-

sites textbooks, I have included here certain pedagogical features that have, in

my experience, facilitated and enhanced an understanding of the concepts.

For example, the crucially important eﬀects of environment—in particular,

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

the eﬀects due to changes in temperature and/or moisture content—are

integrated throughout Chapters 3 through 11, rather than being conﬁned to

later chapters, as is often the case in composite textbooks. With the exception

of Chapters 1 and 9, each chapter includes numerical example problems that

illustrate the concepts presented. A solutions manual for all homework

problems posed in the text is available for educators using the text in their

courses. I have also created a suite of computer programs that implement the

analyses discussed. These executable programs may be downloaded free of

charge from the following website:

http : ==depts:washington:edu=amtas=computer:html

These programs are meant to enhance the text and are referenced at ap-

propriate points throughout the book. Of course, composite computer pro-

grams are now widely available, both commercially and otherwise, so the

reader may opt to use resources other than those downloaded from the web-

site provided.

Preparation of this book has been a demanding and lengthy endeavor. I

sincerely hope that it will be a worthy addition to the composites literature.

Mark E. Tuttle

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Acknowledgments

I have been fortunate to have worked with talented and inspirational

colleagues throughout my academic and professional career. I would espe-

cially like to acknowledge the lifelong inﬂuence of my two major academic

advisors, Professor Emeritus Halbert F. Brinson of the University of Houston

(formerly of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and Profes-

sor John B. Ligon of Michigan Technological University.

There are many others whom I would like to mention by name, but

space does not allow it. To my friends and colleagues at Battelle Columbus

Laboratories, Michigan Tech, Virginia Tech, the University of Washington,

NASA–Langley Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the Society for

Experimental Mechanics: thank you.

Particular thanks are extended to Mr. Rob Albers of the Boeing

Company, who read and gave helpful critiques of initial versions of Chapters

9 through 11. I would also like to thank the staﬀ at Marcel Dekker, Inc.—in

particular Michael Deters, Production Editor, and John Corrigan, Acquis-

itions Editor—for their very professional and competent help throughout

preparation of the ﬁnal manuscript. Finally, to the many undergraduate and

graduate students who have taken my composites courses or worked with me

during the pursuit of their degrees and who consequently struggled through

and ‘‘edited’’ manuscript versions of this textbook: thank you for your help

and patience.

Mark E. Tuttle

ix

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

1. Introduction

1. Basic Deﬁnitions

2. Polymeric Materials

3. Fibrous Materials

4. Commercially Available Forms

5. Manufacturing Processes

6. The Scope of This Book

References

2. Review of Force, Stress, and Strain Tensors

1. The Force Vector

2. Transformation of a Force Vector

3. Normal Forces, Shear Forces, and Free-Body

Diagrams

4. Deﬁnition of Stress

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5. The Stress Tensor

6. Transformation of the Stress Tensor

7. Principal Stresses

8. Plane Stress

9. Deﬁnition of Strain

10. The Strain Tensor

11. Transformation of the Strain Tensor

12. Principal Strains

13. Strains Within a Plane Perpendicular to a Principal

Strain Direction

14. Relating Strains to Displacement Fields

15. Computer Programs 3DROTATE and

2DROTATE

Homework Problems

References

3. Material Properties

1. Anisotropic vs. Isotropic Materials

2. Material Properties That Relate Stress to Strain

3. Material Properties Relating Temperature to

Strain

4. Material Properties Relating Moisture Content to

Strain

5. Material Properties Relating Stress (or Strain) to

Failure

6. Predicting Elastic Composite Properties Based on

Constituents: The Rule of Mixtures

Homework Problems

References

4. Elastic Response of Anisotropic Materials

1. Strains Induced by Stress: Anisotropic Materials

2. Strains Induced by Stress: Orthotropic and

Transversely Isotropic Materials

3. Strains Induced by a Change in Temperature or

Moisture Content

4. Strains Induced by Combined Eﬀects of Stress,

Temperature, and Moisture

Homework Problems

References

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5. Unidirectional Composite Laminates Subject to Plane Stress

1. Unidirectional Composites Referenced to the

Principal Material Coordinate System

2. Unidirectional Composites Referenced to an

Arbitrary Coordinate System

3. Calculating Transformed Properties Using Material

Invariants

4. Eﬀective Elastic Properties of a Unidirectional

Composite Laminate

5. Failure of Unidirectional Composites Referenced

to the Principal Material Coordinate System

6. Failure of Unidirectional Composites Referenced

to an Arbitrary Coordinate System

7. Computer Programs UNIDIR and UNIFAIL

Homework Problems

References

6. Thermomechanical Behavior of Multiangle Composite

Laminates

1. Deﬁnition of a ‘‘Thin Plate’’ and Allowable Plate

Loadings

2. Plate Deformations: The Kirchhoﬀ Hypothesis

3. Principal Curvatures

4. Standard Methods of Describing Composite

Laminates

5. Calculating Ply Strains and Stresses

6. Classical Lamination Theory (CLT)

7. Simpliﬁcations Due to Stacking Sequence

8. Summary of CLT Calculations

9. Eﬀective Properties of a Composite Laminate

10. Transformation of the ABD Matrix

11. Computer Program CLT

Homework Problems

References

7. Predicting Failure of a Multiangle Composite Laminate

1. Preliminary Discussion

2. Free-Edge Stresses

3. Predicting Laminate Failure Using CLT

4. Laminate First-Ply Failure Envelopes

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5. Computer Program LAMFAIL

Homework Problems

References

8. Composite Beams

1. Preliminary Discussion

2. Comparing Classical Lamination Theory to

Isotropic Beam Theory

3. Types of Composite Beams Considered

4. Eﬀective Axial Rigidity of Rectangular Composite

Beams

5. Eﬀective Flexural Rigidities of Rectangular

Composite Beams

6. Eﬀective Axial and Flexural Rigidities for

Thin-Walled Composite Beams

7. Statically Determinate and Indeterminate

Axially Loaded Composite Beams

8. Statically Determinate and Indeterminate

Transversely Loaded Composite Beams

9. Computer Program BEAM

Homework Problems

References

9. The Governing Equations of Thin-Plate Theory

1. Preliminary Discussion

2. The Equations of Equilibrium for Symmetric

Laminates

3. Boundary Conditions

4. Representing Arbitrary Transverse Loads as a

Fourier Series

References

10. Some Exact Solutions for Specially Orthotropic Laminates

1. Equations of Equilibrium for a Specially Orthotropic

Laminate

2. In-Plane Displacement Fields in Specially

Orthotropic Laminates

3. Specially Orthotropic Laminates Subject to Simple

Supports of Type S1

4. Specially Orthotropic Laminates Subject to Simple

Supports of Type S4

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5. Specially Orthotropic Laminates With Two Simply

Supported Edges of Type S1 and Two Edges of

Type S2

6. The Navier Solution Applied to a Specially

Orthotropic Laminate Subject to Simple Supports

of Type S4

7. Buckling of Rectangular Specially Orthotropic

Laminates Subject to Simple Supports of

Type S4

8. Thermal Buckling of Rectangular Specially

Orthotropic Laminates Subject to Simple Supports

of Type S1

9. Computer Program SPORTHO

References

11. Some Approximate Solutions for Symmetric Laminates

1. Preliminary Discussion

2. In-Plane Displacement Fields

3. Potential Energy in a Thin Composite Plate

4. Symmetric Composite Laminates Subject to Simple

Supports of Type S4

5. Buckling of Symmetric Composite Plates Subject to

Simple Supports of Type S4

6. Computer Program SYMM

References

Appendixes

A. Finding the Cube-Root of a Complex Number

B. Experimental Methods Used to Measure In-Plane Properties

E

11

, E

22

, r

12

, and G

12

C. Tables of Beam Deﬂections and Slopes

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1

Introduction

A broad overview of modern composite materials is provided in this chapter.

The chapter begins with a deﬁnition of what is meant by the phrase ‘‘com-

posite material.’’ Separate sections devoted to polymeric materials, ﬁbrous

materials, commercially available forms, and manufacturing techniques are

included. The chapter concludes with a section indicating the scope of the

remaining chapters.

1 BASIC DEFINITIONS

This textbook is devoted to a special class of structural materials often called

‘‘advanced’’ composites. Just what is a ‘‘composite material’’? A casual deﬁ-

nition might be: ‘‘A composite material is one in which two (or more) mate-

rials are bonded together to form a third material.’’ Although not incorrect,

upon further reﬂection, it becomes clear that this deﬁnition is far too broad

because it implies that essentially all materials can be considered as ‘‘compo-

sites.’’ For example, the (nominal) composition of the 2024 aluminum alloy is

93.5% Al, 4.4% Cu, 0.6% Mn, and 1.5% Mg [1]. Hence, according to the

broad deﬁnition stated above, this common aluminum alloy could be consid-

ered as a ‘‘composite’’ because it consists of four materials (aluminum, cop-

per, manganese, and magnesium) bonded together at the atomic level to form

the 2024 alloy. In a similar sense, virtually all metal alloys, polymers, and

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

ceramics satisfy this broad deﬁnition of a ‘‘composite’’ because all of these

materials contain more than one type of elemental atom.

An important characteristic that is missing in the initial broad deﬁnition

is a consideration of physical scale. Another deﬁnition of a ‘‘composite mate-

rial,’’ which includes a reference to a physical scale appropriate for present

purposes, is as follows:

Acomposite material is a material systemconsisting of two (or more)

materials, which are distinct at a physical scale greater than about

1Â10

À6

m(1 Am) and which are bonded together at the atomic and/or

molecular levels.

As a point of reference, the diameter of human hair ranges from about

30 to 60 Am. Objects of this size are easily seen with the aid of an optical

microscope. Hence, when composite materials are viewed under an optical

microscope, the distinct constituent materials (or distinct material phases)

that form the composite are easily distinguished. Structural composites

typically consist of a high-strength, high-stiﬀness reinforcing material, embed-

ded within a relatively low-strength, low-stiﬀness matrix material. Ideally, the

reinforcing and matrix materials interact to produce a composite whose

properties are superior to either of the two constituent materials alone.

Many naturally occurring materials can be viewed as composites. A

good example is wood and laminated wood products. Wood is a natural

composite, with a readily apparent grain structure. Wood exhibits a higher

stiﬀness and strength parallel to the grains than transverse to the grains.

In laminated wood products (which range from the large laminated beams

used in a church cathedral to a common sheet of plywood), relatively thin

layers of wood are adhesively bonded together. In plywood, the layers are

arranged such that the grain direction varies from one layer to the next.

Therefore, this laminated wood product has a high stiﬀness/strength in more

than one direction.

Although composites have been used in a variety of structural applica-

tions for centuries, modern (or ‘‘advanced’’) composites are a relatively recent

development, having been in existence for about 60 years. Modern composites

may be classiﬁed according to the size or shape of the reinforcing material

used. Four common classiﬁcations of reinforcements are:

**Particulates, which are roughly spherical particles with diameters
**

typically ranging from about 1 to 100 Am

Whiskers, with lengths less than about 10 mm

**Short (or ‘‘chopped’’) ﬁbers, with a length ranging from about 10 to
**

200 mm

**Continuous ﬁbers, whose length are, in eﬀect, inﬁnite.
**

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Whiskers, short ﬁbers, and continuous ﬁbers all have very small diam-

eters relative to their length; the diameter of these products ranges fromabout

5 to 200 Am.

Distinctly diﬀerent types of composites can be produced using any of

the above reinforcements. For example, three types of composites based on

continuous ﬁbers are shown in Fig. 1: unidirectional composites, woven

composites, and braided composites. In a unidirectional composite, all ﬁbers

are aligned in the same direction and embedded within a matrix material.

In contrast, woven composites are formed by ﬁrst weaving continuous ﬁbers

into a fabric and then embedding the fabric in a matrix. Hence, a single layer

of a woven composite contains ﬁbers in two orthogonal directions. In con-

trast, a single layer in a braided composite typically contains two or three

Figure 1 Different types of composites based on continuous fibers.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

nonorthogonal ﬁber directions. Braided composites are then formed by

embedding the fabric in a matrix (additional discussion of these types of

composites is provided in Sec. 4).

As implied in Fig. 1, composite products based on continuous ﬁbers are

usually produced in the form of thin layers. A single layer of these products is

called a lamina or ply. The thickness of a single ply formed using unidirec-

tional ﬁbers ranges from about 0.12 to 0.20 mm, whereas the thickness of a

single ply of a woven or braided fabric ranges from about 0.25 to 0.40 mm.

Obviously, a single composite ply is quite thin. To produce a composite

structure with signiﬁcant thickness, many plies are stacked together to form a

composite laminate. Conceptually any number of plies may be used in the

laminate, but in practice, the number of plies usually ranges from about 10

plies to (in unusual cases) perhaps as many as 200 plies. The ﬁber represents

the reinforcing material in these composites. Hence, the orientation of the

ﬁbers is, in general, varied from one ply to the next, so as to provide high

stiﬀness and strength in more than one direction (as is the case in plywood). It

is also possible to use unidirectional, woven, and/or braided plies within the

same laminate. For example, it is common to use a woven or braided fabric as

the two outermost facesheets of a laminate, and to use unidirectional plies at

interior positions.

In all composites, the reinforcement is embedded within a matrix mate-

rial. The matrix may be polymeric, metallic, or ceramic. In fact, composite

materials are often classiﬁed on the basis of the matrix material used, rather

than the reinforcing material. That is, modern composites can be catego-

rized into three main types: polymer–matrix, metal–matrix, or ceramic–

matrix composite materials. Usually, the reinforcing material governs the

stiﬀness and strength of a composite. On the other hand, the matrix material

usually governs thermal stability. Polymeric–matrix composites are used in

applications involving relatively modest temperatures (service temperatures

of, say, 200jC or less). Metal–matrix composites are used at temperatures up

to about 700jC, while ceramic–matrix composites are used at ultra-high

temperatures (up to about 1200jC or greater). The matrix also deﬁnes several

additional characteristics of the composite material system. Some additional

roles of the matrix are:

To provide the physical form of the composite

To bind the ﬁbers together

**To protect the ﬁbers from aggressive (chemical) environments or
**

mechanical damage (e.g., due to abrasion, for example)

**To transfer and redistribute stresses between ﬁbers, between plies,
**

and in areas of discontinuities in load or geometry.

To summarize the preceding discussion, there are many types of

composite materials, both natural and man-made. Composites can be clas-

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

siﬁed according to the physical form of the reinforcing material (particu-

late, whisker, short ﬁber, or continuous ﬁber reinforcement), by the type of

matrix material used (metal, ceramic, or polymeric matrix), by the orienta-

tion of the reinforcement (unidirectional, woven, or braided), or by some

combination thereof. The temperature the composite material/structure will

experience in service often dictates the type of composite used in a given

application.

The primary focus of this textbook is the structural analysis of polymeric

composite materials and structures. Metal–matrix and ceramic–matrix com-

posites will not be further discussed, although many of the analysis methods

developed herein may be applied to these types of composites as well. Because

our focus is the structural analysis of polymeric composites, we will not be

greatly considered with the behavior of the individual constituent materials.

That is, we will not be greatly concerned with the behavior of an unreinforced

polymer, nor with the behavior of an individual reinforcing ﬁber. Instead, we

will be concerned with the behavior of the composite formed by combining

these two constituents. Nevertheless, a structural engineer who wishes to use

polymeric composites eﬀectively in practice must understand at least the

rudiments of polymer and ﬁber science, in much the same way as an engineer

working with metal alloys must understand at least the rudiments of metal-

lurgy. Toward that end, a brief introduction to polymeric and ﬁbrous mate-

rials is provided in Secs. 2 and 3, respectively. At the minimum, the reader

should become acquainted with the terminology used to describe polymeric

and ﬁbrous materials because such terms have naturally been carried over to

the polymeric composites technical community.

2 POLYMERIC MATERIALS

A brief introduction to polymeric materials is provided in this section. This

introduction is necessarily incomplete. The reader interested in a more de-

tailed discussion is referred to the many available texts and/or web-based

resources devoted to modern polymers (e.g., see Refs. 1–4).

2.1 Basic Concepts

The term ‘‘polymer’’ comes from the Greek words poly (meaning ‘‘many’’)

and mers (meaning ‘‘units’’). Quite literally, a polymer consists of ‘‘many

units.’’ Polymer molecules are made up of thousands of repeating chemical

units and have molecular weights ranging from about 10

3

to 10

7

.

As an illustrative example, consider the single chemical mer shown in

Fig. 2. This mer is called ethylene (or ethene), and consists of two carbon

atoms and four hydrogen atoms. The two lines between the carbon (C) atoms

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

indicate a double covalent bond,* whereas the single line between the hydro-

gen (H) and carbon atoms represents a single covalent bond. The chemical

composition of the ethylene mer is sometimes written as C

2

H

4

or CH

2

jCH

2

.

Under proper conditions, the double covalent bond between the two

carbon atoms can be converted to a single covalent bond, which allows each

of the two carbon atoms to form a new covalent bond with a suitable neigh-

boring atom. A suitable neighboring atom would be a carbon atom in a

neighboring ethylene mer, for example. If ‘‘n’’ ethylene mers join together

in this way, the chemical composition of the resulting molecule can be

represented C

2n

H

4n

, where n is any positive integer. Hence, a ‘‘chain’’ of

ethylene mers joins together to form the well-known polymer, polyethylene

(literally, ‘‘many ethylenes’’), as shown in Fig. 3. The process of causing

a monomer to chemically react and form a long molecule in this fashion is

called polymerization.

The single ethylene unit is an example of a monomer (‘‘one mer’’). At

room temperature, a bulk sample of the ethylene monomer is a low-viscosity

ﬂuid. If two ethylene monomers bond together, the resulting chemical entity

has two repeating units and is called a dimer. Similarly, the chemical entity

formed by three repeating units is called a trimer. The molecular weight of a

dimer is twice that of the monomer, the molecular weight of a trimer is three

times that of the monomer, etc. Prior to polymerization, most polymeric

materials exist as relatively low-viscosity ﬂuids known as oligomers (‘‘a few

mers’’). The individual molecules within an oligomer possess a range of

molecular weights, typically containing perhaps 2–20 mers.

It should be clear from the above discussion that a speciﬁc molecular

weight cannot be assigned to a polymer. Rather, the molecules within a bulk

sample of a polymer are of diﬀering lengths and hence exhibit a range in

molecular weight. The average molecular weight of a bulk sample of a polymer

is increased as the polymerization process is initiated and progresses. Another

Figure 2 The monomer ethylene.

* As fully described in an introductory chemistry text, a ‘‘covalent bond’’ is formed when two

atoms share an electron pair, so as to ﬁll an incompletely ﬁlled valence level.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

measure of the ‘‘size’’ of the polymeric molecule is the degree of polymer-

ization, deﬁned as the ratio of the average molecular weight of the polymer

molecule divided by the molecular weight of the repeating chemical unit

within the molecular chain.

The average molecular weight of a polymeric sample (or, equivalently,

the degree of polymerization) depends on the conditions under which it was

polymerized. Now, all physical properties exhibited by a polymer (e.g.,

strength, stiﬀness, density, thermal expansion coeﬃcient, etc.) are dictated

by the average molecular weight. Therefore, a fundamental point that must be

appreciated by the structural engineer is that the properties exhibited by any

polymer (or any polymeric composite) depend on the circumstances under

which it was polymerized.

As a general rule, the volume of a bulk sample of a monomer decreases

during polymerization. That is, the bulk sample shrinks as the polymerization

process proceeds. This may have serious ramiﬁcations if the polymer is to be

used in structural applications. For example, if a ﬁber(s) is embedded within

the sample during the polymerization process (as is the case for some ﬁber-

reinforced polymeric composite systems), then shrinkage of the matrix causes

residual stresses to develop during polymerization. This eﬀect contributes to

so-called cure stresses, which are present in most polymeric composites. As

will be seen in later chapters, cure stresses arise fromtwo primary sources. The

ﬁrst is shrinkage of the matrix during polymerization, as just described.

The second is stresses that arise due to temperature eﬀects. In this case, the

composite is polymerized at an elevated temperature (say, 175jC) and then

cooled to room temperature (20jC). The thermal expansion coeﬃcient of the

matrix is typically much higher than the ﬁbers, and so during cooldown, the

matrix is placed in tension while the ﬁber is placed in compression. Cure

stresses due to shrinkage during cure and/or temperature eﬀects can be quite

high relative to the strength of the polymer itself, and ultimately contribute

toward failure of the composite.

Figure 3 The polymer polyethylene.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.2 Addition vs. Condensation Polymers

Although in the case of polyethylene the repeat unit is equivalent to the

original ethylene monomer, this is not always the case. In fact, in many in-

stances, the repeat unit is derived from two (or more) monomers. A typical

example is nylon 6,6. A typical polymerization process for this polymer is

shown schematically in Fig. 4. Two monomers are used to produce nylon 6,6:

hexamethylene diamine (chemical composition: C

6

H

16

N

2

) and adipic acid

(chemical composition: CO

2

H(CH

2

)

4

CO

2

H). Note that the repeat unit of

nylon 6,6 (hexamethylene adipamide) is not equivalent to either of the two

original monomers.

A low-molecular-weight by-product (i.e., H

2

O) is produced during the

polymerization of nylon 6,6. This is characteristic of condensation polymers.

That is, if both a high-molecular-weight polymer as well as a low-molecular-

weight by-product are formed during the polymerization process, the polymer

is classiﬁed as a condensation polymer. Conversely, addition polymers are

those for which no by-product is formed, which implies that all atoms present

in the original monomer(s) occur somewhere within the repeat unit. Generally

speaking, condensation polymers shrink to a greater extent during the poly-

merization process than do addition polymers. Residual stresses caused by

shrinkage during polymerization are often a concern in structural compo-

sites, and hence diﬃculties with residual stresses can often be minimized if

an addition polymer is used in these applications.

Figure 4 The polymer nylon 6,6.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.3 Molecular Structure

The molecular structure of a fully polymerized polymer can be roughly

grouped into one of three major types: linear, branched, or crosslinked poly-

mers. The three types of molecular structure are shown schematically in

Fig. 5.

Linear polymers can be visualized as beads on a string, where each bead

represents a repeat unit. It should again be emphasized that the length of these

‘‘strings’’ is enormous; if a typical linear molecule were scaled up to be 10 mm

in diameter, it would be roughly 4 km long. In a bulk sample, these long

macromolecules become entangled and twisted together, much like a bowl of

cooked spaghetti. Obviously, as the molecular weight (i.e., the length) of the

polymer molecule is increased, the number of entanglements is increased. At

the macroscopical scale, the stiﬀness exhibited by a bulk polymer is directly

related to its molecular weight and number of entanglements.

If all of the repeat units within a linear polymer are identical, the

polymer is called a homopolymer. Polyethylene is a good example of a linear

homopolymer. However, it is possible to produce linear polymers that consist

of two separate and distinct repeat units. Such materials are called copoly-

mers. In linear random copolymers, the two distinct repeat units appear

randomly along the backbone of the molecule. In contrast, for linear block

copolymers, the two distinct repeat units form long continuous segments

within the polymer chain. A good example of a common copolymer is

acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, commonly known as ‘‘ABS.’’

The second major type of polymeric molecular structure is the branched

polymer (see Fig. 5). In branched polymers, relatively short side chains are

bonded to the primary backbone of the macromolecule by means of a co-

valent bond. As before, the stiﬀness of a bulk sample of a branched polymer is

related to the number of entanglements between molecules. Because the

branches greatly increase the number of entanglements, the macroscopical

stiﬀness of a branched polymer will, in general, be greater than the macro-

scopical stiﬀness of a linear polymer of similar molecular weight. In many

branched polymers, the branches consist of the same chemical repeat unit

as the backbone of the molecular chain. However, in some cases, the branch

may have a distinctly diﬀerent chemical repeat unit than the main backbone

of the molecule. Such materials are called graft copolymers.

Finally, the third major type of molecular structure is the crosslinked

or network polymer (see Fig. 5). During polymerization of such polymers,

a crosslink (i.e., a covalent bond) is formed between individual molecular

chains. Hence, once polymerization is complete, a vast molecular network

is formed. In the limit, a single ‘‘molecule’’ can no longer be identiﬁed. A

bulk sample of a highly crosslinked polymer may be thought of as a single

molecule.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 5 Types of polymer molecular structure.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Linear and branched polymers can be visualized as a bowl of cooked

spaghetti. One can imagine that a single spaghetti noodle could be extracted

without damage from the bowl if the noodle were pulled slowly and carefully,

allowing the noodle to ‘‘slide’’ past its neighbors. In much the same way, an

individual molecule could also be extracted (at least conceptually) from a

bulk sample of a linear or branched polymer. However, this is not the case for

a fully polymerized crosslinked polymer. Because the ‘‘individual’’ molecular

chains within a crosslinked polymer are themselves linked together by

covalent bonds, the entire molecular network can be considered to be a

single molecule. Although regions of the chain in a crosslinked polymer may

slide past each other, eventually, relative motion between segments is limited

by the crosslinks between segments.

2.4 Thermoplastic vs. Thermoset Polymers

Suppose a bulk sample of a linear or branched polymer exists as a solid

material at room temperature and is subsequently heated. Due to the increase

in thermal energy, the average distance between individual molecular chains is

increased as temperature is increased. This results in an increase in molecular

mobility and a decrease in macroscopical stiﬀness. That is, as the molecules

move apart, both the forces of attraction between individual molecules as well

as the degree of entanglement decrease, resulting in a decrease in stiﬀness at

the macroscopical level. Eventually, a temperature is reached at which the

polymeric molecules can slide freely past each other and the polymer ‘‘melts.’’

Typically, melting does not occur at a single temperature, but rather over a

temperature range of about 15–20jC. A polymer that can be melted (i.e., a

linear or branched polymer) is called a thermoplastic polymer.

The molecular structure of a thermoplastic polymer may be amor-

phous or semicrystalline. The molecular structure of an amorphous ther-

moplastic is completely random (i.e., the molecular chains are randomly

oriented and entangled, with no discernible pattern). In contrast, in a semi-

crystalline thermoplastic, there exist regions of highly ordered molecular

arrays. An idealized representation of a crystalline region is shown in Fig. 6.

As indicated, in the crystalline region, the main backbone of the molecular

chain undulates back and forth such that the thickness of the crystalline

region is usually (about) 100 A

˚

. The crystalline region may extend over an

area with a length dimension ranging from (about) 1000 to 10,000 A

˚

.

Hence, the crystalline regions are typically platelike. The high degree of

order within the crystalline array allows for close molecular spacing, and

hence exceptionally high bonding forces between molecules in the crystal-

line region. At the macroscale, a semicrystalline thermoplastic typically

has a higher strength, stiﬀness, and density than an otherwise comparable

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

amorphous thermoplastic. No thermoplastic is completely crystalline, how-

ever. Instead, regions of crystallinity are surrounded by amorphous regions,

as shown schematically in Fig. 7. Most semicrystalline thermoplastic are

10–50% amorphous (by volume).

As just described, a thermoplastic can be melted. In contrast, a cross-

linked polymer cannot be melted. If a crosslinked polymer is heated, it will

exhibit a decrease in stiﬀness at the structural level because the average

distance between individual segments of the molecular network is, in fact,

increased as temperature is increased. However, the crosslinks do not allow

indeﬁnite relative motion between segments, and eventually limit molecular

motion. Therefore, a crosslinked polymer will not melt. Of course, if the

temperature is raised high enough, the covalent bonds that form both the

backbone of the molecular chains as well as the crosslinks are broken,

chemical degradation occurs, and the polymer is destroyed. A polymer that

cannot be melted (i.e., a crosslinked polymer) is called a thermoset polymer.

Three more or less distinct conditions are recognized during polymer-

ization of a thermoset polymer. The original resin or oligomer is typically a

low-viscosity, low-molecular-weight ﬂuid, containing molecules with perhaps

2–10 repeat units. A thermoset resin is said to be A-staged when in this form.

As the polymerization process is initiated (by the introduction of a catalyst,

by an increase in temperature, by the application of pressure, or by some

combination thereof), molecular weight and viscosity increase rapidly. If the

polymerization process is then halted in some manner (say, by suddenly

reducing the temperature), the polymerization process will stop (or be

Figure 6 An idealized representation of a crystalline region in a thermoplastic

polymer.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

dramatically slowed) and the polymer will exist in an intermediate stage. The

thermoset resin is said to be B-staged when in this form. If the polymerization

process is allowed to resume (say, by reheating) and continue until the

maximum possible molecular weight has been reached, the thermoset is said

to be C-staged (i.e., the polymer is fully polymerized).

Suppliers of composites based on thermoset polymers initially B-stage

their product and sell it to their customers in this form. This requires that the

B-staged composite be stored by the customer for months at lowtemperatures

(typically at temperatures below about À15jC or 0jF). Refrigeration is

required so that the thermosetting resin does not polymerize beyond the B-

stage during storage. The polymerization process is reinitiated and completed

(i.e., the composite is C-staged) during the ﬁnal fabrication of a composite

part, typically through the application of heat and pressure. Most commer-

cially available thermoset composites are C-staged (or ‘‘cured’’) at a temper-

ature of either 120jC or 175jC.

In contrast, composites based on thermoplastic polymers do not require

refrigeration. In this case, the matrix is fully polymerized when delivered to

the customer, and may be stored for months or years without degradation.

Heat and pressure are applied during the ﬁnal fabrication of a thermoplastic

composite part, but no chemical reaction occurs. That is, heat is applied

Figure 7 Overall molecular structure of a semicrystalline thermoplastic,

showing crystalline and amorphous regions.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

simply to soften/melt the thermoplastic matrix, and pressure is applied to

insure consolidation of the composite part. The temperature required to

soften/melt thermoplastic composites is usually 350jC or higher. Note that

the temperatures required to process thermoplastic composites are signiﬁ-

cantly higher than those required to cure thermoset composites.

2.5 The Glass Transition Temperature

Stiﬀness and strength are physical properties of obvious importance to the

structural engineer. These properties are temperature-dependent for all

materials, but this is particularly true for polymers. The eﬀect of temperature

on the stiﬀness of a polymer is summarized in Fig. 8. Thermoset and

thermoplastic polymers exhibit the same general behavior, except that at

high temperatures, thermoplastics melt whereas thermosets do not. All

polymers exhibit a decrease in stiﬀness near a characteristic temperature

called the glass transition temperature, T

g

. At temperatures well below the T

g

,

polymer stiﬀness decreases slowly with an increase in temperature. At

temperatures well below the T

g

, polymers are ‘‘glassy’’ and brittle. In

contrast, at temperatures well above the T

g

, all polymers are ‘‘rubbery’’

and ductile. Thus, the T

g

denotes the transition between glassy and rubbery

behaviors. This transition is associated with a sudden increase in mobility of

segments within the molecular chain, and typically occurs over a range of 10–

15jC. At temperatures well below the T

g

, the polymer molecules are closely

packed together and tightly bonded, and cannot easily slide past each other.

Figure 8 Effects of temperature on polymer stiffness.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Consequently, the polymer is ‘‘glassy’’ and exhibits high stiﬀness and strength

but relatively lowductility. Conversely, at temperatures well above the T

g

, the

molecular spacing is increased such that the molecular chains (or segments of

those chains) are mobile and can readily slide past each other. Consequently,

the polymer is ‘‘rubbery’’ and exhibits relatively lower stiﬀness and strength

but higher ductility. As implied in Fig. 8, for amorphous thermoplastics, the

change in stiﬀness (and other physical properties) that occurs as the T

g

is

reached may be one to two orders of magnitude. This astonishing decrease in

stiﬀness occurs over a temperature range of only a few degrees. A similar

change in properties occurs for semicrystalline thermoplastics and crosslinked

thermosets, although, in general, they are less pronounced. If temperature is

raised high enough, then a thermoplastic polymer will melt. The temperature

region at which melting occurs is denoted T

m

in Fig. 8, although, as previously

discussed, a thermoplastic does not exhibit a unique melting temperature but

rather melts over a temperature range. Young’s modulus tends toward zero as

melting occurs, as implied in Fig. 8. Thermoset polymers cannot be melted,

although the polymer is destroyed if temperature is raised to an excessively

high level.

The T

g

has been illustrated in Fig. 8 by demonstrating the change in

stiﬀness as temperature is increased. However, many other characteristic

physical properties (density, strength, thermal expansion coeﬃcient, heat ca-

pacity, etc.) also change sharply at this transition. Hence, the T

g

can be

measured by monitoring any of these physical properties as a function of

temperature. The T

g

exhibited by a few common polymers is listed in Table 1.

Table 1 Approximate Glass Transition Temperatures for Some Common Polymers

Typical glass transition

temperature

Polymer jC jF

General character

at room temperature

(22jC or 70jF)

Silicone rubber À123 À190 Rubbery

Polybutadiene À85 À120 Rubbery

Polyisoprene À50 À60 Rubbery

Nylon 6,6 50 122 Rigid

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 85 185 Rigid

Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene 90 195 Rigid

Polystyrene 100 210 Rigid

Polyester 150 300 Glassy

Epoxy 175 350 Glassy

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) 200 400 Glassy

Polyetherimide 215 420 Glassy

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Note that knowledge of the T

g

allows an immediate assessment of the general

nature of the polymer at room temperature.

3 FIBROUS MATERIALS

Reinforcing ﬁbers are the major strengthening element in all polymeric

composites. Abrief introduction to these materials is presented in this section.

The reader interested in additional details is referred to Refs. 5 and 6.

Common continuous ﬁber materials are:

Glass

Aramid

Graphite or carbon

Polyethylene

Boron

Silicon carbide.

In all cases, the ﬁber diameters are quite small, ranging from about 5 to

12 Am for glass, aramid, or graphite ﬁbers; from about 25 to 40 Am for

polyethylene ﬁbers; and from about 100 to 200 Am for boron and silicon

carbide ﬁbers.

Some of the terminologies used to describe ﬁbers will be deﬁned here.

The terms ﬁber and ﬁlament are used interchangeably. An end (also called a

strand) is a collection of a given number of ﬁbers gathered together. If the

ﬁbers are twisted, the collection of ﬁbers is called a yarn. The ends are

themselves gathered together to form a tow (also called roving). The ﬁbers are

usually coated with a size (also called a ﬁnish). The size is applied for several

reasons, such as:

To bind the ﬁbers in the strand

To lubricate the ﬁbers during fabrication

**To serve as a coupling and wetting agent to insure a satisfactory
**

adhesive bond between the ﬁber and matrix materials.

There may be thousands of ﬁlaments in a single tow and, in fact, tow

sizes are often described in terms of thousands of ﬁlaments per tow. For

example, a ‘‘6k tow’’ implies that the tow consists of 6000 individual ﬁbers.

Properties of several types of glass ﬁbers, organic ﬁbers, carbon ﬁbers,

and silicon carbide ﬁbers will be brieﬂy described in the following subsec-

tions. It will be seen that:

**Young’s modulus (stiﬀness) ranges from about 70 GPa for glass
**

ﬁbers to 700 GPa (or higher) for carbon ﬁbers.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

**Comparable tensile strengths can be obtained using any of the ﬁbers
**

listed.

**Speciﬁc gravity ranges from about 0.97 for polyethylene ﬁber to
**

about 2.5 for glass ﬁbers.

**Elongation at failure ranges from about 0.3% for some carbon
**

ﬁbers to about 5% for glass ﬁbers.

The mechanism responsible for these high stiﬀnesses and strengths

diﬀers from one ﬁber type to another. For glass ﬁbers, the process of draw-

ing to very small diameters simply reduces the number and size of ﬂaws in

the material, thus increasing strength. For example, glass ﬁbers with a

diameter of about 1 mm (0.04 in.) will commonly have a strength of about

170 MPa (25 ksi); but if this same glass is drawn to a diameter of 10 Am

(0.0004 in.), a strength of about 3450 MPa (500 ksi) will be achieved. For

organic ﬁbers, strengthening is accomplished by stretching the ﬁber and

thereby aligning the polymer molecules. This produces ﬁbers that are them-

selves anisotropic. For carbon or graphite ﬁbers, strengthening is accom-

plished by aligning the basal planes of adjoining crystals, also producing

an anisotropic ﬁber.

3.1 Glass Fibers

Glass ﬁbers are fabricated by melting glass marbles at a temperature of

about 1260jC (2300jF) and drawing the melt through platinum bushings

followed by a rapid cooldown and secondary drawing. A sizing is applied

to the ﬁbers, which are then combined into a strand and wound onto a

spool. The two major types of glass ﬁbers are called ‘‘E-glass’’ and ‘‘S-glass.’’

E-glass (alumino borosilicate) is so named (‘‘e’’lectrical glass) because of its

high electrical resistivity. S-glass (magnesium aluminosilicate) is so named

(‘‘s’’tructural glass) because of its high tensile strength. Glass ﬁbers are

usually isotropic. Some mechanical and physical properties typical of E-glass

and S-glass ﬁbers are listed in Table 2.

3.2 Aramid Fibers

The aramid polymer ﬁber produced by DuPont Corp. and marketed under

the trade name Kevlarkis perhaps the most widely used organic ﬁber. This

ﬁber is based on poly( p-phenylene terephthalamide), which is a member of a

family of polymers called ‘‘aramids.’’ Aramid ﬁbers are formed by a con-

densation/elongation process. The resulting ﬁbers are highly anisotropic

because strong covalent bonds are formed in the ﬁber direction, whereas

weak hydrogen bonds are formed in the transverse direction. This chemical

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

bonding arrangement results in the anisotropic behavior exhibited at the

macroscale. That is, aramid ﬁbers have very high tensile strength, stiﬀness,

and toughness in the axial direction of the ﬁber, but relatively low tensile

strength and stiﬀness in the transverse direction.

Kevlar is commercially available in the following grades:

**Kevlar 149: a high-performance, aerospace grade ﬁber with the
**

highest modulus of all Kevlar ﬁbers

**Kevlar 49: a high-performance, aerospace grade ﬁber with the
**

highest strength of all Kevlar ﬁbers

**Kevlar 129: a relatively inexpensive ﬁber with a lower strength and
**

stiﬀness than Kevlar 149 and 49, but with a higher percent elongation

**Kevlar 29: a relatively inexpensive ﬁber with a strength and stiﬀness
**

lower than Kevlar 129, but a higher percent elongation.

Nominal mechanical and physical properties of Kevlar ﬁbers are listed

in Table 3. Of particular interest is the negative coeﬃcient of thermal

Table 3 Typical Properties of Kevlar Fibers (All Properties in Axial Direction of Fiber)

Property

Kevlar

149

Kevlar

49

Kevlar

129

Kevlar

29

Specific gravity 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44

Young’s modulus,

GPa (Msi)

186 (27) 124 (18) 96 (13.9) 68 (9.8)

Tensile strength,

MPa (ksi)

3440 (500) 3700 (535) 3380 (490) 2930 (425)

Tensile elongation, % 2.5 2.8 3.3 3.6

Coefficient of thermal

expansion, Am/m/jC

(Ain./in./jF)

À2.0 (À1.1) À2.0 (À1.1) À2.0 (À1.1) À2.0 (À1.1)

Table 2 Typical Properties of Glass Fibers

Property E-glass S-glass

Specific gravity 2.60 2.50

Young’s modulus, GPa (Msi) 72 (10.5) 87 (12.6)

Tensile strength, MPa (ksi) 3450 (500) 4310 (625)

Tensile elongation, % 4.8 5.0

Coefficient of thermal expansion,

Am/m/jC (Ain./in./jF)

5.0 (2.8) 5.6 (3.1)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

expansion in the ﬁber direction. This implies that an increase in temperature

produces a decrease in the length of a Kevlar 49 ﬁber. This behavior produced

unexpected behavior during cooldown from cure in early applications of the

ﬁber. Further research indicates that Kevlar 49 has a high positive coeﬃcient

of thermal expansion in the transverse direction, further demonstrating the

anisotropic nature of the ﬁber.

3.3 Graphite and Carbon Fibers

The terms ‘‘graphite’’ and ‘‘carbon’’ are often used interchangeably within

the composites community. The elemental carbon content of either type of

ﬁber is above 90%, and the stiﬀest and strongest ﬁbers have carbon contents

approaching 100%. Some eﬀort has been made to standardize these terms by

deﬁning graphite ﬁbers as those that have:

A carbon content above 95%

Been heat-treated at temperatures in excess of 1700jC (3100jF)

**Been stretched during heat treatment to produce a high degree of
**

preferred crystalline orientation

**A Young’s modulus on the order of 345 GPa (50 Msi).
**

Fibers that do not satisfy all of the above conditions are called carbon

ﬁbers under this standard. However, as stated above, in practice, this deﬁ-

nition is not widely followed, and the terms ‘‘graphite’’ and ‘‘carbon’’ are

often used interchangeably.

Both graphite and carbon ﬁbers are produced by thermal decomposi-

tion of an organic (i.e., polymeric) ﬁber or ‘‘precursor’’ at high pressures and

temperatures. The three most common precursors are:

Polyacrylonitrile (‘‘PAN’’)

**Pitch (a by-product produced during the petroleum distillation
**

process)

Rayon.

The PAN ﬁber is probably the most widely used.

Details of the speciﬁc steps followed during fabrication of a ﬁber are

proprietary and can only be described in a general manner. During the

fabrication process, the precursor is ﬁrst drawn into a thread and then

oxidized at about 260jC (500jF) to form crosslinks and an extended carbon

network. The precursor is then subjected to a carbonization treatment, during

which noncarboneous atoms are driven oﬀ. This step typically involves

temperatures of approximately 700jC (1290jF), and is usually conducted

in an inert atmosphere. Finally, during the graphitization process, the ﬁbers

are subjected to a combination of high temperature and tensile elongation.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The maximum temperature reached during this step determines, in large

part, the strength and/or stiﬀness that will be achieved. The graphite crystal

is highly anisotropic, with strong covalent bonds in the basal plane and

weak Van der Waals (‘‘secondary’’) bonds perpendicular to the basal plane.

High strengths and stiﬀnesses are attained by causing the basal planes to be

aligned in the ﬁber direction. This can be accomplished by controlled stretch-

ing of the precursor during fabrication.

Major developmental eﬀorts have resulted in the ability to produce

ﬁbers with a wide range of stiﬀnesses and strengths. Fibers are sometimes

classiﬁed in terms of the stiﬀness (i.e., elastic modulus). Mechanical and

physical properties typical of low-modulus, intermediate-modulus, and ultra-

high-modulus ﬁbers are listed in Table 4.

3.4 Polyethylene Fibers

A high-strength, high-modulus polyethylene ﬁber called Spectrak was

developed at Allied Signal Technologies during the 1980s. Spectra is based

on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). It has a speciﬁc

gravity of 0.97, meaning that it is the only reinforcing ﬁber available that is

lighter than water. Spectra is available in three classiﬁcations (Spectra 900,

1000, and 2000) and several grades are available in each class. Nominal

properties are listed in Table 5. The high speciﬁc strength of the ﬁber makes

it particularly attractive for tensile applications. The glass transition tem-

perature of UHMWPE is in the range of À20jC to 0jC, and hence the ﬁber

is in the rubbery state at room temperatures and exhibits time-dependent

(viscoelastic) behavior. This feature imparts outstanding impact resistance

and toughness, but may lead to undesirable creep eﬀects under long-term

sustained loading. The melting temperature of the ﬁber is 147jC (297jF),

Table 4 Typical Properties of Commercially Available Graphite Fibers

Property

Low

modulus

Intermediate

modulus

Ultra-high

modulus

Specific gravity 1.8 1.9 2.2

Young’s modulus,

GPa (Msi)

230 (34) 370 (53) 900 (130)

Tensile strength,

MPa (ksi)

3450 (500) 2480 (360) 3800 (550)

Elongation, % 1.1 0.5 0.4

Coefficient of thermal

expansion, Am/m/jC

(Ain./in./jF)

À0.4 (À0.2) À0.5 (À0.3) À0.5 (À0.3)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

and hence the use of polyethylene ﬁbers is limited to relatively modest

temperatures. The thermal expansion coeﬃcients of Spectra ﬁbers have

apparently not been measured. The values listed in Table 5 are estimated

based on the properties of bulk high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

3.5 Boron Fibers

Boron ﬁbers were one of the ﬁrst high-performance ﬁbers available for use in

composites. They are fabricated by depositing boron on a heated core using

the vapor deposition process. Both tungsten and carbon ﬁber cores have

been used. Boron ﬁber diameters range from 0.1 to 0.2 mm (0.004–0.008 in),

which is an order of magnitude larger than glass, aramid, or graphite ﬁbers.

Boron ﬁbers have a Young’s modulus of about 410 GPa (60 Msi) and a tensile

strength of about 3450 MPa (500 ksi). The combination of a large diameter

and high stiﬀness greatly restricts the bend radius to which the ﬁber may

be subjected. On the other hand, a large ﬁber diameter and high modulus

of elasticity contribute to excellent compressive performance for boron-

reinforced composites.

3.6 Ceramic Fibers

The single most outstanding feature oﬀered by ceramic ﬁbers is that they are

resistant to extremely high temperatures while still maintaining competitive

structural properties. An example is a silicon carbide ﬁber marketed under

the trade name SCS-Ultrak and fabricated by Specialty Materials, Inc.

(Lowell, MA), which can operate at temperatures up to 1200jC (2190jF).

This ﬁber has a modulus of 415 GPa (60 Msi), a strength of 5865 MPa

(850 ksi), and a speciﬁc gravity of 3.0. A second example is an aluminum–

boron–silica ﬁber fabricated by the 3M Company and marketed under the

trade name Nextelk. This ﬁber is capable of operating at temperatures up

Table 5 Nominal Properties of Spectra Fibers

Property Spectra 900 Spectra 1000 Spectra 2000

Specific gravity 0.97 0.97 0.97

Young’s modulus,

GPa (Msi)

70 (10) 105 (15) 115 (17)

Tensile strength,

MPa (ksi)

2600 (380) 3200 (465) 3400 (490)

Elongation, % 3.8 3.0 3.0

Coefficient of thermal

expansion, Am/m/jC

(Ain./in./jF)

>70 (>38) >70 (>38) >70 (>38)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

to 1650jC (3000jF). It also exhibits excellent properties, with a modulus of

193 GPa (28 Msi), a strength of 2000 MPa (300 ksi), and a speciﬁc gravity of

3.03.

Because ceramic ﬁbers are normally used at temperatures far in excess of

the useable temperature range of polymers, they are rarely used in polymeric

composites. Ceramic ﬁbers will not be further discussed in this book.

4 COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FORMS

4.1 Discontinuous Fibers

Virtually all of the continuous ﬁbers described in Sec. 3 are also available in

the form of discontinuous ﬁbers. Discontinuous ﬁbers are embedded within a

matrix, and may be randomly oriented (in which case the composite is

isotropic at the macroscale) or may be oriented to some extent (in which case

the composite is anisotropic at the macroscale). Orientation of discontinuous

ﬁbers, if it occurs, is usually induced during the fabrication process used to

create the composite material/structure; ﬁber alignment often mirrors the

ﬂow direction during injection molding, for example. Discontinuous ﬁbers

are roughly classiﬁed according to length, as follows:

**Milled ﬁbers are produced by grinding the continuous ﬁber into very
**

short lengths. For example, milled graphite ﬁbers are available with

lengths ranging from about 0.3 to 3 mm (0.0012–0.12 in.), and milled

glass ﬁbers are available with lengths ranging fromabout 0.4 to 6 mm

(0.0016–0.24 in.).

**Chopped ﬁbers (or strands) have a longer length than milled ﬁbers,
**

and composites produced using chopped ﬁbers usually have higher

strengths and stiﬀnesses than those produced using milled ﬁbers.

Chopped graphite ﬁbers are available with lengths ranging from

about 3 to 50 mm(0.–2.0 in.), while chopped glass ﬁbers are available

with lengths ranging from about 6 to 50 mm (0.24–2.0 in.).

In general, the mechanical properties of a composite produced using

discontinuous ﬁbers (say, the strength or stiﬀness) are not as good as those

that can be obtained using continuous ﬁbers. However, discontinuous ﬁbers

allow the use of relatively inexpensive, high-speed manufacturing processes

such as injection molding or compression molding, and have therefore been

widely used in applications in which extremely high strength or stiﬀness is not

required.

One of the most widely used composites systems based on the use of

discontinuous ﬁbers is known generically as ‘‘sheet molding compound’’

(SMC). In its most common form, SMC consists of chopped glass ﬁbers

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

embedded within a thermosetting polyester resin. However, other resin sys-

tems (e.g., vinyl esters or epoxies) as well as other ﬁbers (e.g., chopped graph-

ite or aramid ﬁbers) are occasionally used in SMC material systems.

4.2 Roving Spools

Most continuous ﬁber types are available in the form of spools of roving

(i.e., roving wound onto a cylindrical tube and ultimately resembling a large

spool of thread). As mentioned in Sec. 3, roving is also known as tow. The

size of tow (or roving) is usually expressed in terms of the number of ﬁbers

contained in a single tow. For example, a speciﬁc glass ﬁber might be avail-

able in the form of 2k, 3k, 6k, or 12k tow. In this case, the product is avail-

able in tows containing from 2000 to 12,000 ﬁbers. Fibers purchased in this

formare usually ‘‘dry’’ and are subsequently combined with a polymer, metal,

or ceramic matrix during a subsequent manufacturing operation such as

ﬁlament winding or pultrusion.

4.3 Woven Fabrics

Most types of high-performance continuous ﬁbers can be woven to form a

fabric. Weaving is accomplished using looms specially modiﬁed for use with

high-performance ﬁbers, which are stiﬀer than those customarily used in the

textile industry. Woven fabrics are produced in various widths up to about

120 cm (48 in.), and are available in (essentially) inﬁnite lengths. Two terms

associated with woven fabrics are:

**The tow or yarn running along the length of the fabric is called the
**

warp. The warp direction is parallel to the long axis of the woven

fabric.

**The tow or yarn running perpendicular to the warp is called the ﬁll
**

tow (also called the weft or the woof tow). The ﬁll direction is per-

pendicular to the warp direction.

Some common fabric weaves are shown schematically in Fig. 9. The

plane weave (Fig. 9a) is the simplest fabric pattern and is most commonly

used. The plane weave is produced by repetitively weaving a given warp tow

over one ﬁll tow and under the next. The point at which a tow passes over/

under another tow is called a crossover point. The plane weave pattern results

in a very stable and ﬁrm fabric that exhibits minimum distortion (e.g., ﬁber

slippage) during handling.

A family of woven fabric patterns known as satin weaves provide better

drape characteristics than the plane weave pattern. That is, a satin weave is

more pliable and will more readily conform to complex curved surfaces than

plane weaves. In the crowfoot satin weave (Fig. 9b), one warp tow is woven

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

over three successive ﬁll tows and then under one ﬁll tow. In the ﬁve-harness

satin weave, one warp tow passes over four ﬁll tows and then under one ﬁll

tow. Similarly, in an eight-harness satin weave, one warp towpasses over seven

ﬁll tows and then under one ﬁll tow.

The stiﬀness and strength of woven fabrics are typically less than that

achieved with unidirectional ﬁbers. This decrease is due to ﬁber waviness.

Figure 9 Some common woven fabrics used with high-performance fibers.

(From Ref. 7.)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

That is, in any woven fabric, the tow is required to pass over/under one (or

more) neighboring tow(s) at each crossover point, resulting in a pre-existing

ﬁber waviness. Upon application of a tensile load, the ﬁbers within a ply tend

to straighten, resulting in a lower stiﬀness than would be achieved if the ply

contained straight unidirectional ﬁbers. Further, due to the weave pattern, the

ﬁbers are not allowed to straighten fully and are subjected to bending stresses,

resulting in ﬁber failures at lower tensile loads than would otherwise be

achieved if the ply contained unidirectional ﬁbers. This eﬀect is most pro-

nounced in the case of simple weaves because each tow passes over/under

each neighboring tow. For simple weaves, the through-thickness distribu-

tion of tow in the warp and ﬁll directions is identical. Consequently, the

strength and stiﬀness of simple weaves are usually identical in the warp and

ﬁll directions.

In contrast, for satin weaves, the through-thickness distribution of tow

is inherently asymmetric. Referring to Fig. 9a, for example, for the ﬁve-

harness satin weave pattern, the warp towis primarily within the ‘‘top’’ half of

the fabric (as sketched), whereas the ﬁll tow is primarily within the lower half.

The asymmetrical through-thickness distribution of tow causes a coupling

between in-plane loading and bending deﬂections. That is, if a uniformtensile

load is applied to the midplane of a single layer of a satin weave fabric, the

fabric will not only stretch but will also deﬂect out of plane (i.e., bend).

Similarly, the crossover points are not symmetrically located with respect to

either the warp or ﬁll directions. This causes a coupling between in-plane

loading and in-plane shear strain. That is, an in-plane shear strain is induced if

a uniform tensile load is applied to a single layer of a satin weave fabric [7].

A woven fabric is, in essence, a 2D structure consisting of orthogo-

nal warp and ﬁll tows interlaced within a plane. Weaving or stitching sev-

eral layers of a woven fabric together can produce a woven structure with

a signiﬁcant thickness. Structures produced in this fashion are called ‘‘3D

weaves.’’

4.4 Braided Fabrics

Note from Sec. 4.3 that woven fabrics contain reinforcing tow in two orthog-

onal directions—the warp and ﬁll directions. In contrast, braided fabrics

typically contain tow oriented in two (or more) nonorthogonal directions.

Three common braiding patterns are shown in Fig. 10. It is apparent from

this ﬁgure that a braided fabric contains bias tow that intersects at a total

included angle 2a. The angle a is called either the braid angle or the bias

angle. While the braid angle can be varied over a wide range, there is always

some minimum and maximum possible value that depends on the width of

the tow and details of the braiding equipment used. Note that if a=45j,

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 10 Some common braided fabrics used with high-performance fibers.

(From Ref. 7.)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

then the bias tows are in fact orthogonal and the braided fabric shown in Fig.

10a and b is equivalent to a woven fabric. A braided fabric is described using

the designation nÂn, where n is the number of tows between crossover points.

A 1Â1-bias and a 2Â2-bias braided fabric is shown in Fig. 10a and b,

respectively. A 1Â1 triaxial braided fabric is shown in Fig. 10c. In this case, a

third axial tow is present.

Braided fabrics can be produced in tubular form or as a ﬂat braided

fabric. A concise description of the equipment used to produce braided fab-

rics, as well as a discussion of the maximum and minimum braid angles that

can be achieved, is given in Ref. 8. It is also possible to braid 3D structures,

in which tows are braided to form a (ﬁbrous) structure that is subsequently

infused with a matrix to form the composite. Applications include ‘‘I’’ or

‘‘T’’ cross sections, typically used with resin transfer molding (RTM) to pro-

duce composite stiﬀeners or beams. In contrast to structures produced using

fabrics (which may be unidirectional, woven, or braided fabrics), in a 3D

braided structure, there are no recognizable layers.

4.5 Preimpregnated Products or ‘‘Prepreg’’

As is obvious from the preceding discussion, at some point during the

fabrication of a polymer composite, the reinforcing ﬁber must be embedded

within the polymeric matrix. One approach is to combine the ﬁber and resin

during the manufacturing operation in which the ﬁnal form of the composite

structure is deﬁned. Three manufacturing processes in which this approach is

taken are ﬁlament winding (brieﬂy described in Sec. 5.3), pultrusion (Sec. 5.4),

and resin transfer molding (Sec. 5.5).

An alternative approach is to combine the ﬁber and matrix in an

intermediate step, resulting in an intermediate product. In this case, either

individual tow or a thin fabric of tow (which may be woven or braided) is

embedded within a polymeric matrix and delivered to the user in this form.

Because the ﬁbers have already been embedded within a polymeric matrix

when delivered, the ﬁbers are said to have been ‘‘preimpregnated’’ with resin,

and products delivered in this condition are commonly known as ‘‘prepreg.’’

The method used to impregnate a large number of unidirectional tows

with resin is illustrated in Fig. 11 [9]. As indicated, tows delivered from a

large number of roving spools are arranged in a relatively narrow band. The

tows are passed through a resin bath and then wound onto a roll. An inert

backing sheet (called a scrim cloth) is placed between layers on the roll to

maintain a physical separation between layers and to aid during subsequent

handling and processing. The tows/ﬁbers are subjected to various surface

pretreatments just prior to entering the resin bath. The pretreatments are

proprietary but are intended to cause good wetting of the ﬁber by the resin,

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

which ultimately helps ensure good adhesion between the ﬁbers and polymer

matrix in the cured composite. Products produced in this fashion are

commonly known as ‘‘prepreg tape’’ (Fig. 11b). Prepreg tape is available

in width ranging from about 75 to 1220 mm (3–48 in.). Prepreg fabrics,

produced using either woven or braided fabrics instead of unidirectional

tows, are produced using similar techniques and are also available in widths

ranging from about 75 to 1220 mm.

A variety of fabrication methods have been developed based on the

use of prepreg materials. A few such techniques will be described in Sec. 5.

The ﬁrst commercially successful prepreg materials were based on B-

staged epoxy resins. As discussed in Sec. 2, in the B-staged condition, a

thermoset resin has been partially polymerized, resulting in relatively high

viscosity, which aids in handling B-staged prepreg materials. However, pre-

preg must be kept at low temperatures until used, otherwise the resin con-

tinues to polymerize and slowly harden. This required that the prepreg be

shipped to the user in a refrigerated condition (for small amounts, this is

Figure 11 (a) Method used to impregnate unidirectional tows with resin. (b) A

3-in. wide roll of ‘‘prepreg tape.’’

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

often accomplished using insulated shipping containers and dry ice). Fur-

thermore, the user must keep the stock of prepreg on hand refrigerated until

used. Typically, storage temperatures are required to be À15jC (0jF) or

below. In practice, the prepreg material stock is removed from freezer, the

amount of prepreg necessary is removed from the roll of stock, and the re-

maining stock is returned to the freezer. Hence, the cumulative ‘‘out-time’’

that a given roll of prepreg stock has experienced (i.e., total amount of time a

roll has been out of a freezer) must be monitored and recorded. The need to

store thermoset prepreg in a refrigerated condition and to maintain accurate

records of cumulative out-time is a signiﬁcant disadvantage because these

factors add signiﬁcantly to the ﬁnal cost of the composite structure.

More recently, prepreg materials based on thermoplastic resins have

become commercially available. In this case, the polymeric matrix is a fully

cured thermoplastic polymer, and hence the prepreg does not require refrig-

eration during shipping or storage, which is a distinct advantage.

Heat and/or pressure is applied during the ﬁnal fabrication of a com-

posite based on prepreg materials. In the case of thermoset prepregs, heat

and pressure serve to complete the polymerization of the polymeric resin

(i.e., the composite is ‘‘C-staged’’). For thermoplastic prepreg, the objective

is not necessarily to complete the polymerization but rather to melt the ther-

moplastic matrix so as to consolidate individual plies within the laminate.

5 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

Fiber-reinforced composites may be produced using metallic, ceramic, or

polymeric matrices. However, polymeric composites are the primary focus

of this book, and so techniques used to fabricate metal or ceramic composite

structures will not be discussed. Even with this limitation, a complete review

of the many diﬀerent manufacturing processes used to produce polymeric

composite materials and structures is beyond the scope of this presentation.

Instead, only the most common manufacturing techniques will be described.

5.1 Layup

Many composites are produced using the tapes or fabrics discussed in Sec. 4.1.

These may be unidirectional tape, woven fabrics, or braided fabrics. These

products are all relatively thin. ‘‘Layup’’ simply refers to the process of

stacking several layers together, much like a deck of cards. Stacking several

layers together produces a laminate of signiﬁcant thickness. The most direct

method of producing a multi-ply composite laminate is to simply stack the

desired number of layers of fabric by hand, referred to as ‘‘hand layup.’’ The

layers may consist of either ‘‘dry’’ fabrics (i.e., fabrics that have not yet been

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

impregnated with a resin) or prepreg materials. As will be discussed in later

chapters, ﬁber angles are typically varied from one ply to the next, so as to

insure adequate stiﬀness in more than one direction.

Whereas hand layup is simple and straightforward, it is labor-intensive

and therefore costly. It can also be very cumbersome if a large structure is

being produced, such as a fuselage panel intended for use in a modern

commercial aircraft. Therefore, various computer-controlled machines that

automate the process of assembling the ply stack using prepreg materials

have been developed. These include tow placement and tape placement

machines (see Fig. 12). In either case, a roll (or rolls) of prepreg material is

mounted on the head of a computer-controlled robot arm or gantry. The

appropriate number of layers of prepreg is placed on a tool surface auto-

matically and in the desired orientation. Although the capital costs of mod-

ern tow placement or tape placement machines may be very high, overall, this

approach is often less costly than hand layup if production quantities are

suﬃciently high.

In the case of dry fabrics (which are usually either woven or braided

fabrics), the stack must be impregnated with a low-viscosity polymeric resin

following assembly of the ﬁber stack. Conceptually, this may be accomplished

by pouring liquidous resin over the dry ﬁber stack and using a squeegee or

Figure 12 A computer-controlled tape-laying machine, used to produce the

composite skin used in the vertical stabilizer for a Boeing 777 aircraft.

(Copyright n The Boeing Company.)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

similar device to assist the resin to wet the ﬁbers within the stack. This

technique is commonly used in the recreational boat-building industry, for

example. However, as can be imagined, it is very diﬃcult to insure uniform

penetration of the resin and wetting of the ﬁbers through the thickness of

the stack, to insure that no air pockets remain trapped in the stack, and to

avoid distortion of the ﬁber patterns while forcing resin into the ﬁbrous

assembly. There are also potential health issues associated with continually

exposing workers to nonpolymerized resins. Hence, the technique of im-

pregnating a dry ﬁber stack using handheld tools such as squeegees is rarely

employed in industries requiring low variability in stiﬀness and strength and/

or high volumes, such as the aerospace or automotive industries, for exam-

ple. Alternate methods of impregnating a dry ﬁber stack with resin have been

developed, such as resin transfer molding (discussed in Sec. 5.5). These alter-

nate techniques result in a composite with a much more uniform matrix vol-

ume fraction and almost no void content.

A major advantage of using prepreg materials, of course, is that the

ﬁbers have been impregnated with resin a priori. Therefore, it is much easier to

maintain the desired matrix volume fraction and to avoid entrapped air-

pockets. Further, prepreg material based on a B-staged thermoset are typi-

cally ‘‘tacky’’ (i.e., prepreg materials adhere to neighboring plies much like

common masking tape), and hence once a given ply has been placed in the

desired orientation, it is less likely to move or be distorted relative to neigh-

boring plies than is the case with dry fabrics.

5.2 Autoclave Process Cycles

Following layup (which may be accomplished using hand layup, automatic

tow placement or tape placement machines, or other techniques), the indi-

vidual plies must be consolidated to form a solid laminate. Usually, con-

solidation occurs through the application of pressure and heat. Although a

simple hot press can be used for this purpose, applying pressure and heat

using an autoclave produces highest-quality composites. An autoclave is

simply a closed pressure vessel that can be used to apply a precisely con-

trolled and simultaneous cycle of vacuum, pressure, and elevated tempera-

ture to the laminate during the consolidation process.

Although many variations exist, a typical assembly used to consolidate

a laminate using an autoclave is shown in Fig. 13. Some of the details of the

assembly are as follows:

**The ﬁnal shape of the composite is deﬁned by a rigid tool. A simple
**

ﬂat tool is shown in Fig. 13, but in practice, the tool is rarely ﬂat

but instead mirrors the contour(s) desired in the ﬁnal product. For

example, the surface of a tool used to produce the skin of an air-

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

plane wing would possess the curvature(s) necessary to provide an

aerodynamic surface. Various materials may be used to produce

the tool, including steel alloys, aluminum alloys, ceramics, or com-

posite materials.

**The tool surface is coated with a release agent. Various liquid or wax
**

release agents are available, which are either sprayed or wiped onto

the surface. The purpose of the release agent is to prevent adherence

between the tool and the polymeric matrix.

**A peel ply is placed next to both upper and lower surfaces of the
**

composite laminate. The release ply does not develop a strong bond

to the composite, and hence can be easily removed following con-

solidation. The peel ply may be porous or nonporous. Porous peel

plies allow resin to pass through the ply and be adsorbed by an

adjacent bleeder/breather cloth (see below). Note that the surface

texture of the consolidated laminate will be a mirror image of the

peel ply used. For example, Teﬂon-coated porous glass fabrics are

often used as peel plies, and these fabrics have a clothlike surface

texture. Hence, a composite laminate consolidated with such fab-

rics will exhibit a clothlike surface texture as well.

**One or more layers of a breather/bleeder cloth is placed adjacent to
**

the porous peel ply. The bleeder cloth has the texture of a rather stiﬀ

cotton ball. Its purpose is to allow any gases released to be vented

(hence the adjective breather), and also to adsorb any resin that

passed through the porous peel ply (hence the adjective bleeder). The

breather/bleeder is usually a glass, polyester, or jute cloth.

Figure 13 Typical assembly used to consolidate a polymeric composite lami-

nate using an autoclave (expanded edge view).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

**An edge damis placed around the periphery of the laminate. The edge
**

dam is intended to maintain the position and resin content of the

laminate edges.

**A pressure plate (also called a caul plate) is placed over the breather/
**

bleeder cloth. The pressure plate insures a uniform distribution of

pressures over the surface of the laminate.

**The entire assembly is sealed within a vacuum ﬁlm or bag. Often this
**

is a relatively thick (say, 5 mm) layer of silicone rubber. Sealant tape

is used to adhere the vacuum ﬁlm to the tool surface, providing a

pressure-tight seal around the periphery of the vacuum ﬁlm.

**The volume within the vacuum bag is evacuated by means of a vac-
**

uum port, which is often permanently attached to the silicone rubber

vacuum ﬁlm. The vacuum port often features a quick-disconnect

ﬁtting, which allows for easy connection to a vacuum pump or line.

Following vacuumbaggingof the laminate, the assemblyis placedwithin

an autoclave, the autoclave is sealed, and the thermomechanical process cycle

that will consolidate the composite is initiated. A bagged composite laminate

being loaded into an autoclave is shown in Fig. 14.

The thermomechanical process cycle imposed using an autoclave varies

from one composite prepreg system to the next, and also depends on part

Figure 14 A vacuum-bagged composite skin used in the tail-section of a

Boeing 777 aircraft, about to be loaded into a large autoclave. (Copyright n The

Boeing Company.)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

conﬁguration (e.g., part thickness). Recall that if the prepreg is based on a B-

stage thermoset resin, then the autoclave is used to complete the polymer-

ization of the resin (i.e., the composite is C-staged). Alternatively, if the

prepreg is based on a thermoplastic, the pressure and heat applied during the

autoclave cycle soften the matrix and insure polymer ﬂow across the ply

interfaces. The laminate is then solidiﬁed upon cooling.

A typical cure cycle, suitable for use with standard thermosetting resin

systems such as epoxies, is as follows:

**Draw and hold a vacuum within the vacuum bag, resulting in a
**

pressure of roughly 100 kPa (14.7 psi) applied to the laminate. The

vacuum is typically maintained for about 30 min, and is intended to

remove any entrapped air or volatiles, and to hold the laminate in

place.

**While maintaining a vacuum, increase the temperature from room
**

temperature to about 120jC (250jF), at a rate of about 2.8jC/min

(5jF/min). Maintain this temperature for 30 min. During this 30-min

dwell time, any remaining air or other volatiles are removed.

**After 30 min, increase autoclave pressure from atmospheric to about
**

585 kPa (85 psi), at a rate of 21 kPa/min (3 psi/min). Release vacuum

when autoclave pressure reaches 138 kPa (20 psi).

**When an autoclave pressure of 585 kPa is reached, increase the
**

temperature from 120jC to 175jC (350jF), at a rate of about 2.8jC/

min (5jF/min). Maintain temperature at 175jC for 2 hr. Polymer-

ization of the thermosetting resin matrix is completed during this 2-hr

dwell.

**Cool to room temperature at a rate of about 2.8jC/min (5jF/min),
**

release autoclave pressure, and remove cured laminate from the

autoclave.

Process cycles used with thermoplastic prepregs are similar, except that

higher temperatures (500jC or higher) are involved.

5.3 Filament Winding

Filament winding is an automated process in which tow is wound onto a

mandrel at controlled position and orientation. A ﬁlament winder being used

to produce a small rocket motor case is shown in Fig. 15 [10]. During

operation, the mandrel rotates about its axis, and a ﬁber carriage simulta-

neously moves in a controlled manner along the length of the mandrel. The

angle at which ﬁbers are placed on the mandrel surface is a function of

the mandrel diameter, rate of mandrel rotation, and translational speed of the

ﬁber carriage. The mandrel can include domed heads to accommodate ﬁber

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 15 A carbon-epoxy pressure vessel being produced using the filament-

winding process and unidirectional prepreg. The prepreg used in this case is

basedonlarge 50k tows of Zoltek Panex

o

R

35carbon fiber. (a) Aband of prepreg is

wound onto a mandrel, forming a Fhj fiber pattern. (b) Eventually the mandrel is

completely enclosed by one or more Fhj plies. (c) One or more 90j (‘‘hoop’’) plies

are often added to the cylindrical region to resist the high hoop stresses induced

in cylindrical pressure vessels. (Photos provided courtesy of Entec Composite

Machines Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

turnaround at the ends, or to wind the domes of a cylindrical pressure vessel

(as shown in Fig. 15).

If dry tows are used, then the tow must pass through a liquid resin

bath before being wound onto the mandrel. In this case, the process is often

referred to as ‘‘wet’’ winding. Often ﬁber tension provides suﬃcient com-

paction of the laminate, and so no additional external pressure is required.

If a thermosetting resin that cures at room temperature is used, following

completion of the winding operation, the structure is simply left in the

winder until polymerization is complete.

Of course, if prepreg tow is used, then the tow is already impregnated

with a resin and is not passed through a resin bath. This process is called

‘‘dry’’ winding. In this case, heat and pressure are normally required to com-

plete polymerization of the resin (in the case of a thermosetting polymer

matrix), or to cause resin ﬂow and consolidation (in the case of a thermo-

plastic polymer matrix). The appropriate heat and pressure are usually

applied using an autoclave.

Filament winding machines are available in highly automated, nu-

merically controlled models (costing millions of dollars), but high-quality

ﬁlament winding can also be accomplished for simple shapes and patterns on

inexpensive gear/chain-driven machines similar to a lathe.

For simple wound shapes with open ends (such as tubes), the mandrel is

usually a simple solid cylinder whose surface has been coated with a release

agent. In this case, the mandrel is forced out of the internal cavity after

consolidation of the composite. Mandrel design and conﬁguration become

more complex when a shape with restricted openings at the ends is produced

(such as the pressure tank shown in Fig. 15). In these cases, the mandrel must

somehow be removed after the part is consolidated. Several diﬀerent types of

mandrel designs are used in these cases, including:

**Soluble mandrels, which are made from a material that can be
**

dissolved in some fashion after the cure process is complete. In this

approach, the mandrel is cast and machined to the desired shape, the

composite part is ﬁlament wound over the mandrel, the part is cured,

and the mandrel is then simply dissolved. The wall of the composite

structure must obviously have at least one opening, such that the

dissolved (and now liquidous) mandrel material can be drained from

the internal cavity. Soluble mandrels can be made from metallic

alloys with suitably low-melting temperatures, eutectic salts, sand

with water-soluble binders, or various plasters.

**Removable(orcollapsible)mandrels, whichresemblegiant 3Dpuzzles.
**

That is, the entire mandrel can be taken apart piece by piece. The

composite structure being woundmust have at least one wall opening,

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which allows the mandrel pieces to be removed from the internal

cavity after cure. Obviously, the mandrel is designed such that no

single piece is larger than the available opening(s).

**‘‘Inﬂatable’’ mandrels, which take on the desired shape when
**

pressurized and then are simply deﬂated and removed after winding

and consolidation.

**Metal or polymer liners, which are actually a modiﬁcation of the
**

inﬂatable mandrel concept. Liners can be described as metal or

polymer ‘‘balloons’’ and remain in the ﬁlament wound vessel after

cure. The liner does not contribute signiﬁcantly to the strength or

stiﬀness of the structure. In fact, the wall thickness of the liner is often

so small that an internal pressure must be applied to the liner during

the winding process to avoid buckling of the liner wall. Metal liners

are almost always used in composite pressure vessels, where

allowable leakage rates are very low, or in ﬁlament wound chemical

storage tanks, where corrosive liquids are stored.

5.4 Pultrusion

Pultrusion is a fabrication process in which continuous tows or fabrics

impregnated with resin are pulled through a forming die, as shown schemati-

cally in Fig. 16 [10]. If dry tow or fabric is used, then the tow/fabric must

Figure 16 Sketch of a typical pultruder.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

pass through a resin bath prior to entering the forming die. In this case, the

process is called ‘‘wet’’ pultrusion. If prepreg material is used, then there

is no need for a resin bath and the process is called ‘‘dry’’ pultrusion. The

cross-sectional shape is deﬁned by the die and is therefore constant along

the length of the part. The principal attraction of pultrusion is that very

high production rates are possible, as compared to other composite manu-

facturing techniques.

5.5 Resin Transfer Molding

In the resin transfer molding process, a dry ﬁber preform is placed within a

cavity formed between two rigid molds, as shown in Fig. 17. The dry pre-

form may consist of a 3D braided structure, or may be made by stitching

together multiple layers of 2D woven or braided fabrics. Liquidous resin is

forced into the cavity under pressure via a port located in the upper or lower

mold halves. Air originally within the internal cavity (or other gases that

evolve during cure of the resin) is allowed to escape via one or more air

vents. Alternatively, a vacuum pump may be used to evacuate the internal

cavity, which also assists in drawing the resin into the cavity. When a vacuum

is used, the process is called ‘‘vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding’’

(VARTM). Both the upper and lower molds must be suﬃciently rigid so

as to resist the internal pressures applied and to maintain the desired shape

of the internal cavity. Usually, the closed molds are placed within a press,

which provides a clamping pressure to assist in keeping the molds closed.

6 THE SCOPE OF THIS BOOK

A broad overview of modern composite materials has been provided in the

preceding sections. It should be clear from this discussion that modern

Figure 17 Picture/sketch of the RTM process.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

polymeric composite material systems are a multidisciplinary subject, involv-

ing topics drawn frompolymer chemistry, ﬁber science, surface chemistry and

adhesion, materials testing, structural analysis, and manufacturing tech-

niques, to name a few. It is simply not possible to cover all of these topics

in any depth in a single book. Accordingly, the material presented in this book

represents a small fraction of the scientiﬁc and technological developments

that have ultimately led to the successful use of modern composite material

systems. Speciﬁcally, the focus of this text is the structural analysis of

laminated, continuous-ﬁber polymeric composite materials and structures.

Having identiﬁed the structural analysis of laminated continuous-ﬁber

polymeric composites as our focus, we must make still another decision:

At what physical scale should we frame our analysis? The importance of

physical scale has already been discussed in Sec. 1 in conjunction with the

very deﬁnition of a ‘‘composite material.’’ Speciﬁcally, we have deﬁned a

composite as a material system consisting of two (or more) materials, which

are distinct at a physical scale greater than about 1 Am and which are bonded

together at the atomic and/or molecular levels. Fibers commonly used in

polymeric composites possess diameters ranging from about 5 to 40 Am

(Sec. 3). Therefore, we could perform a structural analysis at a physical scale

comparable to the ﬁber diameter. Alternatively, laminated polymeric com-

posites consist of well-deﬁned layers (called ‘‘plies’’) of ﬁbers embedded in

a polymeric matrix. The thickness of these layers ranges from about 0.125

to 0.250 mm (Sec. 4). We could therefore elect to begin a structural analy-

sis at a physical scale comparable to the thickness of a single ply.

A distinction is drawn between structural analyses that begin at these

two diﬀerent physical scales. Analyses that are framed at a physical scale

corresponding to the ﬁber diameter (or below) are classiﬁed as microme-

chanics analyses, whereas those framed at a physical scale corresponding to

a single ply thickness (or above) are classiﬁed as macromechanics analyses.

This distinction is comparable to the traditional distinction between metal-

lurgy and continuum mechanics. That is, metallurgy typically involves the

study of the crystalline nature of metals and metal alloys, and is therefore

framed at a physical scale roughly corresponding to atomic dimensions. A

metallurgist might attempt to predict Young’s modulus* of a given metal

alloy, based on knowledge of the constituent atoms and crystalline struc-

ture present in the alloy, for example. In contrast, continuum mechanics is

formulated at a much larger physical scale, such that the existence of indi-

* The deﬁnition of various material properties of interest to the structural engineer, such as

Young’s modulus, will be reviewed and discussed in greater detail in Chap. 3.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

vidual atoms is not recognized. In continuum mechanics, a metal or metal

alloy is said to be ‘‘homogeneous’’ even though it actually consists of sev-

eral diﬀerent atomic species. A structural engineer wishing to apply a solu-

tion based on continuum mechanics would simply measure Young’s

modulus exhibited by the metal alloy of interest, rather than try to predict

it based on knowledge of the atomic crystalline structure.

