Headings
DISASTER Vulnerability and aims of disaster management  “ MITIGATION”  Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management  The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA): in INDIA : Role and Plan  WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION: Role and plan  Mitigation Methods  Future Directions for Disaster Management in India  Areas of concern/Drawbacks

Natural disasters affect all countries, but burden falls disproportionately on developing countries Support to natural disaster reduction is both an issue of sustainable development and a matter of environmental justice requiring international solidarity 57% land : Earthquakes. Of these,12% : severe Earthquakes. 68% land : Drought. 12% land : Floods. 8% land : Cyclones. Chemical and industrial disasters and man-made disasters.


  

 

The effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters. Measures aimed at reducing the risk, impact or effects of a disaster or threatening disaster situation. Investments in Preparedness and Prevention Sustainable results, rather than spending money on relief after a disaster It is taking action now—before the next disaster—to reduce human and financial consequences later (analyzing risk, reducing risk, insuring against risk). Effective mitigation : Local risks, address the hard choices, and invest in long-term community well-being.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE DURING DISASTER .

etc) Mitigation Prevention .Response Monitoring Forecast warnings and early Preparedness Recovery Vulnerability analysis and risk assessment Applications (agriculture. water resources.

COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS Vulnerability Assessment Information System Response Mechanisms Planning Resource Base Public Education and Training Institutional Framework Warning Systems Rehearsals .

Panchayati Secretary. NGOs • . Irrigation) Revenue Department. Medical. Officers: Agriculture. Engineers (Housing. Deptl. Teachers.People : Individuals. Volunteers • Gram Panchayat : Sarpanch. Engineers. Doctors. Army & Police Personnel • Govt. Police etc. Roads & Buildings. Panchayati Members • Village elders : Caste/Community/Religious Leaders. Public Health. House-Holds.

Directions for Disaster Management in India Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management • Floods : Ministry of Water Resources • Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department • Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department • Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare • Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests • Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour • Nuclear Disasters : Department of Atomic Energy • Mine Disasters : Department of Mines .

with the Prime Minister as its Chairman.  Disaster Management Authorities :  At the State and District Levels headed by the Chief Ministers and Collectors/Zilla Parishad Chairmen respectively. .The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) :  The apex body for Disaster Management in India.

.

Secretaries of 14 Ministries and Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Function as Executive Committee of NDMA. headed by Chief Secretary. Chairperson of Zila Parishad as Co-Chairperson – interface between Govt. Coordination and Synergy. . State and District.  State Executive Committee (SEC).  DM Structure – At all three levels i. State Level  SDMA at State Level. National.e.  NDMA to Provide Guidance. District Level  DDMA headed by District Magistrate. headed by Chief Minister. will coordinate and monitor implementation of National Policy. and Public.    At the Centre  Central Ministries will Continue with Nodal Responsibilities. National Plan and State Plan. NDMA STRUCTURE: NDMA set up as Apex Body with Hon’ble PM as Chairperson.  National Executive Committee (NEC) .

5. Capacity Building (National Institute of Disaster Management). 2..  Financial Mechanism. Backed by – Institutional Framework and Legal Authority. 4. proactive. Preparedness. Creation of new Funds. 3. multi-disaster and technology-driven strategy through a culture of prevention.VISION: “To build A SAFE AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIA by developing a holistic. focusing on –  Pre-disaster Phase: 1. Mitigation.&Integrated Approach. Community based Disaster Management (including Public Awareness). Reconstruction and Recovery APPROACH: Paradigm Shift from Response Centric to a Holistic. 2. mitigation. preparedness and efficient response.( Response Fund and Mitigation Fund.  Post-disaster Phase: 1. Prompt and Efficient Response – Proactive.” STRATEGY A multi-dimensional Strategy. .Prevention.

