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Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology
MICHAEL C. OLIVARES Contributing Editors MARCIA D. MCROBBIE INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS Bloomington and Indianapolis . GAVRIN. ANDREW D. MORGAN and KIMBERLY T. JOAN ESTERLINE LAFUZE.Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES BY AWARD-WINNING TEACHERS Edited by ROBIN K. and ANASTASIA S. DIXSON. MORRONE. MORRONE Foreword by MICHAEL A.
Indiana 47404-3797 USA iupress. without permission in writing from the publisher. The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials.48-1992.This book is a publication of Indiana University Press 601 North Morton Street Bloomington. including photocopying and recording. Manufactured in the United States of America Cataloging information is available from the Library of Congress 1 2 3 4 5 17 16 15 14 13 12 . or by any information storage and retrieval system.indiana. The Association of American University Presses’ Resolution on Permissions constitutes the only exception to this prohibition. ANSI Z39.edu Telephone orders 800-842-6796 Fax orders 812-855-7931 © 2012 by Indiana University Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means. electronic or mechanical.
McRobbie ix Welcome to Quick Hits: Teaching with Technology xi Introduction Student Success Is Our Mission by David J. Malik xiii 1 Promoting Engagement 1 Promoting engagement in an online course: It can be done.CONTENTS Foreword by Michael A. but wisely! 5 Introductory poem for online course 7 Using e-Rewards to promote engagement and re-engagement in the online classroom 8 YouTube reviews 9 Promoting online courses’ student engagement and group cohesion through the use of chat-rooms 10 Using team-based learning to engage students in online courses 12 That’s why they call it YOU-Tube 13 “Reading in Context” for networked engagement with course readings 14 Scavenger hunt 18 Just-in-Time Teaching: Using the web to engage students in the classroom 19 The simple visual mapping tool for thinking aloud 20 Combining learning communities with electronic self and peer assessments to increase student engagement in discussion-based courses 21 A source for lecture launchers: Mining public media for accessible illustrations 23 “Hearing Every Voice:” Promoting engagement through electronic discussion 24 Creating with intentionality: Using a personal multimedia narrative to emphasize writing process 25 Designing authentic cross-class collaboration by focusing on activity 26 Using a business strategy simulation 28 Engaging students through a virtual child simulation 29 Social engagement 30 Building a sense of community in an online environment: Student autobiographical videos 31 Online art galleries and clinical stories 32 2 Providing Access 35 To podcast or not to podcast 37 Some assembly required: Teaching online with good instructions 39 The Open Source Physics Project on ComPADRE 40 Use of Team Viewer software to assist students 42 Utilizing existing gigapixel panoramas for virtual fieldtrips 43 Service-Learning at the Seal Indiana Mobile Program 44 .
vi Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www.quickhitstech.com Developing medical education teaching applications for mobile devices 46 Making technology-enhanced classroom presentations accessible to students with sensory impairments 47 Blogging in the classroom 49 Virtual Microscopy as a Real and Effective Tool for Teaching Histology 49 “It’s a small world after all:” Using technology to internationalize curriculum 52 The inverted hybrid science classroom 54 The Physlet Project 55 Podcast technology self-directed lecturing for fluoride toxicity 56 Using web-based videoconferencing to extend the F2F experience to distance learners 58 University/school partnership: Using technology to collaborate with middle school writers and create more informed teachers of writing 59 Doppelgänger Professor: High-touch delivery to low-density populations 60 3 Enhancing Evaluation 63 Google-Doc surveys for teaching Hispanic culture 65 A class wiki for the physical sciences 65 Using multiple-response clicker questions to identify student misunderstanding 66 Grading discussion forums in the online environment 67 Sometimes less is more 68 Using Prezi to produce creative critical thinking assessments 70 Information literacy: Building critical skills for learning and communicating about research on the web 71 Enhancing teaching and learning through technology 72 “Guest Cam” in the classroom — Making speeches real 74 Using personal response devices (clickers) in humanities classes 75 Let students design the test 76 Personal sales pitch: Video assignment 77 Using discussion forums as a learning tool 77 Using clickers to promote participation 79 Technology-mediated feedback 80 WebQuests: A gateway activity for online teaching and learning 82 Use of SoftChalk Software to create interactive content 84 4 Becoming More Efficient 87 Juvenile Justice Wiki Project – Constructivism through technology 88 Mitigating the workload and increasing student satisfaction with online discussion threads 89 Techiquette: The etiquette of technology 90 Prezi and the decoding of history 91 Images for education—Crime free! 93 .
www.com Contents Chats: A mess or a must? 94 Using audience response systems for classroom post-test reviews 94 Fostering e-learning discourse among professional networking groups 95 Blogging to promote robust class preparation 97 Spreadsheet modeling optimization problems 98 Using podcasts for added instructional effectiveness 100 Implementation of and feedback on the use of a web-based homework management system 101 Group work online 102 Teaching professional communication through email 103 Coupling visual metaphors with discussion forums to enhance reflection and inquiry 104 Using technology to improve empirically based clinical practice 106 Embedded feedback in video recorded student assignments 107 Using cartoons or short movies to engage students 108 Annotated Bibliography 111 Contributors 115 Index 127 vii .quickhitstech.
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describe their innovative efforts to use various technologies to achieve effective. and absolutely will not if we are to be innovators in adoption of these techniques. It serves as a jumping off point for exploring the perils and promises of technology in the classroom. the faculty member who chooses to embrace new technology might best think of the classroom as a laboratory. These are familiar issues. especially in the educational setting. a publication of Indiana University’s Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching (FACET). Ongoing assessment of student learning outcomes in response to technology related changes in pedagogy is likely to become increasingly important. and ongoing assessment of student learning. how do I ensure the integrity of the students’ work? Do online chat rooms and discussion forums afford the same kind of active learning as in-class group work? And these are but a sample of the appropriate and unavoidable concerns that instructors confront as technology becomes an expected part of the educational experience. One challenge facing university faculty will be to ensure that injecting technology into the classroom doesn’t merely represent the latest “bells and whistles. As discussed by the authors of this volume’s entries. The use of technology in education inevitably demands that we return to fundamental questions about pedagogy — always a healthy undertaking. provides just such counsel. both inside and outside of the classroom. How and how much technology should I bring into the course or the classroom? Should I teach an online course or a hybrid? Will distance learning lead to the same outcomes as face-to-face teaching? Should I test online. course-specific learning objectives. the adoption of technology by faculty will require careful planning. This volume of Quick Hits.” but that such innovations prove their worth pedagogically. identification of educational goals. IU is committed both to adopting “innovative modes of teaching and learning that improve the educational attainments of students. The fast moving target that is technology. Michael A. In this environment. Thus. authored by award-winning teachers. anticipation of possible unintended consequences. representing a multitude of academic disciplines.” Excellence in the use of technology in instruction is therefore a natural subject for an IU publication on excellence in teaching. Seeking out colleagues who have adopted similar strategies may prove similarly enlightening. systematic research on best practices are limited. Indiana University . Current and future faculty will be expected to adapt to this fluid environment in order to maximize their effectiveness when using technology as a teaching tool. As the Principles of Excellence explain. The importance of technology to the teaching and research missions of IU cannot be overstated. assignment and class period an opportunity to learn what works and what does not. The volume explores both the advantages and potential pitfalls of using technology in the classroom. The speed with which new technologies emerge means that the prospects for large-scale. The purpose of this volume is to equip instructors to identify and answer these questions as they relate to the technologies of today and tomorrow. developed by master teachers both within Indiana University and across the nation. the advice of colleagues will be particularly valuable in expanding the range of an individual instructor’s effective experience with new techniques and technologies. strategies.FOREWORD I am delighted to welcome you to Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology. may not stand still long enough to support such in-depth efficacy research. is a rapidly moving target. McRobbie President. The current volume. This volume is particularly timely because information technology. The current generation of students. seasoned instructors.” and to ensuring that “information technology is pervasively deployed at IU by leveraging and continuing the support of the university’s long-standing and internationally recognized excellence in information technology services and infrastructure. but the use of new technologies gives them added urgency. like its predecessors. increasingly expect a technologically sophisticated academic environment. In this volume of Quick Hits. Virtually all aspects of course development and delivery can be altered by the technology available to faculty today. and I enthusiastically recommend it to you. and tactics for effective instruction. with each topic. offers an accessible and user-friendly collection of approaches. reared on information technology and often more comfortable with it than their instructors. and if I do.
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four additional Quick Hits volumes have been published.com). and becoming more efficient.’ Submissions not included in the book will be found on the site. changing the course structure. The current volume of Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology addresses the use of technological tools in the classroom.WELCOME TO QUICK HITS FOR TEACHING WITH TECHNOLOGY Twitter. too. to modifications in course assignments. Few faculty could function without email. Once the technological tool is learned. The strategies in this volume are organized into four chapters: promoting engagement. subsequent volumes have been authored by a wider range of contributors and have become peer reviewed publications. The Quick Hits series of books was designed to lessen the burden on the faculty member by providing a concise description of tested teaching experiences. Over the years. the focus of each submission is describing strategies that have been shown to be successful. The phrase. faculty are being asked to assess that the addition of this technological tool enhances student learning. all of this must be done in the context of the many other responsibilities – demands for scholarship. This site will allow for a continuing conversation about ‘teaching with technology. It is our expectation that you will find some of the Quick Hits in this volume to be more applicable to your own teaching efforts than other submissions.quickhitstech. Kimberly T.’ arose during the 1991 Indiana University Faculty Colloquium on Excellence of Teaching (FACET) retreat when several members offered engaging but quick strategies for involving students in learning. the individual faculty member is left with quite the tall order. ‘Quick Hits. and the amount of time you have to devote to modifying your class. have bridged the seeming ‘digital divide’ between themselves and students by increasingly adopting technology in their personal lives and to streamline their faculty roles. Technology changes quickly. For the first time. In essence. faculty have progressively added technology into their courses. Olivares FACET Administrative Manager . The early volumes were authored by members of FACET. Finally. Of course. no matter how much we enjoy the technological tool being used. Faculty. However. each addressing contemporary challenges of teaching and learning. navigate the world. a forum will allow for conversations to continue. Facebook. First. GPS. The variety of technology being used is simply astounding. this volume of Quick Hits is being published concurrently with the launch of a Quick Hits website (www. Consider which strategies work best with your own teaching style. the addition of specific technological tools in the classroom must focus on the goal of enhanced student learning. Learning a course management system. Due partly to this familiarity with technology. this website provides a forum for innovations in teaching with technology and an outlet for dissemination ideas. how to use clickers involves a time commitment. The addition of a technological tool into a course is fraught with obstacles. smart phones. your level of comfort with technology. the faculty member must decide how to utilize that tool in a particular course. most likely. Please consider sharing your results on our website or submitting your own Quick Hits for peer review on the website. Wii. course management systems. service. and as a form of entertainment. other classes – confronting the faculty member. As in prior volumes of Quick Hits. These ideas led to the publication of the first volume. “Angry Birds” … Students entering the university today are comfortable using technology to communicate with their friends. and leading. Quick Hits: Successful Strategies by Award Winning Teachers. and word processing programs. the faculty member must learn how to use the technological tool. providing access. enhancing evaluation. how to create a podcast. and a submission and peer review process will lead to additional Quick Hits relating to teaching with technology.
cultivates the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning and fosters personal renewal in the commitment to student learning. Malik Former University Director. FACET involves over 500 full-time faculty members. Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching. .quickhitstech. Indiana University Chancellor’s Professor of Chemistry. Today.com David J. Indiana University Professor of Psychology.xii Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. nominated and selected through an annual campus and statewide peer review process. Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Executive Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs. Indiana University Northwest Robin K. FACET is a community of faculty dedicated to and recognized for excellence in teaching and learning. Morgan University Director. Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching. FACET advocates pedagogical innovation. inspires growth and reflection. Indiana University Southeast About FACET The Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching (FACET) was established as an Indiana University Presidential Initiative in 1989 to promote and sustain teaching excellence.
Indiana University Northwest Higher education today has been challenged to improve student outcomes and to ensure that our graduates will successfully adapt to an ever-changing workplace. and sociocultural benefits of higher education. Larger numbers of high school graduates. provide more radical changes for time on task.INTRODUCTION STUDENT SUCCESS IS OUR MISSION David J. Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Executive Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs. faculty and their institutions will advance to form a more effective structure. and enliven and broaden reflection and introspection of concepts and principles among larger groups of students. and likely had been. Higher education can and will adapt to these new expectations. the accountability to a wider range of stakeholders is new. However. What engages faculty to achieve effective teaching? Chickering and colleagues (1987. 1996) have developed concepts of good educational practice. What once was perceived. The demand for graduates who possess strengths in both their fields and in their use of technological advancements is increasing. and provide exposure to visual and auditory content not readily available through traditional pedagogies. The faculty role will determine how a technology can be effectively used to advance in-depth understanding. Indiana University Chancellor’s Professor of Chemistry. technology per se is not a panacea for all learning challenges. 1991. Over the last several decades. Student learning outcomes can be enhanced or improved through the judicious use of technology. but faculty still have great latitude to make choices and judgments that significantly impact student learning. Chickering and Gamson (1987) noted these initially. speed up communication. The rate of change is no doubt either hampered or advanced by our institutional environment. It is imperative that we correctly exploit the advantages of technology. Faculty can connect students to applications to both inspire and motivate. illustrious alumni. we as faculty have great impact on student success. The latter restated the “Good Practices” as follows: ■■ Good Practice Encourages Contacts Between Students and Faculty ■■ Good Practice Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students ■■ Good Practice Uses Active Learning Techniques ■■ Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback ■■ Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task . but those environments can change. In addition. Will all faculty embrace the necessary steps to improve student success? What is apparent is that most faculty will identify ways that they can best participate in this transformation. Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching. university student populations have come to reflect a very different demographic profile. Malik Former University Director. allow pedagogical variations and methodologies that enhance learning. the accountability movement addresses the demonstration of these talents in our graduates. and returning adults have recognized the potential economic. Together. intellectual. an elite education available to those with resources and the proper educational background is now replaced with a breadth of diversity that is nearly inspirational. and Chickering and Ehrmann (1996) re-stated them in the context of technology. Although the expectation that our students should be learning demonstrable content and skills necessary for lifelong learning is not new. Progress in higher education is in transition toward methods of education that are more efficacious and that encompass strategies to enhance the bottom line: student success. Technology can facilitate delivery. While the specific metrics and tools associated with this assessment are still in debate. Our stakeholders have been vocal in the need to establish our claims of talented students on firmer metrics than mere anecdotal stories of our selected. Of course there are institutional policies and practices that affect the rate of change and the level of success achieved.
It may not be that it is anything more than a few limited examples of attention-getting activity that can do the trick. raised in a multi-media world. Since research has demonstrated that all of the senses play a role in retention. but then faculty must choose between attending disciplinary content presentations vs. Faculty need time to adapt and adopt some of the newer practices. dissemination. and impact on others. and motivated. faculty have identified a link to their own success. such as “Preparing Future Faculty” programs. but what are those examples? As a member of the chemistry discipline. Additionally. may lack the ability to meaningfully utilize technology for non-entertainment purposes. but this does not mean there are not real connections. it will be difficult to achieve a comparable level of engagement. sound. Many professional societies now have meeting components that address teaching. When improvements in pedagogy lead to greater student learning and these outcomes can be documented. or FaceTime. Blended curricula offer a combination of face-to-face opportunities in concert with online resources. faculty and students would be best served by incorporating sight. The variation in age. These attributes define scholarship and are part of the currency of the realm. ethnicity. Finally. Pragmatism plays a role in this context as well: Is success in the course a vehicle to a specific end? Admission to graduate school? Employment at a special business? Job security? Or is it a vehicle to a more abstract goal? Civic engagement? Personal fulfillment? Improved personal relationships? Courses that demonstrate a variety of modalities impact the students in unanticipated ways. Motivating students will take a course structure that demonstrates the value of the learning and knowledge. smell and touch to reinforce particular ideas or concepts.com ■■ Good Practice Communicates High Expectations ■■ Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Most faculty did not receive extensive pedagogical training as graduate students. Faculty need to understand what support exists in their departments. Keep in mind that students today have wide disparities in their knowledge and comfort with technology. In addition. Given the breadth of student backgrounds. not only by administrators. Research has indicated that integration of online innovations or activities do not sacrifice content mastery in students. faculty time on these initiatives must be balanced by the value and worth that is extracted from these activities. Arguments need to be advanced for particular initiatives to gain acceptance. and universities to sustain an innovation long enough to ensure its adequate implementation. While many new programs have emerged in recent years. The challenge for faculty will be to determine how we can best use those tools to capture their attention. Department chairs and deans need to accommodate newer practices. and will need to provide “relevance” to the content. educational background. such as Skype. What engages students in the context of technology? Students learn best when they are engaged. the time required to adapt to these newer modalities may take practice and persistence. Faculty need accessible ideas.xiv Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. Here. pedagogical content presentations.quickhitstech. interested. How do these successes impact faculty roles and rewards? There needs to be well conceived pathways to peer review. or a toolbox of potential strategies. and external social . I even incorporated some media that would demonstrate similar reactions or explosions for the course. Especially in adult learners. to explore how their courses can be changed and improved with resulting greater student success. Given the extraordinary and imaginative media to which students are regularly exposed. and can offer more diversity in content delivery. disciplinary recognition. I am reminded of those demonstrations done decades ago in my introductory chemistry classes that kept students in rapt attention with any unanticipated outcome. exposure to and training on specific pedagogies has been pursued inconsistently. Traditional aged students. These fostered my own interest in doing similar displays in my courses. allow for replay or practice. Faculty incentivization is key to promoting change on the largest scale. but the online tools can make content more accessible. some fields will find this easier than others. schools. faculty need to anticipate how an innovation might impact their work loads and style of teaching. customizing pedagogical devices for different constituencies may be relevant. but by potentially skeptical peers. special visitors in the classroom can occur by exploiting communications protocols. or even a custom video.
Realities of student learning: Current thinking in effective pedagogies There is a sizable repository of literature on student learning. our efforts to improve our ability to better inform the next generation of educated citizens and prepare them for lifelong learning. The facilitation can occur also with technological intervention. Why have the rates of acceptance been so slow? In part. to wit: ■■ “Students do not pay attention to boring things”: How can we introduce course features that attend to increasing the level of interest in what we do? ■■ “Strategies to maintain attention bring about better brain coding resulting in better retention. If anything. Brain Rules by John Medina (2008). This does not require any drift away from our commitments to our disciplines as up to date scholars in our field. we can gain from the experiences of others.quickhitstech. these strategies appeared to a large extent in the 1990s but have been relatively slow to be widely embraced. as represented in the work by John Medina. However. new pedagogies. To optimize the dialog and reflection by the student. ZPD describes a range of understanding where deeper understanding can be facilitated. First. perhaps software that is challenging the student. and clarity of thought”: The Ten Minute Rule suggests a “change up” in the stream in the classroom flow. Technology can be used to facilitate some of these new approaches to better learning. through an upper limit of understanding facilitated by a content expert. What is valued by our institutions and by future employers? The individual faculty member today must be in a position to defend his/her approach to student learning. The actual process or paradigm for active learning involves preparing instructional materials that are suitable for students. or active-learning connections that move the understanding to a higher level. will support our disciplines. The target reality is to move the ZPD to a higher level at the conclusion of a learning session. Most collaborative learning paradigms also have higher instructional costs due to use of student facilitators who have training in collaborative learning strategies. enhance the quality of time on task. or other activity to reinforce thinking and sustain attention. the interaction by the assisting person can be moderated to transition the student to higher levels of understanding. or optimized. and approaches ■■ Communication interactions kept dynamic either in situ or mediated through technology ■■ Potential for access at unconventional times that can be mediated by technology Finally. and other active learning strategies. Aligning our educational interests with the institution’s obligation to demonstrate efficacy and stewardship of funding is a visible statement of support of the learning mission. We do not need to independently invent the best. Vygotsky introduced the concept of the Zone of proximal development (ZPD) which roughly describes a threshold where a student can work independently. For optimized learning. Social networking often relieves the stress associated with these differences. The effectiveness of collaborative learning may be due to several factors. or other person skilled more technically in collaborative learning strategies. Lastly. The ZPD is the focal point of an active or collaborative learning session.www. social networking and idea exchange can also assist. there are three dimensions of effective pedagogies that play to distinctive role. offers a collection of ideas relevant to how we think about brain function impacting education. accuracy. yet seem not to have substantive impact in other fields. xv . among them: ■■ Reflective explorations that approach more in-depth problem solving and concepts ■■ Students only reinforce non-threatening environment and peer support ■■ Mutual reinforcement of ideas. Second. change in perspective. placing an increased or new burden on faculty. contemporary neuroscience. collaborative learning. concepts. though the science-specific evidence of learning has been reported widely. certainly too vast to describe in detail here. the development of learning offered by Vygotsky and his Zone of Proximal Development (1978) creates an overall paradigm for the progress of learning.com Introduction: Student Success is our Mission pressures may all need to be considered in optimizing the student-teacher interface. Collaborative and active learning strategies are emerging on multiple fronts of education within a myriad of disciplines and fields. In science. can help inform pedagogically sound practice. perhaps using a video clip. collaborative learning de-emphasizes the role of the faculty member by transferring learning responsibility more toward the student. a recent publication. Sharing the techniques used by innovative teachers for improved success is no different from the research model for disseminating discovery. Those in the field of education know that the benefits of collaborative learning have been known for decades.
executive network = response to stimulus] ■■ Students benefit from structured organization with the holistic view first (few details). we should keep in mind faculty advancement and what that means in your own environment. keeping in mind that the actual journal will be assessed by peers. distributed. or the academy. In this volume of Quick Hits. was disseminated. or other universities. and to explore predictions or other possibilities. etc. and then progressive details as topics are expanded Keeping the perspective on scholarship As we consider all of the possibilities to improve student learning. you may be able to transfer it to other disciplines there. So you need to ask the fundamental question: Can I improve student success and bring a measure of value to my career advancement? In order to answer that. Know the population that is most impacted by your intervention.quickhitstech. It is important we not be distracted by fad technology. The success and impact of what you do drives your students’ success. think of the innovations that you can institutionalize in your courses and roles. marginal reliability. the submissions have been organized into four chapters: Promoting Engagement. Technology can improve learning and sustain engagement. simulation can afford us opportunity to investigate what if scenarios. contextualize an idea in ways not so accessible by oral communication alone. and bring attention to our institution. These interventions can include new media. special events. a contribution would be considered scholarship if it were an innovative work. discipline. Technology and simulation can put information readily at hand that would not be available in a static environment: clickers allow us to explore the progress of learning and plot new directions in situ.” This usually means not only the routine and innovative components of our teaching portfolio. that of our department or school. and dubious educational value. These questions are the same ones applicable for discovery research and many faculty would expect the same type of review. but understand how a device may favorably impact learning. In this section. you must ensure you are speaking the same language as your colleagues and institutional administration. and could be transferred to other contexts and applications. Most of us would consider the work we do to improve student success impacts our work in the area of “teaching. Enhancing Evaluation and Becoming More Efficient Promoting Engagement Research on active learning has solidified the importance of student engagement. These submissions focus . Providing Access. was peer evaluated or reviewed. you will find submissions that focus on how technology – in face-to-face. It is important we not lose sight of the role of peer review. What follows are some general statements about ensuring that there is impact on a larger scale that can at least provide some degree of sway with your colleagues. The quality of the peer review is often governed by the publication and who is charged with the review. has impact on the field. orienting network = locating. When our work is recognized by others. the new “hypertext” would allow us to explore to greater depth and dimension within our own slides and presentations. but also what scholarship supports our work.xvi Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. this recognition serves to advance our reputation. but you do not want the learning to be overwhelmed by the “device” or gadget. activities adding sounds and sights. The discussions and reflections that occur in these public occasions can play an important role in understanding what the weaknesses and strengths of your contribution might be. Appropriate journals or other vehicles for dissemination should be identified. but also serve to give you new insights into improvements or variations.com ■■ Introduce novel stimuli in the conduct of the course to further engage students. hybrid or online classes – can assist in promoting student engagement. but also affords the opportunity to advance your own career in your local context. Dissemination also occurs through presentations at meetings. Simply put. Overall comments: Merging technology with effective pedagogies As you read Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology. demonstrations. students who are engaged retain more information and are able to utilize that information in more sophisticated ways. Simply. [arousal = attention. If your approach solves an institutional challenge. but the greatest impact on student success follows from those strategies that have your commitment and interest. Not all approaches work for all faculty. Some devices have large overhead in set-up. clickers. Technology is most valuable that allows us to more effectively challenge and guide student thinking.
www. In this section. and stimulating student interest via new ways of learning. coming to a university campus or taking part in traditional university experiences may not be economically feasible. 40(7). Medina. AAHE Bulletin. Vygotsky. For some. The authors of the submissions in this section share their own successes and failures in creating effective methods of evaluation. References Chickering. J. As the use of technology has spread. AAHE Bulletin. enhancing student motivation.. S. Enhancing Evaluation Increasingly over the past decade. Z. Volume 47. A. Seattle. . Developing efficient methods for developing effective courses and grading student work is a necessity. L. 3-6. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc. Cambridge. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. A. Providing Access Technology provides an opportunity to increase access to higher education. Work. Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever. & Gamson. 49(2). For others. specific learning or physical limitations may make the traditional classroom challenging. & Ehrmann. S. W. increasing student effort.com Introduction: Student Success is our Mission xvii on increasing student-to-student as well as faculty-student communication. (2008). MA: Harvard University Press. WA: Pear Press. Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. (1996). W. Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Home. 3-7... Becoming More Efficient A consistent complaint of university faculty is that they are continually being asked to do more with less. the submissions illustrate the range of technological possibilities that can be utilized to reduce these challenges. (1978). faculty must develop methods of evaluation that are effective as well as efficient. (1991).W. A. Z. C. & Gamson. (1987). faculty have confronted the necessity of developing student learning objectives and evaluation measures that specifically address such objectives. and School.quickhitstech. Applying the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Chickering. The authors of the submissions in this section demonstrate how technology may allow us to become more efficient in our classrooms. Such evaluation measures provide faculty with the ability to determine if students are learning the assigned material as well as suggesting whether the teaching methods being utilized are effective. Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Chickering.F.
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In the words of the authors: “We compared the amounts of learning achieved using two different instructional approaches under controlled conditions. The first is the realization that replacing passive environments. and targeted in-class instructor feedback (IF). small-group active learning tasks (GT). We measured the learning of a specific set of topics and objectives when taught by 3 hours of traditional lecture given by an experienced highly rated instructor and 3 hours of instruction given by a trained but inexperienced instructor using instruction based on research in cognitive psychology and physics education. pre-class reading quizzes. with active student-centered pedagogies leads to superior learning outcomes. Brown.1 Promoting Engagement Technology transforming learning Gregor Novak Professor Emeritus. and they completed a short true false online quiz on the reading. higher engagement. 1984) n the May 13.” “The instructional approach used in the experimental section included elements promoted by CWSEI and its partner initiative at the University of Colorado: pre-class reading assignments. in-class clicker questions with student-student discussion (CQ). & Cocking.1. highlight two important trends that research into teaching and learning has spawned during the past three decades (Bransford. students were assigned a three. even if presided over by charismatic. The comparison was made between two large sections (N = 267 and N = 271) of an introductory undergraduate physics course. (Study Group on the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education. 2011). & Wieman.” The rather striking results of this experiment Figure1. and more than twice the learning in the section taught using research-based instruction. and not to reduce. the amount of personal contact between students and faculty on intellectual issues. We found increased student attendance. 2000). Department of Physics Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis I Learning technologies should be designed to increase. . Before each of the three 50-min classes. 2011 issue of Science. Compared achieved learning. Louis Deslauriers and colleagues report the results of an interesting experiment conducted at University of British Columbia (Deslauriers. Schelew.or four-page reading. knowledgeable and engaging presenters.
inside and outside of the classroom. Another major step was taken when the world-wide-web was made public in the mid-nineties. improved student motivation and participation (Kulik & Kulik. 1991). small-group active learning tasks. Student centered activity-based lessons and the use of information technologies in teaching and learning are work in progress. & Spraker. . These forms of instruction have evolved into CAI. the intellectual challenge is to find the proper balance between technology tools and live human interactions. serious large-scale use of the technology in teaching and learning can be traced to the educational films developed for the large number of servicemen returning from WWII. was recently conducted at North Georgia College & State University (Formica. & Kotler. The fifties saw the emergence of two major designs. and there are many. paving the way for computer-mediated-communication. To learn means to construct meaning rather than memorize facts. The students were actively involved in carefully planned activities at all times. An astounding number of very young children are users of mobile technologies (Gutnick. The pedagogical strategies must follow from evidence-based science of learning or instruction. Technology. pre-class reading quizzes. The next advance is likely to come when the mobile technologies of today are harnessed in the service of teaching and learning (Sharples. 2009). is the growing use of technology. 2010). supporting the experience in and out-of-class. These interactions encourage students to assume some ownership of and control over their learning. The internet has made possible the creation of distance learning. facilitated by the use of technology. 2010). Seventy-five percent of 5 . explore. CMC. Resource availability and cost issues aside. Brown. The audience for this is the next generation of students. Technical tools have been assisting learning since the cave paintings. CMC also provides tools for the maintenance of learning communities and for course and curriculum management. and targeted in-class instructor feedback. and to provide timely and meaningful feedback. is here to stay in one form or another. All of these parts carefully aligned with one another and all of it informed by education research. which creates an always-open communication path for student-instructor. still with us today. incorporating frequent feedback and correction. student-student and student-content interactions. Student-instructor.9 yr-olds use cell phones. Learning tasks are constructed to engage the learner in the learning process. provide realistic and relevant contexts and encourage the exploration of multiple perspectives and metacognition. The past several decades have seen the emergence of discipline-based education research such as PER in physics and a deeper understanding of the learning process through cognitive science research (Bransford. but the evidence from the classroom indicates that we are on the right track. as well as hybrid designs. differential instruction serving different learning styles. computer-based and computer-assisted instruction.com The second trend. Mastery approach is based on Bloom’s taxonomy of intellectual development. courses fully online. 2000). There is not much doubt that student-centered instruction. facilitated by available technology. programmed instruction and mastery approach. student-student and student-content interaction. blending on-line work and in-class activities with live teachers. An experiment similar to the one above.quickhitstech. The key features of the Deslauriers experiment are: pre-class reading assignments. Robb. but more narrowly focused. 2009). The question debated in the educational research community is: how does one optimize the many benefits of the new paradigm: easy access to course materials. During the 1980s and 1990s computer environments were developed where learners can build. Easley. Takeuchi. & Vavoula. such as Just-in-Time Teaching. growing up with these tools (Schachter. drive the effort. was brought in as needed by the pedagogy involved. Cognitive science research into how the human brain processes and stores information provides the theoretical basis for lesson designs. In programmed instruction the material to be learned is broken up into small units. & Cocking.2 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. to scaffold the learning as needed to foster the development of understanding. etc. without which the first would be much less effective. Milrad. in-class clicker questions with student-student discussion. The two critical theoretical underpinning of these efforts are constructivism and cognitivism. and immerse themselves in micro-worlds and simulations. Arguably. Media-based presentations of educational materials are still with us with Power Point and streaming video and audio. Arnedillo Sánchez.
Bransford.. (2006). & Wieman. How people learn: Brain. K.E. Computers in Human Behavior. Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist. (2010). 862-864. 215–223. Technology can be the servant of the pedagogy or can become the tyrant. Sweller. 6(1).C. Sweller. 6 . Reference Adams. Takeuchi. E.. Deslauriers. 2001) as well as technique and tool specific information: simulations (Adams. & Clark. M. what is salient and most directly valuable to the cognitive system (Dror. & Sprague. 2006). one would examine one’s personal teaching style and subject matter idiosyncrasies and choose the time and place where to include appropriate technology to best serve the intended learner. Technology for teaching. E. A.A. S. L. & Kotler. 41(2). 332. But research has shown that guided and structured exploration is more effective than free-for-all constructivism.Physics Education Research. The “How People Learn” book is a good start. P.. C. Norvig.. A.. discovery. W. This would include a general reference such as technology for teaching (Norton & Sprague. and school. R. mind. Physical Review Special Topics . 2011: http://www. Formica. S. J. The second step would be a good look at the pedagogical research literature in one’s discipline so that one would supplement the content knowledge required of an expert with the pedagogical content knowledge required of a teacher (Shulman. describing currently accepted best practices in the use of technology in teaching. R. Norton.C. LeMaster. experience. can help us choose technologies appropriate for the task.E. Effectiveness of computer-based instruction: An updated analysis. Kulik. (1991). It is tempting to take advantage of technology to let the student loose with the content in the name of ownership and control over the learning process. et. (2007). C.joanganzcooneycenter. 3 .. 2003).www. 19(3).. A study of educational simulations part I —Engagement and learning.P.com Promoting Engagement For learning to be effective.L. including cognitive science research. Brown. Dror. (2008). Technology is frequently employed to process larger numbers of students with fewer live instructors. S.. & Cocking.. Pragmatics & Cognition. These are fun times with major developments taking place in the world of teaching and learning with something to fit every teaching and learning style. J. 2008). D. (2000). 1986). the bad. Cognitive science can help optimize the delivery of information to the learner by determining what is critical. and the ugly. the learning activities must be designed to work in harmony with the human cognitive system. problem-based. The third step would be a look at the literature. (2001). D. Schelew. 2007) or JiTT (Simkins & Maier. Caldwell. Lastly. & Wieman. Cognitive science studies. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop... combined with discipline-based pedagogical research. of the last three decades. Easley.org/upload_kits/jgcc_alwaysconnected. 75–86. L. J. Gutnick. C. Clickers in the large classroom: Current research and best-practice tips. 397-419. McKagan. The advantage of guidance begins to recede only when learners have sufficiently high prior knowledge to provide ‘internal’ guidance” (Kirschner.. Educational Psychologist.quickhitstech. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Washington. Retrieved on July 14. Always connected: The new digital media habits of young children. Reid. & Spraker.. C. Dubson.pdf Kirschner. Perkins. P. technology can be misapplied. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. & Clark.L. National Academy Press. and inquiry-based teaching. How does one go about appropriately incorporating technology into ones teaching? A good start is getting familiar with educational research results. 2008).K. (2011).B. Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class... & Kulik. 2009). M. 16(2). Transforming common-sense beliefs into Newtonian thinking through Just-in-Time Teaching. R. D. Robb. 9-20. Science.K. clickers (Caldwell. L. 2003. But even in the absence of mercenary motives and with the best intentions. experiential. Misuse of technology in teaching and learning is not uncommon and hard to guard against (Tufte..: National Research Council. E. 75-94. (2008). R.. J.. Technology can emphasize the relevant with correct use of color and animation for example. 7. M. CBE Life Sci Educ. J. al. Technology enhanced learning: The good. “Minimally guided instruction is less effective and less efficient than instructional approaches that place a strong emphasis on guidance of the student learning process. J. I. (2010). A.
Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology
Norvig, P. (2003). The Gettysburg PowerPoint presentation. Retrieved on July 14, 2011:
Schachter, R. (2009). Mobile devices in the classroom: Phones, netbooks and iPods are finding a
place in the curriculum and expanding student access to technology. Retrieved on July 14, 2011:
Sharples, M., Milrad, M., Arnedillo Sánchez, I., & Vavoula, G. (2009). Mobile learning: Small devices, big
issues. In N. Balacheff, S. Ludvigsen, T. De Jong, A. Lazonder, & S. Barnes (Eds). Technology Enhanced
Learning: Principles and Products. Heidelberg: Springer.
Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2),
4-14. Retrieved on July 14, 2011: http://www.leeshulman.net/domains-pedagogical-content-knowledge.html
Simkins, S., & Maier, M. (Eds). (2009). Just-in-Time Teaching across the Disciplines and across the Academy.
Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Tufte, E. (2003). PowerPoint Is Evil. Retrieved on July 14, 2011: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.09/ppt2.html
Promoting engagement in an online course: It can be done, but wisely!
Randall E. Osborne
Texas State University-San Marcos
Indiana University East
Keywords: critical thinking, engagement
Colleagues often complain about online courses suggesting:
(1) you cannot promote critical thinking in an online platform, (2) you cannot teach sensitive topic courses that way,
and (3) you really cannot have open and honest dialogue
in an online environment. As we designed our team-taught
course on the Politics and Psychology of Hatred, we set
out to create an online course and course environment that
would prove each of these comments to be false.
Kuhn (1999) makes the basic assumption that critical
thinking is a process of learning and demonstrating cognitive competencies that he defined as “meta-knowing.”
Rather than first-order knowing skills that involve an awareness of the facts and opinions that one holds, meta-knowing
(which Kuhn defined as involving “second-order” skills) involves an awareness of “how” one knows, NOT “what” one
knows. We made a concerted effort in the development of
our course to promote student practice with demonstrating
not just what they know but how they know it.
Making it Work
The following information (developed from the literature
briefly cited above), is provided to our students in the syllabus:
A Model for Critical Thinking
We expect students to demonstrate a significant amount of
critical thinking in this course. Specifically, we believe that
critical thinkers demonstrate the ability to address issues at
each of the following levels:
1. Recitation – state known facts or opinions. A critical component of this step is to acknowledge what
aspect(s) of what is being stated is factual and what is
based on opinion.
2. Exploration – analyze the roots of those opinions or
facts. This step requires digging below the surface of
what is believed or known and working to discover the
elements that have combined to result in that fact or that
opinion. This is an initial analysis without an attempt to
comprehend the impact of those facts or opinions.
3. Understanding – involves an awareness of other views
and a comprehension of the difference(s) between one’s
own opinion (and the facts or other opinions upon
which that opinion is based) and the opinions of others.
To truly “understand” our own opinion in relationship
to others, we must initiate an active dialogue with the
other person about his or her opinions and the roots of
those opinions. In other words, once we become aware
of the roots of our own opinions, we must understand
the roots of the opinions of others.
4. Appreciation – means a full awareness of the differences between our views and opinions and those of others. To truly appreciate differences, we must be aware
of the nature of those differences. The active dialogue
undertaken in the third step (understanding) should
lead to an analysis of the opinion as recited by the other.
The result should be a complete awareness of the similarities and differences between our own opinions (and
the roots of those opinions) and those of the “other.”
Although we may still be aware that our opinions differ,
we are now in a position to truly appreciate and value
The goal is not to get everyone
to agree; the goal is to get people to truly explore and underpromote student
stand how and why opinions
differ. To understand means to
realize the circumstances and
not just what
motivations that lead to difference and to realize that those
they know but
differences are meaningful. To
raise the issue without using
the elements of critical thinking and exploration we have
outlined above may simply
reinforce prejudices by giving them voice without question.
Feedback from students has been very positive. Not only
do they know that we want them to critically evaluate their
ideas, we provide the framework by which they can assess
their own efforts at doing so. Students have suggested on
course evaluations that the model is a critical element of
promoting engagement in the course because they know
what is expected and have a method for making that effort.
The second and third concerns of faculty, that you cannot
approach sensitive topics in online courses – we believe it is
Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology
because faculty perceive that they would have less “control”
in an online environment – and that an online platform does
not promote open and honest dialogue, were harder to address. MacKnight (2000) states that faculty must provide a
framework that encourages critical thinking but do so in a
way that promotes respect. Specifically, students must know
what the expectations are for the dialogue and the assignments and the course structure must encourage them to:
■■ ask the right questions,
■■ listen to each other,
■■ take turns and share work,
■■ help each other learn,
■■ respect each other’s ideas,
■■ build on each other’s ideas,
■■ construct their own understanding, and
■■ think in new ways. (MacKnight, 2000, p. 39)
Students are provided with course etiquette built from this
literature and are told that we will follow this etiquette in all
course postings. Students have commented on course
evaluations and in unsolicited letters and emails that
this etiquette helped to quell their concerns over speaking their mind and also gave them a method they could
use to know how to express themselves but to do so in
ways that invite communication instead of confrontation. When “tempers” flare in course postings, we can
easily calm things down again by reminding students
to follow the course etiquette and to, “ask questions instead of making statements.”
Kuhn, D. (1999). A developmental model of critical thinking.
Educational Researcher, 28, 16-26, 46.
MacKnight, C.B. (2000). Teaching critical thinking through online discussions. Educause Quarterly, 4, 38-41.
Course Etiquette and Participating in an Internet Course:
This is an Internet course. As such, the success of the course relies on active participation by each class
member throughout the entire semester.
Even though we are the professors for the course, it is designed as a seminar course, meaning active
participation from students is essential.
Although face-to-face interactions will not occur because of our use of the Internet, we do expect continual
communication between members of the class and the course faculty. We expect students to use the same
etiquette that would be used in a classroom during face-to-face interactions. This etiquette includes:
1. respect for others (their viewpoints, their values, their beliefs),
2. the right to disagree (but requires sensitivity to the viewpoints of others),
3. taking responsibility for being involved in developing the issues and topics relevant to this course,
4. active participation in all elements of the course,
5. continual feedback to the instructors about the course, course assignments, and individual viewpoints,
6. a commitment to the mutual exchange of ideas. This means we will not isolate definitive “answers” to
the issues we raise but we will actively explore and respect the multiple sides to those issues, and
7. a responsibility to “police” ourselves. We are attempting to develop a community and this requires
trust. In order to develop trust, we must know that we can share our ideas and not be “attacked.” This
also requires that we allow other class members the same trust and freedom we expect.
Figure1.2. Course etiquette and participating in an internet course.
it’s your turn. and Organizational Behavior. Even people who tell me they don’t know how to write a poem can usually come up with something reasonable by following this format.com 7 Introductory poem for online course Suzi Shapiro Indiana University East Keywords: community.quickhitstech.Promoting Engagement www. or smelling. I’m from the know-it-alls and the pass-it-ons. a course wiki. (Black. illustrated with photographs by Robert Hoskins and published by Absey & Co. Rather than having students write a traditional introduction to their classmates. Where Poems Come From. The fourth section should describe the things that you do frequently Future Implications Students receive credit for any level of completion. fried corn and strong coffee. I ask them to post a poem to the discussion forum. A poem written by George Ella Lyons titled Where I’m From has become the starting point for a lot of self reflective poetry. Neuroscience. Many report sharing the poem with family and friends. I’m from He restoreth my soul with a cottonball lamb and ten verses I can say myself. Under my bed was a dress box spilling old pictures. 3. from perk up and pipe down. The second section should describe your favorite foods or things you remember eating. From the finger my grandfather lost to the auger the eye my father shut to keep his sight. Texas. Spring . Tools: Basic text editing in the online discussion forum 2. The assignment is posted as follows: Write a poem about yourself following the format given. ice breaker. tasting. Student comments have been positive with several students mentioning on how pleased they were with their final products. The discussion forum works well as it automatically makes all poems available for classmates to read. 2. the Dutch elm whose long gone limbs I remember as if they were my own. The poems could also be posted to student blogs. The first section should describe things you did when you were young or the place where you lived. I’m from fudge and eyeglasses. Making it Work 1. or other interactive space. The third section should describe the people who are important in your life 4. 3. a sift of lost faces to drift beneath my dreams. This provides some sense of connection to their classmates . Students are often surprised to find that they are not alone in having a particular belief or experience. from Clorox and carbon-tetrachloride. This activity works well in many different types of courses and is enjoyed by younger traditional students as well as more mature students. I am from those momentssnapped before I buddedleaf-fall from the family tree. “Where I’m From” appears in George Ella Lyon’s Where I’m From. I not only post the original poem that was the source of the assignment. Create your own “Where I’m from” poem by following these quidelines: 1. but I post a poem that I have written about myself as another example and a way for them to get to know me better. discussion forum Framework Building a community of learners can be an important part of an online course. The poem is an activity I heard about at a conference years ago and it has worked well in many different types of online courses. a poetry workshopbook for teachers and students. glistening it tasted like beets. I have used it in a variety of Psychology courses dealing with topics such as Lifespan Development. Implementation: The instructions can be posted to the discussion forum or emailed to students.) I am from the forsythia bush. Sensation and Perception. Format for Your Poem: Where I’m from Now. I am from the dirt under the black porch. I’m from Artemus and Billie’s Branch. Where I’m From by George Ella Lyons I am from clothespins. 1999. from Imogene and Alafair.
