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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Page 1 of 131
TENSION, COMPRESSION, SHEAR

DESIGN PROBLEMS

1. The link shown, made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled, is subjected to a tensile load
of 8000 lb. Let b h 5 . 1 = . If the load is repeated but not reversed, determine the
dimensions of the section with the design based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield
strength. (c) If this link, which is 15 in. long., must not elongate more than 0.005
in., what should be the dimensions of the cross section?


Problems 1 – 3.
Solution:
For AISI C1045 steel, as rolled (Table AT 7)
ksi s
u
96 =
ksi s
y
59 =
psi E
6
10 30× =

A
F
s
d
=
where
lb F 8000 =
bh A =
but
b h 5 . 1 =
therefore
2
5 . 1 b A =

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
A
F
N
s
s
u
d
= =
2
5 . 1
8000
6
000 , 96
b
=
in b 577 . 0 = say in
8
5
.
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
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in b h
16
15
5 . 1 = =

(b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
A
F
N
s
s
u
d
= =
2
5 . 1
8000
3
000 , 59
b
=
in b 521 . 0 = say in
16
9
.
in b h
32
27
5 . 1 = =

(c) Elongation =
AE
FL
= δ
where,
in 005 . 0 = δ
lb F 8000 =
psi E
6
10 30× =
in L 15 =
2
5 . 1 b A =
then,
AE
FL
= δ
( )( )
( )( )
6 2
10 30 5 . 1
15 8000
005 . 0
×
=
b

in b 730 . 0 = say in
4
3
.
in b h
8
1
1 5 . 1 = =

2. The same as 1 except that the material is malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35
018.

Solution:
For malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018(Table AT 6)
ksi s
u
55 =
ksi s
y
5 . 36 =
psi E
6
10 25× =

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 3 of 131
A
F
s
d
=
where
lb F 8000 =
bh A =
but
b h 5 . 1 =
therefore
2
5 . 1 b A =

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
A
F
N
s
s
u
d
= =
2
5 . 1
8000
6
000 , 55
b
=
in b 763 . 0 = say in
8
7
.
in b h
16
5
1 5 . 1 = =

(b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
A
F
N
s
s
u
d
= =
2
5 . 1
8000
3
500 , 36
b
=
in b 622 . 0 = say in
16
11
.
in b h
32
1
1 5 . 1 = =

(c) Elongation =
AE
FL
= δ
where,
in 005 . 0 = δ
lb F 8000 =
psi E
6
10 25× =
in L 15 =
2
5 . 1 b A =
then,
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 4 of 131
AE
FL
= δ
( )( )
( )( )
6 2
10 25 5 . 1
15 8000
005 . 0
×
=
b

in b 8 . 0 = say in
8
7
.
in b h
16
5
1 5 . 1 = =

3. The same as 1 except that the material is gray iron, ASTM 30.

Solution:
For ASTM 30 (Table AT 6)
ksi s
u
30 = , no
y
s
psi E
6
10 5 . 14 × =
Note: since there is no
y
s for brittle materials. Solve only for (a) and (c)
A
F
s
d
=
where
lb F 8000 =
bh A =
but
b h 5 . 1 =
therefore
2
5 . 1 b A =

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 7 ~ 8 say 7.5 (Table 1.1)
A
F
N
s
s
u
d
= =
2
5 . 1
8000
5 . 7
000 , 30
b
=
in b 1547 . 1 = say in
16
3
1 .
in b h
32
25
1 5 . 1 = =
(c) Elongation =
AE
FL
= δ
where,
in 005 . 0 = δ
lb F 8000 =
psi E
6
10 5 . 14 × =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
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in L 15 =
2
5 . 1 b A =
then,
AE
FL
= δ
( )( )
( )( )
6 2
10 5 . 14 5 . 1
15 8000
005 . 0
×
=
b

in b 050 . 1 = say in
16
1
1 .
in b h
32
19
1 5 . 1 = =

4. A piston rod, made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2), is subjected to a
repeated, reversed load. The rod is for a 20-in. air compressor, where the
maximum pressure is 125 psig. Compute the diameter of the rod using a design
factor based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield strength.

Solution:
From Fig. AF 2 for AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
ksi s
u
5 . 152 =
ksi s
y
5 . 132 =

( ) ( ) kips lb force F 27 . 39 270 , 39 125 20
4
2
= = = =
π

From Table 1.1, page 20
8 =
u
N
4 =
y
N

(a) Based on ultimate strength
u
u
s
F N
A =
( )( )
5 . 152
27 . 39 8
4
2
= d
π

in d 62 . 1 = say in
8
5
1

(b) Based on yield strength
y
y
s
F N
A =
( )( )
5 . 132
27 . 39 4
4
2
= d
π

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 6 of 131
in d 23 . 1 = say in
4
1
1

5. A hollow, short compression member, of normalized cast steel (ASTM A27-58,
65 ksi), is to support a load of 1500 kips with a factor of safety of 8 based on the
ultimate strength. Determine the outside and inside diameters if
i o
D D 2 = .

Solution:
ksi s
u
65 =
8 =
u
N
kips F 1500 =
( ) ( )
4
3
4
4 4
2
2 2 2 2 i
i i i o
D
D D D D A
π π π
= − = − =
( )( )
65
1500 8
4
3
2
= = =
u
u i
s
F N D
A
π

in D
i
85 . 8 = say in
8
7
8
in D D
i o
4
3
17
8
7
8 2 2 = |
¹
|

\
|
= =

6. A short compression member with
i o
D D 2 = is to support a dead load of 25 tons.
The material is to be 4130 steel, WQT 1100 F. Calculate the outside and inside
diameters on the basis of (a) yield strength, (b) ultimate strength.

Solution:
From Table AT 7 for 4130, WQT 1100 F
ksi s
u
127 =
ksi s
y
114 =

From Table 1.1 page 20, for dead load
4 ~ 3 =
u
N , say 4
2 ~ 5 . 1 =
y
N , say 2
Area, ( ) ( )
4
3
4
4 4
2
2 2 2 2 i
i i i o
D
D D D D A
π π π
= − = − =
kips tons F 50 25 = =

(a) Based on yield strength
( )( )
114
50 2
4
3
2
= = =
y
y
i
s
F N
D
A
π

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 7 of 131
in D
i
61 . 0 = say in
8
5

in D D
i o
4
1
1
8
5
2 2 = |
¹
|

\
|
= =
(b) Based on ultimate strength
( )( )
127
50 4
4
3
2
= = =
u
u i
s
F N D
A
π

in D
i
82 . 0 = say in
8
7

in D D
i o
4
3
1
8
7
2 2 = |
¹
|

\
|
= =

7. A round, steel tension member, 55 in. long, is subjected to a maximum load of
7000 lb. (a) What should be its diameter if the total elongation is not to exceed
0.030 in? (b) Choose a steel that would be suitable on the basis of yield strength if
the load is gradually applied and repeated (not reversed).

Solution:

(a)
AE
FL
= δ or
E
FL
A
δ
=
where,
lb F 7000 =
in L 55 =
in 030 . 0 = δ
psi E
6
10 25× =
( )( )
( )( )
6
2
10 30 030 . 0
55 7000
4 ×
= = d A
π

in d 74 . 0 = say in
4
3

(b) For gradually applied and repeated (not reversed) load
3 =
y
N
( )( )
( )
psi
A
F N
s
y
y
534 , 47
75 . 0
4
7000 3
2
= = =
π

ksi s
y
48 ≈
say C1015 normalized condition ( ksi s
y
48 = )

8. A centrifuge has a small bucket, weighing 0.332 lb. with contents, suspended on a
manganese bronze pin (B138-A, ½ hard) at the end of a horizontal arm. If the pin
is in double shear under the action of the centrifugal force, determine the diameter
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 8 of 131
needed for 10,000 rpm of the arm. The center of gravity of the bucket is 12 in.
from the axis of rotation.

Solution:
From Table AT 3, for B138-A, ½ hard
ksi s
us
48 =
r
g
W
F
2
ω =
where
lb W 332 . 0 =
2
2 . 32 fps g =
( )
sec 1047
60
000 , 10 2
60
2
rad
n
= = =
π π
ω
in r 12 =
( ) ( ) kips lb r
g
W
F 3 . 11 300 , 11 1 1047
2 . 32
332 . 0
2 2
= = = = ω
From Table 1.1, page 20
4 ~ 3 = N , say 4
u
u
s
F N
A =
( )( )
48
3 . 11 4
4
2
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
d
π
for double shear
in d 774 . 0 = say in
32
25


CHECK PROBLEMS

9. The link shown is made of AISIC1020 annealed steel, with in b
4
3
= and
in h
2
1
1 = . (a) What force will cause breakage? (b) For a design factor of 4 based
on the ultimate strength, what is the maximum allowable load? (c) If 5 . 2 = N
based on the yield strength, what is the allowable load?

Problem 9.
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 9 of 131

Solution:
For AISI C1020 annealed steel, from Table AT 7
ksi s
u
57 =
ksi s
y
42 =

(a) A s F
u
=
2
125 . 1
2
1
1
4
3
in bh A = |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
( )( ) kips F 64 125 . 1 57 = =
(b)
u
u
N
A s
F =
4 =
u
N
2
125 . 1
2
1
1
4
3
in bh A = |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
( )( )
kips F 16
4
125 . 1 57
= =

(c)
y
y
N
A s
F =
5 . 2 =
y
N
2
125 . 1
2
1
1
4
3
in bh A = |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
( )( )
kips F 9 . 18
2
125 . 1 42
= =

10. A ¾-in.bolt, made of cold-finished B1113, has an effective stress area of 0.334 sq.
in. and an effective grip length of 5 in. The bolt is to be loaded by tightening until
the tensile stress is 80 % of the yield strength, as determined by measuring the
total elongation. What should be the total elongation?

Solution:
E
sL
= δ
from Table AT 7 for cold-finished B1113
ksi s
y
72 =
then, ( ) ksi s s
y
6 . 57 72 8 . 0 80 . 0 = = =
ksi psi E 000 , 30 10 30
6
= × =
( )( )
in
E
sL
0096 . 0
000 , 30
5 6 . 57
= = = δ
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
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11. A 4-lb. weight is attached by a 3/8-in. bolt to a rotating arm 14-in. from the center
of rotation. The axis of the bolts is normal to the plane in which the centrifugal
force acts and the bolt is in double shear. At what speed will the bolt shear in two
if it is made of AISI B1113, cold finish?

Solution:
From Table AT 7, psi ksi s
us
000 , 62 62 = =
( )
2
2
2209 . 0
8
3
4
1
2 in A =
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= π
A s r
g
W
F
us
= =
2
ω
( ) ( )( ) 2209 . 0 000 , 62 14
2 . 32
4
2
= ω
sec 74 . 88 rad = ω
74 . 88
60
2
= =
n π
ω
rpm n 847 =

12. How many ¾-in. holes could be punched in one stroke in annealed steel plate of
AISI C1040, 3/16-in. thick, by a force of 60 tons?

Solution:

For AISI C1040, from Figure AF 1
ksi s
u
80 =
( ) ksi ksi s s
u us
60 80 75 . 0 75 . 0 = = =
t d A π =

kips tons F 120 60 = =
n = number of holes
( )( )
9
60 2209 . 0
120
= = =
us
As
F
n holes

13. What is the length of a bearing for a 4-in. shaft if the load on the bearing is 6400
lb. and the allowable bearing pressure is 200 psi of the projected area?

Solution:
W pDL =
where
psi p 200 =
in D 4 =
lb W 6400 =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
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( )( ) 6400 4 200 = L
in L 8 =

BENDING STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

14. A lever keyed to a shaft is in L 15 = long and has a rectangular cross section of
t h 3 = . A 2000-lb load is gradually applied and reversed at the end as shown; the
material is AISI C1020, as rolled. Design for both ultimate and yield strengths. (a)
What should be the dimensions of a section at in a 13 = ? (b) at in b 4 = ? (c) What
should be the size where the load is applied?

Problem 14.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled, Table AT 7
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
y
49 =
Design factors for gradually applied and reversed load
8 =
u
N
4 =
y
N
12
3
th
I = , moment of inertial
but t h 3 =
36
4
h
I =

Moment Diagram (Load Upward)



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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 12 of 131

Based on ultimate strength
u
u
N
s
s =

(a)
I
Fac
I
Mc
s = =
2
h
c =
kips lbs F 2 2000 = =
( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
36
2
13 2
8
65
4
h
h
s
in h 86 . 3 =
in
h
t 29 . 1
3
86 . 3
3
= = =
say
in in h
2
1
4 5 . 4 = =
in in t
2
1
1 5 . 1 = =

(b)
I
Fbc
I
Mc
s = =
2
h
c =
kips lbs F 2 2000 = =
( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
36
2
4 2
8
65
4
h
h
s
in h 61 . 2 =
in
h
t 87 . 0
3
61 . 2
3
= = =
say
in h 3 =
in t 1 =

(c)

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 13 of 131


4 13
3 5 . 4
4
3


=
− h

in h 33 . 2 =
4 13
1 5 . 1
4
1


=
−t

in t 78 . 0 =
say
in h 625 . 2 = or in h
8
5
2 =

15. A simple beam 54 in. long with a load of 4 kips at the center is made of cast steel,
SAE 080. The cross section is rectangular (let b h 3 ≈ ). (a) Determine the
dimensions for 3 = N based on the yield strength. (b) Compute the maximum
deflection for these dimensions. (c) What size may be used if the maximum
deflection is not to exceed 0.03 in.?

Solution:
For cast steel, SAE 080 (Table AT 6)
ksi s
y
40 =
psi E
6
10 30× =


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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 14 of 131
From Table AT 2
Max.
( )( )
in kips
FL
M − = = = 54
4
54 4
4

12
3
bh
I =
but b h 3 =
36
4
h
I =

(a)
I
Mc
N
s
s
y
y
= =
2
h
c =
( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
36
2
54
3
40
4
h
h

in h 18 . 4 =
in
h
b 39 . 1
3
18 . 4
3
= = =

say in h
2
1
4 = , in in
h
b
2
1
1 5 . 1
3
5 . 4
3
= = = =

(b)
( )( )
( )
( )( )
in
EI
FL
0384 . 0
12
5 . 4 5 . 1
10 30 48
54 4000
48
3
6
3 3
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
= = δ
(c)
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
36
48
4
3
h
E
FL
δ
( )( ) ( )
( )( )
4 6
3
10 30 48
36 54 4000
03 . 0
h ×
=
in h 79 . 4 =
in
h
b 60 . 1
3
79 . 4
3
= = =

say in in h
4
1
5 25 . 5 = = , in in
h
b
4
3
1 75 . 1
3
25 . 5
3
= = = =


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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 15 of 131
16. The same as 15, except that the beam is to have a circular cross section.

Solution:
(a)
I
Mc
N
s
s
y
y
= =
64
4
d
I
π
=
2
d
c =
3 4
32
64
2
d
M
d
d
M
s
π π
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
3
54 32
3
40
d π
=
in d 46 . 3 =
say in d
2
1
3 =

(b)
EI
FL
48
3
= δ
64
4
d
I
π
=
( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
in
d E
FL
0594 . 0
5 . 3 10 30 48
54 4000 64
48
64
4 6
3
4
3
=
×
= =
π π
δ
(c)
( )
4
3
48
64
d E
FL
π
δ =
( )( )
( )( )
4 6
3
10 30 48
54 4000 64
03 . 0
d π ×
=
in d 15 . 4 =
say in d
4
1
4 =


17. A simple beam, 48 in. long, with a static load of 6000 lb. at the center, is made of
C1020 structural steel. (a) Basing your calculations on the ultimate strength,
determine the dimensions of the rectangular cross section for b h 2 = . (b)
Determine the dimensions based on yield strength. (c) Determine the dimensions
using the principle of “limit design.”

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 16 of 131
Solution:

From Table AT 7 and Table 1.1
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
y
48 =
4 ~ 3 =
u
N , say 4
2 ~ 5 . 1 =
y
N , say 2

( )( )
kips in
FL
M − = = = 72
4
48 6
4

I
Mc
s =
2
h
c =
12
3
bh
I =
but
2
h
b =
24
4
h
I =
3 4
12
24
2
h
M
h
h
M
s =
|
¹
|

\
|
=

(a) Based on ultimate strength
3
12
h
M
N
s
s
u
u
= =
( )
3
72 12
4
65
h
=
in h 76 . 3 =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 17 of 131
in
h
b 88 . 1
2
76 . 3
2
= = =

say in in h
4
3
3 75 . 3 = = , in in
h
b
8
7
1 875 . 1
2
75 . 3
2
= = = =

(b) Based on yield strength
3
12
h
M
N
s
s
y
y
= =
( )
3
72 12
2
48
h
=
in h 30 . 3 =
in
h
b 65 . 1
2
30 . 3
2
= = =
say in in h
2
1
3 5 . 3 = = , in in
h
b
4
3
1 75 . 1
2
5 . 3
2
= = = =

(c) Limit design (Eq. 1.6)

4
2
bh
s M
y
=
( )
4
2
48 72
2
h
h
|
¹
|

\
|
=
in h 29 . 2 =
in
h
b 145 . 1
2
29 . 2
2
= = =
say in in h
2
1
2 5 . 2 = = , in in
h
b
4
1
1 25 . 1
2
5 . 2
2
= = = =

18. The bar shown is subjected to two vertical loads,
1
F and
2
F , of 3000 lb. each, that
are in L 10 = apart and 3 in. ( a , d ) from the ends of the bar. The design factor is 4
based on the ultimate strength; b h 3 = . Determine the dimensions h and b if the
bar is made of (a) gray cast iron, SAE 111; (b) malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-
52, grade 35 018; (c) AISI C1040, as rolled (Fig. AF 1). Sketch the shear and
moment diagrams approximately to scale.
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 18 of 131

Problems18, 19.
Solution:
lb R R F F 3000
2 1 2 1
= = = =

Moment Diagram

( )( ) in kips in lbs a R M − = − = = = 9 9000 3 3000
1

N = factor of safety = 4 based on
u
s
12
3
bh
I =
2
h
c =
36 12
3
4
3
h
h
h
I =
|
¹
|

\
|
=

(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 111
ksi s
u
30 = , Table AT 6
3 4
18
36
2
h
M
h
h
M
I
Mc
N
s
s
u
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= = =
( )
3
9 18
4
30
h
s = =
in h 78 . 2 =
in
h
b 93 . 0
3
78 . 2
3
= = =
say in h 5 . 3 = , in b 1 =

(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 19 of 131
ksi s
u
55 = , Table AT 6
3 4
18
36
2
h
M
h
h
M
I
Mc
N
s
s
u
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= = =
( )
3
9 18
4
55
h
s = =
in h 28 . 2 =
in
h
b 76 . 0
3
28 . 2
3
= = =
say in h
4
1
2 = , in b
4
3
=

(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled
ksi s
u
90 = , Fig. AF 1
3 4
18
36
2
h
M
h
h
M
I
Mc
N
s
s
u
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= = =
( )
3
9 18
4
90
h
s = =
in h 93 . 1 =
in
h
b 64 . 0
3
93 . 1
3
= = =
say in h
8
7
1 = , in b
8
5
=

19. The same as 18, except that
1
F acts up (
2
F acts down).

Solution:

[ ]

= 0
A
M lb R R 1875
2 1
= =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 20 of 131
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram


= M maximum moment = 5625 lb-in = 5.625 kips-in

(a) For gray cast iron

3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
625 . 5 18
4
30
h
=
in h 38 . 2 =
in
h
b 79 . 0
3
38 . 2
3
= = =
say in h
4
1
2 = , in b
4
3
=
(b) For malleable cast iron

3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
625 . 5 18
4
55
h
=
in h 95 . 1 =
in
h
b 65 . 0
3
95 . 1
3
= = =
say in h
8
7
1 = , in b
8
5
=

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 21 of 131
(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled

3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
625 . 5 18
4
90
h
=
in h 65 . 1 =
in
h
b 55 . 0
3
65 . 1
3
= = =
say in h
2
1
1 = , in b
2
1
=

20. The bar shown, supported at A and B , is subjected to a static load F of 2500 lb.
at 0 = θ . Let in d 3 = , in L 10 = and b h 3 = . Determine the dimensions of the
section if the bar is made of (a) gray iron, SAE 110; (b) malleable cast iron,
ASTM A47-52, grade 32 510; (c) AISI C1035 steel, as rolled. (d) For economic
reasons, the pins at A, B, and C are to be the same size. What should be their
diameter if the material is AISI C1035, as rolled, and the mounting is such that
each is in double shear? Use the basic dimensions from (c) as needed. (e) What
sectional dimensions would be used for the C1035 steel if the principle of “limit
design” governs in (c)?