. • Additional: Recommend provision of funds for mitigation and Preparedness measures. Training. PREPAREDNESS (including Capacity Development).NDMA MANDATE: • Lay down Policy and Guidelines. Coordination by the NDMA.  National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) – Superintendence.. etc. Preparedness.under guidelines of NDMA. Information & Communication Technology. Community Based Disaster Management. for natural and manmade disasters in partnership with the stakeholders concerned.  • Crisis Management Capacity Building & Training:  National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) . • • Response : Low Level Disasters – National Executive Committee. . . Awareness Generation. : Approve National Disaster Management (DM) Plan and DM Plans of Ministries & Departments. Coordinate enforcement and implementation of policy and plans. Direction and Administrative Control with NDMA. AWARENESS GENERATION. Medical Preparedness...  MITIGATION. REHABILITATION AND RECOVERY Grave Disasters – Execution by NEC and National Committee (NCMC). Psycho-Social Care and Trauma Management. Take Measures for :– PREVENTION.

 National Disaster Mitigation Fund : States and districts will administer mitigation funds National Disaster Response Fund : through the National Executive Committee. States and Districts will administer state Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Response Fund respectively.   National Disaster Response Force (NDRF): 8 Battalions being trained and deployed with CSSR and MFR equipments and tools in eight strategic locations. National Disaster Management Policy National Disaster Response Plan.   .

(Pune). chemical disasters. medical. Location: UP(Greater Noida). paramedicals Equipped and extensively trained in combating: natural. biological.       8batallions 8 locations. CISF (Central Industrial Security Force) and ITBP. Assam (Guwahati). WB(Kolkatta) Gujarat(Gandhinagar). Orissa (Mundalli). Toal strength: 1150 2 each from: BSF. dog squads.(Indo Tibet Border Police) 18 self contained specialist search Rescue teamns of 45 personnels. (Bhatinda) TN(Arakkonam). Punjab.CRPF. nuclear. MH. electricians. Bihar (Patna) and AP-Guntur–under construction .engineers.

 . Adopted mitigation and prevention as components of their development strategy. Each State is supposed to prepare a plan scheme for disaster mitigation in accordance with the approach outlined in the plan. essential  The Tenth Five Year Plan document has a detailed chapter on Disaster Management.  The plan emphasizes the fact that development cannot be sustainable without mitigation being built into developmental process.

documentation and policy advocacy in the field of disaster management. capacity building.National Centre for Disaster Management of the Indian Institute of Public Administration on 16th October. research.    Upgraded from the. Mission to make a disaster resilient India by developing and promoting a culture of prevention and preparedness at all levels . 2003 Constituted under the Disaster Management Act 2005 Entrusted with the nodal national responsibility for human resource development. training.

To mitigate the impact of drought in the long run.     .  Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)  Desert Development Programme (DDP) National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) Watershed Development Programme for Shifting Cultivation (WDPSC) Integrated Water Development Project (IWDP) Integrated Afforestation and Eco-development Project Scheme (IAEPS).

As an operational as well as learning organisation it is able to link local communities with national and international policies of relief and long-term recovery. practice and research related to disaster risk mitigation and reduction. Community-based action research. action planning and action advocacy organisation.       NGO based in Gujarat. India. Established after the 1987-89 Gujarat droughts Evolved from a project in 1989 to an autonomous organisation in 1995. Works towards bridging the gap between policy. Expanded work over the years to now cover 11 types of disasters in six areas of India and in seven countries in Asia. .

    Mass casualty incidents and the hospital administration/ doctor trained for this emergency. and preparation of in-service training of Hospital Managers and Professionals. In-service training of the current heath managers and medical personnel in Hospital Preparedness for emergencies or mass causality incident management is essential. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences Karnataka -the lead national resource institution for the purpose. For Future: MCI: two committees have been constituted for preparation of curriculum for introduction of emergency health management in MBBS curriculum. .

hospitals. places with high public visibility viz. . for disseminating the message of disaster risk reduction. : Print and electronic media. railway stations and bus terminals. • Use of government stationery viz. to make people aware of their vulnerabilities and promote creation of a safe living environment. commercial complexes and municipality offices etc.Awareness generation • Awareness generation campaign as part of its overall disaster risk management strategy. postal letters. schools. railway tickets. bank stationery. airline boarding cards and tickets etc. airports and post offices.