) Most Death Clock directions tell the person to accurately answer health questions in order to compute the hour and date of their death. such as Developmental Psychology. classroom engagement and re-engagement Framework When was the last time you rewarded a college student’s work with more than an ‘at-a-boy’ (or girl) remark in your “Instructor’s Comments?” Research has always indicated that students invest more effort in their classwork when they are stimulated by the opportunity to gain a reward for their efforts.edu/doecke/Mind_Games_2.com/watch?v=zbKRSYAuSNg Thanksgiving Reward (Have a Healthy Holiday) http://petm. Moose in the Sprinkler (Sometimes beauty finds you.GIF Heart Attack Grill: “A Meal to Die For” (We are what we eat.com/babymoose Lying to your Death Clock (You could be in control of your life.youtube. I love this class. Encourage your students to send in website addresses and class related cartoons for extra credit.) Would you eat here? Lots of Food for Thought! “A Meal to Die For” http://www.wimp.bmp http://petm. So what’s an e-Reward? Making it Work An e-Reward is a URL.edu/doecke/Mind_Games_1.iupui. Death Clock http://www.) http://www. Are there any themes or topics that are common to many of the poems? www. In no time.quickhitstech.GIF http://petm.iupui. Take the time to enjoy it. and wellness) How did he teach his dog to do this? http://www.docx Future Implications Start collecting e-Rewards as they arrive in your regular e-mail. “Dr.edu/doecke/CaseyDoecke_E-Rewards_PT2_Thanksgiving_Rewards. http://petm.edu/doecke/Mind_Games_3.com/watch?v=Nc9xq-TVyHI &feature=player_embedded Teaching Your Mind to Be Calm (Taking charge of your emotional health) The students are given three pictures of common figures that appear to be still until they stare at them. Here are some of my favorite e-Rewards for H363: Personal Health. Possible analysis questions might include: a.iupui.iupui. they suggest new e-Rewards that can be given to future classes. or web link that opens a pleasant experience related to the material studied. jpeg.” . My favorite student comment is. The figures move until breathing is controlled and emotions are calm. Using e-Rewards to promote engagement and re-engagement in the online classroom Johannah Casey-Doecke Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Keywords: e-Rewards. How do the items mentioned in the poems reflect the culture that your classmates grew up in? The poems become a source of data for analysis by the class as well as a personal activity. Students in my H363 Personal Health–Distance Learning class at IUPUI not only look forward to their eRewards.youtube. fitness. you will have a free file of e-Rewards for your students and better comments on your student evaluations. How might some of the experiences mentioned change what someone would like or dislike today? c.com b. So negative! It’s more fun to lie because you get a better death date and you start to realize that you have some control over the length of your life.cc/ Ballroom Doggie (Dancing for fun. Friends send “cute” websites to friends and other people send the links to more friends. I ask students to draw conclusions from the collection of poems during the second week of course discussion. D really takes the time to give us motivations to learn.deathclock.8 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology In some courses where the content of the poems is relevant to course content.
g. Once you do this. The subject line of their post is the topic they selected. cites searchable literashare ture support) is worth 40% of the overall score. While searching.. disability and /or death) in a wellness course. Sample Discussion Forum Prompt (used with ANGEL learning management system): Post your YouTube clip here.com 9 YouTube reviews Jacqueline K. This time is allotted for independent review of these three clips and completion of the review form. it is considered “taken” and latecomers must pick something different. A thorough and thoughtful review sheet (example below) is worth the remaining 60%. Weeks 2 and 3: Students review topics posted by classmates and select three of interest for additional review.. Week 1: Students select and research one leading cause of morbidity and/or mortality from an instructorcreated list of approximately thirty choices. Their clip selection should reflect knowledge of their topic in this previous content. First.Promoting Engagement www. To cover a reasonable number of causes.youtube. To post a link. so everyone can see all topics. Making it Work The purpose of this assignment is to familiarize students with information about a variety of leading causes of morbidity and/or mortality (e. Posting the search for a quality clip (e. seal of a university or respected healthcare best clip to facility. This encourages students to enter the course early to benefit from a large selection of possible topics.e. posted by what they felt someone who provides verifiwas the very able credentials.. An instructor-created review sheet encourages them to share knowledge they have learned about this topic and requires them to select three classmates’ topics for additional review. If you absolutely cannot do this .quickhitstech. Owens Ashland University Keywords:YouTube. you need to click on the Insert Web Link button on the toolbar above. this activity is most appropriate for a web-based class size greater than fifteen.com/ and utilize the site-provided search feature to explore clips about their cause. Points are deducted for inadequate or incomplete reviews or posting a topic previously selected by another student. Once someone posts a link about a cause. 3. asthma). create a new post. Future Implications Students often report anecdotally that they became extremely engaged with their topic in the search for what they felt was the very best clip to share. the internet. They search for a clip that has scholarly merit and evaluate the worthiness of all potential clips to select the one they feel best addresses their topic.there is a space to paste the URL you copied from your YouTube clip. Put your name and the topic you have chosen in the heading. One thread of this course is evaluation of online health information. Most students concentrated on their topic and paid little attention to presentations on other topics. Students copy the URL from the YouTube clip about their topic and post it to a dedicated course discussion thread (prompt below) for others to access and view. hypertension. Steps for this assignment are: 1. End of week 3: Students submit completed review form for grading to a dedicated drop box. and a word processing program. media clip Framework How to find an intriguing method to engage students with online course content? This Quick Hit describes a YouTube (2011) Review assignment used to present content related to leading causes of morbidity and mortality (i. so students have been exposed to They became better and lesser quality conextremely tent to help them make this engaged with evaluation. They access YouTube at http://www. suicide.paste the URL directly into your post and we can copy and paste it to our browser. Students previously selected one cause of morbidity or mortality and presented a 10-minute talk with a one-page handout for classmates. The YouTube (2011) Review activities timeline is three weeks when assigned concurrently with other course activities. A pop up box will come up . students repeatedly think about and reflect on the specifics of the topic. The YouTube (2011) Review now entices students to find a media clip to enlighten classmates about their cause. 2. review.g. it should provide a live link for others to view the clip from the link in your posting. Faculty and students require access to a learning management system. . thus suggesting the repeated engagement that supports learning.
LLC. students receive via email a list of options for a 2-hour long chat session.quickhitstech. The first day of the semester. 2001. Section 2: Review of Other Topics Please review any 3 other students’ YouTube clips of your choice (use links from discussion forum postings — if they did not include a live link. (2011). to assess students’ prior knowledge of the subject. major risk factors. online chat Framework Many scholars have emphasized the need to find ways to engage students in the online environment (see for example. cannot make any of the available sessions.youtube. Students may find clips or have interest about additional topics and inquire as to In sum. second. List topic and title of clip 1: ■■ List 3 things you learned from the clip about this topic: ■■ What dimension of wellness (from the 7 we discuss in this course — e. 2004. social) do you feel this topic most impacts and why? (Repeat for clips 2 and 3) The topic list has continued to grow.. The first time. they are asked to provide the instructor with their availabilities. the chat tool was used to promote student interaction and bonding among classmates in order to impact classroom retention and student learning (Angelino. chat sessions can run without the presence of the instructor. or with a face to face assisted search for those newer to technology and/or search strategies. Each group has its own chat-room. In the rare occasions where they The chat sessions are accompanied by a discussion guide consisting of 15 to 20 questions which follow up on students’ reading responses submitted the week before.com/ Promoting online courses’ student engagement and group cohesion through the use of chat-rooms Julien Simon Indiana University East Keywords: engagement. who is at risk/ why. & Natvig. YouTube (2011) Reviews require a low level of technological expertise from faculty and students. no reading assignments are discussed and the purpose of that session is to engage in a conversation about what will be covered in the class. emotional. possible treatments/preventive measures: This activity could be implemented with a smaller class if each student considered more than one topic. & Natvig. and third choices. Angelino. 2007). It could be done as an online activity for a hybrid course. At the first session. This approach to discussing in a virtual environment assigned readings and other course materials could also be useful in smaller classes as well as hybrid classes. Lim. and to help them reflect on what they will learn. literature course. Reference YouTube. 2007).com EXAMPLE: YouTube Review Sheet: Leading Causes of Morbidity/Mortality whether or not a topic not yet listed is appropriate. but could easily adapt to upper level students by increasing the rigor of the review sheet. followed by an independent review. This type of assignment can stimulate prolonged engagement with a topic in an environment increasingly familiar and enjoyable to many. fully online literature class (Introduction to Spanish Golden Age Literature in Translation). Broadcast yourself. Available: http://www. The assignment. instructors should make sure to be available at the beginning of each session to walk students through the process. Group size should be between four and seven students. The number of chat sessions is dependent upon class enrollment. Williams. physical. to which they must respond within three days to indicate their first. as described. After that. is utilized with mostly freshman and sophomore level students. Provide the following information. Section 1: Your Topic ■■ The topic I chose for this review is: ■■ I selected this topic because: ■■ Tell me 2 facts about the topic you have chosen (such as definition of topic. copy and paste the URL in the post to your browser). Williams. these requests expand the choices for future groups.g.10 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. Making it Work Online discussions take place every week and on week #2 they begin. These questions can be of different kinds: . Diaz & Bontenbal. In a large.
mechane) to resolve the plot of a play. (2001).quickhitstech. 2011: http://home. the main character cuts her hair and disguises herself as a man. For exonline ample. Furthermore. facilitates bonding among students and thus heightens the class’s sense of cohesion. D. Engaging learners in online learning environments. .” Do you think this is a “good” summary of what Teresa of Ávila meant to write? Whether you agree. Lim.. Williams. 4 (2). Moreover.” (Britannica Concise Encyclopedia) Who serves the role of the deus ex machina in “Fuente Ovejuna?” Explain. students have to write two questions that they wish to ask their peers).Promoting Engagement www. (2004).’ they cannot be passive participants. L. The real-timeness of the chat-room. By using students’ questions and comments (which they undoubtedly recognize). K. Unidentified quotes taken from students’ responses.earthlink. vii). Modifications can be implemented to further increase class cohesion and the sense of group togetherness. some of 11 them will also thank their groupmates and say that they look forward to meeting them the following week. Questions written by the instructor. these archived chat histories also make assessment of class participation easier and less subjective as it is completed a posteriori and not in media res. Diaz. The discussions are in general very lively. TechTrends. the online format encourages participation from all students.. C. At the end. P. but also a meditation to get closer to God. to enhance stuand richer dent learning and group counderstanding hesion. K. just like its offline counterpart (the physical classroom). 15 (8). and it leads them to gain a deeper and richer understanding of the texts read. (2007). students are more accountable due to the fact that the chat histories are archived and can be viewed later. For example: A student wrote: “It is a poem. For instance. D. 1-14.. How are these disguises used differently? Future Implications The online discussion fosters student learning in a variety of ways: It draws students’ attention to overlooked aspects. & Bontenbal. just like its offline counterpart (the physical classroom).. net/~davidpdiaz/LTS/html_docs/lrnprefs. 3. & Natvig.g. Retrieved July 26. Moreover. p. since students must write regularly in the chat to be ‘present. References Angelino. The term now denotes something that appears suddenly and unexpectedly and provides an artificial solution to an apparently insoluble difficulty. 2.com 1. While waiting for the session to begin and upon finishing the session. Learner preferences: Developing a learner-centered environment in the online or mediated classroom. it provides them with additional background information to appreciate more the literary works. chat-room discussions present some advantages over classroom discussions. For example: The intervention of a deus ex machina is a frequent feature of Lope’s comedias (see Introduction.htm. fosters student students can each be assigned learning a novel to study and write a it leads them to review that can subsequently be evaluated by classmates). Education at a Distance. Below is a definition of deus ex machina: “Stage device in Greek and Roman drama in which a god appeared in the sky by means of a crane (Greek. we can create a more inclusive learning environment in which they are more willing to participate and learn. Plays by Sophocles and particularly Euripides sometimes require the device. For example: In the two stories seen. Strategies to engage online students and reduce attrition rates. higher performing students (identified as such based on the first reading responses) could become peerassistants and be paired with those in the class who experience difficulties completing their work. please cite passages of the text to support your argumentation. F. M. gain a deeper In addition. 48 (4). 16-23. students often engage in conversations about what is happening in their life or ask questions about the course and the upcoming assignments. something that also helps at a pedagogical level when they want to review for the final exam. F. facilitates bonding among students and thus heightens the class’s sense of cohesion. Questions written by students (as part of their reading responses. The Journal of Educators Online. partly agree or disagree with this statement. Finally. P. even the ones who tend to be shy in front of a live audience. The real-timeness of the chat-room. a virtual presentation discussion or a peer-reviewed assignment could be added (e.
Reading/watching a lecture video: I give them a set of concepts from the textbook to study. citing specific ideas/concepts (with page numbers) from the text. Again. 1996. b. and whole class comparison. Same problem: all groups work on the same issue so they can compare answers later in a meaningful way. yes/no. Students post their individual answers by the opening day of the discussion. Class Work: Discussion forum to compare group answers: I move the final answers from the group to a “debate” forum where students are encouraged to question the answers of other groups. One solution is team-based learning. Below I list these steps and provide examples from my current online course. 2002. The method can be used with any content reflecting information.com Using team-based learning to engage students in online courses Marcia D. they then must provide support. and Fink. p. 1. is somewhat formulaic. they cannot easily split up the work but must talk through the application of the concepts and reach a decision. & Fink. However. Knight. simply assigning students to “post replies to five people’s posts” does not help students develop connections and may feel like busy work. Simultaneous reporting to the class: groups can not “change their mind” after seeing another group’s answer (Michaelsen. students still have more to say and learn in the whole class discussion forum. online teaching. b. al.quickhitstech. Making it Work Michaelsen’s team-based learning consists of three types of work: individual preparation. 61). and applying it to . Gaytan & McEwen. et. Knight & Fink. Team-based learning. Small Group Work: Discussion forum to reach decision about case study/problem: Students discuss the case study and must reach consensus about the specific action to be taken by X. c. Knight. 2002): an online quiz over the concepts preparing them for group work. However. the answer can only be a phrase or sentence. small group interaction. created by Larry Michaelsen. so they can not just incorporate everyone’s original ideas. taking a quiz. case study. Individual Preparation: a. COM 212 Interpersonal Communication. In the Spring 2010 semester. This assures that some students do not get credit for coasting along and agreeing with the work other students are doing and also that the discussion gets off to a strong start. Using this process assures that each student works with the content in five ways: individually in reading/ listening to the material. principles. Dixson Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Keywords: team-based learning. Even after dealing with a case study individually and in small groups.. Quiz/assignment: (the first two steps are called the readiness assurance process – more specifics are available from Michaelsen. more than ten years of using this strategy has taught me that the closer assignments follow Michaelsen’s steps and checklists (see Michaelsen. The challenge is to create meaningful interaction that also engages them with the content of the course. 3. their work must be focused. the debate forums had another 70 . Ortiz-Rodriguez. phrase. Their answer can only be a phrase or a sentence. they must discuss! Effective group projects use the three S’s: a.e. the person should do this). Students in online courses are more likely than other students to feel disconnected from content. I award extra credit for the debate “winners”(those who best defend their answers). student engagement Framework One of the consistent findings in online education research is the risk of student isolation (Lewis & Abdul-Hamid. 2002). the two best solutions are. 2. 2007) encourage instructors to provide opportunities for student-student interaction as well as student-teacher interaction. Specific choice (word. They look for errors and omissions or they comment on perspectives they had not considered. or skills students need to learn and a way for them to “practice” the information by applying it to some kind of group project.90 posts (from about 20 active students) during the three days of the debate in each unit. c. and groups will be able to easily identify differences in their answers during the whole class discussion. However. 2005). or problem. the better the learning outcomes for students. Individual posting of initial answer to group problem/case study/project: students are asked to answer the question “What should X do next?” about a case study concerning an interpersonal interaction. conflict situation etc. I find this more effective than telling them to read a set of pages/chapters. or sentence): when students must reach a specific decision (i. 2006. other students and the instructor. Therefore.12 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. researchers (Chickering & Ehrmann.
with comments like. Retrieved October 7. Implementing the seven principles: Technology as a Lever. the instructor should give each group feedback about how their conversation is progressing. consistent with the expectations of learner-centered ideology.W. Gayton. M. 3-6.. S. five content posts —something more than “I agree”). G. College students’ perceptions of quality in distance education: The importance of communication. Future Implications Chickering. An additional benefit of this activity is that overwhelmed professors who know we “should” be making our lectures more visually appealing can do so while shifting the work (which is often a synonym for . Effective online instructional and assessment strategies.0 when asked about References That’s why they call it YOU-Tube DeDe Wohlfarth. and cell phones. The American Journal of Distance Education. etc.. 2. 2) it has both individual and group accountability.C. L. & Rhoades. we realize that seeing Piaget’s conservation task. 83-98. J. the instructor provides a grade and comments for each of the groups’ final answers..K.C. 2007 from Teaching.quickhitstech. Since instructors grade just the group answers. in a small group to talk the problem through with their peers. B. Although some texts offer video resources. W. 117-132.D. “ and “got a lot of great views on interesting topics. but students will often work without extra points because they’re excited when “their” video clip is shown in class. 97-105. (Important tip: preview the clips!).tltgroup. Telg. Individual grades for group discussion are based on having the initial post up on time and participating meaningfully in the conversation (i. Team-based learning accomplishes the goals of learning and helping students feel engaged with the course. Bauman Knight. whether they are misunderstanding a key idea. providing informal feedback about a student’s text understanding. Students can add a two sentence email explaining why they think their video clip fits conceptually with the reading.org/programs/seven. 31. A. (2006). Making it Work But here’s a solution to get students to read for class: have students read ahead for the next assignment and scour the internet for an awesome video clip to demonstrate what they learned by sending the hyperlink via email.” Team-based learning is a very useful tool for both learning and student engagement in the online course environment. “I liked the group discussions and being able to see things through my peers perspective. 21(3). Depending on the content and the students. and 3) it offers the opportunity for interaction with the instructor. and. Students in my Fall 2010 COM 212 course reported an average 4. H. In adopting more active-learning. & Fink. we hunt for cool YouTube clips and internet resources that demonstrate key lecture points. A. (Eds). E. T. One may choose to offer extra credit points for students’ efforts. Irani.html. & Abdul-Hamid. video clips Framework How do we convince our multi-tasking students to tear themselves away from Facebook. finally.Promoting Engagement www. student-centered paradigms. active learning. for example.C. & Ehrmann. twitter.75/5. (2005). fearing they will be as boring as our texts. Of course. there is time to provide meaningful comments.3/5. T. Michaelsen. (2007). Fairly early in the group discussion. Quarterly Review of Distance Education. students are rarely motivated to preview these websites. Implementing Effective Online Teaching Practices: Voices of Exemplary Faculty. Innovative Higher Education. the instructor and their peers. (2002). October). Roberts. Dave Morgan. (1996. Lewis. with bonus points going to the juiciest video. team-based learning has several other benefits: 1) it requires meaningful interaction with other students to reach a decision. & McEwen.e. Besides this multi-step learning process. Sterling. and actually read our (often dry) textbooks? To make learning relevant. Team -based learning: A transformative use of small groups in college teaching.0 for instructor presence in the course. AAHE Bulletin. and Nate Mitchell Spalding University Keywords: engaging students. is much more memorable than telling about it. 6. Learning and Technology Group Website: http://www. Ortiz-Rodríguez.. They feel a sense of ownership and control.com 13 the analysis of the case study/problem. as an entire class to see how other groups applied the concepts to the assignment. L. applying the concepts in the discussion and a 4. C. instructors can be very active in the process or maintain a facilitatorwhen-needed role. R. VA: Stylus.
In a YouTube video I once showed to my learning class. To modify the activity with larger class www. (b) uncover the ultimate meaning of those articles and assigned core articles as they have been taken up in the literature more broadly. and available in most course management platforms online teaching resources (e. and critique personally relevant articles. i. “Reading in Context” for networked engagement with course readings Daniel T. some graduate complete their studies with culminating papers that knowledgeable editors or search committee members dismiss outright because of sloppy referencing.g. Outcomes/Assessment We have not formally assessed the use of this technique.. These proficiencies are crucial for graduate students but difficult to foster in classroom contexts. Hickey Indiana University Bloomington Keywords: reading. college students had staged a Pavlovian conditioning demonstration. this challenge is heighted within digitally networked scholarship (Ingraham. As such. discussion forums Framework “Reading in Context” is a networked instructional activity.. and expand their knowledge of the relevant research literature.f. students see how the core article has been being taken up by others.e. interpret.14 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology “learning”) to students. Students first locate and critique personally-relevant articles that reference a core article. 1996). Have students assume responsibility for not only finding the video. Worse still. online assignments. but introducing it to the class. request video clips from only 5-10 members in the class at a time. and (c) learn the subtle nuances of scholarly referencing. Instructing students to find such errors enhances their critical thinking with regard to the subject matter.) in their own writing until they get to their thesis or dissertation (Cafarella & Barnett. the video actors actually confused conditional and unconditional stimuli in their demonstration description. despite our efforts to stay “hip. Making it Work This activity uses tools that are free (Google Scholar). Future Implications Audience This technique works for all class sizes. Modifications In an on-line or hybrid class.quickhitstech. but students report that this activity directly contributed to their learning in course evaluation feedback. describing how the clip relates to course content. They require extensive individualized guidance from someone with deep knowledge of the relevant literature. or even see how they came to be “core” in the first place (Diezmann. I have been using it to help graduate students efficiently learn to (a) locate. 2005). Although the video was entertaining. Some graduate students never really appreciate how the broadening meaning of a specific article ultimately resides in the way it is taken up and interpreted in the broader literature (Rose. (Thanks to Todd Zakrajsek at UNC for the initial idea for this tip). and course disciplines. students often find more culturally relevant clips than we do. 2000). academic levels. wikis and discussion forums). and c. Critiquing the range of references naturally reveals subtle nuances of this crucial scholarly practice. Students then use networking tools to collaboratively identify which of the articles are “more appropriate” and “less appropriate” references to the core article. . opensource (the Zotero referencing plugin for the Firefox browser). Offer additional class points if students identify and describe content or theoretical errors in the clip itself. 2000). which is far more time efficient than looking them up ourselves. and discussing its theoretical and real world implications. Implementation Implementation time requires reading a few emails from students and clicking on a few links to watch clips.g.” We also recommend using YouTube clips as presentation requirements for students. By searching for references that are relevant to their specific interests. Tools Access to a “smart” classroom with internet access and the technology to show web-based video clips.com sizes. This is laborious for advisors and aggravating for committee members. Additionally. many students don’t appreciate the broader meaning of core readings. this activity should work equally well. Many don’t tackle the nuances of referencing (such as the appropriate use of e.
6). They then save PDF’s of the articles in which they comment on whether or not the authors have referred to the core article appropriately. the instructor feedback and individual discussions of papers were able to delve more immediately into the substantive issues in the paper. the culminating activity is identifying the most appropriate and least appropriate reference to the core article. Nonetheless. . Example of “Less Appropriate” and “More Appropriate” references to core article (i. every student was able to complete it successfully in the most recent course. I provide feedback and support discussion with classmates via public comments posted directly to the wikifolios (Figure 1.e. The activity is quite ambitious for MEd students in an introductory course. and collaborative). students locate and cite referring articles that are themselves widely cited and relevant to their specific sub-interest.3). Students are shown how to use Zotero and a shared Zotero database that was set up for the course (Figure 1.4).. without having to also identify and explain referencing errors. and (c) use inappropriate referencing abbreviations. They then examine how the core article was referenced. critical. as well as the broader arguments in the referencing article. Students complete the activity by reflecting on three types of engagement (consequential. I use a more modest version in an online introductory course. A discussion forum is used to identify the “most appropriate” and the “least appropriate” reference. Compared to previous classes. Students then post their references and their observations to their wikifolio for that week for discussion (Figure 1.quickhitstech. When the class meets. Brown and Adler’s 2007 Minds on Fire). Promoting Engagement 15 In the more advanced hybrid course. For each of the core articles. Students are specifically encouraged to search for articles that (a) misrepresent the point of the core article.3. the actual content of the assignment is not formally graded.5). I had students complete the activity with each of the core articles that comprise the course reading. literature review papers completed for the most recent course showed referencing that was more ambitious and more precise. Compared to previous classes with similar students.com I developed and refined this activity in the context of two courses in Cognition and Instruction in a graduate school of education. The reflections showed convincing evidence of disciplinary engagement with the core article and referencing articles. Figure 1. Students use Google Scholar to locate professionally-relevant articles that reference a widely-cited core article. and a developing appreciation of the nuances and pitfalls of scholarly referencing. (b) use the core article to warrant arguments that the core article does not actually support. The specific assignment has them locate at least one “more appropriate” reference and at least one “less appropriate” reference.www. and then discuss those comments (Figure 1. Points are awarded based on evidence of learning in the reflections.
(2005). Studies in Higher Education. Rose. S. and convincing more instructors to attempt it. References Caffarella.quickhitstech. S. Ingraham. And all of the students in the advanced course developed referencing skills that previously had required intensive review of course papers and one-on-one feedback. Scholarly rhetoric in digital media. while substantially reducing instructor workload.4. M. documenting the consequences of those refinements. What’s love got to do with it? Scholarly citation practices as courtship rituals.. Figure 1. (2000). G. Providing detailed feedback on early posts allows the instructor to simply reference those examples when providing feedback to others. Diezmann. A near term goal for both of these courses is the incorporation of social bookmarking tools (e.. (1996). 6(4). Teaching doctoral students to become scholarly writers: The importance of giving and receiving critiques. (2000). Supervision and scholarly writing: Writing to learn—learning to write. Reflective Practice. All of the students in the introductory course engaged with articles and referencing practices that were heretofore only attempted in the advanced course. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. R. Another near term goal for both courses is creating a challenging set of items for the course exam that will efficiently provide valid www. Digg). B. B.com evidence of the understanding that each student takes away from the activity. . C. The focus on personally relevant articles and the grading of reflections seem to have eliminated the risk of plagiarism.g. 25(1). 1(3).16 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology Future Implications So far. Example of instructor and peer commenting on post. Journal of Language and Learning across the Disciplines. I have learned that shared public and persistent discourse allows struggling students to learn from the posting and discussions of their classmates. These items will support the long term goal of iteratively refining the feature of the activity each year. 39-52. & Barnett. 443-457. 36-47.
Figure 1.6.quickhitstech. Embedded discussion of references to core articles in advanced course.www.5. Articles referencing core articles in shared Zotero database in advanced course. 17 .com Promoting Engagement Figure 1.
all students are asked to find their group assignments and use the messaging system contained within the campus course management system to send me their group membership identification and to send a message to their group members. and I am rewarded by knowing we will not have surprise discoveries throughout the course that might keep any student from being able to participate fully in the course. The scavenger hunt assignment is composed of a series of tasks that document student knowledge of the IU system and ensure that students have access to necessary course materials. this assignment requires them to introduce themselves in a separate discussion forum and to respond to the posting of at least one other student in the same discussion forum. Future Directions/Modifications/Hybrid Contexts: This activity is endlessly modifiable by simply changing the subactivities of the scavenger hunt.com Scavenger hunt Joan Lafuze Indiana University East Keywords: online instruction. All students have access to this system from a campus computer even if they do not own their own computer. students complete a quiz over the introduction section of the text in the test and survey portion of our management system. Outcomes/Assessment: Assessment is built into this activity as each sub-activity within the scavenger hunt has a ‘product’ that was developed specifically to assess whether students had met the learning outcome. A possible modification might be to develop a sub-activity that requires students to interact with one another by going on a virtual scavenger hunt to find an answer to a question in cyberspace. I award points for each activity. Each scavenger hunt activity can be developed within two to three hours. students may be asked to use an Adobe file or Microsoft PowerPoint. This way. This pleases the student. As such. if the student can successfully utilize the technology. Third. Second. that is. This not only helps them learn to navigate the messaging system appropriately. there is a link to a course created special library that they will use to read a peer-reviewed article. students are asked to post a special assignment using the assignments tool of our system. Future Implications Audience: This activity was designed for an online course but could be used in any course requiring the use of technology. First. Tools: This activity utilizes the campus course management system. . there should be no additional costs for students or the university. Similarly. Fourth. For example.quickhitstech. but also lets me know that I have not missed assigning a student to a group or that I have mistakenly assigned a student to more than one group.18 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. I designed the course with a preliminary “scavenger hunt” assignment. Because students from other campuses may not be aware of the specifics of the Indiana University course management system or because we may have to establish library or other access connections. Implementation: Developing course-specific scavenger hunt activities can only be completed once the course syllabus is completed so that you know which computer technologies your students will be utilizing. the size of the class and the content being taught would not matter. I can determine that they have both acquired the text and that they can use the test tool. students must download a file and answer questions requiring the use of different media depending upon the course. Finally. Making it Work The scavenger hunt assignment is composed of a series of tasks that document student knowledge of the IU system and ensure that students have access to necessary course materials. course management systems Framework There are a number of students who register for my online courses from colleges and universities outside Indiana University.
Is it correct? Is it complete? Is it based on the concepts being introduced in class? A faculty member may post two responses to the same question. Like reading quizzes. that distinguish JiTT from a reading quiz. 2. above)? We prefer to use anonymous excerpts from students’ work as “talking points” in class. She may change the emphasis. and graduate level courses across the university curriculum.” What makes a good warmup? A few questions that are open-ended enough to draw students out. 3. and that produce answers that will be good “discussion starters” in the classroom. which is due a few hours before class. We also find it useful to bring examples of students’ responses to class and use these as talking points during the class discussion. For instance. add or drop topics. We often construct questions by asking “In your own words. the instructor makes adjustments to her plans for the class time. The JiTT instructional process consists of five steps. The gap between the time the warmup is due and the class period may vary from hours to days. advanced. JiTT was developed in the late 1990’s by the author and collaborators in the physics departments at IUPUI and the US Air Force Academy (Novak. 2009). students have an increased incentive to prepare before class. JiTT is now used in introductory.quickhitstech. active learning Framework Just-in-Time Teaching ( JiTT for short) is a pedagogical method that promotes engagement by leveraging homework time to promote interactive learning in the classroom. Most course management systems are more than adequate to the task. explain what <new idea> means. Most campuses already have the necessary technology for JiTT. ■■ The instructor can evaluate the results before class. An enterprising instructor (or one with a little help from IT) can create all of the necessary technology using just a web server and a few simple scripts to handle the interactions. but it has the biggest impact in medium to large lecture settings. This last point is critical. the length of the assignments. ■■ The warmup is online. how credit is determined. The instructor prepares or adjusts the subsequent warmup to match the needs of the class. and for faculty to collect their answers. Gavrin. though.com Promoting Engagement 19 Just-in-Time Teaching: Using the web to engage students in the classroom Andy Gavrin Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Keywords: educational technology. By using the results of this new homework in class. . and incorporates them in the discussion.www. My collaborators and I use the WWW to create a feedback loop between a new class of online homework assignments and the classroom experience. an instructor may project an example of student work on the screen and ask students to respond to it. The instructor brings excerpts from the students’ responses to class. 1999). so no class time is used. pre-class. All that is needed is a means to ask students questions online. The time to implement JiTT is primarily in the time to prepare and post good questions for the semester—probably an hour or two per week.” The “warmups” (for short) are web-based assignments that students complete before the class period in which the relevant material is to be discussed. Think of the warmups as online.” How can the warmup responses be incorporated in the discussion (step four. Students read the material in a textbook or other source.. 5. Based on her students’ performance. ■■ Students must think about the material rather than simply read it uncritically. JiTT can improve results in classes large and small. Faculty may post exemplary answers. The results include ■■ Improved learning ■■ Better student attitudes ■■ Opportunities to cover material in greater depth. Even the names of the assignments vary: faculty at the US Air Force Academy use the term “Pre-flight check. Faculty have considerable flexibility in implementing JiTT. Making it Work The centerpiece of the JiTT method is the new category of homework that we term “Warm up exercises. There are several additional benefits. & Christian. it is used in community colleges and research universities (Simkins & Maier. The instructor reviews the warmup responses and makes “just-in-time” adjustments to her plans for the class period. etc. Patterson. 1. and ask students to discuss the relative merits with their neighbors before polling the class on which one is best. Students complete these assignments based on assigned pre-class reading. reading quizzes. we make the classroom more effective in addressing students’ needs. may all be adjusted to local needs. Students complete the warmup. The frequency of warmups each week. etc. 4.
Use of internet-based warm up exercises to determine students’ prior knowledge and misconceptions in biology. due to the interactive user guide. brain storming. Although this bubble mapping tool is not as functional as Inspiration. Among dozens of visual mapping tools. E. R. A. an instructor can demonstrate how to use this tool. Coll. Science Teaching. Pintrich. instructors were in need of an alternative tool. What matters in college? Four critical years revisited: Jossey-Bass. 2008). and student engagement Framework Making it Work Visual mapping is an effective activity that enables students to clearly and critically think about their concepts/ideas/perspectives (Bitter & Legacy. in the computer lab. G. 2003). Just-in-time teaching across the disciplines and across the academy. For instance. A. I have used “Bubble Mapping” (www. & Whistler. Hake. P. (1997). (Eds)... Novak. 1998. & Smith. J. Using JiTT. As a result. Just-in-time teaching: Blending active learning with web technology. 1986). Pintrich. students can easily learn how to use.20 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology praise them. even in an online course. J.com in both cases. Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: a six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. 2010). as long as instructors and students have Internet access. Sterling. Simply. MI: University of Michigan. an instructor can allow students to create on their own. The learner-centered classroom and school: Strategies for increasing student motivation and achievement. and physics.-G. Marrs. S (1997). (2003). which is easy to use and free of charge (see Figure 1. Blake. after viewing a demonstration.quickhitstech. M. J. & Smith. VA: Stylus Publishing The simple visual mapping tool for thinking aloud Ju Won Park Indiana University Northwest Keywords: visual mapping. they can utilize bubble mapping. R. & Maier. Simkins. 33(1).. & Gavrin. (2009). important factors JiTT also clearly promotes contributing to increased time-on-task by promoting timely complestudent success tion of assigned reading. (1999). Am. these interactions can as the most be dramatically enhanced.us). Lin. A. Ann Arbor. Each instructor will find ways that suit him or her. then ask under what other circumstances these answers will remain valid or require modification. it can generate a hands-on experience for such activities as concept mapping and brain storming. an instructor has the ability to challenge students’ spontaneous thinking and help them develop critical-thinking skills. “Inspiration” is one of the widely used products. NJ: Prentice-Hall. S. We have evaluated the effects of JiTT on both student attitudes and measures of learning. Blake. 64-74. Patterson. (1998). Grounding the classroom discussion in warmup responses also makes the class explicitly learner-centered. & Gavrin. E. K. When visual mapping is put into action. Our only caution is never to deride answers in front of the class. San Francisco: Josey-Bass. Y. Gavrin. chemistry. A. Upper Saddle River.7. we have used pre-test/post-test methods and shown that students’ gains on items related to warmup exercises are significantly greater than on items associated with additional traditional homework problems (Marrs. . (1986). Lin. installing Inspiration requires a purchase fee for individual students’ acquisition. References Astin. Teaching and learning in the college classroom: A review of the research literature. T. R. Future Implications The benefits of interaction among faculty and students are widely recognized (Hake. J. McKeachie.bubbl. R. due to this web browserbased application. D. A. B. 1997). McCombs. visual mapping enhances their understanding and perception of each topic (O’Bannon & Puckett.. In the classroom. McKeachie.. Alexander Astin (1997) identified student-student and student-faculty interactions as the most imporstudent-student tant factors contributing and studentto student success (along faculty interactions with time-on-task). However. W. San Fransisco.). M. Because students can visualize their concepts/ideas/ perspectives. 42. W. and encourages students to participate (McCombs & Whistler. In my courses. This activity is also known as concept mapping. & Christian. Physics 66(1). and found positive results www.
Example of Bubble Mapping. (c) practice with the Bubble Mapping application before formal activity. learning Framework Discussion based teaching improves student learning relative to outcomes achieved using lectures exclusively (Barnes. K. (2008). (d) this program gives the students an opportunity to make their thoughts more clear and organized. Preparing to use technology: A practical guide to curriculum integration. and (e) it could encourage students to be more creative. During the implementation process. NJ: Allyn and Bacon. Because this tool was used for concept mapping and brain storming. Combining discussion teaching and SPA assignments in learning communities increases learning and ultimately retention of key concepts without the lag time typically involved in instructor administered assessments such as exams. Boston: Pearson. Future Implications Since I have used this tool for class activities with both undergraduate and graduate students. 1994). engagement. & Legacy. References Bitter. I have implemented this tool for college students in my computer classrooms and this tool can also be used in traditional classrooms. O’Bannon. as long as these classrooms have Internet access with a projector/projection screen. it can be used for college students’ electronic portfolio. Student preparation before and outside class increases engagement with and learning of content (Maier & Simkins.7. (2010). In addition. . 2009). Using technology in the classroom. students needed to (a) have concepts/ideas/opinions/facts for visualization. G. As the Bubble Mapping Company continues to develop new features and offer more diverse functions. for virtually any kind of major fields. yet students learn this content in capstone courses completed shortly before starting their careers. promoting strong learning motivation and effective cognitive comprehension. (c) the feature that turns visual maps or flow charts into outlines would be especially helpful for them as they begin to write papers. When instructors utilize this tool for an active learning module. (b) I think that this will help students organize their thoughts in writing and reading. Hunter-Rainey North Carolina Central University Keywords: assessment. to organize ideas.quickhitstech. Christensen. I consider the activities within this tool to be very useful. since bubble sheets can be made as photo files. then integrate student responses into classroom discussions. (b) see an instructor’s demonstration. In my courses.com Figure 1.. I believe students will benefit more from the newer version.. I needed Internet accessible computers with a projector/projection screen. it is anticipated that college students are more engaged in their class activities. instructors must use course design and teaching tactics enabling students to learn critical concepts in ways to retain knowledge useful at appropriate times in their careers. Therefore. Needham Heights. and (d) create bubbling sheets. & Puckett. I used this bubble mapping tool when students were introduced to complicated concepts and needed to compare different facts/perspectives on the same theme/topic. Maximizing engagement in strategic management is important because its principles will eventually be used during advanced stages of management professionals’ careers. Self and peer assessment (SPA) assignments require student preparation outside class allowing instructors to monitor completed submissions before class. Instructors teaching a variety of subjects seek to increase student engagement. and to plan and structure their thoughts through a process of brainstorming.Promoting Engagement www. B. & Hansen. Their qualitative comments are the following: (a) It allows the teacher and student to work interchangeably with their projects. J. Combining learning communities with electronic self and peer assessments to increase student engagement in discussion-based courses Sharron D. I have received 21 positive reactions about this tool from a majority of them.
to practice without fear of ridicule.quickhitstech. (2) responding to prompts. classrooms beassignments safe spaces for students allow students come to share even nascent ideas. Time invested by students and instructors makes teaching and learning more efficient and effective than either process is without SPA assignments. and tasks (Barnes et al.48 to 8. The electronic submissions also reveal which concepts and/or applications are well understood. Future Implications During the first semester after SPA assignments were piloted.). where identities of all parties are known. SPA assignments also increase awareness of concept mastery. Conclusions SPA assignments can very likely be used in teaching areas other than strategic management where students and . discussion based teaching. creating an incentive for students to participate.57 with standard deviations ranging from 1. student participation reached a high of 100 percent and low of 69. students write one-page responses to openended prompts requiring them to apply textbook concepts. Reviewing electronic submissions enables the instructor to incorporate examples into the interactive discussions reinforcing answers to clarifying questions to promote retention of accurate understanding of basic concepts. five generic strategies. prepare rubrics. Learning communities support rigorous analysis and collaboration in an environment characterized by mutual SPA respect (Barnes et al. the instructor summarizes elements of wellwritten SPA responses and answers students’ clarifying questions to ensure they have made appropriate connections between textbook concepts and context-rich assignments. 1994). prepared by the instructor. and (5) explaining course concepts. These discussions create opportunities to clarify any www. and review assignments. for students and instructors providing opportunities for students to seek instructors’ input as needed to clarify misunderstandings about concepts presented in textbooks and application of these concepts in context rich situations. Students and instrucscenarios tors share power. such as Blackboard or Moodle is available. mean scores ranged from 6. SPA assignments allow students to practice applying new concepts to context-rich scenarios. They promote proactive time management encouraging students to prepare for class in advance.33 to 2. Students submit written assignments electronically using Blackboard’s SPA module before class. submit. Making it Work SPA assignments involve: (1) reading textbooks. plus characteristics of environments external to and internal to the organization. plus SPA assignments. After each evaluation period ends. the instructor transfers average scores into the electronic gradebook providing real-time perspective about the quality of their submissions relative to the class average. Students invest incremental time required to prepare. plus areas requiring further explanation. or lack thereof. and score three electronic assignments weekly. Of those who completed the assignments. The first academic year SPA assignments were implemented. (3) scoring assignments electronically. Costs SPA assignments can be implemented without students incurring software or hardware costs if a course management system. The remaining ten SPA assignments comprise eleven percent of points available in the course. Together these elements increase short-term learning and long-term retention of content. no failing grades were assigned for the first time in the instructor’s four academic years teaching strategic management. leaving time for reflective review of content. transfer data electronically. Completing SPA assignments improves students’ understanding of concepts leading to long-term retention of principles for future application. for their own work plus that of two classmates. In this context. The two lowest scores of twelve SPA assignments are omitted. Each assignment is worth ten points. (4) clarifying questions about concepts or applications. accountability. Instructors invest time to create electronic assignments. Discussion-based teaching creates applying new partnership between students concepts to and instructors promoting context-rich critical thinking and problem solving.4 percent in two sections including 32 students each. becomes available electronically and students use it to maintain scoring consistency. After class. The redesigned course relies upon three elements: learning communities. Omitting the two lowest scores may discourage full participation.. After reading. a detailed rubric. During class.02 across 24 SPA assignments. The electronic process also allows instructors to archive student submissions. students read textbook chapters providing foundation for planned discussions using a detailed schedule specifying learning objectives with submission deadlines for each. Benefits SPA assignments can be implemented within a semester. Before class.com misunderstandings about application of course concepts in general and SPA assignments in particular.22 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology A restructured strategic management course holds students accountable for understanding concepts such as definition of strategy. These data suggest students use a reasonable range of partial credit in scoring SPA assignments.
S. R. Like many search engines. & Hansen. H.NPR. My goal in using this material is to make memorable the key concepts.quickhitstech. spread of this new technology presents itself as somewhat of a double-edged sword for classroom instructors. this technology makes it possible to easily stream a wide variety of audio and visual content into the classroom from the World Wide Web.). disciplinary Boolean operators such as AND.Promoting Engagement www. and using way to form NPR’s own topical categorizaabstract tion. 129-151).com instructors seek to share responsibility for learning outcomes. Maier. Teaching with the case method (3rd ed. On the one hand. (1994). topically focused. just one of these daily productions. (2009). Summaries and transcripts for these stories currently exist for broadcast dating back to January 1st of 1995 and streaming audio is available to January 1st. As is often the case. In addition to allowing for the use of traditional recorded media. publically available content.” or “Cell Phones” returned many hunimages and dreds of stories.Simkins. or research findings that make up a typical day’s lesson plan by tying these to readily available discussions of world events. Sterling. and then integrate. All of these programs are produced at least weekly. P. this content in such as way that does not overwhelm our lesson plans. and now each Combining of these archived stories is keyword searchable. theories. Just-in-time teaching in combination with other pedagogical innovations. or even “news of the weird. J. I tried more minds specific keywords that may be of interest across campuses. VA: Stylus. The network’s website www. L. and other class activities designed to reinforce concepts. On the other hand. McElmurry Indiana University Northwest Keywords: public media. Some productions are half an hour or even a full hour discussion focused on one topic. This is a wealth of high-quality. In S.. program. discussion. OR. Students value SPA assignments when instructors show explicit connections between readings. cultural criticism. 23 References Barnes. Each of these 3–5 minute stories that make up a program is individually archived on the NPR’s website. A.” and “All Things Considered” are produced daily. M.org archives 88 programs currently in production. lecture illustration Framework Many classrooms now include multimedia equipment and internet connectivity. Once a story has been identified. a personal and relatable Searches on broad topical areas narrative with like “Gender. Maier (Eds. Using SPA assignments in learning communities creates space for students to practice concepts without feeling compelled to understand them perfectly before testing their ideas publicly. we are presented with the problem of how to first identify.B. “All Things Considered.” averaged 16 discrete stories on a wide range of topics per day over the past year. such as “Morning Edition. Just for fun. H. searches can be further narrowed a powerful by date. many are composed of several shorter topical segments linked together by brief introduction or musical interlude. However.. This is true for almost every program broadcast on NPR. For example.” “Fresh Air. and even “Bayesian” returned a story on the application of an algorithm for sorting and categorizing great works of literature. Just-in-Time Teaching: Across the Disciplines. it is relatively easy to copy and paste the permanent link for the audio into . Implementing SPA transfers accountability for learning outcomes by encouraging advance preparation and use of clarifying questions. Simkins & M.. and quotation marks can ideas in be included to narrow searches students’ as well. &. A source for lecture launchers: Mining public media for accessible illustrations Kevin L. Christensen. And many. C. “Tocqueville” returned 44 stories. P. we have access to an unprecedented wealth of content.” Making it Work Consider National Public Radio (NPR). Of course not all illustrations of these will be directly on point has proved or particularly relevant. However.” “Cloning. 1996. “Sartre” 41. Presented below is a source for very brief pieces of content that can launch classroom lectures and discussions. SPA assignments.” “Talk of the Nation.) Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Across the Academy (pp.
Continuing with this example. If your campus does not provide a system. While instructors can proactively encourage reticent students. Combining a personal and relatable narrative with images and illustrations has proved a powerful way to form abstract disciplinary ideas in students’ minds. electronic participation. I simply count the number of total topics to which students posted a substantive comment and give a percentage grade. The only equipment required is a computer with internet connectivity and a small audio system. yet integral to. No matter how interesting the topic or animated the instructor. Future Implications I have found that using these short reports and stories is a good way to introduce and focus students’ attention on a particular topic or idea at the beginning of class. Because students have an opportunity to reflect on the postings and edit their own response before posting it. The instructor can also join the discussion by posting probes to draw students out and to encourage more critical thinking. Many academic campuses subscribe to course management software like Blackboard or OnCourse that makes it easy to implement this feature. can get the discussion rolling by posing an open-ended question. I regularly teach an introductory sociology course. Then. and in essays. as I have found that it inhibits the discussion. though students should be encouraged to post such comments as a way of building and reinforcing a sense of community. I found a story about a college student living with autism. these stories are accompanied by pictures or other graphics. If you come up with questions for each major topic in your class. I tell students that a substantive response is one that is at least a paragraph long and adds information. or any electronic communication with students. One of the early and fundamental points that students often struggle with is the power of everyday social interaction. I prefer not to grade individual responses. Ashton Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Keywords: threaded discussions.” (or text-like responses of OMG or LOL) are not substantive. analysis. “Hearing Every Voice:” Promoting engagement through electronic discussion Patrick J. if you require students to post at least one substantive response to each topic.com presentation that I display as the audio plays. It is important to emphasize norms of civility and mutual respect in these discussions. I include these pictures along with some animations and. Here is the statement I provide on my syllabus and on the electronic bulletin board: “Each person in this course has unique prior experiences and a unique viewpoint to share. For me. students will differentially participate in the discussion. opinion. exams. you can download free discussion software from the web. there is no way to guarantee relatively equal participation. In searching the materials outlined above. the quality of their responses is. large classes Framework Conscientious college teachers are always concerned about student participation. This has been effective in both large and small classroom settings. Often. It provides a “hook” upon which students can hang the day’s lesson. One way around this difficulty is to use an electronic discussion board. in my experience. Short comments such as “I agree. depending on the course. Course management software makes it easy to grade a student’s response and give immediate feedback. as the instructor. I count electronic participation as 15–25% of a student’s final grade. more thoughtful. For example. quotes in a Power Point www. then you will have a series of threaded discussions. if you wish. Lecture launchers like these can be implemented very quickly and have proven to stimulate recall and comprehension as demonstrated on quizzes. lecture notes. This can take the form of either a threaded discussion or a blog. this student’s personal account of her struggles to understand normative interactions on her campus helps my students to develop perspective on an often taken-for-granted aspect of any society. While we do not focus on autism per se. diversity. This offers a great opportunity . individual experience is often a first step in inviting students to exercise their sociological imaginations.quickhitstech. engagement. In a large class —typically anything over two dozen students — the challenge can be particularly daunting.” or “That’s so true. you will guarantee that each student’s voice is heard at least once on each topic. Making it Work You. particularly noteworthy. Then I can make reference to these stories throughout our discussion of course material. as is the case here. Illustrating “the social” as an empirical domain separate from.24 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology PowerPoint slides. The instructor just needs to make it clear that only substantive comments count toward the requirement. or argumentation to the discussion. much like you would do live in the classroom. substantive comments can be replies to the instructor or to another student.