In much the same way, composite micromechanics analyses are con-

cerned with the predicting properties of composites based on the particular

ﬁber and matrix materials involved, the spacing and orientation of the ﬁbers,

the adhesion (or lack thereof ) between ﬁber and matrix, etc. For example,

suppose that a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite is to be produced by

combining graphite ﬁbers with a known Young’s modulus (E

f

) and an epoxy

matrix with a known Young’s modulus (E

m

). An analysis framed at a physi-

cal scale corresponding to the ﬁber diameter (i.e., a micromechanics analy-

sis) is required to predict the Young’s modulus that will be exhibited by the

composite (E

c

) formed using these two constituents.

In contrast, composite macromechanics analyses are framed at a

physical scale corresponding to the ply thickness (or above). The existence

or properties of individual ﬁbers or the matrix material are not recognized

(in a mathematical sense) in a macromechanics analysis. Instead, the ply is

treated as a homogenous layer whose properties is identical at all points,

although they diﬀer in diﬀerent directions. Details of ﬁber or matrix type,

ﬁber spacing, ﬁber orientation, etc., are represented in a macromechanics

analysis only indirectly, via properties deﬁned for the composite ply as a

whole, rather than as properties of the individual constituents.

Micromechanics-based structural analyses will not be discussed in any

detail. A simple micromechanics model that may be used to predict ply stiﬀ-

nesses based on knowledge of ﬁber and matrix properties, called the rule of

mixtures, will be developed in Sec. 6 in Chap. 3. However, the material de-

voted to micromechanics in this text is abbreviated and does not do justice

to the many advances made in this area. The lack of emphasis on microme-

chanical topics is not meant to imply that such analyses are unimportant.

Quite the contrary, micromechanics analyses are crucial during development

of new composite material systems because it is only through a detailed

understanding of the behavior of composites at this physical scale that new

and improved materials can be created. Micromechanics has been mini-

mized herein simply due to space restrictions. The reader interested in learn-

ing more about micromechanics is referred to several excellent texts that

cover this topic in greater detail, a few of which are Refs. 5, 7, 11, and 14.

Finally, then, the scope of this book is macromechanics-based structural

analysis of laminated, continuous-ﬁber polymeric composites.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

REFERENCES

1. Rodriguez, F. Principles of Polymer Systems; 3rd Ed.; Hemisphere Publ. Co.:

New York, 1989; ISBN 0-89116-176-7.

2. Young, R.J.; Lovell, P.A. Introduction to Polymers; 2nd Ed.; Chapman and

Hall Publ. Co.: New York, 1991; ISBN 0-89116-176-7.

3. Strong, A.B. Plastics: Materials and Processing; 2nd Ed.; Prentice-Hall: Upper

Saddle River, NJ, 2000. ISBN 0-13-021626-7.

4. The Macrogalleria (http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/index.htm), website

maintained by the University of Southern Mississippi and devoted to polymeric

materials.

5. Watt, W., Perov, B.V., Eds. Strong Fibres; Vol. 1. In Handbook of Composite

Materials; Kelly, A., Rabotnov, Y.N., Series Eds.; Elsevier Sci. Publ.: New

York, NY, 1985; ISBN 0-444-87505-0.

6. Donnet, J.-B.; Wang, T.K.; Peng, J.C.M.; Reboillat, M. Carbon Fibers; 3rd Ed.;

Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, NY, 1998; ISBN 0-8247-0172-0.

7. Cox, B.; Flanagan, G. Handbook of Analytical Methods for Textile Compo-

sites. NASA Contractor Report 4750. NASA-Langley Res. Ctr., Hampton,

VA, 1997.

8. Hasselbrack, S.A.; Pederson, C.L.; Seferis, J.C. Evaluation of carbon–ﬁber

reinforced thermoplastic matrices in a ﬂat braid process. Polym. Compos. 1992,

13 (1), 38–46.

9. Kalpakjian, S. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials; 3rd Ed.;

Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.: Menlo Park CA, 1997; ISBN 0-201-82370-5.

10. Schwartz, M.M. Composite Materials Handbook; New York, NY, McGraw-Hill

Book Co.: 1983; ISBN 0-07-055743-8.

11. Hyer, M.W. Stress Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials; New

York, NY,McGraw-Hill Book Co.: 1998; ISBN 0-07-016700-1.

12. Herakovich, C.T. Mechanics of Fibrous Composites; John Wiley and Sons: New

York, NY, 1998; ISBN 0-471-10636-4.

13. Jones, R.M. Mechanics of Composite Materials; McGraw-Hill Book Co.: New

York, NY, 1975; ISBN 0-07-032790-4.

14. Hull, D. An Introduction to Composite Materials; Cambridge University Press:

Cambridge, UK, 1981; ISBN 0-521-23991-5.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2

Review of Force, Stress, and Strain Tensors

In this chapter, the fundamental deﬁnitions of force vectors, stress tensors,

and strain tensors are reviewed. The chapter begins with a discussion of force

vectors, since the concept of ‘‘force’’ is encountered in everyday life and is

therefore very intuitive. Separate sections devoted to stress tensors and strain

tensors are then presented. Certain parallels will be drawn between force

vectors and stress/strain tensors. An important underlying principal is that a

tensor cannot be described in a mathematical sense until a speciﬁc coordinate

system is selected for use. Also, a tensor cannot be properly described using

only a single component of the tensor, i.e., all components of a tensor must be

known in order to describe the tensor.

1 THE FORCE VECTOR

Forces can be grouped into two broad categories: surface forces and body

forces. Surface forces are those that act over a surface (as the name implies)

and result from direct physical contact between two bodies. In contrast, body

forces are those that act at a distance and do not result from direct physical

contact of one body with another. The force of gravity is the most common

type of body force. In this text, we are primarily concerned with surface forces;

the eﬀects of body forces (such as the weight of a structure) will be ignored.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

A force is a 3-D vector. A force is deﬁned by a magnitude and a line of

action. In SI units, the magnitude of a force is expressed in Newtons,

abbreviated N, whereas in English units, the magnitude of a force is expressed

in pounds-force, abbreviated lbf. A force vector F acting at a point P and

referenced to a right-handed x–y–z coordinate system is shown in Fig. 1.

Components of F acting parallel to the x–y–z coordinate axes, F

x

, F

yy

, and

F

z

, respectively, are also shown in the ﬁgure. The algebraic sign of each force

component is deﬁned in accordance with the algebraically positive direction

of the corresponding coordinate axis. All force components shown in Fig. 1

are algebraically positive since each component ‘‘points’’ in the correspond-

ing positive coordinate direction.

The reader is likely to have encountered several diﬀerent ways of ex-

pressing force vectors in a mathematical sense. Three methods will be de-

scribed here. The ﬁrst is called vector notation and involves the use of unit

vectors. Unit vectors parallel to the x-, y-, and z-coordinate axes are typically

labeled ıˆ, j

ˆ

, and k

ˆ

, respectively, and by deﬁnition have a magnitude equal to

unity. A force vector F is written in vector notation as follows:

F ¼ F

x

ˆ

i þ F

y

ˆ

j þ F

z

ˆ

k

ð1Þ

The magnitude of the force is given by:

F j j ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

F

2

x

þ F

2

y

þ F

2

z

_

ð2Þ

Figure 1 A force vector F acting at point P. Force components F

x

, F

y

, and F

z

acting parallel to the x–y–z coordinate axes, respectively, are also shown.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

A second method of deﬁning a force vector is through the use of indicial

notation. In this case, a subscript is used to denote individual components of

the vectorial quantity:

F ¼ ðF

x

; F

y

; F

z

Þ

The subscript denotes the coordinate direction of each force component. One

of the advantages of indicial notation is that it allows a shorthand notation to

be used, as follows:

F ¼ F

i

; where i ¼ x; y; or z

ð3Þ

Note that a range has been explicitly speciﬁed for the subscript i in Eq. (3).

That is, it is explicitly stated that the subscript i may take on values of x, y, or

z. Usually, however, the range of a subscript(s) is not stated explicitly but

rather is implied. For example, Eq. (3) is normally written simply as:

F ¼ F

i

where it is understood that the subscript i takes on values of x, y, and z.

The third approach is called matrix notation. In this case, individual

components of the force vector are listed within braces in the formof a column

array:

F ¼

F

x

F

y

F

z

_

_

_

_

_

_

ð4Þ

Indicial notation is sometimes combined with matrix notation as follows:

F ¼ F

i

f g

ð5Þ

2 TRANSFORMATION OF A FORCE VECTOR

One of the most common requirements in the study of mechanics is the need to

describe a vector in more than one coordinate system. For example, suppose

all components of a force vector F

i

are known in one coordinate system (say,

the x–y–z coordinate system), and it is desired to express this force vector in a

second coordinate system (say, the xV–yV–zV coordinate system). In order to

describe the force vector in the new coordinate system, we must calculate the

components of the force parallel to the xV-, yV-, and zV-axes—that is, we must

calculate F

xV

, F

yV

, and F

zV

. The process of relating force components in one

coordinate system to those in another coordinate system is called the trans-

formation of the force vector. This terminology is perhaps unfortunate in the

sense that the force vector itself is not ‘‘transformed,’’ but rather our de-

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

scription of the force vector transforms as we change from one coordinate

system to another.

It can be shown (1,2) that the force components in the xV–yV–zV co-

ordinate system ( F

xV

, F

yV

, and F

zV

) are related to the components in the x–y–z

coordinate system ( F

x

, F

y

, and F

z

) according to:

F

xV

¼ c

xVx

F

x

þ c

xVy

F

y

þ c

xVz

F

z

ð6aÞ

F

yV

¼ c

yVx

F

x

þ c

yVy

F

y

þ c

yVz

F

z

F

zV

¼ c

zVx

F

x

þ c

zVy

F

y

þ c

zVz

F

z

The terms c

i Vj

that appear in Eq. (6a) are called direction cosines and equal the

cosine of the angle between the axes of the new and original coordinate

systems. An angle of rotation is deﬁned from the original x–y–z coordinate

system to the new xV–yV–zV coordinate system. The algebraic sign of the angle

of rotation is deﬁned in accordance with the right-hand rule.

Equation (6a) can be succinctly written using the summation conven-

tion as follows:

F

i V

¼ c

i Vj

F

j

ð6bÞ

Alternatively, these three equations can be written using matrix notation as:

F

xV

F

yV

F

zV

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

c

xVx

c

xVy

c

xVz

c

yVx

c

yVy

c

yVz

c

z

V

x

c

zVy

c

zVz

_

_

_

_

F

x

F

y

F

z

_

_

_

_

_

_

ð6cÞ

Note that although values of individual force components vary as we

change from one coordinate system to another, the magnitude of the force

vector [given by Eq. (2)] does not. The magnitude is independent of the

coordinate system used and is called an invariant of the force tensor.

Direction cosines relate unit vectors in the ‘‘new’’ and ‘‘old’’ coordinate

systems. For example, a unit vector directed along the xV-axis (i.e., unit vector

ıˆ V) is related to the unit vectors in the x–y–z coordinate system as follows:

ˆ

iV ¼ c

xVx

ˆ

i þ c

xVy

ˆ

j þ c

xVz

ˆ

k ð7Þ

Since i

ˆ

V is a unit vector, then in accordance with Eq. (2):

ðc

xVx

Þ

2

þ ðc

xVy

Þ

2

þ ðc

xVz

Þ

2

¼ 1 ð8Þ

To this point, we have referred to a force as a vector. A force vector can

also be called a force tensor. The term ‘‘tensor’’ refers to any quantity that

transforms in a physically meaningful way from one Cartesian coordinate

system to another. The rank of a tensor equals the number of subscripts that

must be used to describe the tensor. A force can be described using a single

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

subscript, F

i

, and therefore a force is said to be a tensor of rank one, or equiv-

alently, a ﬁrst-order tensor. Equations (6a)–(6c) is called the transformation

law for a ﬁrst-order tensor.

It is likely that the reader is already familiar with two other tensors: the

stress tensor, r

ij

, and the strain tensor, e

ij

. The stress and strain tensors will be

reviewed later in this chapter, but at this point, it can be noted that two

subscripts are used to describe stress and strain tensors. Hence, stress and

strain tensors are said to be tensors of rank two, or equivalently, second-order

tensors.

Example Problem 1

Given. All components of a force vector F are known in a given x–y–z co-

ordinate system. It is desired to express this force in a new xU–yU–zU

coordinate system, where the xU–yU–zU is generated from the original x–y–

z coordinate system by the following two rotations (see Fig. 2):

**A rotation of h about the original z-axis (which deﬁnes an inter-
**

mediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system), followed by

**A rotation of b about the xV-axis (which deﬁnes the ﬁnal xU–yU–zU
**

coordinate system).

Problem. (a) Determine the direction cosines c

iUj

relating the original x–y–z

coordinate system to the new xU–yU–zU coordinate system; (b) obtain a general

expression for the force vector F in the xU–yU–zU coordinate system; and (c)

calculate numerical values of the force vector F in the xU–yU–zU coordinate

system if h=20j, b=60j, and F

x

=1000 N, F

y

=200 N, F

z

=600 N.

Solution

Part (a). One way to determine the direction cosines c

iUj

is to rotate unit

vectors. In this approach, unit vectors are ﬁrst rotated fromthe original x–y–z

coordinate system to the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system, and then

from the xV–yV–zV system to the ﬁnal xU–yU–zU coordinate system.

Deﬁne a unit vector I that is aligned with the x-axis:

I u ð1Þ

ˆ

i

That is, vector I is a vector for which I

x

=1, I

y

=0, and I

z

=0. The vec-

tor I can be rotated to the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system using

Eqs. (6a)–(6c):

I

x

V ¼ c

x

V

x

I

x

þ c

x

V

y

I

y

þ c

x

V

z

I

z

I

y

V ¼ c

y

V

x

I

x

þ c

y

V

y

I

y

þ c

y

V

z

I

z

I

z

V ¼ c

z

V

x

I

x

þ c

z

V

y

I

y

þ c

z

V

z

I

z

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 2 Generation of the xW–yW–zW coordinate system from the x–y–z co-

ordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The direction cosines associated with a transformation from the x–y–z

coordinate system to the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system can be

determined by inspection [see Fig. 2(a)] and are given by:

c

x

V

x

¼ cosine ðangle between x

V

- and x-axesÞ ¼ cos h

c

x

V

y

¼ cosine ðangle between x

V

- and y-axesÞ ¼ cosð90

B

À hÞ ¼ sin h

c

x

V

z

¼ cosine ðangle between x

V

- and z-axesÞ ¼ cosð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

y

V

x

¼ cosine ðangle between the y

V

- and x-axesÞ ¼ cosð90

B

þ hÞ

¼ Àsin h

c

y

V

y

¼ cosine ðangle between the y

V

- and y-axesÞ ¼ cos h

c

y

V

z

¼ cosine ðangle between the y

V

- and z-axesÞ ¼ cosð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

x

¼ cosine ðangle between the z

V

- and x-axesÞ ¼ cosð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

y

¼ cosine ðangle between the z

V

- and y-axesÞ ¼ cosð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

z

¼ cosine ðangle between the z

V

- and z-axesÞ ¼ cosð0

B

Þ ¼ 1

Using these direction cosines:

I

x

V ¼ c

x

V

x

I

x

þ c

x

V

y

I

y

þ c

x

V

z

I

z

¼ ðcos hÞð1Þ þ ðsinhÞð0Þ þ ð0Þð0Þ ¼ cos h

I

y

V ¼ c

y

V

x

I

x

þ c

y

V

y

I

y

þ c

y

V

z

I

z

¼ ðÀsinhÞð1Þ þ ðcos hÞð0Þ þð0Þð0Þ ¼ Àsinh

I

z

V ¼ c

z

V

x

I

x

þ c

z

V

y

I

y

þ c

z

V

z

I

z

¼ ð0Þð1Þ þ ð0Þð0Þ þ ð1Þð0Þ ¼ 0

Therefore, in the xV–yV–zV coordinate system, the vector I is written as:

I ¼ ðcos hÞ

ˆ

i

V

þ ðÀsin hÞ

ˆ

j

V

Now deﬁne two additional unit vectors, one aligned with the original y-axis

(vector J ) and one aligned with the original z-axis (vector K), i.e., let J=(1) j

ˆ

and K=(1) k

ˆ

. Transforming these vectors to the xV–yV–zV coordinate system,

again using the direction cosines listed above, results in:

J ¼ ðsin hÞ

ˆ

i

V

þ ðcos hÞ

ˆ

j

V

K ¼ ð1Þ

ˆ

k

V

We now rotate vectors I , J, andK from the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate

systemtothe ﬁnal xU–yU–zU coordinate system. The directioncosines associated

with a transformation fromthe xV–yV–zV coordinate systemto the ﬁnal xU–yU–zU

coordinate system are easily determined by inspection [see Fig. 2(b)] and are

given by:

c

xUx

V ¼ 1 c

xUy

V ¼ 0 c

x Uz

V ¼ 0

c

y Ux

V ¼ 0 c

y Uy

V ¼ cos b c

y Uz

V ¼ sin b

c

z Ux

V ¼ 0 c

z Uy

V ¼ Àsin b c

z Uz

V ¼ cos b

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

These direction cosines together with Eqs. (6a)–(6c) can be used to rotate the

vector I from the intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system to the ﬁnal xU–yU–zU

coordinate system:

I

x

W ¼ c

x

W

x

V I

x

V þ c

x

W

y

V I

y

V þ c

x

W

z

V I

z

V ¼ ð1Þðcos hÞ þ ð0ÞðÀsin hÞ þ ð0Þð0Þ

I

x

W ¼ cos h

I

y

W ¼ c

y

W

x

V I

x

V þ c

y

W

y

V I

y

V þ c

y

W

z

V I

z

V ¼ð0ÞðcoshÞ þ ðcosbÞðÀsinhÞ þ ðsinbÞð0Þ

I

y

W ¼ Àcos b sin h

I

z

W ¼ c

z

W

x

V I

x

V þ c

z

W

y

V I

y

V þc

z

W

z

V I

z

V ¼ð0ÞðcoshÞ þðÀsinbÞðÀsinhÞ þðcosbÞð0Þ

I

z

W ¼ sin b sin h

Therefore, in the ﬁnal xU–yU–zU coordinate system, the vector I is written as:

I ¼ ðcos hÞ

ˆ

i

W

þ ðÀcos b sin hÞ

ˆ

j

W

þ ðsin b sin hÞ

ˆ

k

W

ðaÞ

Recall that in the original x–y–z coordinate system, I is simply a unit vector

aligned with the original x-axis: I u (1)ıˆ. Therefore result (a) deﬁnes the

direction cosines associated with the angle between the original x-axis and

the ﬁnal xU-, yU-, and zU-axes. That is:

c

x

W

x

¼ cosine ðangle between xU- and x-axesÞ ¼ cos h

c

y

W

x

¼ cosine ðangle between yU- and x-axesÞ ¼ Àcos b sin h

c

z

W

x

¼ cosine ðangle between zU- and x-axesÞ ¼ sin b sin h

A similar procedure is used to rotate the unit vectors J and K from the

intermediatexV–yV–zV coordinatesystemtotheﬁnal xU–yU–zU coordinatesystem.

These rotations result in:

J ¼ ðsin hÞ

ˆ

i

W

þ ðcos b cos hÞ

ˆ

j

W

þ ðÀsin b cos hÞ

ˆ

k

W

ðbÞ

K ¼ ð0Þ

ˆ

i

W

þ ðsin bÞ

ˆ

j

W

þ ðcos bÞ

ˆ

k

W

ðcÞ

Since vector J is a unit vector aligned with the original y-axis, J=(1)j

ˆ

, result

(b) deﬁnes the direction cosines associated with the angle between the orig-

inal y-axis and the ﬁnal xU-, yU-, and zU-axes:

c

x

W

y

¼ cosine ðangle between xU- and y-axesÞ ¼ sin h

c

y

W

y

¼ cosine ðangle between yU- and y-axesÞ ¼ cos b cos h

c

z

W

x

¼ cosine ðangle between zU- and y-axesÞ ¼ Àsin b cos h

Finally, result (c) deﬁnes the direction cosines associated with the angle

between the original z-axis and the ﬁnal xU-, yU-, and zU-axes:

c

x

W

z

¼ cosineð angle between xU- and z-axesÞ ¼ 0

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c

y

W

z

¼ cosine ðangle between yU-and z-axesÞ ¼ sin b

c

z

W

z

¼ cosine ðangle between zU-and z-axesÞ ¼ cos b

Assembling the preceding results, the set of direction cosines relating the

original x–y–z coordinate system to the ﬁnal xU–yU–zU coordinate system can

be written as:

c

x

W

x

c

x

W

y

c

x

W

z

c

y

W

x

c

y

W

y

c

y

W

z

c

z

W

x

c

z

W

y

c

z

W

z

_

_

_

_

¼

cos h sin h 0

Àcos b sin h cos b cos h sin b

sin b sin h Àsin b cos h cos b

_

_

_

_

Part (b). Since the direction cosines have been determined, transformation

of force vector Fcan be accomplished using any version of Eqs. (6a)–(6c). For

example, using matrix notation, Eq. (6c):

F

x

W

F

y

W

F

z

W

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

c

x

W

x

c

x

W

y

c

x

W

z

c

y

W

x

c

y

W

y

c

y

W

z

c

z

W

x

c

z

W

y

c

z

W

z

_

_

_

_

F

x

F

y

F

z

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

cos h sin h 0

Àcos b sin h cos b cos h sin b

sin b sin h Àsin b cos h cos b

_

_

_

_

F

x

F

y

F

z

_

_

_

_

_

_

F

x

W

F

y

W

F

z

W

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

ðcos hÞF

x

þ ðsin hÞF

y

ðÀcos b sin hÞF

x

þ ðcos b cos hÞF

y

þ ðsin bÞF

z

ðsin b sin hÞF

x

þ ðÀsin b cos hÞF

y

þ ðcos bÞF

z

_

_

_

_

_

_

Part (c). Using the speciﬁed numerical values and the results of Part (b):

F

x

W

F

y

W

F

z

W

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

ðcos 20

B

Þð1000NÞ þ ðsin20

B

Þ200N

ðÀcos 60

B

sin20

B

Þð1000NÞ þ ðcos 60

B

cos 20

B

Þð200NÞ þ ðsin60

B

Þð600NÞ

ðsin60

B

sin20

B

Þð1000NÞ þ ðÀsin60

B

cos 20

B

Þð200NÞ þ ðcos 60

B

Þð600NÞ

_

_

_

_

_

_

F

x

W

F

y

W

F

z

W

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

1008N

442:6N

433:4N

_

_

_

_

_

_

Using vector notation, F can now be expressed in the two diﬀerent coordi-

nate systems as:

F ¼ ð1000 NÞ

ˆ

i þ ð200 NÞ

ˆ

j þ ð600 NÞ

ˆ

k

or equivalently

F ¼ ð1008 NÞ

ˆ

i

W

þ ð442:6 NÞ

ˆ

j

W

þ ð433:4 NÞ

ˆ

k

W

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

where ıˆ, j

ˆ

, k

ˆ

and ıˆ U, j

ˆ

U, k

ˆ

U are unit vectors in the x–y–z and xU–yU–zUcoordinate

systems, respectively. Force vector F drawn in the x–y–z and xU–yU–

zUcoordinate systems is shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b), respectively. The two

descriptions of F are entirely equivalent. A convenient way of (partially)

verifying this equivalence is to calculate the magnitude of the original and

transformed force vectors. Since the magnitude is an invariant, it is inde-

Figure 3 Force vector F drawn in the x–y–z and xW–yW–zW coordinate systems.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

pendent of the coordinate system used to describe the force vector. Using

Eq. (2), the magnitude of the force vector in the x–y–z coordinate system is:

F j j ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

F

2

x

þ F

2

y

þ F

2

z

_

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ð1000NÞ

2

þ ð200NÞ

2

þ ð600NÞ

2

_

¼ 1183 N

The magnitude of the force vector in the xU–yU–zU coordinate system is:

F j j ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

F

x

W ð Þ

2

þ F

y

W

_ _

2

þ F

z

W ð Þ

2

_

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ð1008NÞ

2

þ ð442:6NÞ

2

þ ð433:4NÞ

2

_

¼ 1183N ðagreesÞ

3 NORMAL FORCES, SHEAR FORCES, AND FREE-BODY

DIAGRAMS

A force F acting at an angle to a planar surface is shown in Fig. 4. Since force

is a vector, it can always be decomposed into two force components, a normal

force component and a shear force component. The line-of-action of the nor-

mal force component is orthogonal to the surface, whereas the line-of-action

of the shear force component is tangent to the surface.

Internal forces induced within a solid body by externally applied forces

can be investigated with the aid of free-body diagrams. A simple example is

shown in Fig. 5, which shows a straight circular rod with constant diameter

subjected to two external forces of equal magnitude (R) but opposite direc-

tion. The internal force (F

I

, say) induced at any cross section of the rod can be

investigated by making an imaginary cut along the plane of interest. Suppose

an imaginary cut is made along plane a-a, which is perpendicular to the axis

Figure 4 A force F acting at an angle to a planar surface.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 5 The use of free-body diagrams to determine internal forces acting on

planes a-a and b-b: (a) free-body diagram based on plane a–a–a–a perpendicular

to rod axis; (b) free-body diagram based on plane b–b–b–b, inclined at angle h

to rod axis.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

of the rod. The resulting free-body diagram for the lower half of the rod is

shown in Fig. 5(a), where an x–y–z coordinate system has been assigned such

that the x-axis is parallel to the rod axis, as shown. On the basis of this free-

body diagram, it is concluded that an internal force F

I

= (R)ıˆ+(0)j

ˆ

+(0)k

ˆ

is induced at cross-section a-a. That is, only a normal force of magnitude R is

induced at cross-section a-a, which has been deﬁned to be perpendicular to

the axis of the rod.

On the other hand, the imaginary cut need not be made perpendicular

to the axis of the rod. Suppose the imaginary cut is made along plane b-b,

which is oriented at an angle of h with respect to the axis of the rod. The

resulting free-body diagram for the lower half of the rod is shown in Fig. 5(b).

A new xV–yV–zV coordinate system has been assigned so that the xV-axis is

perpendicular to plane b-b and the zV-axis is coincident with the z-axis—that

is, the xV–yV–zV coordinate system is generated from the x–y–z coordinate

system by a rotation of h about the original z-axis. The internal force F

I

can

be expressed with respect to the xV–yV–zV coordinate system by transforming

F

I

from the x–y–z coordinate system to the xV–yV–zV coordinate system.

This coordinate transformation is a special case of the transformation

considered in Example Problem 1. The direction cosines now become (with

b=0j):

c

x

V

x

¼ cos h c

x

V

y

¼ sin h c

x

V

z

¼ 0

c

y

V

x

¼ Àsin h c

y

V

y

¼ cos h c

y

V

z

¼ 0

c

z

V

x

¼ 0 c

z

V

y

¼ 0 c

z

V

z

¼ 1

Applying Eqs. (6a)–(6c), we have:

F

x

V

F

y

V

F

z

V

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

c

x

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

x

c

y

V

y

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

x

c

z

V

y

c

z

V

z

_

_

_

_

F

x

F

y

F

z

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

cos h sin h 0

Àsin h cos h 0

0 0 1

_

_

_

_

R

0

0

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

ðcos hÞR

ðÀsin hÞR

0

_

_

_

_

_

_

In the xV–yV–zV coordinate system, the internal force is F

I

= (R cos h)ıˆVÀ(R sin

h)j

ˆ

V+(0)k

ˆ

V. Hence, by deﬁning a coordinate system which is inclined to the

axis of the rod, we conclude that both a normal force (R cos h) and a shear

force (R sin h) are induced in the rod.

Although the preceding discussion may seem simplistic, it has been

included in order to demonstrate the following:

**A speciﬁc coordinate system must be speciﬁed before a force vector
**

can be deﬁned in a mathematical sense. In general, the coordinate

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system is deﬁned by the imaginary cut(s) used to form the free-body

diagram.

**All components of a force must be speciﬁed to fully deﬁne the force
**

vector. Furthermore, the individual components of a force change

as the vector is transformed from one coordinate system to another.

These two observations are valid for all tensors, not just for force

vectors. In particular, these observations hold in the case of stress and strain

tensors, which will be reviewed in the following sections.

4 DEFINITION OF STRESS

There are two fundamental types of stress: normal stress and shear stress.

Both types of stress are deﬁned as a force divided by the area over which

it acts.

A general 3-D solid body subjected to a system of external forces is

shown in Fig. 6(a). It is assumed that the body is in static equilibrium, that

is, it is assumed that the sum of all external forces is zero, SF

i

= 0. These

external forces induce internal forces acting within the body. In general,

the internal forces will vary in both magnitude and direction throughout the

body. An illustration of the variation of internal forces along a line within

an internal plane is shown in Fig. 6(b). A small area (DA) isolated from this

plane is shown in Fig. 6(c). Area DA is assumed to be ‘‘inﬁnitesimally small.’’

That is, the area DA is small enough such that the internal forces acting over

DA can be assumed to be of constant magnitude and direction. Therefore,

the internal forces acting over DA can be represented by a force vector which

can be decomposed into a normal force, N, and a shear force, V, as shown

in Fig. 6(c).

Normal stress (usually denoted r) and shear stress (usually denoted s)

are deﬁned as the force per unit area acting perpendicular and tangent to the

area DA, respectively. That is,

r u lim

DA!0

N

DA

s u lim

DA!0

V

DA

ð9Þ

Note that by deﬁnition, the area DA shrinks to zero: DA!0. Stresses r and s

are therefore said to exist ‘‘at a point.’’ Also, since internal forces generally

vary from point-to-point (as shown in Fig. 6), stresses also vary from point-

to-point.

Stress has units of force per unit area. In SI units, stress is reported in

terms of Pascals (abbreviated Pa), where 1 Pa=1 N/m

2

. In English units,

stress is reported in terms of pounds-force per square inch (abbreviated psi),

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 6 A solid 3-D body in equilibrium.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

that is, 1 psi=1 lbf/in

2

. Conversion factors between the two systems of mea-

surement are 1 psi=6895 Pa, or equivalently, 1 Pa=0.1450Â10

À3

psi. Com-

mon abbreviations used throughout this text are as follows:

1 Â 10

3

Pa ¼ 1kilo-Pascals ¼ 1kPa 1 Â 10

3

psi ¼ 1kilo-psi ¼ 1ksi

1 Â 10

6

Pa ¼ 1Mega-Pascals ¼ 1 MPa 1 Â 10

6

psi ¼ 1mega-psi ¼ 1Msi

1 Â 10

9

Pa ¼ 1Giga-Pascals ¼ 1GPa

5 THE STRESS TENSOR

A general 3-D solid body subjected to a system of external forces is shown in

Fig. 7(a). It is assumed that the body is in static equilibrium and that body

forces are negligible, that is, it is assumed that the sum of all external forces

is zero, SF

i

= 0. A free-body diagram of an inﬁnitesimally small cube re-

moved from the body is shown in Fig. 7(b). The cube is referenced to an x–

y–z coordinate system, and the cube edges are aligned with these axes. The

lengths of the cube edges are denoted dx, dy, and dz. Although (in general)

internal forces are induced over all six faces of the cube, for clarity, the forces

acting on only three faces have been shown.

The force acting over each cube face can be decomposed into a normal

force component and two shear force components, as illustrated in Fig. 7(c).

Although each component could be identiﬁed with a single subscript (since

force is a ﬁrst-order tensor), for convenience, two subscripts have been used.

The ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the face over which the force is distributed,

while the second subscript identiﬁes the direction in which the force is ori-

ented. For example, N

xx

refers to a normal force component which is

distributed over the x-face and which ‘‘points’’ in the x-direction. Similarly,

V

zy

refers to a shear force distributed over the z-face which ‘‘points’’ in the

y-direction.

Three stress components can now be deﬁned for each cube face, in

accordance with Eq. (9). For example, for the three faces of the inﬁnitesimal

element shown in Fig. 7:

Stresses acting on the +x-face:

r

xx

¼ lim

dy;dz!0

N

xx

dydz

_ _

s

xy

¼ lim

dy;dz!0

V

xy

dydz

_ _

s

xz

¼ lim

dy;dz!0

V

xz

dydz

_ _

Stresses acting on the Ày-face:

r

yy

¼ lim

dx;dz!0

N

yy

dxdz

_ _

s

yx

¼ lim

dx;dz!0

V

yx

dxdz

_ _

s

yz

¼ lim

dx;dz!0

V

yz

dxdz

_ _

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 7 Free-body diagrams used to define stress induced in a solid body.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Stresses acting on the +z-face:

r

zz

¼ lim

dx;dy!0

N

zz

dxdy

_ _

s

zx

¼ lim

dx;dy!0

V

zx

dxdy

_ _

s

zy

¼ lim

dx;dy!0

V

zy

dxdy

_ _

Since three force components (and therefore three stress components)

exist on each of the six faces of the cube, it would initially appear that there

are 18 independent force (stress) components. However, it is easily shown

that for static equilibrium to be maintained (assuming body forces are neg-

ligible):

**Normal forces acting on opposite faces of the inﬁnitesimal element
**

must be of equal magnitude and opposite direction, and

**Shear forces acting within a plane of the element must be orientated
**

either ‘‘tip-to-tip’’ [e.g., forces V

xz

and V

zx

in Fig. 7(c)] or ‘‘tail-to-

tail’’ (e.g., forces V

zy

and V

yz

) and be of equal magnitude. That is,

jV

xy

=V

yx

j, jV

xz

=V

zx

j, and jV

yz

=V

zy

j.

These restrictions reduce the number of independent force (stress) com-

ponents from 18 to 6, as follows:

Independent force components Independent stress components

N

xx

r

xx

N

yy

r

yy

N

zz

r

zz

V

xy

ð¼ V

yx

Þ s

xy

ð¼ s

yx

Þ

V

xz

ð¼ V

zx

Þ s

xz

ð¼ s

zx

Þ

V

yz

ð¼ V

zy

Þ s

yz

ð¼ s

zy

Þ

An inﬁnitesimal element showing all stress components is shown in

Fig. 8. We must next deﬁne the algebraic sign convention we will use to de-

scribe individual stress components. We ﬁrst associate an algebraic sign with

each face of the inﬁnitesimal element. A cube face is positive if the outward

unit normal of the face (that is, the unit normal pointing away from the

interior of the element) points in a positive coordinate direction; otherwise,

the face is negative. For example, face (ABCD) in Fig. 8 is a positive face,

while face (CDEF) is a negative face.

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Having identiﬁed the positive and negative faces of the element, a stress

component is positive if:

**The stress component acts on a positive face and points in a positive
**

coordinate direction, or if

**The stress component acts on a negative face and points in a negative
**

coordinate direction

otherwise, the stress component is negative.

This convention can be used to conﬁrm that all stress components

shown in Fig. 8 are algebraically positive. For example, to determine the

algebraic sign of the normal stress r

xx

which acts on face ABCDin Fig. 8, note

that (a) face ABCD is positive and (b) the normal stress r

xx

which acts on this

Figure 8 An infinitesimal stress element (all stress components shown in a

positive sense).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

face points in the positive y-direction. Therefore, r

xx

is positive. As a second

example, the shear stress s

yz

which acts on cube face CDEFis positive because

(a) face CDEF is negative and (b) s

yz

points in the negative z-direction.

The preceding discussion shows that the state of stress at a point is de-

ﬁned by six components of stress: three normal stress components and three

shear stress components. The state of stress is written using matrix notation

as follows:

r

xx

s

xy

s

xz

s

yx

r

yy

s

yz

s

zx

s

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

¼

r

xx

s

xy

s

xz

s

xy

r

yy

s

yz

s

xz

s

yz

r

zz

_

_

_

_

ð10Þ

To express the state of stress using indicial notation, we must ﬁrst make

the following change in notation:

s

xy

! r

xy

s

xz

! r

xz

s

yx

! r

yx

s

yz

! r

yz

s

zx

! r

zx

s

zy

! r

zy

With this change, the matrix on the left side of the equality sign in Eq. (10)

becomes:

r

xx

s

xy

s

xz

s

yx

r

yy

s

yz

s

zx

s

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

!

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

xy

r

yy

r

yz

r

xz

r

yz

r

zz

_

_

_

_

which can be succinctly written using indicial notation as:

r

ij

; i; j ¼ x; y; or z ð11Þ

In Sec. 1, it was noted that a force vector is a ﬁrst-order tensor since only

one subscript is required to describe a force tensor, F

i

. FromEq. (11), it is clear

that stress is a second-order tensor (or equivalently, a tensor of rank two) since

two subscripts are required to describe a state of stress.

Example Problem 2

Given. The stress element referenced to an x–y–z coordinate system and

subject to the stress components shown in Fig. 9.

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Determine. Label all stress components, including algebraic sign.

Solution. The magnitude and algebraic sign of each stress component are

determined using the sign convention deﬁned above. The procedure will be

illustrated using the stress components acting on face CDEF. First, note that

face CDEFis a negative face since an outward unit normal for this face points

in the negative y-direction. The normal stress which acts on face CDEF has a

magnitude of 50 MPa and points in the positive y-direction. Hence, this stress

component is negative and is labeled r

yy

=À50 MPa. One of the shear stress

components acting on face CDEF has a magnitude of 75 MPa and points in

the positive x-direction. Hence, this stress component is also negative and is

Figure 9 Stress components acting on an infinitesimal element (all stresses in

MPa).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

labeled s

yx

=À75 MPa (or equivalently, s

xy

=À75 MPa). Finally, the second

shear force component acting on face CDEF has a magnitude of 50 MPa and

points in the positive z-direction. Hence, this component is labeled s

yz

=À50

MPa (or equivalently, s

zy

=À50 MPa).

Following this process for all faces of the element, the state of stress

represented by the element shown in Fig. 9 can be written as:

r

xx

s

xy

s

xz

s

yx

r

yy

s

yz

s

zx

s

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

¼

100MPa À75MPa 30MPa

À75MPa À50MPa À50MPa

30MPa À50MPa 25MPa

_

_

_

_

6 TRANSFORMATION OF THE STRESS TENSOR

In Sec. 5, the stress tensor was deﬁned using a free-body diagram of an inﬁni-

tesimal element removed from a 3-D body in static equilibrium. This concept

is again illustrated in Fig. 10(a), which shows the stress element referenced to

an x–y–z coordinate system.

Now, the inﬁnitesimal element need not be removed in the orientation

shown in Fig. 10(a). An inﬁnitesimal element removed from precisely the

same point within the body but at a diﬀerent orientation is shown in Fig.

10(b). This stress element is referenced to a new xV–yV–zV coordinate system.

The state of stress at the point of interest is dictated by the external loads

applied to the body and is independent of the coordinate system used to

describe it. Hence, the stress tensor referenced to the xV–yV–zVcoordinate

system is equivalent to the stress tensor referenced to the x–y–z coordinate

system, although the direction and magnitude of individual stress compo-

nents will diﬀer.

The process of relating stress components in one coordinate system to

those in another is called the transformation of the stress tensor. This

terminology is perhaps unfortunate in the sense that the state of stress itself

is not ‘‘transformed,’’ but rather our description of the state of stress trans-

forms as we change from one coordinate system to another.

It can be shown (1,2) that the stress components in the new xV–yV–zV

coordinate system (r

iVjV

) are related to the components in the original x–y–z

coordinate system (r

ij

) according to:

r

i

V

j

V ¼ c

i

V

k

c

j

V

l

r

kl

where i; j; k; l ¼ x; y; z ð12aÞ

or equivalently (using matrix notation):

½r

i

V

j

V ¼ ½c

i

V

j

½r

ij

½c

i

V

j

T

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 10 Infinitesimal elements removed from the same point from a 3-D solid

but in two different orientations.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

where [c

iVj

]

T

is the transpose of the direction cosine array. Writing in full

matrix form:

r

x

V

x

V r

x

V

y

V r

x

V

z

V

r

y

V

x

V r

y

V

y

V r

y

V

z

V

r

z

V

x

V r

z

V

y

V r

z

V

z

V

_

_

_

_

¼

c

x

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

x

c

y

V

y

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

x

c

z

V

y

c

z

V

z

_

_

_

_

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

Â

c

x

V

x

c

y

V

x

c

z

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

y

V

y

c

z

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

z

_

_

_

_

ð12bÞ

As discussed in Sec. 2, the terms c

iVj

which appear in Eqs. (12a) and (12b)

are direction cosines and equal the cosine of the angle between the axes of the

x–y–z and xV–yV–zV coordinate systems. Recall that the algebraic sign of an

angle of rotation is deﬁned in accordance with the right-hand rule and that

angles are deﬁned from the x–y–z coordinate system to xV–yV–zV coordinate

system. Equations (12a) and (12b) are called the transformation law for a

second-order tensor.

If an analysis is being performed with the aid of a digital computer,

which nowadays is almost always the case, then matrix notation [Eq. (12b)]

most likely will be used to transform a stress tensor from one coordinate

system to another. Conversely, if a stress transformation is to be accom-

plished using hand calculations, then indicial notation [Eq. (12a)] may be the

preferred choice. To apply Eq. (12a), desired values are ﬁrst speciﬁed for

subscripts iV and jV, and then the terms on the right side of the equality are

summed over the entire range of the remaining two subscripts, k and l. For

example, suppose we wish to write the relationship between r

xVzV

and the stress

components in the x–y–z coordinate system in expanded form. We ﬁrst

specify that iV=xV and jV=zV, and Eq. (12a) becomes:

r

x

V

z

V ¼ c

x

V

k

c

z

V

l

r

kl

where k; l ¼ x; y; z

We then sum all terms on the right side of the equality by cycling through the

entire range of k and l. In expanded form, we have:

r

x

V

z

V ¼ c

x

V

x

c

z

V

x

r

xx

þ c

x

V

x

c

z

V

y

r

xy

þ c

x

V

x

c

z

V

z

r

xz

þ c

x

V

y

c

z

V

x

r

yx

þ c

x

V

y

c

z

V

y

r

yy

þ c

x

V

y

c

z

V

z

r

yz

þ c

x

V

z

c

z

V

x

r

zx

þ c

x

V

z

c

z

V

y

r

zy

þ c

x

V

z

c

z

V

z

r

zz

ð13Þ

Equations (12a) and (12b) show that the value of any individual stress

component r

iVjV

varies as the stress tensor is transformed from one coordinate

system to another. However, it can be shown (1,2) that there are features of

the total stress tensor that do not vary when the tensor is transformed from

one coordinate system to another. These features are called the stress in-

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

variants. For a second-order tensor, three independent stress invariants exist

and are deﬁned as follows:

First stress invariant ¼ H ¼ r

ii

ð14aÞ

Second stress invariant ¼ U ¼

1

2

r

ii

r

jj

À r

ij

r

ij

_ _

ð14bÞ

Third stress invariant ¼ W ¼

1

6

r

ii

r

jj

r

kk

À 3r

ii

r

jk

r

jk

þ 2r

ij

r

jk

r

ki

_ _

ð14cÞ

Alternatively, by expanding these equations over the range i, j, k=x, y, z and

simplifying, the stress invariants can be written as:

First stress invariant ¼ H ¼ r

xx

þr

yy

þr

zz

ð15aÞ

Second stress invariant ¼ U ¼ r

xx

r

yy

þ r

xx

r

zz

þr

yy

r

zz

À r

2

xy

þr

2

xz

þ r

2

yz

_ _

ð15bÞ

Third stress invariant ¼ W ¼ r

xx

r

yy

r

zz

Àr

xx

r

2

yz

À r

yy

r

2

xz

À r

zz

r

2

xy

þ 2r

xy

r

xz

r

yz

ð15cÞ

The three stress invariants are conceptually similar to the magnitude of a

force tensor. That is, the value of the three stress invariants is independent

of the coordinate used to describe the stress tensor, just as the magnitude of

a force vector is independent of the coordinate system used to describe the

force. This invariance will be illustrated in the following example problem.

Example Problem 3

Given. A state of stress referenced to an x–y–z coordinate is known to be:

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

¼

50 À10 15

À10 25 30

15 30 À5

_

_

_

_

ðksiÞ

It is desired to express this state of stress in an xU–yU–zU coordinate system,

generated by the following two sequential rotations:

(i) Rotation of h=20j about the original z-axis (which deﬁnes an

intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system), followed by

(ii) Rotation of b=35j about the xV-axis (which deﬁnes the ﬁnal xU–yU–

zU coordinate system).

Problem. (a) Rotate the stress tensor to the xU–yU–zU coordinate system and

(b) calculate the ﬁrst, second, and third invariants of the stress tensor using

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

both elements of the stress tensor referenced to the x–y–z coordinate system,

r

ij

, and elements of the stress tensor referenced to the xU–yU–zU coordinate

system, r

iUjU

.

Solution

Part (a). General expressions for direction cosines relating the x–y–z and

xU–yU–zU coordinate systems were determined as a part of Example Problem 1.

The direction cosines were found to be:

c

x

W

x

¼ cos h

c

x

W

y

¼ sin h

c

x

W

z

¼ 0

c

y

W

x

¼ Àcos b sin h

c

y

W

y

¼ cos b cos h

c

y

W

z

¼ sin b

c

z

W

x

¼ sin b sin h

c

z

W

y

¼ Àsin b cos h

c

z

W

z

¼ cos b

Since in this problem h=20j and b=35j, the numerical values of the direc-

tion cosines are:

c

x

W

x

¼ cos ð20

B

Þ ¼ 0:9397

c

x

W

y

¼ sin ð20

B

Þ ¼ 0:3420

c

x

W

z

¼ 0

c

y

W

x

¼ Àcos ð35

B

Þsin ð20

B

Þ ¼ À0:2802

c

y

W

y

¼ cos ð35

B

Þcos ð20

B

Þ ¼ 0:7698

c

y

W

z

¼ sin ð35

B

Þ ¼ 0:5736

c

z

W

x

¼ sin ð35

B

Þsin ð20

B

Þ ¼ 0:1962

c

z

W

y

¼ Àsin ð35

B

Þcos ð20

B

Þ ¼ À0:5390

c

z

W

z

¼ cos ð35

B

Þ ¼ 0:8192

Each component of the transformed stress tensor is now found through the

application of either Eq. (12a) or Eq. (12b). For example, if indicial notation

is used, stress component r

xUzU

can be found using Eq. (13):

r

x

W

z

W ¼ c

x

W

x

c

z

W

x

r

xx

þ c

x

W

x

c

z

W

y

r

xy

þ c

x

W

x

c

z

W

z

r

xz

þ c

x

W

y

c

z

W

x

r

yx

þ c

x

W

y

c

z

W

y

r

yy

þ c

x

W

y

c

z

W

z

r

yz

þ c

x

W

z

c

z

W

x

r

zx

þ c

x

W

z

c

z

W

y

r

zy

þ c

x

W

z

c

z

W

z

r

zz

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

r

x

W

z

W ¼ ð0:9397Þð0:1962Þð50ksiÞ þ ð0:9397ÞðÀ0:5390ÞðÀ10ksiÞ

þð0:9397Þð0:8192Þð15ksiÞ þ ð0:3420Þð0:1962ÞðÀ10ksiÞ

þð0:3420ÞðÀ0:5390Þð25ksiÞ þ ð0:3420Þð0:8192Þð30ksiÞ

þð0Þð0:1962Þð15ksiÞþð0ÞðÀ0:5390Þð30ksiÞþð0Þð0:8192ÞðÀ5ksiÞ

r

x

W

z

W ¼ 28:95ksi

Alternatively, if matrix notation is used, then Eq. (12b) becomes:

r

x

W

x

W r

x

W

y

W r

x

W

z

W

r

y

W

x

W r

y

W

y

W r

y

W

z

W

r

z

W

x

W r

z

W

y

W r

z

W

z

W

_

_

_

_

¼

0:9397 0:3420 0

À0:2802 0:7698 0:5736

0:1962 À0:5390 0:8192

_

_

_

_

50 À10 15

À10 25 30

15 30 À5

_

_

_

_

Â

0:9397 À0:2802 0:1962

0:3420 0:7698 À0:5390

0 0:5736 0:8192

_

_

_

_

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated yields the following:

r

x

W

x

W r

x

W

y

W r

x

W

z

W

r

y

W

x

W r

y

W

y

W r

y

W

z

W

r

z

W

x

W r

z

W

y

W r

z

W

z

W

_

_

_

_

¼

40:65 1:113 28:95

1:113 43:08 À10:60

28:95 À10:60 À13:72

_

_

_

_

ðksiÞ

Notice that the value of r

xUzU

determined through matrix multiplication is

identical to that obtained using indicial notation, as previously described. The

stress element is shown in the original and ﬁnal coordinate systems in Fig. 11.

Part (b). The ﬁrst, second, and third stress invariants will nowbe calculated

using components of both r

ij

and r

iUjU

. It is expected that identical values will

be obtained since the stress invariants are independent of the coordinate

system.

First stress invariant:

x–y–z coordinate system:

H ¼ r

ii

¼ r

xx

þ r

yy

þ r

zz

H ¼ ð50 þ 25 À 5Þ ksi

H ¼ 70ksi

xU–yU–zU coordinate system:

H ¼ r

i

W

i

W ¼ r

x

W

x

W þr

y

W

y

W þr

z

W

z

W

H ¼ ð40:65 þ 43:08 À 13:72Þ

H ¼ 70ksi

As expected, the ﬁrst stress invariant is independent of the coordinate

system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Second stress invariant:

x–y–z coordinate system:

U ¼

1

2

r

ii

r

jj

À r

ij

r

ij

_ _

¼ r

xx

r

yy

þ r

xx

r

zz

þ r

yy

r

zz

À r

2

xy

þ r

2

xz

þr

2

yz

_ _

U ¼

_

ð50Þð25Þ þ ð50ÞðÀ5Þ þ ð25ÞðÀ5Þ À ½ðÀ10Þ

2

þ ð15Þ

2

þ ð30Þ

2

_

ðksiÞ

2

U ¼ À350ðksiÞ

2

xU–yU–zU coordinate system:

U ¼

1

2

r

i

W

i

Wr

j

W

j

W À r

i

W

j

Wr

i

W

j

W

_ _

U ¼ r

x

W

x

Wr

y

W

y

W þ r

x

W

x

Wr

z

W

z

W þr

y

W

y

Wr

z

W

z

W À r

2

x

W

y

W

þ r

2

x

W

z

W

þ r

2

y

W

z

W

_ _

Figure 11 Stress tensor of Example Problem 3 referenced to two different

coordinates (magnitude of all stress components in ksi).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

U ¼

_

ð40:65Þð43:08Þ þ ð40:65ÞðÀ13:72Þ þ ð43:08ÞðÀ13:72Þ

À ½ð1:113Þ

2

þ ð28:95Þ

2

þ ðÀ10:60Þ

2

_

ðksiÞ

2

U ¼ À350ðksiÞ

2

As expected, the second stress invariant is independent of the coordinate

system.

Third stress invariant:

x–y–z coordinate system:

W ¼

1

6

r

ii

r

jj

r

kk

À 3r

ii

r

jk

r

jk

þ 2r

ij

r

jk

r

ki

_ _

W ¼ r

xx

r

yy

r

zz

Àr

xx

r

2

yz

À r

yy

r

2

xz

À r

zz

r

2

xy

þ 2r

xy

r

xz

r

yz

W ¼ ½ð50Þð25ÞðÀ5Þ À ð50Þð30Þ

2

À ð25Þð15Þ

2

À ðÀ5ÞðÀ10Þ

2

þ 2ðÀ10Þð15Þð30Þ ðksiÞ

3

W ¼ À65375ðksiÞ

3

xU–yU–zU coordinate system:

W ¼

1

6

r

i

W

i

Wr

j

W

j

Wr

k

W

k

W À 3r

i

W

i

Wr

j

W

k

Wr

j

W

k

W þ 2r

i

W

j

Wr

j

W

k

Wr

k

W

i

W

_ _

W ¼ r

x

W

x

Wr

y

W

y

Wr

z

W

z

W À r

x

W

x

Wr

2

y

W

z

W

Àr

y

W

y

Wr

2

x

W

z

W

À r

z

W

z

Wr

2

x

W

y

W

þ 2r

x

W

y

Wr

x

W

z

Wr

y

W

z

W

W ¼ ½ð40:65Þð43:08ÞðÀ13:72Þ À ð40:65ÞðÀ10:60Þ

2

À ð43:08Þ

Âð28:95Þ

2

À ðÀ13:72Þð1:113Þ

2

þ 2ð1:113Þð28:95Þ

ÂðÀ10:60Þ ðksiÞ

3

W ¼ À65375ðksiÞ

3

As expected, the third stress invariant is independent of the coordinate

system.

7 PRINCIPAL STRESSES

The deﬁnition of a stress tensor was reviewed in Sec. 5, and transformation of

a stress tensor from one coordinate system to another was discussed in Sec. 6.

It can be shown (1,2) that it is always possible to rotate the stress tensor to a

special coordinate system in which no shear stresses exist. This coordinate

system is called the principal stress coordinate system, and the normal stresses

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

that exist in this coordinate system are called the principal stresses. In most

textbooks, principal stresses are denoted r

1

, r

2

, and r

3

. However, as will be

discussed later (see Fig. 2 in Chap. 3) in this textbook, the labels ‘‘1,’’ ‘‘2,’’ and

‘‘3’’ will be used to label the axes in a special coordinate system called the

principal material coordinate system. Therefore, in this text, the axes asso-

ciated with the principal stress coordinate system will be labeled p

1

, p

2

, and p

3

axes, and the principal stresses will be denoted r

p1

, r

p2

, and r

p3

.

Knowledge of the principal stresses induced in an isotropic structure is

of extreme importance, primarily because failure of isotropic materials (e.g.,

yielding and/or fracture) can often be directly related to the magnitude(s) of

the principal stresses. This is not the case for composite structures, however.

As will be seen in later chapters, failure of composite structures is not

governed by principal stresses, and hence the topic of principal stresses is

only of occasional importance to the composite engineer.

Principal stresses may be related to stress components in an x–y–z

coordinate systemusing the free-body diagramshown in Fig. 12. It is assumed

that plane ABC is one of the three principal planes (i.e., n = 1, 2, or 3) and

therefore no shear stress exists on this plane. The line-of-action of principal

stress r

pn

deﬁnes one axis of the principal stress coordinate system. The

direction cosines between this principal axis and the x-, y-, and z- axes are c

pnx

,

c

pny

, and c

pnz

, respectively. The surface area of triangle ABC is denoted A

ABC

.

The normal force acting over triangle ABC therefore equals (r

pn

A

ABC

). The

components of the normal force acting in the x-, y-, and z-directions equal

c

pnx

r

pn

A

ABC

, c

pny

r

pn

A

ABC

, and c

pnz

r

pn

A

ABC

, respectively.

The area of the other triangular faces are given by:

Area of triangle ABD=c

pnx

A

ABC

.

Area of triangle ACD=c

pny

A

ABC

.

Area of triangle BCD=c

pnz

A

ABC

.

Summing forces in the x-direction and equating to zero, we obtain:

c

p

n

x

r

p

n

A

ABC

À r

xx

c

p

n

x

A

ABC

Às

xy

c

p

n

y

A

ABC

À s

xz

c

p

n

z

A

ABC

¼ 0

which can be reduced and simpliﬁed to:

ðr

p

n

À r

xx

Þc

p

n

x

À s

xy

c

p

n

y

À s

xz

c

p

n

z

¼ 0 ð16aÞ

Similarly, summing forces in the y- and z-directions results in:

Às

xy

c

p

n

x

þ ðr

p

n

À r

yy

Þc

p

n

y

À s

yz

c

p

n

z

¼ 0 ð16bÞ

Às

xz

c

p

n

x

À s

yz

c

p

n

y

þ ðr

p

n

À r

zz

Þc

p

n

z

¼ 0 ð16cÞ

Equations (16a)–(16c) represent three linear homogeneous equations

which must be satisﬁed simultaneously. Since direction cosines c

p

n

x

, c

p

n

y

, and

c

p

n

z

must also satisfy Eq. (8), and therefore cannot all equal zero, the solu-

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

tion can be obtained by requiring that the determinant of the coeﬃcients

of c

p

n

x

, c

p

n

y

, and c

p

n

z

equal zero:

ðr

p

n

À r

xx

Þ Às

xy

Às

xz

Às

xy

ðr

p

n

À r

yy

Þ Às

yz

Às

xz

Às

yz

ðr

p

n

Àr

zz

Þ

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¼ 0

Equating the determinant to zero results in the following cubic

equation:

r

3

p

n

À Hr

2

p

n

þ Ur

p

n

À W ¼ 0 ð17Þ

where H, U, and W are the ﬁrst, second, and third stress invariants, respec-

tively, and have been previously listed as Eqs. (14a)–(14c) and (15a)–(15c).

Figure 12 Free-body diagram used to relate stress components in the x–y–z

coordinate system to a principal stress.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The three roots of the cubic equation (that is, the three principal stresses) may

be found by application of the standard approach (3), as follows.

Deﬁne:

a ¼

1

3

3U À H

2

_ _

b ¼

À1

27

2H

3

À 9HU þ 27W

_ _

A ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À

b

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

b

2

4

þ

a

3

27

_

3

¸

B ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À

b

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

b

2

4

þ

a

3

27

_

3

¸

The three principal stresses [i.e., the three roots of Eq. (17)] are then given by:

r

p

1

; r

p

2

; r

p

3

¼

A þ B þ

H

3

À

A þ B

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À3

p

A À B

2

_ _

þ

H

3

À

A þ B

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À3

p

A À B

2

_ _

þ

H

3

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð18Þ

By convention, the principal stresses are numbered such that r

p1

is the

algebraically greatest principal stress, whereas r

p3

is the algebraically least.

That is, r

p1

>r

p2

>r

p3

.

Two comments regarding the practical application of either Eq. (17) or

Eq. (18) are appropriate. First, many handheld calculators and computer

software packages feature standard routines to ﬁnd the roots of nth-order

polynomials. Hence, the three roots of Eq. (17) (that is, the three principal

stresses) may often be found most conveniently through the use of these

standard calculator routines or software packages, rather than through

application of Eq. (18). The second comment is that if the principal stresses

are to be calculated through application of Eq. (18), then calculation of

constants A and B generally involves ﬁnding the cube root of a complex

number. The need to ﬁnd the cube root of a complex number is encountered

infrequently, and hence the reader may not be aware of how to make such a

calculation. For convenience, a process that may be used to ﬁnd the cube root

of a complex number has been included in Appendix A.

In any event, once the principal stresses are determined, the three sets of

direction cosines (which deﬁne the principal coordinate directions) are found

by substituting the three principal stresses given by Eq. (18) into Eqs. (16a)–

(16c) in turn. Since only two of Eqs. (16a)–(16c) are independent, Eq. (8) is

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

used as a third independent equation involving the three unknown constants

c

pnx

, c

pny

, and c

pnz

.

The process of ﬁnding principal stresses and direction cosines will be

demonstrated in the following example problem.

Example Problem 4

Given. A state of stress referenced to an x–y–z coordinate is known to be:

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

¼

50 À10 15

À10 25 30

15 30 À5

_

_

_

_

ðksiÞ

Problem. Find (a) the principal stresses and (b) the direction cosines that

deﬁne the principal stress coordinate system.

Solution. This is the same stress tensor considered in Example Problem3. As

a part of that problem, the ﬁrst, second, and third stress invariants were found

to be:

H=70 ksi

U=À350 (ksi)

2

W=À65375 (ksi)

3

Part (a). Determining the principal stresses. In accordance with Eq. (17),

the three principal stresses are the roots of the following cubic equation:

r

3

À 70r

2

À 350r þ 65375 ¼ 0

As discussed earlier, the three roots of this equation can often be found most

conveniently using appropriate handheld calculators or software packages.

In this example solution, the roots will be found through application of Eq.

18. Following this process, we have:

a ¼

1

3

3U À H

2

_ _

¼

1

3

3ðÀ350Þ À ð70Þ

2

_ _

¼ À1983

b ¼

À1

27

2H

3

À 9HU þ 27W

_ _

¼

À1

27

2ð70Þ

3

À 9ð70ÞðÀ350Þ þ 27ðÀ65375Þ

_ _

¼ 31801

A ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À

b

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

b

2

4

þ

a

3

27

_

3

¸

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À

48134

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ð48134Þ

2

4

þ

ðÀ1983Þ

3

27

¸

3

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À15900 þ ið6010Þ

3

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

We ﬁnd that constant A equals the cube root of the complex number:

z ¼ À15900 þ ið6010Þ

Following the process described in Appendix A, the modulus and argument

of this complex number are:

r ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

a

2

þ b

2

_

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ðÀ15900Þ

2

þ ð6010Þ

2

_

¼ 16998

u ¼ tan

À1

6010

À15900

_ _

¼ tan

À1

ðÀ0:37799Þ ¼ À0:3614 radðorÞ2:780 rad

Since in this case:

a ¼ À15900 < 0

b ¼ 6010 > 0

it is clear that the argument u corresponds to an angle in the second quadrant

of the complex plane (refer to Fig. A.1). Hence, we select u=2.780 rad.

Applying Eq. A.3, we ﬁnd:

A ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

a þ ib

3

p

¼ exp

lnðrÞ

3

_ _

cos

u

3

_ _

þ i sin

u

3

_ _ _ _

A ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À15900 þ ið6010Þ

3

_

¼ exp

lnð16998Þ

3

_ _

Â cos

2:780

3

_ _

þ i sin

2:780

3

_ _ _ _

A ¼ 25:71 0:6005 þ ið0:7996Þ f g

A ¼ 15:44 þ ið20:56Þ

Following an identical procedure, constant B is found to be:

B ¼ 15:44 À ið20:56Þ

We now apply Eq. (18) to ﬁnd:

r

p

1

; r

p

2

; r

p

3

¼

A þ B þ

H

3

À

A þ B

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À3

p

A À B

2

_ _

þ

H

3

À

A þ B

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À3

p

A À B

2

_ _

þ

H

3

¼

54:21 ksi

À27:72 ksi

43:51 ksi

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Hence, r

p1

=54.21 ksi, r

p2

=43.51 ksi, and r

p3

=À27.72 ksi.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Part (b). Determining the direction cosines. The ﬁrst two of Eqs. (16a)–

(16c) and Eq. (8) will be used to form three independent equations in three

unknowns. We have:

ðr

p

n

À r

xx

Þc

p

n

x

À s

xy

c

p

n

y

À s

xz

c

p

n

z

¼ 0

Às

xy

c

p

n

x

þ ðr

p

n

À r

yy

Þc

p

n

y

À s

yz

c

p

n

z

¼ 0

ðc

p

n

x

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

n

y

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

n

z

Þ

2

¼ 1

Direction cosines for r

p1

. The three independent equations become:

ð54:21 À 50Þc

p

1

x

þ 10c

p

1

y

À 15c

p

1

z

¼ 0

10c

p

1

x

þ ð54:21 À 25Þc

p

1

y

À 30c

p

1

z

¼ 0

ðc

p

1

x

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

1

y

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

1

z

Þ

2

¼ 1

Solving simultaneously, we obtain:

c

p

1

x

¼ À0:9726 c

p

1

y

¼ 0:1666 c

p

1

z

¼ À0:1620

Direction cosines for r

p2

. The three independent equations become:

ð43:51 À 50Þc

p

2

x

þ 10c

p

2

y

À 15c

p

2

z

¼ 0

10c

p

2

x

þ ð43:51 À 25Þc

p

2

y

À 30c

p

2

z

¼ 0

ðc

p

2

x

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

2

y

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

2

z

Þ

2

¼ 1

Solving simultaneously, we obtain:

c

p

2

x

¼ À0:05466 c

p

2

y

¼ À0:8416 c

p

2

z

¼ À0:5738

Direction cosines for r

p3

. The three independent equations become:

ðÀ27:72 À 50Þc

p

3

x

þ 10c

p

3

y

À 15c

p

3

z

¼ 0

10c

p

3

x

þ ðÀ27:72 À 25Þc

p

3

y

À 30c

p

3

z

¼ 0

ðc

p

3

x

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

3

y

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

3

z

Þ

2

¼ 1

Solving simultaneously, we obtain:

c

p

3

x

¼ À0:8276 c

p

3

y

¼ 0:2259 c

p

3

z

¼ 0:5138

8 PLANE STRESS

A stress tensor is deﬁned by six components of stress: three normal stress

components and three shear stress components. Now, in practice, a state of

stress often encountered is one in which all stress components in one co-

ordinate direction are zero. For example, suppose r

zz

=s

xz

=s

yz

=0, as

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

shown in Fig. 13(a). Since the three remaining nonzero stress components

(r

xx

, r

yy

, and s

xy

) all lie within the x–y plane, such a condition is called a

state of plane stress. Plane stress conditions occur most often because of the

geometry of the structure of interest. Speciﬁcally, the plane stress condition

usually exists in thin, platelike structures. Examples include the web of an I-

beam, the body panel of an automobile, or the skin of an airplane fuselage.

Figure 13 Stress elements subjected to a state of plane stress.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

In these instances, the stresses induced normal to the plane of the structure

are very small compared to those induced within the plane of the structure.

Hence, the small out-of-plane stresses are usually ignored, and attention is

focused on the relatively high stress components acting within the plane of

the structure.

Since laminated composites are often used in the form of thin plates or

shells, the plane stress assumption is widely applicable in composite structures

and will be used throughout most of the analyses discussed in this textbook.

Since the out-of-plane stresses are negligibly small, for convenience, an

inﬁnitesimal stress element subjected to plane stress will usually be drawn

as a square rather than a cube, as shown in Fig. 13(b).

Results discussed in earlier sections for general 3-D state of stress will

now be specialized for the plane stress condition. It will be assumed that the

nonzero stresses lie in the x–y plane (i.e., r

zz

=s

xz

=s

yz

=0). This allows the

remaining components of stress to be written in the form of a column array

rather than a 3 Â 3 array:

r

xx

s

xy

0

s

xy

r

yy

0

0 0 0

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ !

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Note that when a plane stress state is described, stress appears to be a ﬁrst-

order tensor since (apparently) only three components of stress (r

xx

, r

yy

,

ands

xy

) need be speciﬁed in order to describe the state of stress. This is, of

course, not the case. Stress is a second-order tensor in all instances, and six

components of stress must always be speciﬁed in order to deﬁne a state of

stress. When we invoke the plane stress assumption, we have simply assumed

a priori that three stress components (r

zz

, s

xz

, and s

yz

) are zero.

Recall that either Eq. (12a) or Eq. (12b) governs the transformation of a

stress tensor from one coordinate system to another. Equation (12b) is

repeated here for convenience:

r

x

V

x

V r

x

V

y

V r

x

V

z

V

r

y

V

x

V r

y

V

y

V r

y

V

z

V

r

z

V

x

V r

z

V

y

V r

z

V

z

V

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

c

x

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

x

c

y

V

y

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

x

c

z

V

y

c

z

V

z

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

c

x

V

x

c

y

V

x

c

z

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

y

V

y

c

z

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

z

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ðrepeatedÞ ð12bÞ

When transformation of a plane stress tensor is considered, it will be

assumed that the xV–yV–zV coordinate system is generated from the x–y–z

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

system by a rotation h about the z-axis. That is, the z- and zV-axes are co-

incident, as shown in Fig. 14. In this case, the direction cosines are:

c

x

V

x

¼ cos ðhÞ

c

x

V

y

¼ cos ð90

B

ÀhÞ ¼ sin ðhÞ

c

x

V

z

¼ cos ð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

y

V

x

¼ cos ð90

B

þhÞ ¼ Àsin ðhÞ

c

y

V

y

¼ cos ðhÞ

c

y

V

z

¼ cos ð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

x

¼ cos ð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

y

¼ cos ð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

z

¼ cos ð0

B

Þ ¼ 1

If we now (a) substitute these direction cosines into Eq. (12b), (b) label

the shear stresses using the symbol s rather r, and (c) note that r

zz

=

s

xz

=s

yz

=0 by assumption, then Eq. (12b) becomes:

r

x

V

x

V s

x

V

y

V s

x

V

z

V

s

y

V

x

V r

y

V

y

V s

y

V

z

V

s

z

V

x

V s

z

V

y

V r

z

V

z

V

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

cos h sin h 0

Àsin h cos h 0

0 0 1

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

xx

s

xy

0

s

yx

r

yy

0

0 0 0

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

cos h Àsin h 0

sin h cos h 0

0 0 1

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated results in:

r

x

V

x

V s

x

V

y

V s

x

V

z

V

s

y

V

x

V r

y

V

y

V s

y

V

z

V

s

z

V

x

V s

z

V

y

V r

z

V

z

V

_

_

_

_

¼

cos

2

hr

xx

þ sin

2

hr

yy

þ 2coshsinhs

xy

Àcoshsinhr

xx

þ coshsinhr

yy

þ ðcos

2

h À sin

2

hÞs

xy

0

Àcoshsinhr

xx

þ coshsinhr

yy

þ ðcos

2

h À sin

2

hÞs

xy

sin

2

hr

xx

þ cos

2

hr

yy

À 2coshsinhs

xy

0

0 0 0

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

As would be expected, the out-of-plane stresses are zero: r

zVzV

=s

xVzV

=s

yVzV

=0.

The remaining stress components are:

r

x

V

x

V ¼ cos

2

ðhÞr

xx

þ sin

2

ðhÞr

yy

þ 2cos ðhÞsin ðhÞs

xy

r

y

V

y

V ¼ sin

2

ðhÞr

xx

þ cos

2

ðhÞr

yy

À 2cos ðhÞsin ðhÞs

xy

ð19Þ

s

x

V

y

V ¼ Àcos ðhÞsin ðhÞr

xx

þ cos ðhÞsin ðhÞr

yy

þ ½cos

2

ðhÞ À sin

2

ðhÞs

xy

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 14 Transformation of a plane stress element from one coordinate sys-

tem to another.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Equation (19) can be written using matrix notation as:

r

x

V

x

V

r

y

V

y

V

s

x

V

y

V

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

cos

2

ðhÞ sin

2

ðhÞ 2cosðhÞ sinðhÞ

sin

2

ðhÞ cos

2

ðhÞ À2cosðhÞsinðhÞ

ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞ cos ðhÞsinðhÞ cos

2

ðhÞ À sin

2

ðhÞ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð20Þ

It should be kept in mind that these results are valid only for a state

of plane stress. Transformation of a general (3-D) stress/tensor should be

performed using Eq. (12a) or (12b).

The 3 Â 3 array that appears in Eq. (20) is called the transformation

matrix and is abbreviated as [T]:

½T ¼

cos

2

ðhÞ sin

2

ðhÞ 2cosðhÞsinðhÞ

sin

2

ðhÞ cos

2

ðhÞ À2cosðhÞsinðhÞ

ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞ cosðhÞsinðhÞ cos

2

ðhÞ À sin

2

ðhÞ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

ð21Þ

The stress invariants [given by Eqs. (14a)–(14c) or Eqs. (15a)–(15c)]

are considerably simpliﬁed in the case of plane stress. Since by deﬁnition

r

zz

=s

xz

=s

yz

=0, the stress invariants become:

First stress invariant ¼ H ¼ r

xx

þ r

yy

Second stress invariant ¼ U ¼ r

xx

r

yy

À s

2

xy

Third stress invariant ¼ W ¼ 0

ð22Þ

The principal stresses equal the roots of the cubic equation previously

listed as Eq. (17). In the case of plane stress, this cubic equation becomes (since

W=0):

r

3

À Hr

2

þ Ur ¼ 0 ð23Þ

Obviously, one root of Eq. (23) is r=0. This root corresponds to r

zz

and for present purposes will be labeled r

p3

although it may not be the alge-

braically least principal stress. Thus, in the case of plane stress, the z-axis is a

principal stress direction and r

zz

=r

p3

=0 is one of the three principal

stresses. Since the three principal stress directions are orthogonal, this im-

plies that the remaining two principal stress directions must lie within the

x–y plane.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Removing the known root from Eq. (23), we have the following qua-

dratic equation:

r

2

À Hr þ U ¼ 0 ð24Þ

The two roots of this quadratic equation (that is, the two remaining princi-

pal stresses, r

p1

and r

p2

) may be found by application of the standard ap-

proach (3) and are given by:

r

p

1

; r

p

2

¼

1

2

HF

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

H

2

À 4U

_ _ _

ð25Þ

Substituting Eq. (22) into Eq. (25) and simplifying yields the following:

r

p

1

; r

p

2

¼

r

xx

þr

yy

2

F

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

r

xx

À r

yy

2

_ _

2

þs

2

xy

_

ð26Þ

The angle h

p

between the x-axis and either the p

1

or p

2

axis is given by:

h

p

¼

1

2

arctan

2s

xy

r

xx

À r

yy

_ _

ð27Þ

Example Problem 5

Given. The plane stress element shown in Fig. 15(a).

Problem. (a) Rotate the stress element to a new coordinate system oriented

25j clockwise from the x-axis, and redraw the stress element with all stress

components properly oriented; (b) determine the principal stresses and

principal stress coordinate system, and redraw the stress element with the

principal stress components properly oriented.

Solution

Part (a). The following components of stress are implied by the stress

element shown (note that the shear stress is algebraically negative, in ac-

cordance with the sign convention discussed in Sec. 5):

r

xx

¼ 70 MPa

r

yy

¼ 15 MPa

s

xy

¼ À50 MPa

The stress element is to be rotated clockwise. That is, the +xV-axis is rotated

away from the +y-axis. Applying the right-hand rule, it is clear that this is a

negative rotation:

h ¼ À25

B

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 15 Plane stress elements associated with Example Problem 5.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Equation (20) becomes:

r

x

V

x

V

r

y

V

y

V

s

x

V

y

V

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

cos

2

ðÀ25

B

Þ sin

2

ðÀ25

B

Þ 2cosðÀ25

B

ÞsinðÀ25

B

Þ

sin

2

ðÀ25

B

Þ cos

2

ðÀ25

B

Þ À2cosðÀ25

B

ÞsinðÀ25

B

Þ

ÀcosðÀ25

B

ÞsinðÀ25

B

Þ cosðÀ25

B

ÞsinðÀ25

B

Þ cos

2

ðÀ25

B

Þ À sin

2

ðÀ25

B

Þ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

70

15

À50

_

_

_

_

_

_

r

x

V

x

V

r

y

V

y

V

s

x

V

y

V

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

0:8214 0:1786 À0:7660

0:1786 0:8214 0:7660

0:3830 À0:3830 0:6428

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

70

15

À50

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

98:5

À13:5

À11:1

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

MPa

The rotated stress element is shown in Fig. 15(b).

Part (b). The principal stresses are found through application of Eq. (26):

r

p

1

; r

p

2

¼

70 þ 15

2

F

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

70 À 15

2

_ _

2

þðÀ50Þ

2

¸

¼ 42:5 F 57:1MPa

r

p

1

¼ 99:6MPa

r

p

2

¼ À14:6MPa

The orientation of the principal stress coordinate system is given by Eq. (27):

h

p

¼

1

2

arctan

2ðÀ50Þ

70 À 15

_ _

¼ À31

B

The stress element is shown in the principal stress coordinate system in Fig.

15(c).

9 DEFINITION OF STRAIN

All materials deform to some extent when subjected to external forces and/or

environmental changes. In essence, the state of strain is a measure of the

magnitude and orientation of the deformations induced by these eﬀects. As

in the case of stress, there are two types of strain: normal strain and shear

strain.

The two types of strain can be visualized using the strain element

shown in Fig. 16. Imagine that a perfect square has been physically drawn

on a surface of interest. Initially, angle BABC is exactly

p

2

radians (i.e.,

initially BABC=90j) and sides AB and BC are of exactly equal lengths.

Now suppose that some mechanism(s) causes the surface to deform. The

mechanism(s) which causes the surface to deform need not be deﬁned at

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

this point, but might be external loading (i.e., stresses), a change in tem-

perature, and/or (in the case of polymeric-based materials such as compo-

sites) the adsorption or desorption of water molecules. In any event, since

the surface is deformed, the initially square element drawn on the surface is

deformed as well. As shown in Fig. 16, point A moves to point AV and point

C moves to point CV. It is assumed that the element remains a parallelogram,

i.e., it is assumed that sides AVB and CVB remain straight lines after

deformation. This assumption is valid if the element is inﬁnitesimally small.

In the present context, ‘‘inﬁnitesimally small’’ implies that lengths AB and

CB are small enough such that the deformed element may be treated as a

parallelogram.