Problems 20, 21.
Solution:

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 22 of 131

[ ]

= 0
A
M ( ) 2500 13 3 =
B
R
lb R
B
833 , 10 =
[ ]

= 0
B
M ( ) 2500 10 3 =
A
R
lb R
A
8333 =
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram


( )( ) in kips in lb M − = − = = 25 000 , 25 10 2500

b h 3 =
12
3
bh
I =
36
4
h
I =
2
h
c =
3 4
18
36
2
h
M
h
h
M
I
Mc
s =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =

(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110
ksi s
u
20 = , Table AT 6
6 ~ 5 = N , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
25 18
6
20
h
=
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 23 of 131
in h 13 . 5 =
in
h
b 71 . 1
3
= =
say in h
4
1
5 = , in b
4
3
1 =
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510
ksi s
u
52 = , ksi s
y
34 =
4 ~ 3 = N , say 4 for ductile, dead load
3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
25 18
4
52
h
=
in h 26 . 3 =
in
h
b 09 . 1
3
= =
say in h
4
3
3 = , in b
4
1
1 =
(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled
ksi s
u
85 = , ksi s
y
55 =
4 = N , based on ultimate strength
3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
25 18
4
85
h
=
in h 77 . 2 =
in
h
b 92 . 0
3
= =
say in h 3 = , in b 1 =

(d) For AISI C1035, as rolled
ksi s
su
64 =
4 = N , kips R
B
833 . 10 =
A
R
N
s
s
B su
s
= =
2 2
2 4
2 D D A
π π
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
2
2
833 . 10
4
64
D
s
s
π
= =
in D 657 . 0 =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 24 of 131
say in D
16
11
=
(e) Limit Design
4
2
bh
s M
y
=
For AISI C1035 steel, ksi s
y
55 =
3
h
b =
( )
4
3
55 25
2
h
h
M
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
in h 76 . 1 =
in
h
b 59 . 0
3
= =
say in in h
8
7
1 875 . 1 = = , in b
8
5
=

21. The same as 20, except that
o
30 = θ . Pin B takes all the horizontal thrust.

Solution:

θ cos F F
V
=
[ ]

= 0
A
M
V B
F R 13 3 =
( ) 30 cos 2500 13 3 =
B
R
lb R
B
9382 =
[ ]

= 0
B
M
V A
F R 10 3 =
( ) 30 cos 2500 10 3 =
A
R
lb R
A
7217 =
Shear Diagram
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 25 of 131

Moment Diagram

( )( ) in kips in lb M − = − = = 65 . 21 650 , 21 10 2165
3
18
h
M
s =
(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110
ksi s
u
20 = , Table AT 6
6 ~ 5 = N , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
65 . 21 18
6
20
h
=
in h 89 . 4 =
in
h
b 63 . 1
3
= =
say in h
4
1
5 = , in b
4
3
1 =
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510
ksi s
u
52 = , ksi s
y
34 =
4 ~ 3 = N , say 4 for ductile, dead load
3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
65 . 21 18
4
52
h
=
in h 11 . 3 =
in
h
b 04 . 1
3
= =
say in h 3 = , in b 1 =
(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled
ksi s
u
85 = , ksi s
y
55 =
4 = N , based on ultimate strength
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 26 of 131
3
18
h
M
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
3
65 . 21 18
4
85
h
=
in h 64 . 2 =
in
h
b 88 . 0
3
= =
say in h
8
5
2 = , in b
8
7
=

(d) For AISI C1035, as rolled
ksi s
su
64 =
4 = N , lb R
BV
9382 =
lb F F R
H BH
1250 30 sin 2500 sin = = = = θ
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
1250 9382 + = + =
BH BV B
R R R
lb R
B
9465 =
A
R
N
s
s
B su
s
= =
2 2
2 4
2 D D A
π π
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
2
2
465 . 9
4
64
D
s
s
π
= =
in D 614 . 0 =
say in D
8
5
=
(e) Limit Design
4
2
bh
s M
y
=
For AISI C1035 steel, ksi s
y
55 =
3
h
b =
( )
4
3
55 65 . 21
2
h
h
M
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
in h 68 . 1 =
in
h
b 56 . 0
3
= =
say in in h
8
7
1 875 . 1 = = , in b
8
5
=
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 27 of 131


22. A cast-iron beam, ASTM 50, as shown, is 30 in. long and supports two gradually
applied, repeated loads (in phase), one of 2000 lb. at in e 10 = from the free end,
and one of 1000 lb at the free end. (a) Determine the dimensions of the cross
section if a c b 3 ≈ = . (b) The same as (a) except that the top of the tee is below.

Problem 22.
Solution:

For cast iron, ASTM 50
ksi s
u
50 = , ksi s
uc
164 =
For gradually applied, repeated load
8 ~ 7 = N , say 8

( ) e d F d F M + + =
2 1

where:
lb F 2000
1
=
lb F 1000
2
=
in d 20 10 30 = − =
in e d 30 = +
( )( ) ( )( ) in kips in lb M − = − = + = 70 000 , 70 30 1000 20 2000

I
Mc
s =
Solving for I , moment of inertia

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]y a a a a
a
a a
a
a a 3 3
2
5
3
2
3 + = |
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|

2
3a
y =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 28 of 131


( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
2
17
3
12
3
3
12
3
4
2
3
2
3
a
a a a
a a
a a a
a a
I = + + + =

(a)


2
3a
c
t
=
2
5a
c
c
=
Based on tension
I
Mc
N
s
s
t u
t
= =
( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
17
2
3
70
8
50
4
a
a

in a 255 . 1 =
Based on compression
I
Mc
N
s
s
c uc
c
= =
( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
17
2
5
70
8
164
4
a
a

in a 001 . 1 =
Therefore in a 255 . 1 =
Or say in a
4
1
1 =
And ( ) in a c b 75 . 3 25 . 1 3 3 = = = =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 29 of 131
Or in c b
4
3
3 = =

(b) If the top of the tee is below

2
5a
c
t
=
2
3a
c
c
=
2
17
4
a
I =
in kips M − = 70

Based on tension
I
Mc
N
s
s
t u
t
= =
( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
17
2
5
70
8
50
4
a
a

in a 488 . 1 =
Based on compression
I
Mc
N
s
s
c uc
c
= =
( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
17
2
3
70
8
164
4
a
a

in a 845 . 0 =
Therefore in a 488 . 1 =
Or say in a
2
1
1 =
And in a c b
2
1
4 3 = = =

CHECK PROBLEMS

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 30 of 131
23. An I-beam is made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled. It has a depth of 3
in. and is subjected to two loads;
1
F and
1 2
2F F = ;
1
F is 5 in. from one end and
2
F is 5 in. from the other ends. The beam is 25 in. long; flange width is
in b 509 . 2 = ;
4
9 . 2 in I
x
= . Determine (a) the approximate values of the load to
cause elastic failure, (b) the safe loads for a factor of safety of 3 based on the yield
strength, (c) the safe load allowing for flange buckling (i1.24), (f) the maximum
deflection caused by the safe loads.

Problems 23 – 25.
Solution:

[ ]

= 0
A
M ( )
B
R F F 25 2 20 5
1 1
= +

1
8 . 1 F R
B
=
[ ]

= 0
V
F
B A
R R F F + = +
1 1
2

1 1 1
2 . 1 8 . 1 3 F F F R
A
= − =
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 31 of 131
1
9F M = = maximum moment
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
y
48 =

(a)
I
Mc
s
y
=
where in
d
c 5 . 1
2
3
2
= = =
( )( )
9 . 2
5 . 1 9
48
1
F
s
y
= =
kips F 31 . 10
1
=
kips F F 62 . 20 2
1 2
= =

(b)
I
Mc
N
s
s
y
= =
( )( )
9 . 2
5 . 1 9
3
48
1
F
s = =
kips F 44 . 3
1
=
kips F F 88 . 6 2
1 2
= =

(c) 15 96 . 9
509 . 2
25
< = =
b
L
(page 34)
ksi s
c
20 = ( page 34, i1.24)
I
Mc
s
c
=
( )( )
9 . 2
5 . 1 9
20
1
F
=
kips F 30 . 4
1
=
kips F F 60 . 8 2
1 2
= =

(d) For maximum deflection,
by method of superposition, Table AT 2
( )
2
3
max
3 3
(
¸
(

¸

′ + ′
=
b L a
EIL
b F
y , b a ′ >
or
( )
2
3
max
3 3
(
¸
(

¸
+ ′
=
a L b
EIL
Fa
y , a b > ′


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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 32 of 131
max
y caused by
1
F
( )
2
3
1 1 1 1
max
3 3
1 (
¸
(

¸
+ ′
=
a L b
EIL
a F
y ,
1 1
a b > ′
where ksi E 000 , 30 =
in a 5
1
=
in b 20
1
= ′
in L 25 =

4
9 . 2 in I =
( )
( )( )( )
( )
1
2
3
1
max
0022 . 0
3
5 25 20
25 9 . 2 000 , 30 3
5
1
F
F
y =
(
¸
(

¸
+
=

max
y caused by
2
F
( )
2
3
2 2 2 2
max
3 3
2 (
¸
(

¸

′ + ′
=
b L a
EIL
b F
y ,
2 2
b a ′ >
where in b 5
2
= ′
in a 20
2
=
( )
( )( )( )
( )
1
2
3
1
max
0043 . 0
3
5 25 20
25 9 . 2 000 , 30 3
5 2
2
F
F
y =
(
¸
(

¸
+
=

Total deflection = δ
1 1 1 max max
0065 . 0 0043 . 0 022 . 0
2 1
F F F y y = + = + = δ

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)
( ) in
a
067 . 0 31 . 10 0065 . 0 = = δ
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
( ) in
b
022 . 0 44 . 3 0065 . 0 = = δ
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
( ) in
c
028 . 0 30 . 4 0065 . 0 = = δ

24. The same as 23, except that the material is aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated.

Solution:

For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated
ksi s
y
47 =

(a)
I
Mc
s
y
=
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 33 of 131
( )( )
9 . 2
5 . 1 9
47
1
F
s
y
= =
kips F 10 . 10
1
=
kips F F 20 . 20 2
1 2
= =

(b)
I
Mc
N
s
s
y
= =
( )( )
9 . 2
5 . 1 9
3
47
1
F
s = =
kips F 36 . 3
1
=
kips F F 72 . 6 2
1 2
= =

(c) 15 96 . 9
509 . 2
25
< = =
b
L
(page 34)
ksi s
c
20 = ( page 34, i1.24)
I
Mc
s
c
=
( )( )
9 . 2
5 . 1 9
20
1
F
=
kips F 30 . 4
1
=
kips F F 60 . 8 2
1 2
= =

(d) Total deflection = δ
1 1 1 max max
0065 . 0 0043 . 0 022 . 0
2 1
F F F y y = + = + = δ

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)
( ) in
a
066 . 0 10 . 10 0065 . 0 = = δ
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
( ) in
b
022 . 0 36 . 3 0065 . 0 = = δ
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
( ) in
c
028 . 0 30 . 4 0065 . 0 = = δ

25. A light I-beam is 80 in. long, simply supported, and carries a static load at the
midpoint. The cross section has a depth of in d 4 = , a flange width of in b 66 . 2 = ,
and
4
0 . 6 in I
x
= (see figure). (a) What load will the beam support if it is made of
C1020, as-rolled steel, and flange buckling (i1.24) is considered? (b) Consider the
stress owing to the weight of the beam, which is 7.7 lb/ft, and decide whether or
not the safe load should be less.
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 34 of 131

Solution:

(a) For C1020, as rolled, ksi s
u
65 =
Consider flange buckling
30
66 . 2
80
= =
b
L

since 40 15 < <
b
L

( )
ksi
b
L
s
c
15
1800
30
1
5 . 22
1800 1
5 . 22
2 2
=
+
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
I
Mc
s =
in
d
c 2
2
4
2
= = =

From Table AT 2
( )
F
F FL
M 20
4
80
4
= = =
I
Mc
s s
c
= =
( )( )
6
2 20
15
F
=
kips F 25 . 2 = , safe load

(b) Considering stress owing to the weight of the beam

add’l
8
2
wL
M = (Table AT 2)
where ft lb w 7 . 7 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 35 of 131
add’l
( )
in kips in lb
wL
M − = − =
|
¹
|

\
|
= = 513 . 0 513
8
80
12
7 . 7
8
2 2

513 . 0 20 + = F M = total moment
I
Mc
s s
c
= =
( )( )
6
2 513 . 0 20
15
+
=
F

kips F 224 . 2 =
Therefore, the safe load should be less.

26. What is the stress in a band-saw blade due to being bent around a 13 ¾-in. pulley?
The blade thickness is 0.0265 in. (Additional stresses arise from the initial tension
and forces of sawing.)

Solution:

in
t
c 01325 . 0 0265 . 0
2
= = =
in r 76325 . 13 01325 . 0 75 . 13 = + =
Using Eq. (1.4) page 11 (Text)
r
Ec
s =
where psi E
6
10 30× =
( )( )
psi s 881 , 28
76325 . 13
01325 . 0 10 30
6
=
×
=

27. A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section is tapered so that the depth varies
uniformly from 4 in. at the fixed end to 1 in. at the free end. The width is 2 in. and
the length 30 in. What safe load, acting repeated with minor shock, may be
applied to the free end? The material is AISI C1020, as rolled.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 = (Table AT 7)
Designing based on ultimate strength,
6 = N , for repeated, minor shock load
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 36 of 131
ksi
N
s
s
u
8 . 10
6
65
= = =
Loading Diagram


x
h 1
30
1 4 −
=


1 10 . 0 + = x h
12
3
wh
I =
2
h
c =
Fx M =
( )
( )
2 2 2 3
1 10 . 0
3 3
2
6
12
2
+
= = =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
x
Fx
h
Fx
h
Fx
wh
h
Fx
I
Mc
s
Differentiating with respect to x then equate to zero to solve for x giving maximum
stress.
( ) ( ) ( )( )( )
( )
0
1 10 . 0
10 . 0 1 10 . 0 2 1 1 10 . 0
3
4
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ − +
=
x
x x x
F
dx
ds

( ) 0 10 . 0 2 1 10 . 0 = − + x x
in x 10 =
( ) in h 2 1 10 10 . 0 = + =
2
3
h
Fx
N
s
s
u
= =
( )
( )
2
2
10 3
8 . 10
F
=
kips F 44 . 1 =

TORSIONAL STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 37 of 131
28. A centrifugal pump is to be driven by a 15-hp electric motor at 1750 rpm. What
should be the diameter of the pump shaft if it is made of AISI C1045 as rolled?
Consider the load as gradually repeated.

Solution:

For C1045 as rolled,
ksi s
y
59 =
ksi s
us
72 =
Designing based on ultimate strength
N
s
s
us
= , 6 = N (Table 1.1)
ksi s 12
6
72
= =
Torque,
( )
( )
kips in lb in lb ft
n
hp
T − = − = − = = = 540 . 0 540 45
1750 2
15 000 , 33
2
000 , 33
π π

For diameter,
3
16
d
T
s
π
=
( )
3
540 . 0 16
12
d π
=
in d 612 . 0 =
say in d
8
5
=

29. A shaft in torsion only is to transmit 2500 hp at 570 rpm with medium shocks. Its
material is AISI 1137 steel, annealed. (a) What should be the diameter of a solid
shaft? (b) If the shaft is hollow,
i o
D D 2 = , what size is required? (c) What is the
weight per foot of length of each of these shafts? Which is the lighter? By what
percentage? (d) Which shaft is the more rigid? Compute the torsional deflection
of each for a length of 10 ft.