I was concerned about what other students in the class might think of him. This student’s comments on the discussion board — dictated very slowly to an assistant or family member — showed him to be intelligent. and that the best presentations have a sense of intentionality about them. technology.blackboard. I would like to pair my students up with students in another country or another part of this country taking the same or a similar course.” “[You] get to express personal feelings through personal experiences and interacting with others.ipfw. D.quickhitstech.” I post a guide to netiquette on the electronic board (it is available on my website – see below). Retrieved from https://oncourse. edu/ashton Creating with intentionality: Using a personal multimedia narrative to emphasize writing process Ronald Kates Middle Tennessee State University Keywords: writing process.” “They allowed us to voice our learning and hear other views.” “I felt as though we are all in a conversation. I ask students to comment on the extent to which participating in the online discussions contributed to. but would also allow students to explore commonalities with people they may initially perceive as very different.iu. please use appropriate Netiquette.” I implement the “Who I am Without Words” assignment in my computer assisted instruction (CAI)-based first-year writing course. I suggest to them that carefully-chosen songs can impact an audience.d i sab oo m. don’t tell. This would introduce an added dimension of diversity into the course. asking students to create five to seven minute electronic.com/ Indiana University Oncourse Collaboration and Learning. (n. but they tend to express that the student did not find the discussions personally helpful: “Not very helpful. Students say things like “I liked the online discussions because we got to see how each person felt about all of the topics.d. and witty. Future Implications On the course evaluation each term. Positive comments far outweigh the negative. or failed to contribute to.” “Helped me see different perspectives. I expect you to respect the basic intelligence and humanity of each of the other participants in the discussion. their understanding of the course material. I expect your cooperation in maintaining an atmosphere of mutual respect.” “It let me see my peer standpoints and helped learn things I didn’t [know] before.) In the future. References Blackboard Higher Ed. Retrieved from http://users. com/netiquette/ Patrick Ashton website. n. Retrieved from http://www.) Online learning for students with disabilities: Great option for access.” “Enabled me to express my opinion in a stronger or more thorough way than I would have in class.” Negative comments are rare. Retrieved from http://www.d. When using the web.com / on l i ne .albion. difficulties with his expressive speech made it impossible for him to express his opinion in real time. Disagreement is not necessarily a bad thing. The students would share a common electronic discussion board. I also encourage you to discuss your own personal experience and relate it to that of others. as does a well-planned presentation.Promoting Engagement www. however. increasingly students opt to . composition Framework In an effort to both model and teach my students how to “show. Hateful and demeaning speech will not be tolerated. While his mind was sharp.” “[They] really helped to apply what we were learning in class to real life situations – they really made people think. visual representations of who they “are” without verbally explaining details. When participating in discussions. Though disagreement and even conflict may occur. In the process. insightful. They changed the dynamic of how students reacted to him in the classroom. but interesting. While some students choose slideshow formats like PowerPoint. Students develop a fully encapsulated presentation they show without commentary in a format that requires them to step aside and let the presentation do the talking.” “They were tedious. it is perfectly acceptable to have strong opinions — in fact I encourage you to do so. (See also Marsh.com for us to learn from each other.lear n ing / online-learning-for-students-with-disabilities Netiquette Home Page. as long as there is a commitment to mutual respect.edu/portal Marsh. Retrieved from htt p : / / w w w.” “They didn’t apply much from the class that I learned. Recently I had a student who had been severely disabled by an auto accident.” 25 An additional benefit of an asynchronous electronic discussion board is that it can empower students with certain disabilities to be equal participants. and would be held to the same requirement to make at least one substantive posting to each topic.
surveyed many of the theoretical and practical innovations related to implementing technology in learning contexts. In each class. 1981) emphasizes a need to focus not only upon individuals. I illustrate this approach with a description of the Cross-Class Collaboration Project (CCCP). available tools. or create hybrid presentations that combine formats. authentic problems Framework Increasingly. while learning about one another enhances the classroom community. challenged each other to synthesize and apply their course materials to solve real-world problems. The second face-to-face class. a general theme (or thesis) that pervades through the presentation. Designing authentic cross-class collaboration by focusing on activity Joshua A. or are being asked to participate in substantive online components as part of residential classes (Allen et al. I could foresee adapting “Who I am Without Words” to fit classes in various disciplines including history. and several former students have discussed how they might implement “Who I am Without Words” in a secondary Language Arts classroom.8). and a sense of pride … why not approach every assignment in this course in the same fashion? This crucial “teaching” aspect of the assignment provides students a process base I can refer to in my comments throughout the semester by connecting more current work to the “Who I am Without Words” assignment. P574: Computational Technologies in Educational Ecosystems. how they decided to order their presentations.26 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology make movies. 1981). I was working with students in two different graduate level courses. new questions arise about how to effectively support student interaction in online spaces. what they chose to leave in or out. Wertsch. 1999. finally. . Making it Work I generally assign this project early in a semester and allow class members six to eight weeks to accumulate images and devise project plans. Designing Through Activity Theory Activity Theory (Engeström. Students in P540: Cognition and Learning surveyed major theories of learning in an online distanceeducation setting. The activity triangle depicts the relationship between the individual subjects (students).quickhitstech. In my classroom design activities. use Prezi. 1990. whether they had pride in their work. Activity is defined by the shared object of the participants within an activity (Wertsch. an eye towards continuity. one residential and one online. students are enrolling in wholly online courses.. which provides a principled process for designing and integrating online instruction in a manner that encourages robust. the object of their activity. 1999. At five to seven minutes each. and organizational communication. leading me to ask the obvious question: If you can approach this assignment with audience awareness. Teaching my writing classes in a CAI environment enables students to show their presentations on the projection screen. Future Implications I have also used this assignment in 4000-level writing courses with similar results. thus limiting my need to impart technological know-how. the students admit to www. In the CCCP. Additionally. 1990. authentic activity. whether they intentionally wove a theme throughout the assignment. Wertsch. but more importantly to collaborate with one another during the project development stage. a colleague recently implemented this assignment into her FYE University Seminar as a means of sparking discussion over the high school-to-college transition process. whether audience considerations influenced what images or songs to include/exclude. art. but upon joint. collaboration. collective activity as the site at which learning occurs. 2007). 1981). political science. I set aside three hour-long class periods for this project for a twenty person class. a relationship expressed in an expanded mediational triangle (see Figure 1. allotting time also for uploading material. In this paper I propose an approach grounded in Activity Theory (Engeström. the process of creating and organizing the presentations also has specific pedagogical values. In the case of the CCCP. and. I ask them how long the assignment took to assemble. students from two different graduate level courses. With this shift. I conclude the project by explaining that. psychology. and the rules and division of labor that shape interactions with the local community. and I therefore approach the design of learning activities by determining the object of students’ activity. Danish Indiana University Bloomington Keywords: online learning. in the process discovering creative ways to express their thoughts. an organizational plan.com approaching “Who I am Without Words” with an intentionality largely lacking in their other work. I find that the triangle is an effective heuristic to help me systematically account for these six elements as well as the relationship between them.
they will adopt the answering of that question as a goal for their immediate activity. Collins. For this step of the design process. and a general concern that students in online courses often feel isolated from their peers. I determined the rules and division of labor that I believed would best support students in engaging in a forum discussion aimed at applying their theories to real-world problems. My identification of the object stemmed from repeated observation and conversation with the students. they wanted to see how they might apply course content to the practical questions that they would encounter in their current and future careers.8. 1996 for a more in-depth discussion of activity theory. practical questions To understand the course material To gain insights that can be applied in current and future work Subject(Student) Rules Reply to at least 3 questions Defend your ideas with theory Community Students from both courses 27 Division of Labor Students take turns asking and answering questions Multiple students answer each question Figure 1. real-world questions in their area of interest. however. I have often found that once students are presented with a sufficiently interesting and yet unanswered question. Given this goal. See also Cole.quickhitstech. In this case. The assignment therefore had two tasks: first. Students in P540 asked the P574 students questions how they might implement technology in their learning environments while the P574 students asked how learning theory might influence their technology designs. The end result was a lively set of discussions in which students struggled. my students were already using Oncourse (the IU implementation of the Sakai Learning Management System) and so a shared forum made sense as a location where the students might meet. but that they are complementary. The Cross-Class Collaboration Project Activity System Adapted from Engestrom. I required students to answer at least 3 questions with a minimum length of 2-3 paragraphs. In other situations. Then. however. with how to adapt the “clean” theories they had been learning to the “messy” realities of their peers’ real-world contexts. in the most productive sense of the term. Furthermore. and division of labor that might effectively support the students’ attainment of their goal of applying the course theories to answering their peers’ questions. post a question for the students in the other course. to ensure substantive and diverse answers. then. one that may apply to many disciplines and courses: how to answer messy. shared a general interest in learning and education. In particular. this kind of authentic activity has been shown to increase the likelihood that students will be able to apply what they have learned once they leave class (Brown. 1987. . For example. 1989). rules. I find it makes more sense to begin with whichever mediator comes to mind first and then to use the activity triangle as a heuristic to ensure not only that the mediators are all addressed. therefore. & Duguid. it might have been necessary to either poll students to solicit a shared object. I decided to ask the students to answer authentic questions that were driven by the needs and interests of the very community they might one day work with — their peers in the other course.Promoting Engagement www. was to determine the tools. Tools Course Readings Online Forums Object To answer real-world. Finally. or engage the students in activities designed to inspire a shared object. Making it Work The shared object that I identified for these students was.com The students in both courses. All that remained.
Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. the CCCP shows the potential of leveraging shared online forums to engage students in different but related classes in a rich. V. For example. 2006. A BSS is an on-line application that students purchase and participate in on-line. one student wrote. (1996). globalization or strategy course. & Duguid. allow students to see the value of the simulation as a laboratory. (1990). working and imagining: Twelve studies in activity theory. messy problems that are akin to those that students will face when they leave our classes. We have used both Business Strategy Game Since much of (http://www. economics. J. Engeström. adjust topic coverage order to address the most relevant topics to the simulation as early as possible. 2.). N. Students make a variety simulations of decisions in order to run a work well virtual business in competition with others in the class. Needham.com) ($38. Punamäki (Eds. Asking students to respond to their peers in this way.. the students consistently responded that they found the exercise to be challenging. in on-line The BSS enhances courses and hybrid that have a primary objective contexts. 32-42.95 outside and $44. 3. Collins. determine and publish due dates for each business decision and written forecast and annual reports. Y. Engeström. A. Engeström.com Future Implications References From my standpoint. (2006). Wertsch. Learning. MA: First Harvard University Press.capsim.. V. we 1. Activity theory and individual and social transformation. such as a business. As an illustration of how the Activity Triangle provides a systematic way to design learning activities. Situated cognition and the culture of learning. in lieu of traditional essays. P. Cole. Brown. The simulation provides an ideal laboratory for either graduate or undergraduate students in classes below 40 students. (1987). and how they apply in practice. and teach the technical aspects of navigating the BSS. (1981). and 5.Y. Making the grade: Online education in the United States. when surveyed upon their experiences. interesting. the simulation com) and Capstone (http:// work is done www. Making it Work To ensure a successful course. . of applying theory to business decision making. The majority of student answers were longer than required. S. MA: The Sloan Consortium and Babson Survey Research Group. Furthermore. Wertsch (Ed. Miettinen. (1999). I. but also realistic. Here’s a bonus. & R-L. management Framework We use a business strategy simulation (BSS) as a valuable classroom tool to reinforce the major topics we cover in Managerial Economics.).quickhitstech. each requiring only Internet acof class. Sharpe. meaningful manner. Armonk. M. & Seaman. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit Oy. In J.. Helsinki: OrientaKonsultit Oy. 18(1). J. (1989).E. E. Y. Using a business strategy simulation Charles Scott and Jeremy Schwartz Loyola University Maryland Keywords: simulations. Boston.). Y.bsg-online. The concept of activity in Soviet psychology: An introduction. Engeström. Educational Researcher. UK: Cambridge University Press. 4. business ethics. develop a grading scheme that creates incentives to take the simulation seriously (typically around 30%–40% of total grade). […] With a project like this I have to examine the needs of another and find the fitting theory. In Y. J. has the added benefit of providing authentic. and showed a depth and insight into the course theories that was largely absent from more traditional essay tasks. the exercise was a success. (Ed. create teams that distribute students’ skills evenly to ensure no one team falls far behind and loses interest. I really enjoyed it. Learning by expanding.: M.28 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www.99 per student). to apply the concepts and statistical tools of these courses and personally experience the results of their use. and rewarding. educate students on the BSS through a practice simulation run on the first day of class to generate excitement in the course. economics. R. Perspectives on Activity Theory.” Allen. “A project like this has forced (in a positive way) me to think critically on the readings. Cambridge. cess. 3-36). The Concept of Activity in Soviet Psychology (pp.
activities. The program periodically provides students questions relating their experience to course concepts that students may answer and submit to their professor. simulations work well in on-line and hybrid contexts. and (3) greater motivation to learn the why and how of course tools for running a business. There are also short videos that illustrate key concepts. education. however. complete questionnaires about their personality and aptitudes (to provide input on genetics). such as secure attachment. and many ideas for implementation. there are no “do overs. and parenting courses. end. Contexts Since much of the simulation work is done outside of class. Carolyn A. and are told that they (or their partner) have given birth. Although best suited for a chronologically-organized child development course. Anecdotally.Promoting Engagement www. Making it Work Students sign in from any computer. They indicated that the simulation helped them learn important foundational concepts and applied issues. It takes approximately eight hours to complete the program. and their future careers. “Parents” are asked to make many decisions. Laura Talcott. Students calculate the price sensitivity of their product interpreting its implications during class. a sibling’s birth). students may stop and resume as many times as they wish. group projects or even observations of real children. 3.com. we surveyed students from four classes about their experience in raising the Virtual Child. on a different timetable. Future Implications Several years ago. to emphasize particular concepts. When covering market structure. accidents. 2. internships. The text-based program provides information about the child’s development (doctor’s reports. class exercises and projects. with papers due throughout or at the end. A comprehensive instructor’s manual gives a complete listing of the decision points. The decisions and life events directly influence how the child develops. For example: 1.” Students cannot change a parenting decision that has already been made. With the proper incentives students are vested in the performance of their team. 4. although instructors can easily provide different questions. Successfully parented children get into good colleges. and reactions to child misbehaviors. topically-organized child development. Students can purchase access online for $25 at myvirtualchild. so that they can see how their students are progressing. or throughout the course. throughout the course we use the simulation as a learning tool by incorporating it into our lectures. meetings with teachers) and life events (divorce. which results in: (1) greater student interest in the course. the questions for students. The practical management and teamwork experiences also prepare students for interviews. Instructors can also adjust specific variables. and Kathy Ritchie Indiana University South Bend Keywords: simulation. with excellent results. Students use their company’s data to develop their own sales forecast. (As in real parenting.com We expect teams to meet regularly to apply course tools in developing their firm’s strategy and meet the deadlines for entering on-line decisions. We have asked students to “raise” their child at the beginning. 29 Future Implications We assess our students on the performance of their companies and out of class exercises related to the BSS. This web-based simulation (developed by psychologist Frank Manis) allows students to raise a child from birth to age 18. making parenting decisions that influence the child’s outcomes. students recognize they are operating in an oligopoly and how this affects their market and their firm’s choices. or via on-line interaction or through simulation-provided support. They reported strong engagement with the program. Schult. or access codes can be bundled free with Pearson psychology textbooks as part of the MyDevelopmentLab supplement. (2) more effective student-faculty interaction. In addition. while neglected children may end up in rehab. via e-mail.quickhitstech. Engaging students through a virtual child simulation Gwendolyn Mettetal. we have successfully adapted the program for lifespan development. we have been impressed with .) Instructors can set up a class code. and preferred it to research papers. These decisions include nutrition. engagement Framework We have used the My Virtual Child simulation in our developmental psychology classes for several years. in their syllabus. Mentoring for the BSS can be done in person. given in a multiplechoice format. such as exchange or interest rates.
you could conduct one session where you use a webcam to introduce yourself. Social engagement Lisa Fiedor North Carolina State University Keywords: social presence. several students have made changes in their real-life parenting style. as well as your expectations of the student.org). To follow this up. requiring them to provide Although given a DE context here. learning management systems. and customizable profiles in a Learning Management System (LMS). and build community. “Please take a moment to share with your classmates any pertinent professional or academic information you would like to provide. A general welcome message can also help the students connect with you as the instructor. this can increase the richness of their work. instructors can now “re-set” a student’s virtual child back to birth. and help the students identify with your and each other. more private way of connecting than using a social networking system like Facebook. and should be considered a minimum way to establish social presence. but don’t plan to use it to fully deliver your course. each of these activities would greatly benefit blended courses. as well. online engagement. biography assignments. but also help to establish rapport in blended courses. For example. students can be encouraged to participate by giving them a 1 or 2 point grade for posting and/or responding to a minimum number of other students’ posts. Web conferencing system. as this is our opportunity to get to know one another as we begin this course. web conferencing systems. and a place to list interests. or Web conferencing systems such as Elluminate (http://elluminate. This can give each person a real face or voice presence. A welcome message could be a quick five-minute video or audio message introducing yourself and the content of your course. Making it Work Future Implications Faculty can encourage social presence and engagement between the students by assigning students to engage in an “Introduce Yourself ” forum. We were concerned that students who were parents would find the simulation irrelevant. Biography assignments are another.com those who are grandparents have enjoyed the opportunity to try a different parenting style. It is important that the instructor participates in and leads these activities to show the students their importance. because they saw the likely outcomes if they continued their current practices. which could be a picture of the student or other avatar. more private. particularly the young males (who are sometimes less excited about the course content). These can be accomplished by using a webcam. microphone. As the simulation is refined. “Introduce Yourself ” forums. you can help establish social presence and engagement in not only Distance Education (DE) courses. You can also use a Web conferencing or lecture capture system to record and present your short message. but that has not been the case. few things help students (and attrition rates) more than knowing there are actual people on the other end of the computer to whom they are responsible.” As with all activities in a course. way to get to know the students. A simple starting sentence such as. If they can see the pictures of and know where the instructor and other students are coming from. allow for uploading an image. we have new options. some basic information about who they are and why they are taking the course. When it comes to distance education. and encourage the other students to do the same. faculty can also provide an ungraded student lounge forum. Using these platforms can often be a better. If you have access to a Web conferencing system. or at least offer an audio or chat message to the group. When some face-to-face sessions are reduced in lieu of moving . and faculty should provide welcoming comments when returning each of their submissions.30 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology the enthusiasm shown by students. Even www. to see the different consequences. Participant profiles in an LMS such as Moodle (http:// moodle. This allows students to try raising the child in two very different ways. 2003). or recording your voice and editing it with a free audio editor like Pinnacle. as well as city and state information. where students can conduct off-topic discussions. and free video editing tool such as Windows Movie Maker or iMovie to make your video. distance education Framework By using a welcome video. Please respond to at least one of your classmates’ introductions. as well as your reasons for taking this course. or other platform used by all of the students in your course or curriculum. In fact.com).quickhitstech. This is especially true when students are assigned group work (Richardson & Swan.
Students may think that the online environment is less relevant then in-class sessions. J. & Swan.quickhitstech. However. References Richardson.ppsx). so the entire class (e. In order to increase interaction among students and build a sense of belongingness for students in my DE courses. 7(1). this portion of the synchronous course meeting requires approximately 20 minutes of instructor’s preparation time and 5–8 minutes of online classroom time each week. Typically. and customizable profiles. it is simple for students to save their presentations in a video format (Windows Media Video.g. (2003).Promoting Engagement www. Typically. 2003). This sense of community is an important component of successful online learning. This is especially important.. . or LMS. is a classroom. too. I assign DE students short and easy autobiographical video presentations using PowerPoint. JALN. In PowerPoint 2010. based on their videos/presentations. Within my lecture slides on Elluminate (online virtual classroom provided through our university’s information technology office for faculty use). many students have expressed isolation and a sense of not belonging to a community. building communities.wmv). students post their videos (or PowerPoint Slide Show) to the online course discussion board. as evident in the positive feedback from our students and our low attrition rate. and will provide multiple choice answers from names of students in the class. Then. I quiz students on other students’ video information at the beginning of each class.com more content online. The videos could also be used for larger DE classes. They may use voice over or may add music to the background by inserting the audio or video files from the insert tab in PowerPoint. 79. however in older versions of PowerPoint students should save the files as a PowerPoint Slide Show (. . but the social engagement developed online can illustrate to them that the online component. Making it Work Students create autobiographical presentations using PowerPoint slides with photos and text boxes. Small discussion forum groups of 10–15 students could be used to increase students’ interaction and engagement for larger courses. biography assignments. I will post a few facts about a student with accompanying photos. as the learning environment is at a distance. as research has been shown that students’ perceptions of social presence in online courses are a predictor of their perceived learning and satisfaction with the course (Richardson & Swan. By adding components to your course such as welcome videos. K. student video presentations Framework More universities have turned to alternate educational delivery systems such as distance education (DE) and online courses. These student videos have helped to create a sense of community among our DE cohort of students. This can be especially helpful in increasing engagement in large enrollment courses. “Introduce Yourself ” forums. I informally poll the students to help them to get to know each other. This sense of community is an important component of successful online learning. Building a sense of community in an online environment: Student autobiographical videos Michelle Gacio Harrolle North Carolina State University Keywords: distance education. some students have asked for more time. you can assist students’ development of 31 social presence and engagement in your course. I deal with time extensions on a case-by-case basis and will allow up to 2:30 minute videos. Future Implications To help build a sense of community and sense of caring during the live online synchronous course meetings held once a week.. faculty need to help students connect more richly in both environments. Web conferencing opportunities. However. Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students’ perceived learning and satisfaction. The videos are limited to 1–1:30 minute presentations. 30 graduate students) has access to the students’ autobiographies. As part of the assignment.
quickhitstech. I would have students post them directly for all to see. In the art galleries. I created an art gallery template and one for clinical stories. to avoid confusing other students when there are pharmacology errors. an open source software LMS and collaboration environment created by a community of educators.32 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. cartoons. ideas. especially where the desired outcome is application of knowledge or bridging the gap between facts. Having an art gallery and clinical stories for each course topic required creation of 10 or more art galleries and an equivalent number of clinical story repositories. I can add new material to the growing collection each term so that students benefit from previous submissions. Some students discuss their submissions briefly with me. My screening process is synonymous with grading the extra credit. Future Implications In anonymous course evaluations.com Online art galleries and clinical stories Linda Felver Oregon Health & Science University Keywords: online learning tools. no additional costs are involved in this use of technology. to allow access for visually impaired people who use screen readers. I use technology to promote student engagement and deep learning with online art galleries and clinical stories that support our classroom sessions. to streamline the initial creation process. In this beginning course. In class. Since I already had an online site to support my classroom course. Each is accompanied by Questions for Thought. it was not difficult to implement this use of technology to enhance learning. Clinical stories are short. Thus. I encourage students to draw pictures to help them learn side effects and how best to teach patients about the various classes of drugs. I do not have students post in a blog or wiki. Art galleries consist of items created by students: photographs. true scenarios with names and identifying details removed to preserve confidentiality. Submissions must include at least two “Questions for Thought” to help other students reflect on the clinical pharmacology of the situation during individual or group study. it was easy to move them when the university changed from a proprietary LMS to Sakai. using the criteria I have posted online for students to see. This process took a couple of weeks in small time segments sandwiched between my other responsibilities. draw pictures to help them learn side effects and how best to teach patients about the various classes of drugs. Now that these electronic files are created. drawings. to provide access for people with hearing difficulties. showing depth of learning that surpasses course requirements. I linked each one to its topic page online in a consistent location so that students would know where to find them. but they can be adapted for courses in any discipline. Making it Work These online learning tools are appropriate for both small and large classes. and other media. Knowing that they can receive extra credit for their drawings of Penny Cillin and her cousins encourages students to manipulate the ideas in their minds to express them in a visual way. and transcripts for audio and video. Because I mount the art galleries and clinical stories in HTML files. The outcome I see is epitomized by a student who emailed me that she began her clinical story submission to . deep learning Framework In my clinical pharmacology course. I post only those submissions that are error-free. I use them with my classroom course for nursing students. and real life. The Questions for Thought that students generate demonstrate their understanding of course material. I use the learning management system (LMS) provided by the university. animations. In a more advanced course. After creating separate files from the template and populating each with a few submissions of my own. to which all students already have access from their own and campus-based computers. This process provides a much deeper level of learning than rote memorization of lists. many students report that they found the art galleries and clinical stories very useful for learning. Writing these thought questions impels the student who submits the story to integrate and reflect on knowledge relevant to the clinical situation. Students themselves generate the new material through their submissions for extra credit. student engagement. I provide alt text for all graphics. audio clips of original songs. Each course topic we discuss has its own art gallery and clinical story section available online at the beginning of the term. Students use these for study and also have the opportunity to make I encourage two submissions of their own for students to extra credit points.
Learning that lasts: Integrating learning. and performance in college and beyond. This example of deep learning rather than surface learning (Mentkowski & Associates.. http://sakaiproject.com 33 gain extra credit points. by the time she completed it. Based on the usefulness of online art galleries and clinical stories in engaging students and deepening their learning. 2000) is why I keep using technology in this way. M.com You can also submit your own Quick Hit to be peer reviewed and added to the collection of materials. At present. I am working with our Academic Mentkowski.quickhitstech. . development. & Associates. she realized that she had learned more deeply about three classes of drugs we had studied in class and had integrated her knowledge at a clinically applicable level. (2000). Sakai Project.Promoting Engagement www. Technology department to design a new art gallery interface optimized for handheld devices.quickhitstech. Future Directions: The templates I designed work well on computer screens with any web browser but are not optimal for the tiny screens on smart phones and other mobile devices. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. She was thrilled at her ability to retain and apply this material later. For additional resources and quick hits please visit www. However.org References She realized that she had learned more deeply about three classes of drugs we had studied in class and had integrated her knowledge at a clinically applicable level. I plan to make them available via this new mobile technology as well.
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During the break. using the newer technologies may provide an opportunity for students to learn in meaningful ways. “I just wanted you to know that I am eligible for student services.” Upon reflection. Of course. ■■ Provide opportunities for students attending one campus to find and get credit for courses at other campuses (thereby potentially speeding their graduation). I have marveled over the power that technology may sometimes provide in opening doors that would be closed and locked to students who only now have access to the college education of their dreams. The only reason that I am telling you is because if I work hard enough I can make a C in this class. partners or parents who are critically ill. “Oh. thank you. After I distributed my “voiceover” PowerPoint slides to the class.” Specifically. the submissions in this chapter: ■■ Make undergraduate and graduate coursework more accessible to students who otherwise might not be able to enroll due to restrictive personal or professional obligations. To create a “voiceover” PowerPoint slide. see the picture or words and have time to write it on paper. It is exactly how I learn. several students stopped with questions or comments. We had finished the tour around the room. spouses. . but one woman waited patiently until all others had left the room and then said. As a whole. these submissions reflect several of the potential advantages of distance education as outlined in Steenhausen’s (2010) executive summary of “The Master Plan at 50: Using Distance Education to Increase College Access and Efficiency. with a quick introduction and description of personal goals. you will find Quick Hits from faculty who use technology to assist students in finding pathways to achieve their educational goals. but also other students who may have difficulty learning the material at the quick pace set in my classes. my personal account overlaps greatly with the experiences of others.” In the same way that putting reading glasses on a student who is visually impaired can help them to see clearly. or to take advantage of job or career opportunities that require relocation or shift change considerations. I hear your voice. I decided to develop “voiceover” PowerPoint slides as a way of meeting the needs of not only this student. I just don’t want you to think that my C is not because I am not trying. I simply recorded myself as a I explained complicated concepts on each of my PowerPoint slides and briefly discussed how we would use the material covered in the PowerPoint slides in class to develop a deeper understanding of the material.2 Providing Access Providing a Shorter Path Using Distance Education to Enhance Access Joan Esterline LaFuze Indiana University East I t was the first day of a two semester class in anatomy and physiology. this student stopped again during break. I have had a number of students move during the semester from traditional classrooms to online sections of courses that I teach in order to make it possible to follow deployed spouses or partners. to take care of children. but I don’t want to be treated any differently from the others. In this chapter. Over the almost two decades that I have used “distance education” technologies to “close the distance” between the classroom and the student learner.
faculty-selected virtual slide box. virtual slide boxes are uniform and all students have access to the same virtual images. The master plan at 50: Using distance education to increase college access and efficiency. Laura Guertin (Penn State Brandywine) describes utilizing existing gigapixel panoramas for virtual fieldtrips in her courses.lao. (2010).aspx . technology allows for a “blended learning solution in which core content was delivered online and a single faculty member met students at each location on a rotating schedule.” References: Steenhausen. In their submission. “rather than being limited to a set of glass slide boxes created by one institution. in contrast to variable box-to-box slide quality seen with glass slide boxes. In this Quick Hit.” Additional advantages are illustrated in the Doppelgänger Professor.quickhitstech. and Nagaswami Vasan (New Jersey Medical School) describe the use of virtual microscopy in teaching histology.gov/reports/2010/edu/distance_ed/distance_ed_102510. submitted by Elizabeth Jones (Notre Dame University of Maryland). Similarly. P. With virtual microscopy. on-site interaction. students received first-rate instruction and graduated on time. a way of helping students ‘internationalize’ their education is described – without the students going abroad.com ■■ Allow campuses to increase instruction and enrollment without a commensurate need for additional physical infrastructure (such as classrooms and parking structures). including “virtual” academic departments that are taught by faculty from more than one campus. Grace Pinhal-Enfield. ■■ Make possible statewide collaborations. 2011: http://www. and the college provided affordable. our students have access to a broad repertoire of virtual slide images in an optimized.36 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. David DeFouw. Retrieved on July 14. By combining the efficiency of asynchronous online presentation with lively. In the submission by Beth Goering (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis).ca. Many of our students are restricted in completing course work in a traditional classroom setting by both personal and professional obligations. Furthermore. high-quality services to a widely separated population using just one instructor.
What technology is currently available for creating podcasts? Take advantage of the technology or teaching support center at your institution to learn about the most current hardware and software used to make an academic podcast. Podcasting is one of these technologies. this is not necessary as users can elect to download podcast at will. Commit to creating podcasts that enhance and supplement course materials. editing. A podcast longer than 15 minutes can lead to a mental drift when listening. a brief yet particular interview can help clarify or expand on an element of the reading in a way that students can connect with outside of the class. and free. With the proliferation of iTunes. Or use a podcast to introduce a topic and guide student learning about it. podcasting best practices. Create a podcast that addresses a few discrete elements. Emulate the philosophy of the PechaKucha movement. The novelty tends to hook students and amplify their understanding. evidence suggests that simply recording a scripted lecture and posting it as an academic podcast will lead to failure. some evidence on student usage of podcasts. and posting academic podcasts has been greatly compressed over the last few years. Podcasts are almost always saved in MP3 format so they can be played on most any computer or mobile device. Vary the perspective. focus at most on one or two themes or lecture highlights. academic podcasting is exploding. While contemporary students are tech-savvy. Literally.com 37 To podcast or not to podcast Mark Urtel and Eugenia Fernandez Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Keywords: student perceptions of podcasts. edited. e. Learn from faculty whom have investigated this technology so that it positively contributes to your own teaching practices and is not just the “latest and newest shiny thing” in higher education with limited value. In addition. Interviewing an industry expert is invaluable as a tool. What is podcasting? Podcasting is a method of distributing audio or audio/video files via the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers at the listener’s convenience. Understand the student perspective so that you create a podcast that will be listened to and used within the framework of the course. For academic podcasts. mobile devices. If you are reading this. Don’t make your podcasts re-runs.Providing Access www. However.g. if you must. The learning curve in creating. Limit podcasts to 5–15 minutes. and local and regional experts on timely topics or a topic and poignant elements of assigned guide student reading that can amplify stulearning dent understanding. a single podcast can be created. Keep the end user in mind. and a little bit of reassurance. In fact. these types of interviews can be viewed like a guest speaker in perpetuity. and posted in less than two hours. Certainly create and post academic podcasts so students can download them using multiple mediums and technologies. Make academic podcasts that are fresh and alternative perspectives to course material. Don’t think you will defeat students’ social habits. while they may not take advantage of the mobile possibilities of podcasts. the length of the podcast is related to its purpose. you may be wondering if you should join in. Remember that you are dealing with students who are used to listening to a 3–5 minute song. textbook auto introduce thors. “It’s a format . Of course. To help with your decision.. And this behavior is both a compliment and a good thing as it shows students are viewing the podcasts as an academic pursuit and not a social activity. Make yourself available to the emerging scholarship on academic podcasting. which limits PowerPoint presentations to 20 slides at 20 seconds each. remember that just because students use a technology in their social time and space does not mean they will use it in their academic time and space. we offer some simple guidelines on creating podcasts. academic broadcasts Framework Technology is being used extensively in higher education classrooms across the globe. Avoid using podcasting only to “lecture capture”. interviewing Use a podcast national experts. 30 minutes maximum. Research tells us students will probably listen to them at home or in the library on a desktop or laptop … not in transport on a personal listening device. but understand students view academic podcasts as just that … academic assignments. (relatively) easy podcast-creating software.quickhitstech. Brevity is best. Making it Work Guidelines on creating and using podcasts Learn from others. they do appreciate the flexibility podcasts provide for any-time learning. True podcasting combines the audio files with a subscription service (similar to that in iTunes) so that new podcasts are pushed to the subscriber.
EDUCAUSE Review. In general. students who do listen to course broadcasts say they help their understanding of course concepts and enhance their learning.edu/Library/ EDUCAUSE+Review/ TheresSomethingintheAirPo/40587 How to podcast. educause. Avoid feeling compelled to create an academic podcast for each class session or even each week.net/ Briggs.G. novel. and not as a replacement for classroom instruction. again so they can listen to a podcast multiple times to help overcome comprehension difficulties related to language abilities. Think of academic podcasts as a supplement to class. ■■ Students view academic podcasts as separate from entertainment-related ones. L.htm Malan. paper.podcasting-tools. Kentucky. So if you teach courses where English is a new language for the enrolled students. http://audacity. (2005). Hold students accountable for the podcast by making the content evident on a course assessment. it is helpful if the podcast has elements that coincide with lecture notes or slides. 2011: http:// kb. you are making it clear to the students that you value the podcast content. etc).” (www. Think of academic podcasts as a supplement to class.quickhitstech.L. Academic podcasts: Student perspectives. and generally do not make use of syndication feeds for automatic delivery of academic podcasts but download them manually. ■■ Many non-native English speaking students find podcasts useful so that they can review in-class material that might be difficult to understand upon first hearing the material. upperclassmen are more likely to listen to podcasts than underclassmen. you’ve spent time creating numerous. open source software for recording and editing sounds. but not all listen to them (listening rates vary between 40%–75%). Future Implications Student view of podcasts Okay.iu. and graduate students more than upperclassmen. References Audacity: free. (2008). Additionally.edu/data/auwt.org). and brief podcasts to enhance your course materials.com it is unlikely students will listen to the podcast on a mobile learning device while in-transport. Podcasting computer science E-1. ■■ Fortunately. What is Podcasting? Retrieved from Podcasting News website July 18. and not as a replacement for classroom instruction. There’s something in the air: Podcasting in education. March 7–10. But what about attendance? Be assured. ■■ When asked. How will the students respond to and use them? Research evidence suggests the following. Evidence shows that the use of podcasting has little or no impact on class attendance. www. (2007). innovative. creating a single academic podcast for the entire semester may not indicate significance and students may simply not invest the time and energy to listen to that single podcast. 2011: http://www.J. March 21). M.com/howto-podcast. Where can I learn more about podcasting at IU? Knowledge Base article retrieved July 19. Retrieved July 18. 32-47. Value the podcast. Retrieved from Podcasting Tools website July 18.com/ articles/What_is_Podcasting. 14(4). students with a lot of experience in downloading recreational content and those with little / no experiences with downloading recreational content have displayed similar academic podcast listening rates. 18. as a result. (2011. which could easily lead to this technology becoming overbearing and monotonous. .podcastingnews. Podcasting and education. Somewhat surprising. students will likely listen to the podcast on a desktop or laptop at home or on-campus. Conversely. Academic Exchange Quarterly.html Urtel. 40(6). More importantly. and keeps things moving at a rapid pace. Retrieved from Campus Technology website July. G. 2011: http://connect. students are positive about the idea of podcasts. This is especially true when it is clear the academic podcast has value in regard to course assessments (quiz. most students who listen to podcasts still attend class. (2010). This can also help them prepare for course assessments. 117-122. Covington. Whether you choose a weekly quiz or brief synopsis paper.sourceforge. 2011: http://www.com/articles/57399/ Campbell. test. students will value the podcast. More is not better.html University Information Technology Services. Proceedings of SIGCSE’07. 2011: http:// campustechnology.pechaKucha. D.38 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology that makes presentations concise.
Whether you’re teaching a fully online or hybrid course. Ikea is known for only using images with no text to demonstrate product assembly. Remember the Swedish furniture. Figure 2. Showing your students what they need to do. even the brightest individuals will struggle putting the clearly pieces together if they lack articulating the meaningful and easy to folorganization low instructions. interactive media. etc. In terms of time commitment. Free applications and online services. and audio feedback where students can hear you explain each assignment. processes. allow you to capture your computer screen with audio recordings. What caused this? Was it either too complex or too simplistic? I think we can agree that most of us are capable of assembling a product with the right instructions (and the right size allen wrench). or video without an explanation of how it fits into the bigger picture. such as Jing. Never post an article.quickhitstech. faculty will be asked to provide interactive learning opportunities that are contextual instead of linear. It’s free and you probably already know how to use it.com. Moodle. content. clearly articulating the organization and application of your content is essential to making it accessible in a meaningful way. Our ability to use technology to facilitate learning experiences will be critical in the years to come. I recommend using your learning management system (Blackboard. while explaining key concepts is a powerful learning tool. Start by writing an introduction to each new content module to bring context and relevance to the material. then augment them with interactive media. however. This illustrates how unclear instructions may cause confusion. The best way to approach effective design strategies is two fold: Keep instructions simple. reading. For example. assembling Swedish furniture runs the gamut of emotion: The joy of success to the agony of defeat. and meanings of those deceivingly confusing little pamphlets leads to high levels of frustration and despair. Adobe Acrobat Professional is available at a low cost and can make a standard syllabus more interactive with comments. This brings me to my second step. consider the last time you felt incompetent using an instruction manual to assemble a new product. ments to make on the instructions to help students ‘assemble’ your material in meaningful way. exand application pect to spend an extra hour of your content preparing each new module is essential depending on its complexity and length. For the first time. Shell and Brian A.com 39 Some assembly required: Teaching online with good instructions Dustin L. Good luck writing your instruction manuals! . scaffolding. online. essentially creating video “How-To’s” of your course material. facilitating online learning through good instructions will become even more important. it is easy to get lost in course design. Image courtesy of Justin Spencer. hybrid Framework For many people. This example parallels the design of effective instruction through technology.1. you will accessible in a likely find new improvemeaningful way. pairing multimedia with your instructions. be it large or small.) to structure your I’ve found that pairing video and audio instructions with written ones reduces student questions and improves satisfaction. More often than not.Providing Access www. The end result is a guided learning module that walks learners through experiences while providing knowledge checks and supplemental learning. If you haven’t had this ‘pleasure’. Satirical Ikea illustration. Each time to making it you teach a course. As eLearning development tools continue to evolve. highlights. the process of deciphering the steps. manual. so keep it simple to start with. Warner University of Cincinnati Keywords: instructions. Making it Work First.
quickhitstech. and experiment can lead to new insight and understanding that cannot be achieved with only one approach. students must understand the conceptual underpinnings of the problem (Christian & Belloni. and Hollywood directors. Easy Java Simulations. astronomy. 2003). (2) the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling and authoring tool (Christian & Esquembre. computation. This interplay of computation. ■■ Use multiple representations to depict information (Van Heuvelen & Zou. 1977. 2001): The idea that students learn best when they see the same ideas presented in different ways is not new. . Beichner. they must be determined. A physics student might never critically evaluate a simulation’s output or study a computational algorithm because it is not required for admission to undergraduate or graduate school and does not appear on the Scholastic Aptitude Test or the Graduate Record Examination. students learn physics concepts via static pictures and construct incomplete or incorrect mental models that hamper their progress toward deeper understanding of physical concepts (Mayer & Moreno. In well-designed simulations. can bridge the gap between theory and the real world (Zacharia & Anderson. but few students are prepared to critically assess these simulations and even fewer are asked to create their own computational models. and (3) the OSP code library and computational physics textbook (Gould. 2007. simulations. & Christian. Simulations. 2002. & Tribble. 2005). digital library. open source Framework The Open Source Physics (OSP. textbook publishers. in many cases. 2004). The computer models on the OSP site: ■■ Help students to visualize abstract concepts: The most obvious benefit of simulations is that they help students to visualize situations. depict the Dancy compared stuinformation in a dent responses to traditional exercises with different way responses to nearly identical simulationbased exercises and found that the simulation-based exercises were more valid for determining whether students understood a given concept. The site is based on the integration of the ComPADRE NSDL with (1) a large collection of Java simulations for physics and astronomy teaching. Tobochnik. Despite advances in teaching and research. 1987). can also reinforce uncertainty in measurement and thus uncertainty in results. Students are bombarded with simulated reality by instructors. Hestenes. 2003). Simulations can depict motion. astronomy. 2011). ■■ Are interactive and require student interaction: When solving physics problems. 2000).40 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. but they can also simultaneously depict the information in a different way via graphs and tables that change with time and can also provide the opportunity to investigate numerous alternate scenarios (Rieber. just as laboratories. Tzeng. computation is the primary or sole means to solve new and interesting problems in physics and the other sciences. and computer modeling. In traditional instruction. 1997). ■■ Can improve assessment of student understanding: Simulation-based resources can provide a superior Simulations can assessment vehicle depict motion. and much of experimental and theoretical science cannot be done without the aid of computers. Simulations. computational instruction remains absent from many physics programs. Making it Work The OSP project seeks to address this failure by providing resources to teach fundamental skills that every student should learn and use (Karplus. theory. Computers and computer-based instruction pervade our educational institutions. compared to tradibut they can also tional paper-based questions (Dancy simultaneously & Beichner. 1994). 2011) Project is a collection of online simulations and resources located on the ComPADRE National Science Digital Library (NSDL). physical quantities (such as position or velocity) are not given. students often determine the appropriate equation without relying on physics concepts (Maloney. therefore. 2006). By determining relevant information early in the problem-solving process. The OSP Project seeks to reform undergraduate education by providing simulations and curriculum resources that engage teachers and students in physics.com The Open Source Physics Project on ComPADRE Wolfgang Christian and Mario Belloni Davidson College Keywords: physics. ■■ Are more like real-world problems: Solving simulation-based problems and real-world problems require students to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information (Ronen & Eliahu. and.
quickhitstech. There are currently over 400 items in the OSP Collection and many of these entries have multiple support documents. and recompile the model for redistribution. The item is therefore useful to teachers who need simulations for their teaching. Despite its current focus on upper-level physics. and between 2009 and 2010 (ComPADRE Webmetrics.000 page views. to teachers wanting to modify existing simulations. a middle/high school lesson plan and student worksheet. modify. and to computational physics teachers who wish to study the underlying algorithms. the “Roller Coaster” item shown in Figure 2. ComPADRE’s use of standardized education and library metadata broadens the potential avenues for dissemination of OSP content. and easily found by searching the collection for “energy conservation” has multiple subdocuments including three ready-to-run Java simulations for college-level and high school physics.000 downloads per month. discussions.Providing Access www. the usage of the OSP Collection has grown twenty percent. MERLOT. The Roller Coaster item and its subdocuments.com 41 Figure 2. an applet page. and 7. users can examine.edu). standard Dublin Core. the OSP Collection fall 2010 usage statistics show an average of 35. 9. For example.2. Users need only click on a link to download these documents to their desktop. and an integrated wiki.000 visitors. group Web pages. The ComPADRE resource metadata is available in IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).2. and the source code. and NSDL Dublin Core formats. 2010).harvard. Future Implications As with all simulations created with EJS. The collection metadata can be harvested by partners through the Open Archives Initiative OAI-PMH protocol and is being used to provide federated searching with a number of other projects including the NSDL. . personal profiles. ComPADRE also supports personal resource collections. and the SAO/NASA Astrophysical Data System (http://adswww.