Normal strain e

xx

is deﬁned as the change in length of AB divided by the

original length of AB:

e

xx

¼

DAB

AB

ð28Þ

The change in length AB is given by:

DAB ¼ ðAVB À ABÞ

From the ﬁgure, it can be seen that the projection of length AVB in the x-

direction, that is, length AUB, is given by:

AWB ¼ AVBcosðBAVBAÞ ð29Þ

Figure 16 2-D element used to illustrate normal and shear strains (deforma-

tions shown are greatly exaggerated for clarity).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

If we now assume that BAVBA is ‘‘small,’’ then we can invoke the small-angle

approximation,* which states that if BAVBA is expressed in radians and is less

than about 0.1745 radians (about 10j), then:

sinðBAVBAÞcBAVBA tanðBAVBAÞcBAVBA cosðBAVBAÞc1

Based on the small-angle approximation, Eq. (29) implies that AUBc

AVB, and therefore the change in length of AB is approximately given by:

DABcðAUB À ABÞ ¼ AUA

Equation (28) can now be written as:

e

xx

¼

AUA

AB

ð30Þ

In an entirely analogous manner, normal strain e

yy

is deﬁned as the

change in length of CB divided by the original length of CB:

e

yy

¼

DCB

CB

Based on the small-angle approximation, the change in length of CB

is approximately given by:

DCB ¼ ðCVB À CBÞcCUC

and therefore:

e

yy

¼

CUC

CB

ð31Þ

As before, the approximation for change in length CB is valid if angle

BCUBC is small.

Recall that the original element shown in Fig. 16 was assumed to be

perfectly square and, in particular, that angle BAVBC is exactly

p

2

radians (i.e.,

initially BAVBC=90j). Engineering shear strain is deﬁned as the change in

angle BABC, expressed in radians:

c

xy

¼ DðBABCÞ ¼ BAVBA þBCVBC ð32Þ

The subscripts associated with a shear strain [e.g., subscripts xy in Eq. (32)]

indicate that the shear strain represents the change in angle deﬁned by line

segments originally aligned with the x- and y-axes.

* The reader is encouraged to personally verify the ‘‘small-angle approximation.’’ For example,

use a calculator to demonstrate that an angle of 5j equals 0.08727 rad, and that sin(0.08727

rad)=0.08716, tan(0.08727 rad)=0.08749, and cos(0.08727 rad)=0.99619. Therefore, in this

example, the small angle approximation results in a maximum error of less than 1%.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

As discussed in the following sections, it is very convenient to describe a

state of strain as a second-order tensor. However, in order to do so, we must

use a slightly diﬀerent deﬁnition of shear strain. Speciﬁcally, tensoral shear

strain is deﬁned as:

e

xy

¼

1

2

c

xy

ð33Þ

Since engineering shear strain has been deﬁned as the total change in

angle BAVBC, tensoral shear strain is simply half this change in angle. The

use of tensoral shear strain is convenient because it greatly simpliﬁes the

transformation of a state of strain from one coordinate system to another.

The use of engineering shear strain is far more common in practice, how-

ever. In this text, tensoral shear strain will be used when convenient during

initial mathematical manipulations of the strain tensor, but all ﬁnal results

will be converted to relations involving engineering shear strain.

Although strains are unitless quantities, normal strains are usually

reported in units of (length/length), and shear strains are usually reported

in units of radians. The values of a strain is independent of the system of units

used, e.g., 1 (m/m)=1 (in/in). Common abbreviations used throughout this

text are as follows:

1 Â 10

À6

meter=meter ¼ 1micrometer=meter ¼ 1 Am=m ¼ 1 Ain=in

1 Â 10

À6

radians ¼ 1 microradians ¼ 1 Arad

We must next deﬁne the algebraic sign convention used to describe

individual strain components. The sign convention for normal strains is very

straightforward and intuitive: a positive (or ‘‘tensile’’) normal strain is asso-

ciated with an increase in length, while a negative (or ‘‘compressive’’) normal

strain is associated with a decrease in length.

To deﬁne the algebraic sign of a shear strain, we ﬁrst identify the

algebraic sign of each face of the inﬁnitesimal strain element (the algebraic

sign of face was deﬁned in Sec. 5). An algebraically positive shear strain cor-

responds to a decrease in the angle between two positive faces, or equiva-

lently, to a decrease in the angle between two negative faces.

The above sign conventions can be used to conﬁrm that all strains

shown in Fig. 16 are algebraically positive.

Example Problem 6

Given. The following two sets of strain components:

Set1 :

e

xx

¼ 1000 Am=m

e

yy

¼ À500 Am=m

c

xy

¼ 1500 Arad

Set2 :

e

xx

¼ 1000 Am=m

e

yy

¼ À500 Am=m

c

xy

¼ À1500 Arad

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Determine. Prepare sketches (not to scale) of the deformed strain elements

represented by the two sets of strain components.

Solution. The required sketches are shown in Fig. 17. Note that the only

diﬀerence between the two sets of strain components is that in Set 1, c

xy

is

algebraically positive, whereas in Set 2, c

xy

is algebraically negative.

10 THE STRAIN TENSOR

A general 3-D solid body is shown in Fig. 18(a). An inﬁnitesimally small

cube isolated from an interior region of the body is shown in Fig. 18(b). The

cube is referenced to an x–y–z coordinate system, and the cube edges are

aligned with these axes.

Now assume that the body is subjected to some mechanism(s) which

causes the body to deform. The mechanism(s) which causes this deforma-

tion need not be deﬁned at this point, but might be external loading (i.e.,

stresses), a change in temperature, the adsorption or desorption of water

molecules (in the case of polymeric-based materials such as composites), or

any combination thereof.

Since the entire body is deformed, the internal inﬁnitesimal cube is

deformed into a parallelepiped, as shown in Fig. 18(c). It can be shown (1,2)

that the state of strain experienced by the cube can be represented as a

Figure 17 Strain elements associated with Example Problem 6 (not to scale).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 18 Infinitesimal elements used to illustrate the strain tensor.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

symmetric second-order tensor, involving six components of strain: three

normal strains (e

xx

, e

yy

, e

zz

) and three tensoral shear strains (e

xy

, e

xz

, e

yz

). These

six strain components are deﬁned in the same manner as those discussed in

the preceding section. Normal strains e

xx

, e

yy

, and e

zz

represent the change

in length in the x-, y-, and z-directions, respectively. Tensoral shear strains

e

xy

, e

xz

, and e

yz

represent the change in angle between cube edges initially

aligned with the (x-,y-), (x-,z-), and ( y-,z-) axes, respectively. Using matrix

notation, the strain tensor may be written as:

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

_

_

_

_

¼

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

xy

e

yy

e

yz

e

xz

e

yz

e

zz

_

_

_

_

ð34Þ

Alternatively, the strain tensor can be succinctly written using indicial nota-

tion as:

e

ij

; i; j ¼ x; y; or z ð35Þ

Note that if engineering shear strain is used, then Eq. (34) becomes

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

xy

e

yy

e

yz

e

xz

e

yz

e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

e

xx

ðc

xy

=2Þ ðc

xz

=2Þ

ðc

xy

=2Þ e

yy

ðc

yz

=2Þ

ðc

xx

=2Þ ðc

yz

=2Þ e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

If engineering shear strain is used, the strain tensor cannot be written using

indicial notation [as in Eq. (35)] due to the 1/2 factor that appears in all oﬀ-

diagonal positions.

In Sec. 1, it was noted that a force vector is a ﬁrst-order tensor since

only one subscript is required to describe a force tensor, F

i

. The fact that

strain is a second-order tensor is evident from Eq. (35) since two subscripts

are necessary to describe a state of strain.

11 TRANSFORMATION OF THE STRAIN TENSOR

Since both stress and strain are second-order tensors, the transformation of

the strain tensor from one coordinate system to another is analogous to the

transformation of the stress tensor, as discussed in Sec. 6. For example, it

can be shown (1,2) that the strain components in the xV–yV–zV coordinate

system (e

iVjV

) are related to the components in x–y–z coordinate system (e

ij

)

according to:

e

i

V

j

V ¼ c

i

V

k

c

j

V

l

e

kl

where k; l ¼ x; y; z ð36aÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Alternatively, using matrix notation, the strain tensor transforms accord-

ing to:

½e

i

V

j

V ¼ ½c

i

V

j

½e

ij

½c

i

V

j

T

which expands as follows:

e

x

V

x

V e

x

V

y

V e

x

V

z

V

e

y

V

x

V e

y

V

y

V e

y

V

z

V

e

z

V

x

V e

z

V

y

V e

z

V

z

V

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

c

x

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

x

c

y

V

y

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

x

c

z

V

y

c

z

V

z

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

c

x

V

x

c

y

V

x

c

z

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

y

V

y

c

z

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

z

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ð36bÞ

The terms c

i Vj

which appear in Eqs. (36a) and (36b) are direction cosines

and equal the cosine of the angle between the axes of the xV–yV–zV and x–y–z

coordinate systems.

As was the case for the stress tensor, there are certain features of the

strain tensor that do not vary when the tensor is transformed from one co-

ordinate system to another. These features are called the strain invariants.

Three independent strain invariants exist and are deﬁned as follows:

First strain invariant ¼H

e

¼ e

ii

ð37aÞ

Second strain invariant ¼ U

e

¼

1

2

e

ii

e

jj

À e

ij

e

ij

_ _

ð37bÞ

Third strain invariant ¼ W

e

¼

1

6

e

ii

e

jj

e

kk

À 3e

ii

e

jk

e

jk

þ 2e

ij

e

jk

e

ki

_ _

ð37cÞ

Alternatively, by expanding these equations over the range i, j, k=x, y, z and

simplifying, the strain invariants can be written as:

First strain invariant ¼ H

e

¼ e

xx

þ e

yy

þ e

zz

ð38aÞ

Second strain invariant ¼ U

e

¼ e

xx

e

yy

þ e

xx

e

zz

þ e

yy

e

zz

À e

2

xy

þ e

2

xz

þe

2

yz

_ _

ð38bÞ

Third strain invariant ¼ W

e

¼ e

xx

e

yy

e

zz

Àe

xx

e

2

yz

À e

yy

e

2

xz

À e

zz

e

2

xy

þ 2e

xy

e

xz

e

yz

ð38cÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Example Problem 7

Given. A state of strain referenced to an x–y–z coordinate is known to be:

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

1000Am=m 500Arad 250Arad

500Arad 1500Am=m 750Arad

250Arad 750Arad 2000Am=m

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

It is desired to express this state of strain in an xU–yU–zU coordinate system,

generated by:

(i) Rotation of h=20j about the original z-axis (which deﬁnes an

intermediate xV–yV–zV coordinate system), followed by

(ii) Rotation of b=35j about the xV-axis (which deﬁnes the ﬁnal xU–

yU–zU coordinate system).

(This coordinate transformation has been previously considered in

Example Problem 3 and is shown in Fig. 10.)

Problem

(a) Rotate the strain tensor to the xU–yU–zU coordinate system and

(b) Calculate the ﬁrst, second, and third invariants of the strain tensor

using both elements of the strain tensor referenced to the x–y–z

coordinate system, e

ij

, and elements of the strain tensor referenced

to the xU–yU–zU coordinate system, e

i Uj U

.

Solution

Part (a). General expressions for direction cosines relating the x–y–z and

xU–yU–zU coordinate systems were determined as a part of Example Problem 1.

Further, numerical values for the particular rotation h=20j and b=35j were

determined in Example Problem 3 and were found to be:

c

xWx

¼ cos ð20

B

Þ ¼ 0:9397

c

xWy

¼ sin ð20

B

Þ ¼ 0:3420

c

xWz

¼ 0

c

yWx

¼ Àcos ð35

B

Þsin ð20

B

Þ ¼ À0:2802

c

yWy

¼ cos ð35

B

Þcos ð20

B

Þ ¼ 0:7698

c

yWz

¼ sin ð35

B

Þ ¼ 0:5736

c

zWx

¼ sin ð35

B

Þsin ð20

B

Þ ¼ 0:1962

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

c

zWy

¼ Àsin ð35

B

Þcos ð20

B

Þ ¼ À0:5390

c

zWz

¼ cos ð35

B

Þ ¼ 0:8192

Each component of the transformed strain tensor can now be found through

application of Eq. (36a) or Eq. (36b). For example, setting i V=xU, j V=xU, and

expanding Eq. (36a), strain component e

xUxU

is given by:

e

xUxU

¼ c

xUx

c

xUx

e

xx

þ c

xUx

c

xUy

e

xy

þ c

xUx

c

xUz

e

xz

þ c

xUy

c

xUx

e

yx

þ c

xUy

c

xUy

e

yy

þ c

xUy

c

xUz

e

yz

þ c

xUz

c

xUx

e

zx

þ c

xUz

c

xUy

e

zy

þ c

xUz

c

xUz

e

zz

e

xUxU

¼ ð0:9397Þð0:9397Þð1000Þ þ ð0:9397Þð0:3420Þð500Þ

þð0:9397Þð0Þð250Þ þ ð0:3420Þð0:9397Þð500Þ

þð0:3420Þð0:3420Þð1500Þ þ ð0:3420Þð0Þð750Þ

þð0Þð0:9397Þð250Þ þ ð0Þð0:3420Þð750Þ

þð0Þð0Þð2000Þ

e

xUxU

¼ 1380 lm=m

Alternatively, if matrix notation is used, then Eq. (36b) becomes:

e

xUxU

e

xUyU

e

xUzU

e

yUxU

e

yUyU

e

yUzU

e

zUxU

e

zUyU

e

zUzU

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

0:9397 0:3420 0

À0:2802 0:7698 0:5736

0:1962 À0:5390 0:8192

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

1000 500 250

500 1500 750

250 750 2000

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

0:9397 À0:2802 0:1962

0:3420 0:7698 À0:5390

0 0:5736 0:8192

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, there results:

e

xUxU

e

xUyU

e

xUzU

e

yUxU

e

yUyU

e

yUzU

e

zUxU

e

zUyU

e

zUzU

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

1380 Am=m 727 Arad 91 Arad

727 Arad 1991 Am=m 625 Arad

91 Arad 625 Arad 1129 Am=m

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Notice that the value of e

xUxU

determined through matrix multiplication is

identical to that obtained using indicial notation, as expected.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Part (b). The ﬁrst, second, and third strain invariants will now be calcu-

lated using components of both e

ij

and e

iUjU

. It is expected that identical values

will be obtained since the strain invariants are independent of the coordinate

system.

First strain invariant:

x–y–z coordinate system:

H

e

¼ e

ii

¼ e

xx

þ e

yy

þe

zz

H

e

¼ ð1000 þ 1500 þ 2000Þ Am=m

H

e

¼ 4500Am=m ¼ :004500 m=m

xU–yU–zU coordinate system:

H

e

¼ e

iUiU

¼ e

xUxU

þ e

yUyU

þ e

zUzU

H

e

¼ ð1380 þ 1991 þ 1129Þ Am=m

H

e

¼ 4500Am=m ¼ 0:004500 m=m

As expected, the ﬁrst strain invariant is independent of the coordinate

system.

Second strain invariant:

x–y–z coordinate system:

U

e

¼

1

2

e

ii

e

jj

Àe

ij

e

ij

_ _

¼ e

xx

e

yy

þ e

xx

e

zz

þ e

yy

e

zz

À e

2

xy

þ e

2

xz

þ e

2

yz

_ _

U

e

¼

_

ð1000Þð1500Þ þ ð1000Þð2000Þ þ ð1500Þð2000Þ

À½ð500Þ

2

þ ð250Þ

2

þ ð750Þ

2

g ðAm=mÞ

2

U ¼ 5:625 Â 10

6

ðAm=mÞ

2

¼ 5:625 Â 10

À6

ðm=mÞ

2

xU–yU–zU coordinate system:

U

e

¼

1

2

e

iUiU

e

jUjU

À e

iUjU

e

iUjU

_ _

U

e

¼ e

xUxU

e

yUyU

þ e

xUxU

e

zUzU

þ e

yUyU

e

zUzU

À e

2

xUyU

þe

2

xUzU

þ e

2

yUzU

_ _

U

e

¼ fð1380Þð1991Þ þ ð1380Þð1129Þ þ ð1991Þð1129Þ

À½ð727Þ

2

þ ð91Þ

2

þ ð625Þ

2

g ðAm=mÞ

2

U

e

¼ 5:625 Â 10

6

ðAm=mÞ

2

¼ 5:625 Â 10

À6

ðm=mÞ

2

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

As expected, the second strain invariant is independent of the coordi-

nate system.

Third strain invariant:

x–y–z coordinate system:

W

e

¼

1

6

e

ii

e

jj

e

kk

À 3e

ii

e

jk

e

jk

þ 2e

ij

e

jk

e

ki

_ _

W

e

¼ e

xx

e

yy

e

zz

À e

xx

e

2

yz

À e

yy

e

2

xz

À e

zz

e

2

xy

þ 2e

xy

e

xz

e

yz

W

e

¼ ½ð1000Þð1500Þð2000Þ À ð1000Þð750Þ

2

À ð1500Þð250Þ

2

À ð2000Þ

Âð500Þ

2

þ 2ð500Þð250Þð750Þ ðAm=mÞ

3

W ¼ 2:031 Â 10

9

ðAm=mÞ

3

¼ 2:031 Â 10

À9

ðm=mÞ

3

xU–yU–zU coordinate system:

W

e

¼

1

6

e

iUiU

e

jUjU

e

kUkU

À 3e

iUiU

e

jUkU

e

jUkU

þ 2e

iUjU

e

jUkU

e

kUiU

_ _

W

e

¼ e

xUxU

e

yUyU

e

zUzU

À e

xUxU

e

2

yUzU

À e

yUyU

e

2

xUzU

Àe

zUzU

e

2

xUyU

þ 2e

xUyU

e

xUzU

e

yUzU

W

e

¼ ½ð1380Þð1991Þð1129Þ À ð1380Þð625Þ

2

À ð1991Þð91Þ

2

À ð1129Þ

Âð727Þ

2

þ 2ð727Þð91Þð625Þ ðAm=mÞ

3

W ¼ 2:031 Â 10

9

ðAm=mÞ

3

¼ 2:031 Â 10

À9

ðm=mÞ

3

As expected, the third stress invariant is independent of the coordinate

system.

12 PRINCIPAL STRAINS

The deﬁnition of the strain tensor was reviewed in Sec. 10, and transfor-

mation of the strain tensor from one coordinate system to another was

discussed in Sec. 11. It can be shown (1,2) that it is always possible to rotate

the strain tensor to a special coordinate system in which no shear strains

exist. This coordinate system is called the principal strain coordinate system,

and the normal strains that exist in this coordinate system are called principal

strains. In most texts, the principal strains are denoted e

1

, e

2

, and e

3

.

However, as will be discussed later (see Fig. 2 in Chap. 3), in this text, the

axis labels ‘‘1,’’ ‘‘2,’’ and ‘‘3’’ will be used to refer to the principal material

coordinate system rather than the directions of principal strain. Therefore,

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

in this text, the axes associated with the principal strain coordinate system

will be labeled p

1

, p

2

, and p

3

axes, and the principal strains will be denoted

e

p1

, e

p2

, and e

p3

.

Since both stress and strain are second-order tensors, the principal

strains can be found using an approach analogous to that used to ﬁnd prin-

cipal stresses. Speciﬁcally, it can be shown (1,2) that the principal strains

must satisfy the following three simultaneous equations:

ðe

p

n

Àe

xx

Þc

p

n

x

À e

xy

c

p

n

y

À e

xz

c

p

n

z

¼ 0 ð39aÞ

Àe

xy

c

p

n

x

þ ðe

p

n

Àe

yy

Þc

p

n

y

À e

yz

c

p

n

z

¼ 0 ð39bÞ

Àe

xz

c

p

n

x

À e

yz

c

p

n

y

þ ðe

p

n

À e

zz

Þc

p

n

z

¼ 0 ð39cÞ

Since direction cosines c

pnx

, c

pny

, and c

pnz

must also satisfy Eq. (8), and

therefore cannot all equal zero, the solution can be obtained by requiring

that the determinant of the coeﬃcients of c

pnx

, c

pny

, and c

pnz

equal zero:

ðe

p

n

Àe

xx

Þ Àe

xy

Àe

xz

Àe

xy

ðe

p

n

À e

yy

Þ Àe

yz

Àe

xz

Àe

yz

ðe

p

n

À e

zz

Þ

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¼ 0

Equating the determinant to zero results in the following cubic

equation:

e

3

p

n

ÀH

e

e

2

p

n

þ U

e

e

p

n

À W

e

¼ 0 ð40Þ

where H

e

, U

e

, and W

e

are the ﬁrst, second, and third strain invariants,

respectively, and have been previously listed as Eqs. (37a)–(37c) and (38a)–

(38c). The three roots of the cubic equation (that is, the three principal

strains) may be found by application of the standard approach (3), as

follows:

Deﬁne:

a ¼

1

3

3U

e

ÀH

2

e

_ _

b ¼

À1

27

2H

3

e

À 9H

e

U

e

þ 27W

e

_ _

A ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À

b

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

b

2

4

þ

a

3

27

_

3

¸

B ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À

b

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

b

2

4

þ

a

3

27

_

3

¸

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The three principal strains [i.e., the three roots of Eq. (40)] are then given by:

e

p

1

; e

p

2

; e

p

3

¼

A þ B þ

H

e

3

À

A þ B

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À3

p

A À B

2

_ _

þ

H

e

3

À

A þ B

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À3

p

A À B

2

_ _

þ

H

e

3

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð41Þ

By convention, the principal strains are numbered such that e

p1

is the

algebraically greatest principal strain, whereas e

p3

is the algebraically least.

That is, e

p1

>e

p2

>e

p3

.

It is appropriate to note that many handheld calculators and computer

software packages now feature standard routines to ﬁnd the roots of nth-

order polynomials. Hence, the roots of Eq. (40) may often be found more

conveniently using these standard routines, rather than Eq. (41). The cal-

culation of constants A and B that appear in Eq. (41) often involves ﬁnding

the cube root of a complex number. The need to ﬁnd the cube root of a

complex number is encountered infrequently, and hence the reader may not

be aware of how to make such a calculation. For convenience, a process that

may be used to ﬁnd the cube root of a complex number has been included

in Appendix A.

Once the principal strains are determined, the three sets of direction

cosines (which deﬁne the principal coordinate directions) are found by

substituting the three principal strains given by Eq. (41) into Eqs. (39a)–

(39c) in turn. Since only two of Eqs. (39a)–(39c) are independent, Eq. (8) is

used as a third independent equation involving the three unknown constants,

c

p

n

x

, c

p

n

y

, and c

p

n

z

.

The process of ﬁnding principal strains and direction cosines will be

demonstrated in the following example problem.

Example Problem 8

Given. A state of strain referenced to an x–y–z coordinate is known to be:

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

1000Am=m 500 Arad 250 Arad

500 Arad 1500 Am=m 750 Arad

250Arad 750 Arad 2000 Am=m

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Problem. Find (a) the principal strains and (b) the direction cosines that

deﬁne the principal strain coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Solution. This is the same strain tensor considered in Example Problem7. As

a part of that problem, the ﬁrst, second, and third strain invariants were found

to be:

H

e

¼ 0:004500 m=m

U ¼ 5:625 Â 10

À6

ðm=mÞ

2

W ¼ 2:031 Â 10

À9

ðm=mÞ

3

Part (a). Determining the principal strains.

In accordance with Eq. (40), the three principal strains are the roots

of the following cubic equation:

e

3

p

n

À ð0:004500Þe

2

p

n

þ ð5:625 Â 10

À6

Þe

p

n

À ð2:031 Â 10

À9

Þ ¼ 0

Following the standard procedure for ﬁnding the roots of a cubic equa-

tion, we have:

a ¼

1

3

3U

e

ÀH

2

e

_ _

¼

1

3

3ð5:625 Â 10

À6

Þ À ð0:004500Þ

2

_ _

¼ À1:125 Â 10

À6

b ¼

À1

27

2H

3

e

À 9H

e

U

e

þ 27W

e

_ _

b ¼

À1

27

2ð0:004500Þ

3

À 9ð0:004500Þð5:625 Â 10

À6

Þ

_

þ27ð2:031 Â 10

À9

Þ ¼ À3:435 Â 10

À10

A ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À

b

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

b

2

4

þ

a

3

27

_

3

¸

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

3:435 Â 10

À10

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ðÀ3:435 Â 10

À10

Þ

2

4

þ

ðÀ1:125 Â 10

À6

Þ

3

27

¸

3

¸

¸

¸

_

A ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1:718 Â 10

À10

þ ið1:524 Â 10

À10

Þ

3

_

A ¼ 594:5 Â 10

À6

þ ið146:7 Â 10

À6

Þ

B ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À

b

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

b

2

4

þ

a

3

27

_

3

¸

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

3:435 Â 10

À10

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ðÀ3:435 Â 10

À10

Þ

2

4

þ

ðÀ1:125 Â 10

À6

Þ

3

27

¸

3

¸

¸

¸

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

B ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1:718 Â 10

À10

À ið1:524 Â 10

À10

Þ

3

_

B ¼ 594:5 Â 10

À6

À ið146:7 Â 10

À6

Þ

e

p

1

; e

p

2

; e

p

3

¼

A þ B þ

H

3

À

A þ B

2

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À3

p

A À B

2

_ _

þ

H

3

À

A þ B

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À3

p

A À B

2

_ _

þ

H

3

¼

2689Am=m

651Am=m

1160Am=m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Hence, e

p1

=2689 Am/m, e

p2

=1160 Am/m, and e

p3

=651 Am/m.

Part (b). Determining the direction cosines.

Equations (8), (39a), and (39b) will be used to form three independent

equations in three unknowns. We have:

ðe

p

n

À e

xx

Þc

p

n

x

À e

xy

c

p

n

y

À e

xz

c

p

n

z

¼ 0

Àe

xy

c

p

n

x

þ ðe

p

n

Àe

yy

Þc

p

n

y

À e

yz

c

p

n

z

¼ 0

ðc

p

n

x

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

n

y

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

n

z

Þ

2

¼ 1

Direction cosines for e

p1

. The three independent equations become:

ð2689 À 1000Þc

p

1

x

À 500c

p

1

y

À 250c

p

1

z

¼ 0

À500c

p

1

x

þ ð2689 À 1500Þc

p

1

y

À 750c

p

1

z

¼ 0

ðc

p

1

x

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

1

y

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

1

z

Þ

2

¼ 1

Solving simultaneously, we obtain:

c

p

1

x

¼ 0:2872 c

p

1

y

¼ 0:5945 c

p

1

z

¼ 0:7511

Direction cosines for e

p2

. The three independent equations become:

ð1160 À 1000Þc

p

2

x

À 500c

p

2

y

À 250c

p

2

z

¼ 0

À500c

p

2

x

þ ð1160 À 1500Þc

p

2

y

À 750c

p

2

z

¼ 0

ðc

p

2

x

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

2

y

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

2

z

Þ

2

¼ 1

Solving simultaneously, we obtain:

c

p

2

x

¼ 0:5960 c

p

2

y

¼ 0:5035 c

p

2

z

¼ À0:6256

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Direction cosines for e

p3

. The three independent equations become:

ð651 À 1000Þc

p

3

x

À 500c

p

3

y

À 250c

p

3

z

¼ 0

À500c

p

3

x

þ ð651 À 1500Þc

p

3

y

À 750c

p

3

z

¼ 0

ðc

p

3

x

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

3

y

Þ

2

þ ðc

p

3

z

Þ

2

¼ 1

Solving simultaneously, we obtain:

c

p

3

x

¼ À0:7481 c

p

3

y

¼ 0:6286 c

p

3

z

¼ À0:2128

13 STRAINS WITHIN A PLANE PERPENDICULAR TO A

PRINCIPAL STRAIN DIRECTION

It has been seen that a strain tensor is deﬁned by six components of strain:

three normal strain components and three shear strain components. Now, in

practice, there are circumstances in which it is known a priori that both shear

strain components in one direction are zero: e

xz

=e

yz

=0, say (or equivalently,

c

xz

=c

yz

=0). This implies that the z-axis is a principal strain axis. In these

instances, we are primarily interested in the strains induced within the x–y

plane, e

xz

, e

yy

, and e

xy

. Two diﬀerent circumstances are encountered in which

it is known a priori that the z-axis is a principal strain axis.

In the ﬁrst case, all three out-of-plane strain components in the z-

direction are known a priori to equal zero. That is, it is known a priori that

e

zz

=e

xz

=e

yz

=0. Not only is the z-axis a principal strain axis in this case, but,

in addition, the principal strain equals zero: e

zz

=e

p3

=0. Since the three

remaining nonzero strain components (e

xx

, e

yy

, and e

xy

) all lie within the x–y

plane, it is natural to call this condition a state of plane strain. Plane strain

conditions occur most often because of the geometry of the structure of

interest. Speciﬁcally, the plane strain condition usually exists in internal

regions of very long (or very thick) structures. Examples include solid shafts

or long dams. In these instances, the strains induced along the long axis of the

structure are often negligibly small compared to those induced within the

transverse plane of the structure.

The second case in which the out-of-plane z-axis may be a principal axis

is when a structure is subjected to a state of plane stress. As has been discussed

in Sec. 8, the state of plane stress occurs most often in thin, platelike

structures. In this case, the z-axis is a principal strain axis, and e

zz

is again

one of the principal strains. However, in this second case, the out-of-plane

normal strain does not, in general, equal zero: e

zz

p 0.

It is emphasized that a state of plane stress usually, but not always,

causes a state of strain in which the z-axis is a principal strain axis. This point

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

will be further discussed in Chap. 4. It will be seen there that it is possible for a

material to exhibit a coupling between in-plane stresses and out-of-plane

shear strains. That is, in some cases, stresses acting within the x–y plane (r

xx

,

r

yy

, and/or s

xy

) can cause out-of-plane shear strains (e

xz

and/or e

yz

). In these

instances, the out-of-plane z-axis is not a principal strain axis, although the

out-of-plane stresses all equal zero.

In any event, for present purposes, assume that it is known a priori that

the out-of-plane z-axis is a principal strain axis, and we are primarily inter-

ested in the strains induced within the x–y plane, e

xx

, e

yy

, and e

xy

. We will write

these strains in the form of a column array, rather than a 3Â3 array:

e

xx

e

xy

0

e

xy

e

yy

0

0 0 e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

e

xx

ðc

xy

=2Þ 0

ðc

xy

=2Þ e

yy

0

0 0 e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ !

e

xx

e

yy

e

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Note that e

zz

does not appear in the column array. This is not of concern in the

case of plane strain since, in this case, e

zz

=0. However, in the case of plane

stress, it is important to remember that (in general) e

zz

p 0. Although in the

following chapters we will be primarily interested in strains induced within

the x–y plane, the reader is advised to remember that an out-of-plane strain

e

zz

is also induced by a state of plane stress.

The transformation of a general 3-D strain tensor has already been

discussed in Sec. 11. The relations presented there will now be simpliﬁed for

the case of transformation of strains within a plane.

Recall that either Eq. (36a) or Eq. (36b) governs the transformation of

a strain tensor from one coordinate system to another. Equation (36b) is

repeated here for convenience:

e

x

V

x

V e

x

V

y

V e

x

V

z

V

e

y

V

x

V e

y

V

y

V e

y

V

z

V

e

z

V

x

V e

z

V

y

V e

z

V

z

V

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

c

x

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

x

c

y

V

y

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

x

c

z

V

y

c

z

V

z

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

c

x

V

x

c

y

V

x

c

z

V

x

c

x

V

y

c

y

V

y

c

z

V

y

c

x

V

z

c

y

V

z

c

z

V

z

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ðrepeatedÞð36bÞ

Assuming that the xV–yV–zV coordinate system is generated from the x–y–z

system by a rotation h about the z-axis, the direction cosines are:

c

x

V

x

¼ cos ðhÞ

c

x

V

y

¼ cos ð90

B

ÀhÞ ¼ sin ðhÞ

c

x

V

z

¼ cos ð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

c

y

V

x

¼ cos ð90

B

þ hÞ ¼ Àsin ðhÞ

c

y

V

y

¼ cos ðhÞ

c

y

V

z

¼ cos ð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

x

¼ cos ð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

y

¼ cos ð90

B

Þ ¼ 0

c

z

V

z

¼ cos ð0

B

Þ ¼ 1

Substituting these direction cosines into Eq. (36b) and noting that by

assumption, e

xz

=e

yz

=0, we have:

e

x

V

x

V e

x

V

y

V e

x

V

z

V

e

y

V

x

V e

y

V

y

V e

y

V

z

V

e

z

V

x

V e

z

V

y

V e

z

V

z

V

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

cos h sin h 0

Àsin h cos h 0

0 0 1

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

xx

e

xy

0

e

yx

e

yy

0

0 0 e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

cos h Àsin h 0

sin h cos h 0

0 0 1

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated results in:

e

x

V

x

V e

x

V

y

V e

x

V

z

V

e

y

V

x

V e

y

V

y

V e

y

V

z

V

e

z

V

x

V e

z

V

y

V e

z

V

z

V

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¼

cos

2

he

xx

þ sin

2

he

yy

þ 2cos hsinhe

xy

Àcos hsinhe

xx

þ cos hsinhe

yy

þ ðcos

2

h À sin

2

hÞe

xy

0

Àcos hsinhe

xx

þ cos hsinhe

yy

þ ðcos

2

h À sin

2

hÞe

xy

sin

2

he

xx

þ cos

2

he

yy

À 2cos hsinhe

xy

0

0 0 e

zz

_

_

_

_

As would be expected, e

xVzV

=e

yVzV

=0. The remaining strain components are:

e

x

V

x

V ¼ cos

2

ðhÞe

xx

þ sin

2

ðhÞe

yy

þ 2cosðhÞsinðhÞe

xy

e

y

V

y

V ¼ sin

2

ðhÞe

xx

þ cos

2

ðhÞe

yy

À 2cosðhÞsinðhÞe

xy

ð42Þ

e

x

V

y

V ¼ ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞe

xx

þ cosðhÞsinðhÞe

yy

þ ½cos

2

ðhÞ þ sin

2

ðhÞe

xy

e

z

V

z

V ¼ e

zz

Tensoral shear strains were used in Eqs. (36a) and (36b) for mathemat-

ical convenience; that is, tensoral shear strains have been used so that rotation

of the strain tensor could be accomplished using the normal transformation

law for a second-order tensor. Since engineering shear strains are far more

commonly used in practice, we will now convert our ﬁnal results, Eq. (42), to

ones which involve engineering shear strain (c

xy

). Recall from Sec. 9 that

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

e

xy

¼

1

2

c

xy

. Hence, to convert Eq. (42), simply replace e

xy

with

1

2

c

xy

every-

where, resulting in:

e

x

V

x

V ¼ cos

2

ðhÞe

xx

þ sin

2

ðhÞe

yy

þ cosðhÞsinðhÞc

xy

e

y

V

y

V ¼ sin

2

ðhÞe

xx

þ cos

2

ðhÞe

yy

À cosðhÞsinðhÞc

xy

ð43Þ

c

x

V

y

V

2

¼ ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞe

xx

þ cosðhÞsinðhÞe

yy

þ ½cos

2

ðhÞ þ sin

2

ðhÞ

c

xy

2

e

z

V

z

V ¼ e

zz

Equation (43) relates the components of strain in two diﬀerent coordinate

systems within a single plane and will be used extensively throughout the re-

mainder of this text.

The ﬁrst three of Eq. (43) can be written using matrix notation as:

e

x

V

x

V

e

y

V

y

V

c

x

V

y

V

2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

cos

2

ðhÞ sin

2

ðhÞ 2 cosðhÞsinðhÞ

sin

2

ðhÞ cos

2

ðhÞ À2 cosðhÞsinðhÞ

ÀcosðhÞsinðhÞ cosðhÞ sinðhÞ cos

2

ðhÞ À sin

2

ðhÞ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð44Þ

Compare Eq. (44) with Eq. (20). In particular, note that the trans-

formation matrix, [T], which was previously encountered during the discus-

sion of plane stress in Sec. 8, also appears in Eq. (44).

The strain invariants [given by Eqs. (37a)–(37c) or Eqs. (38a)–(38c)] are

considerably simpliﬁed when the out-of-plane z-axis is a principal axis. Since

by deﬁnition e

xz

¼

c

xz

2

¼ e

yz

¼

c

yz

2

¼ 0, the strain invariants become:

First strain invariant ¼ H

e

¼ e

xx

þ e

yy

þ e

zz

Second strain invariant ¼ U

e

¼ e

xx

e

yy

þ e

xx

e

zz

þ e

yy

e

zz

À

c

2

xy

4

ð45Þ

Third strain invariant ¼ W

e

¼ e

xx

e

yy

e

zz

Àe

zz

c

4

xy

4

The principal strains equal the roots of the cubic equation previously

listed as Eq. (40). Substituting Eq. (45) into Eq. (40) reduces to:

e

3

p

n

À ðe

xx

þ e

yy

þe

zz

Þe

2

p

n

þ ðe

xx

e

yy

þ e

xx

e

zz

þ e

yy

e

zz

À

c

2

xy

4

Þe

p

n

Àðe

xx

e

yy

e

zz

À e

zz

c

2

xy

4

Þ ¼ 0 ð46Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

One root of Eq. (23) is e

pn

=e

zz

. For present purposes, this root will be

labeled e

p3

although it may not be the algebraically least principal strain. In

the case of plane strain, e

p3

=e

zz

=0.

Removing the known root from Eq. (46), we have the following qua-

dratic equation:

e

2

p

n

À ðe

xx

þ e

yy

Þe

pn

þ ðe

xx

e

yy

À

c

2

xy

4

Þ ¼ 0

The two roots of this quadratic equation (that is, the two remaining prin-

cipal strains, e

p1

and e

p2

) may be found by application of the standard ap-

proach (3) and are given by:

e

p

1

; e

p

2

¼

e

xx

þe

yy

2

F

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

e

xx

Àe

yy

2

_ _

2

þ

c

xy

2

_ _

2

¸

ð47Þ

The angle h

p

e

between the x-axis and either the p

1

or p

2

axis is given by:

h

p

e

¼

1

2

arctan

c

xy

e

xx

À e

yy

_ _

ð48Þ

Example Problem 9

Given. A state of plane strain is known to consist of:

e

xx

¼ 500Am=m

e

yy

¼ À1000Am=m

c

xy

¼ À2500Arad

Problem. (a) Prepare a rough sketch (not to scale) of the deformed strain

element in the x–y coordinate system; (b) determine the strain components

which correspond to an xV–yV coordinate system, oriented 25j CCW from the

x–y coordinate system, and prepare a rough sketch (not to scale) of the

deformed strain element in the xV–yV coordinate system; and (c) determine

the principal strain components that exist within the x–y plane, and prepare

a rough sketch (not to scale) of the deformed strain element in the principal

strain coordinate system.

Solution

Part (a). Asketch showing the deformed strain element (not to scale) in the

x–y coordinate system is shown in Fig. 19(a). Note that:

The length of the element side parallel to the x-axis has increased

(corresponding to the tensile strain e

xx

=500 Am/m).

The length of the element side parallel to the y-axis has decreased (cor-

responding to the compressive strain e

yy

=À1000 Am/m).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 19 Strain elements associated with Example Problem 9 (all deforma-

tions shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The angle deﬁned by x–y axes has increased (corresponding to the

negative shear strain c

xy

=À2500 Arad).

Part (b). Since the xV-axis is oriented 25j CCW from the x-axis, in

accordance with the right-hand rule, the angle of rotation is positive, i.e.,

h=+25j. Substituting this angle and the given strain components in Eq. (44):

e

x

V

x

V

e

y

V

y

V

c

x

V

y

V

2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

cos

2

ð25

B

Þ sin

2

ð25

B

Þ 2cosð25

B

Þsinð25

B

Þ

sin

2

ð25

B

Þ cos

2

ð25

B

Þ À2cosð25

B

Þsinð25

B

Þ

Àcosð25

B

Þsinð25

B

Þ cosð25

B

Þsinð25

B

Þ cos

2

ð25

B

Þ À sin

2

ð25

B

Þ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Â

500

À1000

À2500

2

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated results in:

e

x

V

x

V

e

y

V

y

V

c

x

V

y

V

2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

À725 Am=m

225 Am=m

À1378 Arad

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

A sketch showing the deformed strain element (not to scale) in the xV–yV

coordinate system is shown in Fig. 19(b). Note that:

The length of the element side parallel to the xV-axis has decreased

(corresponding to the compressive strain e

xVxV

=À725 Am/m).

The length of the element side parallel to the yV-axis has increased (cor-

responding to the tensile strain e

yVyV

=225 Am/m).

The angle deﬁned by the xV–yV axes has increased (corresponding to the

negative shear strain c

xVyV

=2756 Arad).

Part (c). The principal strains are found through application of Eq. (47):

e

p

1

; e

p

2

¼

500 À 1000

2

F

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

500 þ 1000

2

_ _

2

þ

À2500

2

_ _

2

¸

e

p

1

¼ 1208Am=m

e

p

2

¼ À1708Am=m

The orientation of the principal strain coordinate system is given by Eq. (48):

h

p

e

¼

1

2

arctan

À2500

500 þ 1000

_ _

¼ À29:5

B

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

A sketch showing the deformed strain element (not to scale) in the principal

strain coordinate system is shown in Fig. 19(c). Note that:

The length of the element side parallel to the p

1

-axis has increased

(corresponding to the tensile principal strain e

p1

=1208 Am/m).

The length of the element side parallel to the p

2

-axis has decreased

(corresponding to the compressive principal strain e

p2

=À1708

Am/m).

The angle deﬁned by the principal strain axes has remained precisely

p/2 radians (i.e., 90j) since in the principal strain coordinate system,

the shear strain is zero.

14 RELATING STRAINS TO DISPLACEMENT FIELDS

Most analyses considered in this text begin with the consideration of the

displacement ﬁelds induced in the structure of interest. That is, mathematical

expressions that describe the displacements induced at all points within a

structure by external loading and/or environmental changes will be assumed

or otherwise speciﬁed. Strains induced in the structure will then be inferred

from these displacement ﬁelds.

In the most general case, three displacement ﬁelds are involved. Spe-

ciﬁcally, these are the displacements in the x-, y-, and z-directions, typically

denoted as the u-, v-, and w-displacement ﬁelds, respectively. In general, all

three displacement ﬁelds are functions of x, y, and z:

Displacements in the x-direction: u=u(x,y,z).

Displacements in the y-direction: v=v(x,y,z).

Displacements in the z-direction: w=w(x,y,z).

However, if the out-of-plane z-axis is a principal strain axis, then u and v

are (at most) functions of x and y only, while w is (at most) a function of z

only. In this case:

Displacements in the x-direction: u=u(x,y).

Displacements in the y-direction: v=v(x,y).

Displacements in the z-direction: w=w(z).

A detailed derivation of the relationship between displacements and

strains is beyond the scope of this review, and the interested reader is re-

ferred to Frederick and Chang (1) or Fung (2) for details. It can be shown

that the relationship between displacement ﬁelds and the strain tensor de-

pends upon the magnitude of derivatives of displacement ﬁelds (also called

displacement gradients). If displacement gradients are arbitrarily large, then

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

the associated level of strain is said to be ﬁnite, and each component of the

strain tensor is related nonlinearly to displacement gradients as follows:

e

xx

¼

Bu

Bx

þ

1

2

Bu

Bx

_ _

2

þ

Bv

Bx

_ _

2

þ

Bw

Bx

_ _

2

_ _

e

yy

¼

Bv

By

þ

1

2

Bu

By

_ _

2

þ

Bv

By

_ _

2

þ

Bw

By

_ _

2

_ _

e

zz

¼

Bw

Bz

þ

1

2

Bu

Bz

_ _

2

þ

Bv

Bz

_ _

2

þ

Bw

Bz

_ _

2

_ _

c

xy

¼

Bu

By

þ

Bv

Bx

þ

Bu

Bx

_ _

Bu

By

_ _

þ

Bv

Bx

_ _

Bv

By

_ _

þ

Bw

Bx

_ _

Bw

By

_ _

c

xz

¼

Bu

Bz

þ

Bw

Bx

þ

Bu

Bx

_ _

Bu

Bz

_ _

þ

Bv

Bx

_ _

Bv

Bz

_ _

þ

Bw

Bx

_ _

Bw

Bz

_ _

c

yz

¼

Bw

By

þ

Bv

Bz

þ

Bu

By

_ _

Bu

Bz

_ _

þ

Bv

By

_ _

Bv

Bz

_ _

þ

Bw

By

_ _

Bw

Bz

_ _

The expressions listed above deﬁne what is known as Green’s strain tensor

(also known as the Lagrangian strain tensor).

In most cases encountered in practice, however, displacement gradients

are very small, and consequently the products of displacement gradients

are negligibly small and can be discarded. For example, it can usually be

assumed that:

Bu

Bx

_ _

2

c0

Bv

Bx

_ _

2

c0

Bw

Bx

_ _

2

c0

Bu

Bx

_ _

Bu

By

_ _

c0; etc:

When displacement gradients are very small, the level of strain is said to be

inﬁnitesimal, and each component of the strain tensor is linearly related to

displacement gradients as follows:

e

xx

¼

Bu

Bx

ð49aÞ

e

yy

¼

Bv

By

ð49bÞ

e

zz

¼

Bw

Bz

ð49cÞ

c

xy

¼

Bv

Bx

þ

Bu

By

ð49dÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

c

xz

¼

Bw

Bx

þ

Bu

Bz

ð49eÞ

c

yz

¼

Bw

By

þ

Bv

Bz

ð49f Þ

For most analyses considered in this text, we will assume that strains

are inﬁnitesimal and are related to displacement ﬁelds in accordance with

Eqs. (49a)–(49f). The one exception occurs in Chap. 11, where it will be nec-

essary to include nonlinear terms in the strain–displacement relationships.

As stated above, most analyses begin with the consideration of the

displacement ﬁelds induced in a structure of interest. Strain ﬁelds implied by

these displacements are then calculated in accordance with Eqs. (49a)–(49f).

This process insures that strain ﬁelds are consistent with displacements. Con-

sider the opposite approach. Speciﬁcally, suppose that mathematical expres-

sions for strain ﬁelds are assumed, perhaps on the basis of engineering

judgment. In this case, it is possible that the assumed strain ﬁelds correspond

to physically unrealistic displacement ﬁelds. For example, displacement ﬁelds

inferred from assumed strain ﬁelds may imply that the solid body has voids

and/or overlapping regions, a physically unrealistic circumstance. A system

of six equations known as the compatibility conditions can be developed that

guarantee that assumed expressions for the six components of strain do,

in fact, correspond to physically reasonable displacement ﬁelds u(x,y,z),

v(x,y,z), and w(x,y,z). To develop the compatibility conditions, diﬀerentiate

Eq. (49d) twice, once with respect to x and once with respect to y. We obtain:

B

2

c

xy

BxBy

¼

B

3

u

BxBy

2

þ

B

3

v

Bx

2

By

From Eqs. (49a) and (49b), it is easily seen that:

B

2

e

xx

By

2

¼

B

3

u

BxBy

2

B

2

e

yy

Bx

2

¼

B

3

v

Bx

2

By

Combining these results, we see that expressions for the strain components

e

xx

, e

yy

, and c

xy

correspond to physically reasonable displacement ﬁelds (i.e.,

‘‘are compatible’’) only if they satisfy:

B

2

c

xy

BxBy

¼

B

2

e

xx

By

2

þ

B

2

e

yy

Bx

2

ð50aÞ

Equation (50a) is the ﬁrst compatibility condition. Following a similar pro-

cedure using Eqs. (49e) and (49f), we obtain:

B

2

c

yz

ByBz

¼

B

2

e

yy

Bz

2

þ

B

2

e

zz

By

2

ð50bÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

B

2

c

xz

BxBz

¼

B

2

e

xx

Bz

2

þ

B

2

e

zz

Bx

2

ð50cÞ

These are the second and third compatibility conditions. Next, the following

expressions are obtained using Eqs. (49a), (49d), (49e), and (49f), respectively:

B

3

u

BxByBz

¼

B

2

e

xx

ByBz

B

3

u

BxByBz

¼

B

2

c

xy

BxBz

À

B

3

v

Bx

2

Bz

B

3

u

BxByBz

¼

B

2

c

xz

BxBy

À

B

3

w

Bx

2

By

B

3

w

Bx

2

By

þ

B

3

v

Bx

2

Bz

¼

B

2

c

yz

Bx

2

Combining these four expressions, we ﬁnd that assumed expressions for

strain components e

xx

, c

xy

, c

xz

, and c

yz

, are compatible if:

2

B

2

e

xx

ByBz

¼

B

Bx

Bc

xy

Bz

þ

Bc

xz

By

À

c

yz

Bx

_ _

ð50dÞ

This is the fourth compatibility condition. The ﬁnal two compatibility con-

ditions are developed using a similar process and are given by:

2

B

2

e

yy

BxBz

¼

B

By

Bc

yz

Bx

À

Bc

xz

By

þ

c

xy

Bz

_ _

ð50eÞ

2

B

2

e

zz

BxBy

¼

B

Bz

Bc

yz

Bx

þ

Bc

xz

By

À

c

xy

Bz

_ _

ð50f Þ

15 COMPUTER PROGRAMS 3DROTATE AND 2DROTATE

A review of the force, stress, and strain tensors has been presented in this

chapter. These concepts will be applied routinely throughout the remainder

of this text, as we develop a macromechanics-based analysis of structural

composite materials and structures. It will be seen that the transformation

of stress andstraintensors is of particular importance. Indeed, nearlyall analy-

ses of composite materials and structures presented herein require multiple

transformations of stress and strain tensors from one coordinate system to

another.

Two computer programs, 3DROTATE and 2DROTATE, that can be

used to perform transformations of force, stress, or strain tensors have been

developed to accompany this text. These programs can also be downloaded

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

at no cost from the following website: http://debts.washington.edu/amtas/

computer.html. Program 3DROTATE performs the calculations necessary

to transform a force, stress, or strain tensor from the x–y–z coordinate

system to the xU–yU–zU coordinate system, where the xU–yU–zU coordinate

system is generated from the x–y–z coordinate system by (up to) three

successive rotations. Derivation of the direction cosines that relate these two

coordinate systems is left as a student exercise, but are listed in Homework

Problem2. Program3DROTATEalso calculates the angles betweenthe x–y–z

and xU–yU–zU coordinate axes, invariants of the force, stress, or strain tensors,

and principal stresses and strains. All of the numerical results discussed in

Example Problems 1, 3, and 7 can be obtained through the use of program

3DROTATE.

The second program, 2DROTATE, can be used to rotate stresses within

a plane (as discussed in Sec. 8) and/or strains within a plane (as discussed

in Sec. 13). For the most part, thin platelike composite structures will be

considered in this textbook. Therefore, it can usually be assumed that the

direction normal to the surface of the composite is a direction of principal

stress or strain. Hence, most of the stress or strain transformations consid-

ered in this text involve rotations within a plane. Most of the numerical results

discussed in Example Problems 5 and 9 can be obtained through the use of

program 2DROTATE.

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS

In the following problems, the phrase ‘‘solve by hand’’ means that numerical

solutions should be obtained using a pencil, paper, and nonprogrammable

calculator. Solutions obtained by hand will then be compared to numerical

results returned by appropriate computer programs. This process will insure

understanding of the mathematical processes involved.

1. Solve part (c) of Example Problem 1 by hand based on the rotation

angles listed below. In each case, calculate the magnitude of the

transformed force vector. Conﬁrm your calculations using program

3DROTATE.

(a) h=60j b=À45j.

(b) h=60j b=45j.

(c) h=À60j b=À45j.

(d) h=À60j b=45j.

(e) h=À45j b=60j.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

(f ) h=À45j b=À60j.

(g) h=45j b=60j.

(h) h=45j b=À60j.

2. Consider an xVVV–yVVV–zVVV coordinate system, which is generated from

an x–y–z coordinate system by the following three rotations:

**A rotation of about the original z-axis, which deﬁnes an intermediate
**

xV–yV–zV coordinate system [see Fig. 2(a)], followed by

**A rotation of b about the xV-axis, which deﬁnes an intermediate xVV–
**

yVV–zVV coordinate system [see Fig. 2(b)], followed by

**Arotation of wabout the yVV-axis, which deﬁnes the ﬁnal xVVV–yVVV–zVVV
**

coordinate system.

Show that the xVVV–yVVV–zVVV and x–y–z coordinate systems are related by

the following direction cosines:

c

x

VVV

x

c

x

VVV

y

c

x

VVV

z

c

y

VVV

x

c

y

VVV

y

c

y

VVV

z

c

z

VVV

x

c

z

VVV

y

c

z

VVV

z

_

_

_

_

¼

coswcosh À sinwsinbsinh coswsinh þ sinwsinbcosh Àsinwcosb

Àcosbsinh cosbcosh sinb

sinwcosh þ coswsinbsinh sinwsinh À coswsinbcosh coswcosb

_

_

_

_

3. The force vector discussed in Example Problem 1 is given by:

F ¼ 1000i

ˆ

þ 200j

ˆ

þ 600k

ˆ

Using Eq. (6c), express F in a new coordinate system deﬁned by three

successive rotations, as listed below, using the direction cosines listed

in Problem 2. In each case, compare the magnitude of the transformed

force vector to the magnitudes calculated in Example Problem 1. Solve

these problems by hand and then conﬁrm your calculations using

program 3DROTATE.

(a) h=60j b=À45j w=25j.

(b) h=60j b=À45j w=À25j.

(c) h=60j b=45j w=À25j.

(d) h=60j b=45j w=25j.

(e) h=À60j b=À45j w=25j.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4. Solve Example Problem 3 by hand using the following rotation

angles:

(a) h=20j b=À35j.

(b) h=À20j b=35j.

(c) h=À20j b=À35j.

Conﬁrm your calculations using program 3DROTATE.

5. Use Eq. (12a) to obtain an expression (in expanded form) for the fol-

lowing stress component [in each case, the expanded expression will be

similar to Eq. (13)]:

(a) r

xVxV

.

(b) r

xVyV

.

(c) r

yVyV

.

(d) r

yVzV

.

(e) r

zVzV

.

6. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the stress invariants for the

stress tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example

Problem 3. (Note: this stress tensor is similar to the one considered in

Example Problem 3 except that the algebraic sign of all three normal

stresses has been reversed.):

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

¼

À50 À10 15

À10 À25 30

15 30 5

_

_

_

_

ðksiÞ

7. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the stress invariants for the

stress tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example

Problem 3. (Note: this stress tensor is similar to the one considered in

Example Problem 3 except that the algebraic sign of all three shear

stresses has been reversed.):

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

¼

50 10 À15

10 25 À30

À15 À30 À5

_

_

_

_

ðksiÞ

8. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the stress invariants for the

stress tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Problem 3. (Note: this stress tensor is similar to the one considered in

Example Problem 3 except that the algebraic sign of all stress compo-

nents has been reversed.):

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

_

_

_

_

¼

À50 10 À15

10 À25 À30

À15 À30 5

_

_

_

_

ðksiÞ

9. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the strain invariants for the

strain tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example

Problem 7. (Note: this strain tensor is similar to the one considered in

Example Problem 7 except that the algebraic sign of all shear strain

components has been reversed.):

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

1000 Am=m À500 Arad À250 Arad

À500 Arad 1500 Am=m À750 Arad

À250 Arad À750 Arad 2000 Am=m

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

10. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the strain invariants for the

strain tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example

Problem 7. (Note: this strain tensor is similar to the one considered in

Example Problem 7 except that the algebraic sign of all normal strain

components has been reversed.):

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

À1000 Am=m 500 Arad 250 Arad

500 Arad À1500 Am=m 750 Arad

250 Arad 750 Arad À2000 Am=m

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

11. Use program 3DROTATE to determine the strain invariants for the

strain tensor listed below, and compare to those determined in Example

Problem 7. (Note: this strain tensor is similar to the one considered in

Example Problem 7 except that the algebraic sign of all strain compo-

nents has been reversed.):

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

À1000 Am=m À500 Arad À250 Arad

À500 Arad À1500 Am=m À750 Arad

À250 Arad À750 Arad À2000 Am=m

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

REFERENCES

1. Frederick, D.; Chang, T.S. Continuum Mechanics; Scientiﬁc Publishers, Inc:

Cambridge, MA, 1972.

2. Fung, Y.C. A First Course In Continuum Mechanics; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Engle-

wood Cliﬀs, NJ, 1969.

3. Consult any handbook of mathematical functions and tables, for example, CRC

Basic Mathematical Tables; Shelby, S.M. The Chemical Company: Cleveland,

OH, 1970.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

3

Material Properties

In this chapter, various material properties required to predict the perform-

ance of composite structures are introduced. The chapter begins with a

general discussion of isotropic vs. anisotropic material behaviors. It will be

pointed out that most composites can be classiﬁed as either orthotropic or

transversely isotropic materials. Sections devoted to those material properties

of primary interest to structural engineers then follow. Speciﬁcally, separate

sections are presented, which describe material properties that allow an

engineer to:

Relate stress to strain

Relate temperature to strain

Relate moisture content to strain

**Relate stress (or strain) to failure.
**

In each section, material properties will ﬁrst be deﬁned for anisotropic

materials. These general deﬁnitions will then be applied to the case of

composites (i.e., they will be specialized for the case of orthotropic or

transversely isotropic materials).

1 ANISOTROPIC VS. ISOTROPIC MATERIALS

The phrase material property refers to a measurable constant that is character-

istic of a particular material and can be used to relate two disparate quantities

117

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

of interest. Material properties that describe the ability of a material to

conduct electricity, to transmit (or reﬂect) visible light, to transfer heat, or to

support mechanical loading, to name but a few, have been deﬁned. Material

properties of interest herein are those used by engineers during the design of

composite structures. Two speciﬁc examples are Young’s modulus, E and

Poisson’s ratio v. These two familiar material properties, which will be

reviewed and further discussed in Sec. 2, are used to relate the stress and

strain tensors.

The adjectives ‘‘anisotropic’’ and ‘‘isotropic’’ indicate whether a mate-

rial exhibits a single value for a given material property. More speciﬁcally, if

the properties of a material are independent of direction within the material,

then the material is said to be isotropic. Conversely, if the material properties

vary with direction within the material, then the material is said to be

anisotropic.

To clarify this statement, suppose that three test specimens are ma-

chined from a large block at three diﬀerent orientations, as shown in Fig. 1.

The geometry of the three specimens is assumedtobe identical, sothat the only

diﬀerence between specimens is the original orientation of each specimen

within the ‘‘parent’’ block. Now suppose that the axial stiﬀness (i.e., Young’s

modulus E) is measured for each specimen. Young’s modulus measured using

specimen 1 will be denoted E

xx

(i.e., subscripts are used to indicate the original

orientation of specimen 1 within the parent block). Similarly, Young’s

modulus measured using specimens 2 and 3 will be denoted E

yy

and E

zz

,

respectively.

If the parent block consists of an isotropic material, then Young’s

modulus measured for each specimen will be identical (to within engineering

accuracies)—for isotropic materials: E

xx

= E

yy

= E

zz

.

In this case, an identical value of Young’s modulus is measured in the x-,

y-, and z-directions, and is independent of direction within the material. In

contrast, if the parent block is an anisotropic material, a diﬀerent Young’s

modulus will, in general, be measured for each specimen—for anisotropic

materials: E

xx

p E

yy

p E

zz

.

In this case, the value of Young’s modulus depends on the direction

within the material the modulus is measured. For anisotropic materials, a

similar dependence on direction can occur for any material property of

interest (Poisson’s ratio, thermal expansion coeﬃcients, ultimate strengths,

etc).

It is the microstructural features of a material that determine whether it

exhibits isotropic or anisotropic behavior. Consequently, to classify a given

material as isotropic or anisotropic, one must ﬁrst deﬁne the physical scale of

interest. For example, it is well known that metals and metal alloys are made

up of individual grains, and that the atoms that exist within these grains are

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

arranged in well-deﬁned crystalline arrays. The most common crystalline

arrays are the body-centered cubic (BCC), the face-centered cubic (FCC), or

the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure [1]. Due to the highly ordered

and symmetrical atomic structures that exist within these arrays, an individual

grain exhibits diﬀerent properties in diﬀerent directions, and hence is aniso-

tropic. That is to say, if material properties are deﬁned at a physical scale on

Figure 1 Illustration of method used to determine whether a material is iso-

tropic or anisotropic.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

the order of a grain diameter or smaller, then all metals or metal alloys must be

deﬁned as anisotropic materials.

It does not necessarily follow, however, that a metal or metal alloy will

exhibit anisotropic behavior at the structural level. This is because individual

grains are typically very small, and the orientation of the atomic crystalline

arrays usually varies randomly from one grain to the next. As a typical case, it

is not uncommon for a steel alloy to exhibit an average grain diameter of 0.044

mm (0.0017 in.), or roughly 8200 grains/mm

3

(134 Â10

6

grains/in.

3

) [1]. If the

grains are randomly oriented, which is a common case, then at the structural

level (say, at a physical scale >1 mm), the steel alloy will exhibit isotropic

properties even though the constituent grains are anisotropic. Conversely, if a

signiﬁcant percentage of grains is caused to be oriented by some mechanism

(such as cold rolling, for example), then the same steel alloy will be anisotropic

at the structural level.

Polymeric composites are anisotropic at the structural level, and the

microstructural features that lead to this anisotropy are immediately ap-

parent. Speciﬁcally, it is the uniform and symmetrical orientation of the

reinforcing ﬁbers within a ply that leads to anisotropic behavior. As a simple

example, suppose two specimens are machined from a thin unidirectional

composite plate consisting of high-strength ﬁbers embedded within a rela-

tively ﬂexible polymeric matrix, as shown in Fig. 2a and b. Note that the

coordinate system used to describe the plate has been labeled the 1–2–3 axes.

In this case, the 1-axis is deﬁned to be parallel to the ﬁbers, the 2-axis is deﬁned

to lie within the plane of the plate and is perpendicular to the ﬁbers, and the 3-

axis is deﬁned to be normal to the plane of the plate. Note that ﬁbers are

arranged symmetrically about the 1–3 and 2–3 planes. The 1–2–3 coordinate

system will henceforth be referred to as the principal material coordinate

system. Referring to Fig. 2a, specimen 1 is machined such that the ﬁbers are

aligned with the long axis of the specimen, whereas in specimen 2, the ﬁbers

are perpendicular to the axis of the specimen. Obviously, Young’s modulus

measured for these two specimens will be quite diﬀerent. Speciﬁcally, the

modulus measured for specimen 1 will approach that of the ﬁbers, whereas the

modulus measured for specimen 2 will approach that of the polymeric matrix.

Therefore, E

11

> >E

22

, and Young’s modulus varies with direction within the

material, satisfying the deﬁnition of an anisotropic material.

The principal material coordinate system is not always aligned with the

ﬁber direction, as shown in Fig. 2c and d. In this case, the thin composite plate

is formed using a braided fabric. As discussed in Sec. 4 of Chap. 1, braided

fabrics contain ﬁbers oriented in two (or more) nonorthogonal directions. The

three principal material coordinate axes lie within planes that are symmetrical

with respect to the ﬁber array. As before, the 1- and 2-axes lie within the plane

of the plate, and the 3-axis is deﬁned normal to the plane of the plate.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

One of the most unusual features of anisotropic materials is that they

can exhibit coupling between normal stresses and shear strains, as well as

coupling between shear stress and normal strains. A physical explanation of

howthis coupling occurs in the case of a unidirectional composite is presented

in Fig. 3. Aspecimen in which the unidirectional ﬁbers are oriented at an angle

of 45j with respect to the x-axis is shown, and a small square element fromthe

gage region is isolated. Because the element is initially square and, in this

example, the ﬁbers are deﬁned to be at an angle of 45j, ﬁbers are parallel to

diagonal AC of the element. In contrast, ﬁbers are perpendicular to diagonal

BD. This implies that the element is stiﬀer along diagonal AC than along

diagonal BD.

Figure 2 Illustration of the principal material coordinate system for thin com-

posite laminates.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Now assume that a tensile stress is applied, causing the square element

(as well as the specimen as a whole) to deform. Because the stiﬀness is higher

along diagonal AC than along diagonal BD, the length of diagonal AC is

increased to a lesser extent than that of diagonal BD. Hence, the initially

square element deforms into a parallelogram, as shown in the ﬁgure. Note

that:

**The length of the square element is increased in the x-direction
**

(corresponding to a tensile strain, e

xx

).

**The length of the square element is decreased in the y-direction
**

(corresponding to a compressive strain e

yy

, and associated with the

Poisson eﬀect).

**BDABis no longer p/2 rad, which indicates that a shear strain c
**

xy

has

been induced.

Figure 3 A 45j off-axis composite specimen used to explain the origin of cou-

pling effects.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Hence, in this example, the normal stress r

xx

has induced two normal strains

(e

xx

and e

yy

) as well as a shear strain c

xy

. Hence, coupling exists between r

xx

and c

xy

, as stipulated.

The couplings between normal stresses and shear strains (as well as

couplings between shear stresses and normal strains) will be explained in a

formal mathematical sense in Chap. 4. However, two important conclusions

can be drawn from the physical explanation shown in Fig. 3. First, note that

the specimen shown is subjected to normal stress r

xx

only. In particular, note

that no shear stress exists in the x–y coordinate system (s

xy

= 0). Con-

sequently, the in-plane principal stresses applied to the specimen are r

p

1

=r

xx

and r

p

2

=r

yy

=0, and the principal stress coordinate systemis deﬁned by the

x–y coordinate system. However, a shear strain does exist in the x–y

coordinate system (c

xy

p 0). Consequently, the x–y coordinate system is

not the principal strain coordinate system. We conclude, therefore, that the

principal stress coordinate system is not aligned with the principal strain

coordinate system. This is generally true for all anisotropic materials and is in

direct contrast to the behavior of isotropic materials because for isotropic

materials, the principal stress and principal strain coordinate systems are

always coincident.

Secondly, note that the physical argument used above to explain the

origin of the coupling eﬀect hinges on the fact that the ﬁber direction diﬀers

fromthe direction of the applied stress r

xx

. Speciﬁcally, the ﬁbers are oriented

45j away from the direction of the applied stress r

xx

. If the ﬁbers were aligned

with either the x- or y-axis, then a coupling between r

xx

and c

xy

would not

occur. We conclude that the unusual coupling eﬀects exhibited by composites

only occur if stress and strain are referenced to a nonprincipal material

coordinate system.

Anisotropic materials are classiﬁed according to the number of planes of

symmetry deﬁned by the microstructure. The principal material coordinate

axes lie within the planes of symmetry. For example, in the case of unidirec-

tional composites, three planes of symmetry can be deﬁned: the 1–2 plane, the

1–3 plane, and the 2–3 plane. Composites fall within one of two classiﬁcations

of anisotropic behavior. Speciﬁcally, composites are either orthotropic mate-

rials or transversely isotropic materials (the distinction between orthotropic

and transversely isotropic materials will be further discussed in Sec. 2).

During the composite structural analyses discussed in this text, the composite

will be called ‘‘anisotropic’’ if the coordinate system of reference is a non-

principal material coordinate system. Use of the term ‘‘anisotropic’’ will

therefore signal the possibility of couplings between normal stresses and shear

strains, and couplings between shear stresses and normal strains. If, instead, a

structural analysis is referenced to the principal material coordinate system,

the composite will be called either orthotropic or transversely isotropic.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Although many kinds of material properties may be deﬁned, in this text

we are only interested in those properties commonly used by structural

engineers. The properties needed to perform a structural analysis of compo-

site structures will be deﬁned in the following sections. In each section, a

general deﬁnition of the material property will be given, suitable for use with

anisotropic materials. That is, the properties of a composite material when

referenced to a nonprincipal material coordinate systemwill be discussed ﬁrst.

These general deﬁnitions will then be specialized to the principal material

coordinate system (i.e., they will be specialized for the case of orthotropic or

transversely isotropic composites).

Typical values of the properties discussed in this chapter measured at

room temperatures are listed for glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, and graphite/

epoxy in Table 3. These properties do not represent the properties of any

speciﬁc commercial composite material system, but rather should be viewed

as typical values. Due to ongoing research and development activities within

the industry, the properties of composites are improved more or less

continuously. Therefore, the properties listed in Table 3 may not reﬂect

those of currently available materials. The properties that appear in the table

will be used in example and homework problems throughout the remainder

of this text.

2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES THAT RELATE STRESS

TO STRAIN

Both stress and strain are second-order tensors, as discussed in Chap. 2. The

material properties used to relate the stress and strain tensors are inferred

from experimental measurements. Conceptually, two diﬀerent experimental

approaches may be taken. In the ﬁrst approach, the material of interest is

subjected to a well-deﬁned stress tensor, and components of the resulting

strain tensor are measured. In the second approach, the material of interest is

subjected to a well-deﬁned strain tensor, and the components of the resulting

stress tensor are measured. Froman experimental standpoint, it is far easier to

impose a well-deﬁned stress tensor than a well-deﬁned strain tensor, and

hence the ﬁrst approach is almost always used in practice.

Recall that there are two fundamental types of stress components:

normal stress and shear stress. As a consequence, two fundamental types of

tests are used to relate stress to strain—speciﬁcally, a test that involves the

application of a known normal stress component and a test involving

application of a known shear stress component. In either case, a stress tensor

is imposed in which ﬁve of the six stress components equal zero, and the

resulting six components of the strain tensor are measured.

Tests that involve application of a known normal stress component are

called uniaxial tests. In a typical case, a single normal stress component is

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

applied to a test specimen (say, r

xx

), while insuring that the remaining ﬁve

stress components are zero (r

yy

= r

zz

= s

xy

= s

xz

= s

yz

= 0). The six com-

ponents of strain caused by r

xx

are measured, which allows the calculation of

various material properties relating a normal stress component to the strain

tensor.

In contrast, tests that involve application of a known shear stress

component are called pure shear tests. In a typical case, a single shear stress

component is applied to a test specimen (say, s

xy

), while insuring that the

remaining ﬁve stress components are zero (r

xx

= r

yy

= r

zz

= s

xz

= s

yz

= 0).

The six components of strain caused by s

xy

are measured, which allows the

calculation of various material properties relating a shear stress component to

the strain tensor.

A detailed description of experimental methods used to impose a

speciﬁed state of stress is beyond the scope of the present discussion. It

should be mentioned, however, that some of the stress states discussed below

are very diﬃcult to achieve in practice. For example, because composites are

usually produced in the form of thin platelike structures, it is very diﬃcult to

impose well-deﬁned stresses acting normal to the plane of the composite, or to

measure the strain components induced normal to the plane of the composite

by a given state of stress.

For present purposes, these very real practical diﬃculties will be

ignored. It will simply be assumed that the stress tensors discussed have been

induced in the test specimen, and that methods to measure the resulting strain

components involved are available. A number of international and industrial

organizations publish annual test standards that describe available exper-

imental arrangements in detail. Some of the best known standards are those

published by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM

tests standards that describe techniques to measure composite material

properties relevant to the present discussion are listed in Table 1. There are

also many composite test methods used routinely in industrial, governmental,

or university composite laboratories that have not as yet been standardized by

organizations such as the ASTM. New test methods are being developed

continuously, and the reader should be alert for new methods and test

standards as they become available.

2.1 Uniaxial Tests

Referring to Fig. 1, suppose a uniaxial test is conducted using specimen 1 (i.e.,

material properties are measured in the x-direction). As the test proceeds,

stress r

xx

is increased from zero to some maximal level, and the components

of strain induced as a result of this stress are measured. An idealized plot of

strain data collected during a uniaxial test of an anisotropic material is shown

in Fig. 4, where it is has been assumed that the magnitude of stress is relatively

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Table 1 ASTM Test Standards for Determining Elastic Moduli of

Polymeric Composites and Related Standards

Designation Title

D3039 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer

Matrix Composite Materials

D5450 Standard Test Method for Transverse Tensile Properties

of Hoop Wound Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders

D695 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of

Rigid Plastics

D3410 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of

Polymer Matrix Composite Materials with Unsupported

Gage Section by Shear Loading

D5467 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of

Unidirectional Polymer Matrix Composites Using

a Sandwich Beam

D5449 Standard Test Method for Transverse Compressive

Properties of Hoop Wound Polymer Matrix

Composite Cylinders

D3518 Standard Practice for In-Plane Shear Response

of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by Tensile

Test of a +45j Laminate

D5379 Standard Test Method for Shear Properties of

Composite Materials by the V-Notched Beam Method

D4255 Standard Guide for Testing In-Plane Shear Properties

of Composite Laminates

D5448 Standard Test Method for In-Plane Shear Properties

of Hoop Wound Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders

Related standards

D5687 Standard Guide for Preparation of Flat Composite Panels

with Processing Guidelines for Specimen Preparation

D638 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics

D882 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin

Plastic Sheeting

D4018 Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous

Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows

D2343 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Glass

Fiber Strands, Yarns, and Rovings Used in

Reinforced Plastics

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

low, such that a linear relationship exists between the stress component r

xx

and the resulting strains. Strains induced at high nonlinear stress levels,

including failure stresses, will be considered in Sec. 5. Note that for an

anisotropic material, stress r

xx

will induce all six components of strain: e

xx

,

e

yy

, e

zz

, c

xy

, c

xz

, and c

yz

. This is not the case for isotropic materials; a uniaxial

stress r

xx

applied to an isotropic material will not induce any shear strains

(c

xy

=c

xz

=c

yz

=0); furthermore, the transverse normal strains will be

identical (e

yy

=e

zz

). Hence, for anisotropic material, there is an unusual

coupling between normal stress and shear strain, which would not be expected

based on previous experience with isotropic materials.

As would be expected, as the magnitude of r

xx

is increased, the mag-

nitude of all resulting strain components is also increased. Because stress r

xx

causes six distinct components of strain for an anisotropic material, six ma-

terial properties must be deﬁned in order to relate r

xx

to the resulting strains.

Let us ﬁrst consider material properties relating normal stress r

xx

to

normal strains e

xx

, e

yy

, and e

zz

. The relationship between r

xx

and normal

strain e

xx

is characterized by Young’s modulus E

xx

(also called the ‘‘modulus

of elasticity’’):

E

xx

u

r

xx

e

xx

ð1Þ

Young’s modulus is simply the slope of the r

xx

vs. e

xx

curve shown in

Fig. 4. In words, Young’s modulus is deﬁned as ‘‘the normal stress r

xx

divided

Figure 4 Idealized plot of the six strain components caused by the application

a uniaxial stress r

xx

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

by the resulting normal strain e

xx

, with all other stress components equal to

zero.’’ Subscripts xx have been used to indicate the direction in which

Young’s modulus has been measured. Because we have restricted our

attention to the linear region of the stress–strain curve, Eq. (1) is only valid

at relatively low, linear stress levels.

The relationship between the two transverse strains (e

yy

and e

zz

) and e

xx

is deﬁned by Poisson’s ratio:

v

xy

u

Àe

yy

e

xx

v

xz

u

Àe

zz

e

xx

ð2Þ

In words, Poisson’s ratio v

xy

(or v

xz

) is deﬁned as ‘‘the negative of the trans-

verse normal strain e

yy

(or e

zz

) divided by the axial normal strain e

xx

, both of

which are induced by stress r

xx

, with all other stresses equal to zero.’’

As before, subscripts have been used to indicate the uniaxial stress

condition under which Poisson’s ratio is measured. The ﬁrst subscript

indicates the direction of stress, and the second subscript indicates the

direction of transverse strain. For example, in the case of v

xy

, the ﬁrst

subscript x indicates that a uniaxial stress r

xx

has been applied, and the

second subscript y indicates that transverse normal strain e

yy

has been used to

calculate Poisson’s ratio.

Combining Eqs. (1) and (2), a relationship between r

xx

and transverse

strains e

yy

and e

zz

is obtained:

e

yy

¼ À

v

xy

E

xx

r

xx

e

zz

¼ À

v

xz

E

xx

r

xx

ð3Þ

Now consider material properties relating normal strain e

xx

to shear

strains c

xy

, c

xz

, and c

yz

. Material properties relating normal strains to shear

strains were discussed by Lekhnitski [2] and are called ‘‘coeﬃcients of mutual

inﬂuence of the second kind.’’ In this text, they will be denoted using the

symbol g, and are deﬁned as follows:

g

xx;xy

u

c

xy

e

xx

g

xx;xz

u

c

xz

e

xx

g

xx;yz

u

c

yz

e

xx

ð4Þ

In words, the coeﬃcient of mutual inﬂuence of the second kind g

xx,xy

(or

g

xx,xz

, or g

xx,yz

) is deﬁned as ‘‘the shear strain c

xy

(or c

xz

, or c

yz

) divided by the

normal strain e

xx

, both of which are induced by normal stress r

xx

, when all

other stresses equal zero.’’

Subscripts have once again been used to indicate the stress condition

under which the coeﬃcient of mutual inﬂuence of the second kind is

measured. The ﬁrst set of subscripts indicates the direction of stress, and

the second set of subscripts indicates the shear strain used to calculate the

coeﬃcient. For example, in the case of g

xx,xy

, the ﬁrst two subscripts xx

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

indicate that a normal stress r

xx

has been applied, and the second two

subscripts xy indicate that c

xy

has been used to calculate the coeﬃcient.