Solution:
( )
( )
kips in lb ft
n
hp
T − = − = = = 276 036 , 23
570 2
2500 000 , 33
2
000 , 33
π π

For AISI 1137, annealed
ksi s
y
50 = (Table AT 8)
ksi s s
y ys
30 6 . 0 = =

Designing based on yield strength
3 = N for medium shock, one direction

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 38 of 131

Design stress
ksi
N
s
s
ys
10
3
30
= = =

(a) Let D = shaft diameter

J
Tc
s =
32
4
D
J
π
=
2
D
c =
3
16
D
T
s
π
=
( )
3
276 16
10
D π
=
in D 20 . 5 =
say in D
4
1
5 =

(b)
( ) ( ) [ ]
32
15
32
2
32
4 4 4 4 4
i i i i o
D D D D D
J
π π π
=

=

=
i
i o
D
D D
c = = =
2
2
2

3 4
15
32
32
15
i i
i
D
T
D
TD
s
π π
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
3
15
276 32
10
i
D π
=
in D
i
66 . 2 =
in D D
i o
32 . 5 2 = =
say
in D
i
8
5
2 =
in D
o
4
1
5 =

(c) Density,
3
284 . 0 in lb = ρ (Table AT 7)


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 39 of 131
For solid shaft
= w weight per foot of length
( )( ) ft lb D D w 8 . 73 25 . 5 284 . 0 3 3
4
12
2 2 2
= = = |
¹
|

\
|
= π πρ
π
ρ

For hollow shaft
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ft lb D D D D w
i o i o
3 . 55 625 . 2 25 . 5 284 . 0 3 3
4
12
2 2 2 2 2 2
= − = − = − |
¹
|

\
|
= π πρ
π
ρ
Therefore hollow shaft is lighter
Percentage lightness = ( ) % 5 . 33 % 100
3 . 55
3 . 55 8 . 73
=



(d) Torsional Deflection

JG
TL
= θ
where
in ft L 120 10 = =
ksi G
3
10 5 . 11 × =
For solid shaft,
32
4
D
J
π
=
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
o
2 . 2
180
039 . 0 039 . 0
10 5 . 11 25 . 5
32
120 276
3 4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π
θ rad
For hollow shaft,
( )
32
4 4
i o
D D
J

=
π

( )( )
( ) ( ) [ ]( )
( )
o
4 . 2
180
041 . 0 041 . 0
10 5 . 11 625 . 2 25 . 5
32
120 276
3 4 4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
× −
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π
θ rad
Therefore, solid shaft is more rigid,
o o
4 . 2 2 . 2 <

30. The same as 29, except that the material is AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F.

Solution:
( )
( )
kips in lb ft
n
hp
T − = − = = = 276 036 , 23
570 2
2500 000 , 33
2
000 , 33
π π

For AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F
ksi s
y
130 =
( ) ksi s s
y ys
78 130 6 . 0 6 . 0 = = =

Designing based on yield strength
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 40 of 131
3 = N for mild shock


Design stress
ksi
N
s
s
ys
26
3
78
= = =

(a) Let D = shaft diameter

J
Tc
s =
32
4
D
J
π
=
2
D
c =
3
16
D
T
s
π
=
( )
3
276 16
26
D π
=
in D 78 . 3 =
say in D
4
3
3 =

(b)
( ) ( ) [ ]
32
15
32
2
32
4 4 4 4 4
i i i i o
D D D D D
J
π π π
=

=

=
i
i o
D
D D
c = = =
2
2
2

3 4
15
32
32
15
i i
i
D
T
D
TD
s
π π
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
3
15
276 32
26
i
D π
=
in D
i
93 . 1 =
in D D
i o
86 . 3 2 = =
say
in D
i
2 =
in D
o
4 =

(c) Density,
3
284 . 0 in lb = ρ (Table AT 7)

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 41 of 131

For solid shaft
= w weight per foot of length
( )( ) ft lb D D w 6 . 37 75 . 3 284 . 0 3 3
4
12
2 2 2
= = = |
¹
|

\
|
= π πρ
π
ρ

For hollow shaft
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ft lb D D D D w
i o i o
1 . 32 2 4 284 . 0 3 3
4
12
2 2 2 2 2 2
= − = − = − |
¹
|

\
|
= π πρ
π
ρ
Therefore hollow shaft is lighter
Percentage lightness = ( ) % 1 . 17 % 100
1 . 32
1 . 32 6 . 37
=



(d) Torsional Deflection

JG
TL
= θ
where
in ft L 120 10 = =
ksi G
3
10 5 . 11 × =
For solid shaft,
32
4
D
J
π
=
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
o
48 . 8
180
148 . 0 148 . 0
10 5 . 11 75 . 3
32
120 276
3 4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π
θ rad
For hollow shaft,
( )
32
4 4
i o
D D
J

=
π

( )( )
( ) ( ) [ ]( )
( )
o
99 . 6
180
122 . 0 122 . 0
10 5 . 11 2 4
32
120 276
3 4 4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
× −
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π
θ rad
Therefore, hollow shaft is more rigid,
o o
48 . 8 99 . 6 < .

31. A steel shaft is transmitting 40 hp at 500 rpm with minor shock. (a) What should
be its diameter if the deflection is not to exceed 1
o
in D 20 ? (b) If deflection is
primary what kind of steel would be satisfactory?

Solution:
(a)
( )
( )
kips in lb ft
n
hp
T − = − = = = 04 . 5 420
500 2
40 000 , 33
2
000 , 33
π π

ksi G
3
10 5 . 11 × =
D L 20 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 42 of 131
rad
180
1
π
θ = =
o

JG
TL
= θ
( )( )
( )
3
4
10 5 . 11
32
20 04 . 5
180
×
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
D
D
π
π

in D 72 . 1 =
say in D
4
3
1 =

(b)
( )
( )
ksi
D
T
s 8 . 4
75 . 1
04 . 5 16 16
3 3
= = =
π π


Based on yield strength
3 = N
( )( ) ksi Ns s
ys
4 . 14 8 . 4 3 = = =
ksi
s
s
ys
y
24
6 . 0
4 . 14
6 . 0
= = =
Use C1117 normalized steel ksi s
y
35 =

32. A square shaft of cold-finish AISI 1118 transmits a torsional moment of 1200 in-
lb. For medium shock, what should be its size?

Solution:

For AISI 1118 cold-finish
ksi s
y
75 =
ksi s s
y ys
45 6 . 0 = =
3 = N for medium shock
Z
T
N
s
s
ys

= =
where, b h =
9
2
9
2
3 2
b h b
Z = = ′ (Table AT 1)
kips in lb in T − = − = 2 . 1 1200
( )
3
2
9 2 . 1
3
45
b
s = =
in h b 71 . 0 = =
say in h b
4
3
= =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 43 of 131


CHECK PROBLEMS

33. A punch press is designed to exert a force sufficient to shear a 15/16-in. hole in a
½-in. steel plate, AISI C1020, as rolled. This force is exerted on the shaft at a
radius of ¾-in. (a) Compute the torsional stress in the 3.5-in. shaft (bending
neglected). (b) What will be the corresponding design factor if the shaft is made
of cold-rolled AISI 1035 steel (Table AT 10)? Considering the shock loading that
is characteristics of this machine, do you thick the design is safe enough?

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
us
49 =

( ) Dt s F
us
π =
where in D
16
15
=
in t
2
1
=
( ) kips F 2 . 72
2
1
16
15
49 = |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= π
Fr T =
where in r
4
3
=
( ) kips in T − = |
¹
|

\
|
= 2 . 54
4
3
2 . 72

(a)
3
16
d
T
s
π
=
where in d 5 . 3 =
( )
( )
ksi s 44 . 6
5 . 3
2 . 54 16
3
= =
π


(b) For AISI 1035 steel, ksi s
us
64 =
for shock loading, traditional factor of safety, 15 ~ 10 = N

Design factor , 94 . 9
44 . 6
64
= = =
s
s
N
us
, the design is safe ( 10 ≈ N )

34. The same as 33, except that the shaft diameter is 2 ¾ in.

Solution:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 44 of 131
in d 75 . 2 =

(a)
3
16
d
T
s
π
=
( )
( )
ksi s 3 . 13
75 . 2
2 . 54 16
3
= =
π


(b) For AISI 1035 steel, ksi s
us
64 =
for shock loading, traditional factor of safety, 15 ~ 10 = N

Design factor , 8 . 4
3 . 13
64
= = =
s
s
N
us
, the design is not safe ( 10 < N )

35. A hollow annealed Monel propeller shaft has an external diameter of 13 ½ in. and
an internal diameter of 6 ½ in.; it transmits 10,000 hp at 200 rpm. (a) Compute the
torsional stress in the shaft (stress from bending and propeller thrust are not
considered). (b) Compute the factor of safety. Does it look risky?

Solution:

For Monel shaft,
ksi s
us
98 = (Table AT 3)
4 ~ 3 = N , for dead load, based on ultimate strength

(a)
J
Tc
s =
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
4
4 4 4 4
3086
32
5 . 6 5 . 13
32
in
D D
J
i o
=

=

=
π π

in
D
c
o
75 . 6
2
5 . 13
2
= = =
( )
( )
kips in lb ft
n
hp
T − = − = = = 3152 606 , 262
200 2
000 , 10 000 , 33
2
000 , 33
π π

( )( )
ksi s 9 . 6
3086
75 . 6 3152
= =
(b) Factor of safety,

2 . 14
9 . 6
98
= = =
s
s
N
us
, not risky

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 45 of 131




STRESS ANALYSIS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

36. A hook is attached to a plate as shown and supports a static load of 12,000 lb. The
material is to be AISI C1020, as rolled. (a) Set up strength equations for
dimensions d , D, h , and t . Assume that the bending in the plate is negligible.
(b) Determine the minimum permissible value of these dimensions. In estimating
the strength of the nut, let d D 2 . 1
1
= . (c) Choose standard fractional dimensions
which you think would be satisfactory.

Problems 36 – 38.

Solution:
s = axial stress
s
s = shear stress

(a)

2
2
4
4
1
d
F
d
F
s
π
π
= =
Equation (1)
s
F
d
π
4
=

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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 46 of 131
( )
( ) ( ) [ ] ( )
2 2 2 2 2
1
2
2
1
2 44 . 1
4
2 . 1
4 4
4
1
d D
F
d D
F
D D
F
D D
F
s

=

=

=

=
π π π
π

Equation (2)
2
44 . 1
4
d
s
F
D + =
π

dh
F
h D
F
s
s
π π 2 . 1
1
= =
Equation (3)
s
ds
F
h
π 2 . 1
=
Dt
F
s
s
π
=
Equation (4)
s
Ds
F
t
π
=

(b) Designing based on ultimate strength,
Table AT 7, AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
us
49 =

4 ~ 3 = N say 4, design factor for static load
ksi
N
s
s
u
16
4
65
= = =
ksi
N
s
s
us
s
12
4
49
= = =

kips lb F 12 000 , 12 = =

From Equation (1)
( )
( )
in
s
F
d 98 . 0
16
12 4 4
= = =
π π

From Equation (2)
( )
( )
( ) in d
s
F
D 53 . 1 98 . 0 44 . 1
16
12 4
44 . 1
4
2 2
= + = + =
π π

From Equation (3)
( )( )
in
ds
F
h
s
27 . 0
12 98 . 0 2 . 1
12
2 . 1
= = =
π π

From Equation (4)
( )( )
in
Ds
F
t
s
21 . 0
12 53 . 1
12
= = =
π π


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 47 of 131



(c) Standard fractional dimensions

in d 1 =
in D
2
1
1 =
in h
4
1
=
in t
4
1
=

37. The same as 36, except that a shock load of 4000 lb. is repeatedly applied.

Solution:

(a) Same as 36.

(b) 15 ~ 10 = N for shock load, based on ultimate strength
say 15 = N , others the same.
ksi
N
s
s
u
4
15
65
= = =
ksi
N
s
s
us
s
3
15
49
= = =

kips lb F 4 4000 = =

From Equation (1)
( )
( )
in
s
F
d 13 . 1
4
4 4 4
= = =
π π

From Equation (2)
( )
( )
( ) in d
s
F
D 76 . 1 13 . 1 44 . 1
4
4 4
44 . 1
4
2 2
= + = + =
π π

From Equation (3)
( )( )
in
ds
F
h
s
31 . 0
3 13 . 1 2 . 1
4
2 . 1
= = =
π π

From Equation (4)
( )( )
in
Ds
F
t
s
24 . 0
3 76 . 1
4
= = =
π π



http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 48 of 131



(c) Standard fractional dimensions

in d
8
1
1 =
in D
4
3
1 =
in h
8
3
=
in t
4
1
=

38. The connection between the plate and hook, as shown, is to support a load F .
Determine the value of dimensions D, h , and t in terms of d if the connection
is to be as strong as the rod of diameter d . Assume that d D 2 . 1
1
= ,
u us
s s 75 . 0 = ,
and that bending in the plate is negligible.

Solution:

2
4
1
d
F
s
π
=
s d F
2
4
1
π =
(1)
|
¹
|

\
|
=
N
s
d F
u 2
4
1
π
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 49 of 131
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
2
44 . 1
4
1
4
1
d D
F
D D
F
s

=

=
π π

( )s d D F
2 2
44 . 1
4
1
− = π
(2) ( )
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
N
s
d D F
u 2 2
44 . 1
4
1
π
dh
F
h D
F
s
s
π π 2 . 1
1
= =
s
dhs F π 2 . 1 =
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
N
s
dh
N
s
dh F
u us
75 . 0
2 . 1 2 . 1 π π
(3)
|
¹
|

\
|
=
N
s
dh F
u
5
9 . 0 π
Dt
F
s
s
π
=
s
Dts F π =
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
N
s
Dt
N
s
Dt F
u us
75 . 0
π π
(4)
|
¹
|

\
|
=
N
s
Dt F
u
π 75 . 0

Equate (2) and (1)
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
− =
N
s
d
N
s
d D F
u u 2 2 2
4
1
44 . 1
4
1
π π
2 2
44 . 2 d D =
d D 562 . 1 =
Equate (3) and (1)
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
N
s
d
N
s
dh F
u u 2
4
1
9 . 0 π π
( )
d
d
h 278 . 0
9 . 0 4
= =
Equate (4) and (1)
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
N
s
d
N
s
Dt F
u u 2
4
1
75 . 0 π π
( )( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
N
s
d
N
s
t d F
u u 2
4
1
562 . 1 75 . 0 π π
( )( )
d
d
t 214 . 0
562 . 1 75 . 0 4
= =
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 50 of 131

39. (a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. Neglect bending effects. (b) Design this
connection for a load of 2500 lb. Both plates and rivets are of AISI C1020, as
rolled. The load is repeated and reversed with mild shock. Make the connection
equally strong on the basis of yield strengths in tension, shear, and compression.

Problems 39, 40
Solution:

(a)
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
4
1
5 D
F
s
s
π

Equation (1)
s
s
F
D
π 5
4
=
( ) D b t
F
s
2 −
=
Equation (2) D
ts
F
b 2 + =
Dt
F
s
5
=
Equation (3)
Ds
F
t
5
=

(b) For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
y
48 = (Table AT 7)
ksi s s
y ys
28 6 . 0 = =

4 = N for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
ksi s 12
4
48
= =
ksi s
s
7
4
28
= =
From Equation (1)
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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 51 of 131
s
s
F
D
π 5
4
=
where
kips lb F 5 . 2 2500 = =
( )
( )
in
s
F
D
s
30 . 0
7 5
5 . 2 4
5
4
= = =
π π
say in
16
5


From Equation (3)
( )
in
Ds
F
t 13 . 0
12
16
5
5
5 . 2
5
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= = say in
32
5


From Equation (2)
( )
in D
ts
F
b 96 . 1
16
5
2
12
32
5
5 . 2
2 =
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
= + = say in 2

40. The same as 39, except that the material is 2024-T4, aluminum alloy.

Solution:
(a) Same as 39.

(b) ) For 2024-T4, aluminum alloy
ksi s
y
47 = (Table AT 3)
ksi s s
y ys
25 55 . 0 = =

4 = N for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
ksi s 12
4
47
= =
ksi s
s
6
4
25
= =
From Equation (1)
s
s
F
D
π 5
4
=
where
kips lb F 5 . 2 2500 = =
( )
( )
in
s
F
D
s
33 . 0
6 5
5 . 2 4
5
4
= = =
π π
say in
8
3


From Equation (3)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 52 of 131
( )
in
Ds
F
t 11 . 0
12
8
3
5
5 . 2
5
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= = say in
8
1


From Equation (2)
( )
in D
ts
F
b 42 . 2
8
3
2
12
8
1
5 . 2
2 =
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
= + = say in
2
1
2

41. (a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. (b) Design this connection for a load of 8000 lb.
Use AISI C1015, as rolled, for the rivets, and AISI C1020, as rolled, for the
plates. Let the load be repeatedly applied with minor shock in one direction and
make the connection equally strong on the basis of ultimate strengths in tension,
shear, and compression.

Problem 41.
Solution:

(a)


( ) D b t
F
s
P

= or
( ) D b t
F
s
P
2
4
3

= Equation (1)



( ) 2
4
1
4
2
|
¹
|

\
|
=
D
F
s
sR
π
Equation (2)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 53 of 131

Dt
F
s
R
4
= Equation (3)

(b) For AISI C1015, as rolled

ksi s
uR
61 = , ksi s s
uR usR
45 75 . 0 = =
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
uP
65 =

6 = N , based on ultimate strength
ksi
N
s
s
uP
P
8 . 10
6
65
= = =
ksi
N
s
s
uR
R
1 . 10
6
61
= = =
ksi
N
s
s
usR
sR
5 . 7
6
45
= = =
kips lb F 8 8000 = =
Solving for D
2
2 D
F
s
sR
π
=
( )
in
s
F
D
sR
412 . 0
5 . 7 2
8
2
= = =
π π
say in
16
7

Solving for t
Dt
F
s
R
4
=
( )
in
Ds
F
t
R
453 . 0
1 . 10
16
7
4
8
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= = say in
2
1

Solving for b
Using
( ) D b t
F
s
P

=
( )
in D
ts
F
b
P
92 . 1
16
7
8 . 10
2
1
8
= +
|
¹
|

\
|
= + = say in 2
Using
( ) D b t
F
s
P
2
4
3

=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 54 of 131
( )
( )
in D
ts
F
b
P
99 . 1
16
7
2
8 . 10
2
1
4
8 3
2
4
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
= + = say in 2
Therefore
in b 2 =
in D
16
7
=
in t
2
1
=

42. Give the strength equations for the connection shown, including that for the shear
of the plate by the cotter.

Problems 42 – 44.
Solution:
Axial Stresses

2
1
2
1
4
4
1
D
F
D
F
s
π
π
= = Equation (1)
( )e D L
F
s
2

= Equation (2)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 55 of 131
e D
F
s
2
= Equation (3)
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
1
D a
F
D a
F
s

=

=
π
π
Equation (4)
e D D
F
e D D
F
s
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
1

=

=
π
π
Equation (5)

Shear Stresses

eb
F
s
s
2
= Equation (6)

( )t e D L
F
s
s
+ −
=
2
2
Equation (7)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 56 of 131

at
F
s
s
π
= Equation (8)

m D
F
s
s
1
π
= Equation (9)

h D
F
s
s
2
2
= Equation (10)


43. A steel rod, as-rolled AISI C1035, is fastened to a 7/8-in., as-rolled C1020 plate
by means of a cotter that is made of as-rolled C1020, in the manner shown. (a)
Determine all dimensions of this joint if it is to withstand a reversed shock load
kips F 10 = , basing the design on yield strengths. (b) If all fits are free-running
fits, decide upon tolerances and allowances.