J. you can create a virtual office with the use of the Team Viewer software. & Belloni.1566427 Acknowledgements Partial funding for OSP was obtained through NSF grants DUE-0442581 and DUE-0937836. The Physics Teacher. Click Run. Learning and Instruction. 5. 2011 from the Easy Java Simulations Web page: http://www. Hestenes. (2007). doi: 10.010104 Easy Java Simulations (2011).compadre. office hours.1286662 Zacharia. Discovery learning. Educational Psychology Review.1119/1. Res. An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods. doi:10. 440-454. Phys.H. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. ComPADRE Webmetrics (2010). D. Rieber. & Tribble.. M. August 2010. which allows an instructor to take over a student’s computer to assist with schoolwork. Am.teamviewer. (2006).P. Am. E. 71 (6). Am.P. (2003). but you do not want to be in your office during those hours. For Faculty 1. 55 (5). Research on problem solving: Physics. R. 169–175. A. Am. (1977). Under “All-In-One: TeamViewer full version”. & Beichner. doi: 10. & Moreno. maximize learning Framework Making it Work It is not always possible for students to come to your office for help. W. Phys.. 307-323.1119/1. doi:10. (1997).2798358. S. Go to http://www.3660140212 www. 2011 from the Open Source Physics Collection on ComPADRE: http:// www.15129 Karplus. OSP. Modeling physics with Easy Java Simulations. Use of Team Viewer software to assist students Karen Banks Indiana University Bloomington Keywords: online.org/OSP/. doi: 10. Retrieved February 11. 69 (2). 45 (10). R. After you have accepted the terms of agreement. The effects of an interactive computer-based simulation prior to performing a laboratory inquiry-based experiment on students’ conceptual understanding of physics. F. ST Phys. 618-629. Boston. & Anderson. learninstruc. 3. H. R. MA: Addison Wesley. click the Download button. but is well enough to work on an assignment you can help them with the Team Viewer software. and problems for introductory physics.. Rev. (1987). 14. Phys. Gould. you do not have to install the software. J. 010104. Science teaching and the development of reasoning. 475-480. (2001). & Zou. and then Run again. 184194. (2004). doi:10. J. J. R.1119/1. Phys. 14(1).1103/ PhysRevSTPER.com/download/index. W. doi:10.quickhitstech. Upper Saddle River. (Ed) Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning. Educ. explorations. 64 (10). (2005). Z. Dancy. & Esquembre. R. 1272–1277.18390 Christian. If you have a student who is confined to their room due to an illness. you can try to explain the solution in a long e-mail or you can show them using the Team Viewer software.2004. Toward a modeling theory of physics instruction. Tzeng. Team Viewer is a free customer support software. Christian. ComPADRE Webmetrics provided by Google Analytics and ComPADRE Server logs. J. 4. Physlet® physics: Interactive illustrations. K. If your students tend to work on their assignments in the evening. L.1002/tea. If a student is having problems using software or correcting an assignment. doi:10. M. D. X. TeamViewer will ask for the password and ID of the other computer. Multiple representations of work-energy processes. free. 87-99. 2.008 Van Heuvelen. (2011).1119/1. (2002).. New York: MacMillan. Mayer..42 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology References Beichner. Impact of animation on assessment of conceptual understanding in physics... This is a very useful option because you can run this software in a Student Technology Computer (STC) lab. Opinions expressed here are not those of the NSF.aspx 2. The impact of video motion analysis on kinematics graph interpretation skills.1016/j.. (2003). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. TeamViewer will ask if you wish to install the software or just run it on your computer. R . (1994).. Prentice Hall’s Series in Educational Innovation..es/fem/EjsWiki. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Phys. 14. um. & Christian.2. Retrieved February 16.O. W. in Gabel. D.. Tobochnik.1119/1.com Maloney. . and explanation within a computer-based simulation: finding the right mix. representation.06.
or is making a small conceptual error that a five minute session in Team Viewer will resolve. The online gigapan collection can be utilized by any instructor in any discipline to encourage students to engage in material recorded as a snapshot in time. click the Download button. Outcomes/Assessment I have been able to help some very panic students who have run into technology trouble through no fault of their own. This ID and password changes for each session. This is a very useful option because you can run this software in a Student Technology Computer (STC) lab. Go to http://www. The free. Originally designed by NASA for rovers to photodocument the Martian surface. To help students feel comfortable with the software. This role playing exercise will take between 10 minutes to 30 minutes. Under “For the instant customer: TeamViewer QuickSupport”. The student e-mails or phones the instructor the ID and password. aspx 2. Students may be required to complete a log book and/or answer a set of guided questions based on what they see in the image. Utilizing existing gigapixel panoramas for virtual fieldtrips Laura Guertin Penn State Brandywine Keywords: virtual fieldtrip. Often a student is clicking in the wrong place. 5. an art instructor may want students to explore the textures of oil on linen paintings . a gigapixel panorama provides visual access to sites that can enhance course content. panorama. Some students go on to use the application to solve technology problems for their parents. Then they should switch roles. just as an instructor would require on an actual fieldtrip. especially to distant locations. technology Framework Since 2004. students may explore the images outside of the classroom. Click Run. In addition. This quick problem resolution is greatly appreciated by stressed-out students and makes for a better learning environment. For example. 4. Students will be more likely to use the software once they see that they have to give the instructor a new Future Directions/ Modifications/ Hybrid context The success of online classes has shown us that we don’t have to be face to face for all successful interactions with students. 3. ask students to visit a lab in pairs to practice using the software. Future Implications Once the ID and password have been entered. the hardware and resulting imagery is now accessible to anyone. An instructor may lead a “show and tell” fieldtrip while showcasing gigapans in the classroom and calling attention to image details. If a student is unable to attend class due to a medical reason. gigapixel panoramas have been constructed from locations across the planet to outer space.com/download/index. the instructor will have control of the student’s computer and can assist the student with the problem.org) democratizes information and makes panoramas accessible to anyone with a computer and access to the internet. The use of typical online class technology for regular classes needs to be considered especially with classroom space at a premium.quickhitstech. and then Run again. 43 password each time they request help and they understand what the instructor can see. One student should play the role of the instructor and the other should play the role of the student. but is able to work on the course content. The student cannot see the instructor’s computer.teamviewer. you do not have to install the software. this allows students to control what they zoom in to on the image and control the amount of time spent viewing different parts of the image. Future Implications Gigapixel panoramas have been taken across the globe in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. Making it Work As is it not always possible for an instructor to take a class on a fieldtrip.com For Students 1. TeamViewer will provide an ID and password. online database of images known as “gigapans” (http://gigapan. Students are very grateful for the help and find the software very easy to use. to landscapes in National Parks to the South Pole.Providing Access www. on the wrong hyperlink. Viewers of the online gigapans can navigate across an image and zoom in to see details on everything from rock art and cave art. I can help that student to keep up with the work. The student also has control of their own computer so the instructor can ask the student demonstrate the problem.
In the Pre-Rotation Assignment students are required to use web based resources and assess Indiana dentist and population statistics. examinations. report percentages of individuals living below poverty level. After reading the syllabi students complete the pre-rotation Oncourse survey and assignment. if not virtually all. But when it is not possible to bring students to places and environments across the globe. which began in March 2003. I have participated in the program since 2004 and since 2006 I have been involved in the assessment of students’ evaluations using Oncourse. Biology instructors may have students explore an insect collection. approximately 700 4th year dental students have worked providing preventive dental services including dental sealants in the state of Indiana. The sounds and smells cannot be recorded in an image. Oncourse offered Seal Indiana a straightforward way to create a web site through which students and faculty can access course syllabi. I became the SI Associate Director and am now the Director. and there exist gigapans of the Martian landscape. and greater access to dental care. Certainly. In 2007. such as: ratio of dentists to population by county. Once students log into Oncourse they are required to view an orientation video. Making it Work Before each SI rotation by fourth year dental students. The program uses portable dental units and equipment. x-rays and fluoride varnish. Oncourse provides IU students.44 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology at the Hawaii State Art Museum. racial distribution. Services provided by SI include dental sealants. I teach dental students and provide services 2 days a week. IU developed Oncourse to allow for innovative ways of accessing and sharing materials and information. 2004). course management system Framework The Seal Indiana (SI) Program is a statewide mobile dental program that provides preventive oral health services for children who do not have adequate access to dental care. Dental educators have recommended utilization of computer-based and web-based information technology to enrich student learning. and anthropology instructors may have students explore the largest open-air market in Central America. dental schools have additional plans for further informatics and technology expansion (Kassebaum. The educational goals are to provide service-learning experiences for dental students. a gigapixel panorama can engage students in exploring these distant locations by providing students the power to explore across the panorama. surveys and write reflective essays. For astronomy instructors. sitting in front of a computer will never substitute for visiting and experiencing these actual www. The SI team serves an average of 20–25 children who are the least likely to receive care. and staff with a powerful environment in which to collaborate and learn. Using a course management system like Oncourse has enhanced the service-learning experience of dental students. foster greater understanding of issues related to community oral health. Eightysix percent of dental schools have expanded use of already implemented learning instructional technology and most (82%). Suggested gigapixel panoramas appropriate for a virtual fieldtrip in various disciplines can be found at: http://tinyurl. Before and after their rotation.com/quickhitsgigapan Service-Learning at the Seal Indiana Mobile Program Armando E Soto-Rojas Indiana University School of Dentistry Keywords: service-learning. faculty. NASA Ames stitched together panoramas from the Apollo 16 and 17 missions for panoramas of the Moon.quickhitstech.com locations. No grade is assigned for written reflections. information about Hoosier Healthwise and Head Start programs. online quizzes. Since the inception of the program. the students complete Oncourse assignments. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) and Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) provided start-up funding for the program. and surveys. By completing this course students have a better understanding of their role in society and are able to connect their experience with other aspects of learning their profession. Business instructors may virtually take students to a trading floor in Chicago. they receive an email from me providing instructions about their required rotation and Oncourse assignments and surveys. They are required to read articles posted in the resources section and answer . it allows the students to reflect on their experiences and think about this as a different part of their work that is not only to provide the services but also to assess firsthand cultural and socioeconomic differences in the population they are servicing. This is difficult to achieve in a traditional setting using a lecture format.
service-learning applications and concepts. I review students’ responses and reply to them sending an email pointing important and interesting aspects about their service learning and dental this would otherwise not be possible in a lecture or on site. and “now what” (how could this impact beliefs. program.3. Course management example. gender. Without the use of this technology it would be almost impossible to achieve what students and faculty accomplish through reflection using this web-based course. The students don’t assess the web course but in general suggestions to reduce the size of this is commonly stated. Figure 2. I highlight “most helpful” comments and bring these to the group reflection session that is held following students rotation. This was in large part due to the number of children who told me they had never seen a dentist. attitudes and actions). Pre and postrotation surveys inquire about. . community service and cultural differences. Students are encouraged to write a letter to legislators to support the program and to briefly describe a significant moment/ event that was related to the rotation. It was easy to see that the children did not come from a family with a lot of money either. Future plans include research to do content analysis and assess areas that enhance student participation and learning and eliminate questions that seem redundant. Future Implications The examples above demonstrate how this process facilitates the student’s rotation with the SI program.com questions on sealants and service-learning.” Through the use of this technology students have the incentive to reflect. 1. I was able to understand disparities in access to dental care. Finally an evaluation of the program enquires about the strengths and weaknesses and the students rate the overall experience. service-learning experience. This learning mechanism creates an incentive to reflect.quickhitstech. Discussions lead to debate within the group. dental education techniques.” Clearly the student was able to recognize this by responding to this web course 45 “…this experience will influence my practice on communicating with kids. The groups are generally of 100 students and the rotation is on average 3 students a week throughout the year. The post-rotation assignment focuses on written service learning reflections: “what did you do”. write and select useful reflective comments. age. Examples of Oncourse Responses “…Seal Indiana rotation was an experience that strengthened my development in the dental field by interacting and treating children. racial background. “so what” how does it connect with your learning and life goals. The Oncourse student responses comments and suggestions provide differing views of education. which led me to believe was a part in the lack of access to dental care. It also helped me learn more about my personality and flexibility to interact with all patient populations. write and express goals and values in life. The use of Oncourse enhances community participation and several forms of evaluation for their SI rotation including selfassessment.Providing Access www.
Mobile Medical App Reviews & Commentary: Top 20 Free iPhone Medical Apps For Health Care Professionals. D. W. The students’ request for the application to assist in their diagnostic workups was not included given the application is not a clinical tool and such clinical reasoning is a more complex learning goal. from http://www. Hendricson. Gillies Georgia Health Sciences University Keywords: medical education. The application provides learners with a resource that is accurate and presents content in a manner consistent with adult learning principles (i. these devices have become an excellent opportunity for educators to disseminate learning content.. and decreased faculty and learner time for teaching and learning. (2004) The dental curriculum at North American dental institutions in 2002-03: A survey of current structure. As a result of the popularity of mobile devices (e. Retrieved February 1.. mobile devices. N. interactive.. Future Implications Medical educators can benefit from MedlLab Tutor and similar mobile device applications in two ways. Second.com/us/app/medlab-tutor/ id383650731?mt=8. Tools like MedLab Tutor can serve as a primer for discussing content or as a follow-up assignment to reinforce presented material.K. First.e. Given today’s medical learners are already employing and creating these mobile and online learning tools. References IMedicalApps (2010). www. http://itunes.com/2010/12/bes-freeiphone-medical-apps-doctors-health-care-professionals/ . website Framework Medical learners are increasingly employing electronic learning content to increase their knowledge and understanding of medically related topics. 68(9). MedLab Tutor is an example of such a mobile device application.g.. a group of physician faculty suggested that the initial content should address the basic clinical labs and include case examples to illustrate their use. Journal of Dental Education.D. accurate tools of this kind and influence how these tools are integrated into existing training. information presented via multiple modes and with increasing complexity).mcg. Taft. suggestions to the course and learning outcomes of their participation. Finally. During the reflection sessions the group discusses the individual comments.quickhitstech. and more streamlined flow of screens for technologically savvy users. 3. a series of focus groups were held during development of the application. The application has been published at Apple’s iTunes App store and has been downloaded for free by thousands of users in dozens of countries. T. medical students prompted the addition of increased details of lab components. CBC and CMP).g. educators have an impetus to develop useful. the addition of learning exercises for application of concepts and review. 2010) and/ or access to the Internet.. & Haden. educators can integrate this and similar teaching resources into their existing curriculum. In two follow-up groups.K. and planned changes. 914-931. varied learning styles and experiences of learners. Responses to students include assessment of their concerns and suggestions to the program or the course. these mobile and online tools provide viable options for educators faced with increased numbers of learners. clinical laboratory tests. Developing medical education teaching applications for mobile devices Ralph A.edu/mobile/ medlab/index. the format of this application can readily be translated to address other medical education topics. educators can use MedLab Tutor as a template for developing similar applications on their own.html). Students do not receive grades but a pass or failed. First. Making it Work To ensure the content of this application was relevant and presented in a manner useful for learners.apple.. it was developed to assist medical learners in reading and interpreting common medical labs (e.imedicalapps. internet. With the assistance of technical support staff. recent innovations. An accompanying website with the same content is being developed for learners who do not have an iPhone device (see http://www. For more details. relevant. Prior to publication.46 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology 2. all clinical content was reviewed by a set of physicians to ensure clinical accuracy.com References Kassebaum. iPhone) that can host learning and clinical applications (iMedicalApps. 2011.
UD students.d. websites) and environments (e. spelling. By developing my presentations using principles of “universal design” I avoid erecting potential barriers to students with sensory impairments in technology-enhanced on-site instruction. specifically benefits both disabled and nondisabled students. the importance of delivering content that is accessible to students with a wide variety of characteristics is hard to overstate. 2002. and increase motivation. For each practice on the checklist. CAST’s three universal design for learning (UDL) principles “ form a practical framework for using technology to maximize learning opportunities for every student” (Rose & Meyer. feedback. such as an academic presentations course. The UDI checklist reveals how UD can be applied to the class climate. p. For example. to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge. p. learning styles and challenges. and assessment. Motivated to a great degree by requests of postsecondary faculty for practical strategies for applying UD to specific instructional products (e. race/ . interaction. hosted by the DO-IT Center that I direct at the University of Washington in Seattle (Disabilities. (CAST. n.d. As growing numbers of individuals with disabilities are attending college. differences in visual abilities as simply a normal part of the human experience. in this case. physical environments/products. and Technology [DO-IT]. 2011).) has for many years promoted the use of educational technology that is accessible to and usable by all students. delivery methods. sensory perceptions. 2008. to tap into learners’ interests. to the greatest extent possible. withBeing proactive out the need for adaptation or in addressing specialized design” (Center potential access for Universal Design. Multiple means of action and expression. we created and validated a checklist of universal design of instruction (UDI) practices (Burgstahler..g. classroom presentations). moby specific bility.). accessibility Framework What might be your first response when a student who is blind enrolls in your course? Would you be able to look forward to the unique perspective this student brings to the class or would your thoughts be dominated by concern regarding accommodations that this student might require? An important first step to creating a welcoming and inclusive classroom environment for students with disabilities is to truly value diversity in all of its many forms—to see. staff and collaborators in multiple projects (DO-IT. 1) At The Center for Universal Design in Education (CUDE). “Universal design” (UD) is defined as “the design of products and environments to be usable by all people. may have diverse cultural and language backcan reduce grounds. n. interests. and reading. the UD feature of captions on videos benefits students who are deaf but is also useful to students for whom English is not their first language and those whose learning preference is written rather than spoken language.com 47 Making technology-enhanced classroom presentations accessible to students with sensory impairments Sheryl Burgstahler University of Washington Key words: sensory impairments. references are made to UD principles and UDL guidelines for which the example is most relevant. 2007) operationalized the principles of UD and UDL. n.Providing Access www. p. Internetworking. to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know.g. The UD approach recogbarriers to nizes that individuals within technology-rich a group. gender. Opportunities. Making it Work The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST. information resources/technology.. and abilithe need for ties and disabilities associated accommodations with learning. offer appropriate challenges. Being proactive in addressing potential access barriers to technology-rich presentations can reduce the need for accommodations by specific students. Multiple means of engagement.. attention. 5): Multiple means of representation.d. The first step is simply to consider the diverse characteristics your students might have with respect to sensory and physical abilities. 1).quickhitstech.
uw. Seattle: University of Washington. 2011: http://www. AccessCollege: Systemic Change for Postsecondary Institutions.washington.edu/doit/CUDE/ ■■ National Center on Universal Design for Learning http://www. and ■■ practices that you would like to adopt in the future (and record a targeted date for implementation). Retrieved July 1. ■■ Supplement in-person contact with online communication. (2011).). bold. who learn better when content is both seen and spoken. Burgstahler & R. uncluttered backgrounds. simple fonts and high contract. www.). make sure that they are available in a text-based format so that blind students using screen reader technology can access the content.cast. ■■ Provide the syllabus and other printed materials in an electronic format on a website. What is universal design for learning? Retrieved July 1.quickhitstech.d. Any opinions. Consistent with other applications of UD. 2011: http://www. Seattle: University of Washington. 2011: http://www.design.htm The Center for Universal Design in Education [CUDE]. Boston: Harvard Education Press. I have found that speaking the content of my overhead visuals not only makes my content more accessible to students who are blind. ■■ When you deliver your presentation. Universal design of instruction: From principles to practice. I suggest that you review the examples in CUDE’s UDI checklist (Burgstahler. S. findings. (2008). ■■ As you prepare your images that will be projected on a screen. (2008). Future Implications Access issues will likely arise for students with sensory impairments when instructors use digital media in the classroom after considering only a narrow range of characteristics of potential students. or for whom English is their second language. and Technology). How could you ensure that these two students have access to the content you present? Listed below are some relevant practices gleaned from the UDI checklist. ■■ Use captioned videos and provide transcriptions for audio presentations. Seattle: University of Washington. edu/doit/CUDE . For example. The application of UD to instruction holds promise as faculty try to effectively teach a student body that is increasingly diverse.d. 3-20). 2011: http://www. E.). accessible. E. (2007). Then.ncsu. Cory (Eds. and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.d. C.com Resources Good places to start in learning more about how the UD approach can be applied in your class include: ■■ The Center for Universal Design http://www. edu/cud/about_ud/about_ud. courses that employ UDI are welcoming. Opportunities. Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice (pp. Retrieved July 1. S. and inclusive for all students. Equal Access: Universal Design of Instruction.washington.edu/ doit/CUDE/ DO-IT. References Burgstahler.) Retrieved July 1. (n.washington.html Burgstahler.48 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology ethnicity and social-economic status. (n. Avoid crowding too much content on a single image.edu/www/ncsu/design/sod5/cud/ ■■ The Center for Universal Design in Education http://www.edu/ doit/Brochures/Academics/access_college. a good exercise is to imagine you have both a blind student and a deaf student (with a sign language interpreter) in your audience.edu/doit/Brochures/Academics/equal_access_udci.org/research/udl/ DO-IT (Disabilities. As far as making a technology-enabled onsite presentation accessible to those with sensory impairments. Retrieved July 1.org/ Acknowledgements This chapter is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant #HRD-0833504 in Research in Disabilities Education (RDE) and #CNS-0837508 in Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE). without giving unfair advantage to anyone. ■■ those that you employ to some degree. (n. Center for Applied Special Technology [CAST]. Raleigh: CUD.udlcenter. Internetworking. In S.html The Center for Universal Design [CUD]. Retrieved July 1. 2011) and assess ■■ which strategies you already employ. describe orally all text and other relevant content projected on a screen. but also to those who are sitting in the back of the room. select large.ncsu. The result will be a step-by-step UDI implementation plan designed for you. Many UDI practices benefit students who do not have disabilities.washington. 2011: http://www. 2011: http://www.
community Framework One of the things I have students in my new media class do is contribute to a class blog. Over the next eight weeks. these posts and comments develop into a compilation of the class’ thoughts and opinions. blogging in the classroom contributes to a sense of community among students. Second. computers are used to visualize images of histological . which seems well-suited for critical thinking and self-reflection. posts may be on any topic as long as it relates to the course in some way. Students are asked to post one entry per week to the class blogging site. The end result is students who are more reflective and interactive.. virtual golf). As I explain to students. blogging is a way for students to reflect on ideas discussed in class.Providing Access www. new media. In this way. I have found this to be a useful activity for three reasons.g. Many blogging platforms are available online that are free and easy-to-use. Virtual microscopy (VM) has become a useful tool for teaching undergraduate. but this isn’t essential. thoughtfulness. David O. Having students blog on a regular basis encourages a level of reflection that is difficult to achieve through lectures alone. I worked with a programmer from our university’s Teaching and Learning Centre to set up a site specific to my needs. self-reflection. DeFouw. virtual piano). Future Implications The response from students has been very positive.quickhitstech. for a course on new media. students write a short reflection paper where they discuss their blogging experiences. they then submit a portfolio consisting of their best posts and comments plus their reflection paper. virtual colonoscopy and virtual microscopy). by the end of the course students report having a better appreciation for this medium and a few even decide to continue blogging. and Nagaswami S. Students are also required to comment on at least two of their classmates’ posts each week.. Portfolios are graded based on originality. and medical histology.g. students report feeling more connected to their classmates—even those they did not interact with—because they got to read their classmates’ posts and comments. Vasan New Jersey Medical School Keywords: virtual microscopy. Students appreciate the open-ended and informal format of blogs. I find the assignment works best for smaller classes. if this is an issue. Third. In addition. While some are hesitant at first. More importantly. where they might be read by anyone. blogging allows students to interact with one another outside of class. First. and medical sciences (e.g. it makes sense that students use new media tools as part of their learning experience. Afterwards. signing up for an account takes just a few minutes. sports (e. One concern students might have involves posting thoughts online.. and quality of writing. Virtual Microscopy as a Real and Effective Tool for Teaching Histology Grace Pinhal-Enfield. Making it Work The assignment works as follows. Blogging requires no particular computer skills beyond those students use every day. there is no cost to students or the university.com 49 Blogging in the classroom Patrick Feng University of Calgary Keywords: blogging. both in and out of the classroom. In VM. the goal is not to arrive at “the right answer”—as there will always be multiple ways of looking at an issue—but rather to come to well-reasoned positions and to thoughtfully consider the positions of others. set the privacy settings on your class blog so that it is private and/or blocked from search engines. after which you can create and customize your site. teaching histology Framework There has been an exciting and expanding movement involving the use of virtual imaging in many areas of education. Setting up a class blog is straightforward. Virtual imaging has become an effective and readily adaptable learning medium in many fields such as music (e. graduate.
virtual slide boxes are uniRather than being form and all students have access to the same virtual limited to a set of images. VM is relatively easy to use and can be quickly learned by most inexperienced users. and assessment.virtual slide images timized virtual slide boxes. For example. Figure 2. Because virtual slides are acquired from actual histological glass slide specimens. obtained from high-resolution scanning (by specialized scanners such as Hamamatsu’s NanoZoomer or Olympus’s VS110) of real histological glass slide specimens contributed by multiple institutions. VM is cost effective faculty-selected with a one-time license fee and minimal maintenance virtual slide box compared to purchase and repair costs required for glass slides and microscopes. rather than being limited to a set of glass slide boxes created by one institution. created by one Because there are no slide institution.4. op. our students have access to a broad repertoire of virtual slide images in an optimized.quickhitstech. in an optimized. Lastly. While employing many traits and functions of traditional microscopy. . Further. Virtual slides also allow for navigation and observation at different magnifications. learning. and overwhelmingly favorable responses from the current technologically-savvy generation of students. our box differences between students. multiple viewer format for efficient and effective teaching. Making it Work VM provides access to thousands of digitized histological virtual slide images. faculty-selected virtual slide box. the use of computers and internet servers in VM provide many advantages. Furthermore.com school’s virtual slide box. Advantages of VM in teaching histology include access to an extensive repertoire of specimens. VM allows for internet access to slides on a server. Therefore. Thus. consistency is glass slide boxes achieved among all students. Figure 2. Olympus exhibits thousands of digitized virtual slides in their WebSlide database and faculty members at our institution have selected approximately 200 virtual slides for our www. faculty can comfortstudents have ably test student knowledge access to a broad on all structures of interest repertoire of that are known to be present in the faculty-selected. selection of optimal specimens by histology faculty. such as artifacts and real staining (no pseudocoloring). There are many similarities between VM and traditional microscopy. VM is an extraordinary instrument for exploration of histology beyond the confines of microscopy. uniformity of slides among students.50 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology slides rather than viewing glass slides with light microscopes. convenience due to internet accessibility. Some virtual slides may even feature the ability to focus through different planes of the tissue. virtual slides exhibit the same properties as glass slides. Thus. the virtual slide box can be simultaneously accessed by multiple users within different courses. Virtual slides can be located by a specific accession number. in contrast to variable box-to-box slide quality seen with glass slide boxes.5.
Netscape. In addition to providing focus and direction through a lab guide.g. multiple registered computers can log onto an internet server for access to the virtual slides.6.. Examples of VM features include use of drop-down menus and a mouse (by clicking or scrolling) or keyboard to navigate through the virtual slide box database. Once a virtual slide image is opened. 2. Multiple images can be accessed simultaneously for compare-contrast studies. and viewing annotations on virtual slides. Once a school establishes a contract with a provider (e. as performed to create the figures in this article. Use of the virtual software (e.www. Users can access virtual slides using any common Web browser such as Internet Explorer.g. Linux.5). Mozilla. An especially valuable and highly used feature is the ability to copy images onto a clipboard for labeling by using the CNTRL+C function. 4.g. Specified region of a slide can be viewed at higher magnifications.g. Figure 2. as shown in Figure 2. viewing multiple images simultaneously for compare-contrast strategies (Figure 2. there are many ways to view the specimen. .6). “eye”) or by locating a specific. Virtual slides can be found by entering a search term (e. we have also presented labeled images to allow the students to confirm their own findings.. Figure 2. We have provided our students with a detailed lab guide that describes and directs them to find morphologic features that can be identified on a specific virtual slide image.. or PC. Students are expected to work together to compare/contrast the virtual slide image with atlas and textbook descriptions.quickhitstech. navigation through a virtual Providing Access 51 slide and/or an interactive thumbnail (in which you can view and change your location on the larger virtual slide image). Olympus) and faculty have selected virtual slides for an institution-specific virtual slide box. changing magnifications (and focus on some specimens) (Figure 2. indicate area of interest with a pointer. predetermined webslide accession number (e. 3.7). or Safari.4). NJMS_011.com 1. and there are viewers available for any computer platform such as Mac. WebSlide Enterprise from Olympus) allows for convenient search and view of virtual slides located on a server (Figure 2.7. measuring area and length.
Making it Work I have found that technology is a useful tool for internationalizing the learning experience of students who cannot (or choose not to) leave the country. In addition. who are faced with decreasing instructor-driven modalities. Furthermore. R.. and clarification/feedback from fellow classmates and instructors. Heidger. D. 265. (1999). T. higher student satisfaction. 2003) has become a priority in higher education. (2001). VM is an invaluable tool because it allows accessibility online from a server by any registered computer for self-spaced.52 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology Future Implications Impacts of VM feature interactive. or delivery of post secondary education. Despite an increased level of difficulty of our histology practical questions. and effective team learning. Kreiter. study of histology slides is not limited to labs with microscopes during specified hours of operation. career or family obligations. C.. Harris. J. The emphasis placed on internationalizing the curriculum is well-founded because research shows that integrating intercultural/international encounters into the college curriculum is linked with a variety of positive academic. the reality and trend of reduced instructor-student contact hours and associated need for more efficient and effective self-learning by students. F. & Dick.. Gut. Leaven.. readily available technologies Framework Internationalizing curriculum. economic. “It’s a small world after all:” Using technology to internationalize curriculum Beth Goering Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Keywords: internationalizing curriculum. 301-305. 2008). distance learning at any time. or global dimension into the purpose. This is particularly noteworthy as schools attempt to redesign the curriculum with the current needs and learning styles of a technology-driven generation of students. Duncan. (2007).com examinations. improved academic performance. C. images can be captured. H. or anxiety about safety.. University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. such as uniform slide boxes among students and projection of virtual images onto a large screen for simultaneous testing. functions. References Johnson. Traditionally. and social outcomes (Green & Olson. Goldberg. student-directed learning with the ability to study virtual slides and reinforce knowledge through labeling at student convenience. intercultural. or the “process of integrating an international. “do not want to or are unsure about” study abroad (American Council on Education.. only about 50% of college students report that they plan to participate in a study abroad program (American Council on Education. I have experimented with . 261-265. P. use of VM can result in increased study time. can evolve into a positive outcome by adopting VM. The other half.R. Thus. we have seen greatly improved academic performance. labeled. Thus. Author note This work was supported by the Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine at the New Jersey Medical School.” (Knight. At our school. because VM is computer-based. The positive impact of team-based virtual microscopy on student learning in physiology and histology. While these programs have demonstrated value. The Anatomical Record. our school has been able to improve our histology practical www.quickhitstech. VM allows students to study (and faculty to teach) in an open group format with exchange of ideas for more effective and collaborative learning (compared to limitations posed by a one-viewer light microscope). 10–14. review. 2008). and saved for future reference. 31. As a result of the benefits of VM. deeper understanding. This allows for interpretation. 44(3). improved knowledge retention. but is available at anytime and from anyplace due to the convenience of using a computer and the internet. efforts to provide students with international experiences have consisted of student exchange or study abroad programs. Comparison of a virtual microscope laboratory to a regular microscope laboratory for teaching histology. Computed tomography colonography (virtual colonoscopy): A new method for colorectal screening.. T. & Ahlouist. 2008). In summary. Advances in Physiology Education. VM has enabled the integration of histology into our gross anatomy curriculum as students study virtual slides from the comfort of their laptop to reinforce studying gross anatomy material. for a variety of reasons including concerns about costs. & Dintzis. students and instructors at many institutions have adapted well and flourished with the use of VM.
students were asked to hypothesize possible culturally-grounded explanations for the differences they observed in how the cases were being perceived. To ensure that students would have the skills to complete the assignment. indeed. depending on the course content. Later in the semester. College-bound students’ interests and other international learning activities: A .com) is a website that supports collaborative work. In this case.. and the College Board (2008). Wikispaces (http://www. it was a professor from Russia who talked with students about communication within the Russian educational system. but they require technology that many schools do not have. Furthermore. One week.com a variety of technological tools in my efforts to internationalize my students’ college experience. E-mail Partners (Implemented in an undergraduate Organizational Communication course): Students from IUPUI were paired as e-mail partners with students in a comparable class at a university in Russia. Most important. and I replaced the in-class oral presentations that were originally scheduled for the last few weeks of the semester with multimedia presentations posted by the students on our online teaching site. Throughout the semester. Before the class began. create wikis describing their projects. and the international guests also reported enjoying the opportunity to interact with American college students. is that they have the potential to bring the world to the students. References American Council on Education. Half the class consisted of exchange students visiting our campus for the semester. Universities have utilized elaborate video conferencing technology and global seminar rooms to enable students from multiple cultures to learn together. Multimedia Project Presentations: This strategy actually evolved as a solution to a particular problem that arose in a graduate-level Advanced Intercultural Communication class.wikispaces. so special arrangements usually do not need to be made to implement the strategies. Several of the students did. I used my personal and professional networks to arrange for “international guests” to participate in week-long forum discussions with students enrolled in the class. Throughout the semester. The invited guests varied. I have. it is relatively easy to implement the tips presented below. a doctor with considerable experience working with culturally diverse patients was available to talk with students. Art & Science Group LLC. These “high-tech” approaches to internationalizing curriculum are great.S. the partners were asked to collaboratively write an analysis. the professors. negotiating different time zones is no problem. can engage students and facilitate learning. In this case. chosen to focus on ways to use generally available technologies to internationalize the educational experience of students. so even in a world with a widening technology gap. The next week. Most students have access to the internet. several of the visiting students needed to leave before our semester was over. though. But. Technology to the rescue! Students had completed applied projects.Russian student pairs used e-mail to discuss and analyze the case studies. By the end of the semester. providing students who may not be able to take advantage of study abroad programs with valuable exposure to international perspectives. and I would like to share three particularly successful “experiments” with you. the challenges of meshing international academic calendars in real space and time were mediated to the benefit of all. instead. Finally. Others selected other ways of presenting their research. agreed upon case studies that would be assigned in both classes. the U. a German businessman answered students’ questions about how communication in business 53 contexts varies across cultures. with all its bells and whistles. and its basic service is free. who had met at an international conference. They utilize technologies that are generally available. Using technology to build bridges across cultural divides within the academy is nothing new. and another posted a series of PowerPoint presentations. Initially. By examining the cases through their own and another’s cultural lenses. students on both sides of the Atlantic learned a great deal about the subject matter as well as about cultural differences in communication within organizations. Through the use of technology. Students were given the freedom to present their work in any format they chose.e. The specific tasks given the pairs changed throughout the semester. The site offers tutorials that introduce users to the various wiki functions. Because of different academic calendars in their home universities.Providing Access www. Students responded very favorably to this use of technology. these experiences could be easily modified and adapted to a wide variety of academic fields. student learning was assessed through the written work they submitted for evaluation. with recommendations for improving communication in the organization depicted in the case. student learning was assessed through their participation in the online forum discussions. a reasonable time to meet in Indianapolis is the middle of the night in Russia). Consequently. what I like about the three strategies I have shared with you here is that they produce positive results with relatively simple technologies. Because they rely on asynchronous means of communication. Future Implications Technology has the potential to enhance pedagogy in so many ways. they were all introduced by the professor to wikispaces.quickhitstech. and using them is often restricted by differences in time zones (i. This volume of Quick Hits is filled with many impressive and creative ways in which technology. One student created an interactive pdf file. each student was asked to write an individual paper summarizing the perspective of his/her partner and highlighting key differences. Forum Interviews with Practitioners (Implemented in an undergraduate Intercultural Communication class): This strategy utilized the “Forum Discussion” tool in our university’s online-learning environment.
student response system. (2003). students are expected to arrive at class (50–75 minutes) prepared for a short quiz taken via TurningPoint clickers that they had purchased ($30–50). The clickers allow for immediate results that inform a short concept review that follows.) I would like to add more demonstrations for discussion and problem solving. Lecture material was moved online via Articulate Presenter. D. Any type of electronic white board or document camera would be suitable ($500–$3000). International Higher Education. Student attendance has improved. physics. . Student problem solving has improved immensely as seen on test scores. Middletown Keywords: hybrid. This encourages each student to participate during group work. Scores on conceptual questions have decreased slightly however. The WebAssign implementation was the missing piece to holding students accountable for their work in class.engaged. one activity is for the students to complete “homework” problems in groups and respond via the clickers. Students can now use them throughout their college careers at Miami in other classes. Washington. These require more inquiry and critical thinking by the students to determine what information is needed to answer a question. and they ments which move the onus of responsibility for learning communicate with to the student — i. 33.quickhitstech. This software allows for flash delivery of visuals and audio as well as allowing for student interaction with the material. M. The cost of WebAssign includes their E-textbook. The rest of class time is spent in a variety of ways. The Eno Interactive white board is used to present the problems and outline a solution. Making it Work These changes were implemented in stages. Internationalizing the campus: A user’s guide.e. It took almost two years to create the online lectures. Future Implications These observations are anecdotal for the most part. Clickers were added next but the brand changed from Einstruction to TurninPoint (to align with the university’s standard clickers). The total cost to the student is $90–$140 as opposed to the $200 tag on the paper book alone. Students state that they enjoy the inverted format and enjoy coming to class. MD: Art & Science Group.C. Green. (Based on SGID responses and student personal reflection blogs. F. engagement Framework Students in my introductory physics classes were often showing up ill prepared for class or not at all. Students must then submit homework problems via WebAssign ($60–$90). & Olson. and considerably more. C. their problem solving skills were not improving over the course of the semester. I will never go back to a traditional lecture classroom model.: American Council www. For example. class time was reduced 50 minutes per week.com on Education Center for Institutional and International Initiatives. These boards are saved and uploaded to the learning management system for students to review later. Students are more engaged.. With this additional outside work. The inverted hybrid science classroom Janet E. Groups also work to solve problems presented in class demonstrations. J. In addition. Updated internationalization definition. and they communicate with me and each other considerably more. Google me and each other Science Fair type project. science. After watching this material. Changes were made to this small (<20) lecture based introductory physics classroom over a three year period. collaborative. which has added some additional work. I also want to add Students are more some student project ele. Students value the work we now do in class rather than me just talking “at” them. Hurn Miami University. Knight.54 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology special edition of student poll. water rocket building. 2-3. Baltimore. (2008).
Gavrin. 2011 from the Physlet Project Web site: http://webphysics.edu/physlet_resources. Fislets: Enseñanza de la física con material interactive. Physlet® physics: Interactive illustrations.compadre. NJ: Prentice Hall’s Series in Educational Innovation. PowerPoint Framework I am the module director of the T562 OBF II. Upper Saddle River. Just-in-Time Teaching: Bending active learning with web technology. and problems for introductory physics. particularly dental caries and periodontal disease. Successful students are expected to become competent in the use. & Cox. Henderson. 2011) which is being distributed from the ComPADRE digital library (OSP ComPADRE. has agreed to allow teachers to post Physlet-based exercises from our books on personal and non-commercial education websites without seeking additional permission provided that the original copyright notice remains in place. & Dancy. (2011). disadvantages. C.H. 2011 from the Physlet Project Resources Web site: http:// webphysics. W.. Physlets. Titus. The impact of physics education research on the teaching of introductory quantitative physics in the United States. M. A. Upper Saddle River. Novak. W. 5(2). NJ: Prentice Hall. 2011 from the ComPADRE OSP Web site: http://www.Physical Education Research.quickhitstech. (2004). Caries Etiology Diagnosis and Management. Students access the Physlet and are told. NJ: Prentice Hall’s Series in Educational Innovation.. W. Physical Review Special Topics . 010104-1 – 010104-7. & Beichner.56 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology An example of a Physlet-based problem is shown in Figure 2. North Carolina State University. You can drag this point source to any position (which is given in centimeters). Retrieved February 23. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 2011 from the ComPADRE OSP Web site: http://www. In addition.com References Belloni. (2005). A. Physlet Resources.org/OSP/.. Future Implications We have recently recompiled and packaged Physlets (the applets themselves) in a single Java archive (or jar) file (Physlet Jar. edu/Applets/Applets. Retrieved February 23. Figure 2. (2009). (2005). Dancy. J. W. M. Find the focal length of the mirror. explorations. . Esquembre.Physical Education Research. and metabolism of fluoride. Upper Saddle River. The goal of the course is to establish knowledge necessary for attaining competencies related to the management of oral diseases of microbial etiology. (2003).. This agreement will allow us to more easily distribute Physlet-based materials through ComPADRE. www. E. Christian... One of those strategies is the use of fluoride and this paper focuses on the use of technology to understand fluoride’s toxicity and reinforce understanding of the mechanism of action. 2011). (2007).compadre. Retrieved February 23. Podcast technology self-directed lecturing for fluoride toxicity Armando E Soto-Rojas and E. Impact of animation on assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. they must interact with the Physlet to determine a strategy to answer the question. (1999). OSP ComPADRE. indications. Integrating video and animation with physics problem solving exercises on the world wide web. España. (2007). R. (2011). The Optics bench Physlet written as a homework problem.. Physlet® quantum physics: An interactive introduction.” Students are not given any other information. Successful students conceptualize the problem first (What does a focal length mean?) and find that there are at least 4 unique ways to successfully answer this question. Martin. Pearson Education. The standard novice problem-solving approach of “plug-n-chug” will simply not be effective. advantages. Angeles Martinez-Mier Indiana University School of Dentistry Keywords: podcasts.. Patterson.. F. the English language publisher of Physlet-based curricular material.html. Physlet Jar. Christian. & Belloni. E. Physical Review Special Topics . “A point source is located to the left of an ideal mirror.10. Retrieved February 23. A.davidson. kinetics.davidson. & Christian. M. 020107-1 – 020107-9. 2(1). & Belloni.. Upper Saddle River.10. Doctoral Dissertation. M. M. (1998). org/OSP/items/detail. Adobe Presenter.. Christian. and contraindications of the different strategies to prevent dental caries. G.cfm?ID=10710.
International Journal of Computerized Dentistry. Strassler. a disadvantage is that a podcast is essentially a passive learning experience focused on an audio or audio/video facility alone ( Johnson. and played on computers and handheld devices. Johnson L. and calculate lethal and probable toxic doses of fluoride. Podcasts are media files that are distributed via the internet. Rainsbury. P. 9. & McDonnell. This fluoride toxicity lecture was recorded by Dr. & Grayden. & Sensi L.Providing Access www. Martinez-Mier and was distributed over the internet as an audio podcast. we decided to implement this podcast technology in our course as a tool to enhance the learning experience and allow students to progress at their individual pace. 2006). Joining the podcast revolution. 481–482. In the past. Future Implications Dental students evaluated this new technology through course evaluations and the majority agreed that the “use of podcast within the course enhanced their learning” and that “the use of electronic resources enhanced my learning. in a pedagogical context. A method for creating interactive content for the iPod and its potential use as a learning tool: Technical advances. tests. S. The initiative to create this podcast was driven by students. Palmer. Making it Work The specific objectives of this podcast are to describe the effects of acute fluoride toxicity on the various organ systems.” Finally. H. through course management systems. (2008).C. Palmer. On the other hand. G. 2007). (2006). The project involved collaboration among dental students. As a result. We decided to implement this podcast technology in our course as a tool to enhance the learning experience and allow students to progress at their individual pace.quickhitstech.W.G.. E. Students can keep and review this lecture at any point in time and can use this as a reference source of information.. describe likely sources that may result in acute fluoride toxicity. 99. Students can listen to. S. describe clinical signs and symptoms of fluoride toxicity and first aid. a link to knowledge base articles will be added in the update of this podcast. Therefore. 2008)..” “a focus group and watch a few students work the problems after listening or working to the podcast might help improving the technology. & Devitt. working in various lectures and projects. Journal of Dental Education. BMC Medical Education. Dental students are now more mobile and versatile than ever.G. Question in cyberspace. 205–218. Developing course-specific podcasts requires time. 32. .E.com A podcast for a self-directed lecture on fluoride toxicity was created to meet these objectives. Podcasts: An emerging form of digital publishing. faculty. and exercises. Martinez as a template along with images. Students would spend on average 30 minutes working on this podcast and it allowed the students the opportunity to review mathematical calculations at their own pace and to solve the practice cases as many times as they felt they needed. Podcasts: An educational revolution in the making? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. The podcast lecture was designed for the Oncourse course management system but could be used in any course requiring the use of technology regardless of the content being addressed. 2006. References Jham. The term podcast was first used in 2004 and is a combination of iPod and broadcast (Rainsbury. The podcast was created utilizing Adobe Presenter plugin with PowerPoint using the lecture previously given by Dr.” However. All of the dental students that have used this podcast over 2 years have passed their fluoride toxicity exam and were knowledgeable in the area.. or sometimes located at some distance from the school. and watch podcasts on their computer or download to a portable device such as a droid or an iPhone..J. the idea of being able to study and learn without being linked to a classroom or a tight schedule is very attractive to dental students ( Jahm. (2006). the creation of this 1/2-hour lecture took several hours of faculty time. discuss the implications of the use of fluoride supplements and infant formulas.V.M. 72(3). They often find themselves multitasking. B. examples. study. our student evaluations of this lecture 57 repeatedly demonstrated that some students required more time than allocated in the course for the topic of fluoride toxicity. some of the comments and suggestions made by students were: “The fluoride toxicity equations should have been explained more conceptually so that we could have understood what we were computing. (2007). The understating of fluoride toxicity requires dental students to use complicated formulas and mathematical constants to calculate lethal toxic doses for simulated cases. 7. J. and staff from the Information Technology Department. 278-281. rather than just memorizing equations. Duraes..
which currently hosts the videoconferencing. “… that will really give remote users a feeling that they actually belong to the class. To solve this problem. Of course. eLearning. differentiate learning . As one student put it.” We discovered an interesting multimedia solution when I brought a handheld mirror to class and held it in front of the laptop’s built-in camera. screen sharing. which are overwhelmingly positive. When Salesforce. Others like a camera placement that provides a view of the class including both the professor and the students. the mirror makes the camera view the students attending class on campus. chatroom. chat. because everyone is on a different part of the technology spectrum. As one student said. Our hope is that by identifying the specific skills instructors need.com acquired Dimdim in January 2011. In the meantime. The students used game-style headset mikes that enabled us to avoid the audio feedback than can otherwise occur if students use loudspeakers instead of headsets. Making it Work To gauge the effectiveness of this project..” An interesting multimedia question arose regarding campus use of videoconferencing. I could hear Dr. If there was something I couldn’t quite read in small print. Multiple students can ask questions at once.” Future Implications Informed by this analysis.. “Having subgroups can . but the mirror is more cost-effective. When held up to the laptop’s camera. which normally shows a head-shot of the professor. who is an educational technologist. Fred has answered every single one of my questions even though he’s on campus and I’m at home in my study. F2F. Still to be determined is whether using Dimdim or Adobe Connect successfully requires that the instructor have the technological skills of this particular professor. “One added benefit is that. guidelines. students can carry on side conversations. and screen sharing aspects of the project reported here. best practice.58 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. Hofstetter University of Delaware Keywords: distance learning. . students have been journaling in an online discussion forum about their experiences with Dimdim and Adobe Connect. We began with a cloudbased collaboration service called Dimdim that provided real-time videoconferencing. Hofstetter perfectly and it was also visually clear. keep the chatroom visible so the instructor can see the conversations happening in chat. we are compiling best-practice guidelines for professors to use videoconferencing. and the result is a classroom session that is more coherent and responsive to student needs. even though we’re not physically interacting.” As another student put it. our best practice guidelines will enable most faculty to become facile with Web-based videoconferencing. chatroom. videoconferencing. Chatting also makes me feel like I’ve gotten to know some of my classmates. In addition to the obvious advantages of saving gas and commuting time. So far.. and students like how the chatroom queues their questions. Students like how Dimdim and Adobe Connect give the professor virtual microphones and a camera that can be assigned to different students during the class. a more advanced solution would be to use an external. face to face Framework Delaware is a long and narrow state that creates logistical issues for downstate students to attend classes on the University of Delaware’s main campus located in northern part of the state. chatroom.quickhitstech. the guidelines recommend the following best practices: ■■ When sharing the instructor’s desktop. through chat. We got that working with a Creative USB Live Cam as well as a Canon ZR series camcorder with Firewire. namely.” Managing the chat enables the professor to decide when and how to work the student questions into the presentation.. web-based videoconferencing opens up a new channel of communication that adds an innovative layer of interaction to the course. distance education. we are investigating the use of web-based videoconferencing to extend the face-toface experience to distance learners. As one student reported: “Just sat in on my first lecture from home. We are conducting a thematic analysis of these journal entries. “Since we can chat. we switched to Adobe Connect. and screen sharing. Students especially like how they can adjust the zoom to make the shared screen larger or smaller. Dimdim. The students perceive this as forming subgroups. students can carry on side conversations without taking up class time. repositionable camera to capture the classroom participants. what should be on camera? Many students maintain that it is the view of the instructor that makes them feel most present. Adobe Connect. As one student said.com Using web-based videoconferencing to extend the F2F experience to distance learners Fred T. I would simply adjust my zoom and then zoom back in if I wanted to write something on the chat wall.