Combining Eqs. (1) and (4), a relationship between r

xx

and shear strain

c

xy

, c

xz

, or c

yz

is obtained:

c

xy

¼

g

xx;xy

e

xx

r

xx

c

xz

¼

g

xx;xz

e

xx

r

xx

c

yz

¼

g

xx;yz

e

xx

r

xx

ð5Þ

Equations (1)–(5) deﬁne six properties measured in the x-direction,

using specimen 1. Referring again to Fig. 1, analogous results are obtained

when properties are measured in the y- and z-directions, using specimens 2

and 3:

Properties Measured Using Specimen 2 (s

yy

Applied)

E

yy

u

r

yy

e

yy

ðorÞ e

yy

¼

1

E

yy

r

yy

v

yx

u

Àe

xx

e

yy

ðorÞ e

xx

¼ À

v

yx

E

yy

r

yy

v

yz

u

Àe

zz

e

yy

ðorÞ e

zz

¼ À

v

yz

E

yy

r

yy

g

yy;xy

u

c

xy

e

yy

ðorÞ c

xy

¼

g

yy;xy

e

yy

r

yy

g

yy;xz

u

c

xz

e

yy

ðorÞ c

xz

¼

g

yy;xz

e

yy

r

yy

g

yy;yz

u

c

yz

e

yy

ðorÞ c

yz

¼

g

yy;yz

e

yy

r

yy

ð6Þ

Properties Measured Using Specimen 3 (s

zz

Applied):

E

zz

u

r

zz

e

zz

ðorÞ e

zz

¼

1

E

zz

r

zz

v

zx

u

Àe

xx

e

zz

ðorÞ e

xx

¼ À

v

zx

E

zz

r

zz

v

zy

u

Àe

yy

e

zz

ðorÞ e

yy

¼ À

v

zy

E

zz

r

zz

g

zz;xy

u

c

xy

e

zz

ðorÞ c

xy

¼

g

zz;xy

e

zz

r

zz

g

zz;xz

u

c

xz

e

zz

ðorÞ c

xz

¼

g

zz;xz

e

zz

r

zz

g

zz;yz

u

c

yz

e

zz

ðorÞ c

yz

¼

g

zz;yz

e

zz

r

zz

ð7Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.2 Pure Shear Tests

If a pure shear stress (say, s

xy

) is applied to an anisotropic material, six

components of strain will be induced. An idealized plot of strain data

collected during a pure shear test of an anisotropic material is shown

schematically in Fig. 5, where it is assumed that magnitude of shear stress is

relatively low such that a linear relationship exists between the stress

component s

xy

and the resulting strains. Strains induced at high nonlinear

stress levels, including failure stresses, will be considered in Sec. 5. Once again,

the stress–strain response of an anisotropic material diﬀers markedly from

that of an isotropic material. Speciﬁcally, for an anisotropic material, stress

s

xy

will induce all six components of strain: e

xx

, e

yy

, e

zz

, c

xy

, c

xz

, and c

yz

. If an

isotropic material is subjected to a pure shear stress s

xy

, only one strain

component is induced (c

xy

); all other strain components are zero (e

xx

=

e

yy

=e

zz

=c

xz

=c

yz

=0). Hence, for anisotropic material, there is an unusual

coupling between shear stress and normal strain, as well as an unusual

coupling between shear stress in one plane (say, the x–y plane) and out-of-

plane shear strains (c

xz

and c

yz

). Neither of these coupling eﬀects occurs in

isotropic materials.

As would be expected, as the magnitude of s

xy

is increased during the

test, the magnitude of the resulting strains is also increased. Because stress s

xy

causes six distinct components of strain, six material properties must be

deﬁned in order to relate s

xy

to the resulting strains.

Figure 5 Idealized plot of the six strain components caused by the application

a pure shear stress s

xy

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Let us ﬁrst consider material properties relating shear stress s

xy

to shear

strains c

xy

,c

xz

, and c

yz

. The relationship between s

xy

and shear strain c

xy

is

characterized by the shear modulus G

xy

:

G

xy

u

s

xy

c

xy

ð8Þ

In words, the shear modulus is deﬁned as ‘‘the shear stress s

xy

divided by

the resulting shear strain c

xy

, with all other stress components equal to zero.’’

Because we have restricted our attention to linear stress levels, Eq. (8) is only

valid at relatively low, linear shear stress levels.

The relationship between transverse strains (c

xz

, c

yz

) and c

xy

is charac-

terized by Chentsov coeﬃcients, which will be denoted using the symbol l in

this text:

l

xy;xz

u

c

xz

c

xy

l

xy;yz

u

c

yz

c

xy

ð9Þ

In words, the Chentsov coeﬃcient l

xy

,

xz

(or l

xy

,

yz

) is deﬁned as ‘‘the

shear strain c

xz

(or c

yz

) divided by the shear strain c

xy

, both of which are

induced by shear stress s

xy

, with all other stresses equal to zero.’’ The ﬁrst set

of subscripts indicates the stress component, and the second set of subscripts

indicates the out-of-plane shear strain used to calculate the Chentsov co-

eﬃcient. For example, in the case of l

xy

,

xz

the subscripts xy indicate that a

pure shear stress s

xy

has been applied, and the second two subscripts xz

indicate that c

xz

has been used to calculate the coeﬃcient.

A comparison between Eqs. (2) and (9) reveals that Chentsov coeﬃ-

cients are directly analogous to Poisson’s ratio. Poisson’s ratio is deﬁned as a

ratio of normal strains caused by a normal stress, whereas Chentsov coef-

ﬁcients are deﬁned as a ratio of shear strains caused by a shear stress.

Combining Eqs. (8) and (9), a relationship between s

xy

and shear strain

c

xz

or c

yz

is obtained:

c

xz

¼

l

xy;xz

G

xy

s

xy

c

yz

¼

l

xy;yz

G

xy

s

xy

ð10Þ

Finally, consider material properties relating shear stress s

xy

to normal

strains e

xx

, e

yy

, and e

zz

. Material properties relating shear stress to normal

strains were discussed by Lekhnitski [2] and are called ‘‘coeﬃcients of mutual

inﬂuence of the ﬁrst kind.’’ In this text, they will be denoted using the symbol

g, and are deﬁned as follows:

g

xy;xx

u

e

xx

c

xy

g

xy;yy

u

e

yy

c

xy

g

xy;zz

u

e

zz

c

xy

ð11Þ

In words, the coeﬃcient of mutual inﬂuence of the ﬁrst kind g

xy

,

xx

(or

g

xy

,

yy

, or g

xy

,

zz

) is deﬁned as ‘‘the normal strain e

xx

(or e

yy

, or e

zz

) divided by

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

the shear strain c

xy

, both of which are induced by shear stress s

xy

, when all

other stresses equal zero.’’ The ﬁrst set of subscripts indicates the stress

component applied, and the second set indicates the normal strain used to

calculate the coeﬃcient. For example, in the case of g

xy

,

xx

, the ﬁrst subscripts

xy indicate that shear stress s

xy

has been applied, and the second set of

subscripts xx indicates that e

xx

has been used to calculate the coeﬃcient.

Combining Eqs. (8) and (11), a relationship between s

xy

and normal

strain e

xx

, e

yy

, or e

zz

is obtained:

e

xx

¼

g

xy;xx

G

xy

s

xy

e

yy

¼

g

xy;yy

G

xy

s

xy

e

zz

¼

g

xy;zz

G

xy

s

xy

ð12Þ

Equations (8)–(12) deﬁne six properties measured when a pure shear

stress s

xy

is applied. Analogous material properties are deﬁned during tests in

which pure shear s

xz

or s

yz

is applied.

Properties Measured Using Pure Shear t

xz

G

xz

u

s

xz

c

xz

ðorÞ c

xz

¼

1

G

xz

s

xz

l

xz;xy

u

c

xy

c

xz

ðorÞ c

xy

¼

l

xz;xy

G

xz

s

xz

l

xz;yz

u

c

yz

c

xz

ðorÞ c

yz

¼

l

xz;yz

G

xz

s

xz

g

xz;xx

u

e

xx

c

xz

ðorÞ e

xx

¼

g

xz;xx

G

xz

s

xz

g

xz;yy

u

e

yy

c

xz

ðorÞ e

yy

¼

g

xz;yy

G

xz

s

xz

g

xz;zz

u

e

zz

c

xz

ðorÞ e

zz

¼

g

xz;zz

G

xz

s

xz

ð13Þ

Properties Measured Using Pure Shear t

yz

G

yz

u

s

yz

c

yz

ðorÞ c

yz

¼

1

G

yz

s

yz

l

yz;xy

u

c

xy

c

yz

ðorÞ c

xy

¼

l

yz;xy

G

yz

s

yz

l

yz;xz

u

c

xz

c

yz

ðorÞ c

xz

¼

l

yz;xz

G

yz

s

yz

g

yz;xx

u

e

xx

c

yz

ðorÞ e

xx

¼

g

yz;xx

G

yz

s

yz

g

yz;yy

u

e

yy

c

yz

ðorÞ e

yy

¼

g

yz;yy

G

yz

s

yz

g

yz;zz

u

e

zz

c

yz

ðorÞ e

zz

¼

g

yz;zz

G

yz

s

yz

ð14Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.3 Specialization to Orthotropic and Transversely Isotropic

Composites

As previously shown in Fig. 2a and b, for unidirectional composites, the

principal material coordinate system is deﬁned by the ﬁber direction. That is,

the 1-axis is deﬁned parallel to the ﬁber direction, the 2-axis is perpendicular

to the ﬁbers and lies within the plane of the composite, and the 3-axis is

perpendicular to the ﬁbers and lies out of plane. In other cases, such as the

braided composite shown in Fig. 2c and d, the 1–2–3 principal material

coordinate systemis not aligned with the ﬁber direction, but is instead deﬁned

by planes of symmetry associated with the ﬁber architecture involved. For all

composite fabrics based on continuous ﬁbers and typically encountered in

practice (i.e., unidirectional, woven, or braided fabrics), the principal material

coordinate system is readily identiﬁed.

We will now consider those properties that are measured when the

composite is referenced to the principal material coordinate system. It will be

seen later that properties of an anisotropic composite (i.e., a composite

referenced to a nonprincipal material coordinate system) can always be

related to those measured relative to the 1–2–3 coordinate system. To simplify

our discussion, we will assume that the composite under consideration is a

unidirectional composite, and hence that the 1–2–3 axes are parallel and

perpendicular to the ﬁbers.

A stress element representing a unidirectional composite subjected to

uniaxial tensile stress r

11

is shown in Fig. 6. The deformed shape of the

element is also shown. Note that:

**The element has increased in length in the l-direction, corresponding
**

to a tensile strain e

11

.

**The element has decreased in width in the 2- and 3-directions,
**

corresponding to compressive strains e

22

and e

33

, respectively.

**The deformed element is a rectangular parallelepiped. That is, due to
**

the symmetrical distribution of ﬁbers with respect to the 1-, 2-, and 3-

coordinate axes, in the deformed condition, all angles remained p/2

rad (90j). Hence, all shear strains equal zero (c

12

=c

13

=c

23

=0).

Applying Eqs. (1), (2), and (4), we have:

E

11

u

r

11

e

11

ð15aÞ

v

12

u

Àe

22

e

11

ð15bÞ

v

13

u

Àe

33

e

11

ð15cÞ

g

11;12

¼ g

11;13

¼ g

11;23

¼ 0 ð15dÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Because no shear strains are induced by r

11

, the coeﬃcients of mutual

inﬂuence of the second kind all equal zero. This is only true when the

composite is referenced to the principal material coordinate system. That is,

uniaxial stress acting in a nonprincipal coordinate system will cause a shear

strain, as previously shown in Fig. 3, for example. Therefore, the coeﬃcients

of mutual inﬂuence of the second kind do not equal zero for anisotropic

composites (i.e., if the composite is referenced to a nonprincipal material

coordinate system). Methods of calculating composite material properties in

nonprincipal coordinate systems will be presented in Chap. 4.

Similarly, material properties measured when stress r

22

is applied are:

E

22

u

r

22

e

22

ð16aÞ

v

21

u

Àe

11

e

22

ð16bÞ

v

23

u

Àe

33

e

22

ð16cÞ

g

22;12

¼ g

22;13

¼ g

22;23

¼ 0 ð16dÞ

Figure 6 Deformations induced in a unidirectional composite by uniaxial stress

r

11

(deformations are shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Once again, due to the symmetrical distribution of ﬁbers, stress r

22

does

not induce any shear strains, so the coeﬃcients of mutual inﬂuence of the

second kind all equal zero.

As previously mentioned, due to the thin platelike nature of composites,

it is diﬃcult in practice to apply a well-deﬁned out-of-plane uniaxial stress r

33

,

or to measure the resulting normal strain induced in the out-of-plane direction

e

33

. Assuming that these practical diﬃculties are overcome, the material

properties measured when stress r

33

is applied are:

E

33

u

r

33

e

33

ð17aÞ

v

31

u

Àe

11

e

33

ð17bÞ

v

32

u

Àe

22

e

33

ð17cÞ

g

33;12

¼ g

33;13

¼ g

33;23

¼ 0 ð17dÞ

For unidirectional composites, both the 2- and 3-axes are deﬁned to be

perpendicular to the ﬁbers, and hence properties measured in the 2- and 3-

directions are typically similar in magnitude. In fact, if the distribution of

ﬁbers in the 2- and 3-directions is identical at the microlevel, then properties

measured in these directions will be equal: E

22

=E

33

, v

12

=v

13

, v

21

=v

31

, and

v

23

= v

32

. If this occurs, then the composite is classiﬁed as a transversely

isotropic material. In contrast, if the distribution of ﬁbers diﬀers in the 2- and

3-directions, or if the composite under consideration is a woven or braided

composite, then properties measured in the 2- and 3-directions will not be

identical and the composite is classiﬁed as an orthotropic material.

Optical micrographs showing the ﬁber distribution in the 2–3 plane for a

unidirectional graphite–polyimide laminate are shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 7a was

taken at a magniﬁcation of 150Â, and shows the ﬁber distribution in four

adjacent plies. The ﬁber angles are (from left to right) 0j, 45j, 90j, and À45j.

Fig. 7b was obtained for the same laminate but at higher magniﬁcation

(300Â), and shows ﬁber angles (from left to right) of 0j, 45j, and 90j. As

indicated, for this laminate, thin resin-rich zone exists between plies. The

thickness of the resin-rich zone varies from one laminate to the next, depend-

ing on the material system, stacking sequence, and processing conditions used

to produce the laminate. If the resin-rich zone is very thin (say, less than about

1/10 the ply thickness) and if the ﬁbers are uniformly distributed within the

interior of each ply, the composite will respond as a transversely isotropic

material. If these conditions do not exist (if the thickness of the resin-rich zone

is an appreciable fraction of the ply thickness, or if the distribution of ﬁbers in

the 2- and 3-directions diﬀers substantially), then E

33

will diﬀer from E

22

, and

the composite will respond as an orthotropic material.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Let us now consider properties measured through the application of a

pure shear stress in the principal material coordinate system. A stress element

representing a unidirectional composite subjected to a pure shear stress s

12

is

shown in Fig. 8. The deformed shape of the element is also shown. Note that:

**The angle originally deﬁned by the 1–2 axes has decreased, cor-
**

responding to a positive shear strain c

12

.

Figure 7 Optical micrographs of fibers within several plies of a [0/45/90/

À45]

2s

graphite–polyimide (IM7/K3B) composite laminate. Note the resin-rich

zone between plies.

Figure 8 Deformations induced in a unidirectional composite by pure shear

stress s

12

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

**Due to the symmetrical distribution of ﬁbers with respect to the 1-, 2-,
**

and 3-coordinate axes, in the deformed condition, all remaining

angles remained p/2 rad (90j). Hence, the remaining two shear

strains equal zero (c

13

= c

23

= 0).

**The length, width, and thickness of the element have not changed;
**

hence, all normal strain are zero (e

11

= e

22

= e

33

= 0).

Applying Eqs. (8)–(10), we have:

G

12

u

s

12

c

12

ð18aÞ

l

12;13

¼ l

12;23

¼ 0 ð18bÞ

g

12;11

¼ g

12;22

¼ g

12;33

¼ 0 ð18cÞ

Because only c

12

is induced by s

12

, the Chentsov coeﬃcients as well as

the coeﬃcients of mutual inﬂuence of the ﬁrst kind are all equal to zero. This is

only true when the composite is referenced to the principal material coor-

dinate system. That is, a shear stress acting in a nonprincipal material

coordinate system will, in general, cause both normal strains and shear

strains. Therefore, neither the Chentsov coeﬃcients nor the coeﬃcients of

mutual inﬂuence of the ﬁrst kind equal zero if the composite is referenced to a

nonprincipal material coordinate system. Methods of calculating composite

material properties in nonprincipal coordinate systems will be presented in

Chap. 4.

Once again, due to the thin platelike nature of composites, in practice, it

is diﬃcult to apply well-deﬁned out-of-plane shear stress s

13

or s

23

, or to

measure the resulting shear strains induced in the out-of-plane direction c

13

or

c

23

. Assuming that these practical diﬃculties were overcome, the material

properties measured when stress s

13

is applied are:

G

13

u

s

13

c

13

ð19aÞ

l

13;12

¼ l

13;23

¼ 0 ð19bÞ

g

13;11

¼ g

13;22

¼ g

13;33

¼ 0 ð19cÞ

If the ﬁbers are not uniformly distributed within the 2–3 plane, or if the

composite is based on woven or braided fabrics, then the composite will

behave as an orthotropic material and G

12

p G

13

. If the composite is based on

a unidirectional fabric and ﬁbers are uniformly distributed, then the compo-

site is transversely isotropic and G

12

= G

13

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Following an analogous process, material properties measured when s

23

is applied are:

G

23

u

s

23

c

23

ð20aÞ

l

23;12

¼ l

23;23

¼ 0 ð20bÞ

g

23;11

¼ g

23;22

¼ g

23;33

¼ 0 ð20cÞ

A total of 12 material properties have been deﬁned above for ortho-

tropic or transversely isotropic composites: three Young’s moduli (E

11

, E

22

,

and E

33

), six Poisson’s ratios (v

12

, v

13

, v

21

, v

23

, v

31

, and v

32

), and three shear

moduli ( G

12

, G

13

, and G

23

). However, it will be seen later that for orthotropic

composites, only nine of these 12 properties are independent, and for trans-

versely isotropic composites, only ﬁve of the 12 properties are independent.

Therefore, only nine material properties must be measured to fully character-

ize the elastic response of orthotropic composites; for transversely isotropic

composites, only ﬁve material properties must be measured.

The number of material properties required in most practical engineer-

ing applications of composite is reduced further still. For reasons that will be

explained later, it is usually appropriate to assume that a composite structure

is subjected to a state of plane stress. Ultimately, this means that we only

require material properties in one plane. Hence, whereas an orthotropic

composite possesses nine distinct elastic material properties (and a trans-

versely isotropic composite possesses ﬁve), in practice, only four of these

properties are ordinarily required: E

11

, E

22

, v

12

, and G

12

. Most of the ASTM

test standards listed in Table 1 describe techniques used to measure these

properties. Also, a brief summary of common experimental methods used to

measure in-plane properties is provided in Appendix B. Typical values for

several composite material systems are listed in Table 3.

As a ﬁnal comment, an often overlooked fact is that the elastic proper-

ties of composites usually diﬀer in tension and compression (in fact, this is true

for many materials, not just for composites). For example, for polymeric

composites, it is not uncommon for E

22

measured in tension to diﬀer by 10–

15% from that measured in compression. Materials that exhibit this behavior

are called ‘‘bimodulus materials.’’ Although it is possible to account for these

diﬀerences during a structural analysis (e.g., see Ref. 3), the bimodulus

phenomenon is a signiﬁcant complication and will not be accounted for

herein. Throughout this text, it will be assumed that in-plane elastic properties

E

11

, E

22

, v

12

, and G

12

are identical in tension and compression. The reader

should be aware that these diﬀerences usually exist, however. If in practice the

measured response of a composite structure diﬀers from the predicted

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

behavior, the discrepancy may well be due to diﬀerences in elastic properties

in tension vs. compression.

3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES RELATING TEMPERATURE

TO STRAIN

If an unconstrained anisotropic composite is subjected to a uniform change

in temperature DT, six components of strain will be induced: e

xx

T

, e

yy

T

, e

zz

T

,

c

xy

T

, c

xz

T

, and c

yz

T

. The superscript ‘‘T’’ has been used to indicate that these

strains are caused solely by a change in temperature. Note that three of these

strains are shear strains; for anisotropic materials, a change in temperature

will, in general, cause shear strains to develop. Strains induced solely by a

change in temperature are referred to as ‘‘free thermal strains’’ or simply

‘‘thermal strains.’’ Properties that relate strains to temperature change are

called coeﬃcients of thermal expansion (CTEs).

As previously discussed, it is the microstructural features of a material

that determine whether it exhibits isotropic or anisotropic behavior. The

contention that a change in temperature will induce shear strains may seem

unusual (because isotropic materials do not exhibit such behavior), but can be

easily explained in the case of unidirectional composites. An initially square

unidirectional composite is shown in Fig. 9, where it has been assumed that

the ﬁbers are oriented at an angle of 45j with respect to the x-axis. Because the

composite is initially square and, in this example, the ﬁbers are deﬁned to be at

an angle of 45j, ﬁbers are parallel to diagonal AC and are perpendicular to

diagonal BD. Now, the coeﬃcient of thermal expansion exhibited by high-

performance ﬁbers is typically very low(or even slightly negative), whereas for

Figure 9 Deformations caused in a 45j unidirectional composite by a uniform

change in temperature DT (deformations are shown greatly exaggerated for

clarity).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

most polymers, it is relatively high. For example, the coeﬃcient of thermal

expansion of graphite ﬁbers is about À1 Am/mjC, whereas for epoxies, it is on

the order of 30 Am/m jC. Therefore, assuming that the composite shown in

Fig. 9 consists of a graphite/epoxy system, then an increase in temperature

will cause a slight decrease in the length of diagonal AC, but will cause a

relatively large increase in the length of diagonal BD. Hence, the initially

square composite deforms into a parallelogram, as shown in the ﬁgure. The

fact that angle BDABhas increased reveals that a shear strain c

xy

(in this case,

a negative shear strain c

xy

) has been induced by the change in temperature DT.

Hence, there is a coupling between the change in temperature and shear

strains, as stipulated. Note that this physical explanation of the coupling

between a uniform change in temperature and shear strain indicates that this

coupling only occurs if strain is referenced to a nonprincipal material co-

ordinate system.

An idealized plot of the six strain components induced in an anisotropic

composite by a change in temperature is shown in Fig. 10. As would be

Figure 10 Idealized plot of the six strain components caused by a change in

temperature DT.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

expected, as DT is increased, the magnitude of all strain components also

increases. For modest changes in temperature (say, DT<200 jC), the change

in temperature is linearly related to the resulting thermal strain components.

That is, the slopes of the six strain vs. DT curves shown in Fig. 10 are constant

at relatively low levels of DT. At high levels of DT, the slopes of the curves

typically increase. For polymeric composites, the temperature at which the

curves become nonlinear is related to the glass transition temperature T

g

of

the polymeric matrix (the glass transition temperature of a polymer is

discussed in Sec. 2 of Chap. 1). Most composite structures are designed to

operate at temperatures below the T

g

; hence, we will focus our attention on

the linear range shown in Fig. 10.

Because a change in temperature causes six strains to develop for

anisotropic composites, six coeﬃcients of thermal expansion must be deﬁned:

a

xx

u

e

T

xx

DT

a

yy

u

e

T

yy

DT

a

zz

u

e

T

zz

DT

a

xy

u

c

T

xy

DT

a

xz

u

c

T

xz

DT

a

yz

u

c

T

yz

DT

ð21Þ

Because we have limited our discussion to the linear range shown in Fig.

10, the coeﬃcients of thermal expansion deﬁned by Eq. (21) equal the slopes

of the corresponding strain vs. DT curves within the linear range. These

properties will henceforth be called linear coeﬃcients of thermal expansion. In

SI units, they are usually reported in terms of Am/m jC or Arad/jC (for

normal or shear strains, respectively). In English units, they are usually

reported in terms of Ain./in. jF or Arad/jF. A CTE can be converted from

SI units to English units by multiplying by the factor 5/9. For example, a CTE

of 15 Am/m jC equals 8.3 Ain./in. jF.

Equation (21) can be easily rearranged and written in matrix form as

follows:

e

T

xx

c

T

xy

c

T

xz

c

T

yx

e

T

yy

c

T

yz

c

T

zx

c

T

zy

e

T

zz

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼ ðDTÞ

a

xx

a

xy

a

xz

a

xy

a

yy

a

yz

a

xz

a

yz

a

zz

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð22Þ

The reader should note that the strains caused by a change in temper-

ature can be transformed from one coordinate system to another, in exactly

the same way that mechanically induced strains are transformed. In partic-

ular, any of the strain transformation equations reviewed in Chap. 2 (e.g., Eq.

(36), Eq. (41), Eq. (43), Eq. (44), or Eq. (47)) can be used to transform

thermally induced strains from one coordinate system to another.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

3.1 Specialization to Orthotropic and Transversely Isotropic

Composites

We will now apply these general deﬁnitions to the case of a unidirectional

composite referenced to the principal material coordinate system. It will be

seen later that CTEs of an anisotropic composite (i.e., a composite referenced

to a nonprincipal material coordinate system) can always be related to those

measured in the 1–2–3 coordinate system. Although unidirectional compo-

sites are used in the following discussion, a equivalent discussion applies to

woven or braided composites, when referenced to the principal material

coordinate system.

A unidirectional composite subjected to a uniform change in temper-

ature DT and referenced to the 1–2–3 coordinate system is shown in Fig. 11.

Because the ﬁbers are distributed symmetrically with respect to the 1 - , 2-, and

3-coordinate axes, a change in temperature does not cause a shear strain to

develop. Hence, in the principal material coordinate system, Eq. (21)

becomes:

a

11

¼

e

T

11

DT

a

22

¼

e

T

22

DT

a

33

¼

e

T

33

DT

a

12

¼ a

13

¼ a

23

¼ 0 ð23Þ

As before, if the ﬁbers are distributed uniformly throughout the 2–3

plane, then a

22

=a

33

and the composite will be transversely isotropic. If the

ﬁbers are not uniformly distributed, then a

22

pa

33

, and the composite will be

orthotropic. Woven or braided composites are always orthotropic because

Figure 11 Deformations induced in a unidirectional composite by a change in

temperature DT (deformations are shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

the distribution of ﬁbers in the 2-direction diﬀers substantially from that in

the 3-direction.

Experimental methods of measuring thermal expansion coeﬃcients for

polymeric composites have not been standardized by organizations such as

the ASTM. In practice, the in-plane thermal expansion coeﬃcients exhibited

by polymeric composites are most commonly determined through the use of

resistance foil strain gages. Strain gage manufacturers often provide recom-

mendations for measuring thermal expansion coeﬃcients using strain gages

(e.g., see Ref. 4). Typical CTEs for several common polymeric composites are

included in Table 3.

4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES RELATING MOISTURE

CONTENT TO STRAIN

It is possible for water molecules to diﬀuse into (or out of ) the overall

molecular structure of polymeric materials. In other words, the moisture

content of polymeric-based materials, including composites, slowly varies as

the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere varies. The moisture

content of a polymer is usually expressed as a percentage by weight, and

typically ranges from

f

0% to as high as

f

5%.

From a structural point of view, the eﬀects of a change in moisture

content are analogous to those caused by a change in temperature. For

example, a plot of strains as a function of moisture content would resemble

Fig. 10, except that DMwould be plotted along the horizontal axis rather than

DT. Hence, if an unconstrained anisotropic composite is subjected to a

uniform change in moisture content DM, then six components of strain will

be induced: e

xx

M

, e

yy

M

, e

zz

M

, c

xy

M

, c

xz

M

, and c

yz

M

. The superscript ‘‘M’’ has been

used to indicate that these strains are caused solely by a change in moisture

content. Strains induced by a change in moisture content are sometimes

referred to as hygroscopic strains, and can be just as large as or larger than

those associated with a change in temperature.

In this text, it will be assumed that strain is linearly related to changes in

moisture content. Properties that relate strains to changes in moisture content

will be called linear coeﬃcients of moisture expansion, abbreviated as

‘‘CMEs,’’ and will be denoted using the symbol b. Because a change in

moisture content causes six strains to develop for anisotropic composites, six

CMEs must be deﬁned:

b

xx

u

e

M

xx

DM

b

yy

u

e

M

yy

DM

b

zz

u

e

M

zz

DM

b

xy

u

c

M

xy

DM

b

xz

u

c

M

xz

DM

b

yz

u

c

M

yz

DM

ð24Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The units of the CMEs are typically Am/m/%M or Arad/%M. Equa-

tion (24) can be easily rearranged and written in matrix form as follows:

e

M

xx

c

M

xy

c

M

xz

c

M

yx

e

M

yy

c

M

yz

c

M

zx

c

M

zy

e

M

zz

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼ ðDMÞ

b

xx

b

xy

b

xz

b

xy

b

yy

b

yz

b

xz

b

yz

b

zz

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð25Þ

A comparison between Eqs. (24) and (21), or between Eqs. (25) and (23)

will reinforce the fact that strains induced by a change in moisture content are

analogous (in a mathematical sense) to those caused by a change in temper-

ature.

4.1 Specialization to Orthotropic and Transversely

Isotropic Composites

In the principal material coordinate system, there is no coupling between a

change in moisture content and shear strains. Hence, in the principal material

coordinate system, Eq. (24) becomes:

b

11

u

e

M

11

DM

b

22

u

e

M

22

DM

b

33

u

e

M

33

DM

b

12

¼ b

13

¼ b

23

¼ 0

ð26Þ

If the composite is based on a unidirectional fabric and ﬁbers are

distributed uniformly throughout the 2–3 plane, then b

22

=b

33

and the

composite will be transversely isotropic. If the ﬁbers are not uniformly

distributed, or if the composite is based on woven or braided fabrics, then

b

22

p b

33

and the composite will be orthotropic. Recommended experimental

methods of measuring linear coeﬃcients of moisture expansion are described

in the ASTM standard D5229 [5]. Typical CMEs for several common

polymeric composites are included in Table 3.

5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES RELATING STRESS (OR STRAIN)

TO FAILURE

Material properties that relate stress or strain to failure are measured during

either a uniaxial test or a pure shear test. These properties are referred to

collectively as material strengths. Before we begin our discussion of material

strengths for composite materials, let us brieﬂy review the deﬁnitions of

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

material strengths customarily used by engineers to report the failure

response of conventional structural materials such as metals or metal alloys.

Three idealized plots of the axial strain e

xx

measured during a uniaxial

test are shown in Fig. 12a–c. These ﬁgures are similar to Fig. 4, except that

now: (a) only one of the strain components caused by r

xx

has been plotted

(speciﬁcally, only e

xx

has been plotted), and (b) data have been included at

high nonlinear stress levels, up to and including the stress level at which the

specimen fractures into two (or more) pieces. Materials that exhibit a stress–

strain response similar to Fig. 12a are called brittle materials. As indicated,

for a brittle material, the stress–strain curve is nearly linear at all stress levels,

up to and including the ﬁnal fracture stress. In fact, a perfectly brittle material

exhibits no nonlinear behavior at all; stress is linearly related to strain at all

levels, up to ﬁnal fracture. In contrast, Fig. 12b and c shows the stress–strain

behavior for ductile materials. The characteristic feature that distinguishes

the two material types is that a ductile material exhibits a far larger region of

nonlinear behavior prior to failure than does a brittle material. A second

distinction is that the maximum strain a ductile material can withstand prior

Figure 12 Idealized plots of the axial strain q

xx

caused by application of a tensile

uniaxial stress j

xx

. (a) Stress-strain plot for a brittle material. (b) Stress-strain plot

for a modestly ductile material. (c) Stress-strain plot for a highly ductile material.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 12 Continued.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

to ﬁnal fracture is (in general) far higher than that of a brittle material. The

toughness of a material is deﬁned as the area under the entire stress–strain

curve. Hence, brittle materials typically possess a low toughness when

compared with ductile materials.

Four common measures of material strengths (illustrated in Fig. 12c) in

terms of stress are the proportional limit r

p

the percent oﬀset yield strength r

y

,

the ultimate strength r

u

, and the fracture strength r

f

. Although the axial strain

that corresponds to each of these stress levels can also be deﬁned as a measure

of strength, typically only the percent oﬀset yield strain e

y

and the fracture

strain e

f

are customarily used in this fashion. Many materials exhibit distinctly

diﬀerent strengths in tension vs. compression. Hence, in this text, a super-

script ‘‘T’’ or ‘‘C’’ will be used to indicate whether a given strength has been

measured in tension or compression, respectively. For example, because Fig.

12 represents stress–strain curves measured in tension, the superscript asso-

ciated with all measures of strength that appear in these ﬁgures includes the

character ‘‘T.’’

The proportional limit r

pT

xx

is deﬁned as the maximum stress level at

which stress is linearly related to strain. However, for many materials, the

deviation from linearity is so gradual that it is diﬃcult to precisely identify

the proportional limit based on experimental measurements. In these cases,

the stress level at which signiﬁcant nonlinear behavior begins is deﬁned based

on the ‘‘oﬀset method.’’ A line parallel to the initial (linear) region of the

stress–stain curve is drawn on the stress–strain curve, but is oﬀset along the

strain axis by some standard amount. The stress level at which this oﬀset line

intersects the experimental stress–strain curve is deﬁned as the percent oﬀset

yield strength r

yT

xx

. A strain oﬀset of either 0.001 or 0.002 m/m (0.1% or 0.2%

strain, respectively) is most commonly used, and hence yield strengths

measured in this manner are reported as the 0.1% oﬀset yield strength or

the 0.2% oﬀset yield strength, respectively. The ultimate strength r

uT

xx

is

deﬁned as the maximum stress the material can withstand. The fracture stress

r

fT

xx

is deﬁned as the stress that exists at ﬁnal fracture.

Note from Fig. 12 that a given material may not exhibit all four types of

material strength. For example, for modestly ductile materials (Fig. 12b),

fracture usually occurs at the maximum stress level, and hence for this type of

material, there is no distinction between the ultimate strength and the fracture

strength. For brittle materials (Fig. 12a), there may be little or no nonlinear

behavior prior to fracture, and hence a yield strength is not deﬁned and only

the fracture strength (or ultimate strength) would be reported.

All of the above deﬁnitions may be applied to the data collected during a

pure shear test as well. An idealized plot of the shear strain c

xy

measured

during a pure shear test of a modestly ductile material is shown in Fig. 13. This

ﬁgure is similar to Fig. 5, except that now: (a) only one of the strain

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

components (c

xy

) caused by s

xy

has been plotted, and (b) data have been

included at high nonlinear stress levels, including the shear stress level at

which the specimen fractures into two (or more) pieces.

Because anisotropic materials may exhibit diﬀerent strengths in diﬀer-

ent directions, strength must be measured in three orthogonal directions; the

x-, y-, and z-directions. It is possible for anisotropic materials, including many

composites, to exhibit brittle behavior in one direction (say, the x-direction)

but ductile behavior in other directions (the y-direction and/or z-direction).

5.1 Specialization to Unidirectional Composites

Strengths measured for composites are referenced to the principal material 1–

2–3 coordinate system. In the case of unidirectional composites, strengths are

measured parallel to the ﬁbers (i.e., parallel to the 1-axis) and transverse to the

ﬁbers (parallel to the 2- and 3-axes). As would be anticipated, the strength of a

composite in the 1-direction is determined primarily by the strength of the

Figure 13 Idealized plot of the shear strain c

xy

caused by application of pure

shear stress s

xy

, including the shear fracture stress and strains s

xy

fP

and c

xy

fP

, and

the shear yield stress and strain s

xy

yP

and c

xy

yP

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

ﬁbers, whereas strengths in the 2- and 3-directions are determined primarily

by the strength of the matrix. Most ﬁbers used in polymeric composites, such

as graphite or glass ﬁbers, are nearly perfectly brittle materials. Therefore,

most unidirectional polymeric composites exhibit a brittle failure response in

the 1-direction. Prior to about 1980, most commercially available polymeric

composites were based on relatively brittle thermoset matrices such as

epoxies. Consequently, composite material systems available prior to about

1980 exhibited a brittle response in the 2- and 3-directions as well, and

exhibited a low overall toughness.

Substantial research eﬀorts to develop tougher composite material

systems were conducted throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and new-generation

composite material systems with substantially increased toughness are now

commercially available. This increase in toughness was accomplished pri-

marily by replacing the brittle polymeric matrices with tougher (i.e., more

ductile) polymers or polymer blends. Two approaches were used. In the ﬁrst

approach, the toughness of inherently brittle thermosets (such as epoxies) was

increased through the addition of a second ductile rubber phase. This resulted

in a class of toughened matrices called ‘‘rubber-toughened’’ epoxies. The

second approach was to replace the inherently brittle thermoset matrix with a

more ductile thermoplastic polymer.* Examples of this latter approach

include the use polyketone, polyamide, or polyimide polymers as matrix

materials. From a purely structural standpoint, the net result of these

developments is that most new composite material systems exhibit a ‘‘mod-

estly ductile’’ response to failure in the 2- and 3-directions, qualitatively

similar to Fig. 12b. Consequently, new-generation composites exhibit a

much-improved toughness relative to older systems.

Methods to characterize the strengths of composite for purposes of

structural design have not been widely standardized within the composites

industry. Therefore, in this text, composite strengths will be described

using terminology similar to that traditionally used with metals and metal

alloys.

A r

11

vs. e

11

curve measured for most unidirectional polymeric compo-

sites resembles Fig. 12a. That is, in the ﬁber direction, unidirectional compo-

sites exhibit nearly perfectly brittle behavior, although very modest nonlinear

behavior may begin to occur at stress levels approaching ﬁnal fracture. Due to

the limited nonlinear response, it is not appropriate to deﬁne a yield stress in

the 1-direction. Throughout this text, it will be assumed that a uniaxial stress

in the ﬁber direction r

11

causes failure due to fracture. That is, at failure, the

* The diﬀerence between a thermoset and a thermoplastic polymer is discussed in Sec. 2.4 of

Chap. 1.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

specimen breaks into two or more pieces. The stress that causes fracture is

denoted r

11

fT

or r

11

fC

, depending on whether r

11

is tensile or compressive,

respectively. Similarly, the strain at failure is denoted e

11

fT

or e

22

fC

. Because very

little nonlinear behavior occurs prior to failure, it is possible to relate the

fracture stress and strain using Young’s modulus. That is, for most compo-

sites, the measured fracture stress and measured fracture strain in the 1-

direction may be related (to within engineering accuracies) using Young’s

modulus:

r

fT

11

iðE

11

Þðe

fT

11

Þ r

fC

11

iðE

11

Þðe

fC

11

Þ

On the other hand, for most modern unidirectional polymeric compo-

sites, both the r

22

vs. e

22

and the r

33

vs. e

33

curves resemble Fig. 12b. That is,

the response measured in the 2- and 3-directions is usually ‘‘modestly

ductile.’’ In this case then, ‘‘failure’’ may be deﬁned either on the basis of a

tensile yield stress/strain (i.e., on the basis of yielding), or a tensile fracture

stress/strain (i.e., on the basis of fracture).

In this text, the stress and strain values present at the onset of yielding

will be denoted (r

yT

22

; e

yT

22

; r

yT

33

; e

yT

33

Þ or ðr

yC

22

; e

yC

22

; r

yC

33

; e

yC

33

Þ; where the superscript

‘‘T’’ or ‘‘C’’ has once again been used to indicate whether the yield stress/

strain is measured in tension or compression, respectively. Note that it is

possible to relate the tensile yield stress and strain (to within engineering

accuracy) using Young’s modulus:

r

yT

22

iðE

22

Þðe

yT

22

Þ r

yC

22

iðE

22

Þðe

yC

22

Þ

r

yT

33

iðE

33

Þðe

yT

33

Þ r

yC

33

iðE

33

Þðe

yC

33

Þ

The stress and strain values present at fracture are denoted (r

22

fT

, e

22

fT

,

r

33

fT

, e

33

fT

) or ðr

fC

22

; e

fC

22

; r

fC

33

; e

fC

33

Þ: Because most modern composites exhibit a

modestly ductile response in the 2- and 3-directions, the fracture stress is less

than the value that would be calculated using a failure strain and Young’s

modulus:

r

fT

22

< ðE

22

Þðe

fT

22

Þ r

fC

22

< ðE

22

Þðe

fC

22

Þ

r

fT

33

< ðE

33

Þðe

fT

33

Þ r

fC

33

< ðE

33

Þðe

fC

33

Þ

Shear stress–strain curves (i.e., a plot of s

12

vs. c

12

, s

13

vs. c

13

, or s

23

vs.

c

23

) for unidirectional composites typically exhibit a shape somewhere

between Fig. 12b and c. That is, the shear response is usually more ductile

than that measured for normal stress in the 2-direction, and in some cases may

be considered to be ‘‘highly ductile.’’ In the principal material coordinate

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

system (e.g., in the 1–2 coordinate system), the shear response is insensitive to

the algebraic sign of the shear stress. That is, in the 1–2 coordinate system, an

identical s

12

vs. c

12

curve will be measured regardless of whether s

12

is positive

or negative.* As before, a ‘‘shear failure’’ may be deﬁned on the basis of a

yield shear stress/strain or a shear fracture stress/strain, depending on

application. In this text, the shear stress and strain at yielding will be denoted

s

12

y

and c

12

y

(or s

13

y

and c

13

y

, or s

23

y

and c

23

y

), whereas the shear stress and strain at

fracture will be denoted s

12

f

and c

12

f

(or s

13

f

and c

13

f

, or s

23

f

and c

23

f

). As before,

the yield shear stress/strain may be related using the shear modulus, but the

shear fracture stress/strain may not:

s

y

12

iðG

12

Þðc

y

12

Þ s

y

13

iðG

13

Þðc

y

13

Þ s

y

23

iðG

23

Þðc

y

23

Þ

s

f

12

< G

12

ð Þðc

f

12

Þ s

f

13

< ðG

13

Þðc

f

13

Þ s

f

23

< ðG

23

Þðc

f

23

Þ

The preceding discussion is for orthotropic composites. Following the

discussion presented in Sec. 2, if the composite is transversely isotropic, then

the following strengths are related as indicated:

r

yT

22

¼ r

yT

33

r

yC

22

¼ r

yC

33

r

fT

22

¼ r

fT

33

r

fC

22

¼ r

fC

33

s

y

12

¼ s

y

13

s

f

12

¼ s

f

13

Recommended methods of measuring in-plane composite strengths are

included in most of the ASTM test standards previously listed in Table 1.

Additional ASTM testing standards related speciﬁcally to failure of poly-

meric composites are listed in Table 2. Due to the thin platelike nature of

composites, it is diﬃcult to apply well-deﬁned out-of-plane stresses, or to

measure the resulting out-of-plane strains. Hence, in practice, the yield and

fracture stresses associated with the out-of-plane 3-direction are measured

infrequently. Typical yield and fracture strengths measured in the 1–2 plane

for three common polymeric composites at roomtemperatures are included in

Table 3. These properties do not represent the properties of any speciﬁc

commercial composite material system, but rather should be viewed as typical

values. In fact, due to ongoing research and development activities, the failure

* However, in a general nonprincipal material coordinate system, the shear strength is sensitive

to the algebraic sign of the shear stress. This important point will be further discussed in Secs. 5

and 6 of Chap. 5.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

strengths of composites are improved more or less continuously. Therefore,

the properties shown in Table 3 may not reﬂect those of currently available

materials.

Note that the failure strengths listed in Table 3 represent values

measured at room temperatures. This will become an important factor in

later chapters. In particular, in Chap. 7, we will consider methods of

predicting failure of general composite laminates with multiple ﬁber angles.

As will be seen, failure predictions for a multiangle composite laminate

depend (in part) on the diﬀerence between the temperature at which the

laminate is consolidated (this temperature is called the ‘‘cure temperature’’

throughout this text) and the ‘‘service temperature’’ at which the failure

prediction is desired. For example, if a composite laminate is cured at a

temperature of 175jC and then cooled to room temperature (20jC), the

laminate has experienced a temperature change of À155jC during cooldown.

Failure predictions for the laminate are then based on the temperature

diﬀerence of À155jC, and on failure strengths measured at room temper-

ature. If, instead, a composite is cured at 175jC and then cooled to some

other service temperature, say, 100jC, then the laminate has experienced a

temperature change of À75jC and failure predictions for the laminate are

based on failure strengths measured at 100jC.

It is pertinent to point out that the matrix-dominated tensile strengths

exhibited by polymeric composites are often lower than the failure strength

of the polymeric matrix alone. For example, the tensile strength of a

Table 2 ASTM Test Standards Related to Failure of Polymeric Composites

(see also Table 1)

Designation Title

D3479 Standard Test Method for Tension–Tension Fatigue of Polymer

Matrix Composite Materials

D5766 Standard Test Method for Open Hole Tensile Strength of

Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates

D2344 Standard Test Method for Apparent Interlaminar Shear Strength

of Parallel Fiber Composites by Short-Beam Method

D5528 Standard Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture

Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix

Composites

E1922 Standard Test Method for Translaminar Fracture Toughness of

Laminated Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

D2290 Standard Test Method for Apparent Tensile Strength of Ring or

Tubular Plastics and Reinforced Plastics by Split Disk Method

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

nonreinforced bulk epoxy is commonly about 70 MPa (10 ksi), whereas from

Table 3, we see that graphite–epoxy typically possesses a matrix-dominated

tensile strength on the order of 50 MPa (7.25 ksi). Even more pronounced is

the reduction in tensile strain at fracture: for a nonreinforced bulk epoxy, the

tensile strain at fracture commonly ranges from about 1% to 5% (10,000–

50,000 Am/m), whereas for graphite–epoxy, the matrix-dominated tensile

strain at fracture (e

22

fT

) rarely exceeds about 0.7% (7000 Am/m). The relatively

low matrix-dominated strengths exhibited by polymeric composites can be

explained on the basis of micromechanics analyses [6–9]. Brieﬂy, two factors

lead to low matrix-dominated tensile strengths. The ﬁrst is thermal stresses

induced at the microlevel during cooldown from cure temperatures. Recall

that the thermal expansion coeﬃcient of most high-performance ﬁbers is very

low and, in fact, is often slightly negative. For example, thermal expansion

coeﬃcients of glass, Kevlar, and graphite ﬁbers are about 5, À2, and À0.5

Am/m jC, respectively (see Sec. 3 of Chap. 1). In contrast, the thermal ex-

pansion coeﬃcient of polymers is quite high and usually exceeds 30 Am/m jC.

Consequently, during cooldown from cure temperatures, the matrix is re-

strained from thermal contraction by the ﬁbers, leading to self-equilibrating

Table 3 Nominal Material Properties for Common Unidirectional Composites

Property Glass/epoxy Kevlar/epoxy Graphite/epoxy

E

11

55 GPa (8.0 Msi) 100 GPa (15 Msi) 170 GPa (25 Msi)

E

22

16 GPa (2.3 Msi) 6 GPa (0.90 Msi) 10 GPa (1.5 Msi)

v

12

0.28 0.33 0.30

G

12

7.6 GPa (1.1 Msi) 2.1 GPa (0.30 Msi) 13 GPa (1.9 Msi)

r

11

fT

1050 MPa (150 ksi) 1380 MPa (200 ksi) 1500 MPa (218 ksi)

r

11

fC

690 MPa (100 ksi) 280 MPa (40 ksi) 1200 MPa (175 ksi)

r

22

yT

45 MPa (5.8 ksi) 35 MPa (2.9 ksi) 50 MPa (7.25 ksi)

r

22

yC

120 MPa (16 ksi) 105 MPa (15 ksi) 100 MPa (14.5 ksi)

r

22

fT

55 MPa (7.0 ksi) 45 MPa (4.3 ksi) 70 MPa (10 ksi)

r

22

fC

140 MPa (20 ksi) 140 Msi (20 ksi) 130 MPa (18.8 ksi)

s

12

y

40 MPa (4.4 ksi) 40 MPa (4.0 ksi) 75 MPa (10.9 ksi)

s

12

f

70 MPa (10 ksi) 60 MPa (9 ksi) 130 MPa (22 ksi)

a

11

6.7 Am/m jC

(3.7 Ain./in. jF)

À3.6 Am/m jC

(À2.0 Ain./in. jF)

À0.9 Am/m jC

(À0.5 Ain./in. jF)

a

22

25 Am/m jC

(14 Ain./in. jF)

58 Am/m jC

(32 Ain./in. jF)

27 Am/m jC

(15 Ain./in. jF)

b

11

100 Am/m %M

(100 Ain./in. %M)

175 Am/m %M

(175 Ain./in. %M)

50 Am/m %M

(50 Ain./in. %M)

b

22

1200 Am/m %M

(1200 Ain./in. %M)

1700 Am/m %M

(1700 Ain./in. %M)

1200 Am/m %M

(1200 Ain./in. %M)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

tensile stresses in the matrix and compressive stresses in the ﬁbers. The

second factor is the stress-concentrating eﬀect of the ﬁbers. Because most

advanced composites are produced with a ﬁber volume fraction of about

0.65, the tensile stresses induced within the matrix surrounding a ﬁber are not

dictated strictly by the CTE mismatch between matrix and ﬁber but are also

inﬂuenced by the presence neighboring ﬁbers. Together, these two factors

give rise to thermal stresses at the microlevel that are generally tensile in the

matrix and compressive in the ﬁbers. The magnitude of the thermal stresses

induced in the ﬁber is very low relative to the ﬁber strength. However, the

magnitude of the tensile stresses induced in the matrix represents a sub-

stantial fraction of the tensile strength of the matrix alone. Numerical mi-

cromechanics analyses based on the ﬁnite element method have shown that

thermal matrix stresses can often be 50–60% of the bulk matrix tensile

strength [11–14]. Hence, these thermal stresses are responsible for the low

matrix-dominated tensile strengths and tensile strain at fractures exhibited by

composites. They also explain in a qualitative sense why the magnitudes of

matrix-dominated compressive strengths are invariably higher than matrix-

dominated tensile strengths (i.e., r

22

yC

>r

22

yT

and r

22

fC

>r

22

fT

).

6 PREDICTING ELASTIC COMPOSITE PROPERTIES BASED

ON CONSTITUENTS: THE RULE OF MIXTURES

Various material properties exhibited by composites at the structural level

have been described in preceding sections. These properties are usually

measured for a composite material of interest, using one or more of the

ASTM (or equivalent) test standards listed in Tables 1 and 2. However, in

practice, the need to predict composite material properties exhibited at the

structural level also arises. That is, in practice, there is a need to predict

composite properties at the structural level based on properties of the

individual constituent materials (i.e., the ﬁber and matrix). As a typical

example, suppose a new high-performance graphite ﬁber has recently been

developed, and properties of the ﬁber itself have been measured. Naturally,

the structural engineer is interested in determining whether this new ﬁber will

lead to improvements in composite material properties at the structural level.

The potential improvement in properties can, of course, be evaluated directly,

by embedding the new ﬁber in a polymeric matrix of interest and by

measuring the properties exhibited by the new composite material system.

However, creating and testing the new material system in this fashion is time-

consuming and expensive. A need to estimate the properties that will be

provided by the new ﬁber exists, so as to justify the time and money that will

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

be invested during the development of the composite material system based

on the new graphite ﬁber.

As described in Sec. 6 of Chap. 1, an analysis performed at a physical

scale corresponding to the ﬁber diameter is classiﬁed as a micromechanics

analysis. In the present instance, we wish to use a micromechanics-based

analysis to predict composite properties at the structural level. A simple

micromechanics model that can be used to make this prediction is called the

rule of mixtures and is developed as follows.

Consider the representative composite element shown in Fig. 14. As

indicated, the element consists of unidirectional ﬁbers embedded within a

polymeric matrix. The principal material coordinate system, labeled the 1–

2–3 coordinate system, is deﬁned by the ﬁber direction. It is assumed that

the ﬁbers are evenly spaced, and that the matrix is perfectly bonded to the

ﬁber.

If a force F

11

is applied to the element, as shown in Fig. 14a, the length of

the element is increased by an amount DL and the width of the element is

decreased by an amount DW. Force F

11

is related to the average stress

imposed in the 1-direction by F

11

=r

11

A, where A is the cross-sectional area

of the element. Furthermore, the sumof forces present in the matrix and ﬁbers

must equal the total applied force, which implies:

r

11

A ¼ r

f

A

f

þr

m

A

m

ð27Þ

where A

f

is the total cross-sectional area of the ﬁbers presented within the

element and A

m

is the cross-sectional area of the matrix. The strain in the 1-

direction is associated with the change in length (DL), and is identical in ﬁber

and matrix because the ﬁber and matrix are assumed to be perfectly bonded.

That is:

e

f

¼ e

m

¼ e

11

¼

DL

L

Stresses are assumed to be related to strains according to:

r

11

¼ e

11

E

11

ð28aÞ

r

f

¼ e

f

E

f

¼ e

11

E

f

ð28bÞ

r

m

¼ e

m

E

m

¼ e

11

E

m

ð28cÞ

The expressions for stresses r

f

and r

m

are only approximate. In reality, a

triaxial state of stress is induced rather than a uniaxial stress state, as implied

by Eqs. (28b) and (28c), due to the mismatch in ﬁber and matrix properties as

well as the presence of adjacent ﬁbers. Properly accounting for this (and

other) complicating factors requires a rigorous analysis that is beyond the

scope of the brief introduction presented here. Therefore, we will assume that

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 14 Representative composite element used to derive rule-of-mixtures

equations. (a) Composite element deformed by a load F

11

, acting parallel to the

fiber direction. (b) Composite element deformed by a load F

22

, acting perpen-

dicular to the fiber direction. (c) Composite element deformed by shear load F

12

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

ﬁber and matrix stresses are given by Eqs. (28b) and (28c) despite their

shortcomings. Substituting these expressions into Eq. (27) and rearranging,

we ﬁnd:

E

11

¼ E

f

A

f

A

þE

m

A

m

A

This expression allows us to predict E

11

based on properties of the

constituents (E

f

and E

m

) and the area fractions of ﬁber and matrix (A

f

/A)

and (A

m

/A). If no voids are present, then:

A ¼ A

f

þA

m

Usually, rule-of-mixtures expressions are written in terms of volume

fractions rather than area fractions. Volume fractions are given by:

V

f

¼

A

f

A

V

m

¼

A

m

A

¼

A ÀA

f

A

¼ ð1 ÀV

f

Þ

where V

f

is the volume fraction of ﬁbers and V

m

= (1ÀV

f

) is the volume

fraction of matrix material. Consequently, the predicted value of E

11

based on

the rule of mixtures approach is given by:

E

11

¼ E

m

þV

f

ðE

f

ÀE

m

Þ ð29Þ

Polymeric composites used in practice are typically produced with a

ﬁber volume fraction V

f

of about 0.65, although it can be lower (say, V

f

=

0.30), depending on application and the manufacturing process used to

consolidate the composite. Equation (29) shows that if E

f

) E

m

(which is

usually the case), then to a ﬁrst approximation, E

11

cV

f

E

f

. The value of E

11

is dictated primarily by the ﬁber modulus E

f

and ﬁber volume fraction V

f

. E

11

is therefore called a ﬁber-dominated property of the composite.

Now consider the Poisson eﬀect exhibited by the composite element

shown in Fig. 14a. As per our normal deﬁnition, the average Poisson ratio is

deﬁned as the negative of the transverse normal strain (e

22

) divided by axial

normal strain (e

11

), both of which are caused by r

11

:

v

12

¼

Àe

22

e

11

The transverse normal strain associated with the change in width of the

entire element (DW) is given by:

e

22

¼

DW

W

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The change in width can also be written as the sum of the change in

width of the ﬁbers present in the element DW

f

and the change in width of the

matrix present DW

m

. These are approximated as follows:

DW

f

¼ ÀWV

f

v

f

e

f

¼ ÀWV

f

v

f

e

11

DW

m

¼ ÀWV

m

v

m

e

m

¼ ÀWV

m

v

m

e

11

where v

f

and v

m

are Poisson ratios of the ﬁber and matrix, respectively.

Hence, the transverse strain is given by:

e

22

¼

DW

W

¼ À V

f

v

f

þðV

m

Þv

m

½ e

11

Applying the deﬁnition of Poisson’s ratio for the composite as a whole,

we have:

v

12

¼

Àe

22

e

11

¼ V

f

v

f

þV

m

v

m

Noting as before that V

m

=(1ÀV

f

), the predicted value for Poisson’s

ratio v

12

based on the rule of mixtures becomes:

v

12

¼ v

m

ÀV

f

ðv

m

Àv

f

Þ ð30Þ

Measurement of Poisson’s ratio of the matrix material v

m

is a straight-

forward matter. However, measuring Poisson’s ratio of the ﬁber v

f

is more

diﬃcult due to the small ﬁber diameters involved. Experimentally measured

values of v

f

are often unavailable, even for ﬁbers widely used in practice. The

data that are available imply that both v

m

and v

f

are algebraically positive,

and also that v

m

>v

f

. Hence, Eq. (30) implies that the composite Poisson ra-

tio v

12

varies linearly with ﬁber volume fraction V

f

, and that Poisson’s ratio

of the composite is less than that of the matrix (v

12

<v

m

) because usually

(v

m

Àv

f

)>0.

Assuming an identical ﬁber distribution in the 1–2 and 1–3 planes, then

an identical analysis can be conducted to predict Poisson’s ratio v

13

, which will

result in an identical expression: v

13

=v

12

.

Next, consider prediction of the transverse modulus E

22

based on the

rule-of-mixtures approach. A composite element subjected to a force applied

perpendicular to the ﬁbers, force F

22

, is shown in Fig. 14b. This force is related

to the average stress imposed in the 2-direction by F

22

= r

22

A. We assume

that an identical and uniformstress r

22

is induced in both the ﬁber and matrix.

Once again, this assumption is approximate at best; in reality, a triaxial state

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

of stress is induced in both the ﬁber and matrix. Based on this assumption, the

strains induced in the ﬁber and matrix perpendicular to the 1-axis are:

e

f

¼

r

22

E

f

e

m

¼

r

22

E

m

The transverse length represented by the ﬁbers present in the element

equals V

f

W, whereas the transverse length represented by the matrix equals

V

m

W. Hence, the change in width W caused by the application of r

22

is:

DW¼ ðV

f

WÞ

r

22

E

f

þðV

m

WÞ

r

22

E

m

The average transverse strain caused by r

22

is:

e

22

¼

DW

W

¼ r

22

V

f

E

f

þ

V

m

E

m

_ _

Young’s modulus E

22

as predicted by the rule of mixtures therefore

becomes:

E

22

¼

r

22

e

22

¼

1

V

f

E

f

þ

V

m

E

m

_ _

¼

E

f

E

m

E

m

V

f

þE

f

V

m

As before, if no voids are present, then V

m

=(1ÀV

f

), and we obtain:

E

22

¼

E

f

E

m

E

f

ÀV

f

ðE

f

ÀE

m

Þ

ð31Þ

For most polymeric composite material systems, E

f

> >E

m

. Nevertheless,

Eq. (31) shows that E

22

is dictated primarily by E

m

, and is only modestly

aﬀected by the ﬁber modulus E

f

. Indeed, even in the limit (i.e., as E

f

!l), the

predicted value of E

22

is only increased to:

E

22 E

f

!l

¼

E

m

1 ÀV

f

¸

¸

¸

¸

Because V

f

is usually about 0.65, this result shows that E

22

is still less

than three times the matrix modulus E

m

, even if the composite is produced

using a ﬁber whose stiﬀness is inﬁnitely high (E

f

!l). E

22

is therefore called

a matrix-dominated property of the composite.

Assuming an identical ﬁber distribution in the 1–2 and 1–3 planes,

then an identical analysis can be conducted to predict Young’s modulus

in the 3-direction E

33

, resulting in an identical expression. Hence, E

33

=E

22

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

As before, E

33

is dictated primarily by E

m

and is a matrix-dominated

property.

Now consider the shear modulus G

12

. An element subjected to a pure

shear force F

12

is shown in Fig. 14c. This force is related to the average shear

stress according to F

12

=s

12

A. In a rule-of-mixture analysis, it is assumed that

an identical shear stress is induced in both the ﬁbers and matrix regions. This

assumption is approximate at best. Nevertheless, on the basis of this

assumption, the shear strains induced in ﬁber and matrix are given by:

c

f

¼

s

12

G

f

c

m

¼

s

12

G

m

where G

f

and G

m

are the shear moduli of the ﬁber and matrix, respectively.

The total shear strain is given by:

c

12

¼ V

f

c

f

þV

m

c

m

¼ V

f

s

12

G

f

_ _

þV

m

s

12

G

m

_ _

The shear modulus predicted by the rule of mixtures is then:

G

12

¼

s

12

c

12

¼

1

V

f

G

f

þ

V

m

G

m

_ _

¼

G

f

G

m

G

m

V

f

þG

f

V

m

Assuming no voids are present, then V

m

=(1ÀV

f

), and we obtain:

G

12

¼

G

f

G

m

G

f

ÀV

f

ðG

f

ÀV

m

Þ

ð32Þ

Comparing Eq. (32) with Eq. (31), it is seen that the shear modulus is

related to ﬁber and matrix properties in a manner similar to E

22

and E

33

. The

value of G

12

is dictated primarily by the shear modulus of the matrix G

m

, and

is considered a matrix-dominated property. Assuming an identical ﬁber

distribution in the 1–2 and 1–3 planes, then G

13

=G

12

.

To summarize, the analysis presented above allows prediction of elastic

moduli E

11

, v

12

=v

13

, E

22

=E

33

, and G

12

=G

13

, based on knowledge of the

ﬁber modulus E

f

, matrix modulus E

m

, and ﬁber volume fraction V

f

. Although

not presented here, a rule-of-mixture approach can also be used to predict

thermal expansion coeﬃcients a

1

and a

2

, or moisture expansion coeﬃcients b

1

and b

2

(e.g., see Chap. 3 of Ref. 11).

The analysis presented above is only one of several micromechanics-

based models that have been proposed. The rule of mixtures is certainly the

simplest approach, but unfortunately is often the least accurate. In general,

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

E

11

and v

12

=v

13

are reasonably well predicted by Eqs. (29) and (30), respec-

tively. However, matrix-dominated properties E

22

=E

33

and G

12

=G

13

are

generally underpredicted by Eqs. (31) and (32). The accuracy of these pre-

dictions is not high because many important factors have not been accounted

for. A partial listing of factors not accounted for include:

**The more or less random distribution and spacing of ﬁbers present in
**

a real composite

**The triaxial state of stress induced in both matrix and ﬁber due to the
**

mismatch in ﬁber/matrix properties.

Diﬀerences in ﬁber distribution in the 1–2 and 1–3 planes

The adhesion (or lack thereof ) between ﬁber and matrix

Variations in ﬁber cross-sections from one ﬁber to the next

The presence of voids or other defects

**The anisotropic nature of many high-performance ﬁbers (e.g.,
**

Young’s modulus parallel and transverse to the long axis of the

ﬁber usually diﬀers).

A rigorous closed-form analytical solution that accounts for all of these

factors (as well as others) is probably impossible to obtain. Consequently,

most advanced micromechanics analyses are performed numerically using

ﬁnite element methods. Because the primary objective of this book is to

investigate composite materials at the structural (i.e., macroscopic) level, only

the simple rule of mixtures is presented herein. The reader interested in

learning more about micromechanics analyses is referred to the many ex-

cellent texts that discuss this topic in greater detail, a few of which are listed

here as Refs. 6, 9–13.

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS

1. An orthotropic material is known to have the following elastic properties:

E

xx

¼ 100GPa E

yy

¼ 200GPa E

zz

¼ 75GPa

v

xy

¼ 0:20 v

xz

¼ À0:25 v

yz

¼ 0:60

G

xy

¼ 60GPa G

xz

¼ 75GPa G

yz

¼ 50GPa

g

xx;xy

¼ À0:30 g

xx;xz

¼ 0:25 g

xx;yz

¼ 0:30

g

yy;xy

¼ 0:60 g

yy;xz

¼ 0:75 g

yy;yz

¼ 0:20

g

zz;xy

¼ À0:20 g

zz;xz

¼ À0:05 g

zz;yz

¼ À0:15

l

xy;xz

¼ À0:10 l

xy;yz

¼ À0:05 g

xz;yz

¼ 0:10

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

(a) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r

xx

=300 MPa is

applied?

(b) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r

yy

=300 MPa is

applied?

(c) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r

zz

=300 MPa is

applied?

(d) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s

xy

=100 MPa is

applied?

(e) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s

xz

=100 MPa is

applied?

(f ) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s

yz

=100 MPa is

applied?

2. An orthotropic material is known to have the following elastic properties:

E

11

¼ 100GPa E

22

¼ 200GPa E

33

¼ 75GPa

v

12

¼ 0:20 v

13

¼ À0:25 v

23

¼ 0:60

G

12

¼ 60GPa G

13

¼ 75GPa G

23

¼ 50GPa

(a) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r

11

=300 MPa is

applied?

(b) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r

22

=300 MPa is

applied?

(c) What strains are induced if a uniaxial tensile stress r

33

=300 MPa is

applied?

(d) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s

12

=100 MPa is

applied?

(e) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s

13

=100 MPa is

applied?

(f ) What strains are induced if a pure shear stress s

23

=100 MPa is

applied?

3. A tensile specimen is machined from an anisotropic material. The speci-

men is referenced to an x–y–z coordinate system, as shown in Fig. 15a.

The cross-section of the specimen is initially a ‘‘perfect’’ 5Â5 mm square.

In addition, ‘‘perfect’’ 5Â5 mm squares are drawn on the x–y and x–z

surfaces of the specimen, as shown. A uniaxial tensile stress r

xx

=700

MPa is then applied, causing the specimen to deform as shown in Fig.

15b–d. Determine the values of E

xx

, v

xy

, v

xz

, g

xx

,

xy

, g

xx,xz

, and g

xx,yz

that

correspond to these deformations.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Table 4 The [0]

8

Specimen (Width=1.251 in.; Thickness=0.048 in.)

Load (1 bf) Axial strain (Ain./in.) Trans strain (Ain./in.)

0 0 0

260 192 À61

630 454 À146

1220 860 À279

1910 1335 À433

2600 1807 À587

4100 2784 À930

Figure 15 Tensile specimen described in Problem 3 (deformations shown

greatly exaggerated for clarity). (a) Tensile specimen machined from an aniso-

tropic material. (b) Change in cross-section. (c) Change in dimensions on x–y

face. (d) Change in dimensions on x–z face.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4. Load vs. strain data collected during two diﬀerent composite tensile tests

are shown in Tables 4 and 5. Use linear regression to determine the

following properties for this composite material:

(a) Determine E

11

and v

12

using the data collected using the [0]

8

specimen (Table 4).

(b) Determine E

22

using the data collected using the [90]

16

specimen (Table 5).

(c) Determine the value of v

21

for this composite material system.

Table 5 The [90]

16

Specimen (Width=

1.254 in.; Thickness=0.090 in.)

Load (1 bf) Axial strain (Ain./in.)

0 0

64 300

102 539

172 923

275 1489

385 2072

Figure 16 Tensile specimen described in Problem 5.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5. A thin tensile specimen is machined from a material with unknown

properties. A ‘‘perfect’’ square with dimensions 5Â5 mm is drawn on

one surface of the specimen, as shown in Fig. 16. A tensile stress of 500

MPa is then applied, causing the square to deform. Determine E

xx

, v

xy

,

and g

xx,xy

for this material.

6. A ‘‘perfect’’ square with dimensions 1Â1 mm is drawn on the surface of a

plate. The temperature of the plate is then uniformly increased by 300jC,

causing the square to deform as shown in Fig. 17. Determine the

corresponding strains e

xx

, e

yy

, and e

xy

, and coeﬃcients of thermal

expansion a

xx

, a

yy

, and a

xy

.

REFERENCES

1. Dieter, G.E. Mechanical Metallurgy; New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1986;

ISBN0-07-016893-8.

2. Lekhnitski, S.G. Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Body; Holden-Day: San

Francisco, 1963.

3. Bert, C.W.; Reddy, J.N.; Reddy, V.S.; Chao, W.C. Analysis of thick rectangular

plates laminated of bimodulus composite materials. AIAA J. 1981, 19 (10), 1342–

1349.

4. Measurement of Thermal Expansion Coeﬃcient, M-M Tech Note 513;

Measurement Group, Inc.: Raleigh, NC, USA (available at the Measure-

ment Group website at: http://www.measurementsgroup.com/guide/indexes/

tn_index.htm).

5. Standard Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium

Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, Test Standard 5229;

Figure 17 Deformed square described in Problem 6.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

American Society for Testing and Materials: West Conshohocken, PA, USA

(may also be accessed via the ASTM website at: http://www.astm.org/).

6. Hyer, M.W. Stress Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials; McGraw-

Hill Book Co.: New York, NY; 1998; ISBN 0-07-016700-1.

7. Herakovich, C.T. Mechanics of Fibrous Composites; John Wiley and Sons: New

York, NY, 1998; ISBN 0-471-10636-4.

8. Hull, D. An Introduction to Composite Materials; Cambridge University Press:

Cambridge, Great Britain, 1981; ISBN 0-521-23991-5.

9. Gibson, R.F. Principles of Composite Material Mechanics; McGraw-Hill Inc.:

New York, NY, 1994; ISBN0-07-023451-5.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4

Elastic Response of Anisotropic Materials

In this chapter, we will consider the strains induced in anisotropic materials

when subjected to arbitrary combinations of stress, uniform changes in

temperature, and/or uniformchanges in moisture content. The chapter begins

with a consideration of the strains induced by stress under constant environ-

mental conditions. A ‘‘generalized’’ form of Hooke’s law, which relates strain

to stress for any anisotropic material, will be developed. Next, Hooke’s law

will be specialized for two particular types of anisotropy. First, for ortho-

tropic materials, and then for transversely isotropic materials.

Attention will then be focussed on strains caused by uniform changes in

temperature or moisture content. As before, relationships for anisotropic

materials will be developed ﬁrst, and will then be specialized to the case of

orthotropic and transversely isotropic materials.

Finally, the strains induced by the combined eﬀects of stress, temper-

ature, and moisture will be discussed.

1 STRAINS INDUCED BY STRESS: ANISOTROPIC

MATERIALS

Areviewof the stress and strain tensors has been provided in Chap. 2. Stress is

a symmetrical second-order tensor. In tensoral notation, stress is written as

167

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

r

ij

, where subscripts i and j take on values of x, y, and z. Alternatively, the

stress tensor can be written using matrix notation as:

r

ij

¼

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

2

4

3

5

ð1Þ

Because the stress tensor is symmetrical (i.e., r

yx

=r

xy

, r

zx

=r

xz

, and

r

zy

= r

yz

), only six independent stress components appear in Eq. (1).

Similarly, strain is a symmetrical second-order tensor e

ij

and can be

written as:

e

ij

¼

e

xx

e

xy

e

xz

e

yx

e

yy

e

yz

e

zx

e

zy

e

zz

2

6

4

3

7

5 ¼

ðe

xx

Þ ðc

xy

=2Þ ðc

xz

=2Þ

ðc

yx

=2Þ ðe

yy

Þ ðc

yz

=2Þ

ðc

zx

=2Þ ðc

zy

=2Þ ðe

zz

Þ

2

6

4

3

7

5 ð2Þ

Only six independent strain components appear in Eq. (2). Also, the

tensoral shear strain components equal one-half the more commonly used

engineering shear strain components, that is,

e

xy

¼ e

yx

¼

c

xy

2

¼

c

yx

2

; e

xz

¼ e

zx

¼

c

xz

2

¼

c

zx

2

; e

yz

¼ e

zy

¼

c

yz

2

¼

c

zy

2

ð3Þ

For any elastic solid, the strain and stress tensors are related as follows

(assuming temperature and moisture content remain constant):

e

ij

¼ S

ijkl

r

kl

ð4Þ

All subscripts that appear in Eq. (4) take on values of x, y, and z.

Equation (4) is called generalized Hooke’s law, and is valid for any elastic solid

under constant environmental conditions. It is seen that the strain and stress

tensors are related via the fourth-order compliance tensor S

ijkl

. Because strains

are unitless quantities, from Eq. (4), it is seen that the units of S

ijkl

are 1/

(stress) (i.e., either 1/Pa or 1/psi).

Because the compliance tensor is described using four subscripts and

because each subscript may take on three distinct value (e.g., x, y, or z), it

would initially appear that 3

4

=81 independent terms appear within the

compliance tensor. However, due to symmetry of both the strain and stress

tensors, it will be shown belowthat the compliance tensor consists of (at most)

36 material constants.

It will be very convenient to express Eq. (4) using matrix notation.

However, because S

ijkl

is a fourth-order tensor (and hence can be viewed as

having ‘‘four dimensions’’), we cannot expand S

ijkl

as a two-dimensional

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

matrix directly. To expand Eq. (4), we must ﬁrst deﬁne the components of

stress and strain using contracted notation, as follows:

e

xx

! e

1

r

xx

! r

1

e

yy

! e

2

r

yy

! r

2

e

zz

! e

3

r

zz

! r

3

c

yz

¼ c

zy

! e

4

r

yz

¼ r

zy

! r

4

c

xz

¼ c

zx

! e

5

r

xz

¼ r

zx

! r

5

c

xy

¼ c

yx

! e

6

r

xy

¼ r

yx

! r

6

ð5Þ

Notice that the symmetry of the strain and stress tensors (c

yz

=c

xz

, etc.)

is embedded within the very deﬁnition of contracted notation. Also note that

the shear strain components (e

4

, e

5

, and e

6

) represent engineering shear strains,

rather than tensoral shear strains. Based on this change in notation, we can

now write Eq. (4) as:

e

j

¼ S

ij

r

j

where i; j ¼ 1À6 ð6Þ

In contracted notation, the strain and stress tensors are expressed with a

single subscript (i.e., e

i

and r

j

), and hence in Eq. (6), they appear to be ﬁrst-

order tensors. This is, of course, not the case. Both strain and stress are

second-order tensors. We are able to write them as using contracted notation

only because they are both symmetrical tensors. Similarly, contracted nota-

tion allows us to refer to individual components of the fourth-order com-

pliance tensor expressed using only two subscripts. We will henceforth refer to

S

ij

as the compliance matrix, and the use of contracted notation will be

implied.

Expanding Eq. (6), we have:

e

1

e

2

e

3

e

4

e

5

e

6

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

S

11

S

12

S

13

S

14

S

15

S

16

S

21

S

22

S

23

S

24

S

25

S

26

S

31

S

32

S

33

S

34

S

35

S

36

S

41

S

42

S

43

S

44

S

45

S

46

S

51

S

52

S

53

S

54

S

55

S

56

S

61

S

62

S

63

S

64

S

65

S

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

1

r

2

r

3

r

4

r

5

r

6

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð7Þ

In contracted notation, the compliance matrix has six rows and six

columns, so it is now clear that it consists of 36 independent material

constants (at most), as previously stated. Furthermore, through a consider-

ation of strain energy, it can be shown [1] that the compliance matrix must

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

itself be symmetrical. That is, all terms in symmetrical oﬀ-diagonal positions

must be equal:

S

21

¼ S

12

S

31

¼ S

13

S

32

¼ S

23

S

41

¼ S

14

S

42

¼ S

24

S

43

¼ S

34

S

51

¼ S

15

S

52

¼ S

25

S

53

¼ S

35

S

54

¼ S

45

S

61

¼ S

16

S

62

¼ S

26

S

63

¼ S

36

S

64

¼ S

46

S

65

¼ S

56

ð8Þ

Hence, although the compliance matrix for an anisotropic composite

consists of 36 material constants, only 21 of these constants are independent.