Solution: (See figure of Prob. 42)
in in t 875 . 0
8
7
= = ,
y sy
s s 6 . 0 =
For steel rod, AISI C1035, as rolled
ksi s
y
55
1
=
ksi s
sy
33
1
=
For plate and cotter, AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
y
48
2
=
ksi s
sy
28
2
=

7 ~ 5 = N based on yield strength
say 7 = N

From Equation (1) (Prob. 42)
2
1
4
1
D
F
N
s
s
y
π
= =
( )
2
1
10 4
7
55
D π
=
in D 27 . 1
1
=
say in D
4
1
1
1
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 57 of 131
From Equation (9)
m D
F
N
s
s
sy
s
1
1
π
= =
m
|
¹
|

\
|
=
4
1
1
10
7
33
π

in m 54 . 0 =
say in m
16
9
=
From Equation (3)
e D
F
N
s
s
y
2
1
= =
e D
s
2
10
7
55
= =
273 . 1
2
= e D
From Equation (5)
e D D
F
N
s
s
y
2
2
2
4
4
1

= =
π

( )
( ) 273 . 1 4
10 4
7
55
2
2

=
D π

in D 80 . 1
2
=
say in D
4
3
1
2
=
and 273 . 1
2
= e D
273 . 1
4
3
1 = |
¹
|

\
|
e
in e 73 . 0 =
say in e
4
3
=
By further adjustment
Say in D 2
2
= , in e
8
5
=
From Equation (8)
at
F
N
s
s
sy
s
π
= =
2

( ) 875 . 0
10
7
28
a π
=
in a 91 . 0 =
say in a 1 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 58 of 131
From Equation (4)
( )
2
2
2
4
2
D a
F
N
s
s
y

= =
π

( )
( )
2 2
2
10 4
7
48

=
a π

in a 42 . 2 =
say in a
2
1
2 =
use in a
2
1
2 =
From Equation (7)
( )t e D L
F
N
s
s
sy
s
+ −
= =
2
2
2

( ) 875 . 0
8
5
2 2
10
7
28
|
¹
|

\
|
+ −
=
L

in L 80 . 2 =
say in L 3 =
From Equation (6)
eb
F
N
s
s
sy
s
2
2
= =
b
|
¹
|

\
|
=
8
5
2
10
7
28

in b 2 =
From Equation (10)
h D
F
N
s
s
sy
s
2
2
2
= =
( )h 2 2
10
7
28
=
in in h
8
5
625 . 0 = =
Summary of Dimensions
in L 3 =
in h
8
5
=
in b 2 =
in t
8
7
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 59 of 131
in m
16
9
=
in a
2
1
2 =
in D
4
1
1
1
=
in D 2
2
=
in e
8
5
=

(b) Tolerances and allowances, No fit, tolerance = in 010 . 0 ±
in L 010 . 0 3± =
in h 010 . 0 625 . 0 ± =

in t 010 . 0 875 . 0 ± =
in m 010 . 0 5625 . 0 ± =
in a 010 . 0 500 . 2 ± =
in D 010 . 0 25 . 1
1
± =
For Free Running Fits (RC 7) Table 3.1
Female Male
in b
0000 . 0
0030 . 0
0 . 2

+
= in b
0058 . 0
0040 . 0
0 . 2


=
allowance = 0.0040 in
in D
0000 . 0
0030 . 0
0 . 2
2

+
= in D
0058 . 0
0040 . 0
0 . 2
2


=
allowance = 0.0040 in
in e
0000 . 0
0016 . 0
625 . 0

+
= in e
0030 . 0
0020 . 0
625 . 0


=
allowance = 0.0020 in

44. A 1-in. (
1
D ) steel rod (as-rolled AISI C1035) is to be anchored to a 1-in. steel
plate (as-rolled C1020) by means of a cotter (as rolled C1035) as shown. (a)
Determine all the dimensions for this connection so that all parts have the same
ultimate strength as the rod. The load F reverses direction. (b) Decide upon
tolerances and allowances for loose-running fits.

Solution: (Refer to Prob. 42)

(a) For AISI C1035, as rolled
ksi s
u
85
1
=
ksi s
us
64
1
=
For AISI C1020, as rolled
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 60 of 131
ksi s
u
65
2
=
ksi s
us
48
2
=

Ultimate strength
Use Equation (1)
( ) ( ) kips D s F
u u
8 . 66 1
4
1
85
4
1
2 2
1
1
= |
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
= π π
Equation (9)
m D s F
us u 1
1
π =
( )( )( )m 1 64 8 . 66 π =
in m 33 . 0 =
say in m
8
3
=
From Equation (3)
e D s F
u u 2
1
=
( ) e D
2
85 8 . 66 =
7859 . 0
2
= e D
From Equation (5)
|
¹
|

\
|
− = e D D s F
u u 2
2
2
4
1
1
π
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
− = 7859 . 0
4
1
85 8 . 66
2
2
D π
in D 42 . 1
2
=
say in D
8
3
1
2
=
7859 . 0
8
3
1
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
= e e D
in e 57 . 0 =
say in e
16
9
=
From Equation (4)
( )
(
¸
(

¸

− =
2
2
2
4
1
2
D a s F
u u
π
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− |
¹
|

\
|
=
2
2
8
3
1
4
1
65 8 . 66 a π
in a 79 . 1 =
say in a
4
3
1 =
From Equation (8)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 61 of 131
at s F
us u
π
2
=
( )( )( )( ) 1 48 8 . 66 a π =
in a 44 . 0 =
say in a
2
1
=
use in a
4
3
1 =
From Equation (2)
( )e D L s F
u u 2
2
− =
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
16
9
8
3
1 65 8 . 66 L
in L 20 . 3 =
say in L
4
1
3 =
From Equation (7)
( )t e D L s F
us u
− − =
2
2
2
( ) ( ) 1
16
9
8
3
1 48 2 8 . 66 |
¹
|

\
|
− − = L
in L 51 . 1 =
say in L
2
1
1 =
use in L
4
1
3 =
From Equation (6)
eb s F
us u
1
2 =
( ) b |
¹
|

\
|
=
16
9
64 2 8 . 66
in b 93 . 0 =
say in b 1 =
From Equation (10)
h D s F
us u 2
1
2 =
( ) h |
¹
|

\
|
=
8
3
1 64 2 8 . 66
in h 38 . 0 =
say in h
8
3
=
Dimensions
in L
4
1
3 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 62 of 131
in h
8
3
=
in b 1 =
in t 1 =
in m
8
3
=
in a
4
3
1 =
in D 1
1
=
in D
8
3
1
2
=
in e
16
9
=

(b) Tolerances and allowances, No fit, tolerance = in 010 . 0 ±
in L 010 . 0 25 . 3 ± =
in h 010 . 0 375 . 0 ± =
in t 010 . 0 000 . 1 ± =
in m 010 . 0 375 . 0 ± =
in a 010 . 0 75 . 1 ± =
in D 010 . 0 000 . 1
1
± =
For Loose Running Fits (RC 8) Table 3.1
Female Male
in b
0000 . 0
0035 . 0
0 . 1

+
= in b
0065 . 0
0045 . 0
0 . 1


=
allowance = 0.0045 in
in D
0000 . 0
0040 . 0
375 . 1
2

+
= in D
0075 . 0
0050 . 0
375 . 1
2


=
allowance = 0.0050 in
in e
0000 . 0
0028 . 0
5625 . 0

+
= in e
0051 . 0
0035 . 0
5625 . 0


=
allowance = 0.0035 in

45. Give all the simple strength equations for the connection shown. (b) Determine
the ratio of the dimensions a , b , c , d , m, and n to the dimension D so that the
connection will be equally strong in tension, shear, and compression. Base the
calculations on ultimate strengths and assume
u us
s s 75 . 0 = .
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 63 of 131

Problems 45 – 47.
Solution:
(a) Neglecting bending

Equation (1):
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
4
1
D s F π
Equation (2):
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
4
1
2 c s F
s
π
Equation (3): ( ) bc s F 2 =
Equation (4): ( ) ac s F =
Equation (5): ( ) [ ] b c d s F − = 2
Equation (6): ( ) mb s F
s
4 =
Equation (7): ( ) nb s F
s
2 =
Equation (8): ( )a c d s F − =

(b)
N
s
s
u
= and
N
s
s
us
s
=
Therefore
s s
s
75 . 0 =
Equate (2) and (1)
|
¹
|

\
|
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
2 2
4
1
4
1
2 D s c s F
s
π π
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
2 2
4
1
2
1
75 . 0 D s c s
D c 8165 . 0 =
Equate (3) and (1)
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
2
4
1
2 D s bc s F π
( )
2
4
1
8165 . 0 2 D D b π =
D b 4810 . 0 =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 64 of 131
Equate (4) and (1)
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
2
4
1
D s sac F π
( )
2
4
1
8165 . 0 D D a π =
D a 9619 . 0 =
Equate (5) and (1)
( ) [ ]
|
¹
|

\
|
= − =
2
4
1
2 D s b c d s F π
( )( )
2
4
1
4810 . 0 8165 . 0 2 D D d π = −
D d 6329 . 1 =
Equate (6) and (1)
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
2
4
1
4 D s mb s F
s
π
( )( )
2
4
1
4810 . 0 4 75 . 0 D D m π =
D m 5443 . 0 =
Equate (7) and (1)
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
2
4
1
2 D s nb s F
s
π
( )( )
2
4
1
4810 . 0 2 75 . 0 D D n π =
D n 0886 . 1 =
Equate (8) and (1)
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= − =
2
4
1
D s a c d s F π
( )
2
4
1
8165 . 0 6329 . 1 D a D D π = − −
D a 9620 . 0 =

Summary
D a 9620 . 0 =
D b 4810 . 0 =
D c 8165 . 0 =
D d 6329 . 1 =
D m 5443 . 0 =
D n 0886 . 1 =

46. The same as 45, except that the calculations are to be based on yield strengths. Let
y sy
s s 6 . 0 = .

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES
Page 65 of 131
Solution: (Refer to Prob. 45)
(a) Neglecting bending

Equation (1):
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
4
1
D s F π
Equation (2):
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
4
1
2 c s F
s
π
Equation (3): ( ) bc s F 2 =
Equation (4): ( ) ac s F =
Equation (5): ( ) [ ] b c d s F − = 2
Equation (6): ( ) mb s F
s
4 =
Equation (7): ( ) nb s F
s
2 =
Equation (8): ( )a c d s F − =

(b)
N
s
s
y
= and
N
s
s
sy
s
=
Therefore
s s
s
6 . 0 =
Equate (2) and (1)
|
¹
|

\
|
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
2 2
4
1
4
1
2 D s c s F
s
π π
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
2 2
4
1
2
1
6 . 0 D s c s
D c 9129 . 0 =
Equate (3) and (1)
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
2
4
1
2 D s bc s F π
( )
2
4
1
9129 . 0 2 D D b π =
D b 4302 . 0 =

Equate (4) and (1)
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
2
4
1
D s sac F π
( )
2
4
1
9129 . 0 D D a π =
D a 8603 . 0 =
Equate (5) and (1)
( ) [ ]
|
¹
|

\
|
= − =
2
4
1
2 D s b c d s F π
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 1 of 62
VARYING STRESSES – NO CONCENTRATION

DESIGN PROBLEMS

141. The maximum pressure of air in a 20-in. cylinder (double-acting air compressor)
is 125 psig. What should be the diameter of the piston rod if it is made of AISI
3140, OQT at 1000 F, and if there are no stress raisers and no column action? Let
75 . 1 = N ; indefinite life desired. How does your answer compare with that
obtained for 4?

Solution:
For AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
ksi s
u
153 =
ksi s
y
134 =

( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 76 153 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
For axial loading, with size factor
( )( )( ) ksi s s
u n
52 5 . 76 85 . 0 8 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
Soderberg line
n
a
y
m
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

For double-acting
( ) ( ) kips lb pA F F 27 . 39 270 , 39 20
4
125
2
max
= =
|
¹
|

\
|
= = =
π

kips F F 27 . 39
min
− = − =
0 =
m
s
( )
2 2 2
50 27 . 39 4 4
d d d
F
s
a
= = =
π π

52
50
0
75 . 1
1 1
2
|
¹
|

\
|
+ = =
d
N

in d 2972 . 1 =
say in d
16
5
1 =
comparative to Problem 4.

142. A link as shown is to be made of AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F. The load kips F 5 =
is repeated and reversed. For the time being, ignore stress concentrations. (a) If
its surface is machined, what should be its diameter for 40 . 1 = N . (b) The same
as (a), except that the surface is mirror polished. What would be the percentage
saving in weight? (c) The same as (a), except that the surface is as forged.
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 2 of 62

Prob. 142 – 144

Solution:
For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F
ksi s
u
105 =
ksi s
y
85 =

( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 52 105 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
0 =
m
s
( )
2 2 2
20 5 4 4
d d d
F
s
a
π π π
= = =
Soderberg line
n
a
y
m
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

n
a
s
s
N
+ = 0
1

N
s
s
n
a
=
Size factor = 0.85
Factor for axial loading = 0.80

(a) Machined surface
Surface factor = 0.85 (Fig. AF 5)
( )( )( )( ) ksi ksi s s
u n
345 . 30 5 . 52 85 . 0 85 . 0 80 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
4 . 1
345 . 30 20
2
= =
D
s
a
π

in D 542 . 0 =
say in D
16
9
=
(b) Mirror polished surface
Surface factor = 1.00 (Fig. AF 5)
( )( )( )( ) ksi ksi s s
u n
7 . 35 5 . 52 00 . 1 85 . 0 80 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
4 . 1
7 . 35 20
2
= =
D
s
a
π

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 3 of 62
in D 5 . 0 =
Savings in weight = ( ) % 21 % 100
16
9
2
1
16
9
2
2 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|

(c) As forged surface
Surface factor = 0.40 (Fig. AF 5)
( )( )( )( ) ksi ksi s s
u n
28 . 14 5 . 52 40 . 0 85 . 0 80 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
4 . 1
28 . 14 20
2
= =
D
s
a
π

in D 79 . 0 =
say in D
4
3
=

143. The same as 142, except that, because of a corrosive environment, the link is
made from cold-drawn silicon bronze B and the number of reversals of the load
is expected to be less than 3 x 10
7
.

Solution:
For cold-drawn silicon bronze, Type B.
ksi s
n
30 = at 3 x 10
8
ksi s
y
69 =
ksi s
u
75 . 93 =
n
s at 3 x 10
7
( ) ksi 5 . 36
10 3
10 3
30
085 . 0
7
8
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
×
×
=
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
82 . 24 5 . 36 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
4 . 1
82 . 24 20
2
= =
D
s
a
π

in D 60 . 0 =
say in D
8
5
=

144. The same as 142, except that the link is made of aluminum alloy 2024-T4 with a
minimum life of 10
7
cycles.

Solution:
For AA 2024-T4
ksi s
y
47 =
ksi s
u
68 =
ksi s
n
20 = at 5 x10
8
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 4 of 62

n
s at 10
7
( ) ksi 9 . 27
10
10 5
20
085 . 0
7
8
=
|
|
¹
|

\
| ×

( )( )( ) ksi s
n
19 9 . 27 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
4 . 1
19 20
2
= =
D
s
a
π

in D 685 . 0 =
say in D
16
11
=

145. A shaft supported as a simple beam, 18 in. long, is made of carburized AISI 3120
steel (Table AT 10). With the shaft rotating, a steady load of 2000 lb. is appliled
midway between the bearings. The surfaces are ground. Indefinite life is desired
with 6 . 1 = N based on endurance strength. What should be its diameter if there
are no surface discontinuities?

Solution:

For AISI 3120 steel, carburized
ksi s
n
90 =
ksi s
y
100 =
ksi s
u
141 =

Size Factor = 0.85
Surface factor (ground) = 0.88
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
32 . 67 90 88 . 0 85 . 0 = =
0 =
m
s
3
32
D
M
s
a
π
=
( )( )
kips in lb in
FL
M − = − = = = 0 . 9 9000
4
18 2000
4

Soderberg line
n
a
y
m
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 5 of 62
n
a
s
s
N
+ = 0
1

N
s
s
n
a
=
( )
6 . 1
32 . 67 9 32
3
=
D π


in D 2964 . 1 =
say in D
4
1
1 =

146. (a) A lever as shown with a rectangular section is to be designed for indefinite
life and a reversed load of lb F 900 = . Find the dimensions of a section without
discontinuity where t b 8 . 2 = and in L 14 = . for a design factor of 2 = N . The
material is AISI C1020, as rolled, with an as-forged surface. (b) compute the
dimensions at a section where in e 4 = .

Problems 146, 147
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
y
48 =
ksi s s
u n
5 . 32 5 . 0 = =
Surface factor (as forged) = 0.55

(a) 0 =
m
s
I
Mc
s
a
=
( )
4
3 3
8293 . 1
12
8 . 2
12
t
t t tb
I = = =
t
t b
c 4 . 1
2
8 . 2
2
= = =
( )( ) kips in lb in FL M − = − = = = 6 . 12 600 , 12 14 900
( )( )
3 4
643 . 9
8293 . 1
4 . 1 6 . 12
t t
t
s
a
= =
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
20 . 15 5 . 32 55 . 0 85 . 0 = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 6 of 62

Soderberg line
n
a
y
m
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

n
a
s
s
N
+ = 0
1

N
s
s
n
a
=
2
20 . 15 643 . 9
3
=
t


in t 08 . 1 =
( ) in t b 0 . 3 08 . 1 8 . 2 8 . 2 = = =
say in t
16
1
1 = , in b 0 . 3 =

(b) ( )( ) kips in lb in Fe M − = − = = = 6 . 3 600 , 3 4 900
( )( )
3 4
755 . 2
18293
4 . 1 6 . 3
t t
t
s
a
= =
2
20 . 15 755 . 2
3
=
t


in t 713 . 0 =
( ) in t b 996 . 1 713 . 0 8 . 2 8 . 2 = = =
say in t
32
23
= , in b 2 =

147. The same as 146, except that the reversal of the load are not expected to exceed
10
5
(Table AT 10).

Solution:
ksi s
n
5 . 32 =
n
s at 10
5
( ) ksi 5 . 39
10
10
5 . 32
085 . 0
5
6
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
5 . 18 5 . 39 55 . 0 85 . 0 = =

(a)
N
s
s
n
a
=
2
5 . 18 643 . 9
3
=
t


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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 7 of 62
in t 014 . 1 =
( ) in t b 839 . 2 014 . 1 8 . 2 8 . 2 = = =
say in t 1 = , in b
16
13
2 =

(b)
N
s
s
n
a
=
2
5 . 18 755 . 2
3
=
t


in t 6678 . 0 =
( ) in t b 870 . 1 6678 . 0 8 . 2 8 . 2 = = =
say in t
16
11
= , in b
8
7
1 =

148. A shaft is to be subjected to a maximum reversed torque of 15,000 in-lb. It is
machined from AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2). What should be its
diameter for 75 . 1 = N ?