 Disaster management as a subject in Social Sciences has been introduced in the school curriculum for Class VIII -X. (The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and state Boards of Secondary Education. Special Focus to Northeastern States   . Teachers are being trained to teach disaster management Syllabus for Class X is being finalized and will be introduced in the course curriculum soon.

.

Framework for guidance to natural disaster mitigation and reduction WORLD METEREOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION’s contribution Risk identification. Early warnings for weather water or climate related Disasters. Vulnerability assessment & Hazard analysis Knowledge management Risk management applications Preparedness and emergency management Governance support . Monitoring. Adaptation measures.

Risk Identification: Adaptation measures Early warning systems and enhancing adaptive capacity to weather events and climate change. data and information pooling. best practices exchange. . Hazard maps are essential to prepare evacuation efficiently and to allow authorities to adjust land use and city planning. improved observation systems. Enhanced collaboration : between the climate and disaster reduction communities to the implementation of measures as environmental planning. Linkage between climate and disaster databases to assess different vulnerabilities Risk Identification: Hazard analysis Hazard mapping : to be extended to all countries as a tool for risk communication among policy makers and communities. strengthened technical cooperation. and close collaboration with policy makers.

through the Data Rescue and Climate Database Management Projects.WMO’s Agricultural Meteorology Programme • Guidance on the development of suppt systems for sustainable land management and agro-climatic zoning orwith the active participation of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology WMO : to assist in developing and managing climate databases. WMO’s Public Weather Services Programme contributes to this effort for the interpretation of forecasts and warnings .

 Minimizing the adverse effects of a hazard  Through effective precautionary actions Ensuring timely.  . appropriate and efficient organisation and delivery of emergency response following the impact of a disaster.

Reservoirs and other Water  Storages  Elevation of structures  Drainage Improvement  Flood control structures  Reforestation projects (watershed management)  Sea Walls/Coastal Protection Works Anti-erosion Works .  Earthen or soluble structures  Buried services and utilities  Food stores  Crops and livestock Main Mitigation Strategies.Elements at Risk  Everything in the flood plain.  Land use control  Engineering of structures  Dams.

Elements at Risk    Lightweight structures. . Planting of windbreaks. Main Mitigation Strategies.   Structural engineering measures. Elevated utilities (Power and communication lines) Fishing boats and other maritime industries.

keeping in view the maximum storm surge. by using debris or earth from sites which have been excavated.raise the level of the site selected for the cattle mounds to the final extent required. Surface Water Tanks .(BIS Codes) Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) will be asked to ensure this Buildings: Cyclone Shelters Efforts will be made to have cattle mounds adjacent to cyclone shelters.CYCLONES: Mitigation Plans      Constructing New building structure: The local community will be encouraged to construct houses which will be cyclone resistant. Drains. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have to be put in place in respect of the maintenance of Canals. .

Establishment of fodder banks at the village level for storage of fodder in the form of bales and blocks for feeding animals during drought and other natural calamities is an integral part of disaster mitigation The fodder bank must be established at a secure highland that may not be easily affected by a natural calamity.    Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include Resources. A few fodder banks to be developed as closed facilities to prevent them from getting contaminated .

Training. R &D and Documentation) .EARTHQUAKE MITIGATION PLANS     All new construction to comply with earthquakeresistant building codes and the modified techno-legal regime. which includes the revised town planning byelaws. landuse zoning Seismic Strengthening and Retrofitting of Lifeline and Priority Structures Creation of Public Awareness on Seismic Safety and Risk Reduction Capacity Development (Including Education.

.

.

The elements of earthquake engineering is being integrated into the undergraduate engineering and architecture courses.   The role of engineers and architects is crucial in reducing earthquake risks by ensuring that the construction adhere to the norms of seismically safety. The Course curriculum for adoption by various technical institutions and universities have been developed and circulated to the Universities and Technical Institutions for adoption in the under graduate curricula. .

