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7

ROUTE SURVEYING

C. J. Vandegrift, PLS L. E. Luke Wilson, PLS Edward Zimmerman, PLS California Department of Transportation

Introduction

Route surveying is comprised of all survey operations required for design and construction of engineering works such as highways, pipelines, canals, or railroads. At Caltrans a route surveying system is generally associated with highway design and construction. A route surveying system usually contains four separate but interrelated processes: • Reconnaissance and planning • Works design • Right of way acquisition • Construction of works

Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course

This video unit presents principles and techniques of route surveying and calculation operations related to these four processes.

**Performance Expected on the Exams
**

Solve various exam problems related to principles, design and application of vertical curves. Solve various exam problems related to principles, design and application of horizontal curves. Compute and interpret grades for roads or streets from design information. Compute and interpret grades, cuts and fills and positions for placement of slope stakes.

Key Terms

Arc Centerline Chord Circular curve Contours Degree of curve Elevation Grade Length of arc Offset Percent of slope Radius Rate of change Sag curve Stationing Tangent Vertical curves Arc definition Central angle Chord definition Construction Deflection angle Direction of travel External distance Horizontal curve Mid-ordinate distance Parabola Radian Radius point Right of way Slope stakes Summit curve Tangent offsets

7-2

Route Surveying Video Presentation Outline The Route Surveying System Linear Projects • Highways • Pipelines • Canals • Railroads Major Elements of Route Surveying Systems • Reconnaissance and planning • Design • Right-of-way acquisition • Construction Major Components of Route Surveying Systems • Stationing • Offset distance • Profile grades (slope percentage) • Horizontal curves • Vertical curves • Cross sections • Slope staking 7-3 .

in radians) 7-4 R R .Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course Components of Horizontal Circular Curves PI E T T =I BC ck t Ba en ng Ta /2 LC M EC Fo Ta rwa ng rd en t /2 Radius Point Terminology for Horizontal Circular Curves L = length of curve (arc) LC = long chord T = tangent length E = external distance Δ or I = central angle R = radius PI = intersection of tangents M = middle ordinate distance Formulae for Horizontal Circular Curves Δ T = Rtan 2 LC = 2R x sin Δ 2 M = R (1-cos 1 E = R( -1) cos Δ 2 Δ L = 2πR ( ) 360° Δ ) 2 L = R x Δ (exp.

p = ( r ) �2p + g1 (�p ) + ElevBVC 2 g1 �high/low point = r 7-5 .Route Surveying Components of Vertical Parabolic Curves Types of Vertical Curves A (-) "Sag" Ta n ge nt ( ang +) T ent (-) Ta n ge "Summit" B nt Components and Equations of Vertical Curves �p PVI or V r= g 2 . in stations EVC = end of vertical curve r = rate of change g2 = slope of forward tangent (in %) � = length of sub-curve.g1 L g2 r/2 x � p p 2 EVC g1 x BVC �p L Terminology for Vertical Parabolic Curves BVC = beginning of vertical curve PVI = point of intersection g1 = slope of back tangent (in %) L = length of curve. in stations. to point on curve from BVC Elev.

1. Southwesterly property corner 2. 187. 3. Answer the following questions using the information provided in the diagrams. Southeasterly property corner C.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course Example Problem Problem B-5 1990 LS You have been provided design criteria shown in the diagrams 1. 2. Calculate the distance from the north property line to the toe of slope at Point B. below and on the next page. 5. Driveway centerline B. and 3. Calculate the cut from the back of the sidewalk to the sewer lateral invert at the property line. V C L 1' 20' Diagram 2 Street Section 0. Provide the grade percentage between Point C and the building pad.12' 1/4" Per ft Level Line Level 7-6 Sta 12+35 BVC Sta 7+35 BVC . What is the slope ratio from Point A to the toe of slope? 4. Elev. Determine the ground elevation of the back of the sidewalk at the following locations: A. Show all calculations.17' +4% -2% Diagram 1 Street C L Profile Length of VC = 500' P L 30' 10' e op Sl ar.

5% 25 2% Point B Level F L 55' F L 5 55' 105' 1 Point C 1.50% N 105' Building Pad Elev = 199.25% C L 30 2% 15% Grade Break 1% Variable Slope 25 Sewer Lateral Invert Elev = 196.50 2' 5 1% Not To Scale 5 Level F L Top of Slope Toe 5 Sidewalk Curb Variable Slope Point A Top of Slope 1' Above Swale (TYP) Main Street C L 12 5 w + 2 rive D C L ay 7 + 6 ate 12 wer L Se ral Diagram 3 Plan View (all dimensions are in ft) 7-7 .80 130 10 30 C L S = 30% 4" Sewer Lateral 1.Route Surveying P L 2:1 Existing Level Ground = 192.0 Toe 2:1 Top of Slope 1' Above Swale (TYP) 5 50 Top of Slope Grade Break 1.