Solution:
For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F
ksi s
u
152 =
ksi s
y
134 =
ksi s s
u n
76 5 . 0 = =
For machined surface,
Surface factor = 0.78
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
ns
3 . 53 134 78 . 0 85 . 0 6 . 0 = =
( ) ksi s s
y ys
4 . 80 134 6 . 0 6 . 0 = = =
ns
as
ys
ms
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

0 =
ms
s
3
16
D
T
s
as
π
=
kips in T − =15
( )
3 3
240 15 16
D D
s
as
π π
= =
ns
as
s
s
N
+ = 0
1

N
s
s
ns
as
=
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 8 of 62
75 . 1
3 . 53 240
3
=
D π


in D 3587 . 1 =
say in D
8
3
1 =

149. The same as 148, except that the shaft is hollow with the outside diameter twice
the inside diameter.

Solution:
i o
D D 2 =
( )
( )( )
( ) [ ]
3 4 4 4 4
32
2
2 15 16 16
i i i
i
i o
o
as
D D D
D
D D
TD
s
π π π
=

=

=
N
s
s
ns
as
=
75 . 1
3 . 53 32
3
=
i
D π


in D
i
694 . 0 =
say in D
i
16
11
= , in D
o
8
3
1 =

150. The link shown is machined from AISI 1035 steel, as rolled, and subjected to a
repeated tensile load that varies from zero to 10 kips; b h 2 = . (a) Determine these
dimensions for 40 . 1 = N (Soderberg) at a section without stress concentration.
(b) How much would these dimensions be decreased if the surfaces of the link
were mirror polished?

Problems 150, 151, 158.
Solution:
For AISI 1035, steel as rolled
ksi s
u
85 =
ksi s
y
55 =
ksi s s
u n
5 . 42 5 . 0 = =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 9 of 62
( ) kips F
m
5 0 10
2
1
= + =
( ) kips F
a
5 0 10
2
1
= − =
2 2
3
10
5 . 1
5
b b bh
F
s
m
m
= = =
2 2
3
10
5 . 1
5
b b bh
F
s
a
a
= = =
(a) Soderberg line
n
a
y
m
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

For machined surface,
Factor = 0.88

Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
n
4 . 25 5 . 42 88 . 0 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
( ) ( ) 4 . 25 3
10
55 3
10
40 . 1
1
2 2
b b
+ =

in b 5182 . 0 =
say in b
16
9
=
in b h
32
27
5 . 1 = =

(b) Mirror polished,
Factor = 1.00

Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
n
9 . 28 5 . 42 00 . 1 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
( ) ( ) 9 . 28 3
10
55 3
10
40 . 1
1
2 2
b b
+ =

in b 4963 . 0 =
say in b
2
1
=
in b h
4
3
5 . 1 = =

151. The same as 150, except that the link operates in brine solution. (Note: The
corroding effect of the solution takes precedence over surface finish.)

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 10 of 62
Solution:
Table AT 10, in brine, AISI 1035,
ksi s
n
6 . 24 =
ksi s
y
58 =
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
73 . 16 6 . 24 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
( ) ( ) 73 . 16 3
10
55 3
10
40 . 1
1
2 2
b b
+ =

in b 60 . 0 =
say in b
8
5
=
in b h
16
15
5 . 1 = =

152. The simple beam shown, 30-in. long ( d L a + + = ), is made of AISI C1022 steel,
as rolled, left a forged. At in a 10 = , . 3000
1
lb F = is a dead load. At
in d 10 = , . 2400
2
lb F = is repeated, reversed load. For 5 . 1 = N , indefinite life,
and b h 3 = , determine b and h . (Ignore stress concentration).

Problem 152, 153

Solution:
For AISI C1022, as rolled
ksi s
u
72 =
ksi s
y
52 =
ksi s s
u n
36 5 . 0 = =
For as forged surface
Figure AF 5, factor = 0.52
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
16 36 52 . 0 85 . 0 = =
Loading:
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 11 of 62


= 0
A
M
( ) ( )
2
30 2400 20 3000 10 R = +
lb R 2600
2
=

= 0
V
F
2 1 2 1
F F R R + = +
2400 3000 2600
1
+ = + R
lb R 2800
1
=
Shear Diagram

( )( ) kips in lb in M
C
− = − = = 28 000 , 28 10 2800
1

( )( ) kips in lb in M
D
− = − = = 26 000 , 26 10 2600
1


Then
Loading


= 0
A
M
( ) ( ) 2400 20 30 3000 10
2
= + R
lb R 600
2
=

= 0
V
F
2 1 2 1
R F F R + = +
600 3000 2400
1
+ = + R
lb R 1200
1
=
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 12 of 62
Shear Diagram


( )( ) kips in lb in M
C
− = − = = 12 000 , 12 10 1200
2

( )( ) kips in lb in M
D
− = − = = 6 000 , 6 10 600
2


Then using
kips in M M
C
− = = 28
1
max

kips in M M
C
− = = 12
2
min

( ) ( ) kips in M M M
m
− = + = + = 20 12 28
2
1
2
1
min max

( ) ( ) kips in M M M
a
− = − = − = 8 12 28
2
1
2
1
min max

I
c M
s
m
m
= ,
I
c M
s
a
a
=
( )
4
3 3
25 . 2
12
3
12
b
b b bh
I = = =
b
h
c 5 . 1
2
= =
3
5 . 1 b
M
s
m
m
= ,
3
5 . 1 b
M
s
a
a
=
n
a
y
m
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

16
5 . 1
8
52
5 . 1
20
5 . 1
1
3 3
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
=
b b

in b 96 . 0 =
say in b 1 =
in b h 3 3 = =

153. The same as 152, except that the cycles of
2
F will not exceed 100,000 and all
surfaces are machined.

Solution:
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 13 of 62
n
s at 10
5
cycles ( ) ksi 8 . 43
10
10
36
085 . 0
5
6
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
ksi s
u
72 =
Machined surface, factor = 0.90
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
5 . 33 8 . 43 90 . 0 85 . 0 = =
5 . 33
5 . 1
8
52
5 . 1
20
5 . 1
1
3 3
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
=
b b

in b 8543 . 0 =
say in b
8
7
=
in b h
8
5
2 3 = =

154. A round shaft, made of cold-finished AISI 1020 steel, is subjected to a variable
torque whose maximum value is 6283 in-lb. For 5 . 1 = N on the Soderberg
criterion, determine the diameter if (a) the torque is reversed, (b) the torque varies
from zero to a maximum, (c) the torque varies from 3141 in-lb to maximum.

Solution:
For AISI 1020, cold-finished
ksi s
u
78 =
ksi s
y
66 =
ksi s s
u n
39 5 . 0 = =
size factor = 0.85
( )( )( ) ksi s
ns
20 39 85 . 0 6 . 0 = =
( ) ksi s s
y ys
40 66 6 . 0 6 . 0 = = =
ns
as
ys
ms
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1


(a) Reversed torque
0 =
ms
s
3
16
D
T
s
as
π
=
lb in T − = 6283
( )
ksi
D
psi
D D
s
as 3 3 3
32 000 , 32 6283 16
= = =
π

ns
as
s
s
N
+ = 0
1

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 14 of 62
20
32
0
5 . 1
1
3
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
D

in D 34 . 1 =
say in D
8
3
1 =

(b) 0
min
= T , lb in T − = 6283
max

( ) lb in T
m
− = = 3141 6283
2
1

( ) lb in T
a
− = = 3141 6283
2
1


( )
ksi
D
psi
D D
s
ms 3 3 3
16 000 , 16 3141 16
= = =
π

( )
ksi
D
psi
D D
s
as 3 3 3
16 000 , 16 3141 16
= = =
π

20
16
40
16
5 . 1
1
3 3
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
=
D D

in D 22 . 1 =
say in D
4
1
1 =

(c) lb in T − = 3141
min
, lb in T − = 6283
max

( ) lb in T
m
− = + = 4712 3141 6283
2
1

( ) lb in T
a
− = − = 1571 3141 6283
2
1


( )
ksi
D
psi
D D
s
ms 3 3 3
24 000 , 24 4712 16
= = =
π

( )
ksi
D
psi
D D
s
as 3 3 3
8 000 , 8 1571 16
= = =
π

20
8
40
24
5 . 1
1
3 3
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
=
D D

in D 145 . 1 =
say in D
32
5
1 =

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 15 of 62
CHECK PROBLEMS

155. A simple beam 2 ft. long is made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled. The dimensions
of the beam, which is set on edge, are 1 in. x 3 in. At the midpoint is a repeated,
reversed load of 4000 lb. What is the factor of safety?

Solution:
For AISI C1045, as rolled
ksi s
u
96 =
ksi s
y
59 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
48 96 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
size factor = 0.85
( )( ) ksi s
n
8 . 40 48 85 . 0 = =
n
a
y
m
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

0 =
m
s
2
6
bh
M
s
a
=
in h 3 =
in b 1 =
( )( )
kips in lb in
FL
M − = − = = = 24 000 , 24
4
24 4000
4

( )
( )( )
ksi s
a
16
3 1
24 6
2
= =
8 . 40
16
0
1
+ =
N

55 . 2 = N

156. The same as 155, except that the material is normalized and tempered cast steel,
SAE 080.

Solution:
Table AT 6
ksi s
n
35 =


ksi s
y
40 =
( )( ) ksi s
n
75 . 29 35 85 . 0 = =
75 . 29
16
0
1
+ =
N

86 . 1 = N

157. A 1 ½-in. shaft is made of AISI 1045 steel, as rolled. For 2 = N , what repeated
and reversed torque can the shaft sustain indefinitely?
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 16 of 62
Solution:
For AISI 1045, as rolled
ksi s
u
96 =
ksi s
y
59 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
48 96 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =



( )( )( ) ksi s
ns
48 . 24 48 85 . 0 6 . 0 = =
( )( ) ksi s s
y ys
4 . 35 59 6 . 0 6 . 0 = = =
ns
as
ys
ms
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

0 =
ms
s
48 . 24
0
2
1
as
s
+ =
ksi s
as
24 . 12 =
24 . 12
16
3
= =
D
T
s
as
π

kips in T − = 8

VARIABLE STRESSES WITH STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

158. The load on the link shown (150) is a maximum of 10 kips, repeated and
reversed. The link is forged from AISI C020, as rolled, and it has a ¼ in-hole
drilled on the center line of the wide side. Let b h 2 = and 5 . 1 = N . Determine b
and h at the hole (no column action) (a) for indefinite life, (b) for 50,000
repetitions (no reversal) of the maximum load, (c) for indefinite life but with a
ground and polished surface. In this case, compute the maximum stress.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
y
48 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 32 65 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
For as forged surface
Surface factor = 0.55
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
n
2 . 12 5 . 32 55 . 0 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1


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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 17 of 62
Fig. AF 8, 1 > h b
Assume 5 . 3 =
t
K
Figure AF 7, in in
d
r 125 . 0
8
1
2
= = =
in a 01 . 0 =
926 . 0
125 . 0
01 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 3 . 3 1 1 5 . 3 926 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
0 =
m
s
( ) ( ) 25 . 0 2
10

=

=
b b d h b
F
s
a

(a)
n
a f
s
s K
N
+ = 0
1

( )( )
( )( ) 2 . 12 25 . 0 2
10 3 . 3
0
5 . 1
1

+ =
b b

06 . 4 25 . 0 2
2
= − b b
0 03 . 2 125 . 0
2
= − − b b
in b 489 . 1 =
say in b
2
1
1 = , in b h 3 2 = =

(b) For 50,000 repetitions or 50,000 cycles
( ) ksi s
n
74 . 15
10 5
10
2 . 12
085 . 0
4
6
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
( )
( )
( )
0 . 2
10
10 5
10
3 . 3 log
3 3 . 3 log
4
log
3 log
=
×
= =
f
f
K
K
fl
n
K
n
a fl
s
s K
N
=
1

( )( )
( )( ) 74 . 15 25 . 0 2
10 0 . 2
5 . 1
1

=
b b

906 . 1 25 . 0 2
2
= − b b
0 953 . 0 125 . 0
2
= − − b b
in b 04 . 1 =
say in b
16
1
1 = , in b h
8
1
2 2 = =

(c) For indefinite life, ground and polished surface
Surface factor = 0.90
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 18 of 62
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
n
20 5 . 32 90 . 0 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
n
a f
s
s K
N
=
1

( )( )
( )( ) 20 25 . 0 2
10 3 . 3
5 . 1
1

=
b b

0 2375 . 1 125 . 0
2
= − − b b
in b 18 . 1 =
say in b
16
3
1 = , in b h
8
3
2 2 = =
Maximum stress =
( ) d h b
F K
f


1 > h b , 105 . 0 375 . 2 25 . 0 = = h d
Figure AF 8
5 . 3 =
t
K
( ) ( ) 315 . 3 1 1 5 . 3 926 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
( )( )
( )
ksi s 14 . 13
25 . 0 375 . 2 1875 . 1
10 315 . 3
max
=

=

159. A connecting link as shown, except that there is a 1/8-in. radial hole drilled
through it at the center section. It is machined from AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F, and
it is subjected to a repeated, reversed axial load whose maximum value is 5 kips.
For 5 . 1 = N , determine the diameter of the link at the hole (a) for indefinite life;
(b) for a life of 10
5
repetitions (no column action). (c) In the link found in (a)
what is the maximum tensile stress?

Problem 159

Solution:
For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F
ksi s
u
135 =
ksi s
y
126 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 67 135 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
For machined surface, Fig. AF 7, surface factor = 0.80
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
n
72 . 36 5 . 67 80 . 0 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 19 of 62
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1


Fig. AF 8, 1 > h b
Assume 5 . 2 =
t
K
Figure AF 7, in in
d
r 0625 . 0
16
1
2
= = =
in a 0025 . 0 =
96 . 0
0625 . 0
0025 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 44 . 2 1 1 5 . 2 96 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
(a) Indefinite life, 44 . 2 =
f
K
ksi s
n
72 . 36 =
0 =
m
s
( )
D D
D D
Dd D
F
Dd
D
F
s
a
5 . 0
20
8
1
4
5 4
4
4
4
2
2
2 2

=
|
¹
|

\
|

=

=

=
π
π
π π

n
a f
s
s K
N
+ = 0
1

( )( )
( ) D D 5 . 0 72 . 36
20 44 . 2
5 . 1
1
2

=
π

00 . 2 5 . 0
2
= − D D π
in D 88 . 0 =
say in D
8
7
=

(b) For a life of 10
5
repetitions or cycles
( ) ksi s
n
66 . 44
10
10
72 . 36
085 . 0
5
6
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
( )
( )
81 . 1
10
10
10
44 . 2 log
3 4 . 2 log
5
log
3 log
= = =
f
f
K
K
fl
n
K
n
a fl
s
s K
N
=
1

( )( )
( ) D D 5 . 0 66 . 44
20 81 . 1
5 . 1
1
2

=
π

216 . 1 5 . 0
2
= − D D π
in D 71 . 0 =
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 20 of 62
say in D
4
3
=

(c)
D D
F K
s
f
5 . 0
4
2 max

=
π

in D
8
7
= , 14 . 0
875 . 0
125 . 0
= =
D
d

Figure AF 8
6 . 2 =
t
K
( ) ( ) 54 . 2 1 1 6 . 2 96 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
( )( )
ksi s 82 . 25
8
7
5 . 0
8
7
5 54 . 2 4
2 max
=
|
¹
|

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|
=
π


160. A machine part of uniform thickness 5 . 2 b t = is shaped as shown and machined
all over from AISI C1020, as rolled. The design is for indefinite life for a load
repeated from 1750 lb to 3500 lb. Let b d = . (a) For a design factor of 1.8
(Soderberg), what should be the dimensions of the part? (b) What is the
maximum tensile stress in the part designed?

Problems 160, 161
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
y
48 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 32 65 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =


For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.90
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
n
20 5 . 32 90 . 0 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

(a) For flat plate with fillets
Figure AF 9
3 3
d b
r = =
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 21 of 62
333 . 0
3
1
= =
d
r

2
2
= =
b
b
d
h

65 . 1 =
t
K
in a 01 . 0 =
0 . 1
1
1

+
=
r
a
q
65 . 1 = ≈
t f
K K
bt
F
s
m
m
=
bt
F
s
a
a
=
5 . 2
b
t =
( ) lb F
m
2625 1750 3500
2
1
= + =
( ) lb F
a
875 1750 3500
2
1
= − =
2
5 . 6562
5 . 2
2625
b b
b
s
m
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
5 . 2187
5 . 2
875
b b
b
s
a
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
2 2
000 , 20
5 . 2187 65 . 1
000 , 48
5 . 6562
8 . 1
1
b b
+ =
in b 7556 . 0 =
or in b 75 . 0 =
in
b
t 3 . 0
5 . 2
75 . 0
5 . 2
= = =

For flat plate with central hole
Fig. AF 8, 1 > h b , 2 1 2 = = b b h d
Assume 9 . 2 = ≈
t f
K K
( ) ( ) bt
F
t b b
F
t d h
F
s
m m m
m
=

=

=
2

( ) ( ) bt
F
t b b
F
t d h
F
s
a a a
a
=

=

=
2

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 22 of 62
2
5 . 6562
5 . 2
2625
b b
b
s
m
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
5 . 2187
5 . 2
875
b b
b
s
a
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
2 2
000 , 20
5 . 2187 9 . 2
000 , 48
5 . 6562
8 . 1
1
b b
+ =
in b 904 . 0 =
or in in b
16
15
9375 . 0 = =
in
b
t
8
3
5 . 2
= =
in b d
16
15
= =
use in b
16
15
= , in t
8
3
= , in d
16
15
=

(b)
a f m
s K s s + =
max

in
d
r
32
15
2
= =
98 . 0
32
15
01 . 0
1
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= q
9 . 2 =
t
K
( ) ( ) 86 . 2 1 1 9 . 2 98 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
psi
b bt
F
s
m
m
7467
16
15
5 . 6562 5 . 6562
2 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= = =
psi
b bt
F
s
a
a
2489
16
15
5 . 2187 5 . 2187
2 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= = =
( )( ) psi s K s s
a f m
586 , 14 2489 86 . 2 7467
max
= + = + =

162. The beam shown has a circular cross section and supports a load F that
varies from 1000 lb to 3000 lb; it is machined from AISI C1020 steel, as
rolled. Determine the diameter D if D r 2 . 0 = and 2 = N ; indefinite life.
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 23 of 62

Problems 162 – 164.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
y
48 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 32 65 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =


For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.90
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
86 . 24 5 . 32 90 . 0 85 . 0 = =

= 0
A
M
B F 24 12 =
B F 2 =
2
F
B =
2
F
B A = =
At discontinuity
F
F
M 3
2
6
= =
( ) kips in lb in lb in M − = − = − = 9 9000 3000 3
max

( ) kips in lb in lb in M − = − = − = 3 3000 1000 3
min

( ) kips in M
m
− = + = 6 3 9
2
1

( ) kips in M
a
− = − = 3 3 9
2
1

3
32
D
M
s
π
=
Figure AF 12
5 . 1 5 . 1 = = d d d D
2 . 0 2 . 0 = = d d d r
42 . 1 =
t
K
assume 42 . 1 = ≈
t f
K K
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 24 of 62
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( ) ( )( )( )
3 3
86 . 24
3 32 42 . 1
48
6 32
2
1
D D π π
+ =
in D 821 . 1 =
say in D
16
13
1 =
At maximum moment
F
F
M 6
2
12
= =
( ) kips in lb in lb in M − = − = − = 18 18000 3000 6
max

( ) kips in lb in lb in M − = − = − = 6 6000 1000 6
min

( ) kips in M
m
− = + = 12 6 18
2
1

( ) kips in M
a
− = − = 6 6 18
2
1

3
32
D
M
s
π
=
00 . 1 =
f
K
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( ) ( )( )( )
3 3
86 . 24
6 32 0 . 1
48
12 32
2
1
D D π π
+ =
in D 4368 . 1 =
Therefore use in D
16
13
1 =
164. The shaft shown is machined from C1040, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 1). It is
subjected to a torque that varies from zero to 10,000 in-lb. ( 0 = F ). Let D r 2 . 0 =
and 2 = N . Compute D. What is the maximum torsional stress in the shaft?