Substituting the original strain and stress terms (deﬁned in Eq. (5)) into

Eq. (7), we have:

e

xx

e

yy

e

zz

c

yz

c

xz

c

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

S

11

S

12

S

13

S

14

S

15

S

16

S

21

S

22

S

23

S

24

S

25

S

26

S

31

S

32

S

33

S

34

S

35

S

36

S

41

S

42

S

43

S

44

S

45

S

46

S

51

S

52

S

53

S

54

S

55

S

56

S

61

S

62

S

63

S

64

S

65

S

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

xx

r

yy

r

zz

r

yz

r

xz

r

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð9Þ

The individual constants that appear in the compliance matrix can be

easily related to the material properties deﬁned in Chap. 3 by invoking the

principal of superposition. That is, because we have restricted our attention to

linear elastic behavior, an individual component of strain caused by several

stress components acting simultaneously can be obtained by adding the strain

caused by each stress component acting independently. For example, the

strains e

xx

caused by each stress component independently are given by:

r

xx

causes ðfrom Eq: 3:1Þ e

xx

¼

1

E

xx

r

xx

r

yy

causes ðfrom Eq: 3:6Þ e

xx

¼ À

m

yx

E

yy

r

yy

r

zz

causes ðfrom Eq: 3:7Þ e

xx

¼ À

m

zx

E

zz

r

zz

s

yz

causes ðfrom Eq: 3:14Þ e

xx

¼

g

yz;xx

G

yz

s

yz

s

xz

causes ðfrom Eq: 3:13Þ e

xx

¼

g

xz;xx

G

xz

s

xz

s

xy

causes ðfrom Eq: 3:12Þ e

xx

¼

g

xy;xx

G

xy

s

xy

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

To determine the strain e

xx

induced if all stress components act

simultaneously, simply add up the contribution to e

xx

caused by each stress

individually, to obtain:

e

xx

¼

1

E

xx

r

xx

þ

Àm

yx

E

yy

r

yy

þ

Àm

zx

E

zz

r

zz

þ

g

yz;xx

G

yz

s

yz

þ

g

xz;xx

G

xz

s

xz

þ

g

xy;xx

G

xy

s

xy

ð10aÞ

Using an identical procedure, the remaining ﬁve strain components

caused by an arbitrary combination of stresses are:

e

yy

¼

Àm

xy

E

xx

r

xx

þ

1

E

yy

r

yy

þ

Àm

zy

E

zz

r

zz

þ

g

xz;yy

G

yz

s

yz

þ

g

xz;yy

G

xz

s

xz

þ

g

xy;yy

G

xy

s

xy

ð10bÞ

e

zz

¼

Àm

xz

E

xx

r

xx

þ

Àm

yz

E

yy

r

yy

þ

1

E

zz

r

zz

þ

g

yz;zz

G

yz

s

yz

þ

g

xz;zz

G

xz

s

xz

þ

g

xy;zz

G

xy

s

xy

ð10cÞ

c

yz

¼

g

xx;yz

E

xx

r

xx

þ

g

yy;yz

E

yy

r

yy

þ

g

zz;yz

E

zz

r

zz

þ

1

G

yz

s

yz

þ

l

xz;yz

G

xz

s

xz

þ

l

xy;yz

G

xy

s

xy

ð10dÞ

c

xz

¼

g

xx;xz

E

xx

r

xx

þ

g

yy;xz

E

yy

r

yy

þ

g

zz;xz

E

zz

r

zz

þ

l

yz;xz

G

yz

s

yz

þ

1

G

xz

s

xz

þ

l

xy;xz

G

xy

s

xy

ð10eÞ

c

xy

¼

g

xx;xy

E

xx

r

xx

þ

g

yy;xy

E

yy

r

yy

þ

g

zz;xy

E

zz

r

zz

þ

l

yz;xy

G

yz

s

yz

þ

l

xz;xy

G

xz

s

xz

þ

1

G

xy

s

xy

ð10f Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Equation (10a)–(10f) can be assembled in matrix form:

pc

e

xx

e

yy

e

zz

c

yz

c

xz

c

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

1

E

xx

Àm

yx

E

yy

Àm

zx

E

zz

g

yz;xx

G

yz

g

xz;xx

G

xz

g

xy;xx

G

xy

Àm

xy

E

xx

1

E

yy

Àm

zy

E

zz

g

yz;yy

G

yz

g

xz;yy

G

xz

g

xy;yy

G

xy

Àm

xz

E

xx

Àm

yz

E

yy

1

E

zz

g

yz;zz

G

yz

g

xz;zz

G

xz

g

xy;zz

G

xy

g

xx;yz

E

xx

g

yy;yz

E

yy

g

zz;yz

E

zz

1

G

yz

l

xz;yz

G

xz

l

xy;yz

G

xy

g

xx;xz

E

xx

g

yy;xz

E

yy

g

zz;xz

E

zz

l

yz;xz

G

yz

1

G

xz

l

xy;xz

G

xy

g

xx;xy

E

xx

g

yy;xy

E

yy

g

zz;xy

E

zz

l

yz;xy

G

yz

l

xz;xy

G

xz

1

G

xy

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

xx

r

yy

r

zz

s

yz

s

xz

s

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð11Þ

By comparing Eqs. (9) and (11), it can be seen that the individual

components of the compliance matrix are directly related to the material

properties measured during uniaxial tests or pure shear tests:

S

11

¼

1

E

xx

S

22

¼

1

E

yy

S

33

¼

1

E

zz

S

44

¼

1

G

yx

S

55

¼

1

G

xz

S

66

¼

1

G

xy

S

21

¼ S

12

¼

Àm

xy

E

xx

¼

Àm

yx

E

yy

S

31

¼ S

13

¼

Àm

xz

E

xx

¼

Àm

zx

E

zz

S

32

¼ S

23

¼

Àm

yz

E

yy

¼

Àm

zy

E

zz

S

41

¼ S

14

¼

g

xx;yz

E

xx

¼

g

yz;xx

G

yz

S

42

¼ S

24

¼

g

yy;yz

E

yy

¼

g

yz;yy

G

yz

S

43

¼ S

34

¼

g

zz;yz

E

zz

¼

g

yz;zz

G

yz

S

51

¼ S

15

¼

g

xx;xz

E

xx

¼

g

xz;xx

G

xz

S

52

¼ S

25

¼

g

yy;xz

E

yy

¼

g

xz;yy

G

xz

S

53

¼ S

35

¼

g

zz;xz

E

zz

¼

g

xz;zz

G

xz

S

54

¼ S

45

¼

l

yz;xz

E

yz

¼

l

xz;yz

G

xz

S

61

¼ S

16

¼

g

xx;xy

E

xx

¼

g

xy;xx

G

xy

S

62

¼ S

26

¼

g

yy;xy

E

yy

¼

g

xy;yy

G

xy

S

63

¼ S

36

¼

g

zz;xy

E

zz

¼

g

xy;zz

G

xy

S

64

¼ S

46

¼

l

yz;xy

E

yz

¼

l

xy;yz

G

xy

S

65

¼ S

56

¼

l

xz;xy

G

xz

¼

l

xy;xz

G

xy

ð12Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Because the compliance matrix must be symmetric, Eq. (12) shows that

many of the properties of anisotropic materials are related through the

following inverse relationships:

m

xz

E

xx

¼

m

yx

E

yy

m

xz

E

xx

¼

m

zx

E

zz

m

yz

E

yy

¼

m

zy

E

zz

g

xx;yz

E

xx

¼

g

yz;xx

G

yz

g

yy;yz

E

yy

¼

g

yz;yy

G

yz

g

zz;yz

E

zz

¼

g

yz;zz

G

yz ð13Þ

g

xx;xz

E

xx

¼

g

xz;xx

G

xz

g

yy;yz

E

yy

¼

g

yz;yy

G

yz

g

zz;xz

E

zz

¼

g

xz;zz

G

xz

l

yz;xz

G

yz

¼

l

xz;yz

G

xz

g

xx;xy

E

xx

¼

g

xy;xx

G

xy

g

yy;xy

E

yy

¼

g

xy;yy

G

xy

g

zz;xy

E

zz

¼

g

xy;zz

G

xy

l

yz;xy

G

yz

¼

l

xy;yz

G

xy

l

xz;xy

G

xz

¼

l

xy;xz

G

xy

The inverse relationships are very signiﬁcant from an experimental

point of view because they dramatically reduce the number of tests that must

be performed in order to determine the value of the many terms that appear

within the compliance matrix of an anisotropic composite. Speciﬁcally, if the

compliance matrix were not symmetrical, and hence if the inverse relation-

ships did not exist, then 36 tests would be required to measure all components

of the compliance matrix. The fact that the compliance matrix must be

symmetrical reduces the number of tests required to 21. Of course, this is still

a large number of tests. Fortunately, because the principal material coor-

dinate system of composites is readily apparent, the elastic properties of

composites are usually measured relative to the principal material coordinate

system rather than an arbitrary (nonprincipal) coordinate system. As dis-

cussed in Sec. 2, this further reduces the number of tests required. The 21

terms within the compliance matrix of an anisotropic composite can then be

calculated based on properties measured relative to the principal material

coordinate system.

Thus far, we have discussed Hooke’s law in the form of ‘‘strain–stress’’

relationships. That is, given values of the components of stress, we can

calculate the resulting strains using Eq. (9) or Eq. (11), for example. In

practice, we are often interested in the opposite problem. That is, a common

circumstance in practice is that the components of strain induced in a

structure have been measured, and we wish to calculate the stresses that

caused these strains. In this case, we need a ‘‘stress–strain’’ form of Hooke’s

law. The stress–strain form of Hooke’s law can be obtained by simply

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

inverting previous results. For example, inverting Hooke’s law given by Eq.

(6), we have:

r

i

¼ C

ij

e

j

where i; j ¼ 1À6 ð14Þ

C

ij

is called the ‘‘stiﬀness matrix.’’* The stiﬀness matrix is the mathe-

matical inverse of the compliance matrix C

ij

=S

ij

À1

. In expanded form, Eq.

(14) is written as:

r

1

r

2

r

3

r

4

r

5

r

6

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

C

11

C

12

C

13

C

14

C

15

C

16

C

21

C

22

C

23

C

24

C

25

C

26

C

31

C

32

C

33

C

34

C

35

C

36

C

41

C

42

C

43

C

44

C

45

C

46

C

51

C

52

C

53

C

54

C

55

C

56

C

61

C

62

C

63

C

64

C

65

C

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

e

1

e

2

e

3

e

4

e

5

e

6

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð15Þ

The stiﬀness matrix is symmetrical (C

21

=C

12

, C

31

=C

13

, etc.). The units

of each stiﬀness term are the same as stress (either Pa or psi).

2 STRAINS INDUCED BY STRESS: ORTHOTROPIC

AND TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MATERIALS

As discussed in Sec. 2 of Chap. 3, many of the unusual couplings between

stress and strain exhibited by composites referenced to an arbitrary coordi-

nate system do not occur if the stress and strain tensors are referenced to the

principal material coordinate system. In this text, a material referenced to an

arbitrary (nonprincipal) coordinate system is called ‘‘anisotropic’’ whereas if

the same material is referenced to the principal material coordinate system, it

is called either an ‘‘orthotropic’’ or ‘‘transversely isotropic’’ material.

All of the following coupling terms are zero for orthotropic or trans-

versely isotropic materials:

**Coeﬃcients of mutual inﬂuence of the second kind:
**

g

11;12

¼ g

11;13

¼ g

11;23

¼ g

22;12

¼ g

22;13

¼ g

22;23

¼ g

33;12

¼ g

33;13

¼ g

33;23

¼ 0

* The variable names assigned to the compliance and stiﬀness matrices in this chapter have

evolved over many years and are widely used within the structural mechanics community. The

reader should note that, unfortunately, the symbol ‘‘S’’ is customarily used to refer to the

compliance matrix, whereas the symbol ‘‘C’’ is customarily used to refer to the stiﬀness matrix.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

**Coeﬃcients of mutual inﬂuence of the ﬁrst kind:
**

g

12;11

¼ g

12;22

¼ g

12;23

¼ g

13;11

¼ g

13;22

¼ g

13;33

¼ g

23;11

¼ g

23;22

¼ g

23;33

¼ 0

Chentsov coeﬃcients:

l

12;13

¼ l

12;23

¼ l

13;12

¼ l

13;23

¼ l

23;12

¼ l

23;13

¼ 0

Because these coupling terms do not exist, Hooke’s law for orthotropic

or transversely isotropic materials is simpliﬁed considerably relative to that of

an anisotropic material. For an orthotropic material, Hooke’s law becomes

(compare with Eq. (11)):

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

1

E

11

Àm

21

E

22

Àm

31

E

33

0 0 0

Àm

21

E

11

1

E

22

Àm

32

E

33

0 0 0

Àm

13

E

11

Àm

23

E

22

1

E

33

0 0 0

0 0 0

1

G

23

0 0

0 0 0 0

1

G

13

0

0 0 0 0 0

1

G

12

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

Alternatively, Eq. (16) may be

ð16Þ

written as:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

S

11

S

12

S

13

0 0 0

S

12

S

22

S

23

0 0 0

S

13

S

23

S

33

0 0 0

0 0 0 S

44

0 0

0 0 0 0 S

55

0

0 0 0 0 0 S

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð17Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The fact that the compliance matrix must be symmetrical (S

21

=S

12

,

etc.) has been included in Eq. (17). Each compliance termin Eq. (17) is related

to the more familiar engineering properties as follows:

S

11

¼

1

E

11

S

22

¼

1

E

22

S

33

¼

1

E

33

S

44

¼

1

G

23

S

55

¼

1

G

13

S

66

¼

1

G

12

S

21

¼ S

12

¼

Àm

12

E

11

¼

Àm

21

E

22

S

31

¼ S

13

¼

Àm

13

E

11

¼

Àm

31

E

33

S

32

¼ S

23

¼

Àm

23

E

22

¼

Àm

32

E

33

ð18Þ

It can be seen that only nine independent material constants exist for an

orthotropic material. The set of nine independent constants can be viewed as:

ðS

11

; S

22

; S

33

; S

44

; S

55

; S

66

; S

12

; S

13

; and S

23

Þ

or, equivalently, as:

ðE

11

; E

22

; E

33

; m

12

; m

13

; m

23

; G

12

; G

13

; and G

23

Þ

Equation (17) is the strain–stress form of Hooke’s law suitable for use

with orthotropic materials. To obtain a stress–strain relationship, Eq. (17) is

inverted, resulting in:

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

C

11

C

12

C

13

0 0 0

C

12

C

22

C

23

0 0 0

C

13

C

23

C

33

0 0 0

0 0 0 C

44

0 0

0 0 0 0 C

55

0

0 0 0 0 0 C

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð19Þ

Individual components within the stiﬀness matrix for an orthotropic

material are related to the compliance terms as follows:

C

11

¼

S

22

S

33

À S

2

23

S

C

12

¼

S

13

S

23

À S

12

S

33

S

C

13

¼

S

12

S

33

À S

13

S

22

S

C

22

¼

S

11

S

33

À S

2

13

S

C

23

¼

S

12

S

13

À S

11

S

23

S

C

33

¼

S

11

S

22

À S

2

12

S

C

44

¼

1

S

44

C

55

¼

1

S

55

C

66

¼

1

S

66

ð20Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

where:

S ¼ S

11

S

22

S

33

À S

11

S

2

23

À S

22

S

2

13

À S

33

S

2

12

þ 2S

12

S

13

S

23

Alternatively, the stiﬀness terms may be calculated using the elastic

properties described in Sec. 2 of Chap. 3:

C

11

¼

ðE

22

À m

2

23

E

33

ÞE

2

11

X

C

12

¼

ðm

12

E

22

þ m

13

m

23

E

33

ÞE

11

E

22

X

C

13

¼

ðm

12

m

23

þ m

13

ÞE

11

E

22

E

33

X

C

22

¼

ðE

11

À m

2

13

E

33

ÞE

2

22

X

ð21Þ

C

23

¼

ðm

23

E

11

þ m

12

m

13

E

22

ÞE

22

E

33

X

C

33

¼

ðE

11

À m

2

12

E

22

ÞE

22

E

33

X

C

44

¼ G

23

C

55

¼ G

13

C

66

¼ G

12

where:

X ¼ E

11

E

22

À m

2

12

E

2

22

À m

2

13

E

22

E

33

À m

2

23

E

11

E

33

À 2m

12

m

13

m

23

E

22

E

33

Hooke’s law for transversely isotropic materials is simpliﬁed further-

more because in this case, E

22

=E

33

, m

12

=m

13

, m

21

=m

31

, m

23

=m

32

, and

G

12

=G

13

. Also, it can also be easily shown that for transversely isotropic

composites, G

23

¼

E

22

2ð1þm

23

Þ

. Hence, for transversely isotropic composites, Eq.

(16) reduces to:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

1

E

11

Àm

21

E

22

Àm

21

E

22

0 0 0

Àm

21

E

11

1

E

22

Àm

32

E

22

0 0 0

Àm

12

E

11

Àm

23

E

22

1

E

22

0 0 0

0 0 0

2ð1 þ m

23

Þ

G

22

0 0

0 0 0 0

1

G

12

0

0 0 0 0 0

1

G

12

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð22Þ

which may also be written as:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

S

11

S

12

S

12

0 0 0

S

12

S

22

S

23

0 0 0

S

12

S

23

S

22

0 0 0

0 0 0 2ðS

22

À S

23

Þ 0 0

0 0 0 0 S

66

0

0 0 0 0 0 S

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð23Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

It can be seen that only ﬁve independent material constants exist for a

transversely isotropic material. The set of ﬁve independent constants can be

viewed as:

ðS

11

; S

22

; S

66

; S

12

; and S

23

Þ

or, equivalently, as:

ðE

11

; E

22

; m

12

; m

23

; and G

12

Þ

Equation (23) is the strain–stress form of Hooke’s law suitable for use

with transversely isotropic composites. To obtain a stress–strain relationship,

Eq. (23) is inverted, resulting in:

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

C

11

C

12

C

12

0 0 0

C

12

C

22

C

23

0 0 0

C

12

C

23

C

22

0 0 0

0 0 0 2ðC

22

À C

23

Þ 0 0

0 0 0 0 C

66

0

0 0 0 0 0 C

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð24Þ

Individual components within the stiﬀness matrix for a transversely

isotropic composite are related to the compliance terms, as follows:

C

11

¼

S

22

þ S

33

X

C

12

¼

ÀS

12

X

C

22

¼

S

11

S

22

À S

2

12

XðS

22

À S

23

Þ

C

23

¼

S

2

12

À S

11

S

23

XðS

22

À S

23

Þ

C

66

¼

1

S

66

ð25Þ

where:

V ¼ S

11

ðS

22

þ S

23

Þ À 2S

2

12

Alternatively, the stiﬀness terms may be calculated using the elastic

properties described in Sec. 2 of Chap. 3:

C

11

¼

E

2

11

ð1 À m

23

Þ

X

C

12

¼

m

12

E

11

E

22

X

C

22

¼

E

22

ðE

11

À m

2

12

E

22

Þ

Xð1 þ m

23

Þ

C

23

¼

E

22

ðm

23

E

11

þ m

2

12

E

22

Þ

Xð1 þ m

23

Þ

C

44

¼

C

22

À C

23

2

¼

E

22

2ð1 þ m

23

Þ

C

66

¼ C

12

ð26Þ

where:

X ¼ E

11

ð1 À m

23

Þ À 2m

2

12

E

22

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Example Problem 1

The properties of a composite material are known to be:

E

11

¼ 170 GPa E

22

¼ 10 GPa E

33

¼ 8 GPa

m

12

¼ 0:30 m

13

¼ 0:35 m

23

¼ 0:40

G

12

¼ 13 GPa G

13

¼ 10 GPa G

23

¼ 8 GPa

Note that nine distinct material properties have been speciﬁed, indicat-

ing that this composite material is orthotropic. Determine the strains caused

by the following state of stress:

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

350 MPa

35 MPa

15 MPa

30 MPa

10 MPa

25 MPa

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

Solution. Because the composite is orthotropic, strains are calculated using

Eq. (17), where each termwithin the compliance matrix is calculated using Eq.

(18):

S

11

¼

1

E

11

¼

1

170 GPa

¼

5:88

10

12

Pa

S

22

¼

1

E

22

¼

1

10 GPa

¼

100:0

10

12

GPa

S

33

¼

1

E

33

¼

1

8 GPa

¼

125:0

10

12

Pa

S

44

¼

1

G

23

¼

1

8 GPa

¼

125:0

10

12

Pa

S

55

¼

1

G

13

¼

1

10 GPa

¼

100

10

12

Pa

S

66

¼

1

G

12

¼

1

13 GPa

¼

76:9

10

12

Pa

S

21

¼ S

12

¼

Àm

12

E

11

¼

À0:030

170 GPa

¼

À1:76

10

12

Pa

S

31

¼ S

13

¼

Àm

13

E

11

¼

À0:35

170 GPa

¼

À2:06

10

12

Pa

S

32

¼ S

23

¼

Àm

23

E

22

¼

À0:40

10 GPa

¼

À40:0

10

12

Pa

In this case, Eq. (17) becomes:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

5:88 À1:76 À2:06 0 0 0

À1:76 100:0 À40:0 0 0 0

À2:06 À40:0 125:0 0 0 0

0 0 0 125:0 0 0

0 0 0 0 100:0 0

0 0 0 0 0 76:9

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

1

10

12

Pa

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Â

350

35

15

30

10

25

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð10

6

PaÞ ¼

1966 Am=m

2284 Am=m

À246 Am=m

3750 Arad

1000 Arad

1923 Arad

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

Example Problem 2

The properties of a composite material are known to be:

E

11

¼ 25 Msi E

22

¼ E

33

¼ 1:5 Msi

m

12

¼ m

13

¼ 0:30 m

23

¼ 0:40

G

12

¼ G

13

¼ 2:0 Msi

Note that only ﬁve distinct material properties have been speciﬁed,

indicating that this composite material is transversely isotropic. Determine

the strains caused by the following state of stress:

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

50 ksi

5 ksi

2 ksi

4 ksi

1:5 ksi

3:5 ksi

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

Solution. Because the composite is transversely isotropic, strains are calcu-

lated using Eq. (22). Individual terms within the compliance matrix are:

S

11

¼

1

E

11

¼

1

25 Msi

¼

40:0

10

9

psi

S

22

¼ S

33

¼

1

E

22

¼

1

1:5 Msi

¼

667

10

9

psi

S

44

¼

1

G

23

¼

2ð1 þ m

23

Þ

E

22

¼

2ð1 þ 0:40Þ

1:5 Msi

¼

1866

10

9

psi

S

55

¼ S

66

¼

1

G

12

¼

1

2:0 Msi

¼

500

10

9

psi

S

12

¼ S

21

¼ S

13

¼ S

31

¼

Àm

12

E

11

¼

À0:30

25 Msi

¼

À12:0

10

9

psi

S

23

¼ S

32

¼

Àm

23

E

22

¼

À0:40

1:5 Msi

¼

À266

10

9

psi

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Equation (17) becomes:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

40:0 À12:0 À12:0 0 0 0

À12:0 667 À266 0 0 0

À12:0 À266 667 0 0 0

0 0 0 800 0 0

0 0 0 0 500 0

0 0 0 0 0 500

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

1

10

9

psi

Â

50

5

2

4

1:5

3:5

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð10

3

psiÞ ¼

1966 Ain:=in:

2203 Ain:=in:

À596 Ain:=in:

3200 Arad

750 Arad

1750 Arad

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

Example Problem 3

An orthotropic composite is subjected to a state of stress that causes the

following state of strain:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

À1500 Am=m

2000 Am=m

1000 Am=m

À2500 Arad

500 Arad

À2000 Arad

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

Determine the stresses that caused these strains (use material properties

listed in Example Problem 1).

Solution. Because the composite is orthotropic, stresses are calculated using

Eq. (19). The stiﬀness matrix can be obtained by: (a) inverting the compliance

matrix determined as a part of Example Problem 1, (b) through the use of Eq.

(20), or (c) through the use of Eq. (21). All three methods are entirely

equivalent, and which procedure is selected for use is simply a matter of

convenience. Equation (21) will be used in this example:

X ¼ E

11

E

22

À m

2

12

E

2À

22

À m

2

13

E

22

E

33

À m

2

23

E

11

E

33

À 2m

12

m

13

m

23

E

22

E

33

X ¼ fð170Þð10Þ À ð0:30Þ

2

ð10Þ

2

À ð0:35Þ

2

ð10Þð8Þ À ð0:40Þ

2

ð170Þð8Þ

À2ð0:30Þð0:35Þð0:40Þð10Þð8ÞgðGPaÞ

2

X ¼ 1457ðGPaÞ

2

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

C

11

¼

ðE

22

À m

2

23

E

33

ÞE

2

11

X

¼

fð10 GPaÞ À ð0:40Þ

2

ð8 GPaÞgð170 GPaÞ

2

1457ðGPaÞ

2

¼ 172:98 GPa

C

12

¼

ðm

12

E

22

þ m

13

m

23

E

33

ÞE

11

E

22

X

¼

fð0:30Þð10 GPaÞ þ ð0:35Þð0:40Þð8 GPaÞgð170 GPaÞð10 GPaÞ

1457ðGPaÞ

2

¼ 4:808 GPa

C

13

¼

ðm

12

m

23

þ m

13

ÞE

11

E

22

E

33

X

¼

fð0:30Þð0:40Þ þ ð0:35Þð170 GPaÞgð10 GPaÞð8 GPaÞ

1457ðGPaÞ

2

¼ 4:387 GPa

C

22

¼

ðE

11

þ m

2

13

E

33

ÞE

2

22

X

¼

fð170 GPaÞ À ð0:35Þ

2

ð8 GPaÞgð10 GPaÞ

1457ðGPaÞ

2

¼ 11:602 GPa

C

23

¼

ðm

23

E

11

þ m

12

m

13

E

22

ÞE

22

E

33

X

¼

fð0:40Þð170 GPaÞ þ ð0:35Þð0:35Þð10 GPaÞgð10 GPaÞð8 GPaÞ

1457ðGPaÞ

2

¼ 3:792 GPa

C

33

¼

ðE

11

À m

2

12

E

22

ÞE

22

E

33

X

¼

fð170 GPaÞ À ð0:30Þ

2

ð10 GPaÞgð10 GPaÞð8 GPaÞ

1457ðGPaÞ

2

¼ 9:286 GPa

C

44

¼ G

23

¼ 8 GPa C

55

¼ G

13

¼ 10 GPa C

66

¼ G

12

¼ 13 GPa

Applying Eq. (19), the stresses are:

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

172:98 4:808 4:387 0 0 0

4:808 11:602 3:792 0 0 0

4:387 3:792 9:286 0 0 0

0 0 0 8:0 0 0

0 0 0 0 10:0 0

0 0 0 0 0 13:0

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

ðGPaÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Â

À1500 Am=m

2000 Am=m

1000 Am=m

À2500 Arad

500 Arad

À2000 Arad

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

À245:5 MPa

19:78 MPa

10:29 MPa

À20:0 MPa

5:00 MPa

À26:0 MPa

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

Example Problem 4

A transversely isotropic composite is subjected to a state of stress that causes

the following state of strain:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

À1250 Ain:=in:

À1000 Ain:=in:

À500 Ain:=in:

À2500 Arad

À1000 Arad

2000 Arad

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

Determine the stresses that caused these strains (use material properties

listed in Example Problem 2)

Solution. Because the composite is transversely isotropic, stresses are calcu-

lated using Eq. (24). The stiﬀness matrix can be obtained by: (a) inverting the

compliance matrix determined as a part of Example Problem 2, (b) through

the use of Eq. (25), or (c) through the use of Eq. (26). All three methods are

entirely equivalent, and which procedure is selected for use is simply a matter

of convenience. Equation (26) will be used in this example:

X ¼ E

11

ð1 À m

23

Þ À 2m

2

12

E

22

X ¼ ð25 MsiÞð1 À 0:40Þ À 2ð0:30Þ

2

ð1:5 MsiÞ ¼ 14:73 Msi

C

11

¼

E

2

11

ð1 À m

23

Þ

X

¼

ð25 MsiÞ

2

ð1 À 0:40Þ

14:73 Msi

¼ 25:46 Msi

C

12

¼

m

12

E

11

E

22

X

¼

ð0:30Þð25 MsiÞð1:5 MsiÞ

14:73 Msi

¼ 0:7637 Msi

C

22

¼

E

22

ðE

11

À m

2

12

E

22

Þ

Xð1 þ m

23

Þ

¼

ð1:5 MsiÞ

È

ð25 MsiÞ À ð0:30Þ

2

ð1:5 MsiÞ

É

14:73 Msið1 þ 0:40Þ

¼ 1:809 Msi

C

23

¼

E

22

ðm

23

E

11

þ m

2

12

E

22

Þ

Xð1 þ m

23

Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

¼

ð1:5 MsiÞ

È

ð0:40Þð25 MsiÞ þ ð0:30Þ

2

ð1:5 MsiÞ

É

14:73Msið1 þ 0:40Þ

¼ 0:7372 Msi

C

44

¼

E

22

2ð1 þ m

23

Þ

¼

ð1:5 MsiÞ

2ð1 þ 0:40Þ

¼ 0:5357 Msi

C

66

¼ G

12

¼ 2:0 Msi

Applying Eq. (24), the stresses are:

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

25:46 0:7637 0:7637 0 0 0

0:7637 1:809 0:07372 0 0 0

0:7637 0:7372 1:809 0 0 0

0 0 0 0:5357 0 0

0 0 0 0 2:0 0

0 0 0 0 0 2:0

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

ðMsiÞ

Â

À1250 Ain:=in:

À1000 Ain:=in:

À500 Ain:=in:

À2500 Arad

À1000 Arad

À2000 Arad

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

À32:97 ksi

À3:13 ksi

À2:60 ksi

À1:34 ksi

À2:00 ksi

4:00 ksi

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

3 STRAINS INDUCED BY A CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE

OR MOISTURE CONTENT

Material properties relating strains to a uniform change in temperature and a

uniform change in moisture content were deﬁned in Secs. 3 and 4 of Chap. 3,

respectively. For anisotropic materials, strains caused by a change in temper-

ature are given by Eq. (3.22), repeated here for convenience:

e

T

xx

e

T

xy

e

T

xz

e

T

yx

e

T

yy

e

T

yz

e

T

zx

e

T

zy

e

T

zz

2

6

4

3

7

5 ¼ DT

a

xx

a

xy

a

xz

a

yx

a

yy

a

yz

a

zx

a

zy

a

zz

2

6

4

3

7

5 ðrepeatedÞð3:22Þ

Similarly, strains caused by a change in moisture content are given by

Eq. (3.25), repeated here for convenience:

e

M

xx

c

M

xy

c

M

xz

c

M

yx

e

M

yy

c

M

yz

c

M

zx

c

M

zy

e

M

zz

2

6

4

3

7

5 ¼ ðDMÞ

b

xx

b

xy

b

xz

b

xy

b

yy

b

yz

b

xz

b

yz

b

zz

2

6

4

3

7

5 ðrepeatedÞð3:25Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

As before, the strain tensors must be symmetric. This allows the use of

contracted notation, and hence Eqs. (3.22) and (3.25) can be written in the

form of column arrays:

e

T

xx

e

T

yy

e

T

zz

c

T

yx

c

T

xz

c

T

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼ DT

a

xx

a

yy

a

zz

a

yz

a

xz

a

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ðandÞ

e

M

xx

e

M

yy

e

M

zz

c

M

yx

c

M

xz

c

M

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼ DT

b

xx

b

yy

b

zz

b

yz

b

xz

b

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð27Þ

In the case of an orthotropic material a

12

=a

13

=a

23

=b

12

=b

13

=

b

23

=0, and Eq. (27) becomes:

e

T

11

e

T

22

e

T

33

c

T

23

c

T

13

c

T

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼ DT

a

11

a

22

a

33

0

0

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ðandÞ

e

M

11

e

M

22

e

M

33

c

M

23

c

M

13

c

M

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼ DT

b

11

b

22

b

33

0

0

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð28Þ

In addition to these simpliﬁcations, for a transversely isotropic material

with symmetry in the 2–3 plane, a

33

=a

22

and b

33

=b

22

. Hence, for a trans-

versely isotropic material, Eq. (28) becomes:

e

T

11

e

T

22

e

T

33

c

T

23

c

T

13

c

T

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼ DT

a

11

a

22

a

22

0

0

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ðandÞ

e

M

11

e

M

22

e

M

33

c

M

23

c

M

13

c

M

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼ DT

b

11

b

22

b

22

0

0

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð29Þ

4 STRAINS INDUCED BY COMBINED EFFECTS OF STRESS,

TEMPERATURE, AND MOISTURE

The strains induced by stress under constant environmental conditions for

anisotropic materials were discussed in Sec. 1, and a similar discussion for

the case of orthotropic and transversely isotropic materials was presented in

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Sec. 2. Strains induced by a uniform change in temperature or moisture

content in the absence of stress was discussed for all three material

classiﬁcations in Sec. 3.

We will now consider the strains induced if all of these mechanisms

occur simultaneously. That is, we wish to consider the strains induced by the

combined eﬀects of stress, a uniform change in temperature, and a uniform

change in moisture content. We will call this the total strain. Rigorously

speaking, the total strain tensor (e

ij

) is a nonlinear coupled function of these

three mechanisms:

e

ij

¼ fðr; T; MÞ

The function f( ) is a nonlinear function of stress, temperature, and

moisture content, even though we have limited our attention to linear rela-

tionships between strain and these three mechanisms. That is, we have

deﬁned:

**Young’s modulus as the slope of linear region of the stress–strain
**

curve (Sec. 2 of Chap. 3)

**The coeﬃcient of thermal expansion (CTE) as the slope of the linear
**

region of the strain–DT curve (Sec. 3 of Chap. 3)

**The coeﬃcient of moisture expansion (CME) as the slope of the
**

linear region of the strain–DT curve (Sec. 4 of Chap. 3).

Despite these assumptions of linearity, the strain response may still be a

coupled function of stress, temperature, and moisture because a change in one

variable may cause a change in the other two. For example, for all polymer-

based materials, an increase in temperature will ordinarily cause a decrease in

Young’s modulus. Similarly, an increase in moisture content often causes an

increase in CTEs and a decrease in Young’s modulus.

These coupling eﬀects are ignored throughout this text. It is assumed

that the strain response is an uncoupled function of stress, temperature, and

moisture. For example, we assume that Young’s modulus is measured under

some standard environmental condition (say, at room temperature and 0%

moisture content), and that subsequent changes in temperature or moisture

content are relatively modest such that Young’s modulus may be assumed to

remain constant. Based on these assumptions, the total strain tensor induced

in a structure is simply the sum of the strains induced by each of mechanism

acting independently:

e

ij

¼ e

r

ij

þ e

T

ij

þ e

M

ij

ð30Þ

The superscripts j, T, and Mused in Eq. (30) indicate that the individual

components of strain are caused by the application of stress, by a uniform

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

change in temperature, and by a uniform change in moisture content,

respectively.

Based on this assumption, for anisotropic materials, the total strain is

obtained by superimposing Eqs. (9) and (27):

e

xx

e

yy

e

zz

c

yz

c

xz

c

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

S

11

S

12

S

13

S

14

S

15

S

16

S

21

S

22

S

23

S

24

S

25

S

26

S

31

S

32

S

33

S

34

S

35

S

36

S

41

S

42

S

43

S

44

S

45

S

46

S

51

S

52

S

53

S

54

S

55

S

56

S

61

S

62

S

63

S

64

S

65

S

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

xx

r

yy

r

zz

s

yz

s

xz

s

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

þDT

a

xx

a

yy

a

zz

a

yz

a

xz

a

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

þDM

b

xx

b

yy

b

zz

b

yz

b

xz

b

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð31Þ

Equation (31) allows the prediction of the strains induced by the

simultaneous eﬀects of stress and uniform changes in temperature and/or

moisture content. In practice, the inverse problem is often encountered. That

is, a common circumstance is that the strains, the change in temperature, and

the change in moisture content have been measured, and we wish to calculate

stresses. This can be accomplished by inverting Eq. (31) according to the laws

of matrix algebra, resulting in:

r

xx

r

yy

r

zz

s

yz

s

xz

s

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

C

11

C

12

C

13

C

14

C

15

C

16

C

21

C

22

C

23

C

24

C

25

C

26

C

31

C

32

C

33

C

34

C

35

C

36

C

41

C

42

C

43

C

44

C

45

C

46

C

51

C

52

C

53

C

54

C

55

C

56

C

61

C

62

C

63

C

64

C

65

C

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

Â

e

xx

ÀDTa

xx

ÀDMb

xx

e

yy

ÀDTa

yy

ÀDMb

yy

e

zz

ÀDTa

zz

ÀDMb

zz

c

yz

ÀDTa

yz

ÀDMb

yz

c

xz

ÀDTa

xz

ÀDMb

xz

c

xy

ÀDTa

xy

ÀDMb

xy

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð32Þ

where the stiﬀness matrix C

ij

=S

ij

À1

, as discussed in Sec. 1.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Following an analogous procedure, the strains induced in an ortho-

tropic material by the combined eﬀects of stress, a uniform change in

temperature, and/or a uniform change in moisture content can be found by

superimposing Eqs. (17) and (28):

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

S

11

S

12

S

13

0 0 0

S

12

S

22

S

23

0 0 0

S

13

S

23

S

33

0 0 0

0 0 0 S

44

0 0

0 0 0 0 S

55

0

0 0 0 0 0 S

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

þDT

a

11

a

22

a

33

0

0

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

þDM

b

11

b

22

b

33

0

0

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð33Þ

Inverting Eq. (33), we obtain:

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

C

11

C

12

C

13

0 0 0

C

12

C

22

C

23

0 0 0

C

13

C

23

C

33

0 0 0

0 0 0 C

44

0 0

0 0 0 0 C

55

0

0 0 0 0 0 C

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

Â

e

11

ÀDTa

11

ÀDMb

11

e

22

ÀDTa

22

ÀDMb

22

e

33

ÀDTa

33

ÀDMb

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð34Þ

As discussed in preceding chapters, an implicit assumption in Eqs. (33)

and (34) is that the strain tensor, stress tensor, and material properties are all

referenced to the principal material coordinate system of the orthotropic

material (i.e., the 1–2–3 coordinate system). If an orthotropic is referenced to

a nonprincipal material coordinate system, then the relation between strain,

stress, temperature, and moisture content is given by Eq. (31) or Eq. (32).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Finally, the strains induced in a transversely isotropic material by the

combined eﬀects of stress, a uniformchange in temperature, and/or a uniform

change in moisture content can be found by superimposing Eqs. (23) and

(29):

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

S

11

S

12

S

12

0 0 0

S

12

S

22

S

23

0 0 0

S

12

S

23

S

22

0 0 0

0 0 0 2ðS

22

À S

23

Þ 0 0

0 0 0 0 S

66

0

0 0 0 0 0 S

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

þDT

a

11

a

22

a

22

0

0

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

þDM

b

11

b

22

b

22

0

0

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð35Þ

Inverting Eq. (35), we have:

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

¼

C

11

C

12

C

13

0 0 0

C

12

C

22

C

23

0 0 0

C

12

C

23

C

22

0 0 0

0 0 0 ðC

22

À C

23

Þ=2 0 0

0 0 0 0 C

66

0

0 0 0 0 0 C

66

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

Â

e

11

ÀDTa

11

ÀDMb

11

e

22

ÀDTa

22

ÀDMb

22

e

33

ÀDTa

22

ÀDMb

22

c

23

c

13

c

12

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð36Þ

Once again, Eqs. (35) and (36) are valid only if referenced to the

principal material coordinate system of the transversely isotropic material

(i.e., the 1–2–3 coordinate system). If a transversely isotropic material is

referenced to a nonprincipal material coordinate system, then the relation

between strain, stress, temperature, and moisture content is given by Eq. (31)

or Eq. (32).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS

An anisotropic material with the following properties is considered in

problems 1–4:

E

xx

¼ 100 GPa E

yy

¼ 200 GPa E

zz

¼ 75 GPa

v

xy

¼ 0:20 v

xz

¼ À0:25 v

yz

¼ 0:60

G

xy

¼ 60 GPa G

xz

¼ 75 GPa G

yz

¼ 50 GPa

g

xx;xy

¼ À0:30 g

xx;xz

¼ 0:25 g

xx;yz

¼ 0:30

g

yy;xy

¼ 0:60 g

yy;xz

¼ 0:75 g

yy;yz

¼ 0:20

g

zz;xy

¼ À0:20 g

zz;xz

¼ À0:05 g

zz;yz

¼ À0:15

l

xy;xz

¼ À0:10 l

xy;yz

¼ À0:05 g

xz;yz

¼ 0:10

a

xx

¼ 5 Am=m ÀjC a

yy

¼ 10 Am=m ÀjC a

zz

¼ 20 Am=m À jC

a

xy

¼ À5 Arad=jC a

xz

¼ 15 Arad=jC a

yz

¼ 25 Arad=jC

b

xx

¼300 Am=m%M b

yy

¼ 60 Am=m%M b

zz

¼1200 Am=m%M

b

xy

¼150 Arad=%M b

xz

¼À1000 Arad=%M b

yz

¼À350 Arad=%M

1. Calculate the compliance matrix, S

ij

.

2. Calculate the stiﬀness matrix, C

ij

=S

ij

À1

. (Performthis calculation using a

suitable software package such as Maple, Matlab, Mathematica, etc.)

3. Consider the following stress tensor:

r

ij

¼

r

xx

r

xy

r

xz

r

yx

r

yy

r

yz

r

zx

r

zy

r

zz

2

4

3

5

¼

75 10 À25

10 À90 30

À25 30 25

2

4

3

5

ðMPaÞ

(a) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor, assuming no

change in temperature or moisture content (i.e., assume

DT=DM=0).

(b) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor and a temper-

ature increase of 100jC (assume DM=0).

(c) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor and a 2%

increase in moisture content (assume DT=0).

(d) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor, a temperature

increase of 100jC, and a 2% increase in moisture content.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4. Consider the following strains:

e

xx

¼ 1500 Am=m e

yy

¼ À2000 Am=m e

zz

¼ À1750 Am=m

c

xy

¼ 750 Arad c

xz

¼ À500 Arad c

yz

¼ 850 Arad

(a) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, assuming no

change in temperature or moisture content (i.e., assuming

DT=DM=0).

(b) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, if these strains

were caused by the simultaneous eﬀects of stress and a temperature

decrease of 100jC (assume DM=0).

(c) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, if these strains

were caused by the simultaneous eﬀects of stress, a temperature

decrease of 100jC, and a 2% increase in moisture content.

An orthotropic material with the following properties is considered in

problems 5–8:

E

11

¼ 100 GPa E

22

¼ 200 GPa E

33

¼ 75 GPa

m

12

¼ 0:20 m

13

¼ À0:25 m

23

¼ 0:60

G

12

¼ 60 GPa G

13

¼ 75 GPa G

23

¼ 50 GPa

a

11

¼ 1 Am=mjC a

22

¼ 25 Am=mjC a

33

¼ 15 Am=mjC

b

11

¼ 100 Am=m%M b

22

¼ 600 Am=m%M b

33

¼ 1000 Am=m%M

5. Calculate the compliance matrix, S

ij

.

6. Calculate the stiﬀness matrix, C

ij

.

7. Consider the following stress tensor:

r

ij

¼

r

11

r

12

r

13

r

21

r

22

r

23

r

31

r

32

r

33

2

6

4

3

7

5 ¼

75 10 À25

10 À90 30

À25 30 25

2

4

3

5

ðMPaÞ

(a) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor, assuming no

change in temperature or moisture content (i.e., assume DT=

DM=0).

(b) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor and a temper-

ature increase of 100jC (assume DM=0).

(c) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor and a 2%

increase in moisture content (assume DT=0).

(d) Calculate the strains induced by this stress tensor, a temperature

increase of 100jC, and a 2% increase in moisture content.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

8. Consider the following strains:

e

11

¼ À2000 Am=m e

22

¼ 3000 Am=m e

33

¼ 1500 Am=m

c

12

¼ 750 Arad c

13

¼ À1000 Arad c

23

¼ 1250 Arad

(a) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, assuming no

change in temperature or moisture content (i.e., assuming

DT=DM=0).

(b) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, if these strains

were caused by the simultaneous eﬀects of stress and a temperature

decrease of 100jC (assume DM=0).

(c) Calculate the stress tensor that caused these strains, if these strains

were caused by the simultaneous eﬀects of stress, a temperature

decrease of 100jC, and a 2% increase in moisture content.

REFERENCE

1. Jones, R.M. Mechanics of Composite Materials; Hemisphere Publ. Co.: New

York, NY, 1975; ISBN 0-89116-490-1.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5

Unidirectional Composite Laminates Subject

to Plane Stress

This chapter is devoted to the elastic behavior and failure response of

unidirectional composite laminates. In the present context, the term ‘‘uni-

directional’’ is meant to imply that although the laminates considered may

contain many plies, the principal material coordinate system in all plies is

oriented in the same direction. It is also assumed that the laminate is thin and

platelike, such that a state of plane stress exists.

Four primary topics are addressed in this chapter. First, in Sec. 1, the

elastic response of a unidirectional composite referenced to the principal ma-

terial coordinate system and subject to a plane stress state will be described.

This will lead to a so-called ‘‘reduced’’ formof Hooke’s law. Second, in Secs. 2

and 3, the elastic response of a unidirectional composite referenced to an

arbitrary (nonprincipal) coordinate system is discussed, which will lead to the

deﬁnition of the ‘‘transformed, reduced’’ form of Hooke’s law. The ‘‘eﬀec-

tive’’ elastic properties of a unidirectional composite laminate are then

discussed in Sec. 4. We then turn our attention to the prediction of composite

failure. In Sec. 5, several macromechanics-based failure theories are deﬁned

and used to predict the failure of a unidirectional laminate referenced to the

principal material coordinate system. These theories are then used to predict

the failure of a unidirectional composite laminate referenced to an arbitrary

(nonprincipal) coordinate system in Sec. 6.

193

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1 UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES REFERENCED TO THE

PRINCIPAL MATERIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

The strains induced in an orthotropic material subjected to a general 3-D

stress tensor, a uniform change in temperature, and/or a uniform change in

moisture content were described in Chap. 4. The strain response is summa-

rized by Eq. (33) of Chap. 4, repeated here for convenience:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

13

0 0 0

S

12

S

22

S

23

0 0 0

S

13

S

23

S

33

0 0 0

0 0 0 S

44

0 0

0 0 0 0 S

55

0

0 0 0 0 0 S

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

r

11

r

22

r

33

s

23

s

13

s

12

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

þDT

a

11

a

22

a

33

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

þDM

b

11

b

22

b

33

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Three mechanisms that contribute to the total strains appear in the

above equation: strains caused by stress, strains caused by a uniform change

in temperature (DT), and strains caused by a uniform change in moisture

content (DM). Equation (33) of Chap. 4 is valid for any orthotropic material,

as long as the strain tensor, stress tensor, and material properties are all

referenced to the principal 1–2–3 coordinate system. Let us now consider the

strains induced in an orthotropic material by a state of plane stress. Assuming

that r

33

=s

23

=s

13

=0, Eq. (33) of Chap. 4 becomes:

e

11

e

22

e

33

c

23

c

13

c

12

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

13

0 0 0

S

12

S

22

S

23

0 0 0

S

13

S

23

S

33

0 0 0

0 0 0 S

44

0 0

0 0 0 0 S

55

0

0 0 0 0 0 S

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

r

11

r

22

0

0

0

s

12

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

þDT

a

11

a

22

a

33

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

þDM

b

11

b

22

b

33

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð1Þ

Note that Eq. (1) shows that in the case of plane stress, the out-of-plane shear

strains are always equal to zero (c

23

=c

13

=0). It is customary to write the

expressions for the remaining four strain components as follows:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þDT

a

11

a

22

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þDM

b

11

b

22

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð2aÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

and

e

33

¼ S

13

r

11

þ S

23

r

22

þDTa

33

þDMb

33

ð2bÞ

Equations (2a) and (2b) are called the reduced forms of Hooke’s law for

an orthotropic composite. They are only valid for a state of plane stress and

are called ‘‘reduced’’ laws because we have reduced the allowable stress tensor

from three dimensions to two dimensions. The 3Â3 array in Eq. (2a) is called

the reduced compliance matrix. Note that despite the reduction from three to

two dimensions, we have retained the subscripts used in the original com-

pliance matrix. For example, the element that appears in the (3,3) position of

the reduced compliance matrix is labeled S

66

. The deﬁnition of each com-

pliance term is not altered by the reduction fromthree to two dimensions, and

each term is still related to the more familiar engineering constants (E

11

, E

22

,

v

12

, etc.) in accordance with Eq. (18) of Chap. 4.

Inverting Eq. (2a), we obtain:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

Q

11

Q

12

0

Q

12

Q

22

0

0 0 Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

11

ÀDTa

11

ÀDMb

11

e

22

ÀDTa

22

ÀDMb

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð3Þ

The 3Â3 array that appears in Eq. (3) is called the reduced stiﬀness

matrix and equals the inverse of the reduced compliance matrix:

Q

11

Q

12

0

Q

12

Q

22

0

0 0 Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_u

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

À1

ð4Þ

Note that we are now using a diﬀerent symbol to denote stiﬀness. That

is, the original 3-D stiﬀness matrix was denoted C

ij

(as in Eq. (19) of Chap. 4,

for example), whereas the reduced stiﬀness matrix is denoted Q

ij

. This change

in notation is required because individual members of the reduced stiﬀness

matrix are not equal to the corresponding members in the original stiﬀness

matrix. That is, Q

11

p C

11

, Q

12

p C

12

, Q

22

p C

22

, and Q

66

p C

66

. Relations

between Q

ij

and C

ij

can be derived as follows. From Eq. (19) of Chap. 4, it can

be seen that for an orthotropic material subjected to an arbitrary state of

stress:

r

11

¼ C

11

e

11

þ C

12

e

22

þ C

13

e

33

ð5aÞ

and

r

33

¼ C

13

e

11

þ C

23

e

22

þ C

33

e

33

ð5bÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

However, the reduced stiﬀness matrix relates stress to strain under conditions

of plane stress by deﬁnition. Setting r

33

=0 and solving Eq. (5b) for e

33

, we

have:

e

33

¼

À C

13

e

11

þ C

23

e

22

ð Þ

C

33

ð6Þ

The out-of-plane strain e

33

must be related to in-plane strains e

11

and e

22

in

accordance with Eq. (6), otherwise, a state of plane stress does not exist in the

composite. Substituting Eq. (6) into Eq. (5a) and simplifying, we have:

r

11

¼

C

11

C

33

À C

2

13

C

33

_ _

e

11

þ

C

12

C

33

À C

13

C

23

C

33

_ _

e

22

ð7Þ

On the other hand, from Eq. (3), r

11

is given by (with DT=DM=0):

r

11

¼ Q

11

e

11

þ Q

12

e

22

ð8Þ

Comparing Eqs. (7) and (8), it is immediately apparent that:

Q

11

¼

C

11

C

33

À C

2

13

C

33

ð9aÞ

Q

12

¼

C

12

C

33

À C

13

C

23

C

33

ð9bÞ

Using a similar procedure, it can be shown that:

Q

22

¼

C

22

C

33

À C

2

23

C

33

ð9cÞ

Q

66

¼ C

66

ð9dÞ

In essence, the deﬁnition of elements of the Q

ij

matrix diﬀers from those of the

C

ij

matrix because the Q

ij

matrix is deﬁned for plane stress conditions only,

whereas C

ij

can be used for any stress state.

Elements of the reduced stiﬀness matrix may be related to the elements

of the compliance matrix by either substituting Eq. (20) of Chap. 4 in Eqs.

(9a)–(9d), or by simply performing the matrix inversion indicated in Eq. (4).

In either case, it will be found that:

Q

11

¼

S

22

S

11

S

22

À S

2

12

Q

12

¼ Q

21

¼

ÀS

12

S

11

S

22

À S

2

12

Q

22

¼

S

11

S

11

S

22

À S

2

12

Q

66

¼

1

S

66

ð10Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Alternatively, the elements of the reduced stiﬀness matrix are related to

more familiar engineering constants as follows:

Q

11

¼

E

2

11

E

11

À m

2

12

E

22

Q

12

¼ Q

21

¼

m

12

E

11

E

22

E

11

À m

2

12

E

22

Q

22

¼

E

11

E

22

E

11

À m

2

12

E

22

Q

66

¼ G

12

ð11Þ

Equations (1)–(11) were developed assuming that the composite is an

orthotropic material. Now consider the response of a transversely isotropic

composite subjected to a state of plane stress. As before, we assume that

r

33

=s

23

=s

13

=0. From Eq. (34) of Chap. 4, it is seen that the out-of-plane

shear strains equal zero (c

23

=c

13

=0), and the remaining four strains can be

written as:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þDT

a

11

a

22

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þDM

b

11

b

22

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð12aÞ

and

e

33

¼ S

12

r

11

þ S

23

r

22

þDTa

22

þDMb

22

ð12bÞ

Comparing Eq. (12a) with Eq. (2a), it is seen that the relationship

between in-plane strains (e

11

, e

22

, and c

12

) and in-plane stress components

(r

11

, r

22

, and s

12

) is identical for orthotropic and transversely isotropic

materials. In fact, identical results are obtained for the out-of-plane normal

strain as well since for a transversely isotropic material, S

13

=S

12

, a

33

=a

22

,

and b

33

=b

22

, and therefore Eq. (2b) is equivalent to Eq. (12b). Consequently,

Eq. (3) can also be applied to a transversely isotropic material. Equations

(9a)–(9d) are also still applicable except that for a transversely isotropic

material (with symmetry in the 2–3 plane), C

33

=C

22

and C

13

=C

12

.

Inverting Eq. (12a), we obtain:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

Q

11

Q

12

0

Q

12

Q

22

0

0 0 Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

11

ÀDTa

11

ÀDMb

11

e

22

ÀDTa

22

ÀDMb

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Since this result is identical to Eq. (3), it is seen once again that the relationship

between in-plane strains (e

11

, e

22

, and c

12

) and in-plane stress components

(r

11

, r

22

, and s

12

) is identical for orthotropic and transversely isotropic

materials.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Example Problem 1

Determine the strains induced in a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite

subjected to the in-plane stresses shown in Fig. 1. Assume that DT=DM=0

and use material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

Solution. The magnitude of each stress component is indicated in Fig. 1.

Based on the sign conventions reviewed in Sec. 5 of Chap. 2, the algebraic sign

of each stress component is:

r

11

¼ 200 MPa r

22

¼ À30 MPa s

12

¼ À50 MPa

Strains can be calculated using either Eq. (2a) or Eq. (12a). Since DT=

DM=0, we have:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Each termwithinthe reduced compliance matrix is calculated using Eq. (18) of

Chap. 4:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

1

E

11

Àm

12

E

11

0

Àm

12

E

11

1

E

22

0

0 0

1

G

12

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Figure 1 Unidirectional composite subjected to in-plane stresses (magnitudes

of in-plane stresses shown).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

From Table 3 of Chap. 3:

E

11

¼ 170 GPa E

22

¼ 10 GPa

m

12

¼ 0:30 G

12

¼ 13 GPa

Using these values:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

5:88 Â 10

À12

À1:76 Â 10

À12

0

À1:76 Â 10

À12

100 Â 10

À12

0

0 0 76:9 Â 10

À12

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

1

Pa

_ _

Â

200 Â 10

6

À30 Â 10

6

À50 Â 10

6

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Pa ð Þ

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, we obtain:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

1230 Am=m

À3350 Am=m

À3850 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Example Problem 2

Determine the strain induced in a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite

subjected to

(a) The in-plane stresses shown in Fig. 1.

(b) A decrease in temperature DT=À155jC.

(c) An increase in moisture content DM=0.5%.

Use material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

Solution. This problem involves three diﬀerent mechanisms that contribute

to the total strain induced in the laminate: the applied stresses, the temper-

ature change, and the change in moisture content. The total strains induced

by all three mechanisms can be calculated using either Eq. (2a) or Eq. (12a):

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þDT

a

11

a

22

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þDM

b

11

b

22

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Numerical values for the stresses and reduced compliance matrix are given in

Example 1, and the linear thermal and moisture expansion coeﬃcients for

graphite–epoxy are (from Table 3 of Chap. 3):

a

11

¼ À0:9 Am=m=

o

C

a

22

¼ 27 Am=m=

o

C

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

b

11

¼ 150 Am=m=%M

b

22

¼ 4800 Am=m=%M

Hence, Eq. 2(a) or Eq. (12a) becomes:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

5:88 Â 10

À12

À1:76 Â 10

À12

0

À1:76 Â 10

À12

100 Â 10

À12

0

0 0 76:9 Â 10

À12

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

200 Â 10

6

À30 Â 10

6

À50 Â 10

6

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ À155 ð Þ

À0:9 Â 10

À6

27 Â 10

À6

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ 0:5 ð Þ

Â

150 Â 10

À6

4800 Â 10

À6

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, we obtain:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

1230 Am=m

À3350 Am=m

À3850 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ

140 Am=m

À4185 Am=m

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ

75 Am=m

2400 Am=m

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

1445 Am=m

À5135 Am=m

À3850 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

An implicit assumption in this problem is that the composite is free to expand

or contract, as dictated by changes in temperature and/or moisture content.

Consequently, neither DT nor DM aﬀects the state of stress, but rather aﬀects

only the state of strain. Conversely, if the composite is not free to expand or

contract, then a change in temperature and/or moisture content does con-

tribute to the state of stress, as illustrated in Example Problem 3.

Example Problem 3

A thin, unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite laminate is ﬁrmly mounted

within an inﬁnitely rigid square frame, as shown in Fig. 2. The coeﬃcients of

thermal and moisture expansion of the rigid frame equal zero.

The composite is initially stress-free. Subsequently, however, the com-

posite/frame assembly is subjected to a decrease in temperature DT=À155jC

and an increase in moisture content DM=0.5%. Determine the stresses

induced in the composite by this change in temperature and moisture content.

Use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3 and ignore the

possibility that the thin composite will buckle if compressive stresses occur.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Solution. According to the problem statement, the frame is ‘‘inﬁnitely rigid’’

and is made of a material whose thermal and moisture expansion coeﬃcients

equal zero. Consequently, the frame will retain its original shape, regardless

of the temperature change, moisture change, or stresses imposed on the frame

by the composite laminate. Furthermore, the composite is ‘‘ﬁrmly mounted’’

within the frame. Together, these stipulations imply that the composite does

not change shape, although changes in temperature and moisture content

have occurred. Consequently, the total strains experienced by the composite

equal zero:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

0

0

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

The stresses induced can be calculated using Eq. (3):

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

Q

11

Q

12

0

Q

12

Q

22

0

0 0 Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

11

ÀDTa

11

ÀDMb

11

e

22

ÀDTa

22

ÀDMb

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

The terms within the reduced stiﬀness matrix are calculated in accordance

with Eq. (11):

Q

11

¼

E

2

11

E

11

À m

2

12

E

22

¼

170 GPa ð Þ

2

170 GPa À 0:30 ð Þ

2

10 GPa ð Þ

¼ 170:9 GPa

Figure 2 Unidirectional composite laminate mounted within an infinitely rigid

frame.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Q

12

¼ Q

21

¼

m

12

E

11

E

22

E

11

À m

2

12

E

22

¼

0:30 ð Þ 170 GPa ð Þ 10 GPa ð Þ

170 GPa À 0:30 ð Þ

2

10 GPa ð Þ

¼ 3:016 GPa

Q

22

¼

E

11

E

22

E

11

À m

2

12

E

22

¼

170 GPa ð Þ 10 GPa ð Þ

170 GPa À 0:30 ð Þ

2

10 GPa ð Þ

¼ 10:05 GPa

Q

66

¼ G

12

¼ 13 GPa

Hence, in this case, Eq. (3) becomes:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

170:9 Â 10

9

3:016 Â 10

9

0

3:016 Â 10

9

10:05 Â 10

9

0

0 0 13:0 Â 10

9

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

0 À À155 ð Þ À0:9 Â 10

À6

_ _

À 0:5 ð Þ 150 Â 10

À6

_ _

0 À À155 ð Þ 27 Â 10

À6

_ _

À 0:5 ð Þ 4800 Â 10

À6

_ _

0

_

_

_

_

_

_

Â

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

À31:36 MPa

17:29 MPa

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

The reader may initially view this example to be somewhat unrealistic.

After all, the frame has been assumed to be ‘‘inﬁnitely rigid.’’ In reality, an

inﬁnitely rigid material (i.e., one for which E!l) does not exist. Further-

more, it is assumed that the thermal expansion coeﬃcient for the frame is zero,

which is also not valid for most real materials (the assumption that the

moisture expansion coeﬃcient is zero is true for metals and metal alloys).

Despite these unrealistic assumptions, this example problem illustrates

a common occurrence in composite laminates. Speciﬁcally, most modern

composites are cured at an elevated temperature (for example, many

graphite–epoxy systems are cured at 175jCc350jF). The composite can

normally be considered to be stress- and strain-free at the cure temperature.

After the cure is complete, the composite is typically cooled to room

temperatures, say 20jCc70jF, which corresponds to a temperature de-

crease of DT=À155jCcÀ280jF. Also, the moisture content immediately

after the cure can usually be assumed to equal 0%, but will slowly increase

following exposure to normal humidity levels over subsequent days or

weeks. Although adsorption of moisture rarely causes a signiﬁcant gain in

weight (most composites adsorb a maximum of 3–4% moisture by weight,

even if totally immersed in water), even this slight gain in moisture content

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

can nevertheless cause signiﬁcant strains to develop. If a DT and/or DM

occur, and if the unidirectional composite is not free to expand or contract

as dictated by these changes, then thermal- and/or moisture-induced stresses

will develop.

2 UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES REFERENCED TO AN

ARBITRARY COORDINATE SYSTEM

A unidirectional composite referenced to two diﬀerent coordinate systems

is shown in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3(a), the composite is referenced to the principal

material coordinate system (i.e., the 1–2 coordinate system), and in this case,

either Eqs. (2a) and (2b) or Eq. (3) may be used to relate strains and stresses

within the composite.

In Fig. 3(b), however, the composite is referenced to an arbitrary

(nonprincipal) x–y coordinate system. This is often called an ‘‘oﬀ-axis’’ spec-

imen since the specimen is referenced to an arbitrary x–y coordinate system

rather than the principal 1–2 coordinate system. Suppose we wish to relate

strains and stresses referenced to the x–y coordinate system. For example,

suppose we know the stresses r

xx

, r

yy

, and s

xy

, as well as the material

properties referenced to the principal material coordinate system (E

11

, E

22

,

m

12

, etc.), and wish to calculate strains e

xx

, e

yy

, and c

xy

. In this case, neither

Eqs. (2a) and (2b) nor Eq. (3) can be used directly since they require that the

stresses and strains be referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system.

We can perform this calculation using a three-step process. Speciﬁcally,

we can:

(a) Transform the known stresses from the x–y coordinate system to

the 1–2 coordinate system (using Eq. 20 of Chap. 2, for example),

which will give us the stress components r

11

, r

22

, and s

12

that

correspond to the known values of r

xx

, r

yy

, and s

xy

.

(b) Apply Eq. (2a) to obtain in-plane strains e

11

, e

22

, and c

12

.

(c) Transform the calculated strains (e

11

, e

22

, and c

12

) from the 1–2

coordinate system back to the x–y coordinate system, ﬁnally

obtaining the desired strains e

xx

, e

yy

, and c

xy

.

This three-step process is a rigorously valid procedure. However, it will later

be seen that during the analysis of a multi-angle composite laminate, the

process of transforming strains/stresses from an arbitrary x–y coordinate

system to the 1–2 coordinate system (and vice versa) must be performed for

each ply in the laminate. Since this transformation is encountered so

frequently, it becomes cumbersome to apply the three-step process for every

ply. Instead, it is very convenient to simply develop a formof reduced Hooke’s

law suitable for use in an arbitrary x–y coordinate system. In eﬀect, we will

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 3 A unidirectional composite referenced to two different coordinate

systems.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

transform Hooke’s law from the 1–2 coordinate system to an arbitrary x–y

coordinate system.

To simplify our discussion, assume for the moment that no change in

environment occurs, i.e., assume that DT=DM=0. In this case, Eq. (2a)

becomes:

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð13Þ

Equation (13) can be rewritten as:

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð14Þ

In Eq. (14), we have employed the so-called ‘‘Reuter matrix’’ (named

after the person who suggested this approach [1]) to, in eﬀect, divide the shear

strain by a factor of (1/2) within the strain array. Let:

R ½ ¼

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ and ð Þ S ½ ¼

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

so that Eq. (14) can be written in the following abbreviated form:

R ½

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ S ½

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

The transformation of strains within a plane from an x–y coordinate

systemto another xV–yV coordinate systemwas discussed in Sec. 13 of Chap. 2.

Adopting Eq. (44) of Chap. 2 for our use here (i.e., using axes labels 1 and 2,

rather than xV and yV, respectively), we have:

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

sin

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ T ½

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Similarly, the transformation of stress within a plane was discussed in Sec. 8 of

Chap. 2, and Eq. (20) of Chap. 2 can be adopted as follows:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

sin

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ T ½

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

As pointed out in Chap. 2, the identical transformation matrix, [T], is used to

relate strains and stresses in the two coordinate systems:

T ½ ¼

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

sin

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Inserting these transformation relationships into Eq. (14), we have:

R ½ T ½ ¼

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ S ½ T ½

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð15Þ

To simplify Eq. (15), ﬁrst multiply both sides of Eq. (15) by the inverse of the

Reuter matrix, [R]

À1

, and then by the inverse of the transformation matrix,

[T]

À1

:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ T ½

À1

R ½

À1

S ½ T ½

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð16Þ

where:

R ½

À1

¼

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1=2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

and

T ½

À1

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

sin

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

We next extract the factor of (

1

⁄

2

) from the shear strain within the strain array

using the [R]

À1

matrix:

R ½

À1

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ T ½

À1

R ½

À1

S ½ T ½

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð17Þ

Multiplying both sides of Eq. (17) by the [R] matrix, we arrive at our

ﬁnal result:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ R ½ T ½

À1

R ½

À1

S ½ T ½

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð18Þ

Equation (18) represents an ‘‘oﬀ-axis’’ version of Hooke’s Law. That is,

it relates the strains induced in the arbitrary x–y coordinate system (e

xx

, e

yy

,

and c

xy

) to the stresses in the same x–y coordinate system(r

xx

, r

yy

, and s

xy

) via

material properties referenced to the principal 1–2 coordinate system (repre-

sented by the [S] matrix) and the ﬁber angle h (represented by the trans-

formation matrix [T]). Completing the matrix algebra indicated, we obtain:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ S

_ ¸

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð19Þ

where:

S

_ ¸

¼ R ½ T ½

À1

R ½

À1

S ½ T ½

Equation (19) is known as transformed reduced Hooke’s law. It is called

‘‘transformed’’ because Eq. (19) has been transformed from the 1–2 coor-

dinate system to the x–y coordinate system, and ‘‘reduced’’ because we have

reduced the allowable state of stress from three dimensions to two dimen-

sions [i.e., Eq. (19) is only valid for a plane stress state]. Matrix [S] is called

the transformed reduced compliance matrix.* In expanded form, Eq. (19) is

written as:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

16

S

21

S

22

S

26

S

61

S

62

S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð20Þ

* In common parlance, the [

ÀÀ

S] matrix is often called the ‘‘S-bar’’ matrix.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

where:

S

11

¼S

11

cos

4

hþ 2S

12

þS

66

ð Þcos

2

h sin

2

hþS

22

sin

4

h

S

12

¼S

21

¼S

12

cos

4

hþsin

4

h

_ _

þ S

11

þS

22

ÀS

66

ð Þcos

2

h sin

2

h

S

16

¼S

61

¼ 2S

11

À2S

12

ÀS

66

ð Þcos

3

h sin hÀ 2S

22

À2S

12

ÀS

66

ð Þ cos h sin

3

h

S

22

¼S

11

sin

4

hþ 2S

12

þS

66

ð Þcos

2

h sin

2

hþS

22

cos

4

h

S

26

¼S

62

¼ 2S

11

À2S

12

ÀS

66

ð Þcos h sin

3

hÀ 2S

22

À2S

12

ÀS

66

ð Þcos

3

h sin h

S

66

¼2 2S

11

þ2S

22

À4S

12

ÀS

66

ð Þ cos

2

h sin

2

hþS

66

cos

4

hþsin

4

h

_ _

ð21Þ

Three important observations should be made regarding the trans-

formed reduced compliance matrix. First, we have retained the original

subscripts used in our earlier discussion of 3-D states of stress and strain.

For example, the term that appears in the (3,3) position of the transformed

reduced compliance matrix is labeled S

66

. Secondly, the [S ] matrix is

symmetric. Therefore, S

21

¼ S

12

, S

61

¼ S

16

, and S

62

¼ S

26

, as indicated in

Eq. (21). Third, the [S] matrix is fully populated. That is, (in general) none of

the terms within the [S] matrix equal zero, in contrast to the [S] matrix where

four oﬀ-diagonal terms equal zero [see Eq. (2a)]. This simply reveals the

anisotropic nature of unidirectional composites. Following the convention

adopted earlier, a unidirectional composite laminate referenced to the princi-

pal 1–2 coordinate system is referred to as an orthotropic (or transversely

isotropic) material, whereas if the same material is referenced to an arbitrary

(nonprincipal) x–y coordinate system, it is called an anisotropic material.

Since neither S

16

nor S

26

is equal to zero for an anisotropic composite, a

coupling exists between shear stress and normal strains. That is, a shear stress

s

xy

will cause normal strains e

xx

and e

yy

to occur, as indicated by Eq. (20). This

coupling does not occur for orthotropic or transversely isotropic composites

(or for that matter, for isotropic materials).

Let us now include thermal and moisture strains in the transformed,

reduced form of Hooke’s law. In the 1–2 coordinate system, in-plane thermal

strains are given by:

e

T

11

e

T

22

c

T

12

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼ DT

a

11

a

22

0

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð22Þ

As has been previously discussed, in the 1–2 coordinate system, a

uniform change in temperature does not produce a shear strain, i.e., a

12

=0.

Now, thermally induced strains can be transformed from one coordinate

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

system to another in exactly the same way as mechanically induced strains are

transformed. That is, we can relate thermal strains in the 1–2 coordinate

system to the x–y coordinate system using the transformation matrix:

e

T

11

e

T

22

c

T

12

=2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

sin

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Â

e

T

xx

e

T

yy

c

T

xy

=2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

Inverting this expression, we have:

e

T

xx

e

T

yy

c

T

xy

=2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼ T ½

À1

e

T

11

e

T

22

0

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ À2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

sin

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Â

e

T

11

e

T

22

c

T

12

=2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð23Þ

Substituting Eq. (22) in this result, completing the matrix multiplication

indicated, and simplifying the resulting expressions, we obtain:

e

T

xx

e

T

yy

c

T

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼ DT

a

xx

a

yy

a

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð24Þ

where:

a

xx

¼ a

11

cos

2

h ð Þ þ a

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

a

yy

¼ a

11

sin

2

h ð Þ þ a

22

cos

2

h ð Þ ð25Þ

a

xy

¼ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ a

11

À a

22

ð Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

In Sec. 6, we will deﬁne the properties of a unidirectional composite laminate

when referenced to an arbitrary x–y coordinate system. As further discussed

there, Eq. (25) deﬁnes the eﬀective coeﬃcients of thermal expansion for an

anisotropic composite laminate. Note that for anisotropic composites, a

coupling exists between a uniform change in temperature and shear strain.

That is, a change in temperature causes shear strain c

xy

T

as well as normal

strains e

xx

T

and e

yy

T

.

In the 1–2 coordinate system, the in-plane strains caused by a uniform

change in moisture content are given by:

e

M

11

e

M

22

c

M

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ DM

b

11

b

22

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð26Þ

As was the case for thermal strains, we wish to express strains induced by DM

in an arbitrary x–y coordinate system. Using the identical procedure as

before, moisture strains in the x–y coordinate system are given by:

e

M

xx

e

M

yy

c

M

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ DM

b

xx

b

yy

b

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð27Þ

where:

b

xx

¼ b

11

cos

2

h ð Þ þ b

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

b

yy

¼ b

11

sin

2

h ð Þ þ b

22

cos

2

h ð Þ ð28Þ

b

xy

¼ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ b

11

À b

22

ð Þ

In Sec. 6, we will deﬁne the eﬀective properties of a unidirectional

composite laminate when referenced to an arbitrary x–y coordinate system.

As further discussed there, Eq. (28) deﬁnes the eﬀective coeﬃcients of

moisture expansion for an anisotropic composite laminate.

We can now calculate the strains induced by the combined eﬀects of

stress, a uniform change in temperature, and a uniform change in moisture

content. Speciﬁcally, adding Eqs. (20), (24), and (27) together, we obtain:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

16

S

12

S

22

S

26

S

16

S

26

S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þDT

a

xx

a

yy

a

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þDM

b

xx

b

yy

b

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð29Þ

Equation (29) allows the calculation of the in-plane strains induced by

any combination of in-plane stresses, a uniform change in temperature, and a

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

uniform change in moisture content. If instead we have measured the total

strains induced by a known DT, DM, and unknown in-plane stresses, we can

calculate the stresses that caused these strains by inverting Eq. (29) to obtain:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

xx

ÀDTa

xx

ÀDMb

xx

e

yy

ÀDTa

yy

ÀDMb

yy

c

xy

ÀDTa

xy

ÀDMb

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð30Þ

where:

Q

11

¼ Q

11

cos

4

h þ 2 Q

12

þ 2Q

66

ð Þcos

2

h sin

2

h þ Q

22

sin

4

h

Q

12

¼ Q

21

¼ Q

12

cos

4

h þ sin

4

h

_ _

þ Q

11

þ Q

22

À 4Q

66

ð Þcos

2

h sin

2

h

Q

16

¼ Q

61

¼ Q

11

À Q

12

À 2Q

66

ð Þcos

3

h sin h

À Q

22

À Q

12

À 2Q

66

ð Þ cos h sin

3

h

Q

22

¼ Q

11

sin

4

h þ 2 Q

12

þ 2Q

66

ð Þcos

2

h sin

2

h þ Q

22

cos

4

h

Q

26

¼ Q

62

¼ Q

11

À Q

12

À 2Q

66

ð Þcos h sin

3

h

À Q

22

À Q

12

À 2Q

66

ð Þcos

3

h sin h

Q

66

¼ Q

11

þ Q

22

À 2Q

12

À 2Q

66

ð Þcos

2

h sin

2

h þ Q

66

cos

4

h þ sin

4

h

_ _

ð31Þ

The [

ÀÀ

Q] matrix is called the transformed, reduced stiﬀness matrix.* This name

again reminds us that we have reduced our analysis to the 2-D plane stress

case, and that we have transformed Hooke’s law from the 1–2 coordinate

system to an arbitrary x–y coordinate system. Note that the [

ÀÀ

Q] matrix is (in

general) fully populated. This reﬂects the anisotropic nature of unidirectional

composites when referenced to a nonprincipal material coordinate system.

Also, the [

ÀÀ

Q] matrix is symmetric, so that

ÀÀ

Q

21

¼

ÀÀ

Q

12

,

ÀÀ

Q

61

¼

ÀÀ

Q

16

, and

ÀÀ

Q

62

¼

ÀÀ

Q

26

, as indicated in Eq. (31).

The reader should note that the functional form of the equations that

deﬁne the elements of the transformed reduced stiﬀness matrix, i.e., Eq. (31),

is not identical to the functional formof the equations deﬁning the elements of

the transformed reduced compliance matrix, Eq. (21). That is, Eq. (31) cannot

be transformed into Eq. (21) by a simple substitution of S

11

for Q

11

, S

12

for

Q

12

, S

22

for Q

22

, etc. This diﬀerence in functional form is due to the fact that

we have deﬁned both the stiﬀness and compliance matrices in terms of

* In common parlance, the [

ÀÀ

Q] matrix is often called the ‘‘Q-bar’’ matrix.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

engineering shear strains, rather than tensoral shear strains. The use of Eqs.

(29) and (30) to solve simple problems involving oﬀ-axis composite laminates

is demonstrated in Example Problems 4 to 6.

Example Problem 4

Determine the strains induced in the oﬀ-axis graphite–epoxy composite sub-

jected to the in-plane stresses shown in Fig. 4. Assume that DT=DM=0 and

use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

Solution. This problem is analogous to Example Problem 1 except that we

are now considering the behavior of an oﬀ-axis composite. The magnitude of

each stress component is indicated in Fig. 4. Based on the sign conventions

reviewed in Sec. 5 of Chap. 2, the algebraic sign of each stress component is:

r

xx

¼ 200 MPa r

yy

¼ À30 MPa s

xy

¼ À50 MPa

Fiber angles are measured from the +x-axis to the +1-axis (or equivalently,

from the +y-axis to the +2-axis). In accordance with the right-hand rule, the

ﬁber angle in Fig. 4 is algebraically positive: h=+30j.