Gary Pinkston. ■■ Students who do not have a microphone can communicate just fine in the chatroom. It truly is a win-win situation as relationships are built and skills are strengthened. We meet one day for training the mentors and one day for face-to-face conferences. Implementation Time: We were able to implement this using a one semester time frame. Future Implications The public school teachers have evidence from their evaluations of writing pieces (and from higher writing scores on portfolio pieces) that students’ writing skills have improved. Mentors continue to amaze us with their highly creative and effective use of technology to support young writers. and they can hear the instructor through their computer’s speakers. we often see writing skills of the college mentors improve.quickhitstech. you must 59 plug in a headphone. offering additional comments. Ridout. University/school partnership: Using technology to collaborate with middle school writers and create more informed teachers of writing Susan R.Providing Access www. During this project. school technology coordinator. on the other hand. (We use Jefferson County Public Schools’ Angel Environment. Making it Work 1.” Sixth and seventh grade language arts students are paired with pre-service Education students (mentors).) A protected environment is best. all of us — the classroom teacher. turn off your speakers. Middle school students revise their writing pieces and use an electronic drop box to submit their work to their mentors. we had two planning meetings and several electronic communications prior to the assignment of students. and the mentors send an electronic “hand shake. and Jane Riehl Indiana University Southeast Debbie Schweitzer Jefferson County Public Schools. and listen through your headphone in order to avoid echo caused by audio feeding back through the speakers. turn off wireless to avoid connection issues that can occur if there is a weak wireless signal. Electronic conferences between the middle school students and their mentors take place outside of class time. and university professors — monitor the activities to ensure that best practices for integrating technology and teaching writing are evident. suggestions or encouraging words. Audience: Education Faculty and/or Writing Composition Faculty Tools: The school’s web-based communication system. Face-to-face conferences are held between mentors and their middle school students.” sending their pictures and a few words of introduction. much like OnCourse. The mentors then electronically respond. As an added bonus. in addition to seeing improvement in the writing abilities of the youngsters. Kentucky Keywords: writing. 2. Louisville.com ■■ If a wired Internet connection is available. collaboration. The first semester. mentors Framework Indiana University Southeast students review middle school students’ writing pieces during face-to-face conferences and online during “electronic conferences. If you are using a microphone. as we can monitor any exchanges between students and mentors. . The middle school language arts teacher and the school technology coordinator travel to the University and conduct a presentation on portfolio pieces and the legal uses of student electronic communications. mentors also state their own abilities to write have improved. but the project could easily be undertaken with English composition students serving as mentors. We now plan everything via e-mail. Technology is utilized to add interest to the conferences as mentors use YouTube videos and self-developed PowerPoint presentations focused on specific writing elements. Mentors are assigned their students. 3. ■■ Ask some of the students who are attending class locally to log on to the videoconference so they can alert the professor if any problems occur that the instructor is not aware of. Wouldn’t it be great if all young writers had this kind of support? On post-project questionnaires. we see mentors creatively use technology during the face-toface conferences and also providing excellent face-to-face and electronic feedback.
but struggles to offer all required courses at all three of its campuses each term. and none would anticipate multi-campus personal presentations. requires inclusive programmatic assessments. I began intensive email communication with students six weeks prior to the course. enabling them to better resolve conflicts with work. the school has begun converting adult courses to hybrid delivery. To meet several needs. all three were created for all units. In a traditional 15-week term. This enabled the same syllabus to be followed regardless of when face-to-face sessions actually occurred. yet progressive. existing material must be re-purposed or a new course specifically created.com Doppelgänger Professor: High-touch delivery to low-density populations Elizabeth H. streamlining of a major case study. Decoupling proved more challenging. discussions. Compression necessitated rewriting and re-sequencing of existing online lessons. Blended learning demands more of both students and faculty. providing a draft syllabus. with online instruction provided between face-to-face sessions. which is reading and writing intensive. I used online presentation of introductory and final instructional units. evening courses. compressed. deletion of lesser reading assignments. institution expected face-to-face interaction with their instructors. though. The integrated implementation process is deceptively simple: deploy content identified for mastery online. blended learning. In the 10-unit hybrid version. but fortunately I had previously piloted a 10-unit. Using a single timeline for online units while providing face-to-face instruction to students engaged in different portions of the course requires careful temporal decoupling of the on-site and online activities. addresses only part of the problem. I would have met . the school provided full access to Blackboard online components (e. to ensure consistency and cohesion. This not only generates stronger learning outcomes than online or face-to-face alone (U. and at satellite facilities 35 miles north and 115 miles south. fully enrolled. and was previously offered only in a 10-unit format. The solution to our newest problem emerged after intense discussion: the school would provide 7-unit. augmented by real-time chat. Additionally.60 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. Additionally. provides cohort-based. Our face-to-face sessions met Monday. high-quality services to a widely separated population using just one instructor. and encouraging each to work directly with me. The business department offers a master’s degree in management at the main campus. the main and southern campuses offer 10-unit courses spread over a traditional semester. rubrics) two weeks before the start date.quickhitstech. most would not expect timeline compression. the students at this traditional. discussions. yet resulted in highly productive use of on-site time: I included only highly-focused. 2009) but also increases the scheduling flexibility prized by adult learners.. compressed. Leadership and Organizational Development. Compressing the timeline while retaining all required elements also creates additional challenges. and activities had been assigned for weeks not having on-site sessions. online lessons. and then present enrichment and engagement materials on-site. I strategically staggered on-site meetings throughout the term. notifying them of the format. yet no single campus had enough students to warrant creating a section. Our small. By combining the efficiency of asynchronous online presentation with lively. 7-unit classes presented over seven consecutive weeks. distant campuses. Although students might reasonably expect a hybrid course. and the college provided affordable. and seven on main campus. Friday. In order to make learning rich but not overwhelming. Preliminary enrollments one term revealed another part of the problem: there were only four learners in the south. in the 7-unit offering. on-site interaction. whereas the northern campus. students received firstrate instruction and graduated on time. half-online/half-on-site blended version of the course at main campus with good results. liberal arts college has a growing population of adult undergraduate and graduate learners. As with any such project. however. blended delivery with online content and two face-to-face sessions at each campus. team-based activities such as values and personality assessment exercises. linked to online elements so that all students have covered foundation materials before meeting face-to-face.S. Hybrid delivery alone. seven in the north. Jones Notre Dame of Maryland University Keywords: hybrid delivery. To facilitate the process. or the following Monday during units 2/3 and 5/6. multiple campuses Framework The mission called for scheduling a required course at multiple. in a recent innovation. and elimination of a supporting case study. This decoupling also allows learners to meet at any campus.g. Department of Education. While course content is equivalent at all three locations. Doppelgänger Professor emerged as a blended learning solution in which core content was delivered online and a single faculty member met students at each location on a rotating schedule. Making it Work I teach the master’s capstone course. I was already committed to two other.
For additional resources and quick hits please visit www. Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. but the cost-benefit picture for faculty members is mixed. Department of Education. Washington.Providing Access www. and consider remuneration for the extra work involved in converting the course and meeting with multiple sections. yet offer needed courses more frequently on satellite campuses. Reference U. The benefits to students and institutions are obvious. this approach generates dramatic net advantages for dispersed student bodies and creatively engaged institutions. I gained satisfying insights from creatively meeting the challenge. My course encountered no online difficulty.gov/about/offices/list/opepd/ ppss/reports. Many instructors would balk at this if not offered compensatory time or resources to offset its added burden. though.html. The institution should reimburse the faculty member for mileage. possibly rotating sequentially on the same evening of on-site weeks.com with three sections three times. This mode seems most appropriate for upper-level courses serving adult and self-disciplined traditional students. however. Even with the costs of added compensation. Using Doppelgänger Professor — a single faculty member with multi-site blended learning — institutions can stay 61 within budget.: Office of Planning. . Basic features such as online chat and a discussion board for graded activities proved sufficient to the task.com You can also submit your own Quick Hit to be peer reviewed and added to the collection of materials. especially when significant travel is required several evenings in a single week. the compressed hybrid format facilitated identification and remediation of writing problems because I gave each learner weekly feedback. An unanticipated benefit to the school also emerged: inclusion of learners from across the program provided benchmarks on cross-campus consistency of instruction and learning. I found serving three campuses in a compressed term exhilarating. Future Implications The course received positive feedback: students especially appreciated the flexibility.S. I am fully conversant with Blackboard and experienced at delivering online curricula. (2009).C. and Policy Development. though most wished for more face-to-face time and several struggled with the intensity of the writing assignments. but starkly demanding.quickhitstech. Additionally. D.ed. and all of my students had at least modest technical savvy.quickhitstech. Retrieved from www. A fully functional online learning management system is indispensable to blended learning. yet no highly sophisticated components are needed. Evaluation.
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Formative assessment provides important early data for the instructor while simultaneously offering useful and timely feedback to the student. Robin Lightner uses WebQuests specifically designed to meet the course’s learning objectives. Both of these approaches provide much more detailed information about the quality of student learning than traditional course evaluations. Similarly. The submissions in Chapter 3 converge on several dimensions of this assessment process. for example. both good and bad. in her submission. evaluating the results of such assessment. Neither has escaped the scrutiny of the present authors. most notably. Several of the current submissions demonstrate methods of providing formative feedback. such developments are nothing short of remarkable. She then describes how she uses the same data to evaluate the effectiveness of her teaching. including the faculty themselves. or clickers. for example. Michelle Gacio Harrolle. and this is nowhere more apparent than in the decision to engage both formative and summative assessment in one’s class. That this task can take many forms and provide an assortment of meaningful information is also apparent. we have a long way to go in ‘closing the loop’ on course evaluation. For those of us who entered the academy roughly a generation ago. Amy Zink. ideally reducing “surprises” on more summative measures. in spite of the varied and innovative ideas contained in these submissions. it is clear that. for both content and instructors. the scientific attitudes of critical thinking and skepticism. Several of the present submissions address this issue. Although some form of course and instructor evaluation is in place in most colleges and universities. and benefits a multitude of stakeholders. the students who stand to gain the most from this self-reflective endeavor. However.3 Enhancing Evaluation Assessment: An opportunity to demonstrate excellence Robin K. and reflecting on how to use such findings to improve teaching outcomes. Such instruments may offer valid information regarding student likes and dislikes. as a profession. outline various techniques of using personal responses systems. in many ways. describes how she uses Google Docs to gather feedback on what students know so that she can plan her lessons accordingly. their home institution. the discipline clearly embraces an uncompromising ethic of quality control and accountability in the teachinglearning dynamic. Evaluating teaching effectiveness requires that the spotlight fall on both principal players. This exercise in continuous assessment exemplifies. teacher and student alike. Proper assessment benefits both. Morgan Indiana University Southeast W hatever else the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) may represent. the data generated by such tools seldom engender confidence. Simply put. describes her efforts to have students create a personal video demonstrating skills learned in class. and. those who are passionate about being good teachers recognize the necessity of placing their teaching practices under the microscope. but may tell us precious little about what has and has not been mastered by the student as a result of their exposure to the course. in providing real time formative feedback. Technology holds promise as a quick and efficient method of collecting data about how well our teaching methods . Three submissions. The authors of the current offerings remain of one voice in advocating for the ongoing assessment of teaching effectiveness.
That is. it may be that changes that benefit student learning may occur beyond the classroom.quickhitstech.com You can also submit your own Quick Hit to be peer reviewed and added to the collection of materials. curricula or student advising changes may be necessitated to truly assist students in achieving their academic goals. Through reflecting on these efforts. once again.64 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. assess our effectiveness. . For additional resources and quick hits please visit www.quickhitstech.com enhance student learning. The next step is to adjust our methods based on our collected data and then.
I can also assess learning. I can easily access this information in the classroom (or print it in my office and make copies) and show students the results to open discussion.Enhancing Evaluation www. or grid. has a cultural context helps students progress from an ethnocentric to an ethno-relative point of view.and post.questions on where students see their own listening or speaking skills. I want my students to reflect upon their own culture and practices first before talking about what other cultures do. eating habits or any culturally relevant behavior. Wikis are an excellent tool for collaborative writing projects. my survey can include pre. physical science. tables and many equations. survey template that allows students to assess their own attitudes about a given cultural topic and allows me to gather information from my students quickly and creatively. including our own. A Google-Doc. I can use the same type of question or mix and match. Typically. I have to have a Google account (free and easy) and then I go to Google Docs and create a new form. short answer. there is often a need to insert figures. Future Implications All the data are then tabulated and sent to me in a pie graph or bar chart. In addition. however. Students are willing to take the survey because it does not require more than a few steps and they are curious to see and talk about the results… in Spanish. True love. When they open the email. survey. When learning about greetings. student writing Framework This article describes a wiki-based project I developed in Fall 2009. I then assign a reading about the same topic in the target culture and we compare and contrast. The goal was to have students in an upper-level Physical Chemistry course prepare class lecture notes for the semester. GMU has a license agreement with . This Google-Doc has added efficiency. paid account features are often a welcome addition and provide the instructor with more options. they can then answer immediately and send the data right away with just a few clicks. free. although any provider can be used. Free accounts through such providers can often meet the needs for a class website. particularly affective. After I have written my questions. Google (www.com). they are taken straight to the survey. attitudes toward work. scale. I use Google Survey Forms in my Spanish classes. I choose from a selection of six types of questions: multiple choice. Spanish Framework My mother always said “Fall in love with a doc” and now I have. Recognizing that behavior. Making it Work The wiki for this project was hosted by PBworks (www. One of the advantages of teaching Spanish is the opportunity to expose students to the values and practices of the Hispanic culture. A class wiki for the physical sciences Paul Cooper George Mason University Keywords: wiki. Making it Work Here’s what I do. to help me teach this ethno-relative viewpoint. I send the survey directly to my students’ email accounts. or cultural knowledge. variety and creativity to my Spanish lessons. both small and large.com 65 Google-Doc surveys for teaching Hispanic culture Amy Zink Indiana University Southeast Keywords: Google. check from a list. culture.google. long answer. For example.com) has a great. It is a great way to collect data that I can use to evaluate my own teaching and improve student learning. pbworks. and 2) gauge student feedback for a preliminary determination of effectiveness as a learning tool. First. I get immediate feedback on what students know or what opinions they have about a given topic and can plan my lesson accordingly.quickhitstech. The aims of this project were: 1) to determine if a wiki is a suitable technology for student-written lecture notes in a physical science lecture course. however in physical science courses.
Future Implications Students were anonymously polled at the end of semester. Students from a group were allowed to negotiate how to divide up the work amongst the group members. The PBworks interface allowed for the uploading of images. Making it Work This technology consists of four components: a clicker (that the student uses to answer a multiple choice question).turningtechnologies.einstruction. the project was thoroughly explained to the class.00 in the previous year).com group was encouraged and extra credit was given to those who participated in the editing. depending on the clicker software. clickers.37/5. After using clickers for several years I began to think about the limitations of using multiple choice questions. www.quickhitstech. software to process the votes and a computer/data projector to display the voting results. www. In most cases. The questions can be incorporated into PowerPoint slides and/or appear in a separate program. Some key statistics follow: 84% of students strongly agree/ agree that the wiki helped them understand the lecture material. I purchased my own set that students use in my classes. and through increased writing (with editorial feedback). usually as a histogram. ~30% was neutral. While they are most commonly used in large classrooms (more than 100 students) as a way to create an active learning environment. Using multiple-response clicker questions to identify student misunderstanding Daniel King Drexel University Keywords: personal response system. functionality and cost of the clickers vary by manufacturer (e.70/5. the overall rating for the course was 4. and other institutions may have similar agreements. student feedback. Most devices only allow students to answer multiple choice or true-false questions. e-Instruction. 9% of students felt the project was a negative experience. The anonymous nature of these devices (student answers are reported in aggregate) promotes participation by all students. and an instructor should be sufficiently skilled to manage such a project as described above. a receiver to collect the responses. While individual student answers are not seen by their peers. they can be effective in small classes (less than 30 students) as well. and ~15% was negative. Inc.com. and often can sell them back to the bookstore if they are not used in other classes. Program-wide implementation of this. could provide a unique way to both improve students’ understanding of lecture content. plus $100 for the receiver (one receiver can handle up to 1000 devices).00 (up from 4.com).com. so that grades could be assigned individually rather than on a group basis. I returned prompt editorial feedback. although some newer devices and/ or software allow students to submit numeric and text responses.iclicker. improve student writing in physical science programs. www. and the insertion of complex mathematical equations using LaTeX. which is usually available for free. shape. Each company has their own software.. question types Framework Personal response devices (or clickers) facilitate rapid student feedback to questions asked by an instructor during class. The size. Turning Technologies. Authorship tracking built in to the wiki quickly showed what each student wrote. i-clicker. Additionally. The ease with which students successfully created the wikibased notes shows that the technology is quite capable of lecture note taking (and other projects) for even equationorientated physical science courses. editing by students outside of that lecture’s www. and groups were assigned to a particular lecture for which they were responsible for note taking.. students purchase their own clicker (separately or bundled with the textbook).66 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology PBworks to host wikis for GMU faculty. Students were assigned to groups.g. or similar writing projects. Turning Technologies (the brand that I use) sells their basic devices for $30 each. multiple choice questions. Students found it easy to create wellpresented lecture notes. At the completion of a student’s set of lecture notes. During the first lecture. Setting up the wiki is not a difficult or lengthy process. An hour or two of exploring the intuitive interface. Students received a grade for their work that counted towards their final course grade. the creation of tables. Other questions revealed ~55% of the class was positive towards the educational aspects of the wiki. the answers are collected by the software and can be viewed later by the faculty member to determine how each student is performing. I became concerned that correct answers represented students’ ability to .
grading Framework Many of us use small group discussions in online courses to get students engaged with the content and each other. and I can address the misunderstanding in real time. 1-8. I attribute this to the fact that I am now able to identify and address misconceptions that I was unaware of in previous years. Below I will describe the benefits of three types of multiple-response questions. there are another 100–150 messages. J. still only one correct answer).g. rather than their understanding of the content (Wood. I took a standard single-answer. What are extended matching sets questions? BEE-j . This lets me and the students know that there is confusion about the topic. and the students must evaluate each statement on its own merits. Some of the questions were reworded to include more than one correct answer. where students are asked to choose correct statements from a list. First. this required only a setting change to adjust the number of answers that could be submitted for each question. and grade every post. and awkward.quickhitstech. With the Turning Point software. I was forced to create a series of groupings (e. multiple-choice question and simply allowed students to submit more than one correct answer. When students work in groups. if the correct answer had been “statements 1 and 3 are correct”. Don’t! Making it Work Consider the regular classroom. Instructors new to online teaching feel they must read. while other questions were unchanged (i.. The list of choices for the student rarely incorporated all of the possible groupings. Reference Wood. So. When students incorrectly answer a clicker question involving a calculation. Each answer represents the student’s understanding of that concept/statement. Dixson Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Keywords: online discussion forums. comment. such as a mass or temperature that might not be used in the calculation. all of the above statements are correct) as answers to the question. formats that are often used in multiple-choice questions. When students had to choose only one correct answer. students who might have been able to identify the “best” answer. The third example involves the conversion of a problemsolving question into two clicker questions. 1 (1). in a class of thirty students. evaluation. This helps students think through the set-up of the calculation and identify any values that are extraneous. 2003). which improves their problem-solving skills. Future Implications I have used this technique for the past two years in general chemistry classes. (2003). most students might have identified the correct answer. now might choose two correct answers. it would be very simple to change existing clicker questions to multiple-response questions.. statements 1 and 3 are correct. I can more effectively help them. anonymity). I typically have 120 to 300 individual posts per discussion plus the group posts. with more effective feedback. If students can choose more than one correct answer.Enhancing Evaluation www. Grading discussion forums in the online environment Marcia D. I can eliminate the need for artificial. Once I know where they are getting stuck. active engagement. statements 1 and 2 are correct.com eliminate wrong answers. If I use a follow-up whole class discussion.e. In previous years. To address this. then each item in the list becomes an answer choice. we do not try to grade (or even hear) every . Students receive all of the standard benefits of using clickers (e. which meant that students were able to eliminate some of the groupings based on information about only one of the items. I now add an additional clicker question before the calculation in which students either have to identify which equations/constants they need to use or have to determine what information in the question will (or will not) be used in the calculation. assessment..g. This helps me identify where students are making their mistakes. the new question would just require students to choose answers 1 and 3. However. given the option to choose more than one correct answer. it is difficult to determine if the students had trouble setting up the calculation or doing the math. This means that 67 each item is voted on independently (without using any groupings). However. For faculty who are already using clickers. So. I modified many of my clicker questions to allow students to submit more than one correct answer. Second. I have observed improved performance on exam questions related to topics that were included in multiple-response clicker questions relative to previous years when those topics were included in singleanswer clicker questions. and I would have then moved on to the next topic. E.
Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology
comment they make. We should not do so online either.
What gets graded depends on the learning goals for the assignment. My goals for most forums are: 1) students participating and engaging in the class; 2) students reading
and talking about the content; 3) students critically thinking about the concepts.
What I do to evaluate each of these goals is:
To evaluate participation: I simply count posts. Are they
present in the forum and doing more than reading?
To evaluate reading and talking about content: I read
enough of a post to know it is meaningful and content related, that the student is stating why he/she agrees with an
idea or what he/she would add, change or delete and why.
To evaluate critical thinking of concepts: I read the groups’
final answers, in detail, and comment on them. Note, this is
the only place that an indepth reading and commentary are
necessary or valuable. If I were to comment on each individual posting, students might become afraid of “saying the
wrong thing” which could actually defeat the goal of getting
them to participate.
Grading/commenting/facilitating goes like this:
Shortly after the discussion begins: check in to see how the
groups are doing. Comment about each group’s progress.
Check in sporadically after that in the same manner we circulate to groups in a classroom. The first couple of discussions, send individual emails to students who are not participating or not participating successfully.
At the end of the discussion: grade the final group post/
answer according to the objectives of the assignment. Then
read enough of each individual’s posts to know if they have
met the requirements for number of content (meaningful)
posts for that forum and whether they started “on time.” For
instance, I require an initial substantive post of each group
member by the first day of the discussion.
The follow-up whole class discussion is a “debate” to see
which group best defends their own answer and critically
analyzes the answers of other groups. This is done so all of
the students can benefit from the other groups’ discussions.
These posts are skimmed to find a “winning group.” Then
one email is sent to the class announcing who won and why.
Students in the last two semesters have rated the discussions
a 4.3/5.0 scale for being engaging and applicable to their
lives. They do not seem to need more feedback. I manage
the discussion, keep students engaged, have them critically
consider the concepts, and still stay sane!
Sometimes less is more
Marianne Niedzlek-Feaver and Betty L. Black
North Carolina State University
Keywords: online review, online quizzing, feedback and online review, customizing feedback, customizable review
Metabolism is a difficult topic for students. Instructors
struggle with the problem of attempting to focus on intangible concepts such as energy conversion or necessity of
converting nutrients into chemical forms useful to cells. To
begin to appreciate cell structure and organization, students
need also to learn metabolic reactions and associate important steps in the process with appropriate cell organelles.
Making it Work
We have developed a program for review of cellular respiration that utilizes a diagram of cell organelles with questions
(blanks) at appropriate points on the diagram. Each blank
has a pull-down menu of 10 potential answers to be chosen
by the student (Figure 1). We utilized 12 questions about
products and reactions associated with steps of the process or locations where specific steps of cellular respiration
occurred. The only feedback provided was the number of
answers that were correct when students had filled in the
blanks and checked their score.
We were somewhat surprised at student reactions to this
type of review. There were several unsolicited comments
praising it as “wonderful” and the “perfect” learning device.
Since students’ final scores on the review were recorded,
they regarded it as a quiz and accused us of devising a cheatproof test. They seemed to understand that guessing (with
12 blanks and 10 potential answers for each) would end in
frustration and failure. We suddenly realized that by providing little feedback we were motivating students to go back
and review the material until they could score 100% on the
review. Some students asked for more reviews of this type,
exercises that would tell them if they were on the right track,
but also force them to learn the material if they wanted a
good score. We were so delighted with the response to our
“less feedback is sometimes best” approach that we changed
our future plans, which had involved adding detailed feedback for each wrong answer.
Now we will concentrate on the same type of tool that can
be modified for other reviews and is customizable by faculty. The new program will feature 40 potential locations for
menus on the page background; we anticipate that instructors will pick 15 or less of these locations for menu placement. Instructors can utilize their own diagram or photograph for the background and can customize each menu
with their own terms (up to 12) for answers. Upon completion of an attempt, the review program will also deliver to
the student not only the number of correct answers, but
also a unique receipt number as proof that the work is his
or her own. The program will also feature a reordering of
terms within the menus after each attempt and an optional
timer for use by instructors who wish to use the program as
a timed quiz. Funds for these revisions have been secured
through a NCSU in-house grant for improving summer
school education and the program should be available for
testing in July 2011. This program will be available free of
charge to any interested educator. All we ask is for feedback
from recipients so that we can continue to improve our
product. Please contact the authors for more information.
Thus, our message is that sometimes less feedback can be
more beneficial to students, especially for difficult material
that requires repeated attempts to master. This type of feedback discourages guessing, yet provides students a way to
estimate their progress in mastering the topic. Is this a program for constructing the “perfect” quiz? No, unfortunately, but this program may prove a good tool for producing
quizzes that motivate students to continue reviewing until
the material is thoroughly understood.
Figure 3.1. Part of the review on aerobic respiration showing the pull down menu that provides a list of
answers to the questions. Note that this student has already chosen answers to some questions as indicated by letters in the boxes. The student is attempting to choose the correct answer for the next question
(the cellular location of the citric acid cycle reactions) by choosing mitochondrial matrix from the list of
possible answers. Students can change answers until the quiz is submitted. Answers in the menu list are
reordered for each attempt of the quiz.
Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology
Using Prezi to produce creative critical thinking assessments
Raymond Walters College, University of Cincinnati
Keywords: critical thinking, assessment, presentation technology
Creating assessments in the classroom that involve critical/creative thinking rely on the creative nature of the
instructor that produces them. While we now know that
there are several ways to develop critical thinking assessments in the classroom (see Combs, Cennambo, and Newbill, 2009 for an exhaustive list), very few of us allow our
students to be involved in the creative process to actually
demonstrate critical thinking.
Prezi (http:// Prezi.com) is a web-based presentation portal that allows the user to create rich and visually appealing presentations. While the primary use is for presentations, I posit a side benefit of creating the presentations
is that the creator must connect a logical flow of ideas on
a single canvas (e.g. http://Prezi.com/hgjm18z36h75/
why-should-you-move-beyond-slides/). These ideas can
be words, pictures, audio files, videos, YouTube videos, or
even documents. Essentially, the user is creating a concept
map (i.e., a diagram showing the relationships among concepts) of the topic of interest!
Making it Work
Creating a Prezi presentation is very simple. The instructor
can use 30 minutes in a computer lab to orient the students
to the technology and the students can start creating Prezi
presentations 15 minutes after their initial exposure. Best
of all is that they have fun with it and they can easily create work outside of the classroom. The use of this technology can be used in conjunction with any topic or class size.
In addition, students can be productive in producing Prezi
presentations in groups or individually. Once more, Prezi is
especially valuable as an evaluative tool to gauge whether or
not the student(s) is/are understanding particular content.
In addition, the presentations provide a reflection tool for
the instructor to see if they are addressing the student learning outcomes.
The following steps provide a good way to introduce the students to the technology and provide them with the tools to
create assignments that can be viewed and assessed.
1. Have students create a Prezi account (It’s a free account).
2. Show the students the basic tutorial video (http://
3. Provide students with a sample topic that was previously covered in class. Included with this topic is a
list of relevant and associated words to that topic (e.g.
Topic: “Glucose and Insulin Interaction”. Words: Glucose, blood, pancreas, insulin, body cells, etc.).
Stress to the students that the words are there only
for guidance and that they can use different media to
represent the words and/or concepts (e.g. for glucose,
they could use a picture of a glucose molecule, or use
audio to describe the effect of negative feedback on the
process, or use a YouTube video to show how glucose
enters a cell).
Demonstrate how to double-click anywhere on the canvas to write text.
Show the students how to use the editing tool called
the “zebra.” The “zebra” allows the student to resize,
rotate, scale, and create hierarchy to the text. Regardless of the size, the orientation, or the position of the
visual element, it will come into perfect view during the
presentation. (e.g. http://Prezi.com/uvuptd6tvouc/
Show how images and movies can be easily inserted
onto the canvas. Using the “zebra”, the images and movies can be resized and rotated as well.
Finally, show how to connect the storyline or path. The
canvas can be zoomed
out so that all elements
can be shown. Next,
the students are shown
how to create the paths
between the visual elepresentations
ments by clicking on
become a simple,
the “Path” button. The
students simply click
yet powerful and
on the topic elements
in the best logical ortool for both
der. This order can
easily be edited and
the student and
changed if desired.
When finished, the
student simply clicks
on “Show” and use
the arrow buttons
to proceed through the presentation. (A student
example is at http://Prezi.com/otum7wunvbim/
It should be noted that with each Prezi assessment there is an
associated grading rubric so the students know exactly what
the expectations are for a grade. It is also recommended that
We have employed a range of technologies for these assignments. yet powerful and fun. L. Metzger (2007) stresses the importance of motivation in determining the amount of effort students put into critically evaluating information they find online. information literacy.. How authoritative is this source to address this topic (e. What is the purpose of this website? Who is the intended audience? 4. Developing Critical and Creative Thinkers. What is the agenda of the person or organization that made this website (e..g. P. The annotated list of websites becomes an online resource for students in the course. web publishing. 3-14. Educational Technology. Students first work in small groups to answer key questions. but that are funded by and represent various private interests. & Newbill. The most critical decision is which . S. we ask students to describe the content and coverage of their chosen website.Enhancing Evaluation www. The key questions focus on credibility of the websites: 1. September/October. Students in our introductory lecture course on World Forestry build these competencies by evaluating and creating webpages. Charlie Morris.g. and then report back and discuss their answers with the whole class. (2009). Cennamo. Other types of technology that could be used for this assignment include discussion forums and web forms. B. the student is given more ownership of their learning because 71 of their ability to create this work on their own and rely on their own creativity. Students are taught to critically evaluate information found on the web and then use those skills to find high quality websites to link from their own research webpages. Additionally. thereby motivating students to assess the credibility of websites before citing them for class assignments. Creating web pages demystifies the web and reinforces the need for critical evaluation of information found on the web. In addition. We select websites that at first glance seem authoritative and objective. some technical details need to be established. After these evaluations are posted. This assignment teaches basic web publishing skills while reinforcing students’ critical evaluation skills. evaluative tool for both the student and instructor. Who made this website? 2. In class.com the instructor provide a “Presentation Code of Ethics” where it is explicitly stated what is or what is not appropriate material that can be used (an example of this “Code of Ethics” can be obtained by emailing the author). students begin work on their final project for the course: a one-page website on a current topic in World Forestry. website design Framework Information literacy is a necessity for today’s digital native who relies heavily on the internet as an information source. The assignment is to create a webpage that serves as a guide and gateway to research on the selected topic and that demonstrates good website design skills. the Prezi presentations become a simple. note the currency of the information provided. L. With these rules in place. and both desktop and online website development tools. In addition to answering the questions above. Making it Work Students develop website evaluation skills through in-class practice and discussion. students evaluate instructor-selected websites on a controversial topic. Information literacy: Building critical skills for learning and communicating about research on the web Karen Ciccone. basic knowledge of web publishing is a useful skill and an asset in the job market. Before digging into the assignment. selected by the students in consultation with the instructor. We select websites that are designed to persuade (and sometimes deceive) in order to illuminate the range of stakeholders and strategies operating on the web. does author have relevant credentials)? 5. In what situations and how might you cite this source in a research paper? Future Implications To assess their understanding. reinforced by an out-of-class assignment. The web form option has the advantage of simplifying formatting and prompting students to address each evaluation criterion. who funds it)? 3. as well as underscoring the need for those skills. and comment on the design of the site itself. References Combs.quickhitstech. we have students select a website related to international forestry and write an evaluation of the site on our course wiki. K. and Erin Sills North Carolina State University Keywords: website evaluation.. including online forms and wikis.
and search engine optimization. WordPress. As with any class project. References Metzger. “lurk” in discussion forums may or may not be effectively contributing to the discussion and collaborative learning process. key question(s) investigated.com particular agenda to promote — can post information on the web. We have found that our students can learn the basics of web publishing in one in-class tutorial supplemented by documentation. Blogger. At the beginning of the semester. we are shifting towards these web service platforms. Other requirements for the draft are a revised title. in some years we have opted for Dreamweaver. These draft webpages are peer reviewed. (In response to questions on each of these. an outline of the main sections. while still providing explanations of web standards. the meaning of “basic” is changing as WYSIWYG tools (e. HTML source.g. especially in terms of the actual technological platform used for creating the pages. The main purpose of this assignment is to equip students with information literacy skills. rather. We introduce students to design issues by having them create their webpage through a series of incremental steps.quickhitstech. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. Retrieved from Section 508 website: http:// www. It was a nice break from writing papers. the annotated bibliography.C. usually less than 30 students. promoting collaborative learning. It is most appropriate for a hybrid-based or online course format.section508. using the same evaluation skills that the students developed in the website evaluation assignment. However. However. The first full draft of the webpage is required to include at least one image.S. they are confident about creating other webpages. 1998). students should get some exposure to HTML and good design practices. Most students report that by the end of the course. and more likely to be what students will use in their future jobs. Google Sites. Schultz Elmhurst College Keywords: active learning. M. If further help is required we sometimes offer help sessions outside of class and answer questions via online discussion forums and email.gov/ Enhancing teaching and learning through technology Richard B. which students use in conjunction with their personal space on the university web server.) Student comments included “I really enjoyed this assignment. For example. Making sense of credibility on the web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research. hybrid-based. the quality of research webpages submitted by students varies from ‘beautifully formatted and information rich’ to ‘barely meeting the minimum criteria’. students who do not engage but.72 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology website development tool to support. to private interests with a www. 2078–2091. The use of discussion forums has long been used by faculty members to promote student engagement and learning. discussion forums Framework This brief Quick Hit concerns the engagement of higher education students for the purpose of promoting active learning in a relatively small classroom. that they learned a great deal about their selected topic. although it can be used effectively in any classroom situation as well. and that they learned more from the webpage assignment than they would have from a traditional term paper. Thus. but we only provide technical support for the selected tool. best practices in design. The first assignment is simply to post the proposed title of their webpage and their name. This Brief Quick Hit offers a suggested format and recommended tool for invoking student learning. 29 U.J. All students at least learn that anyone — from fellow students with limited expertise. online course. followed by posting an annotated bibliography including both references from the scientific literature and hyperlinked websites. more than two-thirds of the students selected positively a 4 or 5 on a 5-point Likert scale. Regardless of software. but an important secondary skill learned is how websites work and are put together from a “basic” technical perspective. more effective. (2007). We allow students to use any website development tool.” and student recommendations for how to improve the assignment included “more peer review!” We expect that the research webpage assignment will continue to evolve. and many others) become more widespread. 58(13). Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. we also assess students’ prior experience constructing websites to determine how much training and technical support they will require. . §794d (1998). with the source appropriately cited and alternative text that meets Section 508 accessibility standards (Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. and a final section that describes the purpose and author (the student) of the webpage.. participation in an engaging discussion. a table of contents.
Proactive instructors should provide weekly feedback to students via a completed rubric (illustrating areas of strength and potential weaknesses) which helps students to improve their future responses and weekly participation. Once the responses are posted. Voicethread is a collaborative. This makes the entire threaded discussion available to be archived and accessible to students to have a broader view of the content presented in the CTQ. The only software necessary is a course management system and access to a Voicethread site(free access and use) . the grading rubric sets the tone for the to easily expectations and quality of discourage posts as well as all included elplagiarism ements. Making it Work: The technique begins with a “critical thinking question. all according to The discussion grading rubrics provided to board format students at the onset of the allows faculty course. Additionally. It is also recommended that original posts be accomplished in the first 72 hours of the weekly module such 73 that subsequent discussion can take place over the remainder of the weekly module. Voito instruct cethread discussions can be students graded in an identical manner with the added benefit of recreating the chronological order of contributions on the Voicethread site.Enhancing Evaluation www. those students who were assigned the CTQ are required to post on a Voicethread site as to the summary of the discussion from their perspective at the conclusion of the discussion forum (usually after one week of discussion). Again. or video (via a webcam).” referred to hereafter as a “CTQ. the future plan is to require further participation in the Voicethread by implementing requirements for various modes of participation as mentioned above. attaching an audio file.com and assisting students with proper citation techniques. entering text. this technique provides students with a variety of access modes. and/or videos and allows students to navigate slides and leave comments using their mobile devices in 5 ways — using voice (with a microphone or telephone). One of the student partners is selected to post the collection of two responses to the Discussion Board in a single thread. multimedia slide show that may include images. assists with assessment. This introduces students to various modes of participation and familiarizes them with mobile computing activities. A detailed grading rubric is furnished to students at the start of the course thus setting the tone for expectations and engagement level on the part of student participants. It is recommended that students work on a weekly modular schedule of which discussion of the CTQs can be discussed. Faculty members will find that the grading of the CTQ discussions can be accomplished in two parts: 1) the grading of the original CTQ partner posts after 72 hours and 2) subsequent posts. Proactive instructors should provide weekly feedback to students via a completed rubric (illustrating areas of strength and potential weaknesses) which helps students to improve their future responses and weekly participation. The costs are generally absorbed by the institution as part of their alternative delivery or distance learning technology budgets.quickhitstech. other students in the course are encouraged to read and respond to the post. They must use proper citation styles and include a minimum of five (5) reference sources (promoting information literacy) to support their response. In addition. documents. . Students have 72 hours to research the question and each student prepares their own individual 300-word response to the CTQ. The discussion board format allows faculty to easily while effectively discourage plagiarism while applying effectively applying “teach“teaching ing moments” to instruct students on the correct use moments” of citation techniques. The original authors of the response are charged with fielding questions and comments from other students in that discussion thread. and decreases faculty time allocated to grading. Future Implications: While the technique of the CTQs and the subsequent active discussion has been very successful over the past six years in which it has been employed.” The faculty member assigns s tudent partners (usually two to a learning team) an open-ended question regarding a specific topic of discussion germane to the weekly lesson.
com This program is free on the internet. Adobe Connect is a onehour download.) However. camera. The student presenting doesn’t experience the same stress level when performing in front of peers for the eighth or ninth time during the semester. etc. 4. the questions the “pretend” audience can ask can’t replicate that of a real potential investor or board member. Adobe Encoder and Skype. The idea of the “Guest Cam” and the emergence of Skype and Adobe Acrobat allows us to reach out to hundreds of guests without the logistical problems. by using two technology tools. Business Community Exposure — students are exposed to a particular business outside of a Kelley School roundtable or a networking event. we attempt to simulate different audiences by asking the class to “pretend” to be a potential investor. TIMELINE A camcorder and external microphone can be purchased in the beginning of the semester. presentations. 3. However. the board of a company.” students research who will be watching them that day and learn to study and anticipate real questions this audience may bring to them. Adobe Connect only requires a URL connection and has a more stable connection and at times audio on sessions with international guests. TOOLS Webcam attached to classroom computer and external microphone. OUTCOMES 1. Skype maybe limited in some workplaces so it might be limited in use. This experience will allow them to become more comfortable and to learn how to interact with a remote audience. audience analysis.com The idea of the “Guest Cam” and the emergence of Skype and Adobe Acrobat allows us to reach out to hundreds of guests without the logistical problems. Students need opportunities to practice speaking to audiences composed of people other than their instructor and peers. Skype. 2.quickhitstech. Skype is a 5-minute download on a laptop or desktop. Adobe Connect http://www. In the Business Presentation courses in the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University. If not.com/products/acrobatconnectpro/ An image of what Adobe Connect looks like when the camera is pointing to our classroom during a speech is available at www. And the student doesn’t have a “REAL” audience to think about during the research and preparation stages (a fundamental course objective. Audience Analysis — instead of analyzing a “fictional audience.adobe. Future Implications Adobe Connect is an easy tool to use for virtual office hours and remote speech practices with the instructor. . (approx. Making it Work Any class size that benefits from an outside guest observing an in-class activity (team or individual presentations) would be appropriate.quickhitstech.com “Guest Cam” in the classroom — Making speeches real Tatiana Kolovou Indiana University Keywords: Adobe Encoder. Skype can be programmed onto classroom computer by the IT department.74 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. audience. Comfort with Technology — students will have to present in front of a camera numerous times in their career. speeches Framework The idea of the “Guest Cam” is to bring more authenticity into the classroom.skype. $25 each) PROGRAMS Skype http://www. Q&A Rigor — this section of the presentation is much more rigorous compared to the student audience coming up with their own questions. arranging for travel to bring in actual guests for 800+ students proves a logistical impossibility and limits the topics that students can address to areas of expertise of only the handful of guests invited. an external lap top works as well.
Clickers integrate with PowerPoint or can be utilized as stand-alone software.com 75 Using personal response devices (clickers) in humanities classes Chad Rohrbacher North Carolina State University Keywords: clickers. composition and rhetoric. and carrying case and runs about $950.quickhitstech. Clicker software is easy to navigate and offers instructors access to valuable data that assists them in assessing and enhancing curriculums for student learning. Questions can also be based on visual texts like advertisements. assessment. learning with technology. and understanding of important disciplinary concepts. Generally exercises take about 40 minutes. Each point a team earns is a “bonus” point added to homework. however. Before the team answers they can discuss the rationale. instructors can engage students in high order thinking skills like evaluation and low order skills like memorization in creative and entertaining ways. My composition classes are typically capped at 24 students a sentence describing the size and setting of the class Clickers help facilitate a learner-centered. After this initial package. and increase student learning. personal response devices. I believe this format can be developed for other humanities courses to improve critical thinking. Questions are based on low order concerns like grammar and mechanic issues. students could be required to purchase their own clickers at around $40–50. .00 (but may be cheaper depending on adoption). flyers. High order questions include argument analysis and rhetorical appeal identification. to see if students improved their understanding or if a more thorough discussion is needed. In this way. teaching and learning. students are not adversely affected for not performing well but still motivated to earn as many points as possible and thus engage with the material. retesting. in an English composition class. Making it Work This in-class exercise is similar to Family Feud. 30 clickers. TPT facilitated a one-hour training session that gave us the basics. personal response systems. critical reading. When we purchased our package. After analyzing the data. They discuss the question within their team for an allotted time.00. Future Implications This exercise allows students to see their weaknesses (realtime formative feedback) while instructors can use the statistics to refine the curriculum to address class difficulties in a timely manner. significant learning. they earn a point for their team. I review the questions students did most poorly on. teams are deterred from merely guessing. feedback) while instructors can use the statistics to refine the curriculum to address class difficulties in a timely manner. Students are randomly grouped into small teams of 3 and each team is given one clicker. preparing a typical slide takes less than a minute to create. If that team is incorrect the question goes to the next team and so on until the rationale can be given. and click an answer. using a research database correctly. Once familiar with Clickers. Students are asked a question via PowerPoint. correct citation techniques. Clickers are often advertised for large lecture courses. etc. That team has an opportunity to “steal” the point by explaining why their answer is correct. though they can easily be altered to instructor’s needs by modifying the number of questions asked. many of the same reasons it’s successful in those contexts is why it’s successful in composition. The basic package includes a receiver. evaluThis exercise ating concepts (for example allows students if a thesis or topic sentence is to see their “good” or not). Clickers are relatively inexpensive and easy to implement. what the “best/ weaknesses (realmost appropriate” piece of evidence for a particular topic time formative sentence is. If students are incorrect. etc. active-learning environments which promote comprehension of material during class. writing Framework By using clickers. requirements of a summary. If they are correct.Enhancing Evaluation www. By requiring the rationale along with their answer. I give all students Clickers and ask the questions again. or movie clips. the question goes to the next team that selected the correct answer. We use Turning Point Technology (TPT).
a student wrote. The students were provided with a link to a document a couple of weeks before the test was to be given.com Let students design the test James M. They were responsible for posting three concepts from the textbook and providing a definition or explanation for each in their own words. and had an exam that was more than a fair evaluation of student knowledge. “I’m not a big fan of rote memorization. Making it Work Because the class enrollment was large (50–75 students) and the classroom was not designed for group work. but they could no longer make changes. Since there were more than 50 students in the class.76 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. I told them that if I did not get the prescribed number of terms.” Another said. the course was an introductory general education class with a lot of terminology being introduced. These words could be added to the list or replace those already present. The advantage to a spreadsheet from Google Docs is that students have access to the file on any computer and at any time. the students could influence what was on the test. A week before the exam. . They could still see the file. there was a lot of shuffling of terms going on.” They became stakeholders in their education. the students did not need an account. Future Implications In the end. After checking the spelling of the terms and the accuracy of the definitions. It also formed a significant portion of their test. The program is free and does not require installation on a machine to use. the number was reached more quickly than I predicted. hid the definitions from the terms I wanted to use. only to be put back on. I need not have worried.google. I explained that I wanted a total of 75 terms by a certain date. I would add the hardest and most confusing concepts to the list myself. Google Docs Framework Every semester. That guide would ultimately form the basis for their exam. examinations. I copied the file into a word processing document. so if more than one student is accessing the file at the same time. I could see from tracking the revision history that most of the class was involved in these “negotiations. VanderVeen Indiana University South Bend Keywords: collaboration. Words were added and dropped. but I liked how the exams were set up and how we got to basically make the tests. I halted their editing privileges. “The exams were very fair and covered the right material … Loved that they were student directed. In one instance. This list of terms and definitions that they thought were the most important to know became their study guide.” suggesting an engagement not seen in other courses.quickhitstech. the students learned more from creating the guide than they ever would have if I made it for them. added numbers and additional open-ended questions.com). The program allows concurrent edits. There is a “revision history” button that can help undo any accidental deletions. In one evaluation of the course. To encourage participation from all. In this way. I used the collaborative functionality of a spreadsheet from Google Docs (found at docs. By setting the access of the file so that anyone with the link could edit. deciding as a whole what was important to learn and then using what they made to document their understanding of the material. when the exam is quickly approaching. I decided to have the students work together to make their own study guide. deciding as a whole what was important to learn and then using what they made to document their understanding of the material. they will see a different colored cursor adding text even as they do so themselves. students always ask for a study guide. They became stakeholders in their education. and they were engaged in the process of studying.