93)? A. Southeasterly property corner: 190. D. 23+45.25% +4.569.05% 7-8 . Calculation of the elevation of the back of sidewalk at the: A. Distance from the north property line to toe of slope at point B: 5. D.52/1 4.25% -4. A section of road rises 18. Cut from the back of sidewalk to the invert of sewer lateral at the property line: C-3 76' 5. C.50 ft in 435 ft (horizontal run). B. C.743.40% 3.743.66' Sample Test Questions 1. 19+32. Sta.28' 2.59 Sta. How far apart is survey point “G” (sta. ±0. 27+58.80' C. What is the “station” of the ending point of a surveyed line originating at “sta. B.50" that has a measured length of 412.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course Solution of 1990 California LS Examination Problem B-5 NOTE: See video for solution methodology. B.91 ft? A.59 2.26 3.569.69' B. C.81) and survey point “H” (sta. 1.68% or 2. 24+12. 61+56. Southwesterly property corner: 193. Centerline of the driveway: 192. What is the percentage of slope for this section of the road (nearest two decimal places)? A.41 Sta. Grade percentage of the slope between Point C and the top of building pad: 3.88 ft 8.02' is acceptable for all answers. Slope ratio from Point A to toe of slope opposite Point A: 39. +4. D.22 3.74 ft 3. 27+58. 8.05% -4. 19+32.41 Sta.

C. elevations solar positions horizontal positions GIS data bases 8. NGVD 1929 is one of the control systems that ___________ are referenced to. D.84 in 2 15 + 20 14 + 40 7-9 . Two cross sections. The percentage of slope for a proposed ramp is -2. D. A distance measured perpendicularly from the center or base line of a survey project is called: A.92 ft -100. and vertical scale: 1 in=10 ft. A. C. A. +10. B.65%. What is the change in elevation of this ramp for a horizontal length of 412 ft? A.427 2. B.738 2. Compute the volume (in cubic yards) contained between the two stations. agonic line an offset tangent correction line secant correction line 6. along with their areas are shown in the sketch below.78 in 2 1. B.Route Surveying 4. Stationing and offsets may define a ______________ system. C. A. C. plotted at a horizontal scale: 1 in=40 ft. B. D.920 16.92 -10. 147. D. solar correction plane coordinate cadastral construction 7. C.840 73.92 5.92 +100. B. D.

A trial shot is taken 40.5/1. What is the length of arc for the horizontal curve shown in the sketch below? A. What is the length of tangent for the horizontal curve shown in the sketch below? A. In laying out a highway for construction.4 ft away from centerline 10.94 ft = 24° 33' 15" R = 110. centerline elevation 48.75. 47. The road design specifies side slopes of 2. B. B. D.79 ft 147.00' Not to Scale 11. The full width of the road from top of slope to top of slope is 36 ft and is level. slope stakes are needed.4 ft toward centerline 5. Assuming natural ground is fairly level. C.00' Not to Scale 7-10 .3. C.9 ft away from centerline 5.85 ft = 11° 14' 21" R = 750. A fill is required at station 14+40.14 ft 46.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course 9. D.71 ft 23. D. C.12 ft 146. 73. 19.88 ft 145.9 ft toward centerline 19.78 ft 46. how far and in which direction from the trial shot should the “catch point” be located and staked? A.0 ft from the centerline at elevation 42. B.

From the following design information for a circular curve: R = 760. delta = 12° 04' 15".86? A. C. B.00' Not to Scale 13. 17+51.48 EC = 37+07. Deflection angle = 04° 24' 32" Deflection angle = 04° 24' 03" Deflection angle = 08° 49' 06" Deflection angle = 08° 48' 06" 7-11 .119. B. D. BC = 31+26.89 I = 26° 14' 11" A. C. 10+80? A.105.01 ft = 32° 04' 50" R = 2000.04 What is the deflection angle (from the BC) to sta. 1. Sta @ BC = 9+63.13.85 EC = 37+12. What is the length of long chord for the horizontal curve shown in the sketch below? A. BC = 31+25.00 ft Sta.16+32. R = 1270.42. C.25 ft 575.09 and sta.00 ft.67 EC = 37+10. From the given curve design data. BC = 31+31.118. BC = 31+25.65 ft 119.93. EC = 37+17. calculate the stations of the BC and EC of this horizontal curve. what is the length of chord between sta. B. For a highway curve with a degree of curve of 06° 30'.Route Surveying 12. @ PI = 34+21. D. B.93.48 15.82 ft 1.77 ft 119. D. D.58 ft 1. 119.68 ft 119.81 ft 14. C.