Strains are calculated using Eq. (29). Since DT=DM=0, we have:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

16

S

12

S

22

S

26

S

16

S

26

S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

Figure 4 A 30j off-axis composite subjected to in-plane stresses (magnitudes

of in-plane stresses shown).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Recall that the elements of the reduced compliance matrix, the [S] matrix,

were calculated as a part of Example Problem 1. Each term within the

transformed reduced compliance matrix, the [S ] matrix, can therefore be

calculated via a straightforward application of Eq. (21). The calculation of

S

11

, for example, proceeds as follows:

S

11

¼ S

11

cos

4

h þ 2S

12

þ S

66

ð Þcos

2

h sin

2

h þ S

22

sin

4

h

S

11

¼ 5:88 Â 10

À12

_ _

cos

4

30

B

ð Þ

þ 2 À1:76 Â 10

À12

_ _

þ 76:9 Â 10

À12

_ _

cos

2

30

B

ð Þsin

2

30

B

ð Þ

þ 100:0 Â 10

À12

_ _

sin

4

30

B

ð Þ

S

11

¼ 23:32 Â 10

À12

Pa

À1

_ _

Calculating the remaining elements of the S matrix in similar fashion and

applying Eq. (29), we ﬁnd:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

23:32 Â 10

À12

4:327 Â 10

À12

À33:72 Â 10

À12

4:327 Â 10

À12

70:38 Â 10

À12

À47:79 Â 10

À12

À33:72 Â 10

À12

À47:79 Â 10

À12

101:3 Â 10

À12

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

1

Pa

_ _

200 Â 10

6

À30 Â 10

6

À50 Â 10

6

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Pa ð Þ

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, we obtain:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

6220 Am=m

1144 Am=m

À10375 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Example Problem 5

Determine the strains induced in the oﬀ-axis graphite–epoxy composite

subjected to (a) the in-plane stresses shown in Fig. 4, (b) a decrease in

temperature DT=À155jC, and (c) an increase in moisture content

DM=0.5%. Use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

Solution. This problem involves three diﬀerent mechanisms that contribute

to the total strain induced in the laminate: the applied stresses, the temper-

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

ature change, and the change in moisture content. The total strains induced by

all three mechanisms can be calculated using Eq. (29):

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

16

S

12

S

22

S

26

S

16

S

26

S

66

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þDT

a

xx

a

yy

a

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þDM

b

xx

b

yy

b

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

Numerical values for the stresses and transformed reduced compliance matrix

are given in Example 4. The linear thermal and moisture expansion coef-

ﬁcients for graphite–epoxy, referenced to the x–y coordinate system, are

calculated using Eqs. (25) and (28), respectively.

The thermal expansion coeﬃcients are:

a

xx

¼ a

11

cos

2

h ð Þ þ a

22

sin

2

h ð Þ ¼ À0:9 Â 10

À6

_ _

cos

2

30j ð Þ

þ 27 Â 10

À6

_ _

sin

2

30j ð Þ

a

xx

¼ 6:1 Am=m=

o

C

a

yy

¼ a

11

sin

2

h ð Þ þ a

22

cos

2

h ð Þ ¼ À0:9 Â 10

À6

_ _

sin

2

30j ð Þ

þ 27 Â 10

À6

_ _

cos

2

30j ð Þ

a

yy

¼ 20:0 Am=m=

o

C

a

xy

¼ 2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ a

11

À a

22

ð Þ ¼ 2 cos 30j ð Þsin 30j ð Þ

Â À0:9 Â 10

À6

À 27 Â 10

À6

_ _

a

xy

¼ À24:2 Arad=

o

C

The moisture expansion coeﬃcients are:

b

xx

¼ b

11

cos

2

h ð Þ þ b

22

sin

2

h ð Þ ¼ 150 Â 10

À6

_ _

cos

2

30j ð Þ

þ 4800 Â 10

À6

_ _

sin

2

30j ð Þ

b

xx

¼ 1313 Am=m=%M

b

yy

¼ b

11

sin

2

h ð Þ þ b

22

cos

2

h ð Þ ¼ 150 Â 10

À6

_ _

sin

2

30j ð Þ

þ 4800 Â 10

À6

_ _

cos

2

30j ð Þ

b

yy

¼ 3638 Am=m=%M

b

xy

¼ 2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ b

11

À b

22

ð Þ ¼ 2 cos 30j ð Þsin 30j ð Þ

Â 150 Â 10

À6

À 4800 Â 10

À6

_ _

b

xy

¼ À4027 Arad=%M

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Hence, Eq. (29) becomes:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

23:32 Â 10

À12

4:327 Â 10

À12

À33:72 Â 10

À12

4:327 Â 10

À12

70:38 Â 10

À12

À47:79 Â 10

À12

À33:72 Â 10

À12

À47:79 Â 10

À12

101:3 Â 10

À12

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

200 Â 10

6

À30 Â 10

6

À50 Â 10

6

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ À155 ð Þ

6:1 Â 10

À6

20:0 Â 10

À6

À24:2 Â 10

À6

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ 0:5 ð Þ

Â

1313 Â 10

À6

3638 Â 10

À6

À4027 Â 10

À6

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Completing the matrix multiplication indicated, we obtain:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

6220 Am=m

1144 Am=m

À10375 Arad

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þ

À946 Am=m

À3100 Am=m

3751 Arad

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þ

657 Am=m

1819 Am=m

À2014 Arad

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

5931 Am=m

À137 Am=m

À8638 Arad

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

An implicit assumption in this problem is that the composite is free to expand

or contract, as dictated by changes in temperature and/or moisture content.

Consequently, neither DT nor DM aﬀects the state of stress, but rather aﬀects

only the state of strain. Conversely, if the composite is not free to expand or

contract, then a change in temperature and/or moisture content does con-

tribute to the state of stress, as illustrated in Example Problem 6.

Example Problem 6

A thin oﬀ-axis graphite–epoxy composite laminate is ﬁrmly mounted within

an inﬁnitely rigid square frame, as shown in Fig. 5. The coeﬃcients of thermal

and moisture expansion of the rigid frame equal zero.

The composite is initially stress-free. Subsequently, however, the com-

posite/frame assembly is subjected to a decrease in temperature DT=À155jC

and an increase in moisture content DM=0.5%. Determine the stresses

induced in the composite by this change in temperature and moisture content.

Ignore the possibility that the thin composite will buckle if compressive

stresses occur.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Solution. As discussed in Example Problem 3, the situation described in this

problem is very often encountered in composite materials, despite somewhat

unrealistic assumptions regarding an ‘‘inﬁnitely rigid’’ frame with zero

thermal expansion coeﬃcients. Since the frame is ‘‘inﬁnitely rigid’’ and is

made of a material whose thermal and moisture expansion coeﬃcients equal

zero, the frame will retain its original shape. Since the oﬀ-axis composite is

‘‘ﬁrmly mounted’’ within the frame, the composite does not change shape,

although changes in temperature and moisture content have occurred.

Consequently, the total strains experienced by the composite equal zero:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

0

0

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

The stresses induced can be calculated using Eq. (30):

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

ÀÀ

Q

11

ÀÀ

Q

12

ÀÀ

Q

16

ÀÀ

Q

12

ÀÀ

Q

22

ÀÀ

Q

26

ÀÀ

Q

16

ÀÀ

Q

26

ÀÀ

Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

xx

ÀDTa

xx

ÀDMb

xx

e

yy

ÀDTa

yy

ÀDMb

yy

c

xy

ÀDTa

xy

ÀDMb

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Recall that the elements of the reduced stiﬀness matrix, the [ Q] matrix, were

calculated as a part of Example Problem 3. Each term within the transformed

Figure 5 Off-axis composite laminate mounted within an infinitely rigid frame.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

reduced stiﬀness matrix, the [

ÀÀ

Q] matrix, can therefore be calculated via a

straightforward application of Eq. (31). Calculation of

ÀÀ

Q

11

, for example,

proceeds as follows:

ÀÀ

Q

11

¼ Q

11

cos

4

h þ 2 Q

12

þ 2Q

66

ð Þ cos

2

h sin

2

h þ Q

22

sin

4

h

ÀÀ

Q

11

¼ 170:9 Â 10

9

_ _

cos

4

30j ð Þ

þ 2 3:016 Â 10

9

þ 2 13:0 Â 10

9

_ _ _ _

cos

2

30j ð Þsin

2

30j ð Þ

þ 10:05 Â 10

9

_ _

sin

4

30j ð Þ

ÀÀ

Q

11

¼ 107:6 Â 10

9

Pa

Calculating the remaining elements of the [

ÀÀ

Q] matrix in similar fashion, and

using the thermal and moisture expansion coeﬃcients referenced to the x–y

coordinate system (calculated as a part of Example Problem 5), we ﬁnd:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

107:6 Â 10

9

26:1 Â 10

9

48:1 Â 10

9

26:1 Â 10

9

27:2 Â 10

9

21:5 Â 10

9

48:1 Â 10

9

21:5 Â 10

9

36:0 Â 10

9

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

0 À À155 ð Þ 6:1 Â 10

À6

_ _

À 0:5 ð Þ 1313 Â 10

À6

_ _

0 À À155 ð Þ 20:0 Â 10

À6

_ _

À 0:5 ð Þ 3638 Â 10

À6

_ _

0 À À155 ð Þ À24:2 Â 10

À6

_ _

À 0:5 ð Þ À4027 Â 10

À6

_ _

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

19:0 MPa

À5:04 MPa

21:1 MPa

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

3 CALCULATING TRANSFORMED PROPERTIES USING

MATERIAL INVARIANTS

The stresses and strains in a unidirectional composite referenced to an

arbitrary x–y coordinate system may be related using either Eq. (29) or Eq.

(30). Equation (29) involves the use of the transformed reduced compliance

matrix, [S], and individual elements within the [S] matrix are calculated in

accordance with Eq. (21). Alternatively, Eq. (30) involves the use of the

transformed reduced stiﬀness matrix, [

ÀÀ

Q], and individual elements of the [

ÀÀ

Q]

matrix are calculated in accordance with Eq. (31).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Now, both Eqs. (21) and (31) involve trigonometric functions raised to a

power (i.e., sin

4

h, cos

4

h, cos h sin

3

h, etc.). These equations can be simpliﬁed

somewhat through the use of the following trigonometric identities:

sin

4

h ¼

1

8

3 À 4 cos 2h þ cos 4h ð Þ

cos

4

h ¼

1

8

3 þ 4 cos 2h þ cos 4h ð Þ

cos h sin

3

h ¼

1

8

2 sin 2h À sin 4h ð Þ

cos

2

h sin

2

h ¼

1

8

1 À cos 4h ð Þ

cos

3

h sin h ¼

1

8

2 sin 2h þ sin 4h ð Þ

ð32Þ

For example, substituting these identities into Eq. (21) and simplifying

result in:

S

11

¼ U

S

1

þ U

S

2

cos 2h þ U

S

3

cos

4

h

S

12

¼ S

21

¼ U

S

4

À U

S

3

cos 4h

S

16

¼ S

61

¼ U

S

2

sin 2h þ 2U

S

3

sin 4h ð33Þ

S

22

¼ U

S

1

À U

S

2

cos 2h þ U

S

3

cos 4h

S

26

¼ S

62

¼ U

S

2

sin 2h À 2U

S

3

sin 4h

S

66

¼ U

S

5

À 4U

S

3

cos 4h

The terms U

i

S

which appear in Eq. (33) are called compliance invariants and

are deﬁned as follows:

U

S

1

¼

1

8

3S

11

þ 3S

22

þ 2S

12

þ S

66

ð Þ

U

S

2

¼

1

2

S

11

À S

22

ð Þ

U

S

3

¼

1

8

S

11

þ S

22

À 2S

12

À S

66

ð Þ ð34Þ

U

S

4

¼

1

8

S

11

þ S

22

þ 6S

12

À S

66

ð Þ

U

S

5

¼

1

2

S

11

þ S

22

À 2S

12

þ S

66

ð Þ

The superscript S is used to indicate that these quantities are calculated using

members of the reduced compliance matrix [S]. They are called compliance

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

invariants because they deﬁne the elements of the compliance matrix that are

independent of coordinate system. In this sense, compliance invariants are

analogous to stress and strain invariants, which were discussed in Secs. 6 and

11 of Chap. 2, respectively.

In a similar manner, substituting the trigonometric identities listed as

Eq. (32) into Eq. (31) and simplifying result in:

Q

11

¼ U

Q

1

þ U

Q

2

cos 2h þ U

Q

3

cos 4h

Q

12

¼ Q

21

¼ U

Q

4

À U

Q

3

cos 4h

Q

16

¼ Q

61

¼

1

2

U

Q

2

sin 2h þ U

Q

3

sin 4h ð35Þ

Q

22

¼ U

Q

1

À U

Q

2

cos 2h þ U

Q

3

cos 4h

Q

26

¼ Q

62

¼

1

2

U

Q

2

sin 2h À U

Q

3

sin 4h

Q

66

¼ U

Q

5

À U

Q

3

cos 4h

where the stiﬀness invariants, U

i

Q

, are deﬁned as:

U

Q

1

¼

1

8

3Q

11

þ 3Q

22

þ 2Q

12

þ 4Q

66

ð Þ

U

Q

2

¼

1

2

Q

11

À Q

22

ð Þ

U

Q

3

¼

1

8

Q

11

þ Q

22

À 2Q

12

À 4Q

66

ð Þ ð36Þ

U

Q

4

¼

1

8

Q

11

þ Q

22

þ 6Q

12

À 4Q

66

ð Þ

U

Q

5

¼

1

8

Q

11

þ Q

22

À 2Q

12

þ Q

66

ð Þ

The superscript Q is used to indicate that these quantities are calculated using

members of the reduced stiﬀness matrix [ Q]. The reader should note that the

functional forms of the stiﬀness invariants deﬁned in Eq. (36) are not identical

to those of the compliance invariants deﬁned in Eq. (34). The diﬀerence in

functional form can be traced to the use of engineering shear strain rather

than tensoral shear strain.

A comparison of Eqs. (21) and (33) reveals that the use of compliance

invariants does indeed simplify the calculation of elements of the [S] matrix,

although, mathematically, the two equations are entirely equivalent. Sim-

ilarly, a comparison of Eqs. (31) and (35) shows that the use of the stiﬀness

invariants simpliﬁes the calculation of the terms within the [Q] matrix. At this

point, this simpliﬁcation may seem to be a trivial matter since, in practice,

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

elements of the [S] and [Q] matrices are calculated with the aid of a digital

computer and do not require hand calculation. However, in Chap. 6, it will be

shown that in special circumstances, the use of stiﬀness invariants leads to a

convenient method of transforming the stiﬀness of multi-angle composite

laminates from one coordinate system to another. Hence, in these special

cases, the use of the invariant formulation is advantageous. Further discus-

sion of the invariant approach will be deferred to Chap. 6.

Example Problem 7

Problem. Use the material invariants [i.e., Eqs. (33) and (34)] to calculate the

transformed reduced compliance matrix for a 30j graphite–epoxy laminate.

Use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

Solution. From Example Problem 1, the reduced compliance matrix for this

material system is:

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

_

_

_

_

¼

5:88 Â 10

À12

À1:76 Â 10

À12

0

À1:76 Â 10

À12

100:0 Â 10

À12

0

0 0 76:9 Â 10

À12

_

_

_

_

1

Pa

_ _

The compliance invariants may be calculated using these values and

Eq. (34):

U

S

1

¼

1

8

3S

11

þ 3S

22

þ 2S

12

þ S

66

ð Þ ¼

1

8

_

3 5:88 Â 10

À12

_ _

þ3 100:0 Â 10

À12

_ _

þ 2 À1:76 Â 10

À12

_ _

þ 76:9 Â 10

À12

_

¼ 48:9 Â 10

À12

U

S

2

¼

1

2

S

11

À S

22

ð Þ ¼

1

2

5:88 Â 10

À12

À 100:0 Â 10

À12

_ ¸

¼ À47:1 Â 10

À12

U

S

3

¼

1

8

S

11

þ S

22

À 2S

12

À S

66

ð Þ ¼

1

8

_

5:88 Â 10

À12

þ 100:0 Â 10

À12

À2 À1:76 Â 10

À12

_ _

À 76:9 Â 10

À12

_

¼ 4:06 Â 10

À12

U

S

4

¼

1

8

S

11

þ S

22

þ 6S

12

À S

66

ð Þ ¼

1

8

_

5:88 Â 10

À12

þ 100:0 Â 10

À12

þ6 À1:76 Â 10

À12

_ _

À 76:9 Â 10

À12

_

¼ 2:296 Â 10

À12

U

S

5

¼

1

2

S

11

þ S

22

À 2S

12

þ S

66

ð Þ ¼

1

2

_

5:88 Â 10

À12

þ 100:0 Â 10

À12

À2 À1:76 Â 10

À12

_ _

þ 76:9 Â 10

À12

_

¼ 93:17 Â 10

À12

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Using the ﬁrst equation of Eq. (33) and setting h=30j:

S

11

¼ U

S

1

þ U

S

2

cos 2h þ U

S

3

cos 4h ¼ 48:9 Â 10

À12

_ _

þ À47:1 Â 10

À12

_ _

cos 60j ð Þ þ 4:06 Â 10

À12

_ _

cos 120j ð Þ

¼ 23:3 Â 10

À12

Pa

À1

Similarly, using the second equation of Eq. (33) and setting h=30j:

S

12

¼ S

21

¼ U

S

4

À U

S

3

cos 4h

¼ 2:296 Â 10

À12

_ _

À 4:06 Â 10

À12

_ _

cos 120j ð Þ

¼ 4:33 Â 10

À12

Pa

À1

The additional terms within the [S] matrix are calculated using the rest of

Eq. (33). A summary of our results is:

½S ¼

23:3 Â 10

À12

4:33 Â 10

À12

À33:7 Â 10

À12

4:33 Â 10

À12

70:4 Â 10

À12

À47:8 Â 10

À12

À33:7 Â 10

À12

À47:8 Â 10

À12

101:3 Â 10

À12

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

1

Pa

_ _

Note that the [S] matrix is identical to that calculated in Example Problem 4.

4 EFFECTIVE ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL

COMPOSITE LAMINATE

The deﬁnitions of common engineering material properties were reviewed in

Chap. 3. In this section, these concepts will be used to deﬁne the ‘‘eﬀective’’

properties of a unidirectional composite laminates referenced to an arbitrary

x–y coordinate system.

4.1 Effective Properties Relating Stress to Strain

Let us ﬁrst consider the elastic properties measured during uniaxial tests.

Consider the unidirectional composite laminate subjected to a uniaxial stress

r

xx

, as shown in Fig. 6. The strains induced in this laminate can be determined

using Eq. (29). Assuming that DT=DM=0 (and hence that thermal and

moisture strains are zero), and also noting that by deﬁnition, r

yy

=s

xy

=0, Eq.

(29) becomes for this case:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

16

S

12

S

22

S

26

S

16

S

26

S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

xx

0

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

In-plane strains caused by uniaxial stress r

xx

are therefore given by:

e

xx

¼ S

11

r

xx

ð37aÞ

e

yy

¼ S

12

r

xx

ð37bÞ

c

xy

¼ S

16

r

xx

; ð37cÞ

In Sec. 2 of Chap. 3, Young’s modulus was deﬁned as ‘‘the normal stress

r

xx

divided by the resulting normal strain e

xx

, with all other stress components

equal zero.’’ Applying this deﬁnition to the unidirectional laminate shown in

Fig. 6, Young’s modulus in the x-direction is given by:

E

xx

¼

r

xx

e

xx

¼

r

xx

S

11

r

xx

¼

1

S

11

ð38aÞ

Inserting the relation for Q

11

listed in Eq. (22), we have:

E

xx

¼

1

S

11

cos

4

h þ 2S

12

þ S

66

ð Þ cos

2

h sin

2

h þ S

22

sin

4

h

ð38bÞ

Since each of the compliance terms (S

11

, S

12

, etc.) can also be related to the

more familiar engineering constants using Eq. (18) of Chap. 4, Young’s

modulus can also be written as:

E

xx

¼

1

cos

4

h ð Þ

E

11

þ

1

G

12

À

2m

12

E

11

_ _

cos

2

h sin

2

h þ

sin

4

h

E

22

ð38cÞ

Figure 6 Unidirectional composite laminate subjected to uniaxial stress r

xx

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

In Sec. 2 of Chap. 3, Poisson’s ratio v

xy

was deﬁned as ‘‘the negative of

the transverse normal strain e

yy

divided by the axial normal strain e

xx

, both of

which are induced by stress r

xx

, with all other stresses equal zero.’’ Poisson’s

ratio for the unidirectional laminate shown in Fig. 6 is therefore given by:

v

xy

¼

Àe

yy

e

xx

¼

ÀS

12

S

11

ð39aÞ

Using Eq. (22), this can be written as:

v

xy

¼

À S

12

cos

4

h þ sin

4

h

_ _

þ S

11

þ S

22

À S

66

ð Þ cos

2

h sin

2

h

_ _

S

11

cos

4

h þ 2S

12

þ S

66

ð Þ cos

2

h sin

2

h þ S

22

sin

4

h

ð39bÞ

or equivalently, using Eq. (18) of Chap. 4:

v

xy

¼

v

12

E

11

cos

4

h þ sin

4

h

_ _

À

1

E

11

þ

1

E

22

À

1

G

12

_ _

cos

2

h sin

2

h

cos

4

h ð Þ

E

11

þ

1

G

12

À

2v

12

E

11

_ _

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ þ

sin

4

h ð Þ

E

22

ð39cÞ

InSec. 2 of Chap. 3, the coeﬃcient of mutual inﬂuence of the secondkind

g

xx,xy

was deﬁnedas ‘‘the shear strainc

xy

dividedby the normal straine

xx

, both

of which are induced by normal stress r

xx

, when all other stresses equal zero.’’

For a unidirectional composite laminate, g

xx,xy

is therefore given by:

g

xx;xy

¼

c

xy

e

xx

¼

S

16

S

11

ð40aÞ

which may be written as:

g

xx;xy

¼

2S

11

À 2S

12

À S

66

ð Þ cos

3

h sin h À 2S

22

À 2S

12

À S

66

ð Þ cos h sin

3

h

S

11

cos

4

h þ 2S

12

þ S

66

ð Þ cos

2

h sin

2

h þ S

22

sin

4

h

ð40bÞ

or equivalently:

g

xx;xy

¼

2

E

11

þ

2v

12

E

11

À

1

G

12

_ _

cos

3

h ð Þ sin h ð Þ À

2

E

22

þ

2v

12

E

11

À

1

G

12

_ _

cos h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ

cos

4

h ð Þ

E

11

þ

1

G

12

À

2v

12

E

11

_ _

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ þ

sin

4

h ð Þ

E

22

ð40cÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

An identical procedure can be employed to deﬁne the properties

measured during a uniaxial test in which only r

yy

is applied. In this case,

Eq. (29) becomes:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

16

S

12

S

22

S

26

S

16

S

26

S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

0

r

yy

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

In-plane strains are:

e

xx

¼ S

12

r

yy

ð41aÞ

e

yy

¼ S

22

r

yy

ð41bÞ

c

xy

¼ S

26

r

yy

ð41cÞ

These strains can be used to deﬁne the Young’s modulus E

yy

, Poisson’s ratio

v

yx

, and coeﬃcient of mutual inﬂuence of the second kind g

yy,xy

:

E

yy

¼

1

S

22

ð42aÞ

v

yx

¼

ÀS

12

S

22

ð42bÞ

g

yy;xy

¼

S

26

S

22

ð42cÞ

If desired, these relations can be expanded in terms of compliances referenced

to the 1–2 coordinate system using Eq. (22) or written in terms of measured

engineering properties using Eq. (18) of Chap. 4.

Next, consider the eﬀective material properties measured during a pure

shear test. A composite laminate subjected to pure shear stress s

xy

is shown in

Fig. 7. Assuming that DT=DM=0, Eq. (29) becomes:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

S

11

S

12

S

16

S

12

S

22

S

26

S

16

S

26

S

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

0

0

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Hence, the strains caused by a pure shear stress are given by:

e

xx

¼ S

16

s

xy

ð43aÞ

e

yy

¼ S

26

s

xy

ð43bÞ

c

xy

¼ S

66

s

xy

ð43cÞ

In Sec. 2 of Chap. 3, the shear modulus was deﬁned as ‘‘the shear stress

s

xy

divided by the resulting shear strain c

xy

, with all other stress components

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

equal zero.’’ Applying this deﬁnition to the laminate shown in Fig. 7, the shear

modulus referenced to the x–y coordinate axes is given by:

G

xy

¼

s

xy

c

xy

¼

1

S

66

ð44Þ

As before, this expression can be expanded in terms of compliances

referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system using Eq. (21) or written in terms of

measured engineering properties using Eq. (18) of Chap. 4.

The coeﬃcient of mutual inﬂuence of the ﬁrst kind g

xy,xx

(or g

xy,yy

) was

deﬁned as ‘‘the normal strain e

xx

(or e

yy

) divided by the shear strain c

xy

, both

of which are induced by shear stress s

xy

, when all other stresses equal zero.’’

For a unidirectional composite laminate, the coeﬃcient of mutual inﬂuence of

the ﬁrst kind g

xy,xx

is therefore given by:

g

xy;xx

¼

e

xx

c

xy

¼

S

16

S

66

ð45aÞ

while g

xy,yy

is given by:

g

xy;yy

¼

e

yy

c

xy

¼

S

26

S

66

ð45bÞ

Chentsov coeﬃcients were deﬁned in Sec. 2 of Chap. 3 as ‘‘the shear

strain c

xz

(or c

yz

) divided by the shear strain c

xy

, both of which are induced by

Figure 7 Unidirectional composite subjected to pure shear stress s

xy

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

shear stress s

xy

, with all other stresses equal zero.’’ For a thin composite

laminate, the principal material coordinate system lies within the plane of the

laminate, and hence there is no coupling between a shear stress acting within

the x–y plane (s

xy

) and out-of-plane shear strains (c

xz

or c

yz

). Consequently,

Chentsov coeﬃcients are always equal to zero for thin composite laminates.

4.2 Effective Properties Relate Temperature or Moisture

Content to Strain

As discussed in Sec. 3 of Chap. 3, the linear coeﬃcients of thermal expansion

are measured by determining the strains induced by a uniform change in

temperature and forming the following ratios:

a

xx

¼

e

T

xx

DT

a

yy

¼

e

T

yy

DT

a

xy

¼

c

T

xy

DT

ð46Þ

The superscript T is included as a reminder that the strains involved are those

caused by a change in temperature only. The strains induced in a unidirec-

tional laminate subjected to a change in temperature can be determined using

Eq. (29). Assuming that r

xx

=r

yy

=s

xy

=DM=0, Eq. (29) becomes for this

case:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ DT

a

xx

a

yy

a

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð47Þ

Hence, the thermal expansion coeﬃcients for a unidirectional laminate are

given by Eq. (25), repeated here for convenience:

a

xx

¼ a

11

cos

2

h ð Þ þ a

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

a

yy

¼ a

11

sin

2

h ð Þ þ a

22

cos

2

h ð Þ

a

xy

¼ 2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ a

11

À a

22

ð Þ

Similarly, the linear coeﬃcient of moisture expansion is measured by

determining the strains induced by a uniform change in moisture content and

forming the following ratios:

b

xx

¼

e

M

xx

DM

b

yy

¼

e

M

yy

DM

b

xy

¼

c

M

xy

DM

ð48Þ

The superscript Mis included as a reminder that the strains involved are those

caused by a change in moisture only. The strains induced in a unidirectional

laminate subjected to a change in moisture content can be determined using

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Eq. (29). Assuming that r

xx

=r

yy

=s

xy

=DT=0, Eq. (29) becomes for this

case:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ DM

b

xx

b

yy

b

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð49Þ

Hence, the moisture expansion coeﬃcients for a unidirectional laminate are

given by Eq. (28), repeated here for convenience:

b

xx

¼ b

11

cos

2

h ð Þ þ b

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

b

yy

¼ b

11

sin

2

h ð Þ þ b

22

cos

2

h ð Þ

b

xy

¼ 2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ b

11

À b

22

ð Þ

Example Problem 8

Plot the eﬀective properties listed below for a unidirectional hj graphite–

epoxy laminate, for all ﬁber angles ranging 0jVh V90j:

(a) Eﬀective Young’s moduli, E

xx

and E

yy

.

(b) Eﬀective Poisson’s ratio, v

xy

and v

yx

.

(c) Eﬀective shear modulus G

xy

.

(d) Coeﬃcients of mutual inﬂuence of the ﬁrst kind, g

xy,xx

and g

xy,yy

.

(e) Coeﬃcients of mutual inﬂuence of the second kind, g

xx,xy

and g

yy,xy

.

(f) Coeﬃcients of thermal expansion, a

xx

, a

yy

, and a

xy

.

(g) Coeﬃcients of moisture expansion, b

xx

, b

yy

, and b

xy

.

Use the material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

Solution. Plots of the eﬀective elastic properties for unidirectional hj graph-

ite–epoxy laminates are presented in Figs. 8–14.

5 FAILURE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES REFERENCED

TO THE PRINCIPAL MATERIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

Fundamental material strengths for a unidirectional composite were dis-

cussed in Sec. 5 of Chap. 3. Recall that material strengths are measured under

simple states of stress, usually either a uniaxial stress state or a pure shear

stress state. Also, high-performance ﬁbers are often very brittle, whereas

modern polymeric matrices are fairly ductile. Consequently, most ﬁber-

reinforced polymeric composites exhibit brittle behavior in the 1-direction,

qualitatively similar to Fig. 12(a) of Chap. 3, but relatively ductile behavior in

the 2- and 3-directions, qualitatively similar to Fig. 12(b) and c of Chap. 3. A

brief summary of experimental methods used to measure properties in the 1–2

plane is provided in Appendix B.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 8 A plot of the effective Young’s moduli E

xx

and E

yy

for unidirectional

graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.

Figure 9 A plot of the effective Poisson ratios v

xy

and v

yx

for unidirectional

graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 10 A plot of the effective shear modulus G

xy

for unidirectional

graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.

Figure 11 A plot of the effective coefficients of mutual influence of the first

kind g

xy,xx

and g

xy,yy

for unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber

angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 12 A plot of the effective coefficients of mutual influence of the second

kind g

xx,xy

and g

yy,xy

for unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber

angles ranging over 0jVh V90j.

Figure 13 A plot of the effective coefficients of thermal expansion a

xx

, a

yy

, and

a

xy

for unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging over

0jVh V90j.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

In this section, we will discuss failure criteria that are commonly used to

predict failure of composites under general 3-D or 2-D states of stress. It will

be assumed that the composite is brittle in the 1-direction, but ductile in the

2- and 3-directions. That is, in the ﬁber direction, ‘‘failure’’ is assumed to

involve fracture, whereas transverse to the ﬁbers, ‘‘failure’’ is assumed to

involved yielding, deﬁned on the basis of a % strain oﬀset. Both orthotropic

and transversely isotropic composites will be considered. For the orthotropic

case, failure predictions will be based on the combinations of the following

fundamental material strengths:

**Fracture stress in the 1-direction: r
**

11

fT

, r

11

fC

.

**Yield stress in the 2- and 3-directions: r
**

22

yT

, r

22

yC

, r

33

yT

, r

33

yC

, s

12

y

, s

13

y

,

s

23

y

.

If the composite is transversely isotropic, then the number of independent

material strengths involved is reduced, since in this case:

r

yT

22

¼ r

yT

33

r

yC

22

¼ r

yC

33

s

y

12

¼ s

y

13

Recall that all of these strengths may vary with temperature.

Figure 14 A plot of the effective coefficients of moisture expansion b

xx

, b

yy

,

and b

xy

for unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminates and fiber angles ranging

over 0jVh V90j.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The need for ‘‘failure criteria’’ in engineering analysis and design is often

misunderstood. In essence, the objective of any failure criterion is to account

for potential coupling eﬀects of individual stress components on the yielding

and/or fracture phenomenon. This statement applies to both anisotropic and

isotropic materials. To explain what is meant by the phrase ‘‘coupling eﬀects

between individual stress components,’’ consider the two diﬀerent tests of

unidirectional composite shown in Fig. 15. A composite subjected to uniaxial

stress r

11

is shown in Fig. 15(a). This is, of course, the very state of stress used

during the measurement of the fundamental material strength r

11

fT

(as

Figure 15 An illustration of what is meant by ‘‘coupling effects’’ of stress on

the failure phenomenon.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

discussed in Sec. 5 of Chap. 3). In this case then, we do not need to invoke any

failure criterion to predict when failure occurs: failure occurs when r

11

is

increased to r

11

fT

, by deﬁnition. However, consider a more general state of

stress, such as the state of plane stress shown in Fig. 15(b). In this test, two

additional components of stress (r

22

and s

12

) are applied prior to the appli-

cation of r

11

. It is assumed that the combination of r

22

and s

12

does not cause

failure prior to the application of r

11

. While maintaining r

22

and s

12

at

constant values, stress r

11

is increased until failure occurs. It is for this more

general state of stress that a failure criterion is required. That is, does the

application r

22

and/or s

12

change the value of r

11

at which failure occurs?

‘‘Coupling eﬀects’’ refer to the fact that the application of r

22

and/or s

12

often

does alter the value of r

11

necessary to cause failure. If the test represented by

Fig. 8(b) is conducted and r

11

p r

11

fT

at failure, then a coupling eﬀect has oc-

curred, i.e., the presence of r

22

and s

12

has changed the value of r

11

necessary

to cause failure. Conversely, if the test depicted in Fig. 15(b) is performed and

r

11

=r

11

fT

at failure, then no coupling has occurred. Experimental measure-

ments have shown that the coupling phenomenon is much more signiﬁcant

in some materials than it is in others. This is unfortunate because it implies

that it is not possible to develop a ‘‘universal’’ failure criterion that can be

applied to all materials. Furthermore, there is no way of predicting a priori

whether coupling eﬀects are pronounced for a given material or not. For

metals, the general trend is that coupling eﬀects are less pronounced in brittle

materials (such as cast irons) than in ductile materials (such as aluminum

alloys). The question as to whether this general trend holds in the case of

composites is complicated by the fact that composites are (usually) brittle in

the ﬁber direction but ductile transverse to the ﬁber. It is generally accepted

that coupling eﬀects do exist in composites, but at the present state of the art,

one is well advised to perform experimental measurements to evaluate the

level of coupling for each composite material system of interest.

Many failure criteria applicable to composites have been proposed in

the literature. Three of the most common will be described in the following

subsections: the maximum stress failure criterion, the Tsai–Hill failure

criterion, and the Tsai–Wu failure criterion. As will be seen, the maximum

stress criterion does not account for coupling eﬀects, whereas potential

coupling eﬀects are accounted for in the Tsai–Hill and Tsai–Wu criteria.

5.1 The Maximum Stress Failure Criterion

According to this criterion, a given state of stress will not cause a unidirec-

tional composite to fail if all of the following nine inequalities are satisﬁed:

À1*r

fC

11

< r

11

< r

fT

11

ð50Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

ðandÞ

À1*r

yC

22

< r

22

< r

yT

22

ðandÞ

À1*r

yC

33

< r

33

< r

yT

33

ðandÞ

js

12

j < s

y

12

ðandÞ

js

13

j < s

y

13

ðandÞ

js

23

j < s

y

23

According to the maximum stress failure criterion, failure (i.e., fracture in the

ﬁber direction or yield-like behavior transverse tothe ﬁber) is predictedstrictly

on the basis of individual stress components. Thus, failure is assumed to be

independent of any coupling eﬀects between individual stress components.

In the case of plane stress (r

33

=s

13

=s

23

=0), the maximum stress

failure criterion reduces to the following ﬁve inequalities:

À1*r

fC

11

< r

11

< r

fT

11

and ð Þ

À1*r

yC

22

< r

22

< r

yT

22

and ð Þ

s

12

j j < s

y

12

ð51Þ

The maximum stress failure criterion is most commonly applied in the

form of Eq. (51) since in most cases, an individual composite ply can be

assumed to be in a state of plane stress.

5.2 The Tsai–Hill Failure Criterion

The von Mises yield criterion is widely used to predict yielding of isotropic

metals and metal alloys.* In 1950, Hill [2] proposed a modiﬁed version of the

* The von Mises yield criterion is also mathematically equivalent to the ‘‘octahedral shear

stress’’ and ‘‘distortional energy’’ yield criteria.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

von Mises criterion for use with orthotropic metals. Subsequently, Tsai [3]

applied this method to predict failure of unidirectional polymeric composites,

and the resulting theory is now known within the polymeric composites

community as either the ‘‘Tsai–Hill’’ failure criterion or as the ‘‘quadratic’’

failure criterion. For general 3-D states of stress, the Tsai–Hill criterion

predicts that failure of an orthotropic composite will not occur if the following

inequality is satisﬁed:

r

11

ð Þ

2

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

r

22

ð Þ

2

r

yT

22

_ _

2

þ

r

33

ð Þ

2

r

yT

33

_ _

2

þ

s

23

ð Þ

2

s

y

23

_ _

2

þ

s

13

ð Þ

2

s

y

13

_ _

2

þ

s

12

ð Þ

2

s

y

12

_ _

2

Àr

11

r

22

1

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

1

r

yT

22

_ _

2

À

1

r

yT

33

_ _

2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Àr

11

r

33

1

r

fT

11

_ _

2

À

1

r

yT

22

_ _

2

þ

1

r

yT

33

_ _

2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Àr

22

r

33

À1

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

1

r

yT

22

_ _

2

þ

1

r

yT

33

_ _

2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ < 1

ð52Þ

In the case of plane stress conditions (r

33

=s

13

=s

23

=0), the Tsai–Hill

criterion reduces to:

r

11

ð Þ

2

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

r

22

ð Þ

2

r

yT

22

_ _

2

þ

s

12

ð Þ

2

s

y

12

_ _

2

À r

11

r

22

1

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

1

r

yT

22

_ _

2

À

1

r

yT

33

_ _

2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ < 1 ð53Þ

It is interesting to note that according to the Tsai–Hill failure criterion,

failure of orthotropic composites is sensitive to the out-of-plane strength term

(r

33

yT

), even for plane stress conditions.

If the composite is transversely isotropic (that is, if r

33

yT

=r

22

yT

), then Eq.

(53) reduces to:

r

11

ð Þ

2

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

r

22

ð Þ

2

r

yT

22

_ _

2

þ

s

12

ð Þ

2

s

y

12

_ _

2

À

r

11

r

22

r

fT

11

_ _

2

< 1 ð54Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

A potential advantage of the Tsai–Hill failure criterion is that coupling

eﬀects between individual stress components are accounted for, in contrast

with the maximum stress failure criterion. On the other hand, most com-

posites exhibit signiﬁcantly diﬀerent failure strengths in tension and com-

pression (as indicated in Table 3 of Chap. 3), and so a shortcoming of the

Tsai–Hill failure criterion is that it does not directly account for these dif-

ferences. That is, an implicit assumption of the Tsai–Hill criterion (as well as

the original von Mises criterion) is that failure strengths in tension and

compression have equal magnitudes. Hence, only tensile strengths r

11

fT

, r

22

yT

,

and r

33

yT

appear in Eqs. (53) and (54). Diﬀerences in tensile and compressive

strengths can be accounted for ‘‘artiﬁcially’’ in the Tsai–Hill criterion by

using the appropriate compressive strength if a stress component involved is

compressive. Suppose, for example, that a failure prediction is required for a

transversely isotropic composite subjected to three stress components r

11

,

r

22

, and s

12

, and also that r

11

is tensile but r

22

is compressive. In such a case,

the diﬀerences in tensile/compressive strengths can be accounted for by using

the tensile strength in the 1-direction, r

11

fT

, but the compressive strength in

the 2-direction, r

22

yC

.

While the Tsai–Hill criterion can be modiﬁed in this way to account for

diﬀerences in tensile and compressive strengths, it would be ideal if a failure

criterion was available that accounts for both coupling eﬀects and diﬀerences

in tensile and compressive strengths ‘‘automatically.’’ One such criterion is

the Tsai–Wu criterion, described in the next paragraph.

5.3 The Tsai–Wu Failure Criterion

Tsai and Wu [4] developed their criterion by postulating that the strength of a

unidirectional composite can be treated mathematically as a tensoral quan-

tity, in much the same way as stress or strain tensors. For general 3-Dstates of

stress, the Tsai–Wu criterion predicts that failure will not occur if the

following inequality is satisﬁed:

X

1

r

11

þ X

2

r

22

þ X

3

r

33

þ X

11

r

2

11

þ X

22

r

2

22

þ X

33

r

2

33

þ X

44

s

2

23

þX

55

s

2

13

þ X

66

s

2

12

þ 2X

12

r

11

r

22

þ 2X

13

r

11

r

33

þ 2X

23

r

22

r

33

< 1

ð55Þ

Most of the constants that appear in this inequality (i.e., X

1

, X

2

, X

3

, X

11

, etc.)

can be determined based on fundamental strength measurements (i.e., r

11

fT

,

r

11

fC

, r

22

yT

, r

22

yC

, etc.). First, consider a uniaxial strength measurement in which

only stress r

11

is applied (that is, a test in which r

11

p 0, r

22

=r

33

=s

23

=s

13

=s

12

=0). Stress r

11

is increased monotonically from zero until

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

failure occurs. If r

11

is tensile, then at the moment of failure, r

11

=r

11

fT

, and the

Tsai–Wu criterion reduces to:

X

1

r

fT

11

þ X

11

r

fT

11

_ _

2

¼ 1

Conversely, if r

11

is compressive, then at the moment of failure, r

11

=Àr

11

fC

(where the measured compressive strength, r

11

fC

, is treated as an algebraically

positive number), and the Tsai–Wu criterion reduces to:

ÀX

1

r

fC

11

þ X

11

Àr

fC

11

_ _

2

¼ 1

Solving for X

1

and X

11

, we ﬁnd:

X

1

¼

1

r

fT

11

À

1

r

fC

11

X

11

¼

1

r

fT

11

r

fC

11

ð56Þ

Similarly, if failure is measured during two uniaxial stress tests in which only

r

22

is applied, we ﬁnd:

X

2

¼

1

r

yT

22

À

1

r

yC

22

X

22

¼

1

r

yT

22

r

yC

22

ð57Þ

Using measurements obtained during two tests in which only r

33

is applied:

X

3

¼

1

r

yT

33

À

1

r

yC

33

X

33

¼

1

r

yT

33

r

yC

33

ð58Þ

Three additional constants are determined using measured shear strengths:

X

44

¼

1

s

y

23

_ _

2

X

55

¼

1

s

y

13

_ _

2

X

66

¼

1

s

y

12

_ _

2

ð59Þ

Only three coeﬃcients remain to be determined, X

12

, X

13

, and X

23

. Several

methods of determining these coeﬃcients have been suggested, but thus far,

no one technique has gained widespread acceptance. Two methods that have

been proposed will be discussed here.

Conceptually, the most straightforward approach is through the use of

additional biaxial testing. For example, X

12

can be determined by conducting

a biaxial test in which r

11

=r

22

=r and r

33

=s

23

=s

13

=s

12

=0. The magnitude

of biaxial stresses (r) is increased until failure occurs (i.e., increased until

either fracture or yielding occurs). For simplicity, let us assume that failure

occurs due to yielding and denote the onset of yielding using the superscript y.

At the moment of failure then, the stresses applied are r

11

=r

22

=r

y

and

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

r

33

=s

23

=s

13

=s

12

=0. Substituting these values into the Tsai–Wu criterion

and solving for X

12

results in:

X

12

¼

1

2 r

y

ð Þ

2

1 À X

1

þ X

2

ð Þr

y

À X

11

þ X

22

ð Þ r

y

ð Þ

2

_ _

ð60Þ

At least conceptually, X

13

and X

23

can also be determined in a similar manner.

Two additional biaxial tests to failure would be required, where in one test,

r

11

=r

33

=r, and in the second test, r

22

=r

33

=r. These data would then

allow the calculation of X

13

and X

23

, respectively. In practice, however, these

tests would be very diﬃcult to perform. Since composites are usually quite

thin, it is especially diﬃcult to apply well-deﬁned out-of-plane stress compo-

nents (i.e., r

33

, s

13

, or s

23

). Hence, in most instances, determining X

13

or X

23

in

this manner is impractical.

A second approach is to assume that X

12

, X

13

, and X

23

can be calculated

as follows:

X

12

¼

À1

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

X

11

X

22

_

¼

À1

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

r

fT

11

r

fC

11

r

yT

22

r

yC

22

_

X

13

¼

À1

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

X

11

X

33

_

¼

À1

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

r

fT

11

r

fC

11

r

yT

33

r

yC

33

_

X

23

¼

À1

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

X

22

X

33

_

¼

À1

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

r

yT

22

r

yC

22

r

yT

33

r

yC

33

_

ð61Þ

The basis of this approach is that if Eq. (61) is enforced and isotropic

strengths are assumed (i.e., if r

11

fT

=r

11

fC

=r

22

yT

=r

22

yC

=r

33

yT

=r

33

yC

=r

y

, and s

y

12

¼ s

y

13

¼ s

y

23

¼ r

y

=

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

), then the Tsai–Wu criterion reduces to the original von

Mises criterion for isotropic materials. This approach holds some intellectual

appeal since it ‘‘makes sense’’ that a failure criterion proposed for use with an

orthotropic material should reduce to a well-known isotropic yield criterion if

isotropic strengths are assumed. It is also a convenient assumption since X

12

,

X

13

, and X

23

are now calculated using fundamental strength data and hence

the need to perform any additional testing is avoided. However, there is little

data available to assess the validity of these assumptions and so the accuracy

of failure predictions obtained using this approach is unknown.

As discussed earlier, in most practical applications, composites are

subjected to a state of plane stress within the 1–2 plane. In this case, the

Tsai–Wu criterion reduces to:

X

1

r

11

þ X

2

r

22

þ X

11

r

2

11

þ X

22

r

2

22

þ X

66

s

2

12

þ 2X

12

r

11

r

22

< 1 ð62Þ

Hence, in the plane stress case, six constants are involved, ﬁve of which can

be calculated using readily available strength data (r

11

fT

, r

11

fC

, r

22

yT

, etc.). Only

one problematic coeﬃcient remains, X

12

. This term can be determined using

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

an oﬀ-axis specimen (which is, in eﬀect, a biaxial test). For example, suppose a

uniaxial stress r

xx

is applied to a unidirectional composite specimen in which

the ﬁbers are oriented at h=45j with respect to the direction of loading.

Under these conditions, the stresses in the 1–2 coordinate system are easily

calculated:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

cos

2

45j ð Þ sin

2

45j ð Þ 2cos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ

sin

2

45j ð Þ cos

2

45j ð Þ À2cos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ

Àcos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ cos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ cos

2

45j ð Þ À sin

2

45j ð Þ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

xx

0

0

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

or

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

r

xx

cos

2

45j ð Þ

r

xx

sin

2

45j ð Þ

Àr

xx

cos 45j ð Þsin 45j ð Þ

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

r

xx

=2

r

xx

=2

Àr

xx

=2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

The strength of the 45j oﬀ-axis specimen is measured by increasing

stress r

xx

until failure occurs. Let us assume that failure occurs due to yielding

and denote the stress level at which failure occurs as r

xx

=r

xx

y

. At failure, the

ply stresses are r

11

=r

22

=Às

12

=r

xx

y

/2. Substituting these stresses into Eq.

(62) and solving for X

12

, we ﬁnd:

X

12

¼

1

2 r

y

xx

ð Þ

2

4 À r

y

xx

2 X

1

þ X

2

ð Þ þ r

y

xx

X

11

þ X

22

þ X

66

ð Þ

_ _ _ ¸

ð63Þ

While this example has been based on a 45j oﬀ-axis specimen, a similar

approach can be used with any hj oﬀ-axis specimen.

From an analytical standpoint, the Tsai–Wu failure criterion is an

improvement over the other two failure criteria considered. First, unlike the

maximum stress failure criterion, the coupling eﬀects between individual

stress components are accounted for in the Tsai–Wu criterion. Second, unlike

the Tsai–Hill criterion, diﬀerences in tensile and compressive strengths are

automatically and naturally accounted for via the X

1

, X

11

, X

2

, X

22

, X

3

, and

X

33

terms.

6 FAILURE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES REFERENCED

TO AN ARBITRARY COORDINATE SYSTEM

In this section, the three failure criteria introduced in Sec. 5 will be used to

predict failure of unidirectional composites subjected to a state of plane

stress, where stress components r

xx

, r

yy

, and s

xy

are referenced to an arbi-

trary x–y coordinate system. There are, of course, an inﬁnite number of

diﬀerent combinations of r

xx

, r

yy

, and s

xy

that (collectively) deﬁne a state of

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

plane stress. For illustrative purposes, two simple stress states will be con-

sidered: ﬁrst, a state of uniaxial stress (i.e., r

xx

p 0, r

yy

=r

xy

=0), and second,

a state of pure shear (s

xy

p 0, r

xx

=r

yy

=0).

Numerical results for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite will be

used to facilitate these comparisons. The following failure strengths are taken

from Table 3 of Chap. 3 and are typical for graphite–epoxy at room temper-

ature:

r

fT

11

¼ 1500 MPa r

yT

22

¼ 50 MPa s

y

12

¼ 75 MPa

r

fC

11

¼ 1200 MPa r

yC

22

¼ 100 MPa

6.1 Uniaxial Stress

An oﬀ-axis composite ply subjected to a uniaxial stress r

xx

has been

previously shown in Fig. 6. The stresses induced in the 1–2 coordinate system

by stress r

xx

can be determined using Eq. (20) of Chap. 2:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ 2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

sin

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

Àcos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

r

xx

0

0

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

or equivalently:

r

11

¼ r

xx

cos

2

h ð Þ

r

22

¼ r

xx

sin

2

h ð Þ ð64Þ

s

12

¼ Àr

xx

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

6.1.1 Maximum Stress Criterion

Substituting Eq. (64) into Eq. (50), we obtain:

À

r

fC

11

cos

2

h ð Þ

< r

xx

<

r

fT

11

cos

2

h ð Þ

ðandÞ

Àr

yC

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

< r

xx

<

r

yT

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

ðandÞ

r

xx

j j <

s

y

12

cosðhÞsin h ð Þ

ð65Þ

According to the maximum stress criterion, failure will not occur if

these ﬁve inequalities are satisﬁed. The predicted tensile and compressive

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

failure strengths, r

xx

fT

and r

xx

fC

, respectively, for a hj oﬀ-axis graphite–epoxy

laminate are therefore the smallest values returned by the following expres-

sions:*

Tensile strength:

r

fT

xx

¼

r

fT

11

cos

2

h ð Þ

¼

1500 MPa

cos

2

h ð Þ

ð66aÞ

r

fT

xx

¼

r

yT

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

¼

50 MPa

sin

2

h ð Þ

ð66bÞ

r

fT

xx

¼

s

y

12

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¼

75 MPa

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ð66cÞ

Compressive strength:

r

fC

xx

¼

r

fC

11

cos

2

h ð Þ

¼

1200 MPa

cos

2

h ð Þ

ð67aÞ

r

fC

xx

¼

r

yC

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

¼

100 MPa

sin

2

h ð Þ

ð67bÞ

r

fC

xx

¼

s

y

12

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¼

75 MPa

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ð67cÞ

Note that the superscript fT or fC has been used to denote the failure strength

of the unidirectional composite. It should be understood that in this context,

‘‘failure’’ may represent fracture of the ﬁbers or yielding of the matrix.

Equations (66a)–(66c) and (67a) (67b) (67c) were used to create the failure

envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate shown in Fig. 16.

Equations (66a)–(66c) and (67a) (67b) (67c) bound the ‘‘safe’’ region. The

reader should note the following:

**The failure envelope shown in Fig. 16 is valid for a uniaxial state of
**

stress only. Speciﬁcally, Fig. 16 is valid only if:

r

xx

p 0

r

yy

¼ r

zz

¼ s

xy

¼ s

xz

¼ s

yz

¼ 0

As will be seen later, failure envelopes for other states of stress diﬀer

substantially from Fig. 16.

* As before, compressive strength is treated as an algebraically positive number.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

**The mode of failure depends on whether r
**

xx

is tensile or compressive,

and also on the ﬁber angle h:

If r

xx

is tensile, then:

Matrix failure is predicted for: À90j<h<À33.7j and 33.7j<h

<90j.

Shear failure is predicted for: À33.7j<h<À2.9j and 2.9j<h

<33.7j.

Fiber failure is predicted for: À2.9j<h<2.9j.

If r

xx

is compressive, then:

Matrix failure is predicted for: À90j<h<À53.1j and 53.1j<h

<90j.

Shear failure is predicted for: À53.1j<h<À3.6j and 3.6j<h

<53.1j.

Fiber failure is predicted for: À3.6j<h<3.6j.

Fiber failures are predicted for only a very narrow range of ﬁber angles. This

implies that failure of a unidirectional composite subjected to a uniaxial state

of stress will almost always occur due to matrix or shear failures, rather than

Figure 16 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate

subjected to a uniaxial stress r

xx

, based on the maximum stress criterion.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

ﬁber failure. In general, ﬁber failure will only occur when the composite is

tested under carefully controlled laboratory conditions in which the uniaxial

stress is aligned with the ﬁber direction to within a fewdegrees. Also, note that

the ﬁber angle at which a change from shear failure to matrix failure occurs

diﬀers in tension and compression.

6.1.2 Tsai–Hill Criterion

According to the Tsai–Hill criterion, failure of an orthotropic composite

subjected to plane stress conditions is governed by Eq. (53), whereas failure of

a transversely isotropic composite is governed by Eq. (54). For present

purposes, we have assumed that the composite is transversely isotropic.

Substituting Eq. (64) into Eq. (54), the Tsai–Hill failure criterion predicts

that failure will not occur if the following inequality is satisﬁed:

r

xx

<

cos

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_ ¸

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

sin

4

h ð Þ

r

yT

22

_ _

2

þ

cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

s

f

12

_ _

2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

À1=2

ð68Þ

As previously noted, the Tsai–Hill criterion does not automatically account

for diﬀerences in tensile and compressive strengths. A failure envelope for a

unidirectional graphite–epoxy composite will be generated using tensile or

compressive strengths, as appropriate. Thus, the tensile strength predicted by

the Tsai–Hill criterion is:

r

fT

xx

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_ ¸

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

sin

4

h ð Þ

r

yT

22

_ _

2

þ

cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

s

f

12

_ _

2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

À1=2

Similarly, the compressive strength predicted by the Tsai–Hill criterion is:

r

fC

xx

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_ ¸

r

fC

11

_ _

2

þ

sin

4

h ð Þ

r

yC

22

_ _

2

þ

cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

s

f

12

_ _

2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

À1=2

Substituting the strength values that have been assumed for graphite–epoxy,

we have:

r

fT

xx

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_ ¸

1500 MPa ð Þ

2

þ

sin

4

h ð Þ

50 MPa ð Þ

2

þ

cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

75 MPa ð Þ

2

_ _

À1=2

ð69aÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

r

fC

xx

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_ ¸

1200 MPa ð Þ

2

þ

sin

4

h ð Þ

100 MPa ð Þ

2

þ

cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

75 MPa ð Þ

2

_ _

À1=2

ð69bÞ

A failure envelope based on Eqs. (69a) and (69b) is shown in Fig. 17. As

before, it is important to realize that this failure envelope is valid for a uniaxial

state of stress only. Failure envelopes obtained using the Tsai–Hill criterion

but for other states of stress diﬀer substantially from Fig. 17.

6.1.3 Tsai–Wu Criterion

The Tsai–Wu criterion for the case of plane stress is given by Eq. (62).

Substituting Eq. (64) into Eq. (62), we obtain:

r

f

xx

_ _

2

X

11

cos

4

h ð Þ þ X

22

sin

4

h ð Þ þ cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ X

66

þ 2X

12

ð Þ

_ ¸

þr

f

xx

X

1

cos

2

h ð Þ þ X

2

sin

2

h ð Þ

_ ¸

À 1 ¼ 0

ð70Þ

Figure 17 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate

subjected to a uniaxial stress r

xx

, based on the Tsai–Hill criterion.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The constants that appear in Eq. (70) are calculated using the strength

properties that have been assumed for graphite–epoxy and Eqs. (56)–(59),

as appropriate:

X

1

¼

1

r

fT

11

À

1

r

fC

11

¼

1

1500 MPa

À

1

1200 MPa

¼

À10

À6

6000 Pa

X

11

¼

1

r

fT

11

r

fC

11

¼

1

1500 MPa ð Þ 1200 MPa ð Þ

¼

10

À15

1800 Pa

2

X

2

¼

1

r

yT

22

À

1

r

yC

22

¼

1

50 MPa

À

1

100 MPa

¼

10

À6

100 Pa

X

22

¼

1

r

yT

22

r

yC

22

¼

1

50 MPa ð Þ 100 MPa ð Þ

¼

10

À15

5 Pa

2

X

66

¼

1

s

y

12

_ _

2

¼

1

75 MPa

_ _

2

¼

10

À12

5625 Pa

2

As previously discussed, there is no widely accepted technique used to

calculate X

12

. For present purposes, X

12

will be calculated in accordance with

Eq. (61):

X

12

¼

À1

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

X

11

X

22

_

¼

À1

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

10

À15

1800 Pa

2

_ _

10

À15

5 Pa

2

_ _

¸

¼

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

10

p

600 Pa

2

_ _

10

À15

_ _

Substituting these values into Eq. (70), we obtain:

r

f

xx

_ _

2

_

10

À15

_ _

cos

4

h ð Þ

1800 Pa

2

þ

10

À15

_ _

sin

4

h ð Þ

5 Pa

2

þ cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

Â

10

À12

5625 Pa

2

À

10

À15

_ _ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

10

p

300 Pa

2

_ __

þ r

f

xx

À10

À6

cos

2

h ð Þ

6000 Pa

þ

10

À6

sin

2

h ð Þ

100 Pa

_ _

À 1 ¼ 0

ð71Þ

Equation (71) is a second-order polynomial in the unknown failure stress,

r

xx

f

. For any given ﬁber angle h, there will be two roots to this equation. The

predicted tensile strength equals the algebraically positive root, whereas the

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

predicted compressive strength equals the negative root. For example, for a

ﬁber angle h=30j, Eq. (71) becomes:

r

f

xx

_ _

2 4417 Â 10

À20

Pa

2

_ _

þ r

f

xx

2375 Â 10

À12

Pa

_ _

À 1 ¼ 0

The two roots of this expression are found to be (125.9Â10

6

Pa, À179.7Â10

6

Pa). Hence, the strengths predicted by the Tsai–Wu criterion for a 30j

graphite–epoxy specimen are:

r

fT

xx

¼ 125:9 MPa

r

fC

xx

¼ 179:7 MPa

A failure envelope based on the Tsai–Wu criterion for a unidirectional

graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to a uniaxial state of stress is shown in

Fig. 18. This ﬁgure is analogous to those obtained using the maximum stress

criterion and the Tsai–Hill criterion (Figs. 16 and 17, respectively). As before,

Figure 18 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate

subjected to a uniaxial stress r

xx

, based on the Tsai–Wu criterion.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

it is important to realize that this failure envelope is valid for a uniaxial state of

stress only. Failure envelopes based on the Tsai–Wu criterion but for other

states of stress diﬀer substantially from Fig. 18.

6.1.4 Comparison

The failure envelopes for uniaxial stress obtained on the basis of the three

failure criteria considered are compared directly in Fig. 19, and an expanded

viewof just the ﬁrst quadrant is presented in Fig. 20. It is apparent that similar

predictions are obtained on the basis of all three criteria, although a

signiﬁcant numerical diﬀerence occurs at low ﬁber angles, near the region

at which the failure mode shifts from ﬁber failure to shear matrix failure.

However, one should not conclude that the failure criterion described above

always leads to similar predictions. In fact, depending on the state of stress

considered, the predicted failure envelopes may diﬀer substantially. One

stress state that exhibits this eﬀect is the state of pure shear stress, considered

in the following subsection.

Figure 19 Comparison of the failure envelopes for a unidirectional graphite–

epoxy laminate subjected to a uniaxial stress r

xx

, obtained using the maximum

stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure criteria.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6.2 Pure Shear Stress States

It was mentioned in Sec. 5 of Chap. 3 that the shear strength of composites is

sensitive to the algebraic sign of the shear stress when referenced to a

nonprincipal material coordinate system. This sensitivity would not be

expected based on previous experience with isotropic materials since the

shear strength of isotropic materials is not sensitive to algebraic sign. We are

now in a position to explain this phenomenon. An oﬀ-axis composite ply

subjected to a pure shear stress state is shown in Fig. 21. The stresses induced

in the 1–2 coordinate system can be determined using Eq. (20) of Chap. 2:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

cos

2

h ð Þ sin

2

h ð Þ 2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

sin

2

h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

Àcos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

0

0

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

or equivalently:

r

11

¼ 2s

xy

cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ

Figure 20 Comparison of the failure envelopes (first quadrant only) for a

unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to a uniaxial stress r

xx

,

obtained using the maximum stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure criteria.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

r

22

¼ À2s

xy

cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ

s

12

¼ s

xy

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

_ ¸

ð72Þ

6.2.1 Maximum Stress Criterion

Substituting Eq. (72) into Eq. (51), we obtain:

Àr

fC

11

2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

< s

xy

<

r

fT

11

2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

ð73aÞ

(and)

Àr

yC

22

2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

< s

xy

<

r

yT

22

2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

ð73bÞ

(and)

s

xy

¸

¸

¸

¸

<

s

y

12

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

ð73cÞ

Equations (73a)–(73c) will now be used to generate a failure envelope for a

graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to pure shear. With reference to Eqs.

(73a)–(73c), the following subtleties in these calculations should be noted:

**Over the range 0j<h<90j, both the cosine and sine functions return
**

algebraically positive values. Consequently, for this range, a positive

Figure 21 Unidirectional composite subjected to pure shear stress s

xy

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

shear stress s

xy

will induce a tensile value r

11

and a compressive value

for r

22

. However,

**Over the range À90j<h<0j, the cosine function returns a positive
**

value, whereas the sine function returns a negative value. Over this

range, a positive shear stress s

xy

will induce a compressive stress r

11

but tensile stress r

22

.

Of course, if a negative shear stress s

xy

is applied rather than a positive shear

stress, then the algebraic signs of all stress components are reversed. These

subtleties are important during the application of Eqs. (73a)–(73c) because

composite strengths typically diﬀer in tension and compression.

With these observations in mind, the following equations may be used

to generate a failure envelope for a graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to pure

shear, based on the strength properties previously listed:

Positive shear strengths:

For 0j<h<90j:

s

P

xy

¼

r

fT

11

2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ

¼

1500 MPa

2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ

ð74aÞ

s

P

xy

¼

r

yC

22

2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ

¼

100 MPa

2 cos h ð Þ sin h ð Þ

ð74bÞ

s

P

xy

¼

s

y

12

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

¼

75 MPa

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

ð74cÞ

For À90j<h<0j:

s

P

xy

¼

r

fC

11

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¼

1200 MPa

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

ð74dÞ

s

P

xy

¼

r

yT

22

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¼

50 MPa

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

ð74eÞ

s

P

xy

¼

s

y

12

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

¼

75 MPa

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

ð74f Þ

Negative shear strengths:

For 0j<h<90j:

s

N

xy

¼

r

fC

11

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¼

1200 MPa

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

ð75aÞ

s

N

xy

¼

r

yT

22

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¼

50 MPa

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

ð75bÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

s

N

xy

¼

s

y

12

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

¼

75 MPa

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

ð75cÞ

For À90j<h<0j:

s

N

xy

¼

r

fT

11

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¼

1500 MPa

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

ð75dÞ

s

N

xy

¼

r

yC

22

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

¼

100 MPa

2 cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

ð75eÞ

s

N

xy

¼

s

y

12

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

¼

75 MPa

cos

2

h ð Þ À sin

2

h ð Þ

ð75f Þ

Equations (74a)–(74f ) and (75a)–(75f ) were used to create the failure

envelope shown in Fig. 22. Note the following.

**The failure envelope shown in Fig. 22 is valid for a pure shear stress
**

state only. Failure envelopes for other states of stress diﬀer sub-

stantially (for example, compare Figs. 16 and 22, both of which are

based on the maximum stress failure criterion).

Figure 22 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate

subjected to a pure shear stress s

xy

, based on the maximum stress criterion.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

**None of the curves shown in Fig. 22 is associated with ﬁber failure.
**

The magnitudes of the critical shear stress values returned by Eqs.

(74a), (74d), (75a), or (75d) are all large enough that they do not ap-

pear in Fig. 22 due to the scale used for the vertical axis. These results

indicate that failure of a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate sub-

jectedto a pure shear stress state will never occur due to ﬁber failure.

**The shear strength of an oﬀ-axis unidirectional composite depends
**

on algebraic sign of the shear stress. For example, a 45j specimen is

predicted to have a positive shear strength of 100 MPa and a negative

shear strength of 50 MPa.

**The predicted mode of failure depends on whether s
**

xy

is positive or

negative as well as on ﬁber angle h.

If s

xy

is positive, then:

Shear failure is predicted for À90j<h<À73.2j.

Matrix failure is predicted for À73.2j<h<À16.8j.

Shear failure is predicted for À16.8j<h<26.6j.

Matrix failure is predicted for 26.6j<h<63.4j.

Shear failure is predicted for 63.4j<h<90j.

If s

xy

is negative, then:

Shear failure is predicted for À90j<h<À63.4j.

Matrix failure is predicted for À63.4j<h<26.6j.

Shear failure is predicted for À26.6j<h<16.8j.

Matrix failure is predicted for 16.8j<h<73.2j.

Shear failure is predicted for 73.2j<h<90j.

6.2.2 Tsai–Hill Criterion

Substituting Eq. (72) into Eq. (54), we obtain:

s

2

xy

4 cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

2

r

fT

11

_ _

2

þ

1

r

yT

22

_ _

2

À

1

2 s

y

12

_ _

2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ þ

cos

4

h ð Þ þ sin

4

h ð Þ

s

y

12

_ _

2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

< 1

ð77Þ

Equating the left-hand side to unity and solving for s

xy

:

s

xy

¼

1

4 cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

2

r

fT

11

ð Þ

2

þ

1

r

yT

22

ð Þ

2

À

1

2 s

y

12

ð Þ

2

_ _

þ

cos

4

h ð Þ þ sin

4

h ð Þ

s

y

12

_ _

2

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1=2

ð78Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Recall that the Tsai–Hill criterion does not automatically account for diﬀer-

ences in tensile and compressive stresses. Therefore, to predict shear strengths

using Eq. (78), the failure strengths used must be selected according to

whether r

11

and r

22

are positive or negative.

Positive shear strengths:

**For À90j<h<0j, both r
**

11

and r

22

are positive; therefore, use

r

11

fT

and r

22

yT

.

For 0j<h<90j, r

11

is positive and r

22

is negative; therefore,

use r

11

fT

and r

22

yC

.

Negative shear strengths:

**For À90j<h<0j, both r
**

11

and r

22

are negative; therefore, use

r

11

fC

and r

22

yC

.

For 0j<h<90j, r

11

is negative and r

22

is positive; therefore,

use r

11

fC

and r

22

yT

.

A failure envelope based on these failure strengths and Eq. (78) is shown in

Fig. 23.

Figure 23 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate sub-

jected to a pure shear stress s

xy

, based on the Tsai–Hill criterion.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6.2.3 Tsai–Wu Criterion

Substituting Eq. (72) into Eq. (62), we obtain:

s

2

xy

X

66

cos

4

h ð Þ þ sin

4

h ð Þ

_ ¸

þ 2 cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ 2X

11

þ 2X

22

ð79Þ

_ _

À4X

12

À X

66

__

þ 2s

xy

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ X

1

À X

2

½ < 1

Numerical values for constants X

1

, X

2

, X

11

, etc., were calculated in Sec. 6.1.3

(based on strengths assumed for graphite–epoxy). Substituting these values in

the left-hand side of Eq. (79) and equating to unity, we obtain:

s

2

xy

10

À12

5625Pa

2

cos

4

h ð Þ þ sin

4

h ð Þ

_ ¸

þ cos

2

h ð Þsin

2

h ð Þ

_

Â

67 Â 10

À15

150Pa

2

À

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

10

p _ _

10

À15

_ _

75Pa

2

_ __

Às

xy

cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ

61 Â 10

À6

3000

_ _

¼ 1

ð80Þ

Equation (80) is a second-order polynomial in the unknown shear failure

stress, s

xy

f

. For a given ﬁber angle, h, there are two roots to this equation. The

predicted positive shear strength, s

xy

fP

, equals the algebraically positive root,

whereas the predicted negative shear strength, s

xy

fN

, equals the negative root.

For example, for a ﬁber angle h=30j, Eq. (80) becomes:

s

f

xy

_ _

2

202:8 Â 10

À18

Pa

2

_ _

À s

f

xy

88:05 Â 10

À10

Pa

_ _

À 1 ¼ 0

The two roots of this expression are found to be (95.22 Â 10

6

Pa, À51.8 Â 10

6

Pa). Hence, the shear strengths predicted by the Tsai–Wu criterion for a 30j

graphite–epoxy laminate are:

s

fP

xy

¼ 95:2 MPa

s

fN

xy

¼ 51:8 MPa

A failure envelope based on the Tsai–Wu criterion for a unidirectional

graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to a pure shear stress state is shown in

Fig. 24. This ﬁgure is analogous to those obtained using the maximum stress

criterion and the Tsai–Hill criterion (Figs. 22 and 23, respectively).

6.2.4 Comparisons

The failure envelopes for pure shear stress obtained on the basis of the three

failure criteria considered are compared directly in Fig. 25, and an expanded

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

view of just the ﬁrst quadrant is presented in Fig. 26. The diﬀerence between

predictions obtained using the three failure criteria is more striking in pure

shear than was the case in uniaxial stress (e.g., compare Figs. 20 and 26).

Predictions on the basis of the Tsai–Hill and Tsai–Wu criteria are similar,

although some diﬀerence exists. The maximum stress criterion predicts local

maximums in shear strength near ﬁber angles of h=27j and 64j. These

maximums are associated with the previously noted change in failure mode,

from a shear failure mode to a matrix failure mode (or vice versa).

7 COMPUTER PROGRAMS UNIDIR AND UNIFAIL

The results derived in this chapter will be used extensively throughout the

remainder of this text. As is already abundantly clear, the calculations

associated with any thermomechanical analysis of an anisotropic composite

are tedious and time-consuming if performed using a hand calculator.

Consequently, most composite analyses are performed with the aid of a

digital computer.

Two computer programs have been developed to supplement the ma-

terial presented in this chapter: UNIDIR and UNIFAIL. These programs

Figure 24 Failure envelope for a unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate sub-

jected to a pure shear stress s

xy

, based on the Tsai–Wu criterion.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

can be downloaded at no cost from the following website: http://depts.

washington.edu/amtas/computer.html.

The analyses that can be performed with the aid of these programs will

be discussed in the following subsections. Both programs require the user to

provide various numerical values required during the calculations performed.

The user must deﬁne these values using a consistent set of units. For example,

program UNIDIR requires the user to input elastic moduli, thermal expan-

sion coeﬃcients, and moisture expansion coeﬃcients for the composite

material system of interest. Using the properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3

and based on the SI system of units, the following numerical values would be

input for graphite–epoxy:

E

11

¼ 170 Â 10

9

Pa E

22

¼ 10 Â 10

9

Pa v

12

¼ 0:30

G

12

¼ 13 Â 10

9

Pa

a

11

¼ À0:9 Â 10

À6

m=m

o

C a

22

¼ 27:0 Â 10

À6

m=m

o

C

b

11

¼ 150:0 Â 10

À6

m=m%M b

22

¼ 4800 Â 10

À6

m=m%M

Figure 25 Comparison of the failure envelopes for a unidirectional graphite–

epoxy laminate subjected to pure shear stress s

xy

, obtained using the Maximum

Stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure criteria.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

If the analysis requires the user to input numerical values for stresses, then

stresses must be input in pascals (not in MPa). A typical value would be

r

xx

=200Â10

6

Pa. If, instead, the analysis requires the user to input numerical

values for strains, then strains must be input in m/m (not in Am/m). A typical

value would be e

xx

=2000Â10

À6

m/m=0.002000 m/m. All temperatures

would be input in jC.

In contrast, if the English system of units was used, then the following

numerical values would be input for the same graphite–epoxy material

system:

E

11

¼ 25:0 Â 10

6

psi E

22

¼ 1:5 Â 10

6

psi v

12

¼ 0:30

G

12

¼ 1:9 Â 10

6

psi

a

11

¼ À0:5 Â 10

À6

in:=in:

o

F a

22

¼ 15 Â 10

À6

in:=in:

o

F

b

11

¼ 150:0 Â 10

À6

in:=in:%M b

22

¼ 4800 Â 10

À6

in:=in:%M

If the analysis requires the user to input numerical values for stresses, then

stresses must be input in psi (not in ksi). A typical value would be r

xx

=30,000

psi. If, instead, the analysis requires the user to input numerical values for

Figure 26 Comparison of the failure envelopes (first quadrant only) for a

unidirectional graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to a uniaxial stress r

xx

,

obtained using the maximum stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure criteria.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

strains, then strains must be input in in./in. (not in Ain./in.). A typical value

would be e

xx

=2000Â10

À6

in./in.=0.002000 in./in. All temperatures would be

input in jF.

7.1 Program UNIDIR

Program UNIDIR may be used to predict the elastic behavior of unidirec-

tional composites and is based on the material presented in 1 Secs. 2 Secs. 3

Secs. 4. Two diﬀerent types of analyses may be performed. The program may

be used in either of the following:

**Calculating total strains (e
**

xx

, e

yy

, c

xy

) caused by a speciﬁed com-

bination of stresses (r

xx

, r

yy

, s

xy

), a uniform temperature change

(DT), and a uniform change in moisture content (DM). Calculations

performed as a part of Example Problems 1, 2, 4, and 5 are typical of

this type of analysis.

Calculating stresses (r

xx

, r

yy

, s

xy

) caused by a speciﬁed combination

of total strains (e

xx

, e

yy

, c

xy

), a uniformtemperature change (DT), and

a uniform change in moisture content (DM). Calculations performed

as a part of Example Problems 3 and 6 are typical of this type of

analysis.

The program also determines the eﬀective properties of a unidirectional

composite based on the deﬁnitions described in Sec. 4. An implicit assumption

in these calculations is that all material properties (E

11

, a

11

, b

11

, etc.) input by

the user correspond to the temperature and moisture content dictated by DT

and DM.

7.2 Program UNIFAIL

Program UNIFAIL may be used to obtain failure predictions for unidirec-

tional composites based on the maximum stress, Tsai–Hill, or Tsai–Wu

failure criteria introduced in Sec. 5. Two diﬀerent types of analyses may be

performed. The program may be used in either of the following:

**Calculating predicted uniaxial and shear strengths of a unidirectional
**

laminate with a speciﬁed ﬁber angle h.

**Generating a data ﬁle that can subsequently be used to produce
**

failure envelopes for unidirectional composites subjected to several

types of plane stress conditions.

Note that the program UNIFAIL itself does not create a failure envelope.

Rather, the program creates a ﬁle (named Envelop.txt) that contains the

stress(es) predicted to cause failure of a unidirectional composite as a function

of ﬁber angle, based on the particular failure criterion speciﬁed by the user. A

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

failure envelope may then be created using a second software package to

‘‘import’’ the data generated by the program UNIFAIL and then plotting

failure stress vs. ﬁber angle. For example, any of the failure envelopes

presented in Sec. 6 may be easily recreated in this way. As before, an implicit

assumption is that failure strengths (r

11

fT

, a

22

yT

, etc.) input by the user corre-

spond to the values exhibited by the composite at the temperature and mois-

ture content of interest. Also, in the present context, ‘‘failure’’ may represent

fracture of the ﬁbers or yielding of the matrix.

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS

Notes: (a) In the following problems, the phrase ‘‘by hand calculation’’ means

that solutions are to be obtained using a calculator, pencil, and paper. (b)

Computer programs UNIDIR and/or UNIFAIL are referenced in many of

the following problems. As described in Sec. 7, these programs can be

downloaded from the following website: http://depts.washington.edu/

amtas/computer.html.

1. Calculate the reduced compliance matrix for the materials listed below,

ﬁrst by hand calculation and then using program UNIDIR. Use the

material properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

(a) Glass/epoxy.

(b) Kevlar/epoxy.

(c) Graphite/epoxy.

2. Calculate the reduced stiﬀness matrix for the materials listed below, ﬁrst

by hand calculation and then using program UNIDIR. Use the material

properties listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

(a) Glass/epoxy.

(b) Kevlar/epoxy.

(c) Graphite/epoxy.

3. A thin unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate is simultaneously

subjected to a uniform temperature change DT=À175jC, an increase in

moisture content DM=0.5%, and the following in-plane stresses:

r

11

¼ 350 MPa

r

22

¼ 40 MPa

s

12

¼ 60 MPa

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Determine the resulting strains (e

11

, e

22

, and c

12

), ﬁrst by hand calcu-

lation and then using program UNIDIR. Use the material properties

listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3.

4. Repeat Problem 3 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

5. Repeat Problem 3 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

6. A thin unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate is simultaneously

subjected to a uniform temperature change DT=À275jF and an un-

known plane stress state. The following strains are measured as a result

(moisture content remains constant):

e

11

¼ À1250 Ain:=in:

e

22

¼ 2000 Ain:=in:

c

12

¼ 0

Determine the stresses (r

11

, r

22

, and s

12

), ﬁrst by hand calculation and

then using program UNIDIR. Use the material properties listed in

Table 3 of Chap. 3.

7. Repeat Problem 6 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

8. Repeat Problem 6 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

9. A square unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate with dimen-

sions 1Â1 m is clamped between four inﬁnitely rigid walls, as shown in

Fig. 27. Material properties are listed in Table 3 of Chap. 3. Initially, the

clamped composite is stress-free, but the temperature is subsequently

decreased by 100jC. The thermal expansion coeﬃcient of the rigid walls

is zero, so the rigid walls do not expand or contract.