For example. students have no problems with creating the videos. I post examples of previously made videos on the online course management system (e. Vista). but the grading of multiple individual submissions is too burdensome. The two goals of the videos are to teach students about selling value and self-worth in a short period of time and to provide students a technology tool that places them at the top of the resume (video) pile. Students who I would consider as a potential candidate for an interview receive the highest marks. students create a 20 second personal video that sells/shows their value as a potential employee. students are able to download Windows Movie Maker for free and are quickly taught the simple to use Windows Movie Maker program in class in approximately 20 minutes. job markets are becoming increasingly more competitive. Within our university.wmv) or QuickTime file (. etc.g.g. they have a difficult time expressing their true value and tend to generalize their skills and traits... iMovie. for this technology based assignment.) and software (i. These videos are also included in senior e-portfolios.. or streaming videos. poor video due to shaking).mov). “I am hard working. flip video cameras. students usually have access to simple video making hardware (i. PowerPoint. Additionally. Many employers are inundated with hundreds of applicants. photos with music background. students will state. detailed. Windows Movie Maker.e. As my course is not a video editing course. active learning. Some employers want to see short video clips of potential employees illustrating why one candidate should be interviewed/ hired over the next candidate. For example. When grading the videos. sales Framework Within these difficult economic times. In my experience. and spend on average 20–30 seconds on each applicant’s resume. employers are using websites such as YouTube and Facebook to recruit candidates. Moodle.” To help students create quality sales pitches.. The only qualification is that the format of the final video must be either Windows Media Video (. grades are focused on the content in the video and not the quality of the picture (i. students are deducted points if they exceed the 20-second time limit.Enhancing Evaluation www.com 77 Personal sales pitch: Video assignment Michelle Gacio Harrolle North Carolina State University Keywords: video assignment.e. Recently. etc. “I am a proven leader and have successfully supervised 10 interns while generating a 20% increase in sales in the past six months. resume. I needed a way to offer students considerable practice on a particular learning activity.). personal appearance. As technology changes and becomes easier to use.e. assignments should also adapt. Future Implications This assignment has been very helpful to the seniors in the class. Students are able to use any program they feel comfortable using. assignment practice Framework For my business law and ethics course. smart phones. The main learning goal for ethics requires mastery of an ethical analysis process. I base the overall grade on value (level of confidence in the applicant). enthusiastic. and concrete examples. However. and level of creativity within the video. have limited time to review them. Therefore. essay practice.” Students must be able to explain value with specific. two students were given interviews at top sport businesses based on their videos. Using discussion forums as a learning tool Linda Christiansen Indiana University Southeast Keywords: discussion forums. university libraries).. Making it Work Students can produce any type of video including PowerPoint slides with voice over. and an excellent leader.quickhitstech. Additionally as technology continually adapts. online learning. Within college/university systems (e. in which students analyze an ethical dilemma using tools and techniques .
and presumably better.78 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology learned in the class and come to a supported conclusion. Research and my experiences show that student learning and performance increases. Kirk. and limitation.com in that submission’s thread. a fairly demanding process to learn and master. 7. or face-to-face course. In my classes. rather than merely a blending of the writings of each person. (ED472738). helps them learn through critiquing others’ work. critique each others’ work. Future Implications This use of technology benefits all involved. an instructor’s choices include either little practice and feedback for students or an intense amount of grading for the instructor. It leverages feedback opportunities by requiring feedback from one another. This technology facilitates the repetition sometimes needed for the learning process. 12 (1). with a reasonable amount of work by the instructor. Kirk. a. 6. students generally preformed much better on the law exam (a more traditional essay exam format) than on the ethics exam. This process accomplishes the following: holds students accountable to complete the assigned work. student comments. without a tremendous work and time commitment by the instructor (Andresen. & Orr. every student in the class is able to benefit from additional guidance and direction from the instructor.” (Note: students can practice many times by analyzing all of the case studies before posting the critiques required in step 5 above. student performance on the ethics exam has improved. M. Since implementation of this technology. 249-257. 2009. and the instructor’s feedback for that case study or topic. 2003). students have reported positive feedback on teaching evaluations.A. most students perform as well on the ethics exam as on the law exam. . Students post their work on class discussion forums. I require students to hold back one of the other groups’ drafts to use as a final practice exam. hybrid. and the greater quality from the group analysis building on the individual work. 1. Each student practices the process one more time and posts the final project under a forum called “Last Individual Practice. It would be easy to adopt some or all of these ideas to fit many assignments in an online. This technology offers an efficient use of instructor time by using the online forums to leverage feedback opportunities. and knowledge of the course material. The group draft is posted under the appropriate thread in a forum named “Group Drafts. 2. all accomplished with a reasonable and efficient use of instructor time. with no negative comments. Asynchronous discussion forums: Success factors. Each group writes an improved draft together. Each student posts the individual drafts under his/her group’s forum. Without it. with about a third of the class earning higher grades on the ethics exam. To help with this process. I use 4–6 students and have 6–10 groups. as well as allowing the instructor to invest more time in grading fewer. or have each group of students select a topic. Because my exercise is tested on the final exam. 3. With fewer analyses to grade.. Educational Technology & Society. (2003). assessments. Each student writes an analysis draft individually for this first round of practice. Craft the assignment. systemic reasoning.” Students submit a peer review of each group member directly to the instructor. 5.J. It demands critical thinking. References Andersen. In the two years I have used this method. taking advantage of the progress in learning from each other. and allows them to benefit from my grading of all group submissions. R. Making it Work I have integrated the use of discussion forums as a way to increase practice opportunities and feedback for the analysis that is a required component of my course.) The students can ‘self-grade’ their work by reviewing the group’s submission. 4. the instructor can devote more time to each submission and provide the entire class more in-depth feedback. Each member of the group critiques the work of the other group members according to the instructor’s grading rubric and/or directions in order to learn the process better individually and also to provide feedback to each other. (2009). posting comments www. A primer on the effective use of threaded discussion forums. Establish groups of students in a size you feel is appropriate for the assignment. outcomes. This work is to be done as a group. assign a case study. submissions. and review all of the instructor feedback on others’ work in the class. or who requires multiple drafts so students can improve their writing.quickhitstech. Students learn from seeing what is done well and what problems to avoid. Previously. Each student in the class reads and critiques the work of some or all of the other groups. I developed a set of assignments using technology to offer both repeated practice for student learning and reasonable amounts of instructor grading. Use of this model — in whole or in part — would be appropriate for any exercise in which an instructor who wishes to use repeated practice of a concept. The instructor grades each group’s work by typing comments and feedback (I use capital letters and insert comments throughout the text) and posts it under a forum named “Professor Feedback. This is the only part of the process performed by groups. Students report that this is the most interesting group work in which they have participated because of the level of preparation of their classmates. J.” Because these critiques are posted.
Martyn. Some textbook publishers are promoting them as part of a learning package. Caldwell.. I use this technique for discovering student opinIt brings the issue ions about controversial issues (which many of home to students them may be unwilling when they to express openly) and have evidence to generate information about sensitive issues and that people in experiences. both in academic journals (e. When a student presses a key on their clicker and hits “Send.) Clicker packages are available from a number of companies. to give latecomers a chance to register. I also use the clickers for confidential polling in the classroom. Students generally purchase their clickers at the bookstore. Sternberg. The software provides the opportunity to dissociate the act of response from its content. Clickers have a combined numeric/alphabetic keyboard of nine keys that allows for a wide range of responses.g. the room with I can instantly feed back to them have these students their opinions on experiences. classroom polling Framework “Clickers. I leave the attendance screen up while I make announcements and answer questions.g. I assure students that I can track whether they respond. locally. The software provides an attendance option such that. I find relevant public opinion polls on the web (there is a vast amount of data available)..Enhancing Evaluation www.quickhitstech. I also use the clickers for classroom polling. The student then knows that their response has been recorded. or over top of PowerPoint. In class. engagement. or on campus — and I can rivet their attention and personalize issues by showing that there are students sitting in their very classroom who have had experiences we are reading about or discussing. I ask students the identical questions. (Students can often sell them back to the bookstore. It never fails to be an interesting discussion. have received quite a bit of attention recently. The clicker software provides a bar graph of their responses which I then compare with the survey data. You can prepare short quizzes in advance and then give them in class.. This not only gives the instructor feedback on the students’ background knowledge and preparation. which they register for that class through a link provided by the instructor. a radio frequency (rf) receiver that plugs into a USB port on the computer. The necessary equipment includes software running on a classroom computer. Like attendance.” or electronic handheld response devices.g. and an individual clicker for each student. they are assigned a pad number for that class (arbitrarily in the order in which they register).” their pad number changes color and their attendance is registered in a database that can be downloaded to an Excel spreadsheet or a grading program. electronic participation. but not how they respond. there is no way (if the class is not too small) to surmise how each student responded. or to subsequent students through the usual informal channels. When a student registers their clicker for a given class. 2007. The software. How else can you use clickers? Some instructors use them for Just-In-Time Teaching. why do you think most people answered this way? Why did no one pick a particular answer? Some instructors also give quizzes that count for a grade using the clickers.g. current events — nationally. I then ask for hypotheses about why their responses do or don’t match the broader data. For instance. Ohio State and Wisconsin-Milwaukee websites. Each student in a class must have their own unique clicker. (For implementation FAQs and suggestions see. which runs concurrent with. Since their responses are only reported in the aggregate. the responses go automatically into a database that can be downloaded. or just another gimmick? In my experience these devices can serve a variety of pedagogical purposes while increasing student interest and engagement. 2010).com 79 Using clickers to promote participation Patrick J.” the box containing their pad number changes color. and generate (or copy) graphs of the outcome of selected questions. the attendance screen is up on the projector.) Making it Work I use clickers to take attendance. e. This also helps ensure that students are motivated to bring their clickers to class and have them out and ready to go at the beginning of class. When you close each question. 2007) and in the popular press (e. when the students hit any key and press “Send. Are they a means to promote student engagement in the classroom. but the data can be a discussion starter itself — e. When students come into class. where they run $20–$30. For example: Have you or someone close to you struggled with an eating . a bar graph of the answer distribution appears almost instantly on the screen. provides a screen with a visual representation of the pad numbers for that class. Ashton Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Keywords: clickers. and some universities have signed contracts to provide the software and receivers campuswide.
Retrieved from http://lt.Web 2.0 Framework The Internet has changed from being mostly a read-only environment focusing on the delivery of information (Web 1. 2009. The use of Web 2. Sixty percent strongly agree that they pay more attention when using the clickers in class.quickhitstech. Future Implications I ask the students to evaluate their usage of the clickers on the course evaluation. captures (electronically records) the computer screen and records audio feedback (via computer microphone) as I critique student work. Educause Quarterly.com/2010/11/16/education/16clickers. Retrieved from http://www. Another click uploads the recording into a screencast format.edu/ltc/clickers/ Technology-mediated feedback Kathryn Lee Texas State University . Retrieved from http://www. Bos & Lee. and shared construction of knowledge (Collis & Moonen. learning artifact. 6(1). 2. too. But it does give them a sense of ownership of the process and another way to display their learning.0 tool to provide quality and individual feedback on student work with literally a few clicks of a button.educause. and students like them. Retrieved from http://www4.osu. One click begins the screencast (five-minute limit) with audio. highlighting specific parts of the document under examination. 30.. Screencast software. social participation. J. 2009. Many of my online graduate students in teacher education have reported high levels of satisfaction with the feedback tool and often report they feel a strong sense of . I also ask the students to generate questions about which to poll their fellow classmates. (2007) Clickers in the large classroom: Current research and best-practice tips. and 91 percent recommend using them in the future. but it doesn’t put those people on the spot because of the anonymity and confidentiality. J. social participation. which is routinely used on both Mac and PC computers and can easily be downMany of my online loaded for viewing. References Caldwell. tool and often report is that it provides stuthey feel a strong dents a way to literally see and hear the sense of immediacy instructor’s feedback and personalization as s/he reviews the with me.org/cgi/ content/full/6/1/9 Martyn.80 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology disorder? addiction? been the victim of a hate crime. graduate students. M.com serve a number of valuable pedagogical purposes. such as Jing. nytimes. and the output is a web link that can then be copied and pasted into email correspondence or other electronic means. November 16). Rosen & Nelson.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/ E D U C A U S E Q u a r t e r l y M a g a z i n eVo l u m / ClickersintheClassroomAnActive/157458 The Ohio State University Learning Technology Site: Clickers. 9-20. So clickers www. Frequently they come up with more than I have time to get to in a semester. 2010).lifescied. Eighty-five percent of the students strongly agree or agree that they enjoyed using the clickers to take attendance and that they thought it was an efficient way to do so. 2008). such as Jing. (2010..E. shared construction of knowledge. “More professors give out hand-held devices to monitor students and engage them” The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www. Clickers in the classroom: An active learning approach.0) to a read-write environment (Web 2. 2008. (2007). Technology-mediated feedback allows me to provide timely feedback to my students on electronically submitted assignments.html University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Student Response Systems. I use a Web 2. This free software is extremely easy to download and use. have reported high One important benefit levels of satisfaction of using technologymediated feedback with the feedback software. child abuse. The receiver of the hyperlink has to only click on it to view the screencast via Flash.0 tools is widespread and has far reaching implications (Harrison & Barthel. Eighty-nine percent strongly agree or agree that finding out the results of the clicker surveys increased their interest in the class.uwm.0) promoting user engagement. CBE Life Sci Educ. or a sexual assault? been homeless? Have you ever cheated on an exam or plagiarized a paper? It brings the issue home to students when they have evidence that people in the room with them have these experiences.San Marcos Keywords: engagement. Harrison & Barthel.edu/resources-clickers/ Steinberg.
M. instead of text only. Focused Listing 1. style. T. What is your definition of Contemporary Art? Figure 3. (2010). Maddux (Ed. The student is expected to: (A) study a selected period. including face-to-face. Problem-based instruction and web 2. and hybrid. approximately twenty graduate students create an instructional unit in their content area and then develop a variety of assessments for their unit.com/jing/ Unit Objectives State Standards National Standards Bloom’s Cognitive Levels Knowledge Dimensions Prior Knowledge Pre‐ Assessment Formative Assessment 1. Rosen. 45(2). B. and ideas. Educational Media International.techsmith. The student is expected to: (B) Analyze visual qualities to express the meaning of images and symbols.. comprised of (a) at least six learning objectives aligned with state and national standards. (2008).. The quality and quantity of feedback I am able to provide via screencast. 93-106. (c) knowledge dimensions that will be assessed.0: Exploring the history of engagement with the collaborative construction of media products. (2008). & Lee.11th &12th grade. Retrieved January 15. (b) identification of Bloom’s cognitive levels inherent in the objective.2. B. Web 2. Clearly technology will continue to change the way we live and work in our modern world. symbols.0 tools allow unsophisticated users of technology to develop and create sophisticated multimedia artifacts. the students create a detailed test blueprint of their instructional unit. 81 Screencast software. & Moonen. References Bos. and (c) allows for quality feedback. Contemporary Art .6 weeks Art & Art History . (3) Historical/cultural heritage: The student demonstrates an understanding of art history and culture as records of human achievement.Enhancing Evaluation www. and (d) prior knowledge and skills required by the students to complete each objective. Web 2.” In this online course. D. B. which illustrates the level of detail required for the task.0: Meeting the needs of the 21st century learner. (b) is free. Wielding new media in Web 2. What formal elements and principles do you see in the illustrations that were presented? 2. Making it Work I use the screencast tool to provide feedback to my online graduate secondary education students in “Evaluative Techniques for Classroom Teachers. These Web 2. Web 2.. 71-78). New Media & Society. Computers in the Schools. Harrison. K. Contemporary Art . Jing (a) is easy to use (point and click). 11(1/2). or movement in art (B) trace influence of various cultures on contemporary artworks. C. Colllis. Jing.). TechSmith (1995). (2009). The student will define Contemporary Art and the formal elements and principles that exist in Contemporary Art by analyzing illustrations and formulating his/her own idea of what Contemporary Art is.. has improved the quality of the students performance and decreased the number of student iterations required to perform the learning task. 211-225. Content Standard: 2: Using knowledge of structures and functions Content Standard: 3: Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter. Chesapeake. Knowledge Comprehension Factual Knowledge Conceptual Knowledge Factual – knowledge of the principles and elements of art. Below is an example of one objective within the blueprint. Initially. such as Jing. 25(3). & Nelson. online. (1) Perception: The student develops and organizes ideas from the environment. Research highlights in information technology and teacher education 2010 (pp.6 weeks Art & Art History .0 tools and processes in higher education: Quality perspectives. Conceptual – knowledge of how to formally assess works of art. 2011: http:// www. J.quickhitstech. . using precise art vocabulary.2.com immediacy and personalization with me. A screencast tool may be used to provide feedback on any electronically submitted assignment in any type of class. In C.0: A new generation of learners and education.11th &12th grade. Future Implications The screencast and audio feature allows me to provide detailed feedback to the students so that they are able to make effective revisions to their blueprints. Figure 3. It has the added benefit of providing a sense of immediacy between the instructor and students. 155-178.0 tools are continuously emerging and improving. VA: Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE). offers many affordances. They provide individuals a variety of educational tools to enhance learning and instruction. & Barthel. even though the course is entirely online.
and then analyzed a recent article about whistle-blowers. students answered a variety of questions about trends from the U. 5. use an anti-plagiarism tool like SafeAssign. 2009). Hazari. The instructor must provide adequate. 1. 2003). in a WebQuest about criminal sentencing.. They found their own web sources about corporate crime. Making it Work For faculty. The best hybrid courses do not have isolated content separate from what happens in-class (Kaleta et al.” (Watershed Publishing. WebQuests are useful for important pedagogical reasons including: 1) they introduce very current research or relevant popular media in the field. 4. 2. This list of critical thinking verbs is helpful for question design.” (Dodge. e. I frequently link to YouTube videos that illustrate psychology content or NPR audio content (stories or interviews) about recent development in the field. 2010). WebQuests package learning objects (e. or privately to the instructor in a Word document. WebQuests take advantage of students’ comfort playing around online in service of the course’s learning outcomes. Collect media examples. Explicitly tell students to use content from the course as they respond to questions. for example by using Evernote. 2005).3 is an example of a rubric that I use regularly for my WebQuests. Students submit answers in a discussion board. For example. distribute a good and a poor sample assignment. Prepare your students to be successful. 4) they ensure that content has been covered outside of class so that class time can be spent on active learning. Sentencing Commission’s website (Ritchey.82 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. If possible. one-third (33%) say they have increased their consumption user-generated videos over the past year. for example where they play and socialize online. “A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented lesson format in which most or all the information that learners work with comes from the web. WebQuests can range from a somewhat complicated website to simply a linked Word document. we must design activities for students to practice transferring course content to a variety of real world contexts (Halpern & Hakel. After exploring this type of content. 2) they offer practice in the critical thinking skills of application. This step is the most time consuming. Many faculty collect these sources and organize them by key word in an ongoing basis.g. Over the last three years of using WebQuests. These questions link the content of the story to material that has been covered in class or assigned reading. Future Implications Rubrics are particularly helpful to communicate standards. To design a WebQuest. for example by having them underline key vocabulary words. learning objects Framework Students spend a significant amount of time playing around online. WebQuests can effectively integrate students’ online. they score lower on connections and explaining content. my students’ performance shows that initially. “Among 18–24 year old students. If we want students to transfer. Have students use your rubric to evaluate and discuss the differences. 2005). 2007). independent work with reading and in-class discussions. This improves over time as I give them feedback on their work. These actionoriented statements describe what a student will be able to do resulting from the course.. 3. they build the habit of transfer of learning.S. doing . timely feedback and take the steps to prepare students to be successful including assigning reading. online videos. The instructor hopes that these types of connections from content to new online information will be made automatically by students who have learned our course material. For example.. students watch a video about an infomercial and describe the problems in the experiment and make an evaluation of the usefulness of this type of evidence. In my classes.g. Before you assign a WebQuest. analysis and evaluation. 3) They add variety to the course material coverage. Post your WebQuest in a course management system. students answer higher level critical thinking questions. Figure 3. follow these steps. Write higher-level critical thinking questions about the media. Inform students about your expectations about using references and paraphrasing.com WebQuests: A gateway activity for online teaching and learning Robin Lightner University of Cincinnati.quickhitstech.g. The good and poor paper comparison has improved the quality of the content of responses. the instructor must invest time and energy finding the links and ensuring the links are working each time the course is administered. building WebQuests are an easy entry to online instruction. To be successful. and 5) most importantly. Raymond Walters College Keywords: webquests. apply theories of cognitive development to explain children’s behavior. Identify the student learning outcome.. Provide students with a rubric that describes your criteria (e. from MERLOT) that the instructor organizes to meet the course’s learning outcomes.
Rubric for WebQuests. A. Sometimes the technology tools that are the simplest can revitalize a course and turn wasted surfing sessions into deep reflection about the relevance of course content. WebQuest..com/site/socioquesthighered/home Schuster.edu/disted/conference/Resource_library/proceedings/03_72. gadgets. & Hakel.3. S. The wrong concepts are Some of the key concepts applied to the example or are not included. The terms are not described accurately or they are not paraphrased.org/merlot/index. Journal of Information Systems Education. 349 – 355. C. Garnham. and a conclusion.com Connecting material from class 1 missing or irrelevant Explaining concepts/ Adding ideas 1 missing or irrelevant 2 needs improvement No explanations are given. …we must design activities for students to practice transferring course content to a variety of real world contexts (Halpern & Hakel. Retrieved from: http://psychexperiment. B. Retrieved from: http:// sites. B. November 30). Figure 3. & Aycock.. (2003. Teaching for long-term retention and transfer. July/August). Organization 1 missing or irrelevant The organization is confusing to the reader. but may have an area or two where the reader gets lost.tripod. The Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. 83 3 good 4 excellent Concepts are mentioned but how they are connected is not entirely clear. preparatory activities. R. 3 good There are only a few errors.uwex. College students spend 12 hours/day with media. Hybrid courses: Obstacles and solutions for faculty and students. 3 good All of the relevant concepts are included. tone. Hazari. Retrieved from: http://www. Change. D. transitions. Halpern. Tone/Professionalism 2 needs improvement 2 needs improvement There are several grammatical errors. for example where they play and socialize online. and free from slang.htm Ritchey. the connection. Understanding experimentation in psychology: A WebQuest designed for Psychology 101. 37-41. Retrieved from http:// webquest. (2007).com/ television/college-students-spend-12-hoursday-withmedia-gadgets-11195/. 4 excellent The paper is clear. 2 needs improvement 3 good There are frequent lapses There are a few lapses in in tone. (2005). 2 needs improvement At time the organization is confusing. The terms are described accurately in the author’s own words. Strategy for assessment of online course discussions. References Dodge. or thee there is no explanation of connection is unclear.quickhitstech. May have missed some concepts. 3 good The organization is mostly logical with transitions. Socio-QUESTS.Enhancing Evaluation www.org/index. The connection between the material and the concepts is clear. (2010). 4 excellent The terms are described accurately but some aspect is missing. 4 excellent The organization is logical with an introductory paragraph. Retrieved from http://www. L. F.org. 2003). 1 missing or irrelevant The tone is inappropriate for science writing. Grammar 1 missing or irrelevant The grammatical errors make the paper difficult to understand. 15(4). The paper needs transitions or explanations.google. D.marketingcharts. (2005).php.com/ Watershed Publishing (2009. 4 excellent The paper is free from grammatical errors. first and second person pronouns. concise. Retrieved from: http://www. cliché’s and rhetorical questions. M. Kaleta. merlot. and explaining any resulting confusion. (2010). .pdf MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Online Learning and Teaching.
Faculty can easily create interactive games and quizzes in minutes by typing in the content into a template. . mastery learning Framework SoftChalk is an easy-to-use software that will bring interactivity to your course content whether you teach a small class or a large lecture. learning management systems. These games and quizzes add to student motivation and provide self-assessment.84 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www.com Use of SoftChalk Software to create interactive content Karen Banks Indiana University Bloomington Keywords: self-assessment.quickhitstech. Figure 3. Faculty can simply upload an image and a SoftChalk template will guide you through adding pop-up text annotations to the image.com or purchase the software for $595. It can also be placed on the Internet or on a CD-ROM. free. interactive. The SoftChalk software completes these tasks for you.4. or teach in a traditional classroom or online. SoftChalk interface examples. SoftChalk complies with accessibility standards. SoftChalk works with most Learning Management Systems like Oncourse and Blackboard. Video and audio can also be added. Faculty simply type in content and in minutes the SoftChalk software creates multiple web pages that are linked together. online. You can download a free trial version at www. You may not have the technology skills or the time to create web pages and interactive content for your students. You can track student results so you know where students are having problems. web pages.softchalk.
Type in the content for your course into SoftChalk. and contests to encourage instructors showcase their best work.Enhancing Evaluation www. SoftChalk creates the links. For example. It is that simple. . mastered the content and can Future Directions/ work through the Modifications/ Hybrid context content until they The use of the SoftChalk gain mastery.4. you can have informative text appear. case studies. 85 The SoftChalk web site provides sample lessons. Add a page break for a second web page. Students know immediately if they have not mastered the content and can work through Students know the content until they gain immediately if mastery. Save your work.quickhitstech. 3.com You can also submit your own Quick Hit to be peer reviewed and added to the collection of materials. Images are easy to add and if students place their cursor on a certain part of the images. There are more advanced features that allow you to customize the look of the page. Students believe that they are using Oncourse. software helps to move the responsibility for learning the class content to the student outside of the regular class period. click the Publish button and SoftChalk creates a web page. Instructors can track student results so they have not problem areas are identified.quickhitstech. Students do not realize that they are seeing a page created by SoftChalk. 2. Students can access the content through a link in the Modules tool in Oncourse. Students can check their knowledge with interactive games and quizzes. Future Implications Outcomes/Assessment SoftChalk provides formative evaluation for students with quizzes and games and provides a fun method for learning class content. Figure 3. The interactive games and quizzes are easy for faculty to create. This allows for class time to be more efficiently used by the instructor. I matched the red in Oncourse so that it looks like it is a part of Oncourse. to create a crossword puzzle you just need to type in the word and the clue. For additional resources and quick hits please visit www.com Making it Work Implementation 1.
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The motto when using technology should be.e. if you only need to put in one nail.don’t buy a nail gun!) This chapter offers ideas and suggestions about how to be sure we are using technology in ways that maximize opportunities to learn but minimize extra work for students and faculty. .. can stifle discussion). to use class time more productively..” Technology is a set of tools.e. therefore.docs for quick surveys (similar to clickers but occurring before class so the class can begin with the results students have generated) or created spreadsheets where they “negotiate” which concepts are most important and. why create a worksheet they turn in to be graded. If we provide the links. After students have accomplished assignments. better use of faculty time. then. The important thing is to choose the most appropriate tool and do not overuse it (i. testable.4 Becoming More Efficient Becoming More Efficient: Best Practices that Maximize Learning Marcia D. The quick hits offered here focus on enriching learning environments while keeping in mind that students and faculty have very real time constraints. students can find resources without having to spend hours searching on the Internet. The quick hits in this chapter include ways to help students come to class more prepared and engaged. while conscientious. quick hits include several ways to help students be more prepared using SoftChalk software for interactive games and quizzes or Articulate Presenter to move presentation of material outside the classroom. Once they are in the classroom. use a hammer . students can use Prezi to help build a visual image of the relationship between ideas and schools of thought or clickers for quick checks of what they know and do not know. several ways of sharing feedback are offered including embedding comments in the video of student presentations or having students critique each other’s work in a discussion forum. Administrators. Our students can also having engaging and enriched discussions and build community with their peers if we structure assignments keeping certain things in mind (including not grading every post which. For instance. more discussion posts to grade!” And students lament that now they have discussions during and beyond class time because we have extended their classrooms into cyberspace (without cutting anything else). “I have so much more to do! More email to read. Dixson Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne O ne of the most lauded aspects of using technology is more efficient use of resources. faculty and students seem to believe that technology can make better use of student time. classroom space). do we frequently hear faculty complain. creating a hybrid course. “Because you can do something. if a quick check of students’ understanding of vocabulary is needed. For instance. and to provide more effective feedback. Why. They can help instructors finds the best tool for the job. Students may be come to class ready to engage when they have experienced google. and better use of resources (i. does not mean you should do something. The chapter also introduces the reader to the use of Wiki to help students build better lecture notes from content rich courses. when a classroom management system will grade a quiz automatically and provide them with instant feedback? We can make the most use of time in class and still cut down on the amount of that time for students by meaningfully extending discussions and assignments into cyberspace.
and collaboration of information amongst peers. while maintaining an integral interconnectedness to the course. Students’ statements include: “The wiki really helped me understand the justice system and how it works . there were three student misconceptions that consistently challenged their understanding of the juvenile justice system: a) juveniles commit crimes primarily of their own free will. as well as the larger relationship to their “wiki juvenile. Making it Work At the beginning of the semester. and practices. collaborative web-based environment that incorporates words. but also provides a “widget” within the campus technology system. with little influence from demographic or historiographic events. and presenting/discussing it on their wiki page. where students take random cities and compare/contrast the textbook explanations of criminal justice and social systems with the actual practices of cites throughout the country. allowing students to send “instant messages” throughout the semester with technological questions or concerns. For example. retrieving Webbased information. After being introduced to a variety of technological integrations. It was further believed that. the wiki project’s value comes in its paradigmatic shift in teaching. “neighborhood”. A university librarian not only provides detailed instruction to students. criminal justice students’ primary exposure to the pedagogical criminal justice system is through classroom lectures and textbooks. they create a fictional “wiki-juvenile” to determine the likelihood of their “wiki juvenile’s” success or failure within the system. b) criminal behavior is the product of current circumstance. Bowman Texas State University – San Marcos Keywords: wiki. Each wiki assignment is made available online with detailed expectations and a basic example of assignment expectations. a traditional textbook is utilized as the primary source of presenting course theories. with the “juvenile wiki project” acting as a technological. systems. a semester-long “juvenile wiki project” was established.88 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. feedback. classes are provided instruction on the needed requirements for effective completion. “socioeconomic structure”. praxis-based course supplement. students collaborate by examining.” Students provide approximately 75 different factors that are placed into the categories: “family”. constructivism. and “gangs. Furthermore. the decision was made to incorporate a “wiki” into the course. with the exception of undergraduate internship opportunities or service learning courses. questioning. treatment. A wiki is a constructivist.com Juvenile Justice Wiki Project – Constructivism through technology Scott Wm. Over the course of the semester. as well as the practical challenges they and their families face in their assigned city. limitations. students would research the services and activities in their assigned zip codes to determine their strengths. and project evaluation were considered prior to implementation and continue to be factors in the projects’ evolution. Future Implications Student evaluations of the three semesters’ wiki projects suggest that students overwhelmingly valued the wiki project and found it to be a constructivist. pictures. and critiquing. the primary goal was to promote a more accurate. Additionally. In developing this wiki course project.quickhitstech.” They were responsible for technologically “contacting” various agencies in their zip code. “schools”.” Students are next asked to create their fictional “wiki juvenile” with at least three of the aforementioned factors and are assigned a random zip code to determine the likelihood of their “wiki juvenile” entering into the juvenile justice system. Finally. and institutionalization were presented from the textbook and discussed face-to-face. constructivist understanding of the factors that increase the likelihood of a juvenile entering the juvenile justice system and the pragmatic difficulties that juveniles (and their families) face when attempting to offset these factors. and opportunities for improvement. students are asked the question “what are the variables that increase the likelihood of a juvenile entering the juvenile justice system. With these goals in mind. In addition. chapters on juvenile policing. the goal is to bridge the gap between theory and praxis in the juvenile justice system and “breathe life” into a largely theoretical course. Prior to the start of the “juvenile wiki project”. and c) the criminal justice function/profession acts separate from other social functions. Assignments include Webbased presentations of available information on criminal justice systems in their respective cities. Overall. Next. and hyperlinks and is created or edited by individuals that have access to it. students’ motivation. prior knowledge. technology integration Framework Having taught a face-to-face Juvenile Justice course several times previously. analysis of the similarities and/or differences between the textbook explanation of a particular subject and students’ findings for their particular city. probation. their peers’ findings. paradigm-shifting way of learning.
In the previous version of this course. et al. discussion threads. Mitigating the workload and increasing student satisfaction with online discussion threads Worth Weller Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Keywords: online discussions. I give examples in the syllabus as to what a satisfactory There are instructions all over YouTube how to use Audacity or Garage Band to record your comments. This was not only overcome through the numerous technological resources available to instructors and students on campus. pedagogically speaking. it takes me about 30 minutes on a Wednesday morning to peruse the discussions. learning specifically. or I just tell them to Google QuickTime or iTunes or Windows Media Player for their free audio players. “Yes. Instead. but also in the simplicity of the wiki system. since the wiki page assignments correlate to the major course topics. Stein. I require my students to have one initial message and three responses for each discussion topic. Blackboard Vista actually counts the discussions for me.” In addition. response looks like. in fact. 2005). 2006. Most teaching platforms have some way to track discussions in terms of their numbers. as well as amongst students. though. semester long project. The greatest challenge of technology integration was stepping away from the paradigm of a “safely” and easily prepped class into a technologically constructed. Their comments include: “Yes. with one or two topics per week. In a nutshell. I use Audacity. it enhances traditional course communication. Two related issues.quickhitstech. Moreover. and I tell them I grade both on the number of posts and on their level of engagement (thus avoiding the issue of “right” or “wrong” responses). I review about ten posts midweek (my discussions are set up on a weekly schedule. students indicated that they experienced “real-world” learning through the wiki project. and once the thread closes I assign grades accordingly after perusing a small sample for content. Since each individual is responsible for creating a wiki page 89 and providing feedback to their peers’ wiki pages.com and also helped me understand the differences in different state(s)”. a book can only do so much and this was as close as we could get to applying material learned to the real world” and “It was eye-opening to issues within the juvenile justice system and allowed for us to make real-world connections between the textbook and today’s society. it is noteworthy that this project was awarded the 2010 Teaching With Sakai Innovation Award. there was minimal preparation or advancement needed by the instructor.. student satisfaction. Students only need what’s already on their computer to listen to my responses.. Making it Work The harder task of course is responding to all those posts. so I don’t need to go into that here. Because the wiki project is constructivist. show that student satisfaction with an online course easily correlates with how well classroom discussions are managed (Drouin. Shea.. This project enhances the overall interactions between instructor and student. and consequently. can prevent online discussions from achieving their goal: student interaction and satisfaction can quickly wane without an adequate amount of instructor intervention (An. Finally. all semester long. the task of responding in a meaningful way to a huge discussion thread can bring an instructor to his or her knees. about my city has helped me understand the detailed process of it all. retention Framework One of the most productive ways to replicate the best features of a face-to-face class in an online environment is to engage your students in robust topic-oriented discussions relating to the learning goals of the class. adding my own two cents. Technology can mitigate these problems. however. Numerous studies. et al.” Personal evaluation suggests that technological integration through the wiki project enhanced the overall presentation of course objectives. but Mac users will find that Garage Band will do the same thing. 2008. and a three-minute audio file is easy to upload (much longer than three minutes and I’m just yakking). though. My answer to that problem is simple — I don’t. Podcasting is simple and free. et al. The award is an international recognition for instructors that have creatively “promoted excellent pedagogy and innovation in teaching and learning” through technology. 2009). . I make a short podcast about what I’m seeing. communication and collaboration were primarily traditional classroom interactions between instructor and student. classroom discussion was also enhanced.Becoming More Efficient www.
S.quickhitstech. D. J. 53(3). best practices Framework So often. not to mention that they are fun for me and that they take the stress out facilitating classroom discussions. or “techiquette”. Future Implications Although we have never formally measured the benefits of having such a conversation with our students. 2009). as an overabundance of instructor intervention does not correlate with more student-to-student interaction. and upload it to that week’s topic. (2008). achievement and retention in an online course. (2006). C. & Lim. Shin. & Wheaton. The pedagogy appears sound too. Stein. we find a collision between the seemingly antiquated world of etiquette and the brashly efficient world of technology. www. Having a techiquette conversation takes time the first day of class. Overtoom. In fact. S. 267-284. Calvin. H. The only tools necessary are a well-thought-out syllabus and a forum for a discussion. minimal (but adequate) instructor intervention appears to allow students “to more freely express their thoughts and opinions” (An. these podcasts are a big hit with my students. P. The effects of different instructor facilitation approaches on students’ interactions during asynchronous online discussions. S. What is acceptable in texting. A. and skyping seems uncomfortable if not downright rude in face-to-face social exchanges. (2009). 105-118. under what conditions? ■■ What are the consequences when someone breaks the norms of etiquette once we have established them? Making it Work Although we have a tendency to think that only hybrid and online courses need to establish norms about the use of technology. M. K. E. & Pickett. we have found that early communication concerning these issues benefits all classes.. Techiquette: The etiquette of technology DeDe Wohlfarth and Nate Mitchell Spalding University Keywords: technology. including undergraduate and graduate classes and small and large classes. et al. Computers & Education. C. 9(3). Li. whether on-line or in a classroom.. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education. friending. The American Journal of Distance Education. 749-760. Future Implications Judging from the robust discussion threads I get in my classes (up to 90–100 posts for any given topic in a 22 student section).. both in our syllabus and as we begin new course. Wanstreet.com References An.. Internet and Higher Education. but it alleviates problems and misunderstandings later in the semester as stress and stakes increase. C. 19..90 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology make an unscripted recording (I may make a few notes)... To alleviate miscommunications and misunderstandings. from the results of Qualtrics surveys I conduct at the end of the semester. Shea. and if so. and from random comments I get at final exam time. Students and professors need to be clear about the following areas: ■■ Can papers be emailed? ■■ Will feedback be electronic or handwritten? ■ ■ How many days are reasonable to expect for an email response? ■■ What electronics will be permitted in the classroom and for what purposes? ■■ Should emails utilize proper English and grammar? ■ ■ Should papers and tests utilize proper English and grammar? ■■ How should information be posted on Blackboard or other classroom resource technology? ■■ What copyright rules are relevant and how do we follow these? ■■ What course material should be printed and what should remain virtual? ■■ How will students (and professors) handle emergency phone calls during class time? ■■ Is texting your professor acceptable. 9. we always have conversations about the etiquette of technology. Bridging the transactional gap in online learning environments. students have consistently told us that they feel relieved to understand the . E. (2005). The relationship between students’ perceived sense of community and satisfaction. A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses. Drouin.. 175-190.. J.
Therefore I decided to use the approach later in the semester in a more complex exercise designed to help the students understand the differences in four of the issues we had been studying (Marxism. that one of the groups had already downloaded the program and was creating its own display. we found it is easier to nudge a student to behave with technological manners when the rules of the game have been previously agreed upon. as the . I have been searching for new ways to help students grasp the organic nature of intellectual systems. nationalism/fascism. but I was completely unprepared for the almost visible burst of conceptual “light bulbs” that went off in the room as the students began to recognize both that each system of thought had its own organic unity and that each generated a very different view of reality. Exploring the possibilities of the program. 2009) have been using the “Decoding the Disciplines” process (Pace & Middendorf. I began by giving students indirect control over the system. but I had intended for them to make up lists of points that I would then combine into a single Prezi presentation with their help. the medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas and the 18th century writer Bernard Mandeville. Making it Work I used Prezi for the first time in the fall of 2010 in an intensive writing seminar on the history of Western ideas about conflict and competition. 2008. but essentially is a transportable tool that works across disciplines and classroom levels. each team was asked to answer five questions with respect to one of the four groups of intellectuals: ■■ What are the most essential core beliefs of your group? ■■ How would your group dismiss the arguments of the other three? ■■ What would have drawn individuals to each of these positions? ■■ What groups in society do you think would be most apt to be attracted to each position? ■■ Are there areas of overlap between any of these groups? I had asked students from each team to bring a laptop to class. I asked the student learning teams to generate a list of concerns of two very different thinkers.Becoming More Efficient www.quickhitstech. 91 This idea can be easily modified to suit a wide variety of classroom needs. history. The level of student involvement was extraordinary. I soon discovered. once near each writer.com often unwritten and unsaid rules that guide our use of technology. Salvation. however. was expanded to giant proportions in the vicinity of Aquinas. Prezi. Other teams soon realized what was happening. During class. nor do they understand the assumptions or values that underlie such ideologies. They do not see the integral unity of worldviews such as Marxism or nineteenth century liberalism. Future Implications I had hoped that this process would help more of the students grasp fully the connectedness of intellectual system. active learning. Thus. 2004) to make explicit the kinds of mental operations required for success in college history courses and to find new ways to model these skills for students. & Shopkow. has given me a tool to help students overcome this bottleneck to learning. Pace. but virtually disappeared near Mandeville. collaborative learning Framework For the last five years. One of the central bottlenecks to learning in history that has been identified through this research is the difficulty many students have in understanding that systems of thought are not just random collections of opinions. I wrote the names of the two writers in large print in the open field made available by Prezi and then typed in each of the issues identified by the teams onto the screen twice. 19th century liberalism. I and the other members of the Indiana University History Learning Project (Diaz. Middendorf. for example. I used Prezi to increase or decrease the size of each issue until the class was satisfied that its magnitude appropriately represented the importance of the idea for that thinker. and soon all four teams were simultaneously developing different parts of the Prezi. The new presentation software. It remains to be seen whether this fluid and flashy system will dislodge PowerPoint as an accompaniment to lecturing. joined in the process. and pacifism). And personally. Glenn. but I have found that putting it in students’ hands can greatly aid their learning. The result was a clear visual representation of the two systems of thought that had been generated by the students themselves. Prezi and the decoding of history David Pace Indiana University Keywords: Prezi.
but with typing. J. 1211-1224. Examples of student Prezis may be found at: 1. D. Simkins and M. Chronicle of Higher Education.92 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology students debated what their team should include and how the material could be most logically organized to respond to the questions I had posed. Pace. A. & Pace. Journal of American History. It was clear both that an enormous flood of creativity and enthusiasm had been released by the process.” www. (Eds. & Shopkow. There was a great deal of play involved in the process. Maier. Glenn. D. L. http://prezi.edu/~hlp/. & Middendorf.. But to the extent that the biological function of play is to practice new ways of dealing with the world.. linear ways of conceptualizing complex phenomenon.com/7lk9lcltgrjl/j300-final-presentation/ 3. 2. More information about the Decoding the Disciplines and the History Learning Project may be found at http://www. Just in time teaching in History. So I used that to help me develop my arguments. I actually used that to help me try and figure out a thesis too … Power Point … is really linear.com/idrsfkhgambr/copy-of-the-struggle/ 2. and the group focusing on nationalism and fascism arranged its materials in the shape of a swastika. Moreover.. the exercise gave the class a new burst of energy in mid-November when morale is usually at its lowest. iub. D. The work continued for the rest of that class period and into the beginning of the next. Diaz. In S. with individual students spontaneously making additions between class meetings. like write — I wrote the question in the middle and just brainstormed. D. 16. Sterling. 98. it can create a great sense of ownership and involvement in learning. if Prezi is put into the hands of students and they are given a clear task. J. and help them break out of narrow. and that enthusiasm lasted through the finals period. Middendorf. One team unearthed Lego action figures of Marx and Engels. VA: Stylus Publishing. it can create a great sense of ownership and involvement in learning. instead of writing. when two of the teams presented Prezis that summed up the material in the course. In a videotaped interview at the end of the semester. this seemed all to the good.) References Diaz.com It is clear from my experiences that. At least one of the students actually incorporated the software into the process of paper writing. (2009). Middendorf. D. A.. she commented: “Professor Pace introduced this … software online called Prezi to us this semester … it’s really great.) Just in Time Teaching Across the Disciplines. L. J. . http://prezi. New York: Jossey-Bass. J. Making thinking explicit: A history department decodes its discipline. (2004) Decoding the disciplines: Helping students learn disciplinary ways of thinking: New Directions in Teaching and Learning.. If Prezi is put into the hands of students and they are given a clear task. as students searched the web for images that made their points. (2008). National Teaching and Learning Forum. The History Learning Project: A department “decodes” its students.. & Shopkow. (2007).quickhitstech. and make things smaller as it pertains to your thought process.. http://prezi. 2009). Middendorf. but Prezi. Pace. (November 16. you can. linear ways of conceptualizing complex phenomenon.com/fbmfwg9y5zrh/copy-of-final/ (It is important to remember that these visual presentations were originally accompanied by extended verbal explanations. and help them break out of narrow. and you can make things bigger. Pace. 94 (4). A teaching experiment shows students how to grasp big concepts. but also that the students were gaining a more thorough understanding of how ideologies function and bump up against each other..