Solution:

For C1040, OQT 1000 F
ksi s
u
104 =
ksi s
y
72 =
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 25 of 62
( ) ksi s s
u n
52 104 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =


For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.85
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
ns
5 . 22 52 85 . 0 85 . 0 60 . 0 = =
( ) kips in lb in T T
m a
− = − = = = 5 5000 000 , 10
2
1

( ) ksi s s
y ys
2 . 43 72 6 . 0 6 . 0 = = =
3
16
D
T
s s
as ms
π
= =
ns
as fs
ys
ms
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

Figure AF 12
5 . 1 5 . 1 = = d d d D
2 . 0 2 . 0 = = d d d r
2 . 1 =
ts
K
assume 2 . 1 = ≈
ts fs
K K
( )( ) ( )( )( )
3 3
5 . 22
5 16 2 . 1
2 . 43
5 16
2
1
D D π π
+ =
in D 5734 . 1 =
say in D
16
9
1 =
a f m
s K s s + =
max

( )( ) ( )( )( )
ksi s 686 . 14
16
9
1
5 16 2 . 1
16
9
1
5 16
3 3 max
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π


165. An axle (nonrotating) is to be machined from AISI 1144, OQT 1000 F, to the
proportions shown, with a fillet radius D r 25 . 0 ≈ ; F varies from 400 lb to 1200
lb.; the supports are to the left of BB not shown. Let 2 = N (Soderberg line). (a)
At the fillet, compute D and the maximum tensile stress. (b) Compute D at
section BB. (c) Specify suitable dimensions keeping the given proportions, would
a smaller diameter be permissible if the fillet were shot-peened?

Problems 165 – 167

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 26 of 62
Solution:
For AISI 1144, OQT 1000 F
ksi s
u
118 =
ksi s
y
83 =
ksi s s
u n
59 5 . 0 = =


For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.83
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
62 . 41 59 83 . 0 85 . 0 = =

(a) At the fillet
5 . 1 5 . 1 = = d d d D
25 . 0 25 . 0 = = d d d r
35 . 1 =
t
K
assume 35 . 1 = ≈
t f
K K
F M 6 =
( ) kips in lb in lb in M − = − = − = 2 . 7 7200 1200 6
max

( ) kips in lb in lb in M − = − = − = 4 . 2 2400 400 6
min

( ) kips in M
m
− = + = 8 . 4 4 . 2 2 . 7
2
1

( ) kips in M
a
− = − = 4 . 2 4 . 2 2 . 7
2
1

3
32
D
M
s
π
=
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( ) ( )( )( )
3 3
62 . 41
4 . 2 32 35 . 1
83
8 . 4 32
2
1
D D π π
+ =
in D 4034 . 1 =
say in D
16
7
1 =

(b) At section BB,
F M 30 =
( ) kips in lb in lb in M − = − = − = 36 36000 1200 30
max

( ) kips in lb in lb in M − = − = − = 12 12000 400 30
min

( ) kips in M
m
− = + = 8 . 4 4 . 2 2 . 7
2
1

( ) kips in M
a
− = − = 4 . 2 4 . 2 2 . 7
2
1

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 27 of 62
3
32
D
M
s
π
=
0 . 1 =
f
K
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )
3 3
5 . 1 62 . 41
12 32 0 . 1
5 . 1 83
36 32
2
1
D D π π
+ =
in D 6335 . 1 =
say in D
16
11
1 =

(c) Specified dimension:
in D 2 = , in D 3 5 . 1 =

A smaller diameter is permissible if the fillet were shot-peened because of increased
fatigue strength.

166. A pure torque varying from 5 in-kips to 15 in-kips is applied at section C.
( 0 = F ) of the machined shaft shown. The fillet radius 8 D r = and the torque
passes through the profile keyway at C. The material is AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F,
and 6 . 1 = N . (a) What should be the diameter? (b) If the fillet radius were
increased to 4 D would it be reasonable to use a smaller D?

Solution:


kips in T − =15
max

kips in T − = 5
min

( ) kips in T
m
− = + = 10 5 15
2
1

( ) kips in T
a
− = − = 5 5 15
2
1

For AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F
ksi s
u
101 =
ksi s
y
5 . 58 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 50 101 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 28 of 62
For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.85
Size factor = 0.85
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
ns
9 . 21 5 . 50 85 . 0 85 . 0 60 . 0 = =
(a) At the fillet
8 1 = = = D r d r
5 . 1 = d D
3 . 1 =
ts
K
assume 3 . 1 = ≈
ts fs
K K
At the key profile
6 . 1 =
fs
K
use 6 . 1 =
fs
K
( ) ksi s s
y ys
1 . 35 5 . 58 6 . 0 6 . 0 = = =
ns
as fs
ys
ms
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( ) ( )( )( )
3 3
9 . 21
5 16 6 . 1
1 . 35
10 16
6 . 1
1
D D π π
+ =
in D 7433 . 1 =
say in D
4
3
1 =

(b) 4 D r =
25 . 0 = D r
5 . 1 = d D
Figure AF 12
18 . 1 =
ts
K
6 . 1 18 . 1 < = ≈
ts fs
K K
Therefore, smaller D is not reasonable.

170. The beam shown is made of AISI C1020 steel, as rolled; in e 8 = . The load F is
repeated from zero to a maximum of 1400 lb. Assume that the stress
concentration at the point of application of F is not decisive. Determine the
depth h and width t if t h 4 ≈ ; 1 . 0 5 . 1 ± = N for Soderberg line. Iteration is
necessary because
f
K depends on the dimensions. Start by assuming a logical
f
K for a logical h (Fig. AF 11), with a final check of
f
K . Considerable
estimation inevitable.
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 29 of 62

Problem 170
Solution:

F B A
2
1
= =
At the hole
( ) F
F
eB M 4
2
8 =
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
F M 4
max
=
0
min
= M
( ) ( ) kips in F F M
m
− = = = = 8 . 2 4 . 1 2 2 4
2
1

( ) ( ) kips in F F M
a
− = = = = 8 . 2 4 . 1 2 2 4
2
1

I
Mc
s =
( )
12
2
3
t d h
I

=
in in d 5 . 0
2
1
= =
in c 75 . 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 =
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
y
48 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 32 65 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
Size factor = 0.85
( )( ) ksi s
n
62 . 27 5 . 32 85 . 0 = =
Fig. AF 7, 5 . 0 5 . 3 5 . 0 75 . 1 > = = d c
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 30 of 62
Assume 5 . 3 =
t
K
in r 25 . 0
2
1
2
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
in a 010 . 0 =
962 . 0
25 . 0
010 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 4 . 3 1 1 5 . 3 962 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
( )
( )( )( )( )
( ) t d h t d h
3 3
2 62 . 27
75 . 1 8 . 2 12 4 . 3
2 48
75 . 1 8 . 2 12
5 . 1
1

+

=
( ) 70 . 12 2
3
= − t d h
( ) [ ] 70 . 12 50 . 0 2
3
= − t h
( ) 70 . 12 1 4
3
= − t t
in t 8627 . 0 =
say in t
8
7
=
in t h 5 . 3 4 = =
in h
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1 + + >
in h 5 . 3 >
Figure AF 11, 10 > d h
( ) in d h 5 50 . 0 10 10 = = =
5 . 0
2
1
1
2
5
2
1
=

=
b
d

Therefore 5 . 3 =
t
K , 4 . 3 =
f
K
Use in h 5 = , in t
4
1
1 =

171. Design a crank similar to that shown with a design factor of 16 . 0 6 . 1 ± based on
the modified Goodman line. The crank is to be forged with certain surfaces
milled as shown and two ¼-in. holes. It is estimated that the material must be of
the order of AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F. The length . 17 in L = , . 5 in a = , and the
load varies form + 15 kips to –9 kips. (a) Compute the dimensions at section AB
with b h 3 = . Check the safety of the edges (forged surfaces). (Iteration involves;
one could first make calculations for forged surfaces and then check safety at
holes.) (b) Without redesigning but otherwise considering relevant factors ,
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 31 of 62
quantitatively discuss actions that might be taken to reduce the size; holes must
remain as located.

Problems 171-174.
Solution:

(a) AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F
ksi s
u
96 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
48 96 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
Size factor = 0.85
As-forged surface (Fig. AF I)
Surface factor = 0.4
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
17 48 42 . 0 85 . 0 = =

Milled surface (Machined)
Surface factor = 0.85
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
68 . 34 48 85 . 0 85 . 0 = =

At AB, machined
n
a f
u
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

Figure AF 11
in in b 5 . 0
2
1
= =
in in d 25 . 0
4
1
= =
5 . 0
5 . 0
25 . 0
= = in
b
d

Assume 50 . 3 =
f
K
998 . 0 = q
( ) ( ) 495 . 3 1 1 5 . 3 998 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
I
Mc
s =
( )
12
2
3
b d h
I

=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 32 of 62
( ) ( ) 3 4
8
1
1 4 4
8
1
4
1
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
2
1
2
− = + − =
|
¹
|

\
|
+ − =
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ − = h h h
h
c
b h 3 =
( )
12
4
1
2
3 4
8
1
3
b h
h M
s
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|


|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
( ) b b
b M
s
3
5 . 0 3
3 12
2
3


=
( )
( ) b b
b M
s
3
5 . 0 3
1 4 5 . 4


=
( ) a L F M − =
( )( ) kips in M − = − = 180 5 17 15
max

( )( ) kips in M − = − − = 108 5 17 9
min

( ) kips in M
m
− = −
|
¹
|

\
|
= 36 108 180
2
1

( ) kips in M
a
− = +
|
¹
|

\
|
= 144 108 180
2
1

n
a f
u
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
( )
( )( )( )( )
( ) b b
b
b b
b
3 3
5 . 0 3 68 . 34
1 4 144 5 . 4 495 . 3
5 . 0 3 96
1 4 36 5 . 4
6 . 1
1


+


=
( )
( ) 2 . 107
1
5 . 0 3
1 4
3
=


b b
b

( )
( )
2 . 107
1 4
5 . 0 3
3
=


b
b b

in b 6 . 2 =
say in b
8
5
2 =
in b h
8
7
7 3 = =
Checking at the edges (as forged)
( )( ) kips in M − = = 255 17 15
max

( )( ) kips in M − − = − = 153 17 9
min

( ) kips in M
m
− = −
|
¹
|

\
|
= 51 153 255
2
1

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 33 of 62
( ) kips in M
a
− = +
|
¹
|

\
|
= 204 153 255
2
1

3 3 2
3
2
9
6 6
b
M
b
M
bh
M
s = = =
0 . 1 ≈
f
K
n
a f
u
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )
( )
( )( )( )
( ) 17 3
204 2 0 . 1
96 3
51 2
6 . 1
1
3 3
b b
+ =
in b 373 . 2 =
say in b
8
3
2 =
since in in b
8
3
2
8
5
2 > = , ∴ safe.

(c) Action: reduce number of repetitions of load.

CHECK PROBLEMS

173. For the crank shown, in L 15 = , in a 3 = , in d 5 . 4 = , in b 5 . 1 = . It is as forged
from AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F, except for machined areas indicated. The load F
varies from +5 kips to –3 kips. The crank has been designed without detailed
attention to factors that affect its endurance strength. In section AB only,
compute the factor of safety by the Soderberg criterion. Suppose it were desired
to improve the margin of safety, with significant changes of dimensions
prohibited, what various steps could be taken? What are your particular
recommendations?

Solution:

For as forged surface
ksi s
n
17 =
For machined surface
ksi s
n
68 . 34 =

ksi s
n
72 =
In section AB, machined
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 34 of 62
( ) a L F M − =
( )( ) kips in M − = − + = 60 3 15 5
max

( )( ) kips in M − − = − − = 36 3 15 3
min

( ) kips in M
m
− = −
|
¹
|

\
|
= 12 36 60
2
1

( ) kips in M
a
− = +
|
¹
|

\
|
= 48 36 60
2
1

in h d 5 . 4 = = , in b 5 . 1 =
3 =
b
h

( )
( ) b b
b M
s
3
5 . 0 3
1 4 5 . 4


=
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) [ ] ( )
ksi s
m
8125 . 2
5 . 1 5 . 0 5 . 1 3
1 5 . 1 4 12 5 . 4
3
=


=
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) [ ] ( )
ksi s
a
25 . 11
5 . 1 5 . 0 5 . 1 3
1 5 . 1 4 48 5 . 4
3
=


=
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

495 . 3 =
f
K from Problem 171.
( )( )
68 . 34
25 . 11 495 . 3
72
8125 . 2 1
+ =
N

1 85 . 0 < = N , unsafe
To increase the margin of safety
1. reduce the number of repetitions of loads
2. shot-peening
3. good surface roughness

Recommendation:
No. 1, reducing the number of repetitions of loads.

175. The link shown is made of AISI C1020, as rolled, machined all over. It is loaded
in tension by pins in the in D
8
3
= holes in the ends; in a
16
9
= , in t
16
5
= ,
in h
8
1
1 = . Considering sections at A, B, and C, determine the maximum safe
axial load for 2 = N and indefinite life (a) if it is repeated and reversed; (b) if it
is repeated varying from zero to maximum; (c) if it is repeatedly varies or
W F − = to W F 3 = . (d) Using the results from (a) and (b), determine the ratio of
the endurance strength for a repeated load to that for a reversed load (Soderberg
line).
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 35 of 62

Problems 175 - 178
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s
y
48 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 32 65 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
Size factor = 0.85
For machined all over
Surface factor = 0.90
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
n
20 5 . 32 80 . 0 90 . 0 85 . 0 = =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

at A, Figure AF 8
in b
16
9
=
in h
8
1
1 =
in D d
8
3
= =
in t
16
5
=
33 . 0
8
1
1
8
3
= =
h
d

5 . 0
8
1
1
16
9
= =
h
b

6 . 3 =
tA
K
in
d
r
16
3
2
= =
in a 01 . 0 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 36 of 62
95 . 0
16
3
01 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 47 . 3 1 1 6 . 3 95 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
tA fA
k q k
( ) 15
64
16
5
8
3
8
1
1
F F
t d h
F
s =
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|

=

=
( )
( )
( ) 20 15
64 47 . 3
48 15
64
2
1
a m
F F
+ =
a m
F F 48 . 1
45
8
1 + = at A

At B Figure AF 9
in a d
16
9
= =
in h
8
1
1 =
in r
16
3
=
in t
16
5
=
33 . 0
16
9
16
3
= =
d
r

2
16
9
8
1
1
= =
d
h

63 . 1 =
tB
K
in a 01 . 0 =
95 . 0
16
3
01 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 6 . 1 1 1 63 . 1 95 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
tB fB
k q k
45
256
16
5
16
9
F F
dt
F
s =
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 37 of 62
( )
( )
( ) 20 45
256 6 . 1
48 45
256
2
1
a m
F F
+ =
a m
F F 455 . 0
135
32
1 + = at B

at C, Figure AF 8, 1 >
h
b

in D
8
1
=
in a h
16
9
= =
22 . 0
16
9
8
1
= =
h
d

5 . 3 =
tC
K
in
d
r
16
1
2
= =
in a 01 . 0 =
862 . 0
16
1
01 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 2 . 3 1 1 5 . 3 862 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
tC fC
k q k
( ) 35
256
16
5
8
1
16
9
F F
t d h
F
s =
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|

=

=
( )
( )
( ) 20 35
256 2 . 3
48 35
256
2
1
a m
F F
+ =
a m
F F 17 . 1
105
32
1 + = at C

Equations
At A,
a m
F F 48 . 1
45
8
1 + =
At B,
a m
F F 455 . 0
135
32
1 + =
At C,
a m
F F 17 . 1
105
32
1 + =


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 38 of 62
(a) Repeated and reversed load

0 =
m
F
F F
a
=
use at A
a m
F F 48 . 1
45
8
1 + =
( )
a
F 48 . 1 0
45
8
1 + =
kip F 676 . 0 =

(b) F F F
a m
= =
at A, F F 48 . 1
45
8
1 + =
kip F 603 . 0 =
at B, F F 455 . 0
135
32
1 + =
kips F 480 . 1 =
at C, F F 17 . 1
105
32
1 + =
kip F 678 . 0 =
use kip F 603 . 0 =

(c) W F − =
min
, W F 3
max
=
( ) W W W F
m
= − = 3
2
1

( ) W W W F
a
2 3
2
1
= + =
at A, ( ) W W 2 48 . 1
45
8
1 + =
kip W 319 . 0 =
at B, ( ) W W 2 455 . 0
135
32
1 + =
kip W 884 . 0 =
at C, ( ) W W 2 17 . 1
105
32
1 + =
kip W 378 . 0 =
use kip W 319 . 0 =
kip F 957 . 0
max
=

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 39 of 62
(d)
( )
( )
892 . 0
676 . 0
603 . 0
= = =
a F
b F
Ratio

179. A steel rod shown, AISI 2320, hot rolled, has been machined to the following
dimensions: . 1in D = , .
4
3
in c = , .
8
1
in e = A semicircular groove at the
midsection has .
8
1
in r = ; for radial hole, .
4
1
in a = An axial load of 5 kips is
repeated and reversed ( 0 = M ). Compute the factor of safety (Soderberg) and
make a judgement on its suitability (consider statistical variations of endurance
strength – i4.4). What steps may be taken to improve the design factor?