(a) Calculate the stresses (r

11

, r

22

, s

12

) induced by this change in

temperature, ﬁrst by hand calculation and then using

program UNIDIR.

(b) Predict whether the composite will fail based on the maxi-

mum stress failure criterion.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

10. Repeat Problem 9 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

11. Repeat Problem 9 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

12. A 1Â1 m square unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate is

placed within a cavity deﬁned by four rigid walls, as shown in Fig. 28.

An initial gap of 0.050 mm exists between all edges of the ply and the

walls. The composite ply adsorbs 1.5% moisture, causing the ply to

expand and completely ﬁll the cavity. Temperature remains constant.

The rigid walls do not adsorb moisture, and hence do not expand or

contract. Assuming the ply does not buckle, calculate the stresses (r

11

,

r

22

, s

12

) caused by the change in moisture content.

13. Repeat Problem 12 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

14. Repeat Problem 12 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

15. A perfectly square unidirectional glass/epoxy composite laminate is

mounted in a frame consisting of four inﬁnitely rigid frame members,

Figure 27 Clamped composite laminate considered in Problems 9, 10, and 11.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

as shown in Fig. 29(a). The frame members are pinned at each corner.

Since the laminate is perfectly square, the angle deﬁned by corners ABC

is initially 90j (precisely).

A force F is then applied to two diagonal corners, as shown in Fig. 29(b).

After F is applied, angle ABC is measured to be 89.50j (precisely). Both

temperature and moisture content remain constant. What stresses (r

11

,

r

22

, s

12

) are induced in the panel?

16. Repeat Problem 15 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

17. Repeat Problem 15 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

18. Create a plot of the following eﬀective properties for a unidirectional

glass/epoxy composite, with ﬁber angles ranging from À90j to +90j.

(a) E

xx

and E

yy

.

(b) v

xy

and v

yx

.

Figure 28 A composite laminate placed within a cavity defined by four rigid

walls (considered in Problems 12, 13, and 14).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

(c) G

xy

.

(d) g

xy,xx

and g

xy,yy

.

(e) g

xx,xy

and g

yy,xy

.

(f ) a

xx

, a

yy

, and a

xy

.

(g) b

xx

, b

yy

, and b

xy

.

Suggested solution procedure: use program UNIDIR (repeatedly) to

calculate the required properties in increments of 5j (that is, calcu-

late for h=0j, 5j, 10j, 15j, 20j, etc.) and then plot these calcu-

lations.

19. Repeat Problem 18 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

Figure 29 Unidirectional composite laminate considered in Problems 15, 16,

and 17.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

20. (a) Using hand calculation, predict the positive and negative shear

strengths for a unidirectional 45j glass/epoxy composite laminate

based on the maximum stress failure criterion.

(b) Use program UNIFAIL to predict the positive and negative shear

strengths for a unidirectional 45j glass/epoxy composite laminate

based on the maximum stress, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu failure cri-

teria. Compare these results with your calculations obtained in part

(a).

21. Repeat Problem 20 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

22. Repeat Problem 20 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

23. On the same graph, plot failure envelopes for a unidirectional glass/

epoxy composite laminate for the following two conditions:

(a) Unidirectional stress: r

xx

, r

yy

=s

xy

=0

(b) Biaxial normal stress: r

yy

=r

xx

/10, s

xy

=0

Use the Tsai–Hill failure criterion. Suggested solution procedure: use

program UNIFAIL (twice) to generate data ﬁles corresponding to the

speciﬁed loading conditions, and then plot these data ﬁles.

24. Repeat Problem 23 for a unidirectional Kevlar/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

25. Repeat Problem 23 for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite lami-

nate.

REFERENCES

1. Reuter, R.C. Concise property transformation relations for an anisotropic lami-

na. J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 5, April 1971, 270–272.

2. Hill, R. The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity; New York, Oxford University

Press, 1998.

3. Tsai, S.W. Strength theories of ﬁlamentary structures. In: Fundamental Aspects

of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composites; Schwartz, R.T., Schwartz, H.S., eds;

Wiley Interscience: New York, 1968; 3–11.

4. Tsai, S.W.; Wu, E.M. A general theory of strength for anisotropic materials. J.

Compos. Mater., Vol. 5, January 1971, 58–80.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6

Thermomechanical Behavior of Multiangle

Composite Laminates

Thin composite laminates in which the principal material coordinate system

of all plies is aligned were considered in Chap. 5. The behavior of laminates,

wherein the alignment of the principal material system varies from one ply to

the next, will be considered in this chapter. In essence, we will combine the

results of Chap. 5 with traditional ‘‘thin-plate theory.’’ This combination will

result in an analysis technique commonly known as ‘‘classical lamination

theory’’ (CLT).

1 DEFINITION OF A ‘‘THIN PLATE’’ AND ALLOWABLE PLATE

LOADINGS

A ‘‘thin plate’’ with in-plane dimensions a and b and thickness t is shown

schematically in Fig. 1. The plate can be considered ‘‘thin’’ if the plate

thickness is less than about one-tenth the in-plane dimensions (i.e., if t<a/

10 and t<b/10). An x–y–z coordinate systemis deﬁned as indicated. Note that

the origin of the x–y–z coordinate system is positioned at the geometrical

center of the plate, such that the midplane (or midsurface) of the plate lies

within the plane z =0. Consequently, the plate exists within the space deﬁned

by the planes z = Àt/2 and z = +t/2.

We will assume that the thin plate is subjected to plane stress conditions.

Therefore, we will only consider plate loadings that result in a plane stress

265

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

state within the plate. Furthermore, in this chapter, we will only consider

uniformly distributed loads. That is, we will assume that the loads are constant

and uniformly distributed along the edge of the plate. The more general case

in which loads vary along the edge of the plate will be considered in Chap. 10.

Six types of uniformly distributed loads that give rise to plane stress

conditions within the x–y plane are shown in Fig. 2. All load components are

shown in an algebraically positive sense. Because the line-of-action of all load

vectors shown in Fig. 2 lies within the x–y plane, these load components are

often referred to as in-plane loads.

First, consider load components N

xx

, N

yy

, and N

xy

. Two subscripts are

used to identify these load components. The algebraic sense of each compo-

nent is interpreted in a manner analogous to that previously used to identify

the algebraic sense of individual stress components (discussed in Sec. 2.5).

That is, the ﬁrst subscript indicates the face of the plate a given load acts upon,

whereas the second subscript indicates the line of action of the load. Apositive

load is one that:

**Acts on a positive face and points in a positive coordinate direction,
**

or

**Acts on a negative face and points in a negative coordinate direction.
**

The algebraic sense of normal loads N

xx

and N

yy

(Fig. 2a) is readily

apparent and intuitive: A positive (tensile) normal load is one that tends to

cause the plate to stretch. The algebraic sense of shear loads N

xy

and N

yx

(Fig.

2b) is not as immediately apparent, but application of the sign convention just

Figure 1 A ‘‘thin plate’’ with in-plane dimensions a and b and thickness t.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 2 Schematic of allowable plate loadings: (a) in-plane normal forces N

xx

and N

yy

, (b) in-plane shear forces N

xy

and N

yx

, (c) bending moment M

xx

, (d)

bending moment M

yy

, (e) in-plane torques M

xy

and M

yx

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

described will conﬁrm that the shear loads shown in Fig. 2b are indeed

positive. That is, two of the shear loads shown are acting on a positive face and

point in a positive coordinate direction, whereas two of the shear loads shown

act on a negative face and point in a negative coordinate direction. Because

individual load components are not allowed to vary spatially (i.e., loads are

assumed to be constant and uniformly distributed along each edge of the

plate), statical equilibrium requires that the shear loads acting along the x-

edge and y-edge be orientated tip-to-tip and tail-to-tail, as shown in Fig. 2b.

Furthermore, the magnitude of the shear loads must be identical, jN

xy

j =

jN

yx

j. These requirements are also analogous to those of shear stresses acting

on an inﬁnitesimal stress element, as discussed in Sec. 2.5. It is emphasized

that N

xx

, N

yy

, and N

xy

are all deﬁned as distributed loads, expressed in units of

force/plate length (such as N/m or lbf/in.).

The remaining loads shown in Fig. 2 (M

xx

, M

yy

, and M

xy

) are bending

moments (or torques) distributed along the edge of the plate. Load compo-

nents M

xx

and M

yy

are uniformly distributed bending moments acting along

the x-edge and y-edge of the plate, respectively, as shown in Fig. 2c and d.

These loads are shown in an algebraically positive sense. The subscripts

assigned to M

xx

and M

yy

may seempuzzling at ﬁrst because, for example, M

xx

represents a bending moment acting about the y-axis. However, M

xx

is

directly related to the distribution of r

xx

through the thickness of the plate,

as will be shown below. Because M

xx

arises due to the distribution of r

xx

(or

vice versa), it is customary to use the same subscripts for both entities.

Unfortunately, the convention used to assign an algebraic sign to distributed

bending moments varies from one author to the next, and in fact can be

arbitrarily chosen. The sign convention used herein is most commonly used in

the study of composite plates. An algebraically positive distributed bending

moment is deﬁned as one that tends to cause tensile stresses in the positive z-

face of the plate and compressive stresses in the negative z-face. Referring to

Fig. 2c and noting that the positive z-direction is downward as drawn, it is

seen that M

xx

tends to cause tensile stresses in the positive z-face (i.e., the

lower face) of the plate. Hence, M

xx

is positive as drawn. A similar

observation holds for M

yy

, as shown in Fig. 2d.

Finally, loads M

xy

and M

yx

are deﬁned as uniformly distributed in-

plane moments (or torques) acting along neighboring edges of the plate, as

shown in Fig. 2d. It will be shown belowthat M

xy

and M

yx

are directly related

to in-plane shear stresses s

xy

and s

yx

, respectively. Because M

xy

and M

yx

arise

due to the distribution of s

xy

and s

yx

, it can be shown that for statical

equilibrium to be maintained, jM

xy

j = jM

yx

j. An algebraically positive

distributed torque is deﬁned as one that tends to cause a positive shear stress

in the positive z-face (i.e., the lower face) of the plate.

Recall that the units of an applied moment or torque are force–length

(such as NÁm or lbfÁin). Because M

xx

, M

yy

, and M

xy

all represent uniformly

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

distributed moments acting along the plate edge, they are all expressed in units

of force–length/plate length (such as NÁm/m or lbfÁin/in).

It is expected that most readers will have considered the behavior of

isotropic prismatic beams during earlier studies. It is therefore instructive to

contrast the deﬁnitions just given for a thin plate, as well as the loads applied

thereon, to those encountered in fundamental beam theory. As previously

shown in Fig. 1, a ‘‘thin plate’’ is deﬁned as a structure whose thickness, t, is

much less than the in-plane dimensions a and b. That is, t<<a,b. In contrast, a

beamis a structure for which two dimensions are small compared to the third.

Hence, a beam can be described as a structure in which one of the in-plane

dimensions, say width b, is of the same order as the thickness t. Hence, the

thin plate shown in Fig. 1 is ‘‘converted’’ to a beam if we allow bct<<a. In

this way, we describe a beam with rectangular cross-section bÂt and length a,

as shown in Fig. 3. The beamis called ‘‘prismatic’’ if the cross-section remains

constant along the length of the beam (i.e., if b and t remain constant along

length a).

Regarding the description of applied loading, in the case of thin plates,

all loading conditions are speciﬁed in terms of distributed loads, as described

in preceding paragraphs. For example, in SI units, N

xx

is expressed in terms of

Newtons per meter, whereas M

xx

is expressed in terms of Newton meter per

meter. In contrast, in fundamental beam theory, point loads are often

speciﬁed. For a beam, a normal load is often expressed in terms of Newtons,

whereas bending moments (or torques) are expressed in terms of Newton

meter. Loads that correspond to N

xx

and M

xx

, when applied to a beam, have

also been shown in Fig. 3. They have been denoted as N

b

xx

and M

b

xx

, where the

superscript ‘‘b’’ is used to denote that these loads are deﬁned in the sense

traditionally used in beam theory and therefore have diﬀerent units than the

Figure 3 Aprismatic beamwithrectangular cross-section (compare withFig. 1).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

distributed loads used in plate theory. Because the width of the beam is b, the

two load deﬁnitions are related according to N

b

xx

=bN

xx

and M

b

xx

=bM

xx

. As

mentioned above, the sign convention used to deﬁne an algebraically positive

bending moment varies from one author to the next, and can be arbitrarily

selected. The bending moment applied to the beam shown in Fig. 3 is

considered to be positive according to the sign convention used throughout

this text. This corresponds to the convention most commonly used in the

study of composite plates. However, according to the sign convention used in

many textbooks devoted to fundamental beam theory, the bending moment

shown in Fig. 3 would be considered as negative. Hence, the sign convention

used to describe bending moments in this and other textbooks devoted to

composites diﬀers from the sign convention used in many textbooks devoted

to beam theory. The reader must simply be aware of this potential source of

confusion, and carefully note which convention has been used when compar-

ing the results described in this text to those developed elsewhere.

Let us now return to the topic of thin plates. We wish to relate the

external distributed loads applied to the plate to the resulting internal stresses.

An edge viewof a plate loaded only by distributed load N

xx

and moment M

xx

is shown in Fig. 4a. A free-body diagram of a section of the plate is shown in

Fig. 4b. The free-body diagram has been drawn showing the distributed load

N

xx

and distributed moment M

xx

on the left-hand side, and the resulting

internal stress r

xx

on the right-hand side. The plate is assumed to be in statical

equilibrium. Therefore, SF=0, and the force per unit width associated with

the distribution of stress r

xx

through the thickness of the plate must be exactly

balanced by the distributed load N

xx

. Let the free-body diagramhave a width

of ‘‘1’’ and consider an incremental strip of height dz. The cross-sectional area

dA of this strip is dA=1dz. The incremental force dF

xx

associated with the

stress acting over this thin strip is dF

xx

=dN

xx

1=r

xx

dA=r

xx

dz. We can now

relate the total distributed force N

xx

acting on the left-hand side of the free-

body diagram to the distribution of r

xx

acting on the right-hand side by

simply ‘‘adding up’’ the forces acting over all incremental strips; that is, we

integrate over the thickness of the plate:

N

xx

¼

_

þt=2

Àt=2

dN

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

r

xx

dz ð1aÞ

In an entirely equivalent manner, we can relate distributed forces N

yy

and N

xy

to stresses r

yy

and s

xy

, respectively:

N

yy

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

r

yy

dz ð1bÞ

N

xy

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

s

xy

dz ð1cÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Now consider moment M

xx

. As before, the plate is assumed to be in

statical equilibrium, and hence moments acting about the y-axis must sum to

zero: SM

y

=0. Again consider an incremental strip of height dz, which is

located a distance z fromthe midsurface. The incremental distributed moment

dM

xx

contributed by N

xx

acting over the incremental strip is dM

xx

=dN

xx

z=

r

xx

zdz. We can obtain the total moment acting on the right-hand side of the

free-body diagram by integrating over the thickness of the plate:

M

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

r

xx

zdz ð2aÞ

In an entirely equivalent manner, we can relate moments M

yy

and M

xy

to

stresses r

yy

and s

xy

, respectively:

M

yy

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

r

yy

zdz ð2bÞ

M

xy

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

s

xy

zdz ð2cÞ

Figure 4 Edge view of a thin plate subjected to loads N

xx

and M

xx

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Equations (1a) (1b) (1c) (2a) (2b) (2c) show that the uniformly distributed

loads and moments applied to the plate edge are directly related to the stresses

within the plate. Distributed loads N

xx

, N

yy

, and N

xy

are commonly called

stress resultants, and moments M

xx

, M

yy

, and M

xy

are commonly called

moment resultants.

2 PLATE DEFORMATIONS: THE KIRCHHOFF HYPOTHESIS

Let us now consider the deformation of a thin, ﬂat plate. Fig. 5 represents a

(magniﬁed) viewof the edge of the plate in both the ‘‘initial’’ and ‘‘deformed’’

positions. The positive x-direction is to the right, the positive y-direction is out

of the plane of the ﬁgure, and the positive z-direction is downward, which is

consistent with the original deﬁnition shown in Fig. 1. Although we will

eventually apply our results to a composite laminate, for the moment, we will

not consider the existence of individual plies, and therefore the ply interfaces

are not shown in the ﬁgure. If the ﬂat plate is loaded and/or is subjected to a

change in environment, it will be deformed and (in general) will become

curved, as shown in the ﬁgure. We will base our analysis on the Kirchhoﬀ

hypothesis, which states that a ‘‘straight line that is initially perpendicular to

the midplane of the plate remains straight and perpendicular to the midplane

of the plate after deformation.’’ For example, let us consider straight line b–o–

d. This line is shown in Fig. 5, in the sketch of both the initial and deformed

positions of the plate. In accordance with the Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis, line b–o–

Figure 5 Initial and deformed positions of a flat plate.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

d has been drawn perpendicular to the midplane in both the initial and

deformed positions. In eﬀect, we have assumed that out-of-plane shear strains

are zero (c

xz

=c

xz

=0), which is equivalent to saying that we have assumed

that the z-axis is a principal strain axis.

We are interested in describing the displacement of an arbitrary point

‘‘c,’’ which is located within the thickness of the plate at some distance z

c

from

the midsurface. Point ‘‘c’’ is shown in Fig. 5, and lies along line b–o–d. Denote

the displacement of point ‘‘o’’ in the x-direction and z-direction as distances

u

o

and w

o

, respectively. From the ﬁgure, it can be seen that the distance point

‘‘c’’ has moved in the x-direction, u

c

, is approximately given by:

u

c

iu

o

À z

c

sin a ð3Þ

where a is the angle formed by the plate midplane and the x-axis in the

deformed condition. Equation (3) is approximate because we have ignored

any change in plate thickness (i.e., we have ignored any change in distance z

c

that may have occurred during deformation of the plate). If we now further

assume that angle a is small, then we can simplify Eq. (3) using the small-angle

approximation, which states that if a is expressed in radians and is less than

about 0.1745 rad (about 10j), then:

sin aia tan aia cos ai1 ð4Þ

Based on this assumption, Eq. (3) can be written as:

u

c

iu

o

À z

c

a ð5Þ

Now, fromFig. 5, it can be seen that tan a=dw/dx. Applying the small-angle

approximation once more, we can say that tan a ia idw=dx. Substituting

this result in Eq. (5), we obtain:

u

c

¼ u

o

À z

c

dw

dx

ð6Þ

To summarize, we have expressed the displacement in the x-direction of

arbitrary point ‘‘c’’ (which we have called distance u

c

) as a function of the

displacement in the x-direction of a point on the plate midsurface (distance

u

o

), the position of point c with respect to the midsurface (length z

c

), and the

slope of the plate midsurface dw/dx.

We will also require an expression for the displacement of point ‘‘c’’ in

the y-direction. We will denote the displacement of point ‘‘c’’ in the y-

direction as v

c

. Using a procedure that is entirely equivalent to that just

described, it can be shown that:

v

c

¼ v

o

À z

c

dw

dy

ð7Þ

Equations (6) and (7) represent the displacements of point ‘‘c’’ in the x-

direction and y-direction, respectively, and followdirectly fromthe Kirchhoﬀ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

hypothesis. We can now determine the inﬁnitesimal in-plane strains at point

‘‘c’’, in accordance with Eq. (49) of Chap. 2:

e

xx

¼

Bu

Bx

e

yy

¼

Bv

By

c

xy

¼

Bv

Bx

þ

Bu

By

ð8Þ

Substituting Eqs. (6) and (7) into Eq. (8), we obtain the following expressions

for the strains induced at point ‘‘c’’:

e

c

xx

¼

Bu

o

Bx

À z

c

B

2

w

Bx

2

e

c

yy

¼

Bv

o

By

À z

c

B

2

w

By

2

ð9Þ

c

c

xy

¼

Bu

o

By

þ

Bv

o

Bx

À 2z

c

B

2

w

BxBy

Let:

e

o

xx

¼

Bu

o

Bx

ð10aÞ

e

o

yy

¼

Bv

o

By

ð10bÞ

c

o

xy

¼

Bu

o

By

þ

Bv

o

Bx

ð10cÞ

j

xx

¼ À

B

2

w

Bx

2

ð10dÞ

j

yy

¼ À

B

2

w

By

2

ð10eÞ

j

xy

¼ À2

B

2

w

BxBy

ð10f Þ

where e

o

xx

; e

o

yy

; and c

o

xy

are the in-plane strains that exist at the midplane of the

plate. The terms j

xx

, j

yy

, and j

xy

are called midplane curvatures, and represent

the rate of change of the slope of the midplane of the plane.

The reader is likely to have encountered the concept of midplane cur-

vatures during earlier studies of fundamental beam theory. Unfortunately,

the algebraic sign convention used to deﬁne curvatures varies fromone author

to the next. The sign convention used throughout this text and deﬁned by Eqs.

(10a–10f ) is most commonly used in the study of composite plates. However,

in many textbooks devoted to beam theory, curvatures are deﬁned using the

opposite sign convention. For example, in beamtheory curvature, j

xx

is often

deﬁned as j

xx

=+B

2

w/Bx

2

, rather than j

xx

=ÀB

2

w/Bx

2

as indicated above.

Also, in some textbooks devoted to plate theory, j

xy

is deﬁned as j

xy

=+B

2

w/

BxBy, rather than as j

xy

=À2B

2

w/BxBy as indicated in Eq. (10f ). These

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

unfortunate deviations from one author to the next have developed over

many years, and a universal agreement on algebraic signs or even the

fundamental deﬁnition of j

xy

is not likely to occur for the foreseeable future.

The reader must simply be aware of these potential sources of confusion, and

carefully note that the convention has been used when comparing the results

described in this text to those developed elsewhere. Returning now to the

discussion of through-thickness strains, note from Fig. 5 that point ‘‘c’’ is

located at an arbitrary distance z from the neutral surface. We will therefore

discontinue the use of the subscript ‘‘c’’ in Eq. (9). Substituting Eqs. (10a–10f)

in Eq. (9), we obtain:

e

xx

¼ e

o

xx

þ zj

xx

e

yy

¼ e

o

yy

þ zj

yy

ð11Þ

c

xy

¼ c

o

xy

þ zj

xy

Equation (11) can be conveniently written in matrix form as:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þ z

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð12Þ

Equation (12) is the primary result we require for present purposes from

classical thin-plate theory. It allows us to calculate the inﬁnitesimal in-plane

strains (e

xx

,e

yy

,c

xy

) induced at any position z through the thickness of the

plate, based on the midplane strains (e

o

xx

; e

o

yy

; c

o

xy

) and midplane curvatures

(j

xx

,j

yy

,j

xy

). Note that this result is based strictly on the Kirchhoﬀ hypoth-

esis. We have made no assumptions regarding the mechanism(s) that caused

the ﬂat plate to deform. Hence, Eq. (12) is valid if the plate is deformed by a

change in temperature, a change in moisture content, externally applied

mechanical loads, or any combination thereof. Also, we have made no

assumptions regarding material properties. Equation (12) is therefore valid

for isotropic, transversely isotropic, orthotropic, or anisotropic thin plates.

Example Problem 1

A thin plate with a thickness of 1 mm is subjected to mechanical loads, a

change in temperature, and a change in moisture content. Strain gages are

used to measure the surface strains induced in the plate. They are found to be:

at z ¼ Àt=2 ¼ À0:5 mm : e

xx

¼ 250 Am=m; e

yy

À 1500 Am=m; c

xy

¼ 1000 Arad

at z ¼ þt=2 ¼ þ0:5 mm : e

xx

¼ À250 Am=m; e

yy

À 1100 Am=m; c

xy

¼ 800 Arad

What midplane strains and curvatures are induced in the plate?

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Solution. To solve this problem, we simply apply Eq. (12) to both surfaces of

the plate. For example, using the measured strains for e

xx

, we have:

at z ¼ Àt=2 ¼ À0:0005 m : e

xx

¼ 250 Am=m ¼ e

o

xx

À ð0:0005Þj

xx

at z ¼ þt=2 ¼ þ0:0005 m : e

xx

¼ À250 Am=m ¼ e

o

xx

þ ð0:0005Þj

xx

Solving simultaneously, we ﬁnd:

e

o

xx

¼ 0 Am=m; j

xx

¼ À0:50 rad=m

Using a similar approach utilizing the measured values for e

yy

and c

xy

, we

ﬁnd:

e

o

yy

¼ À1300 Am=m; j

yy

¼ 0:40 rad=m

c

o

xy

¼ 900 Arad; j

xy

¼ À0:20 rad=m

3 PRINCIPAL CURVATURES

In Sec. 2, we invoked the Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis, according to which it is

assumed that a straight line that is initially perpendicular to the midplane of

the plate remains straight and perpendicular to the midplane after deforma-

tion. The Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis has ultimately allowed us to calculate the in-

plane strains referenced to the x–y coordinate system (e

xx

, e

yy

, and c

xy

)

induced at any position z through the thickness of a thin plate, using either

Eq. (11) or Eq. (12). These equations are valid for any combination of

midplane strains (e

o

xx

, e

o

yy

, and c

o

xy

) and midplane curvatures (j

xx

, j

yy

, and j

xy

).

In this section, we will consider a special case. Speciﬁcally, we will

consider a state of deformation in which the midplane strains are zero: e

o

xx

¼

e

o

yy

¼ c

o

xy

¼ 0. In this special case, Eq. (12) becomes:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼ z

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

ð13Þ

This state of deformation is known as pure bending. When a thin plate is in a

state of pure bending, all midplane strains are zero (e

o

xx

¼ e

o

yy

¼ c

o

xy

¼ 0) and

the midplane of the plate is called the neutral surface.

Equation (13) gives the in-plane strains referenced to the x–y coordinate

system. Referring to Fig. 6, suppose we wish to express these strains relative to

a newxV–yVcoordinate system, obtained by rotating through angle a about the

z-axis. As noted in Sec. 2, the Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis implies that c

xz

=c

yz

=0.

Therefore, the z-axis is a principal strain axis. Consequently, we can rotate in-

plane strains from the x–y coordinate system to the new xV–yV coordinate

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

system using Eq. (44) of Chap. 2 (developed in Sec. 13 of Chap. 2), repeated

here for convenience:

e

x Vx V

e

y Vy V

c

xVy V

2

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

cos

2

ðaÞ sin

2

ðaÞ 2cosðaÞ sinðaÞ

sin

2

ðaÞ cos

2

ðaÞ À2cosðaÞ sinðaÞ

ÀcosðaÞ sinðaÞ cosðaÞ sinðaÞ cos

2

ðaÞ À sin

2

ðaÞ

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

2

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

ð2:44Þ

Substituting Eq. (13) into Eq. (44) of Chap. 2, we can write:

e

x VxV

e

y Vy V

c

xVy V

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼ z

j

xVxV

j

y Vy V

j

x Vy V

_

_

_

_

_

_

ð14Þ

where:

j

xVxV

j

y Vy V

j

xVy V

2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

cos

2

ðaÞ sin

2

ðaÞ 2cosðaÞ sinðaÞ

sin

2

ðaÞ cos

2

ðaÞ À2cosðaÞ sinðaÞ

ÀcosðaÞ sinðaÞ cosðaÞ sinðaÞ cos

2

ðaÞ À sin

2

ðaÞ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð15Þ

Note that midplane curvatures in the xV–yV coordinate system are related to

curvatures in the x–y coordinate system by means of the familiar transforma-

tion matrix [T]. This reveals that midplane curvatures can be treated as a

second-order tensor, and can be transformed from one coordinate system to

Figure 6 In-plane coordinate system xV–yV, obtained by rotating through angle

a about the z-axis.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

another in exactly the same way as the strain tensor (or stress tensor) is

transformed.

The in-plane principal strains and the orientation of the principal strain

coordinate systemcan also be determined using Eqs. (47) and (48) of Chap. 2,

respectively, repeated here for convenience:

e

p

1

; e

p

2

¼

e

xx

þ e

yy

2

F

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

e

xx

þ e

yy

2

_ _

2

þ

c

xy

2

_ _

2

¸

ð2:47Þ

h

p

e

¼

1

2

arctan

c

xy

e

xx

À e

yy

_ _

ð2:48Þ

Substituting Eq. (13) into Eq. (47) of Chap. 2, we ﬁnd that for pure bending,

the in-plane principal strains are given by:

e

p

1

; e

p

2

¼ z

ðj

xx

þ j

yy

Þ

2

F

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ

ðj

xx

þ j

yy

Þ

2

_ _

2

þ

j

xy

2

_ _

2

¸

_

_

_

_

ð16Þ

Substituting Eq. (13) into Eq. (48) of Chap. 2, we ﬁnd that the orientation of

the principal strain coordinate system is given by:

h

p

e

¼

1

2

arctan

j

xy

j

xx

À j

yy

_ _

ð17Þ

Noting that j

xx

, j

yy

, and j

xy

are midplane values, Eq. (16) shows that

principal strains are linear functions of z. In contrast, Eq. (17) shows that,

for the case of pure bending, the orientation of the principal strain coordinate

system is constant and does not vary with through-thickness position, even

though the principal strains do vary with z.

A simpliﬁed expression for the principal strains is obtained by writing

Eq. (16) as:

e

p1

¼ j

p

1

ð18Þ

e

p2

¼ j

p

2

where j

p

1

and j

p

2

are called principal curvatures and are given by:

j

p

1

; j

p

2

¼ z

ðj

xx

þ j

yy

Þ

2

F

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ðj

xx

þ j

yy

Þ

2

_ _

2

þ

j

xy

2

_ _

2

¸

_

_

_

_

ð19Þ

For the case of pure bending, the principal curvatures occur in the same

coordinate system as the principal strains. Hence, Eq. (17) gives the orienta-

tion of the coordinate systemin which the principal curvatures exist. Because

shear strain is zero in the principal strains coordinate system, j

p

1

p

2

=0 as well.

A physical interpretation of the preceding results can be obtained

through sketches of deformed strain elements parallel to the x–y plane, as

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

was done in Sec. 2.13 (in particular, refer to Sample Problem2.9). Athin plate

reference to an x–y–z coordinate systemis shown in Fig. 7a. Arectangular 3D

element cut out of this plate by two pairs of planes parallel to the x–z and y–z

planes is also shown. The dimensions of the element in the x-direction and y-

direction are dx and dy, respectively, whereas the height of the element equals

the plate thickness t. Assuming this plate is subjected to pure bending, then the

strains induced at any position z, relative to the x–y coordinate system, can be

calculated using Eq. (13).

Consider as representative examples three 2Dstrain elements parallel to

the x–y plane and located at positions deﬁned by:

z=t/2 (element a–b–c–d, shown in Fig. 7b)

z=0 (element e–f–g–h, shown in Fig. 7c)

**z=+t/2 (element i–j–k–l, shown in Fig. 7d).
**

In each case, we imagine a 2D strain element whose sides are parallel

to the x-axis and y-axis prior to deformation. As the plate is deformed, the

length of the element sides increases or decreases, in accordance with the

algebraic sign of strains e

xx

and e

yy

, and the angle between adjacent faces of

Figure 7 Illustration of strains induced at the three through-thickness positions

z = Àt/2, 0, and +t/2 by pure bending (deformations shown greatly exag-

gerated for clarity).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

the element changes from p/2 rad (i.e., 90j), in accordance with the algebraic

sign of c

xy

.

First, consider strain element i–j–k–l, located at z=+t/2 (Fig. 7d). For a

state of pure bending, the strains induced at this through thickness position

are given by Eq. (13):

e

xx

j

z ¼ t=2

¼ tj

xx

=2

e

yy

j

z ¼ t=2

¼ tj

yy

=2

c

xy

j

z ¼ t=2

¼ tj

xy

=2

Assume for illustrative purposes that all curvatures are positive (j

xx

,j

yy

,

j

xy

>0). This implies that all strains induced at z=+t/2 are algebraically

positive. A sketch of a deformed element that corresponds to these assump-

tions is shown (not to scale) in Fig. 7d. In the deformed condition, the lengths

of the element sides have increased because e

xx

and e

yy

are positive, and angle

j–i–l has decreased because c

xy

is positive.

Now consider strain element e–f–g–h, located at the midplane of the

plate z=0. Because we have assumed a state of pure bending, the strains at the

midplane are zero, and consequently element e–f–g–h is not deformed, as

shown in Fig. 7c.

Finally, consider strain element a–b–c–d, located at z=Àt/2 (Fig. 7b).

Using Eq. (13), the strains induced at this position are:

e

xx

j

z ¼ Àt=2

¼ Àtj

xx

=2

e

yy

j

z ¼ Àt=2

¼ Àtj

yy

=2

c

xy

j

z ¼ Àt=2

¼ Àtj

xy

=2

Because we have already assumed that all midplane curvatures are positive,

these results show that all strains induced at z=Àt/2 are algebraically

negative. Asketch of the deformed element that corresponds to this condition

is shown (not to scale) in Fig. 7b. Note that in this case, the lengths of the

element sides have decreased because e

xx

and e

yy

are negative, and angle b–a–d

has increased because c

xy

is negative.

The deformed 2D strains elements shown in Fig. 7b–d are assembled to

create a sketch of the entire 3D element in Fig. 8. Note that, in accordance

with the Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis, the four line segments that deﬁne the vertical

edges of the element (line segments a–e–i, b–f–j, c–g–k, and d–h–l) remain

straight lines after deformation. However, the transverse planes are no longer

plane after deformation. For example, plane b–j–h–c has been twisted during

deformation of the plate. Inspection of Figs. 7b–d and 8 reveals that trans-

verse planes do not remain plane after deformation due to curvature j

xy

. That

is, if j

xy

p 0, shear strain c

xy

varies with through-thickness position z, in

accordance with Eq. (13). It is this through-thickness variation in c

xy

that

leads to twisting of the transverse planes. For this reason, j

xy

is known as the

twist curvature.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

We will nowrepeat this process for a rectangular 3Delement referenced

to the principal strain coordinate system, as shown in Fig. 9a. Once again, we

assume that the plate is subjected to pure bending. The principal strains

induced at any position z can therefore be calculated using Eq. (18). We

consider three 2D strain elements located at through-thickness positions

z=Àt/2, 0, and +t/2. A 2D sketch of the deformed strain elements at these

three positions is shown in Fig. 9b–d. Because the element is aligned with the

principal strain coordinate system, no shear strain is induced in any element

(i.e., all corner angles equal p/2 rad before and after deformation). Assuming,

for illustrative purposes, that both principal strains are positive (j

p

1

,j

p

2

>0),

the principal strains induced at z=+t/2 are tensile (Fig. 9d), whereas the

principal strains induced at z=Àt/2 are compressive (Fig. 9b). No deforma-

tions occur at z=0 because we have assumed pure bending and the midplane

is therefore the neutral surface. The deformed 2D strains elements shown in

Fig. 9b–d are assembled to create a sketch of the deformed 3D element in

Fig. 10. As before, the four line segments that deﬁne the vertical edges of the

element (line segments a–e–i, b–f–j, c–g–k, and d–h–l) remain straight lines

after deformation. However, in contrast to Fig. 8, the planes in which these

line segment lie remain plane after deformation. Twisting of these transverse

planes does not occur. When referenced to the coordinate systemin which the

principal curvatures exist, the transverse planes of the strain element simply

rotate about the neutral surface.

Asummary of the results presented in this section is as follows. We have

found that curvatures can be treated as second-order tensors, and can be

rotated fromone coordinate systemto another using the same process as that

Figure 8 A 3D strain element assembled from the 2D deformed elements

shown in Fig. 7b–d (deformations shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 10 A 3D strain element assembled from 2D deformed elements

referenced to the principal strain coordinate system; compare with Fig. 8

(deformations shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).

Figure 9 Illustration of principal strains induced at the three through-thickness

positions z=Àt/2, 0, and +t/2 by pure bending; compare with Fig. 7 (deform-

ations shown greatly exaggerated for clarity).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

used to transformthe strain or stress tensors. For a thin plate governed by the

Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis, midplane curvatures transform according to Eq. (15).

In general, three midplane curvatures are induced in a thin plate: j

xx

, j

yy

, and

j

xy

. Curvature j

xy

is called the twist curvature because it represents a twisting

of a plane transverse to the midplane of the plate. The principal curvatures j

p

1

and j

p

1

are the maximumand minimumcurvatures, respectively, induced at a

given point in a plate. Equation (17) gives the orientation of the coordinate

system in which the principal curvatures exists, and no twisting occurs in this

coordinate system(the twist curvature equals zero in the principal coordinate

system). For a thin plate in pure bending, the orientation of the principal

strain coordinate system is constant through the thickness of the plate, and

the principal curvatures are induced in this coordinate system.

The reader should note that the results in this section are valid for the

special case of pure bending. Some of the results presented above are not valid

for the case of general nonuniform plate bending. For example, if the mid-

plane is not the neutral surface (i.e., if e

o

xx

,e

o

yy

,c

o

xy

p 0), then it can be shown

that the orientation of the principal strain coordinate system is not constant

but rather varies as a function of z. However, even in this more general case,

midplane curvatures transform according to Eq. (15), and principal curva-

tures are given by Eq. (19).

A more detailed discussion of principal strains and curvatures under

general conditions will not be presented because these topics are not of

immediate interest. The results presented in this section for pure bending will

be applied in Chap. 8, where the topic of composite beams is considered.

4 STANDARD METHODS OF DESCRIBING COMPOSITE

LAMINATES

A magniﬁed edge view of a thin composite laminate that contains n plies is

shown in Fig. 11. The ﬁgure is similar to the edge viewof a thin plate shown in

Fig. 4, except that nowthe ply interface positions are shown. The thickness of

ply k will be denoted t

k

. The origin of the x–z axes lies at the geometrical

midsurface of the laminate, and so the outer surfaces of the laminate exist at

z=Àt/2 and z=+t/2, where t equals total thickness of the laminate. Total

thickness of the laminate equals the sum of all ply thicknesses: t ¼ S

n

k ¼ 1

t

k

.

Note that a ply interface does not necessarily exist at the midplane of the

laminate, as indicated in Fig. 11.

We will require a method of specifying the coordinate position of each

ply interface with respect to the laminate midplane. By convention, we will

denote the coordinate position of the outermost laminate surface in the

negative z-direction as position z

0

(i.e., z

0

u Àt/2). Note that z

0

is always an

algebraically negative number. The coordinate position of the interface

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

between plies 1 and 2 is denoted z

1

, and z

1

=z

0

+t

1

. Similarly, the coordinate

position of the interface between plies 2 and 3 is denoted z

2

, and z

2

=z

1

+t

2

,

etc. For an n-ply laminate, the outermost surface of the laminate in the

positive z-direction is will be labeled z

n

; obviously, z

n

=+t/2. Note that in all

cases, z

n

is an algebraically positive number. Also note that the total thickness

of the laminate equals (z

n

Àz

0

), and the thickness of an individual ply k is

t

k

=(z

k

Àz

kÀ1

). For example, the thickness of ply 2 is t

2

=(z

2

Àz

1

).

We also need a method of consistently describing the stacking sequence

of a composite laminate. That is, we need to develop a method of indicating

the orientation of the principal material coordinate system of each ply with

respect to the x-axis, and the order in which they appear. As discussed in

previous chapters, a ply may contain unidirectional ﬁbers, or may consist of a

woven or braided fabric. In these latter two cases, there are two or more ﬁber

directions present within each ply, although the orientation of the principal

material coordinate systemis always evident due to the symmetrical pattern of

the ﬁber architecture. For simplicity in the following discussion, it will be

assumed that all plies are composed of unidirectional ﬁbers. In this case, the

angle between the principal material coordinate system and the x-axis is

equivalent to the angle between the ﬁbers and the x-axis. Hence, in the

discussion to follow, we will simply refer to the ‘‘ﬁber angle’’ in each ply. It

should be understood that this angle actually refers to the orientation of the

principal material coordinate system. This terminology is adopted simply

Figure 11 An edge view of an n-ply laminate showing ply interface positions.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

because the phrase ‘‘ﬁber angle’’ is more concise than the phrase ‘‘principal

material coordinate system angle.’’

To describe the stacking sequence of a laminate, we list ﬁber angles

within square brackets ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’. The ﬁber angle (in degrees) of ply 1 is

listed ﬁrst, followed by the ﬁber angle of ply 2, ply 3, etc. Each ﬁber angle will

be separated by a slash ‘‘/’’. For example, a four-ply laminate consisting of

plies with ﬁber angles of 0j, 45j, À20j, and 90j is shown in Fig. 12a. This

laminate is denoted [0/45/À20/90]

T

. The subscript ‘‘T’’ has been used to

indicate that the ‘‘total’’ laminate has been described (i.e., a ﬁber angle is listed

for all plies within the laminate within the square brackets). In practice, it is

common to encounter laminates with 10, 20, 30, or (in unusual cases) even

hundreds of plies. In such cases, it becomes very tedious to list all ﬁber angles

within the laminate. Fortunately, for many reasons (some of which will be

described later in this chapter), composite laminates are usually designed with

some systematic pattern of ﬁber angles, which allows us to abbreviate the

listing of ply ﬁber angles that appear within the laminate. It is easiest to

introduce these abbreviations with a series of examples. Consider the eight-

ply laminate shown in Fig. 12b. In this case, the ﬁber angles are (starting from

ply 1) 0j, +45j, À45j, 90j, 90j, À45j, +45j, and 0j. This is an example of a

symmetrical laminate because the ﬁber angles are symmetrical about the

laminate midplane. This laminate is denoted [0/F45/90]

s

. The subscript ‘‘s’’

indicates that the four ﬁber angles listed appear symmetrically about the

midplane, and hence a total of eight plies exist within the laminate, even

though only four angles are listed.

Anine-ply laminate containing ﬁber angles 0j, 30j, À60j, 10j, 45j, 10j,

À60j, 30j, and 0j is shown in Fig. 12c. This laminate is symmetrical about the

geometrical midplane, but because an odd number of plies is present, the

midplane passes through the center of the 45j ply (ply 5). This laminate is

denoted [0/30/À60/10/45]

s

. That is, a bar is used to indicate that the midplane

passes through the 45j ply, and hence ‘‘4 1/2’’ plies exist symmetrically about

the midplane of this laminate.

A 10-ply laminate containing ﬁber angles 20j, À30j, À30j, 20j, 0j, 0j,

20j, À30j, À30j, and 20j is shown in Fig. 12d. This laminate is symmetrical

about the midplane, but also contains a symmetrical pattern within both

halves of the laminate. In this case, the laminate is denoted [(20/À30)

s

/0]

s

. The

subscript ‘‘s’’ appears twice: ﬁrst to indicate that ﬁber angles 20j and À30j

appear symmetrically within one-half of the laminate, and the second to

indicate that the entire laminate is symmetrical about the midplane.

Aﬁnal example is the 10-ply laminate shown in Fig. 12e. In this case, the

ﬁber angles are 20j, À30j, 20j, À30j, 0j, 0j, À30j, 20j, À30j, and 20j. This

laminate is denoted [(20/À30)

2

/0]

s

, where the subscript ‘‘2’’ indicates that the

ﬁber pattern listed within the parentheses occurs twice. Note that this

laminate is similar but not identical to that shown in Fig. 12d.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 12 Edge view of several composite laminates illustrating stacking

sequences: (a) [0/45/À20/90]

T

, (b) [0/F45/90]

s

, (c) [0/30/À60/10/45]

s

, (d)

[(20/À30)

s

/0]

s

, (e) [(20/À30)

2

/0]

s

.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Sample Problem 2

A½(0/F30/90)

2

/45/20

s

laminate is fabricated using a graphite–epoxy material

system. Each ply has a thickness of 0.125 mm. Determine the number of plies

in the laminate, the total laminate thickness, and the z-coordinate of each ply

interface.

Solution. An ordered listing of all ﬁber angles that appear in the laminate is

as follows:

½0j; 30j; À30j; 90j; 0j; 30j; À30j; 90j; 45j; 20j; 45j; 90j; À30j; 30j; 0j; 90j; À30j; 30j; 0

z z z

ply 1 ply 10 ply 19

ðmidplaneÞ

The laminate contains a total of 19 plies, the ﬁber angles appear symmetrically

about the midplane of the laminate, and the midplane passes through the

center of the 20j ply. Because all plies are made of the same composite

material system, they all have the same thickness. The total laminate thickness

is therefore t = 19 (0.125 mm)=2.375 mm.

Ply interface positions are:

Note that the total laminate thickness equals the diﬀerence between z

19

and z

0

, as expected: t=z

19

Àz

0

=1.1875 mmÀ(À1.1875 mm)=2.375 mm.

5 CALCULATING PLY STRAINS AND STRESSES

The theory developed to this point allows calculation of the elastic strains and

stresses present at any through-thickness position within a multiangle com-

posite laminate subjected to known midplane strains and curvatures. A sum-

mary of how strains and stresses are calculated is as follows.

Laminate Description: A composite laminate is described by specifying:

**The laminate stacking sequence (i.e., the number of plies within a
**

laminate and the ﬁber angles of each ply)

**The material properties and thickness of each ply.
**

z

0

=Àt/2=À1.1875 mm z

1

=z

0

+t

1

=À1.0625 mm z

2

=z

1

+t

2

=À0.9375 mm

z

3

=z

2

+t

3

=À0.8125 mm z

4

=z

3

+t

4

=À0.6875 mm z

5

=z

4

+t

5

=À0.5625 mm

z

6

=z

5

+t

6

=À0.4375 mm z

7

=z

6

+t

7

=À0.3125 mm z

8

=z

7

+t

8

=À0.1875 mm

z

9

=z

8

+t

9

=À0.0625 mm z

10

=z

9

+t

10

=0.0625 mm z

11

=z

10

+t

11

=0.1875 mm

z

12

=z

11

+t

12

=0.3125 mm z

13

=z

12

+t

13

=0.4375 mm z

14

=z

13

+t

14

=0.5625 mm

z

15

=z

14

+t

15

=0.6875 mm z

16

=z

15

+t

16

=0.8125 mm z

17

=z

16

+t

17

=0.9375 mm

z

18

=z

17

+t

18

=1.0625 mm z

19

=z

18

+t

19

=1.1875 mm

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Note that the plies are not necessarily all of the same material type. For

example, some plies within a laminate may be of graphite–epoxy whereas

others may be glass–epoxy.

Once the stacking sequence and thickness of each ply have been

speciﬁed, the total laminate thickness and interface positions throughout

the laminate may be determined, as previously illustrated in Fig. 11. Also, the

transformed reduced stiﬀness matrix ½ Q can be calculated for each ply in

accordance with Eq. (31) of Chap. 5.

Ply Strains: Strains are calculated using the laminate strains and curvatures

(e

o

xx

; e

o

yy

; c

o

xy

) and (j

xx

,j

yy

,j

xy

), respectively, in accordance with the Kirchhoﬀ

hypothesis (Eq. (12)). For example, the strains induced in a distance z

k

from

the laminate midplane are:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z¼z

k

¼

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ z

k

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Note that these strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system. If desired,

these strains can be rotated fromthe x–y coordinate systemto the ‘‘local’’ 1–2

coordinate systemfor each ply (deﬁned by the ply ﬁber angle) using Eq. (44) of

Chap. 2:

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

_

_

_

_

_j

z ¼ z

k

¼ ½T

k

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

_

_

_

_

_j

z¼z

k

¼

cos

2

ðhÞ sin

2

ðhÞ 2cosðhÞ sinðhÞ

sin

2

ðhÞ cos

2

ðhÞ À2cosðhÞ sinðhÞ

ÀcosðhÞ sinðhÞ cosðhÞ sinðhÞ cos

2

ðhÞ À sin

2

ðhÞ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

k

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_j

z ¼ z

k

Ply Stresses: Once ply strains are determined, ply stresses are calculated

using Hooke’s law, as discussed in Sec. 5.2. For example, the stresses induced

at a distance z

k

from the laminate midplane are calculated using Eq. (30) of

Chap. 5:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z¼z

k

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z¼z

k

e

xx

ÀDTa

xx

ÀDMb

xx

e

yy

ÀDTa

yy

ÀDMb

yy

c

xy

ÀDTa

xy

ÀDMb

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z ¼ z

k

Note that the material properties used in this calculation (speciﬁcally, ½ Q, a

ij

,

and b

ij

) are properties of the ply that exists at position z

k

, and in particular are

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

functions of the ply ﬁber angle h. Because ﬁber angle generally varies fromone

ply to the next, these material properties also vary from one ply to the next.

If desired, stresses can be rotated from the x–y coordinate system to the

‘‘local’’ 1–2 coordinate system for each ply using Eq. (20) of Chap. 2:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

_

_

_

_

_j

z¼z

k

¼ ½T

z¼z

k

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_j

z¼z

k

A numerical example that illustrates these calculations is presented in

the following Sample Problem.

Sample Problem 3

Assume that the panel considered in Sample Problem1 is actually an eight-ply

[0/30/90/À30]

s

graphite–epoxy laminate. Assume that the laminate was

initially ﬂat and stress-free (i.e., ignore possible preexisting stresses/strains

due to temperature and/or moisture changes). Determine the strains and

stresses induced at each ply interface. Use material properties listed in Table 3

of Chap. 3, and assume that the thickness of each ply is 0.125 mm.

Solution. FromSample Problem1, the midplane strains and curvatures are:

e

o

xx

¼ 0 Am=m j

xx

¼ À0:50 rad=m

e

o

yy

¼ À1300 Am=m j

yy

¼ 0:40 rad=m

c

o

xy

¼ 900 Arad j

xy

¼ À0:20 rad=m

To determine ply interface positions, ﬁrst note that the total laminate

thickness is:

t ¼ ð8 pliesÞð0:125 mmÞ ¼ 1:0 mm ¼ 0:001 m

A total of nine ply interface positions must be determined because there are

eight plies in the laminate. Following the numbering scheme discussed in Sec.

4 and referring to Fig. 11, ply interface positions are:

z

0

=Àt/2=À(0.001 m)=À0.000500 m

z

1

=z

0

+t

1

=À0.000500 m+0.000125 m=À0.000375 m

z

2

=z

1

+t

2

=À0.000375 m+0.000125 m=À0.000250 m

z

3

=z

2

+t

3

=À0.000250 m+0.000125 m=À0.000125 m

z

4

=z

3

+t

4

=À.000125 m+0.000125 m=0.000000 m

z

5

=z

4

+t

5

=0.000000 m+0.000125 m=0.000125 m

z

6

=z

5

+t

6

=0.000125 m+0.000125 m=0.000250 m

z

7

=z

6

+t

7

=0.000250 m+0.000125 m=0.000375 m

z

8

=z

7

+t

7

=0.000375 m+0.000125 m=0.000500 m

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Strain Calculations. Strains are calculated using Eq. (12), and can be

determined at any through-thickness position. Usually, strains of greatest

interest are those induced at the ply interface locations. For example, strains

present at the outer surface of ply 1 (i.e., strains present at z

o

=À0.000500 m)

are:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_j

z¼z

0

¼

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ z

0

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

0

À1300 Â 10

À6

m=m

900 Â 10

À6

m=m

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þ ðÀ0:000500 mÞ

À0:50 rad=m

0:40 rad=m

À0:20 rad=m

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_

j

z¼z

0

¼

250 Am=m

À1500 Am=m

1000 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Similarly, strains present at the interface between plies 1 and 2 (i.e., strains

present at z

1

=À0.000375 m) are:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_j

z¼z

1

¼

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þ z

1

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

0

À1300 Â10

À6

m=m

900 Â 10

À6

m=m

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ ðÀ0:000375 mÞ

À0:50 rad=m

0:40 rad=m

À0:20 rad=m

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_j

z¼z

1

¼

188 Am=m

À1450 Am=m

975 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Strains present at all remaining interfaces are calculated in exactly the same

fashion. Strains calculated at all ply interfaces are summarized in Table 1 and

are plotted in Fig. 13. Note that all three strain components (e

xx

, e

yy

, and c

xy

)

are predicted to be linearly distributed through the plate thickness. This linear

distribution is a direct consequence of the Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis, which is a

good approximation as long as the plate is ‘‘thin.’’ In fact, identical strain

distributions would be predicted for any thin plate subjected to the midplane

strains and curvatures speciﬁed in Sample Problem1. For example, we would

predict the identical strains if an aluminum plate were under consideration

rather than a laminated composite plate.

The strains listed in Table 1 and plotted in Fig. 13 are referenced to the

global x–y coordinate system. As will be seen, knowledge of ply strains

referenced to the local 1–2 coordinate system(deﬁned by the ﬁber angle within

each ply) is often required. Transformation of the strain tensor from one

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

coordinate system to another was reviewed in Chap. 2 and, in particular,

strains can be rotated from the x–y coordinate system to the 1–2 coordinate

system using Eq. (44) of Chap. 2. In practice, strains are usually calculated at

both the ‘‘top’’ and ‘‘bottom’’ interface for each ply. Example calculations for

plies 1 and 2 are listed below:

Ply 1. Because h

1

=0j, the x–y and 1–2 coordinate systems are coincident,

and therefore the description of the strain tensor is identical in both coor-

dinate systems. This can be conﬁrmed through application of Eq. (44) of

Chap. 2:

Top interface:

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

0

¼

cos

2

h

1

sin

2

h

1

2 cos h

1

sin h

1

sin

2

h

1

cos

2

h

1

À2 cos h

1

sin h

1

Àcos h

1

sin h

1

cos h

1

sin h

1

cos

2

h

1

À sin

2

h

1

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

0

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

0

¼

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

250 Am=m

À1500 Am=m

ð1000 AradÞ=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply1

z ¼ z

0

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

0

¼

250 Am=m

À1500 Am=m

1000 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

0

Table 1 Ply Interface Strains in a [0/À30/90/30]

s

Graphite-Epoxy Laminate

Subjected to the Midplane Strains and Curvatures Discussed in Sample

Problem 1

z-coordinate (mm) e

xx

(Am/m) e

yy

(Am/m) c

xy

(Arad)

À0.500 250 À1500 1000

À0.375 188 À145 975

À0.250 125 À1400 950

À0.125 62 À1350 925

0.0 0 À1300 900

0.125 À62 À1250 875

0.250 À125 À1200 850

0.375 À188 À1150 825

0.500 À250 À1100 800

Strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 13 Through-thickness strain plots dictated by the midplane strains and

curvatures discussed in Sample Problem 1. Strains are referenced to the x–y

coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Bottom interface:

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

1

¼

cos

2

h

1

sin

2

h

1

2cos h

1

sin h

1

sin

2

h

1

cos

2

h

1

À2cos h

1

sin h

1

Àcos h

1

sin h

1

cos h

1

sin h

1

cos

2

h

1

À sin

2

h

1

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

1

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

1

¼

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

188 Am=m

À1450 Am=m

ð975 AradÞ=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

1

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

1

¼

188 Am=m

À1450 Am=m

975 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼ z

1

Ply 2. In this case, h

2

=30j and consequently the description of strain in the

x–y and 1–2 coordinate systems diﬀers substantially. Applying Eq. (44) of

Chap. 2, we have:

Top interface:

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

cos

2

h

2

sin

2

h

2

2 cos h

2

sin h

2

sin

2

h

2

cos

2

h

2

À2 cos h

2

sin h

2

Àcos h

2

sin h

2

cos h

2

sin h

2

cos

2

h

2

À sin

2

h

2

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

cos

2

ð30jÞ sin

2

ð30jÞ 2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ

sin

2

ð30jÞ cos

2

ð30jÞ À2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ

Àcosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cos

2

ð30jÞ Àsin

2

ð30jÞ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Â

188 Am=m

À1450 Am=m

ð975 AradÞ=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

0:750 0:250 0:866

0:250 0:750 À0:866

À0:433 0:433 0:500

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

188 Am=m

À1450 Am=m

ð975 AradÞ=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

200 Am=m

À1463 Am=m

À931 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Bottom interface:

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

2

¼

cos

2

h

2

sin

2

h

2

2 cos h

2

sin h

2

sin

2

h

2

cos

2

h

2

À2 cos h

2

sin h

2

Àcos h

2

sin h

2

cos h

2

sin h

2

cos

2

h

2

Àsin

2

h

2

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

2

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

2

¼

cos

2

ð30jÞ sin

2

ð30jÞ 2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ

sin

2

ð30jÞ cos

2

ð30jÞ À2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ

Àcosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cos

2

ð30jÞ À sin

2

ð30jÞ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Â

125 Am=m

À1400 Am=m

ð950 AradÞ=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

2

e

11

e

22

c

12

=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

2

¼

0:750 0:250 0:866

0:250 0:750 À0:866

À0:433 0:433 0:500

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

125 Am=m

À1400 Am=m

ð950 AradÞ=2

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

2

e

11

e

22

c

12

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

2

¼

155 Am=m

À1430 Am=m

À846 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

2

Ply strains referenced to the local 1–2 coordinate systems at all interface

locations are summarized in Table 2 and plotted in Fig. 14. Comparing Figs.

12 and 13, it is apparent that the through-thickness strain distributions no

longer appear linear or continuous when referenced to the 1–2 coordinate

system. This is of course illusionary, in the sense that strains appear to be dis-

continuous only because the coordinate system used to describe the through-

thickness strain is varied from one ply to the next.

Stress Calculations. Because strains are now known at all ply interface

positions, we can calculate stresses at these locations using Eq. (30) of Chap.

5, with DT=DM=0. During these calculations, we will require the trans-

formed reduced stiﬀness matrix for each ply. Using graphite–epoxy material

properties fromTable 2 of Chap. 3 and Eqs. (11) and (31) of Chap. 5, we ﬁnd:

For 0j plies:

Q

_ ¸

0j plies

¼

170:9 Â 10

9

3:016 Â 10

9

0

3:016 Â 10

9

10:05 Â 10

9

0

0 0 13:00 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

ðPaÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

For 30j plies:

Q

_ ¸

30j plies

¼

107:6 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

48:3 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

27:22 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

48:3 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

36:05 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

ðPaÞ

For 90j plies:

Q

_ ¸

90j plies

¼

10:05 Â 10

9

3:016 Â 10

9

0

3:016 Â 10

9

170:9 Â 10

9

0

0 0 13:00 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

ðPaÞ

For À30j plies:

Q

_ ¸

30j plies

¼

107:6 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

À48:3 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

27:22 Â 10

9

À21:52 Â 10

9

À48:3 Â 10

9

À21:52 Â 10

9

36:05 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

ðPaÞ

Table 2 Ply Interface Strains in a [0/-30/90/30]

s

Graphite-Epoxy Laminate

Subjected to the Midplane Strains and Curvatures Discussed in Sample

Problem 1

Ply number z-coordinate (mm) e

11

(Am/m) e

22

(Am/m) c

12

(Arad)

Ply 1 À0.500 250 À1500 1000

À0.375 188 À1450 975

Ply 2 À0.375 200 À1463 À931

À0.250 155 À1430 À846

Ply 3 À0.250 À1400 125 À950

À0.125 À1350 63 À925

Ply 4 À0.125 À691 À596 1686

0.000 À715 À585 1576

Ply 5 0.000 À715 À585 1576

0.125 À738 À574 1466

Ply 6 0.125 À1250 À62 À875

0.250 À1200 À125 À850

Ply 7 0.250 À26 À1299 À506

0.375 À71 À1267 À421

Ply 8 0.375 À188 À1150 825

0.500 À250 À1100 800

Strains are referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system local to individual plies.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 14 Through-thickness strain plots dictated by the midplane strains and

curvatures discussed in Sample Problem 1. Strains are referenced to the 1–2

coordinate system.

Stresses present at the outer surface of ply 1 (i.e., strains present at

z

0

=À0.000500 m) can now be calculated:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

0

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

z ¼z

0

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

170:9 Â10

9

3:016 Â 10

9

0

3:016 Â10

9

10:05 Â 10

9

0

0 0 13:00 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

250 Am=m

À1500 Am=m

1000 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

38:2 MPa

À14:3 MPa

13 MPa

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

To calculate stresses at the interface between plies 1 and 2 (i.e., at z

1

=

À0.000375 m), we must specify whether we are interested in the stresses within

ply 1 or ply 2. That is, according to our idealized model, a ply interface is

treated as a plane of discontinuity in material properties. Ply 1 ‘‘ends’’ at z =

z

1

(À)

, whereas ply 2 ‘‘begins’’ at z=z

1

(+)

. Hence, the stresses within ply 1 at z =

z

1

(À)

are:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

1

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

1

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

z ¼z

1

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

1

¼

170:9 Â10

9

3:016 Â 10

9

0

3:016 Â10

9

10:05 Â 10

9

0

0 0 13:00 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

188 Am=m

À1450 Am=m

975 Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

1

¼

27:8 MPa

À14:0 MPa

12:7 MPa

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

The stresses within ply 2 (a 30j ply) at z=z

1

(+)

are:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

z ¼z

1

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

107:6 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

48:3 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

27:22 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

48:3 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

36:05 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

188 Am=m

À1450 Am=m

975 Arad

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

29:5 MPa

À13:6 MPa

13:0 MPa

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Stresses are calculated at all remaining ply interfaces in exactly the same

fashion. Ply interface stresses are summarized in Table 3 and are plotted in

Fig. 15. Obviously, stresses are not linearly distributed through the thickness

of the laminate, even when referenced to the global x–y coordinate system. In

general, all stress components exhibit a sudden discontinuous change at all ply

interface positions. The abrupt change in stresses at ply interfaces is due to the

discontinuous change in the Q

_ ¸

matrix from one ply to the next. In turn, the

discontinuous change in Q

_ ¸

occurs because the ﬁber angle (in general)

changes from one ply to the next. Indeed, in this example problem, the same

ﬁber angle occurs in only two adjacent plies (namely, plies 4 and 5, both of

which have a ﬁber angle of À30j), and inspection of Fig. 15 shows that the

Table 3 Ply Interface Stresses in a [0/30/90/30]

s

Graphite-Epoxy Laminate

Subjected to the Midplane Strains and Curvatures Discussed in Sample Problem 1

Ply

number

z-coordinate

(mm)

r

xx

(MPa)

r

yy

(MPa)

s

xy

(MPa)

Q

(MPa)

A

(MPa)

2

Ply 1 À0.500 38.2 À14.3 13.0 23.9 À715

À0.375 27.8 À14.0 12.7 13.8 À550

Ply 2 À0.375 29.3 À13.6 13.0 15.7 À567

À0.250 22.7 À14.4 10.1 8.3 À429

Ply 3 À0.250 À2.97 À239. 12.4 À242 556

À0.125 À3.44 À231 12.0 À234 651

Ply 4 À0.125 À73.0 À55.0 59.4 À128 487

0.000 À77.2 À54.7 60.4 À132 575

Ply 5 0.000 À77.2 À54.7 60.4 À132 575

0.125 À81.4 À54.5 61.4 À136 666

Ply 6 0.125 À4.40 À214 11.4 À218 812

0.250 À4.90 À205 11.0 À210 884

Ply 7 0.250 À3.82 À17.6 À1.20 À21.4 65.8

0.375 À10.4 À18.4 À4.03 À28.8 175

Ply 8 0.375 À35.5 À12.1 10.7 À47.6 315

0.500 À46.0 À11.8 10.4 À57.8 435

Stresses are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 15 Through-thickness stress plots predicted for a [0/30/90/À30]

s

graphite-epoxy laminate subjected to the midplane strains and curvatures

discussed in Sample Problem 1. Stresses are referenced to the x–y coordinate

system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

interface between plies 4 and 5 is the only interface for which the stresses do

not change abruptly.

It has been mentioned that the linear strain distributions shown in Fig.

13 would be the same for any thin plate, regardless of the material the plate is

made of. The same statement cannot be made for stress distributions. In

general, through-thickness stress distributions for isotropic plates (e.g., an

isotropic aluminum plate) are linear and continuous, unless high nonlinear

stresses occur, in which case the stress distribution may not be linear but will

nevertheless be continuous. In contrast, the stress distributions in laminated

composite plates are usually discontinuous. The only conditions under which

a linear and continuous stress distribution is encountered is when: (a) the

laminate is subjectedtoelastic stress/strainlevels, and(b) whenthe Q

_ ¸

matrix

does not vary from one ply to the next (i.e., for unidirectional laminates in

which the ﬁber angle does not vary from one ply to the next).

Knowledge of ply stresses referenced to the local 1–2 coordinate system

(deﬁned by the ﬁber angle within each ply) is often required. Transformation

of the stress tensor from one coordinate system to another was reviewed in

Chap. 2 and, in particular, stresses can be rotated from the x–y coordinate

system to the 1–2 coordinate system using Eq. (20) of Chap. 2. Typically,

stresses are calculated at both the ‘‘top’’ and ‘‘bottom’’ interfaces for all plies.

For example, rotation of the ply stresses that exist within ply 2 at the interface

between plies 1 and 2 (i.e., at z=z

1

=À0.375 mm) proceeds as follows:

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

cos

2

h

2

sin

2

h

2

2 cos h

2

sin h

2

sin

2

h

2

cos

2

h

2

À2 cos h

2

sin h

2

Àcos h

2

sin h

2

cos h

2

sin h

2

cos

2

h

2

À sin

2

h

2

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

1

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

cos

2

ð30jÞ sin

2

ð30jÞ 2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ

sin

2

ð30jÞ cos

2

ð30jÞ À2 cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ

Àcosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cosð30jÞ sinð30jÞ cos

2

ð30jÞ Àsin

2

ð30jÞ

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

29:3 MPa

À13:6 MPa

13:0 MPa

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

1

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

0:750 0:250 0:866

0:250 0:750 À0:866

À0:433 0:433 0:500

_

_

_

_

29:3 MPa

À13:6 MPa

13:0 MPa

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

1

r

11

r

22

s

12

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

1

¼

29:8 MPa

À14:1 MPa

À12:1 MPa

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 2

z ¼z

1

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Ply interface stresses referenced to local 1–2 coordinate systems are

summarized in Table 4 and plotted in Fig. 16. Once again, stresses are not

linearly distributed through the thickness of the laminate, and instead exhibit

a sudden discontinuous change at all ply interface positions.

Stress invariants can be used to conﬁrm that the ply stresses referenced

to the x–y coordinate system and listed in Table 3 are equivalent to the ply

stresses referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system, as listed in Table 4. The

concept of ‘‘stress invariants’’ was discussed in Chap. 2. The stress invariants

for the case of plane stress are given by Eq. (22) of Chap. 2, repeated here for

convenience:

First stress invariant ¼ Q ¼ r

xx

þ r

yy

Second stress invariant ¼ A ¼ r

xx

r

yy

À s

2

xy

Third stress invariant ¼ C ¼ 0

ðrepeatedÞ ð2:22Þ

For plane stress conditions, the third stress invariant always equals zero, and

so Ccannot be used to evaluate whether two plane stress states are equivalent.

The ﬁrst and second stress invariants, Q and A, respectively, have been

calculated using the ply stress components referenced to both the x–y and 1–2

Table 4 Ply Interface Stresses in a [0/-30/90/30]

s

Graphite-Epoxy Laminate

Subjected to the Midplane Strains and Curvatures Discussed in Sample

Problem 1

Ply

number

z-coordinate

(mm)

r

11

(MPa)

r

22

(MPa)

s

12

(MPa)

Q

(MPa)

A

(MPa)

2

Ply 1 À0.500 38.2 À14.3 13.0 23.9 À715

À0.375 27.8 À14.0 12.7 13.8 À550

Ply 2 À0.375 29.8 À14.1 À12.1 15.7 À567

À0.250 22.2 À13.9 À11.0 8.3 À429

Ply 3 À0.250 À239 À2.97 À12.4 À242 556

À0.125 À231 À3.44 À12.0 À234 651

Ply 4 À0.125 À120 À8.08 21.9 À128 487

0.000 À124 À8.04 20.5 À132 575

Ply 5 0.000 À124 À8.04 20.5 À132 575

0.125 À128 À8.00 19.1 À136 666

Ply 6 0.125 À214 À4.40 À11.4 À218 812

0.250 À205 À4.88 À11.0 À210 884

Ply 7 0.250 À8.31 À13.1 À6.58 À21.4 65.8

0.375 À15.9 À13.0 À5.47 À28.8 175

Ply 8 0.375 À35.5 À12.1 10.7 À47.6 315

0.500 À46.0 À11.8 10.4 À57.8 435

Stresses are referenced to the 1–2 coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 16 Through-thickness stress plots predicted for a [0/30/90/À30]

s

graphite–epoxy laminate subjected to the midplane strains and curvatures

discussed in Sample Problem 1. Stresses are referenced to the 1–2 coordinate

system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

coordinate systems. Values calculated for Qand Aare included in the last two

columns of both Tables 3 and 4. Identical values are obtained in all cases,

indicating the equivalence of the ply stress states described using the two

diﬀerent coordinate systems.

6 CLASSICAL LAMINATION THEORY (CLT)

Stress and moment resultants were introduced in Sec. 1. As was discussed, a

thin plate subjected to any combination of stress and moment resultants will

experience a state of plane stress. Deformations of a thin plate were then

considered in Sec. 2. There the Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis was invoked, which

allows us to calculate the in-plane strains induced at any location through the

thickness of a thinplate. Inthis section, we will combine the material presented

in Secs. 1 and 2, as well as certain material presented in Chap. 5. This will lead

tothe ability torelate stress andmoment resultants tothe resulting strains (and

hence stresses) induced within a thin composite plate. This combination of

analysis tools is commonly known as classical lamination theory (CLT).

Stress and moment resultants represent the mechanical loads applied to

a laminate. Obviously then, stress and moment resultants will induce strains

within the laminate. However, strains may also be induced by environmental

factors as well, as discussed in earlier chapters. Of particular importance for

polymeric composite laminates are strains due to a change in temperature

(DT) and/or strains due to a change in moisture content (DM). To simplify

our discussion, we will ﬁrst develop CLT by assuming that constant environ-

mental conditions exist (i.e., we will initially assume DT=DM=0). We will

then consider how to account for a change in temperature and/or a change in

moisture content.

6.1 Constant Environmental Conditions

The stresses r

xx

inducedina thincomposite laminate are relatedtostress

resultant N

xx

in accordance with Eq. (1a), repeated here for convenience:

N

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

r

xx

dz ðrepeatedÞ ð1aÞ

The composite laminate consists of n plies, and the ﬁber angle may vary from

one ply to the next. The stresses in any ply (say, in ply number k) are related to

ply strains in accordance with Eq. (30) of Chap. 5, which, for DT=DM=0,

becomes:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

k

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

21

Q

22

Q

26

Q

61

Q

62

Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

k

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

k

ð20Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The subscript k in Eq. (20) indicates that the stresses, transformed reduced

stiﬀness matrix, and strains are all for ply number k, where 1 V k V n and

n = number of plies in the laminate.

From Eq. (20), the stress r

xx

induced in ply k is:

ðr

xx

Þ

k

¼ Q

11

e

xx

þ Q

12

e

yy

þ Q

16

c

xy

_ _

k

Substituting this relationship into Eq. (1a), we have:

N

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

e

xx

þ Q

12

e

yy

þ Q

16

c

xy

_ _

k

dz ð21Þ

The strains induced in ply k can be related to the midplane strains and

curvatures via the Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis, in accordance with Eq. (11) or Eq.

(12). Substituting Eqs. (11) and (12) into Eq. (21), we obtain:

N

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

e

o

xx

þ Q

12

e

o

yy

þ Q

16

c

o

xy

þ zQ

11

j

xx

þ zQ

12

j

yy

þ zQ

16

j

xy

_ _

dz

ð22Þ

We cannot integrate Eq. (22) directly because the integrand is a discontinuous

function of z. That is, the transformed reduced stiﬀness terms Q

11

, Q

12

, and

Q

16

are all directly related to the ply material properties and ﬁber angle h (see

Eq. (31) of Chap. 5). Because the ply material and/or ﬁber angle may change

fromone ply to the next, the transformed reduced stiﬀness terms also change,

and hence are discontinuous functions of z. Note, however, that the midplane

strains and curvatures are not functions of z, but instead are constants for a

given laminate. Hence, they may be brought out fromunder the integral sign.

Equation (15) can therefore be broken into six individual integrals:

N

xx

¼ e

o

xx

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

_ _

k

dz þ e

o

yy

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

12

_ _

k

dz

þ c

o

xy

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

16

_ _

k

dz þ j

xx

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

_ _

k

dz

þ j

yy

_

t=2

Àt=2

z Q

12

_ _

k

dz þ j

xy

z Q

16

_ _

k

dz

ð23Þ

Because the transformed stiﬀness terms are constant over each ply thickness,

each of the six integrals in Eq. (23) can be evaluated in a ‘‘piecewise’’ fashion:

N

xx

¼ e

o

xx

Q

11

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

dz þ Q

11

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

dz þ Q

11

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

dz þ

: : :

_

þ Q

11

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

dz þ Q

11

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

dz

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

þe

o

yy

Q

12

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

dz þ Q

12

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

dz þ Q

12

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

dz þ

: : :

_

þ Q

12

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

dz þ Q

12

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

dz

_

þc

o

xy

Q

16

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

dz þ Q

16

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

dz þ Q

16

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

dz þ

: : :

_

þ Q

16

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

dz þ Q

16

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

dz

_

þj

xx

Q

11

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

zdz þ Q

11

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

zdz þ Q

11

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

zdz þ

: : :

_

þ Q

11

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

zdz þ Q

11

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

zdz

_

þj

yy

Q

12

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

zdz þ Q

12

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

zdz þ Q

12

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

zdz þ

: : :

_

þ Q

12

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

zdz þ Q

12

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

zdz

_

þj

xy

Q

16

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

zdz þ Q

16

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

zdz þ Q

16

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

zdz þ

: : :

_

þ Q

16

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

zdz þ Q

16

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

zdz

_

ð24Þ

Although Eq. (24) may appear daunting at ﬁrst, closer inspection reveals that

evaluation of Eq. (24) is actually a simple matter. All integrals that appear in

Eq. (24) are of one of the following two forms, both of which are easily

evaluated:

_

z

k

z

kÀ1

dz ¼ ðz

k

À z

kÀ1

Þ

or

_

z

k

z

kÀ1

zdz ¼

1

2

ðz

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

Þ

Hence, evaluating all integrals that appear in Eq. (24), we obtain:

N

xx

¼ e

o

xx

Q

11

_ _

1

z

1

À z

0

½ þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

À z

1

½ þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

3

À z

2

½ þ

: : :

_

þ Q

11

_ _

n

z

n

À z

nÀ1

½

_

þe

o

yy

Q

12

_ _

1

z

1

À z

0

½ þ Q

12

_ _

2

z

2

À z

1

½ þ Q

12

_ _

3

z

3

À z

2

½ þ

: : :

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

þ Q

12

_ _

n

z

n

À z

nÀ1

½

_

þc

o

xy

Q

16

_ _

1

z

1

À z

0

½ þ Q

16

_ _

2

z

2

À z

1

½ þ Q

16

_ _

3

z

3

À z

2

½ þ

: : :

_

þ Q

16

_ _

n

z

n

À z

nÀ1

½

_

þ

1

2

j

xx

Q

11

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : :

þ Q

11

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

þ

1

2

j

yy

Q

12

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : :

þ Q

12

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

þ

1

2

j

xy

Q

16

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

_

þ. . . þ Q

16

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

ð25Þ

Equation (25) can be simpliﬁed substantially by deﬁning the following terms:

A

11

¼ Q

11

_ _

1

z

1

À z

0

½ þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

À z

1

½ þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

3

À z

2

½ þ

: : :

_

þ Q

11

_ _

n

z

n

À z

nÀ1

½

_

A

12

¼ Q

12

_ _

1

z

1

À z

0

½ þ Q

12

_ _

2

z

2

À z

1

½ þ Q

12

_ _

3

z

3

À z

2

½ þ

: : :

_

þ Q

12

_ _

n

z

n

À z

nÀ1

½

_

A

16

¼ Q

16

_ _

1

z

1

À z

0

½ þ Q

16

_ _

2

z

2

À z

1

½ þ Q

16

_ _

3

z

3

À z

2

½ þ

: : :

_

þ Q

16

_ _

n

z

n

À z

nÀ1

½

_

B

11

¼

1

2

Q

11

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

þ

: : :

_

þ Q

11

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

B

12

¼

1

2

Q

12

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

þ

: : :

_

þ Q

12

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

B

16

¼

1

2

Q

16

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

þ

: : :

_

þ Q

16

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

With these deﬁnitions, Eq. (25), becomes:

N

xx

¼ A

11

e

o

xx

þ A

12

e

o

yy

þ A

16

c

o

xy

þ B

11

j

xx

þ B

12

j

yy

þ B

16

j

xy

ð26aÞ

Following an entirely analogous procedure for stress resultants N

yy

and N

xy

,

it can be shown that:

N

yy

¼ A

21

e

o

xx

þ A

22

e

o

yy

þ A

26

c

o

xy

þ B

21

j

xx

þ B

22

j

yy

þ B

26

j

xy

ð26bÞ

N

xy

¼ A

61

e

o

xx

þ A

62

e

o

yy

þ A

66

c

o

xy

þ B

61

j

xx

þ B

62

j

yy

þ B

66

j

xy

ð26cÞ

where:

A

ij

¼

n

k¼1

Q

ij

_ _

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

ð Þ ð27aÞ

B

ij

¼

1

2

n

k¼1

Q

ij

_ _

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ _

ð27bÞ

and i, j =1, 2, or 6. Because subscripts i and j may take on one of three values,

both A

ij

and B

ij

can be written as 3 Â 3 matrices. Also, recall that the

transformed reduced stiﬀness matrix is symmetrical (see Eq. (31) of Chap. 5).