= 9. = 4. elev.50.50. A.15% g2. Sta. A.34 Sta. elev.51%.62 Sta.51%. = 2. = 2.34 Sta. of PVI = 21+45. of PVI = 21+45. of BVC = 72+03. of BVC = 72+03.46% g2. + 1.50. 789.50 Elev. Using the equal-tangent vertical curve data given in the sketch below. Elev. elev. @ PVI = 801. @ EVC = 788.15% g2. elev.36 D.= -2.3.74 L = 12 Sta. B. From the equal-tangent vertical curve data given in the sketch below.50. g1 = -0. D. Sta. g1 = +0.= +2. elev. g1 = -1. calculate the values of g1 and g2.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course 16. g2. = -4. of BVC = 72+03. Sta.06 L = 9 Sta. = -9. of BVC = 72+03. = 2.50.64 BVC = 88 + 75 Elev.95%. 81 + 03.50. of PVI = 76+53.36 7-12 .36 C. elev. -14. g1 = +1. elev.50.55 % PVI BVC .65 % Elev.94 Elev.62 Sta.= -0. Sta. C. elev.50. calculate the station and elevation for the PVI and the BVC of the curve.95%. of PVI = 21+45.36 B.46% 17.= +0. = -2.

= 850. What is the rate of change for this curve? A.988% per full station +0.35 % + 3. D. elev.838% per full station 19. An equal-tangent vertical curve has the following design data: g1 = -3. C. Low point station = 35+90. Low point station = 35+65.92 . Centerline elevation 2. +0. 851.37 elev.0. Problem A-6 1992 LS A surveyor has been requested to set a slope stake at a five-ft offset as shown on the following data sheet. L = 4 sta.41 elev. g2 = -0. Assume the slope has a uniform grade between topo shots. C. = 850. Low point station = 35+70.35 % A. B.65%.988% per full station . Hingepoint elevation (toe of 2:1 slope) 3. = 850.0. Low point station = 35+70. What specific information should be put on the stake to construct the daylight cut and toe of slope as required above? 7-13 .31 elev.Route Surveying 18. Distance left from centerline for offset stake B. = 850.30%. B. Requirements: Answer the following questions using the information provided on the data sheet.1. Determine the following for Station 21+00: 1.838% per full station .37 20. D. Place the slope stake for the daylight cut at Station 21+00. calculate the station and elevation for the low point of the curve. A. L = 800' BVC 33 + 40 Elev. Using the design data for the equal-tangent vertical curve shown in the sketch below.

= 100.50 C L Elev.00 2: 1 Sl op e . 20 + 00 Elev.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course PI Sta. 21 + 00 C L 7' 18' Road Cross Section No Scale 2% 2% 2% 6" High Asphalt Berm 50' LT 116. 23 + 00 Elev.20 EVC Sta. 21 + 50 Sta. = 180. 22 + 00 +4 % BVC Sta.00 Existing Ground at Staton 21+00 No Scale NOTE: All units are in ft unless otherwise stated 7-14 50' RT 105.00 +8 % C L Road Profile No Scale Sta. 106.

50% A drop inlet needs to be installed at the lowest possible elevation between the beginning and end of horizontal curve #1 along the flowline. Point of Vertical Intersection Station 3. Required: Show all work in completing the following requirements. Pavement elevation at the intersection of the centerline and the water pipe 7-15 . The elevation on top of the pipe is 730. You have communicated this information to the project engineer who has asked you to calculate and lay out an equal tangent vertical curve so that the top of pavement passes 36 in above the top of the water pipe with the following design elements: Vertical curve beginning at Station 16+50 (Vertical Curve #2) G1 = +8. D. The station. Length 3. Tangent 2.92 ft. Calculate the following elements of the equal tangent vertical curve #2: 1. EC Station B. Calculate the delta of horizontal curve #2. Calculate the following elements of horizontal curve #1: 1.75% G2 = -1. Total length 2.Route Surveying 21. A. The elevation of the top of the drop inlet to be installedbetween the beginning and the end of horizontal curve #1. Calculate 1. you discovered a 12-inch water pipe crossing the roadway at Station 18+50. Problem B-5 1991 LS During the rough grading phase of construction. and 2. C.

12 + 3515 20' 3' PI #1 2% 20' 35 C L Curve #1 = 48° 59' 46" R = 300.5% G2 = 8.21 ' PI #2 N 0° 23' 32" 20' C L 20' C L 20' 20' 3' 2% 2% 2% 2:1 Typical Cross Section Not to Scale 7-16 .56 6" W 27' 5 ° 9 N 00' 100. = 710. 2:1 Sta. 14 + 2186 L = 100.00' Elev.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course Plan View of Future Roadway Vertical Curve #1 BVC Sta.00' .75% C L Curve #2 R = 525.00' G1 = -2.