Problems 179-183

Solution:
AISI 2320 hot-rolled (Table AT 10)
ksi s
u
96 =
ksi s
y
51 =
ksi s
n
48 =
Size factor = 0.85
Surface factor = 0.85 (machined)
( )( )( )( ) ksi s
n
74 . 27 48 85 . 0 85 . 0 80 . 0 = =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

0 =
m
s , reversed
s s
a
=
n
a f
s
s K
N
=
1

f
n
a
NK
s
s =
at the fillet, Figure AF 12
in e r
8
1
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 40 of 62
in c d
4
3
= =
in D 1 =
17 . 0
4
3
8
1
= =
d
r

3 . 1
4
3
1
= =
d
D

55 . 1 =
t
K
in a 010 . 0 =
926 . 0
8
1
010 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 51 . 1 1 1 55 . 1 926 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
( )
ksi s s
a
32 . 11
4
3
5 4
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
π

( )( )
62 . 1
51 . 1 32 . 11
74 . 27
= = =
f a
n
K s
s
N

At the groove, Figure AF 14
in in in r D b d
4
3
8
1
2 1 2 =
|
¹
|

\
|
− = − = =
in D 1 =
in r
8
1
=
17 . 0
4
3
8
1
= =
d
r

3 . 1
4
3
1
= =
d
D

75 . 1 =
t
K
in a 010 . 0 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 41 of 62
926 . 0
8
1
010 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 7 . 1 1 1 75 . 1 926 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
( )
ksi
d
F
s s
a
32 . 11
4
3
5 4 4
2 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= = =
π
π

( )( )
44 . 1
7 . 1 32 . 11
74 . 27
= = =
f a
n
K s
s
N

At the hole, Figure AF8
in h D 1 = =
in a d
4
1
= =
25 . 0
1
4
1
= =
h
D

44 . 2 =
t
K
in a 010 . 0 =
926 . 0
8
1
010 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 33 . 2 1 1 44 . 2 926 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
( )
( )
ksi
Dd
D
F
s s
a
34 . 9
4
1
1
4
1
5
4
2 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|

=

= =
π π

( )( )
27 . 1
33 . 2 34 . 9
74 . 27
= = =
f a
n
K s
s
N

Factor of safety is 1.27
From i4.4
n
s s 76 . 0 =
27 . 1 min 32 . 1
76 . 0
> = =
n
n
s
s
N
Therefore, dimensions are not suitable.

Steps to be taken:
1. Reduce number of cycle to failure
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 42 of 62
2. Good surface condition
3. Presetting

186. A stock stud that supports a roller follower on a needle bearing for a cam is
made as shown, where in a
8
5
= , in b
16
7
= , in c
4
3
= . The nature of the junction
of the diameters at B is not defined. Assume that the inside corner is sharp. The
material of the stud is AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F. Estimate the safe, repeated load
F for 2 = N . The radial capacity of the needle bearing is given as 1170 lb. at
2000 rpm for a 2500-hr life. See Fig. 20.9, p. 532, Text.

Problem 186
Solution:
AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F
ksi s
u
106 =
ksi s
y
71 =
ksi s s
u n
53 5 . 0 = =
Size factor = 0.85
( )( ) ksi s
n
45 53 85 . 0 = =
Figure AF 12
in a d
8
5
= =
in c D
4
3
= =
0 ≈ d r , sharp corner
2 . 1
8
5
4
3
= =
d
D

Assume 7 . 2 =
t
K
7 . 2 = ≈
t f
K K
3
32
a
M
s
π
=
F F Fb M 4375 . 0
16
7
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 43 of 62
in in a 625 . 0
8
5
= =
( )
( )
F
F
s 25 . 18
625 . 0
4375 . 0 32
3
= =
π

F s s s
a m
25 . 18 = = =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
45
25 . 18 7 . 2
71
25 . 18
2
1 F F
+ =
lb kip F 370 370 . 0 = = < less than radial capacity of the needle bearing. Ok.

187. The link shown is made of AISI C1035 steel, as rolled, with the following
dimensions .
8
3
in a = , .
8
7
in b = , . 1in c = , .
2
1
in d = , . 12 in L = , .
16
1
in r = The
axial load F varies from 3000 lb to 5000 lb and is applied by pins in the holes.
(a) What are the factors of safety at points A, B, and C if the link is machined all
over? What are the maximum stresses at these points?

Problems 187, 188
Solution:
AISI C1035, as rolled
ksi s
u
85 =
ksi s
y
55 =
ksi s s
u n
5 . 42 5 . 0 = =
size factor = 0.85
( )( )( ) ksi s
n
68 . 21 5 . 42 85 . 0 6 . 0 = =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( ) kips F
m
4 3 5
2
1
= + =
( ) kip F
a
1 3 5
2
1
= − =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 44 of 62
(a) at A, Figure AF 9
in r
16
1
=
in a d
8
3
= =
in b h
8
7
= =
17 . 0
8
3
16
1
= =
d
r

33 . 2
8
3
8
7
= =
d
h

9 . 1 =
t
K
in a 010 . 0 =
862 . 0
16
1
010 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 78 . 1 1 1 9 . 1 862 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
ac
F
s =
( )
ksi s
m
67 . 10
1
8
3
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
ksi s
a
67 . 2
1
8
3
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
68 . 21
67 . 2 78 . 1
55
67 . 10 1
+ =
N

42 . 2 = N

At B, same as A, 78 . 1 =
f
K
( )c a b
F
s

=
( )
ksi s
m
8
1
8
3
8
7
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|

=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 45 of 62
( )
ksi s
a
2
1
8
3
8
7
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|

=
( )( )
68 . 21
2 78 . 1
55
8 1
+ =
N

23 . 3 = N

At C, Figure AF 8
in d
2
1
=
in c h 1 = =
1 > h b
5 . 0
1
2
1
= =
h
d

2 . 2 =
t
K
in a 010 . 0 =
in in
d
r 25 . 0
4
1
2
= = =
962 . 0
25 . 0
010 . 0
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
a
q
( ) ( ) 15 . 2 1 1 2 . 2 962 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
( )( ) d c a b
F
s
− −
=
ksi s
m
16
2
1
1
8
3
8
7
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|

=
ksi s
m
4
2
1
1
8
3
8
7
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|

=
( )( )
68 . 21
4 15 . 2
55
16 1
+ =
N

45 . 1 = N

(b) Maximum stresses

at A
( ) ksi s K s s
a f m A
42 . 15 67 . 2 78 . 1 67 . 10 = + = + =
at B
( ) ksi s K s s
a f m B
56 . 11 2 78 . 1 8 = + = + =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 46 of 62
at C
( ) ksi s K s s
a f m C
6 . 24 4 15 . 2 16 = + = + =

IMPACT PROBLEMS

189. A wrought-iron bar is 1in. in diameter and 5 ft. long. (a) What will be the stress
and elongation if the bar supports a static load of 5000 lb? Compute the stress
and elongation if a 5000 lb. weight falls freely 0.05 in. and strikes a stop at the
end of the bar. (b) The same as (a), except that the bar is aluminum alloy 3003-
H14.

Solution:
. 1in D = , ft L 5 =
For wrought iron,
psi E
6
10 28× =
(a) elongation
lb F 5000 =
( )( )( )
( ) ( )
in
AE
FL
01364 . 0
10 28 1
4
12 5 5000
6 2
=
×
= =
π
δ
Stress and elongation
in h 05 . 0 =
lb W 5000 =
in ft L 60 5 = =
2
1
2
1
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
LW
hEA
A
W
A
W
s
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( )
psi s 741 , 24
5000 60
1
4
10 28 05 . 0 2
1
1
4
5000
1
4
5000
2
1
2 6
2 2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
×
+ + =
π
π π

( )( )
in
E
sL
053 . 0
10 28
60 741 , 24
6
=
×
= = δ

(b) Aluminum alloy 3003-H14
psi E
6
10 10× =
lb F 5000 =
( )( )( )
( ) ( )
in
AE
FL
038 . 0
10 10 1
4
12 5 5000
6 2
=
×
= =
π
δ
Stress and elongation
in h 05 . 0 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 47 of 62
lb W 5000 =
in ft L 60 5 = =
2
1
2
1
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
LW
hEA
A
W
A
W
s
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( )
psi s 475 , 18
5000 60
1
4
10 10 05 . 0 2
1
1
4
5000
1
4
5000
2
1
2 6
2 2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
×
+ + =
π
π π

( )( )
in
E
sL
111 . 0
10 10
60 475 , 18
6
=
×
= = δ

190. What should be the diameter of a rod 5 ft. long, made of an aluminum alloy
2024-T4, if it is to resist the impact of a weight of lb W 500 = dropped through a
distance of 2 in.? The maximum computed stress is to be 20 ksi.

Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4
psi E
6
10 6 . 10 × =
lb W 500 =
in h 2 =
in ft L 60 5 = =
psi ksi s 000 , 20 20 = =
2
1
2
1
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
LW
hEA
A
W
A
W
s
( )( )
( )( )
2
1
6
500 60
10 6 . 10 2 2
1
5000 5000
000 , 20
(
¸
(

¸
×
+ + =
A
A A

( )2
1
1413 1 1 40 A A + + =
9332 . 0
4
2
= =
D
A
π

in D 09 . 1 = , say in D
16
1
1 =

191. A rock drill has the heads of the cylinder bolted on by 7/8-in. bolts somewhat as
shown. The grip of the bolt is 4 in. (a) If the shank of the bolt is turned down to
the minor diameter of the coarse-thread screw, 0.7387 in., what energy may each
bolt absorb if the stress is not to exceed 25 ksi? (b) Short bolts used as described
above sometimes fail under repeated shock loads. It was found in one instance
that if long bolts, running from head to head, were used, service failures were
eliminated. How much more energy will the bolt 21 in. long absorb for a stress of
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 48 of 62
25 ksi. That the bolt 4 in. long? As before, let the bolt be turned down to the
minor diameter. The effect of the threads on the strength is to be neglected.

Problem 191
Solution:
( )
E
AL s
AL
E
s
U
2 2
2 2
= =
(a)
4
2
D
A
π
=
in L 4 =
in D 7387 . 0 =
psi E
6
10 30× =
psi ksi s 000 , 25 25 = =
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
lb in U − =
×
|
¹
|

\
|
= 86 . 17
10 30 2
4 7387 . 0
4
000 , 25
6
2 2
π

(b) in L 21 =
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
lb in U − =
×
|
¹
|

\
|
= 75 . 93
10 30 2
21 7387 . 0
4
000 , 25
6
2 2
π

lb in U − = − = ∆ 89 . 75 86 . 17 75 . 93

192. As seen in the figure, an 8.05-lb body A moving down with a constant
acceleration of 12 fps
2
, having started from rest at point C. If A is attached to a
steel wire, W & M gage 8 (0.162 in. diameter) and if for some reason the sheave
D is instantly stopped, what stress is induced in the wire?

Problems 192, 193
Solution:
E
AL s
U
2
2
=
( ) maL mah ah m mv U = = = = 2
2
1
2
1
2

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 49 of 62
maL
E
AL s
=
2
2

gA
WaE
A
maE
s
2 2
2
= =
lb W 05 . 8 =
2
12 fps a =
2
32 fps g =
2
12 fps b =
psi E
6
10 30× =
4
2
D
A
π
=
( )( )( )
( ) ( ) 32 162 . 0
10 30 12 05 . 8 8 8
2
6
2
2
π π
×
= =
g D
WaE
s
psi s 741 , 93 =

193. The hoist A shown, weighing 5000 lb. and moving at a constant fps v 4 = is
attached to a 2 in. wire rope that has a metal area of 1.6 sq. in. and a modulus
psi E
6
10 12× = . When ft h 100 = , the sheave D is instantly stopped by a brake
(since this is impossible, it represents the worst conceivable condition).
Assuming that the stretching is elastic, compute the maximum stress in the rope.


Solution:


E
AL s
U
2
2
=
2 2
2 2
1
v
g
W
mv U = =
2
2
2 2
v
g
W
E
AL s
=
gAL
E Wv
s
2
2
=
lb W 5000 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 50 of 62
fps v 4 =
psi E
6
10 12× =
2
6 . 1 in A =
ft h L 100 = =
2
32 fps g =

( )( ) ( )
( )( )( ) 100 6 . 1 32
10 12 4 5000
6 2
2
×
= s
psi s 693 , 13 =

194. A coarse-thread steel bolt, ¾ in. in diameter, with 2 in. of threaded and 3 in. of
unthreaded shank, receives an impact caused by a falling 500-lb weight. The area
at the root of the thread is 0.334 sq. in. and the effects of threads are to be
neglected. (a) What amount of energy in in-lb. could be absorbed if the maximum
calculated stress is 10 ksi? (b) From what distance h could the weight be
dropped for this maximum stress? (c) How much energy could be absorbed at the
same maximum stress if the unthreaded shank were turned down to the root
diameter.

Solution:
E
AL s
U
2
2
=
(a)
2 1
U U U + =
E
L A s
U
2
1 1
2
1
1
=
E
L A s
U
2
2 2
2
2
2
=
2
1
334 . 0 in A =
( )
2
2
442 . 0 75 . 0
4
in A = =
π

psi s 000 , 10
1
=
( )( )
psi
A
A s
s 7556
442 . 0
334 . 0 000 , 10
2
1 1
2
= = =
in L 2
1
=
in L 3
2
=
psi E
6
10 30× =
( ) ( )( )
( )
lb in U − =
×
= 113 . 1
10 30 2
2 334 . 0 000 , 10
6
2
1

( ) ( )( )
( )
lb in U − =
×
= 262 . 1
10 30 2
3 442 . 0 7556
6
2
2

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 51 of 62
lb in U U U − = + = + = 375 . 2 262 . 1 113 . 1
2 1


(b)
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
2
1
2
1 1
LW
hEA
A
W
s
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ + =
2
1
2
2
1
1 1
2
1 1
A
L
A
L
W
hE
A
W
s
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ + =
2
1
2 1 1 2
2 1
1
2
1 1
L A L A W
A hEA
A
W
s
lb W 500 =
2
1
334 . 0 in A =
2
2
442 . 0 in A =
in L 2
1
=
in L 3
2
=
psi E
6
10 30× =
psi s 000 , 10 =
( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]
2
1
6
3 334 . 0 2 442 . 0 500
442 . 0 334 . 0 10 30 2
1 1
334 . 0
500
000 , 10
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
×
+ + =
h

in h 0033 . 0 =

(c)
E
AL s
U
2
2
=
2
334 . 0 in A =
in L 5 =
psi E
6
10 30× =
psi s 000 , 10 =
( ) ( )( )
( )
lb in U − =
×
= 783 . 2
10 30 2
5 334 . 0 000 , 10
6
2


196. A part of a machine that weighs 1000 lb. raised and lowered by 1 ½-in. steel rod
that has Acme threads on one end (see i8.18 Text, for minor diameter). The
length of the rod is 10 ft. and the upper 4 ft are threaded. As the part being
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 52 of 62
lowered it sticks, then falls freely a distance of 1/8 in. (a) Compute the maximum
stress in the rod. (b) What would be the maximum stress in the rod if the lower
end had been turned down to the root diameter?

Solution:
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
2
1
2
1 1
LW
hEA
A
W
s
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ + =
2
1
2
2
1
1 1
2
1 1
A
L
A
L
W
hE
A
W
s
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ + =
2
1
2 1 1 2
2 1
1
2
1 1
L A L A W
A hEA
A
W
s
see i8.18 , in D
2
1
1
2
= , in D 25 . 1
1
=
( )
2
2
1
227 . 1
4
25 . 1
in A = =
π

( )
2
2
2
767 . 1
4
5 . 1
in A = =
π

in L 4
1
=
in L 6
2
=
in in h 125 . 0
8
1
= =
lb W 1000 =
psi E
6
10 30× =
( )( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]
psi s 186 , 28
6 227 . 1 4 767 . 1 1000
767 . 1 227 . 1 10 30 125 . 0 2
1 1
227 . 1
1000
2
1
6
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
×
+ + =
(b)
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
2
1
2
1 1
LW
hEA
A
W
s
2
1
227 . 1 in A A = =
in L L L 10
2 1
= + =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 53 of 62
( )( )( )
( )
psi s 552 , 25
1000 10
227 . 1 10 30 125 . 0 2
1 1
227 . 1
1000
2
1
6
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ×
+ + =

197. A weight W of 50 lb is moving on a smooth horizontal surface with a velocity of
2 fps when it strikes head-on the end of a ¾-in. round steel rod, 6 ft. long.
Compute the maximum stress in the rod. What design factor based on yield
strength is indicated for AISI 1010, cold drawn?

Solution:

2
1
2
1
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
W
W
AL g
E Wv
s
e
o

3
b
e
W
W =
AL W
b
ρ =
3
284 . 0 in lb = ρ
2
2
442 . 0
4
3
4
in A =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

in ft L 72 6 = =
( )( )( ) lb W
b
038 . 9 72 442 . 0 284 . 0 = =
lb W
e
013 . 3
3
038 . 9
= =
lb W 50 =
fps v 2 =
2
32 fps g
o
=
psi E
6
10 30× =
ft L 6 =
( )( ) ( )
( )( )( )
psi s 8166
50
013 . 3
1 6 442 . 0 32
10 30 2 50
2
1
6 2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+
×
=
For AISI 1010, cold drawn
psi ksi s
y
000 , 55 55 = =
74 . 6
8166
000 , 55
= = =
s
s
N
y


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 54 of 62
199. A rigid weight of 100 lb is dropped a distance of 25 in. upon the center of a 12
in., 50-lb. I-beam (
4
6 . 301 in I
x
= ) that is simply supported on supports 10 ft
apart. Compute the maximum stress in the I-beam both with and without
allowing for the beam’s weight.

Solution:

Without beams weight
st
st
y
y
s s =
EI
FL
y
48
3
=
3
48
L
EI
y
F
k = =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ + = =
2
1
2
1 1
W
hk
k
W
y δ
psi E
6
10 30× =
in ft L 120 10 = =
4
6 . 301 in I =
( )( )
( )
in lb k 333 , 251
120
6 . 301 10 30 48
3
6
=
×
=
lb W 100 =
in h 25 =
( )( )
in y 1415 . 0
100
333 , 251 25 2
1 1
333 , 251
100
2
1
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

+ + |
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
( )( )
in
EI
WL
y
st
0004 . 0
6 . 301 10 30 48
120 100
48
6
3 3
=
×
= =
I
Mc
s
st
=
( )( )
lb in
WL
M − = = = 3000
4
120 100
4

in
h
c 6
2
12
2
= = =
( )( )
psi s
st
68 . 59
6 . 301
6 3000
= =
( ) psi s 112 , 21
0004 . 0
1415 . 0
68 . 59 =
|
¹
|

\
|
=

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 55 of 62
with mass of beam
2
1
2
1
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
st
st st
y
h
y y y
h - correction factor =
W
W
e
+ 1
1

35
17
b
e
W
W =
( )( ) lb ft ft lb W
b
500 10 50 = =
( )
lb W
e
243
35
500 17
= =
h - correction factor = 292 . 0
100
243
1
1
=
+

( )( )
in y 0764 . 0
0004 . 0
292 . 0 25 2
1 1 0004 . 0
2
1
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =
( ) psi
y
y
s s
st
st
400 , 11
0004 . 0
0764 . 0
68 . 59 =
|
¹
|

\
|
= =

201. A 3000 lb. automobile (here considered rigid) strikes the midpoint of a guard rail
that is an 8-in. 23-lb. I-beam, 40 ft. long;
4
2 . 64 in I = . Made of AISI C1020, as
rolled, the I-beam is simply supported on rigid posts at its ends. (a) What level
velocity of the automobile results in stressing the I-beam to the tensile yield
strength? Compare results observed by including and neglecting the beam’s
mass.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
psi ksi s
y
000 , 48 48 = =
o
g
Wv F
2 2
2
=
δ

3
48
L
EI F
k = =
δ

I
FLc
I
Mc
s
4
= =
Lc
Is
F
4
=
( )
2
2
2 2
3 2 2 3 2
6 96
16
96 2 Ec
IL s
EI c L
L s I
EI
L F F
= = =
δ

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 56 of 62
neglecting mass of beam
o
g
Wv
Ec
IL s F
2 6 2
2
2
2
= =
δ

IL g
Ec Wv
s
o
2
3
2 2
2
=
lb W 3000 =
2
32 fps g
o
=
in
h
c 4
2
8
2
= = =
psi E
6
10 30× =
4
2 . 64 in I =
ft L 40 =
psi ksi s s
y
000 , 48 48 = = =
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( ) 40 2 . 64 32
4 10 30 3000 3
2
3
000 , 48
2 6 2 2 2
2 2
×
= = =
v
IL g
Ec Wv
s
o

fps v 62 . 6 =
Including mass of beam
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
W
W
IL g
Ec Wv
s
e
o
1
1
2
3
2 2
2

35
17
b
e
W
W =
( )( ) lb ft ft lb W
b
920 40 23 = =
( )
lb W
e
447
35
920 17
= =
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( )
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
×
= = =
3000
447
1
1
40 2 . 64 32
4 10 30 3000 3
2
3
000 , 48
2 6 2 2 2
2 2
v
IL g
Ec Wv
s
o

fps v 10 . 7 =

DATA LACKING – DESIGNER’S DECISIONS

202. A simple beam is struck midway between supports by a 32.2-lb. weight that has
fallen 20 in. The length of the beam is 12 ft. If the stress is not to exceed 20 ksi,
what size I-beam should be used?