Hence, both A

ij

and B

ij

are also symmetrical:

A

ij

¼

A

11

A

12

A

16

A

21

A

22

A

26

A

61

A

62

A

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

A

11

A

12

A

16

A

12

A

22

A

26

A

16

A

26

A

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

B

ij

¼

B

11

B

12

B

16

B

21

B

22

B

26

B

61

B

62

B

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

B

11

B

12

B

16

B

12

B

22

B

26

B

16

B

26

B

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Equation (26a) (26b) (26c) can be written in matrix form as follows:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

A

16

A

12

A

22

A

26

A

16

A

26

A

66

B

11

B

12

B

16

B

12

B

22

B

26

B

16

B

26

B

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð28Þ

To summarize our results to this point, Eq. (28) relates the stress resultants

applied to a composite laminate to the resulting midplane strains and

curvatures via the A

ij

and B

ij

matrices. The values of each term within the

A

ij

and B

ij

matrices depend on the material properties and ﬁber angle of each

ply (i.e., they depend on terms within the Q

ij

matrix) as well as the stacking

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

sequence (i.e., the distance z

k

of each ply from the laminate midplane), in

accordance with Eq. (27a) (27b). In practice then, if the midplane strains and

curvatures induced in a laminate under constant environmental conditions

are measured, then the stress resultants that caused these strains and

curvatures can be calculated using Eq. (28).

This entire process must now be repeated for the moment resultants.

The stresses r

xx

induced in a thin composite laminate are related to moment

resultant M

xx

in accordance with Eq. (2a), repeated here for convenience:

M

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

r

xx

zdz ðrepeatedÞ ð2aÞ

Substituting the expression for r

xx

from Eq. (20), we obtain:

M

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

e

xx

þ Q

12

e

yy

þ Q

16

c

xy

_ _

k

zdz ð29Þ

Each strain that appears in Eq. (29) can be related to the midplane strains and

curvatures via the Kirchhoﬀ hypothesis. Hence, substituting either Eq. (11) or

Eq. (12), we have:

M

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

zQ

11

e

o

xx

þ zQ

12

e

o

yy

þ zQ

16

c

o

xy

þ z

2

Q

11

j

xx

þ z

2

Q

12

j

yy

þ z

2

Q

16

j

xy

_ _

dz

ð30Þ

Equation (30) is similar to Eq. (22). Once again, this integral cannot be

evaluated directly because the integrand is a discontinuous function of z.

However, (a) noting that the midplane strains and curvatures are not

functions of z and can be brought outside the integral sign, and then (b)

evaluating the integral in a ‘‘piecewise’’ fashion through the thickness of the

laminate, we obtain:

M

xx

¼ e

o

xx

Q

11

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

zdz þ Q

11

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

zdz þ Q

11

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

zdz þ

: : : :

_

þ Q

11

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

zdz þ Q

11

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

zdz

_

þe

o

yy

Q

12

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

zdz þ Q

12

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

zdz þ Q

12

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

zdz þ

: : : :

_

þ Q

12

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

zdz þ Q

12

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

zdz

_

þc

o

xy

Q

16

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

zdz þ Q

16

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

zdz þ Q

16

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

zdz þ

: : : :

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

þ Q

16

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

zdz þ Q

16

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

zdz

_

þj

xx

Q

11

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

z

2

dz þ Q

11

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

z

2

dz þ Q

11

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

z

2

dz þ

: : : :

_

þ Q

11

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

z

2

dz þ Q

11

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

z

2

dz

_

þj

yy

Q

12

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

z

2

dz þ Q

12

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

z

2

dz þ Q

12

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

z

2

dz þ

: : : :

_

þ Q

12

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

z

2

dz þ Q

12

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

z

2

dz

_

þj

xy

Q

16

_ _

1

_

z

1

z

0

z

2

dz þ Q

16

_ _

2

_

z

2

z

1

z

2

dz þ Q

16

_ _

3

_

z

3

z

2

z

2

dz þ

: : : :

_

þ Q

16

_ _

nÀ1

_

z

nÀ1

z

nÀ2

z

2

dz þ Q

16

_ _

n

_

z

n

z

nÀ1

z

2

dz

_

ð31Þ

The piecewise integrals that appear in Eq. (31) are of one of the following two

forms, both of which are easily evaluated:

_

z

k

z

kÀ1

zdz ¼

1

2

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ _

or

_

z

k

z

kÀ1

z

2

dz ¼

1

3

z

3

k

À z

3

kÀ1

_ _

Hence, evaluating all integrals, we obtain:

M

xx

¼

1

2

e

o

xx

Q

11

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : : :

þ Q

11

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

þ

1

2

e

o

yy

Q

12

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : : :

þ Q

12

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

þ

1

2

c

o

xy

Q

16

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : : :

þ Q

16

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

þ

1

3

j

xx

Q

11

_ _

1

z

3

1

À z

3

0

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

3

2

À z

3

1

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

3

3

À z

3

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : : :

þ Q

11

_ _

n

z

3

n

À z

3

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

þ

1

3

j

yy

Q

12

_ _

1

z

3

1

À z

3

0

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

2

z

3

2

À z

3

1

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

3

z

3

3

À z

3

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : : :

þ Q

12

_ _

n

z

3

n

À z

3

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

þ

1

3

j

xy

Q

16

_ _

1

z

3

1

À z

3

0

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

2

z

3

2

À z

3

1

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

3

z

3

3

À z

3

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : : :

þ Q

16

_ _

n

z

3

n

À z

3

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

ð32Þ

The ﬁrst three quantities on the right-hand side of the equality sign involve the

previously deﬁned terms B

11

, B

12

, and B

16

. We now deﬁne three new terms,

associated with the last three quantities:

D

11

¼

1

3

Q

11

_ _

1

z

3

1

À z

3

0

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

3

2

À z

3

1

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

3

3

À z

3

2

_ ¸

þ

: : : :

_

þ Q

11

_ _

n

z

3

n

À z

3

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

D

12

¼

1

3

Q

12

_ _

1

z

3

1

À z

3

0

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

2

z

3

2

À z

3

1

_ ¸

þ Q

12

_ _

3

z

3

3

À z

3

2

_ ¸

þ

: : : :

_

þ Q

12

_ _

n

z

3

n

À z

3

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

D

16

¼

1

3

Q

16

_ _

1

z

3

1

À z

3

0

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

2

z

3

2

À z

3

1

_ ¸

þ Q

16

_ _

3

z

3

3

À z

3

2

_ ¸

þ

: : : :

_

þ Q

16

_ _

n

z

3

n

À z

3

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

Hence, Eq. (32) can be written in the following simpliﬁed form:

M

xx

¼ B

11

e

o

xx

þ B

12

e

o

yy

þ B

16

c

o

xy

þ D

11

j

xx

þ D

12

j

yy

þ D

16

j

xy

ð33aÞ

Following an entirely equivalent procedure for M

yy

and M

xy

, it can be shown

that:

M

yy

¼ B

21

e

o

xx

þ B

12

e

o

yy

þ B

26

c

o

xy

þ D

21

j

xx

þ D

22

j

yy

þ D

26

j

xy

ð33bÞ

M

xy

¼ B

61

e

o

xx

þ B

62

e

o

yy

þ B

66

c

o

xy

þ D

61

j

xx

þ D

62

j

yy

þ D

66

j

xy

ð33cÞ

The B

ij

terms that appear in Eqs. (33a) (33b) (33c) have been previously

encountered and are given by Eq. (27b). The new terms D

ij

are given by:

D

ij

¼

1

3

n

k ¼1

Q

ij

_ _

k

z

3

k

À z

3

kÀ1

_ _

ð34Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The D

ij

terms can be written as a symmetrical 3 Â 3 matrix:

D

ij

¼

D

11

D

12

D

16

D

21

D

22

D

26

D

61

D

62

D

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

D

11

D

12

D

16

D

12

D

22

D

26

D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Equations (33) can be written in matrix form as follows:

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

B

11

B

12

B

16

B

12

B

22

B

26

B

16

B

26

B

66

D

11

D

12

D

16

D

12

D

22

D

26

D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð35Þ

Equation (35) relates the moment resultants applied to a composite

laminate to the resulting midplane strains and curvatures via the B

ij

and D

ij

matrices. The value of each termwithin the B

ij

and D

ij

matrices depends on the

material properties and ﬁber angle of each ply (i.e., they depend on terms

within the Q

ij

matrix) as well as the stacking sequence (i.e., the distance z

k

of

each ply fromthe laminate midplane), in accordance with Eqs. (27b) and (34).

In practice then, if the midplane strains and curvatures induced in a laminate

under constant environmental conditions are measured, then the moment

resultants that caused these strains and curvatures can be calculated using Eq.

(35).

It is customary to combine Eqs. (28) and (35) and express them together

in matrix form:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

A

16

B

11

B

12

B

16

A

12

A

22

A

26

B

12

B

22

B

26

A

16

A

26

A

66

B

16

B

26

B

66

B

11

B

12

B

16

D

11

D

12

D

16

B

12

B

22

B

26

D

12

D

22

D

26

B

16

B

26

B

66

D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð36Þ

Equation (36) will sometimes be written in abbreviated form as:

N

M

_ _

¼

A B

B D

_ _

e

o

j

_ _

The 6 Â 6 array that appears in Eq. (36) is called the ‘‘ABD matrix.’’ Because

each of the individual matrices that make up the total ABD matrix is in itself

symmetrical (e.g., A

12

=A

21

, B

12

=B

21

, D

12

=D

21

, etc.), the entire ABDmatrix

is also symmetrical.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

It should be noted that the above results are applicable to thin laminates

fabricated using any combination of ply materials. Because the A

ij

, B

ij

, and D

ij

matrices are each calculated based on a summation over all plies, and

individual ply properties (represented by the Q

ij

matrix) are embedded within

these summations, both ply material type and ﬁber angle can vary from one

ply to the next. Hence, the ABD matrix for any thin plate can be calculated

using (Eq. (27a), (27b), and (34). For example, the ABD matrix for ‘‘hybrid’’

laminates (i.e., laminates fabricated using two diﬀerent prepreg material

systems) are calculated using (Eq. (27a), (27b), and (34).

The A

ij

matrix relates in-plane stress resultants to in-plane midplane

strains. For this reason, the A

ij

terms are called extensional stiﬀnesses.

Similarly, the D

ij

matrix relates moment resultants to midplane curvatures,

and elements within the D

ij

matrix are therefore called bending stiﬀness. The

B

ij

matrix relates in-plane stress resultants to midplane curvatures, and also

relates moment resultants to the in-plane midplane strains. The B

ij

terms are

called coupling stiﬀnesses. For an isotropic plate, the coupling stiﬀnesses are

always zero.

The stress and moment resultants can be thought of as ‘‘stress-like’’

quantities because they are directly related to the stresses through the

thickness of the laminate via Eqs. (1) and (2). On the other hand, the midplane

strains and curvatures are ‘‘strain-like’’ quantities because they can be used to

calculate the strains at any position through the thickness of the laminate via

Eqs. (11) and (12). Hence, Eq. (36) relates ‘‘stress-like’’ quantities to ‘‘strain-

like’’ quantities, and in this sense can be thought of as ‘‘Hooke’s law’’ for a

composite laminate.

Equation (36) is in convenient form if we measure midplane strains and

curvatures and wish to calculate the stress and moment resultants that caused

these strains and curvatures. Suppose, instead, that the stress and moment

resultants are known and we wish to calculate the midplane strain and

curvatures that will be caused by these known loads. In this case, we must

invert Eq. (36) to obtain a relationship of the form:

e

o

j

_ _

¼

A B

B D

_ _

À1

N

M

_ _

ð37Þ

In this text, the inverse of the ABD matrix will be called the abd matrix:

a b

b d

_ _

¼

A B

B D

_ _

À1

Methods of inverting the [ABD] matrix analytically are discussed in

several composite texts, including Refs. 1, 2, and 3. However, in practice, the

ABD matrix is most often inverted numerically with the aid of a digital

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

computer because many commercial software packages (e.g., MATLAB,

Maple, Mathematica, etc.) that can invert a 6Â6 matrix routinely are

available nowadays.

Written out in full, Eq. (37) is:

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

a

16

b

11

b

12

b

16

a

12

a

22

a

26

b

21

b

22

b

26

a

16

a

26

a

66

b

61

b

62

b

66

b

11

b

21

b

61

d

11

d

12

d

16

b

12

b

22

b

62

d

12

d

22

d

26

b

16

b

26

b

66

d

16

d

26

d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð38Þ

The reader should carefully inspect the subscripts used in Eq. (38). Note that

the [abd] matrix is symmetrical. Furthermore, the individual 3 Â 3 matrices

that appear in the upper left-hand quadrant and lower right-hand quadrant of

the [abd] matrix, a

ij

and d

ij

, respectively, are also symmetrical. However, the

3 Â3 matrix that appears in the upper right-hand quadrant is not symmetrical

(b

12

p b

21

, b

16

p b

61

, and b

26

p b

62

). Also, the 3 Â 3 matrix in the lower left-

hand quadrant is the transpose of the 3 Â 3 matrix that appears in the upper

right-hand quadrant.

Example Problem 4

Determine the [ABD] and [abd] matrices for a [30/0/90]

T

graphite-epoxy

laminate. Use material properties listed for graphite-epoxy in Table 3 of

Chap. 3, and assume that each ply has a thickness of 0.125 mm.

Solution. Aside view of the laminate is shown in Fig. 17. The total laminate

thickness t = 3 (0.125 mm) = 0.375 mm. Because all three plies are of the

same material, the thickness of each ply is identical: t

1

=t

2

=t

3

=0.125 mm.

Figure 17 Side viewof the [30/0/90]

T

laminate consideredinSample Problem4.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Note that because an odd number of plies are used, the origin of the x–y–z

coordinate system exists at the midplane of ply 2. The ply interface

coordinates can be calculated as:

z

0

¼ Àt=2 ¼ À 0:375mm ð Þ=2 ¼ À0:1875mm ¼ À0:0001875m

z

1

¼ z

0

þ t

1

¼ À0:1875mm þ 0:125mm ¼ À0:0625mm ¼ À0:0000625m

z

2

¼ z

1

þ t

2

¼ À0:0625mm þ 0:125mm ¼ 0:0625mm ¼ 0:0000625m

z

3

¼ z

2

þ t

3

¼ 0:0625mm þ0:125mm ¼ 0:1875mm ¼ 0:0001875m

We will also require the transformed reduced stiﬀness matrix for each ply.

Elements of the [Q]

k

matrices are calculated using Eq. (31) of Chap. 5* and are

equal to:

For ply 1 (the 30j ply):

Q

_ ¸

30

j

ply

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

107:6 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

48:13 Â10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

27:22 Â 10

9

21:52 Â10

9

48:13 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

36:05 Â10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Pa ð Þ

For ply 2 (the 0j ply):

Q

_ ¸

0

B

ply

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

107:9 Â 10

9

3:016 Â 10

9

0

3:016 Â 10

9

10:05 Â 10

9

0

0 0 13:00 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Pa ð Þ

*

The Q

_ ¸

matrix for a 30j graphite-epoxy ply was calculated as a part of Example Problem 5.6

of Chap. 5.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

For ply 3 (the 90j ply):

Q

_ ¸

90

B

ply

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

10:05 Â 10

9

3:016 Â 10

9

0

3:016 Â 10

9

170:9 Â 10

9

0

0 0 13:00 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Pa ð Þ

We can now calculate each member of the A

ij

, B

ij

, and D

ij

matrices, in

accordance with (Eq. (27a), (27b), and (34), respectively.

.

Using Eq. (27a), element A

11

is calculated as follows:

A

11

¼

3

k ¼1

Q

11

_ _

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

ð Þ

A

11

¼ Q

11

_ _

1

z

1

À z

0

ð Þ þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

À z

1

ð Þ þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

3

À z

2

ð Þ

A

11

¼ 107:6 Â 10

9

_ _

À:0000625 þ 0:0001875 ð Þ þ 170:9 Â 10

9

_ _

Â 0:0000625 þ 0:0000625 ð Þ þ 10:05 Â10

9

_ _

Â 0:0001875 À 0:0000625 ð Þ

A

11

¼ 36:07 Â 10

6

Pa À m

The remaining elements of the A

ij

matrix are found in similar fashion:

A

ij

¼

36:07 4:012 6:016

4:012 26:02 2:690

6:016 2:690 7:756

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ Â10

6

Pa À m ð Þ

.

Using Eq. (27b), element B

11

is calculated as follows:

B

11

¼

1

2

3

k ¼1

Q

11

_ _

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ _

B

11

¼

1

2

Q

11

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ _

þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ _

þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ _

_ _

B

11

¼

1

2

107:6 Â 10

9

_ _

À:0000625 ð Þ

2

þ À0:0001875 ð Þ

2

_ _ _

þ 170:9 Â 10

9

_ _

0:0000625 ð Þ

2

À À0:0000625 ð Þ

2

_ _

þ 10:05 Â 10

9

_ _

0:0001875 ð Þ

2

À 0:0000625 ð Þ

2

_ __

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

B

11

¼ À1:524 Â 10

3

Pa Àm

2

The remaining elements of the B

ij

matrix are found in similar fashion:

B

ij

¼

À1:524 À0:3601 À0:7521

À0:3601 2:245 À0:3362

À0:7521 À0:3362 À0:3601

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ Â10

3

Pa À m

2

_ _

In passing, in this example, it appears that B

12

is numerically equal to B

66

. This

is not true, in general. In this problem, the apparent numerical equivalence is

due to the fact that only four signiﬁcant digits have been used. Nevertheless,

for laminates produced using a single material system, it is often (but not

always) the case that B

12

cB

66

. This common occurrence can be traced to the

fact the functional form and magnitude of Q

12

and Q

66

are similar (see Eq.

(31) of Chap. 5). Because B

12

and B

66

are directly related to Q

12

and Q

66

,

respectively, their values are often nearly identical. Also, in Sec. 6.2, it will be

seen that all elements within the B

ij

matrix are zero for symmetrical laminates.

Hence, for symmetrical laminates, these two terms are, in fact, numerically

equal, that is, B

12

=B

66

=0 for symmetrical laminates.

.

Using Eq. (34), element D

11

is calculated as follows:

D

11

¼

1

3

3

k ¼1

Q

11

_ _

k

z

3

k

À z

3

k À1

_ _

D

11

¼

1

3

Q

11

_ _

1

z

3

1

À z

3

0

_ _

þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

3

2

À z

3

1

_ _

þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

3

3

À z

3

2

_ _

_ _

D

11

¼

1

3

107:6 Â10

9

_ _

À:0000625 ð Þ

3

À À0:0001875 ð Þ

3

_ _ _

þ 170:9 Â10

9

_ _

þ 0:0000625 ð Þ

3

À À0:0000625 ð Þ

3

_ _

þ 10:05 Â10

9

_ _

0:0001875 ð Þ

3

À 0:0000625 ð Þ

3

_ __

D

11

¼ 0:2767Pa À m

3

The remaining elements of the D

ij

matrix are found in similar fashion:

D

ij

¼

0:2767 0:0620 0:1018

0:0620 2:513 0:0455

0:1018 0:0455 0:1059

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Pa À m

3

_ _

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The [ABD] matrix can now be assembled:

ABD ½ ¼

36:07 Â 10

6

4:012 Â 10

6

6:016 Â 10

6

À1524 À360:1 À752:1

4:012 Â 10

6

26:02 Â 10

6

2:690 Â 10

6

À360:1 2245 À336:2

6:016 Â 10

6

2:690 Â 10

6

7:756 Â 10

6

À752:1 À336:2 À360:1

À1524 À360:1 À752:1 0:2767 0:0620 0:1018

À360:1 2245 À336:2 0:0620 2:513 0:0455

À752:1 À336:2 À360:1 0:1018 0:0455 0:1059

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

The [abd] matrix is obtained by inverting the [ABD] matrix, and is found

to be:

abd ½ ¼

3:757 Â 10

À8

À1:964 Â 10

À9

À1:038 Â10

À8

1:440 Â 10

À4

3:905 Â 10

À6

8:513 Â 10

À5

À1:964 Â 10

À9

1:037 Â 10

À7

À4:234 Â10

À8

À1:866 Â 10

À5

À6:361 Â 10

À4

4:268 Â 10

4

À1:038 Â 10

À8

À4:234 Â 10

À8

2:004 Â10

À7

3:661 Â 10

À4

3:251 Â 10

À4

À1:851 Â 10

À5

1:440 Â 10

À4

À1:866 Â 10

À5

3:661 Â10

À4

7:064 À3:122 Â 10

À2

À4:572

3:905 Â 10

À6

À6:361 Â 10

À4

3:251 Â10

À4

À3:122 Â 10

À2

6:429 À3:620

8:513 Â 10

À5

4:268 Â 10

4

À1:851 Â10

À5

À4:572 À3:620 17:41

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Example Problem 5

A [30/0/90]

T

graphite-epoxy laminate is subjected to the following stress and

moment resultants:

N

xx

¼ 50 kN=m N

yy

¼ À10 kN=m N

xy

¼ 0 N=m

M

xx

¼ 1 N À m=m M

yy

¼ À1 N À m=m M

xy

¼ 0 N À m=m

Determine the following quantities caused by these stress and moment

resultants:

(a) Midplane strains and curvatures

(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system

(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system.

Use material properties listed for graphite-epoxy in Table 3 of Chap. 3

and assume that each ply has a thickness of 0.125 mm.

Solution. Note that this is the same laminate considered in Example

Problem 4. A side view of the laminate appears in Fig. 17.

(a) Midplane strains and curvatures. The [abd] matrix for this laminate

was calculated as a part of Example Problem 4. Hence, midplane strains

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

and curvature may be obtained through application of Eq. (38), which

becomes:

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

3:757 Â 10

À8

À1:964 Â 10

À9

À1:038 Â 10

À8

1:440 Â 10

À4

3:905 Â 10

À6

8:513 Â 10

À5

À1:964 Â 10

À9

1:037 Â 10

À7

À4:234 Â 10

À8

À1:866 Â 10

À5

À6:361 Â 10

À4

4:628 Â 10

4

À1:038 Â 10

À8

À4:234 Â 10

À8

2:004 Â 10

À7

3:661 Â 10

À4

3:251 Â 10

À4

À1:851 Â 10

À5

1:440 Â 10

À4

À1:866 Â 10

À5

3:661 Â 10

À4

7:064 À3:122 Â 10

À2

À4:572

3:905 Â 10

À6

À6:361 Â 10

À4

3:251 Â 10

À4

À3:122 Â 10

À2

6:429 À3:620

8:513 Â 10

À5

4:628 Â 10

4

À1:851 Â 10

À5

À4:572 À3:620 17:41

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Â

50 Â 10

3

À10 Â 10

À3

0

1

À1

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Completing this matrix multiplication, we obtain:

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

2039Am=m

À518Am=m

À55Arad

14:48m

À1

0:096m

À1

À1:323m

À1

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply strains may now be

calculated using Eq. (12). For example, strains present at the outer surface of

ply 1 (i.e., strains present at z

0

= À0.0001875 m) are:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_j

z ¼z

0

¼

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ z

0

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

2038 Â10

À6

m=m

À518 Â10

À6

m=m

À55 Â 10

À6

m=m

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þ À0:0001875m ð Þ

14:48rad=m

0:096rad=m

À1:328rad=m

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_

j

z ¼z

0

¼

À677Am=m

À536Am=m

194Arad

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Strains calculated at the remaining ply interface positions are summarized in

Table 5.

(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system. The Q

_ ¸

matrix for all

plies was calculated as a part of Example Problem 4. Ply stresses may now be

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

calculated using Eq. (30) of Chap. 5, with DT=DM=0. The stresses present

at the outer surface of ply 1 (i.e., at z=z

0

) are:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

0

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_

j

z ¼z

0

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

107:6 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

48:13 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

27:22 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

48:13 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

36:05 Â 10

9

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

À677 Â 10

À6

À536 Â 10

À6

194 Â 10

À6

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

j

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

À77:5MPa

À28:1MPa

À37:1MPa

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Stresses calculated at remaining ply interface positions are summarized

in Table 6.

Table 5 Ply Interface Strains in a [30/0/90] Graphite-Epoxy Laminate Caused

by the Stress and Moment Resultants Specified in Example Problem 5

z-coordinate (mm) e

xx

(Am/m) e

yy

(Am/m) c

xy

(Arad)

À0.1875 À677 À536 194

À0.0625 1133 À524 28

0.0625 2943 À512 À137

0.1875 4753 À500 À303

Strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.

Table 6 Ply Interface Stresses in a [30/0/90]

T

Graphite-Epoxy Laminate Caused

by the Stress and Moment Resultants Specified in Example Problem 5

Ply number z-coordinate (mm) r

xx

(MPa) r

yy

(MPa) s

xy

(MPa)

Ply 1 À0.1875 À77.5 À28.1 À37.1

À0.0625 109.7 15.9 44.3

Ply 2 À0.0625 192.1 À1.85 0.366

0.0625 501.5 3.73 À1.78

Ply 3 0.0625 28.0 À78.6 À1.78

0.1875 46.3 À71.1 À3.93

Stresses are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6.2 Including Changes in Environmental Conditions

Recall that we simpliﬁed the analysis leading up to Eq. (36) by assuming that

DT=DM=0. We will nowconsider howto predict the behavior of a laminate

subjected to a change in temperature and/or moisture content as well as

external mechanical loads.

To begin, the stresses in any ply (say, in ply number k) are related to ply

strains in accordance with Eq. (30) of Chap. 5:

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

k

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

21

Q

22

Q

26

Q

61

Q

62

Q

66

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

k

e

xx

ÀDTa

xx

ÀDMb

xx

e

yy

ÀDTa

yy

ÀDMb

yy

c

xy

ÀDTa

xy

ÀDMb

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

k

ðrepeatedÞ ð5:30Þ

Stress r

xx

in ply k is given by:

r

xx

¼ Q

11

e

xx

ÀDTa

xx

ÀDMb

xx

f g þ Q

12

e

yy

ÀDTa

yy

ÀDMb

xx

_ _

ð39Þ

þ Q

16

c

xy

ÀDTa

xy

ÀDMb

xy

_ _

Stress resultant N

xx

is related to r

xx

via Eq. (1a). Substituting Eq. (39) into Eq.

(1a), we have:

N

xx

¼

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

e

xx

þ Q

12

e

yy

þ Q

16

c

xy

_ _

k

dz

ÀDT

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

c

xy

_ _

k

dz ð40Þ

ÀDM

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

b

xx

þ Q

12

b

yy

þ Q

16

b

xy

_ _

k

dz

The ﬁrst integral on the right-hand side of the equality sign is identical to Eq.

(21), and after evaluation (using the same techniques as previously described)

will result in Eq. (26a). The second and third integrals were not previously

encountered because they involve DT and DM, which were previously

assumed to equal zero. Using methods similar to those used previously, it

can be shown that the second integral may be written as:

DT

_

t=2

Àt=2

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

c

xy

_ _

k

dz

¼ DT

n

k ¼1

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

This quantity is called a thermal stress resultant, and will be denoted N

xx

T

.

That is,

N

T

xx

¼ DT

n

k ¼1

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

ð41aÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Similarly, the third integral in Eq. (40) can be evaluated to give the moisture

stress resultant, denoted N

M

xx

:

N

M

xx

¼ DM

n

k ¼1

Q

11

b

xx

þ Q

12

b

yy

þ Q

16

b

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

ð42aÞ

Hence, after evaluating all integrals, Eq. (40) may be written as:

N

xx

¼ A

11

e

o

xx

þ A

12

e

o

yy

þ A

16

c

o

xy

þ B

11

j

xx

þ B

12

j

yy

þ B

16

j

xy

À N

T

xx

À N

M

xx

ð43aÞ

This result should be compared to Eq. (26a). It will be seen that the inclusion

of temperature and/or moisture changes has resulted in the addition of two

new terms (N

T

xx

and N

M

xx

); otherwise, our earlier results remain unchanged.

If an analogous procedure is now followed for the remaining stress and

moment resultants, using Eqs. (1b), (1c), (2a), (2b), and (2c), ﬁve additional

thermal stress/moment resultants and ﬁve additional moisture stress/moment

resultants will be identiﬁed, as follows:

N

T

yy

u DT

n

k ¼1

Q

12

a

xx

þ Q

22

a

yy

þ Q

26

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

ð41bÞ

N

T

xy

u DT

n

k ¼1

Q

16

a

xx

þ Q

26

a

yy

þ Q

66

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

ð41cÞ

M

T

xx

u

DT

2

n

k ¼1

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ ¸ _ _

ð41dÞ

M

T

yy

u

DT

2

n

k ¼1

Q

12

a

xx

þ Q

22

a

yy

þ Q

26

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ ¸ _ _

ð41eÞ

M

T

xy

u

DT

2

n

k ¼1

Q

16

a

xx

þ Q

26

a

yy

þ Q

66

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ ¸ _ _

ð41f Þ

N

M

yy

u DM

n

k ¼1

Q

12

b

xx

þ Q

22

b

yy

þ Q

26

b

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

ð42bÞ

N

M

xy

u DM

n

k ¼1

Q

16

b

xx

þ Q

26

b

yy

þ Q

66

b

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

ð42cÞ

M

M

xx

u

DM

2

n

k ¼1

Q

11

b

xx

þ Q

12

b

yy

þ Q

16

b

xy

_ ¸

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ ¸

_ _

ð42dÞ

M

M

yy

u

DM

2

n

k ¼1

Q

12

b

xx

þ Q

22

b

yy

þ Q

26

b

xy

_ ¸

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ ¸

_ _

ð42eÞ

M

M

xy

u

DM

2

n

k ¼1

Q

16

b

xx

þ Q

26

b

yy

þ Q

66

b

xy

_ ¸

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ ¸

_ _

ð42f Þ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

In each case, the corresponding thermal and moisture resultants will be

subtracted from the right-hand side of Equations (26a) (26b) (26c) and

(33a) (33b) (33c)) and (26a) (26b) (26c) and (33a) (33b) (33c). Finally, the

response of a composite laminate subjected to mechanical loads, a change in

temperature, and a change in moisture content can be written in a formsimilar

to Eq. (36):

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

A

16

B

11

B

12

B

16

A

12

A

22

A

26

B

12

B

22

B

26

A

16

A

26

A

66

B

16

B

26

B

66

B

11

B

12

B

16

D

11

D

12

D

16

B

12

B

22

B

26

D

12

D

22

D

26

B

16

B

26

B

66

D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

N

T

xy

M

T

xx

M

T

yy

M

T

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

N

M

xy

M

M

xx

M

M

yy

M

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð44Þ

Equation (44) will sometimes be abbreviated as:

N

M

_ _

¼

A B

B D

_ _

e

o

j

_ _

À

N

T

M

T

_ _

À

N

M

M

M

_ _

Equation (44) is comparable to Eq. (36), except we have now included the

eﬀects due to a change in temperature and/or moisture content. Equation (44)

can be viewed as ‘‘Hooke’s law’’ for a composite laminate, in the sense that it

may be used to relate stresslike quantities (i.e., stress and moment resultants)

to strainlike quantities (i.e., midplane strains and curvatures). Inverting Eq.

(44), we obtain:

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

a

16

b

11

b

12

b

16

a

12

a

22

a

26

b

21

b

22

b

26

a

16

a

26

a

66

b

61

b

62

b

66

b

11

b

21

b

61

d

11

d

12

d

16

b

12

b

22

b

62

d

12

d

22

d

26

b

16

b

26

b

66

d

16

d

26

d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

þ N

T

xy

þ N

M

xy

M

xx

þ M

T

xx

þ M

M

xx

M

yy

þ M

T

yy

þ M

M

yy

M

xy

þ M

T

xy

þ M

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð45Þ

where, as before:

a b

b d

_ _

¼

A B

B D

_ _

À1

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

A subtlety embedded fact within the preceding discussion is that most

composites are subjected to a signiﬁcant state of stress prior to the application

of any external mechanical loading. That is, most modern composite material

systems are cured at an elevated temperature (common cure temperatures are

either 120jCor 175jC), and are nominally stress-free at the cure temperature.

Once the polymerization process is complete, the composite is cooled to room

temperatures (say, 20jC) and, consequently, the composite experiences a

uniformchange in temperature of DT=À100jCor À155jCduring cooldown.

In general, this change in temperature results in thermal stress and/or moment

resultants to develop, causing thermal stresses within all plies of the laminate.

These thermal stresses can be quite high, and contribute toward failure of the

laminate.*

A further complicating factor is related to measurement of strains. In

most practical situations, strain measurement devices (e.g., resistance foil

strain gages) are bonded to a composite material or structure after cooldown to

room temperature. Hence, in practice, the reference state of a strain measure-

ment device mounted on a laminate at roomtemperature does not necessarily

correspond to the stress-free (or strain-free) state of the composite. This

complication will be further explored in Chap. 7. At this point, it will simply

be noted that a signiﬁcant diﬃculty arises when prediction of nonlinear

behavior (or more generally, the prediction of composite failure) is required

based on measured laminate strains.

Example Problem 6

A [30/0/90]

T

graphite-epoxy laminate is cured at 175jC and then cooled to

room temperature (20 jC). Determine:

(a) Midplane strains and curvatures

(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system

(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system

which are induced during cooldown. Use material properties listed for

graphite-epoxy in Table 3 of Chap. 3, assume that each ply has a thickness

of 0.125 mm, and assume no change in moisture content (i.e., assume DM=0).

* Determination of the ‘‘stress-free temperature’’ is actually more complex than is implied here.

It is true that thermal stresses begin to develop as cooldown begins, but because polymeric

materials exhibit viscoelastic characteristics at these elevated temperatures, the matrix will

creep, initially relieving thermal stresses somewhat. As temperature is decreased further, the

viscoelastic nature of the matrix is rapidly decreased, and thermal stresses develop as described.

A second factor is that all polymers exhibit some shrinkage during the polymerization process

(see Sec. 1.2), and this shrinkage results in additional stresses similar to thermal stresses. As a

rule of thumb, the stress-free temperature is often estimated to be 20–50jC below the ﬁnal cure

temperature. Nevertheless, this complication will be ignored in this text; it will be assumed that

the ﬁnal cure temperature deﬁnes the stress-free temperature.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Solution. Note that this is the same laminate considered in Sample Problem

4. A side view of the laminate appears in Fig. 17.

(a) Midplane strains and curvatures. The laminate has experienced a

change in temperature DT = (20–175) = À155jC and, consequently, is sub-

jected thermal stress and moment resultants. However, no external loads are

applied and there has been no change in moisture content; therefore, the stress

and moment resultants and the moisture stress and moment results are zero:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

N

M

xy

M

M

xx

M

M

yy

M

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

0

0

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

The eﬀective thermal expansion coeﬃcients for each ply are calculated using

Eq. (25) of Chap. 5, repeated here for convenience:

a

xx

¼ a

11

cos

2

h ð Þ þ a

22

sin

2

h ð Þ

a

yy

¼ a

11

sin

2

h ð Þ þ a

22

cos

2

h ð Þ

a

xy

¼ 2cos h ð Þsin h ð Þ a

11

À a

22

ð Þ

ð5:25Þ

From Table 3 of Chap. 3, the thermal expansion coeﬃcients for graphite-

epoxy (relative to the 1–2 coordinate system) are a

11

= À0.9 Am/m jC and

a

22

= 27Am/m jC. Therefore:

For ply 1 (the 30j ply):

a

1 ð Þ

xx

¼ À0:9Am=m À

B

C ð Þ cos

2

30

B

ð Þ þ 27Am=m À

B

C ð Þ sin

2

30

B

ð Þ

¼ 6:08Am=m À

B

C

a

1 ð Þ

yy

¼ À0:9Am=m À

B

C ð Þ sin

2

30

B

ð Þ þ 27Am=m À

B

C ð Þ cos

2

30

B

ð Þ

¼ 20:0Am=m À

B

C

a

1 ð Þ

xy

¼ 2cos 30 ð Þ sin 30 ð Þ À0:9 À 27 ð ÞAm=m À

B

C ½ ¼ À24:2Arad=

B

C

For ply 2 (the 0j ply):

a

2 ð Þ

xx

¼ À0:9Am=m À

B

C ð Þ cos

2

0

B

ð Þ þ 27Am=m À

B

C ð Þ sin

2

0

B

ð Þ

¼ À0:9Am=m À

B

C

a

2 ð Þ

yy

¼ À0:9Am=m À

B

C ð Þ sin

2

0

B

ð Þ þ 27Am=m À

B

C ð Þ cos

2

0

B

ð Þ

¼ 27:0Am=m À

B

C

a

2 ð Þ

xy

¼ 2cos 0

B

ð Þ sin 0

B

ð Þ À0:9 À 27 ð ÞAm=m À

B

C ½ ¼ 0Arad=

B

C

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

For ply 3 (the 90j ply):

a

3 ð Þ

xx

¼ À0:9Am=m À

B

C ð Þ cos

2

90

B

ð Þ þ 27Am=m À

B

C ð Þ sin

2

90

B

ð Þ

¼ 27:0Am=m À

B

C

a

3 ð Þ

yy

¼ À0:9Am=m À

B

C ð Þ sin

2

90

B

ð Þ þ 27Am=m À

B

C ð Þ cos

2

90

B

ð Þ

¼ À0:9Am=m À

B

C

a

3 ð Þ

xy

¼ 2cos 90

B

ð Þ sin 90

B

ð Þ À0:9 À 27 ð ÞAm=m À

B

C ½ ¼ 0Arad=

B

C

Both the ply interface positions as well as the Q

ij

matrices for each ply were

calculated as a part of Example Problem 4. Hence, we now have all the

information needed to calculate the thermal stress and moment resultants,

using Eqs. (41a)–(41f). For example, Eq. (41a) is evaluated as follows:

N

T

xx

u DT

n

k ¼1

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

N

T

xx

¼ DT

__

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

1

z

1

À z

0

½

_

þ

_

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

2

z

2

À z

1

½

_

þ Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

3

z

3

À z

2

½

_ __

N

T

xx

¼ À155 ð Þ

_

107:6 Â10

9

_ _

6:08 Â 10

À6

_ _

þ 26:06 Â 10

9

_ _

20:0 Â 10

À6

_ _ _ _

þ 48:13 Â 10

9

_ _

À24:2 Â 10

À6

_ _¸_

À0:0625 þ 0:1875 ð Þ Â10

À3

¸_

þ 170:9 Â 10

9

_ _

À0:9 Â 10

À6

_ _

þ 3:016 Â10

9

_ _

27:0 Â 10

À6

_ _ _ _

þ 0 ð Þ 0 ð Þ

¸_

0:0625 þ0:0625 ð Þ Â 10

À3

¸_

þ 10:05 Â10

9

_ _

27 Â 10

À6

_ _ _ _

þ 3:016 Â 10

9

_ _

À0:9 Â 10

À6

_ _

þ 0 ð Þ 0 ð Þ

¸_

0:1875 À0:0625 ð Þ Â 10

À3

¸_

_

N

T

xx

¼ 4060N=m

The remaining thermal stress and moment resultants are calculated in similar

fashion, eventually resulting in:

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

N

T

xy

M

T

xx

M

T

yy

M

T

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

À4060N=m

À7360N=m

2860N=m

À0:62N À m=m

0:62N À m=m

À0:36N À m=m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

We can now calculate midplane strains and curvature using Eq. (45), which

becomes:*

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

3:757 Â 10

À8

À1:964 Â 10

À9

À1:038 Â 10

À8

1:440 Â 10

À4

3:905 Â 10

À6

8:513 Â 10

À5

À1:964 Â 10

À9

1:037 Â 10

À7

À4:234 Â 10

À8

À1:866 Â 10

À5

À6:361 Â 10

À4

4:628 Â 10

4

À1:038 Â 10

À8

À4:234 Â 10

À8

2:004 Â 10

À7

3:661 Â 10

À4

3:251 Â 10

À4

À1:851 Â 10

À5

1:440 Â 10

À4

À1:866 Â 10

À5

3:661 Â 10

À4

7:064 À3:122 Â 10

À2

À4:572

3:905 Â 10

À6

À6:361 Â 10

À4

3:251 Â 10

À4

À3:122 Â 10

À2

6:429 À3:620

8:513 Â 10

À5

4:628 Â 10

4

À1:851 Â 10

À5

À4:572 À3:620 17:41

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Â

À4060

À7360

2860

À0:62

0:62

À0:36

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

À285Am=m

À1424Am=m

908Arad

À2:16m

À1

10:9m

À1

À9:4m

À1

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply strains may nowbe

calculated using Eq. (12). For example, strains present at the outer surface of

ply 1 (i.e., strains present at z

o

=À0.0001875 m) are:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z ¼z

0

¼

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ z

0

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¼

À285 Â 10

À6

m=m

À1424 Â 10

À6

m=m

908 Â 10

À6

m=m

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

þ À0:0001875m ð Þ

À2:16rad=m

10:9rad=m

À9:4rad=m

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

*The [abd] matrix for a [30/0/90]

T

graphite-epoxy laminate was calculated in Sample Problem 3.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z ¼z

0

¼

120Am=m

À3468Am=m

2672Am=m

_

_

_

_

_

_

Strains calculated at the remaining ply interface positions are summa-

rized in Table 7.

(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply stresses may now

be calculated using Eq. (30) of Chap. 5, with DM=0. The stresses present at

the outer surface of ply 1 are (i.e., at z=z

0

):

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 1

z ¼z

0

e

xx

ÀDTa

xx

e

yy

ÀDTa

yy

c

xy

ÀDTa

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z ¼z

0

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 1

z¼z

0

¼

107:6 Â10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

48:13 Â 10

9

26:06 Â10

9

27:22 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

48:13 Â10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

36:05 Â 10

9

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Â

ð120Þ À ðÀ155Þð6:08Þ ½ Â 10

À6

ðÀ3468Þ À ðÀ155Þð20:0Þ ½ Â 10

À6

ð2672Þ À ðÀ155ÞðÀ24:2Þ ½ Â 10

À6

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

53MPa

À5:2MPa

4:8MPa

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Stresses calculated at the remaining plies and ply interface positions are

summarized in Table 8.

Table 7 Ply Interface Strains in a [30/0/90]

T

Graphite-Epoxy

Laminate Caused by a Cooldown from 175jC to 20jC

z-coordinate (mm) e

xx

(Am/m) e

yy

(Am/m) c

xy

(Arad)

À0.1875 120 À3468 2672

À0.0625 À150 À2100 1500

0.0625 À420 À750 320

0.1875 À690 620 À860

Strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Example Problem 7

A [30/0/90]

T

graphite-epoxy laminate is cured at 175 jC and cooled to room

temperature (20 jC). Initially, the moisture content of the laminate is zero.

However, the laminate is subjected to a humid environment for several weeks,

resulting in an increase of moisture content of 0.5% (by weight). Determine:

(a) Midplane strains and curvatures

(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system

(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system

which are present following the increase in moisture content. Use material

properties listed for graphite-epoxy in Table 3 of Chap. 3, and assume that

each ply has a thickness of 0.125 mm.

Solution. Note that this is the same laminate considered in Sample Problem

6, and the midplane strains and curvatures, ply strains, and ply stresses that

will be induced immediately upon cooldown by the change in temperature

have already been calculated. These quantities will all be modiﬁed due to the

slow diﬀusion of water molecules into the epoxy matrix.

(a) Midplane strains and curvatures. The laminate has experienced a change

in moisture content DM=+0.5% and, consequently, is subjected moisture

stress and moment resultants. The eﬀective moisture expansion coeﬃcients

for each ply are calculated using Eq. (28) of Chap. 5, repeated here for

convenience:

b

xx

¼ b

11

cos

2

ðhÞ þ b

22

sin

2

ðhÞ

b

yy

¼ b

11

sin

2

ðhÞ þ b

22

cos

2

ðhÞ ð5:28Þ

b

xy

¼ 2cosðhÞsinðhÞðb

11

À b

22

Þ

Table 8 Ply Interface Stresses in a [30/0/90]

T

Graphite-Epoxy

Laminate Caused by a Cooldown from 175jC to 20jC

Ply number z-coordinate (mm) r

xx

(MPa) r

yy

(MPa) s

xy

(MPa)

Ply 1 À0.1875 53 À5.2 4.8

À0.0625 3.1 À0.53 À21

Ply 2 À0.0625 À43 20 19

0.0625 À85 33 4.1

Ply 3 0.0625 35 À140 4.1

0.1875 37 92 À11

Stresses are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

From Table 3 of Chap. 3, the moisture expansion coeﬃcients for graphite-

epoxy (relative to the 1–2 coordinate system) are b

11

=150 Am/m %M and

b

22

=4800 Am/m %M. Therefore:

For ply 1 (the 30j ply):

b

ð1Þ

xx

¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ cos

2

ð30

B

Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ sin

2

ð30

B

Þ

¼ 1310Am=mÀ %M

b

ð1Þ

yy

¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞsin

2

ð30

B

Þ þ ð4800Am=m À%MÞcos

2

ð30

B

Þ

¼ 3640Am=mÀ %M

b

ð1Þ

xy

¼ 2cosð30Þsinð30Þ ð150 À4800ÞAm=m À %M ½ ¼À4030Arad=%M

For ply 2 (the 0j ply):

b

ð2Þ

xx

¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ cos

2

ð0

B

Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ sin

2

ð0

B

Þ

¼ 150Am=mÀ %M

b

ð2Þ

yy

¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ sin

2

ð0

B

Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ cos

2

ð0

B

Þ

¼ 4800Am=mÀ %M

b

ð2Þ

xy

¼ 2cosð0

B

Þ sinð0

B

Þ ð150 À 4800ÞAm=m À %M ½ ¼ 0Arad=%M

For ply 3 (the 90j ply):

b

ð3Þ

xx

¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ cos

2

ð90

B

Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ sin

2

ð90

B

Þ

¼ 4800Am=m À %M

b

ð3Þ

yy

¼ ð150Am=m À %MÞ sin

2

ð90

B

Þ þ ð4800Am=m À %MÞ cos

2

ð90

B

Þ

¼ 150Am=m À %M

b

ð3Þ

xy

¼ 2cosð90

B

Þsinð90

B

Þ ð150 À 4800Þ Am=m À %M ½ ¼ 0Arad=%M

Both the ply interface positions as well at the [Q] matrices for each ply were

calculated as a part of Example Problem 4. Hence, we now have all the

information needed to calculate the moisture stress and moment resultants,

using Eqs. (42a)–(42f). For example, Eq. (42a) is evaluated as follows:

N

M

xx

¼ DM

3

k ¼1

Q

11

b

xx

þ Q

12

b

yy

þ Q

16

b

xy

_ ¸

k

z

k

À z

kÀ1

½

_ _

N

M

xx

¼ DM Q

11

b

xx

þ Q

12

b

yy

þ Q

16

b

xy

_ ¸

1

z

1

À z

0

½

_ _ _

þ Q

11

b

xx

þ Q

12

b

yy

þ Q

16

b

xy

_ ¸

2

z

2

À z

1

½

_ _

þ Q

11

b

xx

þ Q

12

b

yy

þ Q

16

b

xy

_ ¸

3

z

3

À z

2

½

_ __

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

N

M

xx

¼ ðþ0:5Þ ð½ð107:6 Â10

9

Þð1312 Â 10

À6

Þ

_

þð26:06 Â 10

9

Þð3638 Â 10

À6

Þ þ ð48:13 Â 10

9

ÞðÀ4027 Â10

À6

Þ

Â½ðÀ0:0625 þ 0:1875Þ Â10

À3

Þ þ ð½ð170:9 Â 10

9

Þð150 Â10

À6

Þ

þð3:016 Â 10

9

Þð4800 Â 10

À6

Þ þ ð0Þð0Þ½ð0:0625 þ 0:0625Þ

Â10

À3

Þ þ ð½ð10:05 Â10

9

Þð4800 Â 10

À6

Þ þ ð3:016 Â 10

9

Þ

Âð150 Â10

À6

Þ þ ð0Þð0Þ½ð0:1875 À 0:0625Þ Â10

À3

Þ

_

N

T

xx

¼ 8190 N=M

The remaining thermal stress and moment resultants are calculated in similar

fashion, eventually resulting in:

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

N

T

xy

M

T

xx

M

T

yy

M

T

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

8190 N=m

8460 N=m

À233 N=m

0:05 N À m=m

À0:05 N À m=m

0:03 N À m=m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

We can now calculate midplane strains and curvatures using Eq. (45), which

becomes:

*

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

3:757 Â 10

À8

À1:964 Â 10

À9

À1:038 Â 10

À8

1:440 Â 10

À4

3:905 Â 10

À6

8:153 Â 10

À5

À1:964 Â 10

À9

1:037 Â 10

À7

À4:234 Â 10

À8

À1:866 Â 10

À5

À6:361 Â 10

À4

4:628 Â 10

4

À1:038 Â 10

À8

À4:234 Â 10

À8

2:004 Â 10

À7

3:661 Â 10

À4

3:251 Â 10

À4

À1:851 Â 10

À5

1:440 Â 10

À4

À1:866 Â 10

À5

3:661 Â 10

À4

7:064 À3:122 Â 10

À2

À4:572

3:905 Â 10

À6

À6:361 Â 10

À4

3:251 Â 10

À4

À3:122 Â 10

À2

6:429 À3:620

8:513 Â 10

À5

4:628 Â 10

4

À1:851 Â 10

À5

À4:572 À3:620 17:41

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Â

À4060 þ 8190

À7360 þ 8460

2860 À 233

À0:62 þ 0:05

0:62 À 0:05

À0:36 þ 0:03

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

*

The [abd] matrix for a [30/0/90]

T

graphite-epoxy laminate was calculated in Sample Problem

3, and the thermal stress and moment resultants were calculated in Sample Problem 5.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

18Am=m

À509Am=m

420Arad

À1:0m

À1

5:0m

À1

À4:4m

À1

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(b) Ply strains relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply strains may now be

calculated using Eq. (12). For example, strains present at the outer surface of

ply 1 (i.e., strains present at z

0

=À0.0001875 m) are:

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z¼z

0

¼

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þ z

0

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¼

18 Â 10

À6

m=m

À509 Â 10

À6

m=m

420 Â 10

À6

m=m

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

þ À0:0001875m ð Þ

Â

À1:0rad=m

5:0rad=m

À4:4rad=m

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

e

xx

e

yy

c

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z¼z

0

¼

206Am=m

À1450Am=m

1240Am=m

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

Strains calculated at the remaining ply interface positions are summa-

rized in Table 9.

Table 9 Ply Interface Strains in a [30/0/90]

T

Graphite-Epoxy Laminate

Caused by the Combined Effects of Cooldown from 175jC to 20jC

and an Increase in Moisture Content of +0.5%

z-coordinate (mm) e

xx

(Am/m) e

yy

(Am/m) c

xy

(Arad)

À0.1875 206 À1450 1240

À0.0625 80 À820 690

0.0625 À44 À190 150

0.1875 À170 440 À400

Strains are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

(c) Ply stresses relative to the x–y coordinate system. Ply stresses may nowbe

calculated using Eq. (30) of Chap. 5. The stresses present at the outer surface

of ply 1 are (i.e., at z=z

0

):

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

Q

11

Q

12

Q

16

Q

12

Q

22

Q

26

Q

16

Q

26

Q

66

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 1

z ¼z

0

e

xx

ÀDTa

xx

ÀDMb

xx

e

yy

ÀDTa

yy

ÀDMb

yy

c

xy

ÀDTa

xy

ÀDMb

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z ¼z

0

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

107:6 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

48:13 Â 10

9

26:06 Â 10

9

27:22 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

48:13 Â 10

9

21:52 Â 10

9

36:05 Â 10

9

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

Â

ð206Þ À ðÀ155Þð6:08Þ À ð0:5Þð1312Þ ½ Â 10

À6

ðÀ1450Þ À ðÀ155Þð20:0Þ À ð0:5Þð3638Þ ½ Â 10

À6

ð1240Þ À ðÀ155ÞðÀ24:2Þ À ð0:5ÞðÀ4027Þ ½ Â10

À6

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

r

xx

r

yy

s

xy

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ply 1

z ¼z

0

¼

25MPa

À2:4MPa

2:2MPa

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

Stresses calculated at the remaining plies and ply interface positions are

summarized in Table 10.

Acomparison of the results obtained in Example Problems 6 and 7 leads

to the following observation: The initial ply stresses and strains caused by

cooldown fromcure temperatures to roomtemperatures are partially relieved

Table 10 Ply Interface Stresses in a [30/0/90]

T

Graphite-Epoxy Laminate

Caused by the Combined Effects of Cooldown from 175jC to 20jC

and an Increase in Moisture Content of +0.5%

Ply number z-coordinate (mm) r

xx

(MPa) r

yy

(MPa) s

xy

(MPa)

Ply 1 À0.1875 25 À2.2 2.2

À0.0625 1.4 À0.24 À9.9

Ply 2 À0.0625 À20 9.3 9.0

0.0625 À40 15 1.9

Ply 3 0.0625 16 À65 1.9

0.1875 17 43 À5.2

Stressed are referenced to the x–y coordinate system.

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

by the subsequent adsorption of moisture. Although the interaction between

temperature and moisture eﬀects obviously depends on the details of the

situation (material properties involved, stacking sequence, magnitudes of DT

and DM, etc.), this observation is often true. That is, the thermal stresses

predicted to develop in a multiangle laminate during cooldown are usually

predicted to be relieved somewhat by subsequent adsorption of moisture.

7 SIMPLIFICATIONS DUE TO STACKING SEQUENCE

Eqs. (44) and (45) summarize the response of a multiangle composite laminate

due to the combined eﬀects of uniform mechanical loading, uniform changes

in temperature, and/or uniform changes in moisture content. The primary

objective of this section is to show that these equations may be substantially

simpliﬁed through proper selection of the laminate stacking sequence. Before

these simpliﬁcations are discussed, however, it is illustrative to consider the

simplest case of all-speciﬁcally, let us consider Eqs. (44) and (45) when applied

to a plate of total thickness t made from an isotropic material.

Recall that for isotropic materials, all properties are independent of

direction. For present purposes, let:

E

11

¼ E

22

¼ E

m

12

¼ m

21

¼ m

G

12

¼ G

a

11

¼ a

22

¼ a

b

11

¼ b

22

¼ b

Also recall that for isotropic materials, only two of the elastic moduli are

independent. That is:

G ¼

E

2ð1 þ mÞ

If these interrelations between material properties are enforced, then Eq. (44)

reduces to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 0 0 0

A

12

A

11

0 0 0 0

0 0

A

11

À A

12

2

_ _

0 0 0

0 0 0 D

11

D

12

0

0 0 0 D

12

D

11

0

0 0 0 0 0

D

11

À D

12

2

_ _

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

N

T

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

N

M

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(46)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

where:

A

11

¼

Et

1 À m

2

A

12

¼ mA

11

¼

mEt

1 À m

2

D

11

¼ D

22

¼

Et

3

12ð1 À m

2

Þ

D

12

¼ mD

11

¼

mEt

3

12ð1 À m

2

Þ

D

66

¼

ðD

11

À D

12

Þ

2

¼

Et

3

24ð1 þ mÞ

N

T

¼ DT

Eta

ð1 À mÞ

_ _

N

M

¼ DM

Etb

ð1 À mÞ

_ _

The constant D

11

is often called the ﬂexural rigidity of an isotropic plate.

Taking the inverse of Eq. (46), we ﬁnd:

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

0 0 0 0

a

12

a

11

0 0 0 0

0 0 2 a

11

À a

12

ð Þ 0 0 0

0 0 0 d

11

d

12

0

0 0 0 d

12

d

11

0

0 0 0 0 0 2 d

11

À d

12

ð Þ

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

þ N

M

N

yy

þ N

T

þ N

M

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð47Þ

where:

a

11

¼

1

A

11

1 À m

2

ð Þ

¼

1

Et

a

12

¼ Àma

11

Àm

A

11

1 À m

2

ð Þ

¼

Àm

Et

d

11

¼ d

22

¼

1

D

11

1 À m

2

ð Þ

¼

12

Et

3

d

12

¼ Àmd

11

¼

Àm

D

11

1 À m

2

ð Þ

¼

À12m

Et

3

d

66

¼ 2 d

11

À d

12

ð Þ ¼

24 1 þ m ð Þ

Et

3

Comparing Eqs. (44) and (45) with Eqs. (46) and (47), it is apparent that

multiangle composite laminates may exhibit unusual coupling eﬀects, as

compared to the more familiar behavior of isotropic plates. For example,

referring to Eq. (45), it can be seen that application of a normal stress resultant

N

xx

will (in general) induce a midplane shear strain cj

xy

and curvatures j

xx

,

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

j

yy

, and j

xy

, due to the presence of the a

16

, b

11

, b

12

, and b

16

terms, respectively.

Physically, these means that a uniformin-plane uniaxial loading will cause in-

plane shear strains as well as out-of-plane curvatures in a composite plate (i.e.,

the plate will bend). These couplings do not exist for isotropic panels, as

indicated by Eq. (47).

Unusual couplings between thermal resultants and laminate strains and

curvatures also exist, and are immediately apparent in practice. As previously

discussed, most modern composite material systems are cured at elevated

temperatures and are subsequently cooled to room temperatures. Therefore,

thermal stress and moment resultants (N

ij

T

and M

ij

T

, respectively) develop

during cooldown. Equation (45) shows that the thermal stress resultants N

ij

T

and M

ij

T

will cause curvatures j

xx

, j

yy

, and j

xy

to develop upon cooldown.

Physically, this means that (in general) a composite laminate that is ﬂat at the

elevated cure temperature will bend and warp as it is cooled to room

temperature. Coupling eﬀects due to moisture stress and moment resultants,

N

ij

T

and M

ij

T

, are analogous to those associated with thermal stress and

moment resultants. Thus, even if a composite laminate is cured and used at

the same temperature (so that N

ij

T

=M

ij

T

=0), the laminate may still bend or

warp if the surrounding humidity causes the moisture content of the laminate

to change with time.

Because coupling eﬀects greatly complicate the design of composite

structures, it is of interest to determine whether these coupling eﬀects can be

reduced or eliminated. It will be seen that it is indeed possible to reduce or

eliminate many of these coupling eﬀects through proper selection of the

laminate stacking sequence. Common stacking sequences used to eliminate

coupling eﬀects are described in separate sections below.

7.1 Symmetrical Laminates

A symmetrical laminate is one that possesses both geometrical and material

symmetry about the midplane. In a symmetrical laminate, plies located

symmetrically about the laminate midplane are of the same material, have

the same thickness, and have the same ﬁber angle. Several examples of

symmetrical stacking sequences have been previously shown in Fig. 12. For

a symmetrical n-ply laminate, the material and ﬁber angle used in ply 1 is

identical to that used in ply n, the material and ﬁber angle used in ply 2 is

identical to that used ply n-1, etc.

Use of a symmetrical stacking sequence results in three major simpli-

ﬁcations to Eqs. (44) and (45). Speciﬁcally, for a symmetrical laminate:

All coupling stiﬀnesses equal zero (B

ij

=0).

All thermal moment resultants equal zero (M

ij

T

=0).

All moisture moment resultants equal zero (M

ij

M

=0).

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

To demonstrate that coupling stiﬀnesses are zero for a symmetrical

laminate, consider the coupling stiﬀness B

11

. From Eq. (27b), B

11

is given by:

B

11

¼

1

2

n

k¼1

Q

11

_ _

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ _

In expanded form, B

11

is given by:

B

11

¼

1

2

Q

11

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

_

þ

: : :

þ Q

11

_ _

nÀ2

z

2

nÀ2

À z

2

nÀ3

_ ¸

þ Q

11

_ _

nÀ1

z

2

nÀ1

À z

2

nÀ2

_ ¸

ð48Þ

þ Q

11

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

g

Because the laminate is assumed to be symmetrical, it must be that:

Q

11

_ _

1

¼ Q

11

_ _

n

Q

11

_ _

2

¼ Q

11

_ _

nÀ1

ð49aÞ

Q

11

_ _

3

¼ Q

11

_ _

nÀ2

Á

Á

Á

etc:

Also, due to symmetry, the ply interface positions are located symmetrically

about the midplane, and hence (recalling that z

0

<0 and z

n

>0):

z

0

¼ Àz

n

z

1

¼ Àz

nÀ1

z

2

¼ Àz

nÀ2

ð49bÞ

Á

Á

Á

etc:

Together, the relations listed as Eqs. (49a) and (49b) imply that for any

symmetrical laminate:

Q

11

_ _

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

¼ À Q

11

_ _

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

Q

11

_ _

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

¼ À Q

11

_ _

nÀ1

z

2

nÀ1

À z

2

nÀ2

_ ¸

ð50Þ

Q

11

_ _

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

¼ À Q

11

_ _

nÀ2

z

2

nÀ2

À z

2

nÀ3

_ ¸

Á

Á

Á

etc:

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Substituting Eq. (50) into Eq. (48), it is seen that B

11

=0. Similar results may

be demonstrated for all other coupling stiﬀnesses, and hence B

ij

= 0 for any

symmetrical laminate, as stated.

To demonstrate that thermal moment resultants are zero for a symmet-

rical laminate, consider the thermal moment resultant M

T

xx

. From Eq. (42d),

M

T

xx

is given by:

M

T

xx

¼

DT

2

n

k ¼1

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

k

z

2

k

À z

2

kÀ1

_ ¸ _ _

In expanded form, M

T

xx

is given by:

M

T

xx

¼

DT

2

_

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

þ Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

þ Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

þ. . . . . . ð51Þ

þ Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

nÀ2

z

2

nÀ2

À z

2

nÀ3

_ ¸

þ Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

nÀ1

z

2

nÀ1

À z

2

nÀ2

_ ¸

þ Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

_

Because the laminate is assumed to be symmetrical, it must be that:

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

1

z

2

1

À z

2

0

_ ¸

¼ À Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

n

z

2

n

À z

2

nÀ1

_ ¸

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

2

z

2

2

À z

2

1

_ ¸

¼ À Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

nÀ1

z

2

nÀ1

À z

2

nÀ2

_ ¸

Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

3

z

2

3

À z

2

2

_ ¸

¼ À Q

11

a

xx

þ Q

12

a

yy

þ Q

16

a

xy

_ ¸

nÀ2

z

2

nÀ2

À z

2

nÀ3

_ ¸

Substituting Eq. (52) into Eq. (51), it is seen that M

xx

T

=0 for a symmetrical

laminate. Similar results may be demonstrated for M

yy

T

and M

xy

T

, and

hence all thermal moment resultants equal zero for any symmetrical lami-

nate, as stated. Therefore, a symmetrical laminate will not bend or warp

when subjected to a uniform change in temperature. In particular, a sym-

metrical laminate will not warp or bend during cooldown from the cure

temperature.

(52)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

An identical procedure may be used to prove that all moisture moment

resultants are zero for a symmetrical laminate.

In summary then, for symmetrical laminates, Eqs. (44) and (45) reduce

to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

A

16

0 0 0

A

12

A

22

A

26

0 0 0

A

16

A

26

A

66

0 0 0

0 0 0 D

11

D

12

D

16

0 0 0 D

12

D

22

D

26

0 0 0 D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

N

T

xy

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

N

M

xy

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

a

16

0 0 0

a

12

a

22

a

26

0 0 0

a

16

a

26

a

66

0 0 0

0 0 0 d

11

d

12

d

16

0 0 0 d

12

d

22

d

26

0 0 0 d

16

d

26

d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

þ N

T

xy

þ N

M

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð53bÞ

Due to these dramatical simpliﬁcations, symmetrical laminates are

almost always used in practice. In those rare circumstances in which the use

of a nonsymmetrical laminate is required for some reason, it is best to place

the nonsymmetrical ply (or plies) at or near the laminate midplane, which

will minimize the coupling stiﬀnesses and thermal and moisture moment

resultants.

It is noted in passing that unidirectional composite laminates [h]

n

are

symmetrical and hence B

ij

=M

ij

T

=M

ij

M

=0 for unidirectional laminates. In

addition, for the case of [0j]

n

or [90j]

n

laminates, A

16

=A

26

=D

16

=D

26

=N

T

xy

=N

M

xy

¼ 0.

7.2 Cross-Ply Laminates

Composite laminates that contain plies with ﬁber angles of 0j or 90j only are

called ‘‘cross-ply’’ laminates. Inspection of Eq. (31) of Chap. 5 reveals that for

any 0j or 90j ply, Q

16

=Q

26

¼ 0. From(Eq. (27a) (27b) and (34) it is seen that

A

16

, A

26

, B

16

, B

26

, D

16

, and D

26

all involve a summation of terms involving Q

16

and Q

26

, and hence all of these terms also equal zero for cross-ply laminates.

Furthermore, fromEq. (25) of Chap. 5, it is seen that a

xy

=0 for any 0j or 90j

ply, and fromEq. (38) of Chap. 5 that b

xy

=0 for any 0j or 90j ply. FromEqs.

(42c), (42d), (42e), and (42f), it is seen that N

T

xy

¼ M

T

xy

¼ N

M

xy

¼ M

M

xy

¼ 0 for

(53a)

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

cross-ply laminates (because Q

16

¼ Q

26

¼ a

xy

¼ b

xy

¼ 0Þ . For cross-ply

laminates then, Eqs. (44) and (45) reduce to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 B

11

B

12

0

A

12

A

22

0 B

12

B

22

0

0 0 A

66

0 0 B

66

B

11

B

12

0 D

11

D

12

0

B

12

B

22

0 D

12

D

22

0

0 0 B

66

0 0 D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

0

M

T

xx

M

T

yy

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

0

M

M

xx

M

M

yy

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð54aÞ

and

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

0 b

11

b

12

0

a

12

a

22

0 b

21

b

22

0

0 0 a

66

0 0 b

66

b

11

b

21

0 d

11

d

12

0

b

12

b

22

0 d

12

d

22

0

0 0 b

66

0 0 d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

M

xx

þ M

T

xx

þ M

M

xx

M

yy

þ M

T

yy

þ M

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð54bÞ

If a cross-ply laminate is also symmetrical, then all remaining coupling

stiﬀnesses equal zero, as well as all remaining thermal and moisture moment

resultants. Hence, for symmetrical cross-ply laminates, Eqs. (54a) and (54b)

are further simpliﬁed to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 0 0 0

A

12

A

22

0 0 0 0

0 0 A

66

0 0 0

0 0 0 D

11

D

12

0

0 0 0 D

12

D

22

0

0 0 0 0 0 D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð55aÞ

(and)

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

0 0 0 0

a

12

a

22

0 0 0 0

0 0 a

66

0 0 0

0 0 0 d

11

d

12

0

0 0 0 d

12

d

22

0

0 0 0 0 0 d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð55bÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Note from Eqs. (55a) and (55b) that symmetrical cross-ply laminates do not

exhibit any coupling stiﬀnesses. That is:

A

16

¼ A

26

¼ D

16

¼ D

26

¼ B

ij

¼ 0

or, equivalently,

a

16

¼ a

26

¼ d

16

¼ d

26

¼ b

ij

¼ 0

Laminates that do not possess these coupling stiﬀnesses are called specially

orthotropic laminates. The fact that symmetrical cross-ply laminates are

specially orthotropic will become an important factor in Chaps. 9 and 10,

where the mechanical response of such laminates subjected to varying loads

will be considered.

7.3 Balanced Laminates

A laminate is ‘‘balanced’’ if, for every ply with ﬁber angle h, there exists a

second ply whose ﬁber angle is Àh. The two plies must be otherwise identical,

(i.e. they must be composed of the same material and have the same thickness).

Inspection of Eq. (31) of Chap. 5 reveals that the Q

16

and Q

26

terms for these

balanced plies will always be of equal magnitude but opposite algebraic sign

(i.e., Q

16

j

h

¼ ÀQ

16

j

Àh

and Q

26

j

h

¼ ÀQ

26

j

Àh

Þ. Consequently, from Eq. (27a),

A

16

=A

26

=0 for a balanced laminate. Further, from Eqs. (25) and (28) of

Chap. 5, it is seen that a

xy

and b

xy

for the two balanced plies will always be of

equal magnitude but opposite algebraic sign (i.e., a

xy

j

h

¼ Àa

xy

j

Àh

and b

xy

j

h

¼ Àb

xy

j

Àh

Þ . Consequently, from Eqs. (42c) and (43), N

T

xy

=N

M

xy

=0 for a

balanced laminate. Equations (44) and (45) are therefore simpliﬁed to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 B

11

B

12

B

16

A

12

A

22

0 B

12

B

22

B

26

0 0 A

66

B

16

B

26

B

66

B

11

B

12

B

16

D

11

D

12

D

16

B

12

B

22

B

26

D

12

D

22

D

26

B

16

B

26

B

66

D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

0

M

T

xx

M

T

yy

M

T

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

0

M

M

xx

M

M

yy

M

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð56aÞ

and

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

0 b

11

b

12

b

16

a

12

a

22

0 b

21

b

22

b

26

0 0 a

66

b

61

b

62

b

66

b

11

b

12

b

61

d

11

d

12

d

16

b

12

b

22

b

62

d

12

d

22

d

26

b

16

b

26

b

66

d

16

d

26

d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

M

xx

þ M

T

xx

þ M

M

xx

M

yy

þ M

T

yy

þ M

M

yy

M

xy

þ M

T

xy

þ M

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð56bÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

If a balanced laminate is also symmetrical, then Eqs. (56a) and (56b) are

simpliﬁed to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 0 0 0

A

12

A

22

0 0 0 0

0 0 A

66

0 0 0

0 0 0 D

11

D

12

D

16

0 0 0 D

12

D

22

D

26

0 0 0 D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð57aÞ

and

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

0 0 0 0

a

12

a

22

0 0 0 0

0 0 a

66

0 0 0

0 0 0 d

11

d

12

d

16

0 0 0 d

12

d

22

d

26

0 0 0 d

16

d

26

d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð57bÞ

7.4 Balanced Angle-Ply Laminates

The deﬁnition of a ‘‘balanced’’ laminate was given in Sec. 7.4. A balanced

angle-ply laminate is really just a special class of balanced laminates; it is

discussed in a separate subsection because of an additional simpliﬁcation that

occurs.

All plies in an angle-ply laminate have a ﬁber angle of the same

magnitude. That is, all plies within an angle-ply laminate have a ﬁber angle

of either+h or Àh, where the value h is the same for all plies. In general, for an

angle-ply laminate, the number of plies with ﬁber angle+h may diﬀer from

the number of plies with ﬁber angle Àh. However, a balanced angle-ply

laminate must have an equal number of plies with ﬁber angle+h and Àh, so as

to satisfy the preceding deﬁnition of a balanced laminate. Carefully note the

distinction between a balanced laminate and balanced angle-ply laminate. A

balanced laminate may involve more than one ‘‘distinct’’ ﬁber angle. For

example, a [35/65/-35/-65]

T

laminate is balanced (although not symmetrical),

and A

16

=A

26

=0 for this laminate. In contrast, a balanced angle-ply laminate

may involve only one ‘‘distinct’’ angle. A stacking sequence of either [35/-35/

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

35/-35]

T

or [65/65/-65/-65]

T

result in balanced angle-ply laminates, for

example.

The following simpliﬁcations occur for a balanced angle-ply laminate:

B

11

¼ B

22

¼ B

66

¼ M

T

xx

¼ M

T

yy

¼ M

T

xx

¼ M

T

yy

¼ 0

In addition, the simpliﬁcations that exist for any balanced laminate

(A

16

=A

26

=N

xy

T

=N

xy

M

=0) also occur for a balanced angle-ply laminate.

Equations (44) and (45) are therefore simpliﬁed to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 0 0 B

16

A

12

A

22

0 0 0 B

26

0 0 A

66

B

16

B

26

0

0 0 B

16

D

11

D

12

D

16

0 0 B

26

D

12

D

22

D

26

B

16

B

26

0 D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

0

0

0

M

T

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

0

0

0

M

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð58aÞ

and

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

0 0 0 b

16

a

12

a

22

0 0 0 b

26

0 0 a

66

b

16

b

62

b

66

0 0 b

61

d

11

d

12

d

16

0 0 b

62

d

12

d

22

d

26

b

16

b

26

0 d

16

d

26

d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

þ M

T

xy

þ M

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð58bÞ

If a balanced angle-ply laminate is also symmetrical, then Eqs. (58a) and (58b)

are simpliﬁed still further to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 0 0 0

A

12

A

22

0 0 0 0

0 0 A

66

0 0 0

0 0 0 D

11

D

12

D

16

0 0 0 D

12

D

22

D

26

0 0 0 D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð59aÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

and

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

0 0 0 0

a

12

a

22

0 0 0 0

0 0 a

66

0 0 0

0 0 0 d

11

d

12

d

16

0 0 0 d

12

d

22

d

26

0 0 0 d

16

d

26

d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð59bÞ

7.5 Quasi-Isotropic Laminates

A quasi-isotropic laminate is one that satisﬁes the following conditions:

**Three or more distinct ﬁber angles must be present within a laminate.
**

The number of distinct ﬁber angles will be denoted m, and hence if a

laminate is quasi-isotropic, then m z 3.

**The m distinct ﬁber angles must appear at equal increments of (180/
**

m) degrees.

**An equal number of plies must be present at each of the m distinct
**

ﬁber angles.

It can be shown (see Ref. 2) that if the three conditions are met, then

members of the A

ij

matrix for the laminate are related as follows:

A

11

¼ A

22

A

66

¼

1

2

ðA

11

À A

12

Þ A

16

¼ A

26

¼ 0

Now, these same relations between extensional stiﬀness also hold for an

isotropic plate (see Eq. (46)). Hence, laminates that satisfy the above

conditions are called quasi-isotropic laminates. Also, for a quasi-isotropic

laminate, N

T

xy

¼ M

T

xy

¼ N

M

xy

¼ M

M

xy

¼ 0 . In this case, Eqs. (44) and (45)

reduce to:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 B

11

B

12

B

16

A

12

A

22

0 B

12

B

22

B

26

0 0

A

11

À A

12

2

_ _

B

16

B

26

B

66

B

11

B

12

B

16

D

11

D

12

D

16

B

12

B

22

B

26

D

12

D

22

D

26

B

16

B

26

B

66

D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

0

M

T

xx

M

T

yy

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

M

xx

N

M

yy

0

M

M

xx

M

M

yy

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð60aÞ

Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

a

11

a

12

0 b

11

b

12

b

16

a

12

a

22

0 b

21

b

22

b

26

0 0 2 a

11

À a

12

ð Þ b

61

b

62

b

66

b

11

b

21

b

61

d

11

d

12

d

16

b

12

b

22

b

62

d

12

d

22

d

26

b

16

b

26

b

66

d

16

d

26

d

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

N

xx

þ N

T

xx

þ N

M

xx

N

yy

þ N

T

yy

þ N

M

yy

N

xy

M

xx

þ M

T

xx

þ M

M

xx

M

yy

þ M

T

yy

þ M

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ð60bÞ

The simplest possible quasi-isotropic laminate contains three plies, oriented

at equal increments of (180j/3)=60j. For example, [0/60/À60]

T

or [60/0/

À60]

T

laminates are quasi-isotropic. Probably the most common quasi-

isotropic laminate involves four distinct ﬁber angles (m=4). These laminates

must have ply angles oriented at increments of (180j/4)=45j. Typical

stacking sequences in this case are [0/45/90/À45]

T

or [45/0/À45/90]

T

. Al-

though the extensional stiﬀnesses for these laminates are ‘‘quasi-isotropic’’,

they still exhibit coupling stiﬀnesses (i.e., B

ij

p 0); furthermore, the bending

stiﬀnesses are not isotropic (e.g., D

11

p D

22

).

If a quasi-isotropic laminate is also symmetrical (e.g., [0/45/90/À45]

s

),

then the coupling stiﬀnesses B

ij

=0, and all remaining thermal moment

resultants and moisture moment resultants equal zero. Hence, Eqs. (60a)

and (60b) are simpliﬁed still further:

N

xx

N

yy

N

xy

M

xx

M

yy

M

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

A

11

A

12

0 0 0 0

A

12

A

11

0 0 0 0

0 0

A

11

À A

12

2

_ _

0 0 0

0 0 0 D

11

D

12

D

16

0 0 0 D

12

D

22

D

26

0 0 0 D

16

D

26

D

66

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

o

xx

e

o

yy

c

o

xy

j

xx

j

yy

j

xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

À

N

T

xx

N

T

yy

0

0

0

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