For those who want the source.edu/koroghcm/public_domain. or be the primary focus of the lesson.org/nypldigital/index. Digital cameras are ubiquitous and easy to use. There are many sources for such images. graphs. reach students who are primarily visual learners.gov/ Many agencies: http://www.rit. so I will not dwell on this.Becoming More Efficient www.uwec.cornell.noaa.gov/rr/print/ NOAA: http://www.edu/ resources/publicdomain.indiana. but the worst in my book is the lost opportunity to take credit for the rest of your work. but Google can bring you to many more. http://nssdc.edu/library/public-domain-resources Happy hunting! .edu/services/instructionalTechnology/fairuse.shtml Other sources. This last point is tricky. Anything published before 1923 is in the public domain. Here are some of the methods I have used over the last 15 years. • Works that the author has placed in the public domain • Works to which the copyright has expired. See http://copyright. a. photographs. violating someone’s copyright. at least temporarily. I list a few here. animations.nasa.media.com/ http://opg.html NIH: http://www. especially if you need it today. help students understand the application of the material to their lives. 2. online courses. Most faculty members have some experience with these technologies.gov/index. charts. fair use. see US Copyright Law. There is one easy rule.nypl.hq.gov/center. The ease with which this can be done online makes it incredibly tempting.gov/ National Gallery of Art: http://www.dailey/public/public_domain. You can create your own images.cias. One method is stealing.wikispaces. One stolen image makes it impossible to publish all of the adjacent material you wrote on your own! In fact. You can use images that are in the public domain. or authoring curricular materials for your class.gsfc.cfm http://people. Title 17 at http://www. but don’t do it! There are too many reasons to list.gov/photo_gallery/ Library of Congress: http://www. hybrid courses. • Works created by employees of the US government.fws. or other types of still images. The purposes also range widely: images may provide visual interest.loc. you can use many “found” images.nih.af. graphs.sru.nasa. There are many ways a copyright can expire. Making it Work Whatever the purpose. 3.cfm for details.gov/.nasa.php or • http://copyright. US Government sources (also a test of your acronym knowledge) NASA: http://nix. http://grin. in a hybrid setting.nga. instructors have many ways to obtain images.htm http://srufaculty. you will occasionally want or need to incorporate images. Excel and other mathematical programs can generate charts.gov/title17/ If you familiarize yourself with these rules. though. or they may be videos. You can “borrow” images under a few circumstances under the fair use doctrine.com 93 Images for education—Crime free! Andy Gavrin Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Keywords: images. paintings.a. etc.copyright.quickhitstech.photolib.k. This is a slippery area of law. Relevant information may be found at • http://citl.gov/imagebank/index.aspx US Air Force: http://www.edu/copyright/ fair-use/fair-use-checklist/.usa.edu/david. These may be drawings.gov/Topics/Graphics. and other graphics. including pages that aggregate many sources http://digitalgallery.htm http://copyrightfriendly. 1.html.columbia. there are many “crime free” methods for getting great images. and educational purposes DO NOT make all uses “fair” but there are a few simple guidelines. public domain Framework Whether you are teaching online.mil/photos/ NFWS: http://digitalmedia.
we see that learners are sharing their opinions about the issues. we wonder who is learning—everyone in the group or only the student moderator? Making it Work We no longer assume that college students in an online course have the necessary skills to integrate information and resolve issues under discussion. In light of those results. They’re not integrating perspectives from others and are not always coming to a group decision about how to respond to the issue under discussion. online discussion. Using audience response systems for classroom post-test reviews Marjorie Vogt and Barbara Schaffner Otterbein College Keywords: audience response systems. we provide e-mail coaching before their chats. however. It cuts down on five people talking at once. Stein and Constance E. But when we review chat transcripts. Future Implications We examined chat transcripts from groups that received e-mail coaching and those that did not. 3. Post-test reviews. Wanstreet The Ohio State University Keywords: synchronous chats. Although . clickers. Greet one another and engage in some social communication to build cohesiveness. Making it Work One way to enhance post-test reviews is through the use of the audience response system or clickers. ask if s/he has anything to add. 2009). Summarize where you are before moving on to the next discussion question and check for everyone’s understanding. As the course instructors. use ellipses (…) to signal when you aren’t finished.quickhitstech. can be somewhat time consuming. Offer reasons why you agree or disagree with a comment. The summary addresses the issues and is shared with the larger class and the instructor. a future direction is to provide continuous coaching for all learner-led groups. Get input on every question. Refer to one another by name. To help our learners develop those skills and efficiently get to shared understanding. The group that received coaching before each chat showed more evidence of higher-order thinking when compared to groups that received intermittent coaching or no coaching at all. Confirm who the moderator and summarizer are at the very beginning of the chat and decide on the next week’s moderator and summarizer at that time. you might try using “end” or some other convention. Post-test reviews in the face-to-face classroom include reviewing the test and correct answers at the end of the examination period. give everyone a chance to participate in the discussion. Include examples from the readings to support your positions. Consistently follow a convention that will signal where you are in your response. electronic coaching Framework We think discussion that leads to shared understanding is a must in our online courses and we use learner-led. and occasionally evolve into a discussion about individual student’s points or answers. textbased chats to take advantage of the spontaneity that comes with real-time communication. Here are common coaching tips we share with our learners during the course of the term to facilitate higher-order learning: 1.com Chats: A mess or a must? David S. 6. generally unsupported by the readings. 8. in order to provide rationale directly to the learners to improve knowledge acquisition and critical thinking skills (Twigg. By that we mean that if you haven’t heard from someone in awhile. 5. 7.94 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. When you are finished. Their small-group discussions are shallow. For example. post-examination reviews Framework Post-test reviews are a traditional way of assessing student summative knowledge through examination. 4. 2. The task of making sense of the mess and turning it into a summary is often left to the student moderator to accomplish. Moderator.
(2006). stating they appreciated the immediate feedback. learning theory. and then re-polled the class. 2009). graduate-level courses.quickhitstech. faculty promoted student-student interaction to discuss the answers. As students are posting their entries. writing. pre-service vs.e. Instead. D. A. students in the assessment class are warned that portfolio assessment is easier in some domains (English) than others (math). (2009). The method does not use a discussion forum. At the completion of the test and collection of answer sheets. References Twigg. The clickers allowed them to anonymously respond to the question and anticipate their grade for the exam. the instructor sets the tone for the discussion with comments pointing out how contexts and roles might intersect with course content. A strategic assessment of audience response systems used in higher education. J. or researcher). 109. or researcher). During this time. Fies. students discuss how course concepts take on different meaning in different contexts.g. administrator. each student posts an entry to their wikifolio that defines a personally meaningful context for applying big ideas of the course. and some information about using clickers for graded tests.Becoming More Efficient www. in-service. and students used the clickers to indicate the correct answer. networking. Bishop and Daniel T. the instructor also introduces a strategy that builds community and saves time. J. The method is structured to discourage initial discussion of concepts in the abstract. Next.com there has been some information in the literature about the use of clickers in formative assessment. but general enough to consider most (but not all) course concepts. Journal Of Science Education and Technology. P. Fostering e-learning discourse among professional networking groups Stephen C. such as testing students’ understanding during a didactic lecture. Hickey Indiana University Bloomington Keywords: discourse. the instructor encourages students to read and comment on more detailed comments posted previously on other students’ wikifolios that will be relevant. or science) and a secondary networking group based on their current or future role (teacher. comprehension. there is little information about the use of clickers in a post-test review (Fies & Marhall. Kay. Classroom response systems: A review of the literature. the interpersonal interactions with each other and the test-taking strategies shared. The context needs to be specific enough to reveal differences in the relevance of specific course concepts. the instructor uses the wiki posts to organize the class into networking groups of a manageable size (i. In our case. course management system Framework Many instructors struggle to foster worthwhile discussions in on-line courses. Rather. Making it Work First.. In our courses. 15(1). primary teachers are warned that metacognition does not emerge until the later grades.. 25(2). 3–6). We have refined a strategy that fosters extended discourse around the big ideas of a course while maintaining a reasonable workload for faculty and students. Our students are also asked to describe their institutional status (e. teacher. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. Louis. This strategy should work in any e-learning setting where students are able to post wikis and make comments directly on those posts. This feature is available in the Sakai open-source course management system and in many commercial e-learning platforms. . & Halstead.. the discussion takes place as comments placed directly on student-generated wikifolios. this is an instructional goal. & Marshall. Faculty were also able to discuss test-taking strategies based on the immediate feedback of the student’s clicker responses. & LeSage. 95 Future Implications Students were positive about the experience. faculty conducted a post-test review of the test using clickers. Further exploration of the use of clickers in a post-test review is indicated. Saunders Elsevier: St. Clickers have been successfully used in an undergraduate nursing class post-test review. Rather than posting similar detailed comments across multiple wikifolios. C. 2006. We refined this method in graduate-level courses on Learning Theory and on Educational Assessment with class sizes ranging from 15 to 40 students. in the learning class. Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (3rd ed). administrator.. students are assigned to a primary networking group based on their educational domain (literacy. In Billings. Each question was viewed on the overhead screen. Kay & LeSage. If the question was difficult and students were unable to discriminate the correct answer. R. Developing and using classroom tests. math. (2009). 235-249. For example.
because we sometimes see students change their ranking based on comments. The structure works because less-experienced students are able to view the posts and instructor comments of the more-experienced students. and the items were randomly selected from the subset of items whose answers could not readily be looked up in the textbook. ours include summaries of the key implications of each chapter. Classmates quite naturally come up with ways that the “least relevant” implication is relevant. Relatively extensive instructor commentary on the leaders’ wikifolios provides highly contextualized guidance that is immediately useful for the entire group. the results are quite promising. Somewhat surprising.quickhitstech. So far. and to contrast differences across groups. ideas of the week. Like most textbooks.com The weekly routine is based on a strategy that follows from contemporary situative theories of learning. In order for this strategy to work. including the aforementioned challenging ones. Future Implications Accountability for broader course coverage is assessed with formal examination using multiple choice and short answer items from the textbook item bank. ranging as long as 730 words. Exam scores are currently averaging around 90% with the lowest scores falling around 70%. comments. we encourage more of this disciplined discourse by adding comments to the discussion threads that acknowledge both the comment and the modification. This scaffolds increasingly sophisticated engagement around their own problem while fostering participation in discourse beyond their problem and their domain. Course evaluations are now consistently positive and much more so than are typically obtained in online courses. The average student comment length was 120 words. asking students to articulate the single big idea of the chapter that is least relevant to them is very helpful for getting students to read and discuss all of the big ideas in a given chapter. The leaders typically represent the group when interacting with the other groups and the instructor uses their wikifolios strategically to advance the level of discourse within each group. Out of sixteen students. and threaded discussions. critical engagement considers which contexts and roles are best for considering the big As the course progresses. To provide reasonable accountability in the online format. This avoids exhausting and repetitive individualized feedback. because we sometimes see students change their ranking based on comments. all of the students successfully completed all of the assignments. The process of identifying the most relevant and least relevant topics of a chapter for a personally relevant goal provides a good functional context for reading the chapter. . we encourage more of this disciplined discourse by adding comments to the discussion threads that acknowledge both the comment and the modification. one or two students typically emerge as discussion leaders within each group. rather points towards the course grade are assigned to brief reflections on each wikifolio entry asking the students to summarize three types of engagement. the exam was timed. The wikifolio contents and comments are never directly graded. Over half were part of threaded discussions. The sixteen students posted 997 comments. and very few were isolated comments made merely for the sake of commenting. all but one collaborated across professional networking groups at least once. the assignments. “Lurking” is actively encouraged in the syllabus. In the most recent learning class. Students post a weekly page to their wikifolio that articulates which of the “big ideas” and “specifics” of the textbook chapter are more relevant and less relevant to their instructional problems and roles. and the course grading structure. We know that the method fosters learning. It also provides a good framework for helping students discuss that chapter.580 words. This structure has made it possible to bring in challenging assignments that previously could only be managed in the advanced face-toface class. while the instructor only posted 50. collaborative engagement concerns the discussions they engaged in during the week. Assignments include specific steps that encourage students to find similarities within their group.96 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. it is important to not directly grade student comments. Our strategy is inspired by the user-generated content in typical digital social networks. Consequential engagement concerns the consequences of the big ideas for specific instructional contexts and educational roles. weekly wikifolios averaged 1. and provides a safe space for all students to engage in the discourse at whatever level they find comfortable. In the most recent classes. We know that the method fosters learning. The assignments and instructor comments continually encourage each student to practice projecting a unique professional identity in their wikifolios.
and learn in robust and personally determined ways (Moore. I ask students to respond by: 1. Each team determines the comment that is “most helpful for learning course concepts. create. However. This was unexpected. The review process works as follows: 1. The posts also include links to course content. in other words. 2010). subsequent class meetings build on the case presented in the RAP. is a substantial part of the expected learning outcome. Steps to use blogs or wikis for readiness assurance Step 1: I post business communication cases in a course wiki. connect. I wanted my students to write course-content-oriented arguments as their readiness assurance process (RAP). a majority of students begin discussion by thinking the applicant is lying. accessible through the course management system’s web content links. I collect the “most helpful” comments and redistribute them. Readiness assurance grades are based on these rankings. I have my students comment on cases I post in a course blog or course wiki. 3. team discussions lead to debate within the teams as they work toward consensus about application of course concepts.” Where Michaelsen uses scantrons and multiple choice quizzes to assure students are preparing for class. One example of this process’s impact on learning In Business Communication we expect students to learn to contextualize intercultural messages. Comparing or contrasting the individual student’s analysis with a classmate’s Step 3: Students bring copies of their comments to class for review by their team. created a blog post that asks the students to consider inter-culturalnon-verbal communication. 2000). such as blogs. of course. created with blogger a free tool available through Google. the refugee applicant and the interviewing officer both have aggressive communication styles. when I’ve facilitated in class discussion of this case as opposed to online. Step 2: Before each readiness assurance day. adapted from the methods described by Larry Michaelsen (2009). These interviews. . pictures. wikis. however. promoting engagement. resulting in a power grab by the asylum officer. in class. I.” 2. Typically. One way to boost interactive learning outside of class is to have students collaborate using Web 2. The post describes non-verbal communication then leads to an embedded video scene from a documentary called Well-Founded Fear (Camerini. In the scene a government official interviews a refugee applicant. Communication Skills for Success (www. or a course blog.0 tools allow learners to read. I was thrilled that the students made this leap without me. and 3. and other social networking technologies (Parschal.kelleybuscomm. I led the students to a key learning outcome. I noticed that students who saw the problematic non-verbal cues of the asylum officer spoke up more forcefully and quickly in their blog comments. because my students will benefit from learning different communication channels that are becoming more common in business.com 97 Blogging to promote robust class preparation Michael Morrone Indiana University Keywords: blog. it was extremely beneficial to student learning. Applying the identified concepts to the case. Identifying concepts from the reading that they consider most important for analyzing the case 2. using the course management system’s wiki tool. 2006). the students respond to the blog or wiki post. I vary the location of the posts between a course blog and course wiki. such as flash files. Making it work I teach an introductory Business Communication class and use team-based learning. video. so that each team receives a copy of every team’s “most helpful” responses. under US law.blogspot. After readiness is assured. write.com). But as the discussion develops their eyes tend to open and see the richness of non-verbal communication … which.0 tools. and audio files.quickhitstech. These Web 2. are to be conducted in a non-adversarial manner. team-based learning Framework Taylor (2010) suggests that interactive learning coupled with mechanisms to create accountability is necessary to facilitate learning for millennial students. therefore. The cases include embedded multi-media resources. I make the course blog. I often had to make the points about how the asylum officer’s behavior impacted the interview. When I switched the process to a pre-class discussion on the course blog. As part of the ranking process. as the students discovered the complexities of non-verbal communication without my influence. To assure students are ready for active application of content. This mechanism creates an incentive to write and select strong comments. In the past. Students are placed in teams on the second day of class and work in these teams every day. wiki.Becoming More Efficient www. Each team then ranks the other teams’ responses from most to least helpful. the course has three “readiness assurance days.
Second. Retrieved July 26.quickhitstech.com 4. Fourth. write. we use problems from our course textbook (Barnett & Ziegler. and returns a profit of $18.000 capital. $3. A colonial house requires ½ acre of land. and returns a profit of $24. Retrieved July 26. www. The process emphasizes several forms of evaluation: 1. Open Education Research. (2010).000. the class discusses characteristics of effective comments. A ranch house requires 1 acre of land. M. G.carleton. Getting started with team-based learning. A decrease in demand for colonial houses causes the profit on a colonial house to drop from $20. and returns a profit of $20. 2008). The teams discuss the individual comments to determine which one is most valuable for learning course concepts. $60. M.K. In this process each team member completes a team-evaluation rubric. 16–20. an individual grades on their comments and a grade for the team’s choice of best comment. $80. To enhance the students’ learning.000. optimization. Discuss the effect of this change on the number of houses built and on the maximum profit. is modeling and solving constrained optimization problems.000 capital. This conversation requires critical evaluation of the individual comments. simplex method.000 labor-hours to construct. connect. the blog and wiki become the source of follow up in-class activities and assignments. 12(6). Excel solver Framework A key concept students learn in the freshman course. . 1(2). Making it Work For example. We teach the mathematics behind optimization with various capacity constraints as well as how to solve the linear programming model by the Simplex Method. Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture. as the process requires that each comment include reaction to other students’ comments. 2011: http://serc. The blog comments compare and contrast differing views and applications of course concepts. After the RAP. considerations of audience. create. and their appreciation of these powerful mathematics. A split-level house requires ½ acre of land. M.000 labor-hours to construct. United States: New Video. To deemphasize the competitive element in the process. 2.000 labor-hour to construct. and depth and breadth of coverage of course content.pdf.000.000 labor-hours. the students are accountable to all students. M118 Finite Mathematics. Taylor. Then the teams compare and discuss the responses in the rubric 5. Parschal. & Robertson.000. the ranking process generates team accountability. and 3. After completing the ranking process. (2000). First. Web 2. so that they are ready for in-class activities that emphasize application and learning at higher levels of the taxonomy.pdf Moore. One such problem is given below: Construction-resource allocation. S. The contractor has available 30 acres of land. and 180. edu/files/cismi/broadaccess/teamworkshop/getting_ started_team-based_lea.0: Read. a.000 capital. split-level. A contractor is planning to build a new housing development consisting of colonial. L. (2006). an alternative is to use class time to have each team review the team members’ individual comments and to collaborate to write a comment for the team grade. References Camerini. (2010). Excel spreadsheet.000 to $17. $60. 2011: http://taylorprograms. Well-Founded Fear.98 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology Future Implications The activities create accountability in several ways. we model such problems using Excel spreadsheets and use the Excel solver module to solve the problem. and learn—Opportunities for online learning.. including effective writing style.000 capital. 3. Third. and 4. 80-89. and 4. Teaching generation NeXt: A pedagogy for today’s learners. Spreadsheet modeling optimization problems Morteza Shafii-Mousavi Indiana University South Bend Keywords: linear programming.200. T. Michaelsen. (2009). This algorithm is a tedious method which is tiresome for large problems. the teams debrief on their effectiveness. and ranch-style houses. Using new technologies in open and distance learning. the RAP makes students accountable to me that they have learned course concepts at the lowest level of Bloom’s taxonomy. In 2010 Higher Learning Commission Collection of Papers. Students receive two grades.org/images/Teaching_Gen_NeXt. How many houses of each type should be constructed to maximize the contractor’s profit? What is the maximum profit? b.
(2008). M.quickhitstech.com 99 c. Discuss the effect of this change on the number of houses built and maximum profit.$E$16:$G$16). Besides exploring the solution to this problem using the Simplex Method and graphical techniques. and where E16:G16 represent the numbers of each type of produced house. References Barnett. & Ziegler. (2010). Even when feasible outcomes are obtained there is no insurance that these outcomes are optimal. we teach students how to use the Excel solver to find the optimal solution. R. Finite Mathematics for Business. NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. The spreadsheet Numerous other examples have been used (Shafii-Mousavi and Kochanowski.2. and ranch homes. E.. Excel Trial and Error Demonstration of the Construction Problem. S=SPLIT-LEVEL. nutrition. 13 – 27. Table 4. R=RANCH . Life Sciences.Becoming More Efficient www. Table 4. and Social Sciences. The Journal of Computational Science Education. 1 (1). Prior to solving the problem. C=COLONIAL. the solution is not feasible since all of the capacity constraints are violated. 11th Edition. Excel spreadsheets for Modeling Linear Programming Problem. This model allows us to discuss trial and error approaches to solving the feasible and optimal mix of houses.. portfolio allocation. R=RANCH Table 4. P.2 shows the profits and resource utilization for producing 20 of each type of house. the spreadsheet in Table 4. Upper Saddle River. A. students are shown how to model the problem in an Excel spreadsheet. C=COLONIAL. respectively.1. S=SPLIT-LEVEL. M. splitlevel. The use of spreadsheets and service-learning projects in mathematics courses. 2010) dealing with manufacturers. the total usage of land is computed using the Excel formula SUMPRODUCT(F6:H6. Students quickly learn that a trial and error approach which could conceivably list every possible outcome is not only time consuming but very inefficient. and the like. & Kochanowski. where F6:H6 are cells containing per unit land resources for colonial. This spreadsheet includes formulas that sum up the products of the decision variables and per unit resource usage amounts as well as total profits. For example.1 displays the organizational spreadsheet for part B of the problem. model makes it very easy to test numerous combinations of the three types of houses and to discuss whether or not they are feasible.000. Shafii-Mousavi. Although total profits are high. For example. An increase in demand for colonial houses causes the profit on a colonial house to rise from $20.000 to $25.
100 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology
Using podcasts for added instructional effectiveness
Indiana University South Bend
Keywords: podcasts, instructional review, instructional effectiveness
This quick hit describes how I use podcasts syndicated
through a course management system to help students review the day’s lesson, preview the next class session, and
remember what tasks must be completed prior to the next
Making it Work
These follow-up podcasts are appropriate for classes of any
size and any format. They are especially useful for classes
that meet just once weekly: they allow the instructor an opportunity to interact, albeit asynchronously, with a group of
students more than just the single weekly class meeting.
I’ve found them especially helpful for undergraduate students who sometimes have trouble managing the large workload that often results from once-weekly class meetings.
For many, the hardware and software to create acceptablequality podcasts are already available. For those seeking very
low-cost options, I’d suggest Audacity, an open-source audio recording software package (audacity.sourceforge.net;
available for both Mac and PC) and an inexpensive USB or
3.5mm plug microphone available from any big-box electronics store.
For a higher-quality recording, investment in a Blue Snowflake or Snowball USB microphone (www.bluemic.com)
ensures a more robust audio recording.
Mac users have access to Garageband for recording and editing audio. Garageband is included in the iLife suite of applications resident on all Macs shipped in recent years.
There is no cost to students associated with listening to podcasts. One misnomer that must quickly be squelched is that
an Apple iPod is necessary to listen to a podcast. Software
such as iTunes or Windows Media Player are available free
and will play nearly all common audio files. In addition,
.mp3 files will play on many portable digital audio players
readily available on the market.
Once the instructor has learned the processes for recording,
editing, and exporting audio to useable formats, the timeline for implementation is nearly nil.
There are a myriad of resources available to help instructors
learn the processes around digital audio recording and editing.
Once the recording is exported in a useable final format
(.mp3 is nearly universal), syndication/publication through
various course management systems is often as easy as uploading any digital resource to Blackboard, WebCT, Sakai,
or other online course management system. In lieu of such
course management system syndication, distribution may
be achieved as easily as attaching the finished digital audio
file to an email message sent to every member of the class.
I would suggest that instructors develop a “format” for each
session’s podcast. For example, I’ve been successful with a
format that follows this outline:
2. Review of the class session
3. Preview of the next class session
4. List of tasks to complete before next class session
5. Some value-added component that is related to the
course content, but not specifically covered in class. (I
provide students a “tech tip of the week.”)
If instructors script the content, the content then becomes
easily available to student with hearing disabilities simply by
sending them the text of the podcast.
Students have remarked that the follow-up podcasts provided each week serve their intended purpose: as a review and
reminder of the course content being studied and an audio
checklist to help students ensure they’ve completed the necessary work for the upcoming class.
I’ve been able to entice reticent students to listen to the
podcasts by offering several extra-credit opportunities
throughout the semester, and describing the opportunity only in the podcast. Students invariably mention the
extra-credit opportunities to others in the class and those
who have not listened in the past quickly learn the value of
listening to the podcasts.
Once instructors become adept at recording audio-only podcasts, they may be less fearful of venturing into creating richer
podcasts that include digital images synchronized to the audio portion. While Garageband can do this easily, Audacity
does not. However, inexpensive applications such as ProfCast
Becoming More Efficient 101
(www.profcast.com), which marries audio and PowerPoint
slides, are available for both the Mac and PC platforms.
Brown and Green (2007) have written about podcasting in general and specifically video podcasting including history, technical aspects, and education applications of podcasts.
Brown, A., & Green, T. (2007). Video podcasting in perspective: The history, technology, aesthetics, and instructional uses of a new medium. Journal of Educational
Technology Systems, 36(1), 3-17.
Implementation of and feedback on the use of a web-based homework
Ellen D. Bartley
St. Joseph’s College
Keywords: web-based homework management
Students often enter required introductory quantitative
courses with little interest in the subject and/or concerns
about their ability to succeed in the course. Problem-solving
is typically an essential component of learning in this type
of course. Connect TM is a web-based homework management system, linked to the student textbook. It has been
used in an introductory accounting course for three semesters. Instructor and student feedback both indicate that this
tool has positively impacted student engagement, learning,
and performance. There is no cost to the instructor or institution. Students pay approximately $40 per semester for
access to the system.
Making it Work
Ease of implementation for both the student and instructor
is an important feature of this technology. The publisher
offered a one-hour introductory webinar for the instructor. The instructor provided
a brief demonstration during
the first class session. Traditional aged students found
the program to be quite inStudents found
tuitive and rarely took advanthe program
tage of the tutorials provided.
to be quite
Non-traditional aged students also found the system
to be quite user friendly.
advantage of the
Initially, the instructor
must perform a one-time
set up to establish a unique
link for each section, and
provide the link to the students. Subsequently, instructors must create each assignment within the program. Instructors may use textbook
problems and/or add their own assignments. There are
many options for the instructor to choose from when setting up the assignment, such as the number of attempts
the student is permitted, the amount of the time allowed,
as well as various levels and timing of feedback provided
to the student. Levels of support range from no feedback
to correcting the assignment and providing links to the
electronic version of the textbook.
This tool provides the opportunity for both formative and
summative feedback and assessment. In this course, required homework was prepared by the students in Connect.
Optional practice problems were posted for students prior
to each examination.
Students must initially register for the program via the
unique course link provided by instructors. They may either
purchase the program directly on the publisher’s website, or
use an access code if one was provided with the textbook.
Once established, students may bookmark the website for
easier future access. Students prepare and submit assignments electronically in accordance with the parameters set
up by the instructor.
In three semesters of required participation, the time
spent by the instructor on grading homework was virtually eliminated. Reports are available and downloadable
for the instructor. The more significant benefit has been
engaged students. When using Connect TM students
came to class well prepared and asked very specific questions about what they had trouble with. If a student does
not perform well on a particular assignment, the instructor is able to look at the details and provide timely feedback to the students.
Anonymous student evaluations were submitted each semester regarding the students’ use of and reaction to the homework management system. Results have been overwhelmingly
102 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology
positive; students reported that the homework management
system was helpful and strongly recommend its continued
use. The primary reason that students cited was the instant
feedback. They did not have to wait until the next class to find
out how they did. Completing questions successfully or being
able to work through them with the feedback encouraged students to complete assignments. The only negative feedback
reported by students report was that they had difficulty translating problems from the electronic format, which often uses
drop down menus, to paper for examinations.
A web-based homework management system is adaptable
to many types of quantitative courses. The timely feedback
provides the instructor with the opportunity to focus valuable class time on the more challenging topics or nuances of
particular topics. Although used in class sections of approximately 30 students, the ability to download reports makes it
easily used in larger classes. The web-based product is also
well suited to distance learning settings.
Group work online
James M. VanderVeen and Joshua W. Wells
Indiana University South Bend
Keywords: collaboration, presentations
When students work together on a project, it can increase
their engagement in the learning process. They must know
enough of the topic to teach one another and they are active participants in the creation of a product. But finding the
time to meet outside of class presents a challenge to many
busy students. Even an hour or two set aside during the
class might be utilized inefficiently by having one student
monopolize the time at a computer. By collaborating in a
dynamic, real-time, cloud-based work environment, however, some of these problems are resolved.
Making it Work
We have used the Presentation software available through
Google Docs to facilitate student group work in a variety
of classes, from introductory courses meeting general education requirements to small senior-level seminars. The
program (found, with tutorials, here: http://www.google.
com/google-d-s/presentations/) is free, can be used on
any computer with web access, and requires no installation. The key advantage is the ability to collaborate at any
time and from any location. Students only need to go to
the specific page for the presentation (which can be shared
with anyone who has the link or only with specific email
addresses) to begin the editing process, and any number
of students can make changes simultaneously. The commands and functions associated with Google Docs Presentations should be familiar to anyone with some experience using Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, or
similar programs. The file saves automatically after any
changes are made. Multiple viewers are denoted by different colored highlighted cursors, and all users present are
listed on the interface. A link to the finished presentation
can then be shared as widely as the students wish — to the
instructor alone or publicly viewable to anyone online.
There are a number of ways in which the presentation
activity can be integrated into a course. An instructor can
select the images or titles for the slides ahead of time,
and then distribute a link to the skeletal presentation to
each group. The students would then organize the presentation to reflect their own ideas and add details with
information gathered from the sources they have found.
Alternatively, a topic can be assigned to each group, and
they would be free to create the presentation to meet the
requirements of the assignment. Each member of the
group could have responsibility for a separate section, or
they could work together on each slide at a lab on campus
or over the phone. Either way, the outcome is a complete
presentation that can then be delivered to the other student groups during class time or shared via the web for
viewing at each student’s convenience.
Our students have responded positively to this type of work,
and they have thought of ways to include the utility of online collaboration in other contexts. One student explained,
“Google Docs was a new media I have not used before so
I appreciate that new experience.” More said the projects
were “fun,” “enjoyable,” and appreciated the break to the
normal classroom experience.
I check email only during the week: from about 9 am–7pm. 10. I initially only included these guidelines in my lower level classes. . No IM abbreviations. However. Not your signature that just attaches it to the mail. Do not expect me to reply to email on the weekends. Email is great for easy questions that require only short responses but lousy for continued guidance. In any given class. You are required to use Oncourse for email. It helps ensure the emails don’t get lost and keeps things organized. Another issue is accessibility. Sign it. Subject lines should clearly indicate the nature of the email (e. Note: Oncourse is my university’s online teaching and learning environment. especially from a formal/informal standpoint. I will not reply to emails sent outside of Oncourse while you are my student. Future Implications Since I incorporated these rules.com Teaching professional communication through email Audrey L. come and see me rather than emailing me! 11. 7. If these rules are not followed. Students assume that I am available around the clock. professional communication Framework I like Facebook. many students incorrectly assume that all I care about is oral communication. Deterding Indiana University Southeast Keywords: email. I’m reinforcing the real world model in another channel of communication. the first time I will send an email back asking you to follow email guidelines and resend the email. Twitter.g. By adding this policy to my syllabus. Making it Work Communicating with me 1. 8. 3. Check the syllabus and Oncourse first.). I simply won’t reply. “Question about journal entry 6”. most are sent beginning with an apology. Very rarely does a student not resend the email. 6. It is not uncommon to receive an email which is not signed and full of shorthand (“R u around today?”). Although I inform my students that any emails I send are considered “official course communication” most students really do not understand what that means. 4. Can you answer your question from these resources? If you can and you email me. I have since realized how wrong I was. As an assistant professor in Communication Studies. Use the appropriate channel of communication. 2. but a genuine signature. “Appointment this week”. and then I started checking emails around 11am and continued until 9pm. Take the time to check spelling and clarity — I dislike trying to figure out stuff that should be straightforward. These rules are pretty static except for the first which I tweak each semester to correspond to my teaching schedule. When replying. I had one semester in which I taught late afternoon and night classes. actually take the time to address me.Becoming More Efficient 103 www. and I was glad I had the chance to answer. and my discipline’s. In many facets of higher education we strive to model the real world environment we are preparing our students to enter. I want students to follow appropriate guidelines. Greet me. Don’t jump into your message. my focus. I have been pleased with the results. I always thank the student for resending the email because his or her question was an important one. etc. 9. After the first time. The line between social media acceptability and professional communication acceptability is often one that students fail to realize even exists. That’s right. and a desire to uphold the values of my discipline for excellence in all forms of communication. especially since many of them meet me in a Public Speaking classroom. thinking that my upper level students wouldn’t need such reminding. Telling them I have not yet checked email that morning often comes across as shocking. I see a corresponding increase in the informality of correspondence from my students. And therein lies the problem I’ve experienced with communication between faculty and students: the consistent informality that arises when one begins to think “going to take a nap” is standard for quality communication. too. and they find nothing odd about asking me at an 8am class if I received the email sent around 3am. It is your responsibility to regularly check your email and Oncourse to stay apprised of classroom happenings. I will simply refer you to these resources. and texting. As technology becomes increasingly more common. and I now include this policy in all my syllabi. I developed a policy for email which I include in all my syllabi. I don’t want them to feel too intimidated to send an email. is on communication-both written and oral. Because of these issues with emails. I send replies asking the student to check the syllabus on how to construct an email to perhaps 10%–15% of the class. My students do. If you have a complex question. 5.quickhitstech.
This Quick Hit describes a small teaching intervention that integrates a simple technology tool (Wordle™) into the discussion forum format resulting in deeper levels of student engagement and the development and use of higher order thinking skills. It has been my experience that the interaction that takes place is often superficial and that typical applications of the discussion forum tool fail to stimulate higher order thinking skills (critical and creative thinking). ■■ Working together to create. That is. ■■ In the undergraduate online learning environment. the critical thinking domain includes logical thinking and reasoning while the creative thinking domain encompasses putting things together in new ways and developing alternate ways of approaching or framing an issue. structures. Most of the postings are simple recall and I am frequently disappointed by what I have come to call the “what he said syndrome” in which each student simply rephrases previous postings. Example: What five words would you use to describe aspects of your “best” work experience? What five words would you use to describe aspects of your “worst” work experience? 2. the approach could be applied across disciplines and learning environments. one of the core challenges is to provide opportunities. encouraging deeper thinking and tapping into related emotional content. online teaching/learning Framework In an online teaching and learning environment.) . They can also create an “AHA!” experience. (Tip: If the students all post their words in a Wiki it simplifies the amount of cutting and pasting required. Develop a focus question(s) for the activity that requires students to respond with a list of words. 2009. The question(s) should be focused on concrete experience (Stage 1 of Kolb’s Model – Concrete Experience) and. Huitt. designed to allow students to reflect upon. Fink.3). taxonomies. and pull forward prior knowledge/experience. and rubrics that organize levels and types of thinking (e. active inquiry. Generally speaking. Use Wordle™ (www. Visual metaphors can help reveal patterns and themes. with visual metaphors. A Quick Hit Summary of Theoretical Underpinnings This Quick Hit is designed to enhance meaningful interaction and stimulate higher order critical and creative thinking skills by using a collective visual metaphor based on prior experience to fuel a discussion forum organized around Kolb’s 4-Stage Cycle of Learning (1984). There are many useful frameworks.com Coupling visual metaphors with discussion forums to enhance reflection and inquiry Fredricka F. and meaningful interaction. in this example. 2003) and you might consider working with one of these to assess the demonstration of higher order thinking skills in this project. The word cloud becomes a collective artifact that synthesizes individual experiences into one image that suggests broader patterns and themes. Joyner Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Keywords: critical thinking.wordle. Making it Work Kolb’s 4-Stage Cycle of Learning provides the framework for this teaching intervention. a collective artifact provides an opportunity to learn about both content and one’s self in the context of the larger whole. and then reflect upon. 1.’ It becomes the task of the viewer to use the image for his or her own insight. Visual Metaphors Carroll (2001) describes a visual metaphor as a tool for inspiring insights. While the specific example is focused on online discussion forums. and formats that increase MEANINGFUL interaction and give students the opportunity to practice and demonstrate higher order thinking skills. A visual metaphor can be a powerful teaching tool. ■■ It has been my experience that creating and reflecting upon visual metaphors can be an effective tool for encouraging deeper thinking about a subject.g.quickhitstech. discussion forums are a frequently used approach for getting student interaction and participation. Four different threads weave together to provide the context and purpose for this Quick Hit: ■■ There are increasing opportunities to leverage technology tools (in both online and face-to-face learning environments) to facilitate deeper levels of student engagement and the development and use of higher order thinking skills. and finer nuance. This prior knowledge/experience provides the starting point for the meaning making associated with deeper levels of reflection and inquiry. organize.net) to create a “word cloud(s)” of the words (figure 4.104 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. connections.. instructional technology. the image is essentially ‘food for thought. It is based on the following theoretical foundations: Critical and Creative Thinking One of the purposes of this Quick Hit is to stimulate higher order critical and creative thinking.
net the discussion forum format resulting in deeper levels of student engagement and the development and use of higher order thinking skills. UK: Cambridge University Press. N. Visual metaphors.quickhitstech. What do you notice about our collective experience with work? If you were a manager. Cambridge. Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. Huitt. from http://www. what would you pay attention to in order to create a positive work experience? What surprised you? What did you expect? What else? 4. If your experience is anything like mine. Retrieved December 4. Educational Psychology Interactive.wordle. 347 – 368). 5. (1984). Example of aspects of best work experiences word cloud. GA: Valdosta State University. (Stage 2 of Kolb’s Model — Reflective Observation) Example: Spend some time looking at and thinking about the word cloud(s). and context — and creative thinking — new patterns and alternate approaches.L. Experiental learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Many of the posts will begin to explore new implications for action (Stage 3 of Kolb’s Model — Abstract Conceptualization) and some of the posts will move toward ideas for application (Stage 4 of Kolb’s Model — Active Experimentation). In Beyond aesthetics: Philosophical essays (pp. (2003). (2009). D. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.’s taxonomy of the cognitive domain. 2010. both in terms of critical thinking — depth. Fink. Wordle™ www.com Figure 4. W. breadth. References Carroll. Post the word cloud in the discussion forum with prompt(s) that encourage reflection and inquiry. . Bloom et al.org/topics/ cogsys/bloom. D. in the ensuing discussion you will notice many examples of higher order thinking skills.Becoming More Efficient 105 www. 3. Apply a critical/creative thinking rubric to assess the demonstration of higher order thinking skills. Valdosta. (2001).3.edpsycinteractive. Englewood Cliffs.html Kolb. NJ: Prentice Hall.
dentistry. Third.. They report using the strategies they learned in class immediately with their clients.g. This assignment could easily be modified for large classes or online classes by having online discussions about evidenced based practice and posting the clinical vignette online for students to do as an out-of-class activity. Making it Work First. The articles include web resources for finding recent research on the treatment of different disorders and discuss the importance of integrating information including client characteristics and realistic challenges in making clinical decisions. Students don’t wait for semester course evaluations to tell us how useful this activity is for their learning. Finally. the students are required to find web resources to assist in making clinical decisions with regards to other specific client/patient characteristics provided (e. The only implementation issues are providing the articles. strategies working with Asian American clients). pharmacy.106 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. This allows for critical thinking about the quality of the resources used as well as the final conclusions reached by the various student groups. the groups come back to class to discuss the resources they found and the clinical decisions that were made based upon those resources.).com Using technology to improve empirically based clinical practice Nathanael G. Future Implications This activity would be appropriate in any clinical disciplines that utilizes research and critical thinking in clinical decision making (e.g. This is also a necessary skill for a variety of disciplines including nursing. education. medicine. empirically based practice Framework One of the primary goals in the training of professional psychologists is to instruct students in the critical thinking skills to make an empirically based clinical decision. etc. clinical practice. students read journal articles concerning the theory and application of empirically based decision making. psychology. minority status.quickhitstech. social work. physical therapy.g. Instead they report using the strategies they learned in class immediately with their clients. during the following class students bring their laptops and receive a clinical vignette that is complex regarding client/patient characteristics (e. The discussion that ensues is lively as students excitedly share their “best” resources and ideas. Additionally. randomized clinical trials) making this a realistic problem-based learning strategy. the clinical vignette. These patient characteristics are strategically chosen to represent populations that are often excluded from research on psychological treatments (e. In practice. multiple diagnoses. Mitchell and Dede Wohlfarth Spalding University Keywords: technology.. . students are placed into groups and instructed to use their laptop computers or the university’s computer lab to search for empirically based psychological treatments of the client’s particular disorders utilizing the web resources from the articles. nursing. the information needed to make these determinations is primarily technology based. complex barriers to treatment.g. etc... social work. etc.). Second. Following is a description of one such technique in training developing psychologists in the proper use of technology to aid in empirically based clinical decisions. and computer lab availability. occupational therapy.
crumples the page. Soon. Breen. the student might see. Tyler is looking right at his audience. Imagine a different scenario: Tyler puts his book bag down and says to Scott.4. Education majors watch themselves teach.Becoming More Efficient 107 www. 1970). Instructors in many disciplines have long recognized the value of videotaping performance as a means of student evaluation and feedback. He checks his grade. Tyler makes a list of things to improve. Diehl. 1970. Example of feedback on video assignment. “Who knows. “That was a good transition. and then drops the feedback sheet in the trash can. etc. Public speaking students watch themselves present. embedded feedback. & Larson.” A week later. Making it Work Following the instructions below you can embed your comments into recordings of student performances.” Scott responds. While watching. “I think I did better! I can’t wait to see what my prof said. He stares at the comments but can’t figure out what anything means.quickhitstech. However. his roommate Scott asks. Tyler’s experience is neither unusual nor hypothetical. Tyler returns to class and is handed a paper with nearly illegible comments from his professor. as Tyler’s recorded speech begins to play on the computer. video assignments Framework As Tyler returns to his dorm. . For example. “Soooo? How did your speech go?” Tyler sighs and says. Psychology students watch themselves counsel.com Embedded feedback in video recorded student assignments Brenda Bailey-Hughes Indiana University Keywords: Adobe Pro. Your comments will appear at the very moment the related behavior occurs. Want to watch?” “Sure.” at the exact place in the speech that the Figure 4. videotaping alone is not a useful learning tool and in fact may actually be counterproductive to learning objectives if students view the video without any accompanying constructive feedback (McCroskey & Lashbrook. the instructor’s feedback pops onto the screen: “Good eye contact!” Sure enough.
Creative Suite 5. Install Adobe Pro. Speech Teacher. the comments from students who received the embedded feedback indicate tremendous preference for the method. However. McCroskey. Open Media Encoder CS4 3. no statistically significant findings www. Save your work! Future Implications In a small study comparing the performance of public speaking students who received embedded feedback on three speeches to the performance of those who received traditional paper feedback. 1.699 but educational discounts are available and many institutions have licensing agreements so there is no cost to the instructor to load and use the software. Student created tool and in fact cartoons or animated may actually be short movies force stucounterproductive dents to explain difficult concepts in their own to learning words. “Good evidence. There are many different free web sites. your skill level. Select Format>Clip Notes Windows Media and Preset>NTSC Source to 512KBPS 6. and time commitment. Students need no special software to view the embedded feedback video recording as it opens with a standard pdf viewer. C. Select “ADD” which will pause the video. The latest version of Adobe Pro. Select “Start Que” 8. Google the Internet to find a site that best reflects your class. 199-205.makebeliefscomix.com were present. collaboration Framework I use cartoons or animated short movies to reinforce key concepts and to help keep student motivation and interest high in a large or small class.com/ ■■ http://stripgenerator. Some web sites are easier to use then others. The Creative Suite is a powerful tool with many features and functionality but can be mastered for the Embedded Feedback purposes in a couple of hours. Students benefit objectives. E.5. Speech Teacher. W.com/ ■■ http://www. The software that I have found on the Internet tends to be easy to use. 19(3). Making it Work Instructors or students can spend a few minutes or a few days working on a cartoon or an animation.108 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology transition occurred. References Diehl. Change output file to where you want to save converted files 7.. 10.toondoo. (1970).com/ ■■ http://www. Creative Suite 4.com/strip/create/ ■■ http://superherosquad. M.. Using cartoons or short movies to engage students Karen Banks Indiana University Bloomington Keywords: motivation.5 now available) 2. Breen. but the easier ones tend to be more restrictive in the choice of materials for creation. The effect of various methods of employing video-tape television playback in a course in public speaking. 185-189.quickhitstech. engaging. & Lashbrook. Production Premium retails for $1. Drag all video files into the box 5.marvel. Production Premium (Version 5.” will now be a more meaningful comment because your student will recognize exactly what you are referencing. by seeing the different explanations of their classmates and they have a great time creating them. The effects of teacher comments and television video tape playback on the frequency of nonfluency in beginning speech students.. J. To start out you might try these sites ■■ http://www.pixton. (1970). Open and play the PDF file 9. & Larson. 19. Add your comment. I have listed some of the sites I have found in the next section. Cartoons and animated short movies are even more effective when Videotaping students create their own and provide construcalone is not a tive criticism for other useful learning students. Convert video files to PDF format 4.com/create_your_own_comic .