(119. of EC is 37+07. elev. (23.50.738) C. G2 = -2. (G = +1. @ BVC = 72+03.94 ft) C.25 ft) B.62) (Sta.88 ft) A. (3. (sta.68 ft) D. 3. 5. elev. (sta.36) 18. elev. = 2. (+4. the reader may solve or check certain elements of this problem by plotting and scaling. 7. 11. (the deflection angle to sta.838% per full station) B. (plane coordinate) A. (the sta.105. (elevations) D.37) 20. (+0. 10+80. (5.48) A. 7-17 . = 850. (2. 12. (-10.93. (147. NOTE: By using graph paper.12 ft) D. 16. 10. C. 27+58.95%.25%) C.15%) 1 17. B.743. (1. (an offset) B. 9.92 ft) B. 6.41) C. is 04 ° 24' 32") B.9 ft towards the centerline) B. of BC is 31+25. 8.Route Surveying Answer Key 1. the sta. 13. = -4. 14. 15. of “low point” = 35+70. (Sta. 2. @ PVI = 76+53.50. B. 4. 19.

61' 3.69 EC 21B. T = Rtan Δ/2 = (300. Centerline grade of the road @ 21+00 by vertical curve computation: 107.33' 2. 3. L = 2πRΔ/360° = 2+56. 21A. Indicate a 63' from begin daylight or 73' from offset stake. Calculation of the required elevations and offset distance: 1. 2.5' 20B. R = 300.54 (Length of arc) 15+91.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course 20A. Indicate that the design slope is 2:1 OR a cut of 63 out 125 from daylight OR a cut of 73 out 175 from offset stake. 1.54 360° 3.00) (tan 24° 29' 53") = 136. First tangent First delta Second tangent Second tangent Last tangent Delta curve #2 S 09° 27' 56" E + 48° 59' 46" S 39° 31' 50" W S 39° 31' 50" W -S 00° 23' 32" W 39° 08' 18" 7-18 .15 2.00' 1. Distance out from centerline for daylight stake: 42.6' ± 0.71 2π (300) 48° 59' 46" = 256. Given: delta = 48° 59' 46".00 (Given tangent length to BC) 13+35. Station 12+35. Indicate that stake is set five ft offset from daylight at top of slope.15 (Station given) 1+00. Elevation at hingepoint: 107.

(-2.25 (.61 Elev.Route Surveying 21C. � = r g1 r g -g = 2 1 L = 8.89 2 = 705.21 7-19 .25 � = -2.2222 station BVC station 14+21.5) (.top inlet= 705.2222) = (-2.61 .75 .5 11.222) + 705.25 = 0. Elev.5) 1 = 11. 1.86 + 22.08 Given: 2.02) (20) = 705.(.22 station of lowest point 14+44. p = ( = r ) �2p + g1 (�p ) + ElevBVC 2 11.

23 L L = 6.5%)+710. required @ 18+50 = 730.75 ) ( 2 2) + 8.32 7-20 .32 = 1 2 ) �2p + g1 lp + elev BVC ( -1.00 Plus crown (gutter to centerline) 0.00 .75% g2 = -1.56 = 704. Data given for Vertical Curve #2 g1 = +8.g1 L � = 2 stations r= elev.75(2) + 720.01 sta.14+71.15)(-2.00 3.00+0.86)(8. = 16+50 + 300' = 19+50 3.64 BVC #2elev.92+3.64 = 720. = (16+50.50% BVCsta.32 g2 .40 Pavement centerline over top of pipe 734.23 Elev.92 Plus 3.75%)+784. 1.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course 21D.40 = 734.: PIVC #1elev. = (14+71. = 16+50 Compute BVC #2elev.50 + 8.12+35. PIVC #2sta.86 . Existing pipe elev.p = ( r 2 734. or round to 600' 2. 730.

.) Kavanagh. Surveying With Construction Applications. Van Nostrand Rienhold Co. CA. Land Survey Test Training Manual. Second Edition. 1987. & Brinker. Editors. Wolf. (Very good presentation.. Basic Surveying Calculations.. The Surveying Handbook. California Department of Transportation Surveys Manual. (Easily understood theory and operations. Roy. Rancho Cordova.. Van Nostrand Rienhold Co.) 7-21 . New York. Eighth Edition. New Jersey. Russell C. Brinker. Minnick. Roy. Rancho Cordova. Landmark Enterprises. and Minnick. 1987. Edward.) Zimmerman. Barry F. (Very comprehensive for all surveying operations.Route Surveying References _________________.. Russell. Paul R. Landmark Enterprises. 1991. CA. New York. Prentice Hall. 1992. Elementary Surveying.

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