  Ministry of Home Affairs : with All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) and Council of Architecture (COA) .revised curricula for engineering and architecture course from 20052006. Two National Programmes for Capacity Building in Earthquake Risk Mitigation for Engineers and Architects . have been approved to assist the State Govts in building capacities for earthquake mitigation in seismically safe building designs and related techno-legal requirements .

      The mitigation measures will take care of the new constructions The problem of unsafe existing buildings stock would still remain The new life line buildings : Hospitals. multistoried apartments The States have been advised to have these buildings assessed and where necessary retrofitted. schools. Financial institutions. The Ministries of Civil Aviation.Buildings where people congregate like cinema halls. Telecommunication. Power and Health and Family Welfare : necessary action for detailed evaluation and retrofitting of lifeline buildings located in seismically vulnerable zones --comply with BIS norms Ministry of Finance : had advised RBI. Railways. to issue suitable instructions to all the Banks and Financial Institutions to see that BIS .

A national strategy for mitigating landslide hazard in the country is being drawn up in consultation with all the agencies concerned. monitoring landslides/avalanches. . Geological Survey of India (GSI) as the nodal agency responsible for coordinating/ undertaking geological studies. studying the factors responsible and suggesting precautionary and preventive measure. The States/UTs have been requested to share the list of habitation close to landslide prone areas and their existing data base on landslide for the purpose of landslide hazard zonation being carried out by them. landslides hazard zonation.    A National Core Group : landslide hazard zonation and to evolve early warning systems and protocols for landslides/landslide risk reduction.

. the importance of basic hygiene and cleanliness. Documentation R& D. emergency medical technicians. drivers of ambulances. public health specialists to handle disasters due to natural epidemics/BT Community education/awareness about various disasters and development of Dos and Don’ts.paramedics.Biological Warfare (BW) and Bioterrorism (BT) Mitigation Plans     Training and Education: for medical officers. nurses.

NCC.         Strengthening disaster preparedness. Panchayati Raj Institutions Simulation exercises.Technology driven but people owned Knowledge Management: Documentation and dissemination of good practices Living with Risk: Community Based Disaster Risk Management . Mock drills and Scenario Analysis Indigenous knowledge systems and coping practices Inclusive. Women’s Groups. mitigation and enforcement of guidelines. gender sensitive. ecofriendly and disabled friendly disaster management. Homeguards) Mobilising stakeholder participation of Self Help Groups. Youth Groups.Code of conduct for all stake holders Encourage and consolidate knowledge networks Mobilise and training disaster volunteers for more effective preparedness. participatory. mitigation and response (NSS. Scouts and Guides. Civil Defence. child friendly.

000 Rural Knowledge Centres ( IT Kiosks): Need for Spatial e-Governance for informed decision making in disaster-prone areas: before. during and after disasters  . National Urban Renewal Mission for 70 cities: Major metros and megacities 100.

) Funding : Primacy of relief as disaster response. critical care medicine. etc. its close monitoring Integrating: scientific. transport. first aid . Standardised efforts in compiling and interpreting geospatial data. Few experts and inventory of resources Sustainability of efforts Providing Emergency medicine. communication. satellite imagery and early warning signals. technological and administrative agencies Terrestrial communication links which collapse in the event of a rapid onset disaster Vulnerability of critical infrastructures (power supply. water supply.         Early Warning System network.

 Higher authorities must lobby in governments to ensure animals are taken into account when plans are being drawn up.  To make clients understand the simple tasks that can be undertaken before or during a disaster to make sure their animals survive and are not separated from their families.VETERINARIAN ROLE IN MITIGATION: Be prepared:  Prophylactic vaccination. Advising on livestock:  Restocking. worming & husbandry programmes. and maintaining viable breeding stocksVital to vulnerable regions in the coming years. ahead of an event. .