. text of the conversation to the right of the animation so that foreign students or students with hearing problems can easily follow along. I type the I select a template that I wish to use and then I select the number of actors.5). I save and publish the movie and I am done. I choose the characters and typed in the text for the characters to say. but the owners will send educators free credits to use.com I created the cartoon above for a difficult concept in database development (see figure 4.com example. I used software at http://www.quickhitstech.6 and 4.7). I can go back and edit the movie if needed.6. I choose the sets. actors. I can even set camera angles and motions. Figure 4. I also created an animated short movie to remind students about a common mistake in database development (this can be viewed on at www. For an animated short movie.xtranormal. This software is no longer free to use. The cartoon helped to start a discussion about the concept. Then.quickhitstech.Becoming More Efficient 109 www.com).com/. Cartoon illustration of challenging concept. I type in the words for each character to say. Xtranormal. The web site provides a template.5. sounds (see figures 4. Figure 4.
Suddenly students are in charge of the content and enjoy explaining and criticizing each other’s work.quickhitstech.com You can also submit your own Quick Hit to be peer reviewed and added to the collection of materials. Xtranormal. the classroom instantly becomes quiet. Students gain a deeper understanding of concepts when they can see cartoons or an animated short movie created by other students and then provide constructive criticism in a guided discussion. . Students are quite creative and become competitive in trying to create the best cartoon or animated short movie. Future Implications Outcomes/Assessment Whenever I show a cartoon or animated short movie.quickhitstech.7. For additional resources and quick hits please visit www. Students ask me about the content and want to know how I created it. you can easily collect multiple methods for explaining difficult concepts to show future classes.110 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www.com movie options. Future Directions/ Modifications/ Hybrid context With the permission of each student.com Figure 4.
group activities and simulations followed by several examples. learner led activities. Using inspiring stories of ordinary learners as well as interviews with technology and education leaders. This book provides a great review of assistive (or adaptive) technology. The practical advice contained in this book may help readers to avoid making mistakes that inadvertently create barriers for students with disabilities or violate federal guidelines. The rest of the chapters each contain a very brief explanation of a type of activity such icebreakers. Articles are varied and several directly address the issue of the use of technology without the concomitant attention to whether that technology is pedagogically appropriate or enhances student learning. he reveals the power of this new way of learning. (2009).M. local designs. Managing online instructor workload: Strategies for finding balance and success. 2007 from Teaching. and teaching presence. Chickering. S. (2004). The book is a solid resource for activity ideas. Anderson and F. Retrieved June 22.O. S.C. This chapter outlines principles of effective online teaching from a model based on three principles: cognitive presence. The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education.C. Learning and Technology Group Website: http://www.ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson.com/section/The-Digital-Campus/529/ This Special Edition from the Chronicle of Higher Education (available in print format) outlines new and evolving technologies on college campuses. & Ehrmann. This is a short but useful article about using technology to implement the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. Retrieved October 7. The first three chapters explain this framework. Canada: Athabasca University Press. San Francisco. Teaching in an online learning context. (1996. demonstrating how technology has transformed educational opportunities for learners of every age in every corner of the globe. the authors help the reader sort through the many institutional and instructional issues and challenges in developing effective online instruction. 2011: http://cde. and the principles of universal design. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. and how to assess engagement. Bonk. Revised. The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives. Dykman.K. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. R. Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction.. laws and guidelines relevant to online instruction. Athabasca.. J. 2011 from Chronicle of Higher Education Website: http:// chronicle. (2011). Jossey-Bass. October). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as a Lever.html#one. & Lehman. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.. social presence. face-to-face environment. teaching a course online can quickly lead to more time and effort than teaching the same course in a traditional. Elloumi (eds. athabascau. Retrieved June 22. Conrad. It includes a description of each principle as well as specific ideas and examples of how they can be accomplished using technology. R.org/programs/seven. & Donaldson. This chapter would be an excellent choice for those who are new to teaching online as well as those who have been teaching online for some time.tltgroup. CA: Jossey-Bass.A. T. .J. C. C.) Theory and practice of online learning. (Marcia) Engaging the Online Learner provides a framework explaining the process of moving students through the phases of becoming an engaged student. Inc. (2010). J.ca/online_book/ch11. CA: John Wiley & Sons. C. 3-6.html. Making online teaching accessible: Inclusive course design for students with disabilities. The book provides examples of learning options that combine face-to-face instruction with online learning in both the workplace as well as more formal academic settings. Coombs. This book describes how web-based technology has opened up education around the world to the point where anyone can learn anything from anyone else at any time. It is especially useful in helping educators understand what’s possible. Conceição.R. C. (2008). C. A. (2006). San Francisco. Bonk. In this workbook. The Digital Campus: The Mobile Revolution. (2011). & Graham. 19(3). The Handbook of Blended Learning is a comprehensive resource that highlights the most recent practices and trends in blended learning and provides targeted information for specific blended learning situations. Inc. Inc. & Davis. AAHE Bulletin. 281-290. A. For those inexperienced in teaching in an online environment. N. Journal of Information Systems Education. how to design an online course within the engaged student perspective. In T. The author presents his “WE-ALL-LEARN” model to outline ten key technology and learning trends. a Wiley imprint.. Online education forum-Part three: A quality online educational experience.W.
. & Johnson. . This book is especially helpful in suggesting methods for integrating digital libraries into teaching and course development. and maintaining enthusiasm and organization.. especially in the design of electronic courses. In this article.. explains how faculty can effectively use digital libraries to enhance their scholarship and their teaching. The technology toolbelt for teaching... San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. K.pdf This comprehensive summary is split into three sections: Overview of the Principles. and Benchmarks for Online Education. T. R. Inc. also.hanoverresearch. K. The 2011 Horizon Report. a framework for understanding how presence influences the success of online learning. (2011). and controlling class size. Understanding the digital generation: Teaching and learning in the new digital landscape.com/a/oberlin. 2011: https://sites.quickhitstech. is filled with useful ideas about teaching. S.. Thousand Oaks.com/library/assets/libPdfs/ Best%20Practices%20in%20Online%20Teaching%20 Strategies%20-%20Membership.. In the first part of this book. and practical examples of potential uses of the technologies. C.C.com Jukes. & Magusin.C. Innovative Higher Education.112 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology This article focuses on techniques such as mastering one’s course management system. Lehman. providing feedback. Johnson. K. Grant. Teaching of Psychology. (2010). L. This book focuses on helping instructors to become aware of and understand the differences between faceto-face and online interactions in an effort to create a stronger ‘presence’ in online environments. 31 (2). The second part of the book provides suggestions for instructors in dealing with this digital generation. two to three years. A. iPad pilot program @ Oberlin College. Retrieved June 22. The report identifies key trends.. www. it is argued.1007/s10755-006-9010-z These authors interviewed thirty exemplary instructors of online courses at University of Maryland University College to determine practices of online teaching that are particularly effective. L. The authors of this book help instructors by providing a simple matrix that can be utilized in making these decisions. Creating a sense of presence in online teaching: How to “be there” for distance learners.O. McCain. relevance for Higher Education. interact with technology in a different way and are bored in traditional classrooms. technologies to watch. and An Exemplary Program and Examples of Effective Practices. Smith. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. (2010). R. & Abdul-Hamid. Johnson. the difficulty for instructors is knowing how to choose the appropriate technology for enhancing learning. Inc. Best Practices in Online Teaching Strategies. Although the newest technology may be exciting. Manning. an empirically supported online tutorial on positive reinforcement for an undergraduate course is described. one year or less. doi: 10. Levine.. & Crockett. 31. Guidelines. CA: Corwin Press. and short videos highlighting their work. Teaching of Psychology. H. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. 2011: http:// net.M. 83-98. The issues and insights discussed in this Forum will provide educators with important tools and the understanding needed to embrace the world of online education. creating consistency in interactions with learners. & Conceição. the authors describe the differences between the experiences of students born in the past generation – the digital generation . Texas: The New Media Consortium. Lewis.google.educause. Teaching positive reinforcement on the Internet.edu/ir/library/pdf/HR2011 The annual Horizon Report looks at emerging technologies’ likely to impact education in three time horizons. 2011: http:// www. H. (2004). Inc. These students. Retrieved July 8. This volume in The Jossey-Bass Online Teaching and Learning series. Exploring the digital library: A guide for online teaching and learning. Their findings present specific strategies in four areas: fostering interaction.. 69–71. Willis. K. E.. The journal. (2006). Austin. facilitating learning. (2011). standardizing course design.edu/ipad-pilotprogram/home This site details the efforts of faculty at Oberlin College and Conservatory in developing the use of iPads in their courses. S. Another aspect of success considered is developing a well-honed and consistent philosophy toward teaching online that will help learners understand what is expected of them and guide the teacher when unusual situations arise. and four to five years. L. Retrieved June 22. & Haywood. Best practices in online teaching. The site includes examples. a ‘dynamic’ bibliography. Oberlin College and Conservatory (2010). (2005). Implementing effective online teaching practices: Voices of exemplary faculty. outlining the skills and knowledge required in digital library use and providing a framework for faculty and librarians to collaborate in the online educational environment. Hanover Research Council (2009). The authors not only provide a map for creating presence but.and those of us born prior to 1980. I.
This study used a random sample of 214 students enrolled in summer distance courses. Students report that frequency of interaction. 97-105. W. Smith. (2007). Assessing the online learner: Resources and strategies for faculty. T. Palloff. Building online learning communities: Effective strategies for the virtual classroom (2nd ed.1080/0158791042000262139 Thirty-one students enrolled in two communication technology courses were both interviewed and surveyed about their perceptions of mediated presence of the instructor. K. Irani. It offers the example of a four-quadrant model created as a framework for an e-learning strategy. doi: 10. G. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. Challenges . & Campbell.com Ortiz-Rodríguez.iheduc. C. ability to use the technology..11. 59-70. Retrieved July 8. (2009). Russo. Quarterly Review of Distance Education. T.org/2010/02/24/millennialsconfident-connected-open-to-change/ The Pew Social Trends Staff uses survey and census data to compare and contrast the Millennial generation Annotated Bibliography 113 to previous generations. Using this approach will allow instructors to avoid many of the costly mistakes that are commonly made. S. The authors distinguish between student interaction (student-to-student as well as student-to-instructor) and interactivity (the inclusion of material that creates active learning in an online environment). and sample files. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.2003. including templates.e. (2005). R. & Singleton. (2004).M. Pew Social Trends Staff (2010). Perceptions of mediated presence in an asynchronous online course: Interplay of communication behaviors and medium. as well as education. College students’ perceptions of quality in distance education: The importance of communication. E. Open to Change. One of the most common complaints my peers who are not teaching in an online environment have is that it is impossible to accurately assess whether students have learned anything in an online class. R. The authors of this text provide a convincing rationale and examples of authentic methods of assessing students — tied directly to course objectives — in an online environment. Research in Learning Technology. E.. R. and themselves in their online course. including sample syllabi. Palloff. (2005). Flying not flapping: A strategic framework for e-learning and pedagogical innovation in higher education institution. R. This is an excellent resource for the instructor first teaching in the online environment as well as a great refresher for those who are experienced teaching online. 201-218. audio of the instructor) affected mediated presence. This paper shows how to capture and model complex strategic processes that will help universities move the potential of e-learning to a new stage of development. Conquering the content: A step-by-step guide to online course design. The researchers asked the students one question: ““List as many factors as you can that you personally believe could potentially affect the quality of a distance education course in any way. G. This text provides a practical. Salmon. Palloff. other students.003 Two broad research questions are explored in this study: “What are the components of online learning environments that learners recognize as helpful in the learning process? and What are the components of online learning environments that learners identify as challenging?” They surveyed 76 graduate students who had taken online courses and did follow-up interviews with 14. S. W..www. Inc. 25 (2). (2010). 215-232. 2011: http:// pewsocialtrends. Inc.” Communication was the factor identified most often. K. including feedback from the instructor and effective use of communication tools. Song. Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. Internet & Higher Education. message style and instructor’s use of nonverbal channels (i. T. doi:10.. 6 (2). learning guides. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. Pew Internet & American Life Project. M. (2008).). Please be as specific as possible. The authors provide practical advice. Inc. pictures. Telg. Connected. 13(3). as well as helping instructors conceptualize their online teaching in the broader context of excellent teaching. responsiveness. (2004). Collaborating online: Learning together in community.M. 7 (1). & Pratt.1016/j.. Millennials: Confident. L.. and time management. Inc. step-by-step guide to developing an online course or converting a course from a face-to-face environment to an online environment. Distance Education.. & Rhoades. Roberts. Their findings included some general trends that students find helpful in the online learning environment such as course design.quickhitstech. & Pratt. R.M.M. & Pratt. the authors include practical suggestions as well as numerous examples.. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. Developing collaborative activities online may lead to deeper levels of learning and is the focus of this book. K.. It looks across Millennial demographics and provides an introduction to the Millennials’ preferences regarding digital and social media..
the difference between Web 1.com to learning in the online environment included a lack of community. Inc. For many. thinking about pedagogical issues when creating wikis. Stavredes. (2008). T. The author outlines characteristics.A.0. (2011). . This book guides instructors in selecting wiki services and software. The use of Wikis in the classroom setting allows students to collaborate in creating assignments. J. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.L. & West. This book. and developing complex activities that highlight critical thinking and analysis.. West. planning and designing the wiki project framework. M. and challenges that impact a learner’s persistence. creating projects that support cognitive processing and knowledge construction.quickhitstech. is data and theory rich. key learning attributes. This profile of the online learner is followed by cognitive strategies — procedural and metacognitive scaffolding — that may be used to facilitate student learning in an online environment. offering an understanding of how cognitive theory applies to an online learning environment. and technical problems. Inc.0 and 2. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. difficulty understanding instructional goals. Using Wikis for online collaboration: The power of the read-write web. managing the collaborative writing process. preparing online students for success using wikis.114 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. Effective online teaching: Foundations and strategies for student success.0 is the ability to not only read but express yourself or write with Web 2.
edu CJ Gerda Bender PhD Faculty of Education Manager. Ashton Associate Professor of Sociology Director of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program Sociology IPFW firstname.lastname@example.org Lynne Bercaw Department of Education California State University email@example.com Sean Anderson PhD Assistant Professor Environmental Science and Resource Management Program California State University Channel Islands firstname.lastname@example.org Raquel Meyer Alexander Assistant Professor Accounting and Information Systems University of Kansas raquela@ku. IABMCP Assistant Professor . School of Education North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University eabarber@ncat. Baker Coordinator.edu Betty L. Becerra PhD Assistant Professor of Spanish Mount Union College BECERRCH@mountunion.edu Maggie W. CFLE.edu Mario Belloni Associate Professor of Physics Davidson College mabelloni@davidson. Anstadt PhD.edu Michael Abernethy Lecturer Communication Studies IU Southeast mabernet@ius. Black Professor Biology North Carolina State University betty_black@ncsu.CONTRIBUTORS Annie Abbott Assistant Professor and Director of the Spanish and Illinois Program Department of Spanish. Bishop Education Indiana University scbishop@indiana.Division of Social Work College of Professional Studies Florida Gulf Coast University email@example.com Stephen C.firstname.lastname@example.org. Service Learning Center for Experiential Learning Loras College maggie.edu Patrick J.edu Clara H.edu Scott P. Kelley School of Business Indiana University Bloomington email@example.com Elizabeth Anne Barber PhD Associate Professor Leadership Studies. Ballard PhD.anderson@csuci. Joseph’s College ebartley@sjcny. LSCSW.edu Brenda Bailey-Hughes Senior Lecturer Business Communications.edu Ellen Bartley Assistant Professor Business and Accounting Department St.edu Sharon M. Italian and Portuguese University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign firstname.lastname@example.org Paige Averett PhD Assistant Professor School of Social Work East Carolina University email@example.com Karen Banks Senior Lecturer Operations and Decision Technologies Indiana University ksbanks@indiana. Curricular and Research Community Engagement (CRCE) Education University of Pretoria gerda.edu . CFCS Associate Professor Child Development and Family Relations East Carolina University ballards@ecu.
Bowman PhD Assistant Professor Department of Criminal Justice Texas State University .edu Linda Christiansen JD MBA Associate Professor of Business Business IU Southeast lchristi@ius. School of Accountancy Director.ac. School of Accountancy Director.San Marcos scott.edu Wolfgang Christian Professor of Physics Davidson College firstname.lastname@example.org Barbara T. Masters of Accountancy Accounting Missouri State University DavidByrd@missouristate. School of Physical Education IUPUI jdoecke@iupui. Carnegie Associate Professor Department of English: Technical Communication Eastern Washington University email@example.com Chris Liska Carger PhD Professor.edu Janice Clark Young EdD. M.edu Ann Marie Clark Associate Professor Curriculum and Instruction Appalachian State University firstname.lastname@example.org@txstate.edu .edu Merilyn C. Byrd PhD Professor.edu Karen Ciccone Director.edu Sandra D. Buchanan Associate Professor School of Education California State University Channel Islands merilyn. APR Assistant Professor of Public Relations Public Relations Concentration Coordinator Department of Journalism and Mass Communication North Carolina A&T State University lscarter@ncat. PhD Professor.edu Scott Wm.quickhitstech. Byrd CPA. Clausen Director of Educational Technology Programs Educational Studies Ball State University jmclaus@bsu.U.bleicher@csuci. CHES Associate Professor Health and Exercise Sciences Department Truman State University email@example.com Johannah Casey-Doecke PhD Lecturer I. Natural Resources Library NCSU Libraries North Carolina State University firstname.lastname@example.org@csuci.edu Sheryl Burgstahler University of Washington email@example.com@up. Public Affairs Professor School of Accountancy Missouri State University sandrabyrd@missouristate.D. Bleicher Associate Professor School of Education California State University Channel Islands bob.edu Julia Blitz Faculty of Health Sciences Health Sciences University of Pretoria julia..za Linnie S.edu Teena A. Low Income Tax Clinic.edu Russell Carson Assistant Professor Department of Kinesiology Louisiana State University firstname.lastname@example.org David B. Cemore PhD Associate Professor Childhood Education and Family Studies Missouri State University email@example.com Jon M.116 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. Department of Literacy Education Department of Literacy Education Northern Illinois University firstname.lastname@example.org Robert E. Carter Ph. Bontempo PhD Professor English Department Buffalo State College email@example.com Joanna J.
edu Audrey L. Assistant Professor School of Education. DeFouw Department of Cell Bio and Molecular Med UMDNJ .edu Mo Cuevas Social Work Program Director West Texas A&M University mcuevas@wtamu.D.D.dejongekan@usu. LCSW.firstname.lastname@example.org@wartburg. MSW Associate Professor of Social Work and Gerontology School of Social and Behavioral Sciences. Social work and Gerontology Programs The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey lisa.edu Manuel G. & Leadership Technology IUPUI email@example.com Patrick Feng Ph. RID. Cox PhD. Deterding PhD Department of Communication Studies IU Southeast firstname.lastname@example.org Susan Colby Appalachian State University colbysa@appstate. and Speech Communication Utah State University karin.fett@loras.Contributors 117 email@example.com Joshua A.edu Nancy Zachar Fett LMSW Associate Professor Director of Social Work Social Work Loras College nancy.edu Eugenia Fernandez Associate Professor. Philosophy.edu Marion Eppler PhD Associate Professor Department of Psychology East Carolina University firstname.lastname@example.org Lisa E. Department of Communication and Culture The University of Calgary pfeng@ucalgary. LISW (MN) Assistant Professor of Social Work Social Work Wartburg College tammy. Information. IIDA.edu Marcie Coulter-Kern Associate Professor Chair Psychology Manchester College email@example.com Karin deJonge-Kannan PhD Senior Lecturer of Linguistics Co-Director. Dixson PhD Associate Professor and Chair of Communications Communications IPFW dixson@ipfw. Danish Ph.edu Timothy D.edu David O.edu Marcia D. NCIDQ Certified # 016868. Master of Second Languge Teaching Program Department of Languages. MA Director of Service-Learning and Community Service Service-Learning and Community Service University of Mount Union firstname.lastname@example.org@stockton.edu Tammy Faux MSSW.edu Linda Felver Associate Professor School of Nursing. CILT Computer. Portland Campus Oregon Health and Science University email@example.com Judy Donovan Assistant Professor College of Education Minnesota State University. Dolan MS. Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology Indiana University firstname.lastname@example.org Paul D.New Jersey Medical School defouw@umdnj. Mankato judy. Correia Assistant Professor School of Education California State University Channel Islands manuel. IDEC Assistant Professor Department of Technology Appalachian State University dolantd@appstate. Cooper Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry George Mason University email@example.com Amanda L.edu . NCIDQ. Espenschied-Reilly MS. PhD.
net Ruthanne Hackman PhD. Gerontology Master’s Program School of Family and consumer Sciences Eastern Illinois University jbfrank@eiu. Fossen MSSW.edu Connie M. Grinde Associate Professor Psychology Loras College Lisa.118 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www. College of Arts and Letters Missouri State firstname.lastname@example.org Sharyn Gallagher Adjunct Instructor Department of Continuing Studies University of Massachusetts Lowell Sharyn_Gallagher@uml.edu Judith I.edu Jacquelyn Frank Assistant Professor/Coordinator. Ed Assistant Professor Department of Health. MSW.com Shari Galiardi Appalachian State University galiardisl@appstate. Mankato marilyn. Gillies PhD Associate Professor Department of Family Medicine Georgia Health Sciences University email@example.com Marilyn D. and Recreation Missouri State University BrendaGoodwin@missouristate.edu Brenda Goodwin MS. LBSW Executive Director Center for Life Experiences First Presbyterian Church firstname.lastname@example.org Joseph Goetz PhD. Ed D Associate Professor Field Director Social Work Program Viterbo University email@example.com Andy Gavrin Chair and Associate Professor Department of Physics IUPUI agavrin@iupui.A. LISW Associate Professor Department of Social Work Minnesota State University. Follensbee Professor Department of Art and Design.edu Bobbi Gagne Executive Director Sexual Assault Crisis Team.edu Beth Goering Associate Professor of Communication Studies Communication Studies IUPUI firstname.lastname@example.org Cynthia Green Libby DMA Professor of Music Department of Music Missouri State University cynthialibby@missouristate. LSW School of Social Work University of Pittsburgh rhackman@att. AFC Assistant Professor Department of Housing and Consumer Economics University of Georgia goetz@uga. Usability & Design Specialist Instructional Support Services North Carolina State University email@example.com Ralph A.com Lisa M Fiedor Web Accessibility. Frank MSW.edu Lisa R. Washington County.firstname.lastname@example.org Ann Gustad-Leiker MA. PhD.edu Michael Glasser PhD Assistant Dean National Center for Rural Health Professions University of Illinois College of Medicine michaelg@uic. Vermont email@example.com Laura Guertin Associate Professor of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Penn State Brandywine firstname.lastname@example.org . Gray Associate Professor Social Work Ball State University jgray2@bsu.Grinde@loras. Physical Education.edu Billie J.
email@example.com Robin Hasslen PhD Professor of Education Education Bethel University firstname.lastname@example.org Marsha Ironsmith PhD Associate Professor Department of Psychology East Carolina University ironsmithe@ecu. Associate Professor of Business Administration and Organizational Behavior School of Business and Economics Indiana University East fjoyner@iue. Literacy Education Radford University email@example.com Elizabeth H.edu Janet E.edu Daniel T.edu Michelle Gacio Harrolle PhD Assistant Professor Parks.edu Jenny Huq Director.com Nicole L.edu Jane Hoyt-Oliver LISW-S. PhD Director.hartung@csuci.Contributors 119 www. Hofstetter PhD Professor School of Education University of Delaware firstname.lastname@example.org Jeanette Harder PhD. Joyner Ph.edu Rick Isaacson PhD Associate Professor Internship and Service-Learning Director Department of Communication Studies San Francisco State University isaacson@sfsu. Chapel Hill huq@email. Recreation & Tourism Management College of Natural Resources. Middletown email@example.com Veronica House Instructor and Service-Learning Coordinator Program for Writing and Rhetoric University of Colorado at Boulder veronica.edu Fred T.com Aileen Hale PhD English Department Boise State University firstname.lastname@example.org Fredricka F. APPLES Service-Learning Program Associate Director.edu Jennifer Jones Associate Professor School of Teacher Education & Leadership.D. Hickey Associate Professor Learning Science Program Indiana University dthickey@indiana. Hurn Senior Instructor Physics Department Miami University. General Education Professor of Social Work General Education Program Malone University email@example.com or Risaac123@aol.edu Jason Harris-Boundy PhD Management Department San Francisco State University firstname.lastname@example.org . Johnson Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies University of Mount Union johnsonl@mountunion. Carolina Center for Public Service APPLES Service Learning Program The University of North Carolina.edu Sharron Hunter-Rainey PhD Assistant Professor School of Business North Carolina Central University email@example.com Elizabeth Hartung PhD Professor Sociology and Anthropology Programs California State University Channel Islands elizabeth.quickhitstech. Jones Visiting Assistant Professor Department of Management and International Business Loyola University Maryland ehjones@loyola. CMSW Associate Professor Program Chair School of Social Work University of Nebraska at Omaha jharder@unomaha. NCSU michelle_harrolle@ncsu.
Department of Social Work Department of Social Work Carlow University firstname.lastname@example.org Melody Aye Loya MSSW. King Department of Chemistry Drexel University daniel. NCGC Professor.edu Nancy King PhD Professor Emeritus University Honors Program University of Delaware Nancy@NancyKingStories. LSW.com Angela Lamson PhD.edu Joan Lafuze Biology IU East jlafuze@indiana. Kates PhD Professor of English English Middle Tennessee State University rkates@mtsu. PhD Assistant Professor of Social Work Field Coordinator Department of Psychology. Kolovou Senior Lecturer.email@example.com Darcy Lear Lecturer and Coordinator of the minor program in Spanish for the Professions Department of Romance Languages University of North Carolina . Maccio PhD. Associate Professor of Psychology Director of Learning and Teaching Center Raymond Walters College University of Cincinnati Robin.com Tatiana A.edu Robin Lightner Ph.edu Ronald E. Associate Professor Curriculum & Instruction Texas State University .king@drexel. LMFT. CLFE Associate Professor Child Development and Family Relations East Carolina University lamsona@ecu. Khoury Associate Professor Arab Studies Quarterly B.edu Patricia Proudfoot Kelly EdD Professor Emerita Center for Research and Development in International Education Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University firstname.lastname@example.org Martin MacDowell DrPH National Center for Rural Health Professions University of Illinois College of Medicine mmacd@uic.San Marcos KL10@txstate. LCSW Assistant Professor School of Social Work Louisiana State University emaccio@lsu. Sociology.unc.D.edu Elizabeth Maier Ph. MSW.edu email@example.com Kathryn S.edu Daniel B.120 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology Linda M. and Social Work West Texas A&M University firstname.lastname@example.org Paul Kriese PhD Associate Professor Politics IU East pkriese@indiana. Lee Ph.D.edu Elaine M. MSW.edu Johnelle Luciani RSM. PhD Chair and Professor of Social Work Social Work Salve Regina University lucianij@salve. Kalbach PhD Assistant Professor Education Doane College linda.edu Emma T.edu Mary Mahan-Deatherage Director of Public Relations Marketing and Public Relations Katherine Shaw Bethea Hospital mdeatherage@ksbhospital.R Editor Sociology and Anthropology Department University of Wisconsin-Parkside khoury@uwp. Business Communications Kelley School of Business Indiana University Bloomington email@example.com Laura J.edu .quickhitstech.D. Lucas-Darby PhD.Chapel Hill lear@email. Assistant Professor Department of Justice Studies and Sociology Norwich University emaier@norwich.
Political Science Social Sciences Division University of Hawai‘i.edu Dina Mansour-Cole PhD Associate Professor of Organizational Leadership Organizational Leadership Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne firstname.lastname@example.org. Marthakis D. PhD Chancellor’s Professor of Chemistry Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Executive Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs Indiana University Northwest dmalik@iupui. West O‘ahu mironesc@hawaii. Professor Director.O.edu Donna McIntosh MSW Social Work Program Siena College McIntosh@siena.edu Dave Morgan Ph. Associate Professor of English English Grand Valley State University mcleodc@gvsu. M.edu E.S.edu Charlie Morris Distance Education and Web Coordinator CNR Dean’s Office Information and Instructional Technology Services North Carolina State University email@example.com Michael Morrone Kelley School of Business IU Bloomington mmorrone@indiana. PhD Professor of Psychology Department of Psychology Indiana University Southeast firstname.lastname@example.org Earl F. OHRI Fluoride Research Program Indiana University School of Dentistry.edu .quickhitstech. Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry IUPUI esmartin@iupui. Community Partnership v-mitchell-agbemadi@bethel.S. Malik.edu Corinna McLeod Ph.edu David J. Morgan.D. McElmurry Indiana University Northwest kmcelmur@iun.Contributors 121 www.com Mark Malaby Assistant Professor of Social Foundations of Education/ Multicultural Education Education Ball State University mmalaby@bsu. Associate Professor Director. Assistant Professor Biology Purdue University North Central nmarthakis@pnc. Ph.D.edu Verona Mitchell-Agbemadi Director Bethel University/Frogtown-Summit U.edu Brenda Moore Assistant Professor and Department Head Department of Social Work Texas A&M . Angeles Martinez-Mier D.edu Kevin L.D.D.edu Nancy B.D..edu Jean Mistele Mathematics and Statistics Instructor Department of Mathematics and Statistics Radford University jmistele@radford. Undergraduate Psychology Psychology Spalding University DMorgan@spalding.edu Monique Mironesco Assistant Professor.edu Catherine Mobley Associate Professor Department of Sociology and Anthropology Clemson University camoble@exchange.Commerce Brenda_Moore@tamu-commerce..edu Nate Mitchell Assistant Professor Director of Health Psychology Emphasis Area Psychology Spalding University nmitchell01@spalding. Mulderink III.edu Gwendolyn Mettetal PhD Professor of Psychology and Education Psychology and Education IU South Bend gmetteta@iusb. PhD Professor of History SUU Faculty Coordinator of Civic Engagement History Southern Utah University email@example.com Robin K.
edu Gregor Novak. Professor of English English Boise State University rmunger@boisestate. School of Health Sciences Health Sciences Ivy Tech Community College.edu Jacqueline K. RN.edu David Pace Professor History Department IU Bloomington firstname.lastname@example.org@csuci. COHN-S Dwight Schar College of Nursing Ashland University jowens2@ashland. LICSW Undergraduate Program Coordinator and Senior Lecturer Department of Social Work University of Vermont julie. Kokomo email@example.com Pilar Pacheco Assistant Director Center for Community Engagement California State University Channel Islands pilar. Osborne PhD Professor Psychology Texas State University .edu Ju Park Ph. PhD Professor Emeritus Department of Physics Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis gnovak@iupui.San Marcos ro10@txstate. Rienerth PhD Professor of Sociology Department of Sociology and Social Work Appalachian State University firstname.lastname@example.org@csuci.edu Barbara Rich Associate Professor BSW Program Coordinator School of Social Work University of Southern Maine email@example.com Roger Munger Ph.uga. RN Professor/Dean.edu Julie Richards MSW.edu Lance Palmer Assistant Professor Houseing and Consumer Economics University of Georgia lpalmer@fcs.D.D.com Laurie F.edu Claudia M..firstname.lastname@example.org Nancy J. Ridout Professor of Literacy Education School of Education IU Southeast email@example.com Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology www.edu Jane Riehl Coordinator of Field Placements School of Education IU Southeast firstname.lastname@example.org Janice G.edu Randall E. Adjunct Instructor Department of Cell Bio and Molecular Med UMDNJ .edu Alan Penczek Adjunct Professor of Philosophy Department of Philosophy Stevenson University email@example.com Marianne Niedzlek-Feaver Associate Professor Biology North Carolina State University mnfeaver@ncsu. Nelson PhD Director.New Jersey Medical School pinhalgr@umdnj. Assistant Professor of Instructional Technology School of Education Indiana University Northwest park49@iun.D. Owens PhD. Africana Education Program Africana Education Program Eastern Washington University firstname.lastname@example.org Susan R.edu Gary Pinkston Professor of Eduational Technology School of Education IU Southeast email@example.com . Reder PhD Lecturer English California State University Channel Islands claudia.edu Grace Pinhal-Enfield Ph. Peters Ph.D.
com Chad Rohrbacher Assistant Professor English North Carolina Agriculture and Technology State University cmrohrba@nat. BA Community Health Educator Piedmont Health Services and Sickle Cell Agency drobinson@piedmonthealthservices.G.edu Pete Sanderson PhD Professor of Computer Science Mathematical Sciences Department Otterbein College Psanderson@otterbein.kyschools.edu Debbie Schweitzer School Technology Coordinator Technology Phoenix School of Discovery debbie.Shell@uc.edu Carolyn Schult PhD Associate Professor and Chair Department of Psychology IU South Bend firstname.lastname@example.org or c. Associate Professor.com Kathy Ritchie PhD Associate Professor Department of Psychology IU South Bend email@example.com Donald A. Sarcone PhD Associate Professor International Business and Management Dickinson College firstname.lastname@example.org R.email@example.com Helen Rosenberg Associate Professor Sociology and Anthropology Department University of Wisconsin-Parkside Helen.firstname.lastname@example.org David M.Contributors 123 www.edu Barbara H.rohrbacher@gmail. Rodriguez PhD Associate Professor and Program Chair Environmental Science and Resource Management California State University Channel Islands donald.quickhitstech.B..P.edu Jeremy Schwartz PhD Assistant Professor Department of Economics Loyola University Maryland email@example.com Scott Sernau Sociology IU South Bend ssernau@iusb. Schaffner PhD. GIS Certificate Program Department of Geography and Geosciences Elmhurst College firstname.lastname@example.org Diane Robinson BS.edu Erin Sills Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources North Carolina State University sills@ncsu.Rosenberg@uwp.D.us Charles Scott Professor Department of Economics Loyola University Maryland email@example.com . Geosciences and GIS Coordinator.edu Julien Simon Assistant Professor World Languages and Cultures Indiana University East firstname.lastname@example.org Suzi Shapiro Assistant Professor of Psychology Humanities and Social Science IU East sjshapir@indiana. Schultz Ph.edu Morteza Shafii-Mousavi PhD Professor of Mathematics Mathematics IU South Bend email@example.com Ingrid Rogers PhD Emerita Professor of Modern Languages Department of Modern Languages Manchester College ingridnrogers@gmail. CNP Professor Otterbein University firstname.lastname@example.org Dustin Shell Instructional Technology Analyst Center for Academic Technologies & Educational Resources (CATER) University of Cincinnati College of Nursing Dustin. C.
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43. and student. 28-29. 110. 6. 74. 47 E e-Rewards: 8 economics: 28 educational technology: 19. and instructional. 31. 58. 20-21. 14. 44-45. 103 H Histology: 36. 29. 72-73. 77-79. 94. 93. 32. 25. 100 eLearning: 39. 65. 42-43. 56. 94-97. 60. and internationalizing. 30-31. 31. 97 brainstorming: 20-21 broadcasts: and academic. 66. 87. 101-102. 47. 85. 72. 59. 79. 79-80. 63. 47 effectiveness: 58. 96 collaborative learning: 52. and forum. 50. 8. 67. 67. 87. 7. 76. 58-60. 90. 71-72. 10. 79 email: 6-7. and Docs. 57-59. 24-25. 94-95. 65. 104-106. 61. 53. 95. 54. 32. 81-83. 61. 77. 78-82. and spreadsheet. 58. 74. 74. 104. 60-61. 88-89. 63. 53. and polling. 68. 76. 58. 31. 73. 20. 93-94. 72. 44. and student. 60. 107-108. 54. 84. 81. 78. 83-84. 25-27. 71-73. 67. 72. 32. 95. 19-21. 100. 16. 87. 14. 65-70. 54. 108 collaborative: 14-15. 30-32. 21. 101. 77. 6-7. 76. 72. 67-68. 7-27. 90. 87. and response system(s). and rhetoric. 76. 95. 58-59. 98-99 F F2F: 58 face to face: 6. 72. 102 Excel: and Solver. 63. 77. 20. 80. 91 community: 2. 95. 22. 63. 74. 107-108. 55. and Presenter. 78. 88. 100 critical thinking: 5-6. 49. 7576. 102. 26. 50. 60. 32. 93. 87. 106. 77. 99 C camera: 54-55. 84-85. 95-96 discussion: 1-2. 87. 30-31. 53-54. 89. 72. 54. 87. 102103 embedded feedback: 107-108 empirically based practice: 106 engagement: 1. 28. 44. 82. 96-97. 6970. 27. 68. 12-15. 13-16. 30. 98. 77-79. 104-105. 84 assignment: and online. and self. 21. 54. 58. 14-15.INDEX A accessibility: 47. 38. 1213. 89-90. 75. 72 . 52-54. 89. 57. 39. 93. 82. 63. 96. 66-67. 60-61. 32. 74. 52-53 D deep learning: 32-33 digital library: 40. 75 constructivism: 2-3. 13. 13. 94. 29. 26-27. 33 essay practice: 77 evaluation: 5-6. 96. 71-72. 65. 107-108 assessment: 11. 55. 94. 107 astronomy: 40. 3. 7. 68. 80. 109 chat: 10-11. 5. 43-47. 87-90. 58-61. 106-107 examinations: 44. 73. 18. 58. 101-102. and delivery. 41. and video. 58-59. 30. 67. 75. 73-74. 58. 59. 93. 67. 75. and practice. 70. and customizing. 13. 10. 66. 101. 37 business: 23. 93. 93. 13. 67. 49-50 hybrid: 2. 30 engaging: 1. 19-21. 14. 77. 76-77. 12. and analysis. and hybridbased. and students. 89-90. 40. 77. 79. 77. 88-90. 18. 24. 72. 60. 72. 32. 18. 14. 108-109 G Google: 14-15. 5-6. 8-9. 40. 44-45. 45. 97 Adobe: and Connect. 49. 44-45. see also ‘personal response devices/systems’ and ‘student response system’ clinical laboratory tests: 46 clinical practice: 106 collaboration: 22. 75. 54. 65. and courses. 79 clickers: 1-2. 59. 58 distance learning: diversity: 24-25. 97. 22. and threads. 52. 28-29. 7. 72. 73. 88-90. and building. 72. 102. 101 free: 3. 49. 52. 94 authentic problems: 26 B best practice(s): 3. and embedded. 19. 107. 103 active learning: 1-3. 98. 90 blended learning: 36. 32. 24. 72. 100. 74. 31 composition 25. 73. 46. 97. 55 audience: 2. 104-105. 25. 55-56 Dimdim: 58 discourse: 16. 95-96. 91. 18. 70. 24. 75. 75. 80-81. 9-10. 39. 9-10. 74. 89. 89-90. 77. 8. 106 classroom: and engagement. 94. 104-106 culture: 8. 33. 43. 37. 65. 101. and online. 24. and Pro. 60. 88 course: and online. 63. 39. 14. 8. 35-36. 52. 94. 65. 81 curriculum: 2. 52-53. 87. 22. 11. 87. 19. 96 distance education: 13. 104 fair use: 93 feedback: 1-2. 97-98 blogging: 49. 13-14. 47. 102 Grading: 9. 28. 20. 73. 72. 97. 68. 5. 10-11. 10. 94 chatroom: 58-59 classes: and large. 57. 97. 65. 79-81. 36. 82-83. 37-39. 49. 63. 98. 47. 78. 110. 73. 77-78. 88-89. 10. 56-57. 71. 24. 90. 12. 30. 10. 29-32. 81. 10. 73. 63-65. and online. 82. 87. and synchronous. 32. 48. 102. 46. 65-66. 108. 71-73. 83. 78. 53. 100. 70. 82. 25-26. 26-27. and Encoder. 14. 26. 24. 98-99. 29-30. 44. 60-61 blog: 7. 80. 58 electronic coaching: 94 electronic participation: 24. 104-105. 19. 100 course management system: 18-19. 54-55. 75. 14-15. 81. 109-110. 96. 24. 87. 67-68. and online. 82. 108. 101 graduate-level courses: 95 guidelines: 37. 76.
43. 27. 97-98. 82 www. and course. 23-24. 74. 40. 89-90. 88. 46. 20-21. 87. 77. 40. 82. 68. 40-41. 39. 72. 91. 14. 82. 61. 54. 19. 101-108. 39. and online. 57. 26. 75. 85. 19-20. 95. 26. 91-92 professional communication: 103 public domain: 93 public media: 23 Q question: and multiple choice. 104. 59. 58. and objects: 82. 35. 97. 97. 54-56 Physlet: 55-56 podcast: 37-38. 94-98. and video(s). and social. and engagement. and learning. and interactive. 68. 57. 19. 13-14. 59. and collaborative. 55. 96-97 resume: 29. 59. 100 optimization: 72. 106. 84. 46. 91. 74. 67. 70-71. 98 P panorama: 36. 48-52. 66. 72. 66 quizzing: and online. 53. and chat. 37. 14. 60. 108 Just in Time Teaching ( JiTT): 2-3. 30. 18-19. 79. 77 scaffolding: 39 science: 1-3. 11. 47-48. 57. 102 O office hours: 42. 60-61. 77-78. 98. 61. 58. 79. 75. 56. 84. 65 speeches: 74. 60. 92-93. 21-23. 57. 60-61. 95-97 new media: 49. 57. 44-45. 39. 13. 13. 84. 10. 53. 32. 39. 52. and instructional. and tools. 70-71. 89. 66-67. 6. and active. 38. 107 interactive: 7. and team-based. 46. 46. 61. 39. 18. 73. 81. 8-16. 44. 97. 29. 9. 89 review: 9-11.com open source: 32. 82. 101102 presentation(s): 2. and distance. 7. 58. 84. 2. 82. 19-21. 42. 31. 19. 56-57. 9. 82. 67. 18. 92. 94. 8. 104. 96. 32. 50-53. 58. and instruction. 68.and theory. 7. 102. 71. 31. 82. 37. 46. 32. 80. 21-22. 77-85. 54-57. 21-22. 9-10. and best practices. and teaching. 89. and online. 87. 91.128 Quick Hits for Teaching with Technology I ice breaker: 7 images: 23-24. 39. 54. 56-58. 102 information literacy: 71-73 instructional effectiveness: 100 instructional review: 100 instructional technology: 44. 39. 60. 7. 72. and review. 75. 16. 53. 19-20. 31. 39. 68. 59-60. 67. 75. 84. and media. 39-40. 77. 47. 80. 104. 68 R re-engagement: 8 readily available technologies: 52 reading: 1-2. 53. 100. and discussion. 52. 100-101. 39. and communities. 94-95. 70. 20. 98 personal response devices/systems: 66. 93-94. 52. 24.quickhitstech. 82. 70 Prezi: 26. 87. 24-25. 35. 10-11. 74 online: and assignments. 18-19. 26. 30. and student perceptions. 22. 5. 40. and quizzing. 14. 8. 40-41. 30. 102. 32. 80 pedagogy: 1-3. 37. 11. 39. 21. 81. 39 mastery learning: 84 media clip: 9 medical education: 46 mentors: 59 mobile device(s): 33. 12. 11. 26. and eLearning. 28. 100. 12-13. 66. 54. 77. 70-73. 83. 79-80. 68. 48. 24. 18. 27. 104. 55 Skype: 74 social participation: 80 social presence: 30-31 SoftChalk: 84-85. 102. and customizable. 104 instruction(s): 7. 5. 65-66. 27-30. 22. 72. 68. and learning. 89. 1-3. 2. 19-23. 39 internationalizing curriculum: 52-53 internet: 2. 75. 77. 97. 72. 94 S sales: 29. 99 shared construction of knowledge: 80 significant learning: 75 simplex method: 98-99 simulation(s): 2-3. and post-examination. 97. 12. 66. 75. 10-15. 53. 72. 47-48. 36. 95 lecture illustration: 23 linear programming: 98-99 literature course: 10 M management: 2. 73. 56-57. 26. 89. 46-48. 108 . 91-92. 87. 100-102 manual: 29. 31. and maximize. 5. 15-16. 36. 8788. 25-33. 37. 9. 63. 97. 6061. 61. 53. 26-27. 46. 95. 73. 6869. 94. 95 screen sharing: 58 self-assessment: 84 self-reflection: 49 sensory impairments: 47-48 service-learning: 44-45. 103. 75. 77. and mastery. 44. 31. 100. 49. 79. 79 L learning: 1-3. 46-47. 49. 80. and technology. 77. 28-30. 75. 13. 25-26. and type. 43-44 participation: and electronic. 73 motivation: 2. 65-66. 67. 52. 32. 90. 41-50. 37. 74. 65. 37 PowerPoint: 18. and discussion forums. 52-54. 27-28. 56. 32. and management system(s). 25. 87 Spanish: 10. and technology. 77 retention: 10. and significant. 87. 43. 39. 84-85. 26. 100. 108 multiple campuses: 60 multiple choice questions: 66-67 N networking: 14. and blended. 47. 71. 90. 9. 19. 87-89. 88-90. 33. 37. 35-39. see also ‘clickers’ and ‘student response system’ physical science: 65-66 Physics: 1-2. 26. 45-46. 51-55.
82-83 website: 8. 73. and readily available. 97 web conferencing system(s): 30 web pages: 41. and online. 32. 65-66 Y YouTube: 8-10. 43-44 virtual microscopy: 36. 23. and design. and student. 41. 71. 52 threaded discussions: 24. 93. 63. 77. 71. 79. 32. 13-14. 96 V video: and assignment. 49. presentations. 79. and process. 82. 60-61. 78. 65. 98. 104 writing: 14. 104 team-based learning: 12-13. 44. 46. 21. see also ‘clickers’ and ‘personal response devices/systems’ student satisfaction: 52. 59. 87. 32. 49. 53. 87-89. 79-80. 77. 101 student response system: 54. 75. 91-92. 95. 89 . 22. 20. 84 web publishing: 71-72 web-based homework management: 101-102 webquests: 63. 25.quickhitstech. 49 virtual mapping: 20 W web 2. 14-15. 77. 101. 39. 72. 20-21. and integration. 12-13. 65-66. 25-26. 82. and evaluation. 104. 72.Index 129 www. 44-46. 72. 88-89. 13-14. 103-104.com student engagement: 10. 71. and clips. 75. 90 synchronous chats: 94 teaching and learning: 1-3. 82. 70. 13. 82. 65. 53. 31 videoconferencing: 58 virtual fieldtrip: 36. 89. 71-72 Wiki: 7. 107. and online. 101. 95-97. 56. 77. 65-66. 26.0: 80-81. 46-48. 28-29. 104-105 student feedback: 65-66. 59. 89 student video presentations: 31 student writing: 65-66 survey: 18. 97 technology: and instructional. 71-72.
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