Solution:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 57 of 62
2
1
2
1
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
st
st st
y
h
y y y
st
st
y
y
s s =
in h 20 =
psi s 000 , 20 =
EI
WL
y
st
48
3
=
2
1
3
96
1 1
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
WL
EIh
y
y
st

with correction factor
2
1
3
1
1 96
1 1
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ + =
W
W
WL
EIh
y
y
e
st

I
WLd
I
Mc
s
st
8
= =
35
17wL
W
e
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ + =
2
1
3
35
17
1
1 96
1 1
8
W
wL
WL
EIh
I
WLd
s
lb W 2 . 32 =
in h 20 =
in ft L 144 12 = =
psi E
6
10 30× =
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
×
+ + =
2
1
3
6
2 . 32 35
12 17
1
1
144 2 . 32
20 10 30 96
1 1
8
144 2 . 32
w
I
I
d
s
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ + =
2
1
181 . 0 1
1
599 1 1
6 . 579
w
I
I
d
s
From The Engineer’s Manual
By Ralph G. Hudson, S.B.
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 58 of 62
Use 3”, 5.7 lb,
4
5 . 2 in I =
( )
( )
( )
psi psi s 000 , 20 600 , 19
7 . 5 181 . 0 1
1
5 . 2 599 1 1
5 . 2
3 6 . 579
2
1
< =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ + =
Therefore use 3-in depth, 5.7-lb I-beam (
4
5 . 2 in I = )

204. A 10-in., 25.4-lb.., I-bean, AISI 1020, as rolled, is 10 ft. long and is simply
supported at the ends shown. There is a static load of kips F 10
1
= , 4 ft from the
left end, and a repeated reversed load of kips F 10
2
= , 3 ft from the right end. It is
desired to make two attachments to the beam through holes as shown. No
significant load is supported by these attachments, but the holes cause stress
concentration. Will it be safe to make these attachments as planned? Determine
the factor of safety at the point of maximum moment and at points of stress
concentration.

Problem 204
Solution:
Mass of beam negligible
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
y
48 =
ksi s
u
65 =
( )

= 0
A
M
( ) B F F 10 3 10 4
2 1
= − +
( )
2 1
7 4
10
1
F F B + =
( )

= 0
B
M
( ) A F F 10 4 10 3
1 2
= − +
( )
2 1
3 6
10
1
F F A + =
kips F 10
1
=
kips to F 10 10
2
− =
( ) ( ) [ ] kips B 3 10 7 10 4
10
1
min
− = − + =
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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 59 of 62
( ) ( ) [ ] kips B 11 10 7 10 4
10
1
max
= + =
( ) ( ) [ ] kips A 3 10 3 10 6
10
1
min
= − + =
( ) ( ) [ ] kips A 9 30 7 10 6
10
1
max
= + =
Figure AF 11,
in e
2
1
1 = ,
in d
4
1
=
in c 625 . 1
4
1
2
2
1
1 =
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
in h 10 =
in e
h
b 5 . 3
2
1
1
2
10
2
= − = − =
07 . 0
5 . 3
25 . 0
= =
b
d

5 . 0 6
25 . 0
50 . 1
> = =
d
e

Use 0 . 3 =
t
K
926 . 0
8
1
010 . 0
1
1
=
+
= q
( ) ( ) 85 . 2 1 1 3 926 . 0 1 1 = + − = + − =
t f
K q K
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 32 65 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
size factor = 0.85
( ) ksi s
n
6 . 27 5 . 32 85 . 0 = =
left hole, ( )A M 2 =
( ) kips ft M − = = 18 9 2
max

( ) kips ft M − = = 6 3 2
min

I
Mc
s =
( ) kips in kips ft M
m
− = − = + = 144 12 6 18
2
1

( ) kips in kips ft M
a
− = − = − = 72 6 6 18
2
1

in c 625 . 1 =
4
1 . 122 in I = (Tables)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 60 of 62
( )( )
ksi s
m
92 . 1
1 . 122
625 . 1 144
= =
( )( )
ksi s
a
96 . 0
1 . 122
625 . 1 72
= =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
6 . 27
96 . 0 85 . 2
48
92 . 1 1
+ =
N

2 . 7 = N

right hole , ( )B M 5 . 1 =
( ) kips ft M − = = 5 . 16 11 5 . 1
max

( ) kips ft M − − = − = 5 . 4 3 5 . 1
min

I
Mc
s =
( ) kips in kips ft M
m
− = − = − = 72 6 5 . 4 5 . 16
2
1

( ) kips in kips ft M
a
− = − = + = 126 5 . 10 5 . 4 5 . 16
2
1

in c 625 . 1 =
4
1 . 122 in I = (Tables)
( )( )
ksi s
m
96 . 0
1 . 122
625 . 1 72
= =
( )( )
ksi s
a
68 . 1
1 . 122
625 . 1 126
= =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
6 . 27
68 . 1 85 . 2
48
96 . 0 1
+ =
N

67 . 5 = N

at maximum moment, or at ,
2
F
( ) kips ft M − = = 33 11 3
max

( ) kips ft M − − = − = 9 3 3
min

I
Mc
s =
( ) kips in kips ft M
m
− = − = − = 144 12 9 33
2
1

( ) kips in kips ft M
a
− = − = + = 252 21 9 33
2
1

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 61 of 62
in c 5
2
10
= =
4
1 . 122 in I = (Tables)
( )( )
ksi s
m
90 . 5
1 . 122
5 144
= =
( )( )
ksi s
a
32 . 10
1 . 122
5 252
= =
0 . 1 =
f
K
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
6 . 27
32 . 10 0 . 1
48
90 . 5 1
+ =
N

2 = N

Since the design factor at the holes is much larger than at the point of maximum moment,
it is safe to make these attachment as planned.

205. The runway of a crane consists of . 20 ft L = lengths of 15-in., 42.9-lb. I-beams,
as shown, each section being supported at its ends; AISI C1020, as rolled. The
wheels of the crane are 9 ft apart, and the maximum load expected is
lb F 000 , 10 = on each wheel. Neglecting the weight of the beam, find the design
factor (a) based on variable stresses for 10
5
cycles, (b) based on the ultimate
strength. (Hint. Since the maximum moment will occur under the wheel, assume
the wheels at some distance x from the point of support, and determine the
reaction,
1
R as a function of x ; 0 =
dx
dM
gives position for a maximum bending
moment.)

Problem 205.
Solution:
( )

= 0
2
R
M
( ) ( )
1
LR F a x L F x L = − − + −
( )
L
F a x L
R
− −
=
2 2
1

( )F a x L
L
x
x R M − − = = 2 2
1

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SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
Page 62 of 62
( ) ( ) [ ] 0 2 2 2 = − + − − = x a x L
L
F
dx
dM

0 2 2 2 = − − − x a x L
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
2 2
1 a
L x
L
F
a
L
F a
a
L L
L
a
L
M
2
2
2
2
2
2
max
|
¹
|

\
|

=
(
¸
(

¸


|
¹
|

\
|
− −

=
in ft L 240 20 = =
in ft a 108 9 = =
kips lb F 10 000 , 10 = =
( )
( )
kips in M − =
|
¹
|

\
|

= 75 . 720
240 2
10
2
108
240
2
max

For 15-in., 42.9 lb, I-beam
4
8 . 441 in I =
in c 5 . 7
2
15
= =
( )( )
ksi
I
Mc
s 24 . 12
8 . 441
5 . 7 75 . 720
max
= = =
For AISI C1029, as rolled
ksi s
u
65 =
ksi s s
u n
5 . 32 5 . 0 = =
size factor = 0.85
( ) ksi s
n
6 . 27 5 . 32 85 . 0 = =

(a) at 10
5
cycles
ksi s
n
34
10
10
6 . 27
085 . 0
5
6
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
7
24 . 12
34
= = =
s
s
N
n


(b) 31 . 5
24 . 12
65
= = =
s
s
N
u


- end -
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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 1 of 42
SIMPLE TENSION INCLUDING TIGHTENING STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS


221. A 5000-lb. gear box is provided with a steel (as rolled B1113) eyebolt for use
in moving it. What size bolt should be used: (a) if UNC threads are used? (b)
If UNF threads are used? (c) If the 8-thread series is used? Explain the basis
of your choice of design factor.

Solution:
B1113, as rolled
ksi s
y
45 = (Table AT-7)
lb F
e
5000 =
i5.6, ( )
2
1
6
s
y
d
A
s
s =
|
¹
|

\
|
< in D
4
3

For in D
4
3
=
. . 35 . 0 in sq A
s

( )
2
1
35 . 0
6
y
d
s
s =
10
y
d
s
s =
use design factor = 10

10
000 , 45 psi
s
d
=
psi s
d
4500 =

. . 111 . 1
4500
5000
in sq
s
F
A
d
e
s
= = =


Table AT 14 and Table 5.1


(a) UNC Threads

Use in D
8
3
1 = , . . 155 . 1 in sq A
s
=


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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 2 of 42
(b) UNF Threads

Use in D
8
3
1 = , . . 155 . 1 in sq A
s
=


(c) 8-Thread Series

Use in D
8
3
1 = , . . 233 . 1 in sq A
s
=

222. A motor weighing 2 tons is lifted by a wrought-iron eye bolt which is screwed
into the frame. Decide upon a design factor and determine the size of the
eyebolt if (a) UNC threads are used, (b) UNF threads are used. Note: Fine
threads are not recommended for brittle materials.

Solution:
Table AT-7
Wrought iron, ksi s
y
25 =

Assume design factor = 10

10
y
d
s
s =
10
000 , 25 psi
s
d
=
psi s
d
2500 =

( )
. . 60 . 1
2500
2000 2
in sq
s
F
A
d
e
s
= = =

Table AT 17

(a) UNC Threads

Use in D
4
3
1 = , . . 90 . 1 in sq A
s
=


(b) UNF Threads

Use in D
2
1
1 = , . . 581 . 1 in sq A
s
=

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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 3 of 42
224. A wall bracket, Fig. 8-13, Text, is loaded so that the two top bolts that fasten it
to the wall are each subjected to a tensile load of 710 lb. The bolts are to be
cold forged from AISI C1020 steel with UNC threads, Neglecting the effect of
shearing stresses, determine the diameter of these bolts if they are well
tightened.


Figure 8-13

Solution:


cold forged, AISI C1020

ksi s
y
66 = (Table AT-7)
lb F
e
710 =
( )
2
3
6
s
y
e
A
s
F =
|
¹
|

\
|
< in D
4
3

( )
2
3
6
000 , 66
710
s
A =
. . 161 . 0 in sq A
s
= , in D
4
3
<


Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

Use in D
16
9
= , . . 1820 . 0 in sq A
s
=




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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 4 of 42
225. A connection similar to Fig. 5.9, Text, is subjected to an external load
e
F of
1250 lb. The bolt is made from cold-finished AISI B1113 steel with UNC
threads. (a) Determine the diameter of the bolt if it is well tightened. (b)
Compute the initial tension and corresponding approximate tightening torque
if
y i
s s 85 . 0 = (i5.8).

Figure 5.9


Solution:
Cold-finished AISI B1113
Table A-7, ksi s
y
72 =
lb F
e
1250 =
(a) ( )
2
3
6
s
y
e
A
s
F =
( )
2
3
6
000 , 72
1250
s
A =
. . 2214 . 0 in sq A
s
= , in D
4
3
<
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

Use in D
8
5
= , . . 2260 . 0 in sq A
s
=

(b) ( ) psi s s
y i
200 , 61 000 , 72 85 . 0 85 . 0 = = =
Initial Tension
( )( ) lb A s F
s i i
831 , 13 2260 . 0 200 , 61 = = =
Tightening torque
i
CDF T =
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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 5 of 42
( ) lb in DF T
i
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= = 1729 831 , 13
8
5
2 . 0 2 . 0

226. The cylinder head of a 10 x 18 in. Freon compressor is attached by 10 stud
bolts made of SAE Grade 5. The cylinder pressure is 200 psi. (a) What size
bolts should be used? (b) What approximate tightening torque should be
needed to induce a tightening stress
i
s of 0.9 times the proof stress?

Solution:
Table 5.2
SAE Grade 5
Assume ksi s
y
88 =
(a)
( )
lb F
e
1571
10
10
4
200
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

( )
2
3
6
s
y
e
A
s
F = , in D
4
3
<
( )
2
3
6
000 , 88
1571
s
A =
. . 2255 . 0 in sq A
s
= , in D
4
3
<
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

Use in D
8
5
= , . . 2260 . 0 in sq A
s
=

(b)
i
CDF T =
2 . 0 = C
p i
s s 9 . 0 =
ksi s
p
85 = , (Table 5.2)
( ) psi s
i
500 , 76 000 , 85 9 . 0 = =
( )( ) lb A s F
s i i
289 , 17 2260 . 0 500 , 76 = = =
Tightening torque
( ) lb in DF T
i
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= = 2161 289 , 17
8
5
2 . 0 2 . 0

227. The American Steel Flange Standard specifies that 8 bolts are to be used on
flanges for 4-in. pipe where the steam or water pressure is 1500 psi. It is also
specified that, in calculating the bolt load, the outside diameter of the gasket,
which is 6 3/16 in., should be used. Determine (a) the diameter of the UNC bolts
if they are well-tightened and made of ASTM 354 BD (Table 5-2), (b) the
approximate torque to tighten the nuts if the initial stress is 90 % of the proof
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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 6 of 42
stress. The Standard specifies that 1 1/4 –in. bolts with 8 th./in. be used (these
bolts are also subjected to bending). How does your answer compare?

Solution:

Table 5.2, ASTM 354 BD
ksi s
p
120 =
ksi s
y
125 =
lb F
e
5638
8
16
3
6
4
1500
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π


(a) ( )
2
3
6
s
y
e
A
s
F = , in D
4
3
<
( )
2
3
6
000 , 125
5638
s
A =
. . 4184 . 0 in sq A
s
= , in D
4
3
<
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

Use in D
8
7
= , . . 4620 . 0 in sq A
s
=
in D
4
3
>
use
( ) ( ) psi s s
y d
750 , 18 000 , 125 15 . 0 85 . 0 1 = = − =
. . 3007 . 0
750 , 18
5638
in sq
s
F
A
d
e
s
= = =
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads
Use in D
8
3
= , . . 334 . 0 in sq A
s
=
(b)
i
DF T 2 . 0 =
p i
s s 9 . 0 =
( ) psi s
i
000 , 108 000 , 120 9 . 0 = =

( )( ) lb A s F
s i i
072 , 36 3340 . 0 000 , 108 = = =
Tightening torque
( ) lb in DF T
i
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= = 5411 072 , 36
4
3
2 . 0 2 . 0

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 7 of 42
in D
4
1
1 < as specified by the standard.

CHECK PROBLEMS

228. A cap screw, ¾ in.-10-UNC-2, with a hexagonal head that is 9/16 in. thick,
carries a tensile load of 3000 lb. If the material is AISI 1015, cold drawn, find
the factor of safety based on ultimate strengths of (a) the threaded shank, (b)
the head against being sheared off, and (c) the bearing surface under the head.
(d) Is there any need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads in
design?

Solution:
For ¾ in. UNC, Table AT 14,
. . 334 . 0 in sq A
s
=
Head:

.
8
1
1 in A =

For AISI 1015, cold drawn
ksi s
u
77 = , ksi s
us
58 =

(a) psi
A
F
s
s
8982
334 . 0
3000
= = =
57 . 8
8982
000 , 77
= = =
d
u
s
s
N

(b)
Dt
F
s
s
π
=
in t
16
9
=
psi s
s
2264
16
9
4
3
3000
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

6 . 25
2264
000 , 58
= = =
s
us
s
s
N

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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 8 of 42
(c)
o
o
30
12
360
= = θ

( ) ( ) . . 096 . 1 30 tan
2
8
1
1
2
1
2 6 tan
2 2 2
1
2 6
2
in sq
A A
Area =
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= θ
psi
A Area
F
s
b
b
4586
4
3
4
096 . 1
3000
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|

=

=
π

8 . 16
4586
000 , 77
= = =
b
u
s
s
N

(d) No need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads since its factor of
safety is very much higher than for the threaded shank.


229. A bolt, 1 1/8 in.-7-UNC-2, is subjected to a tensile load of 10,000 lb. The head
has a thickness of ¾ in. and the nut a thickness of 1 in. If the material is SAE
grade 2 (Table 5.2), find the design factor as based on ultimate stresses (a) of
the threaded shank, (b) of the head against being sheared off, and (c) of the
bearing surface under the head. The bolt head is finished. (d) Is there any need
to consider the strength of standard bolt heads in design?

Solution:
For SAE grade 2 (Table 5.2), in D
8
1
1 =
ksi s
u
55 = ,
u us
s s 75 . 0 =
For 1 1/8 in.-7-UNC-2 (Table AT 14)
. . 763 . 0 in sq A
s
=

in A
16
11
1 =

. 000 , 10 lb F =

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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 9 of 42

(a) psi
A
F
s
s
106 , 13
763 . 0
000 , 10
= = =
2 . 4
106 , 13
000 , 55
= = =
d
u
s
s
N

(b)
Dt
F
s
s
π
=
in t
4
3
=
psi s
s
3773
4
3
8
1
1
000 , 10
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

( )
11
3773
000 , 55 75 . 0
= = =
s
us
s
s
N

(c)
o
o
30
12
360
= = θ

( ) ( ) . . 4661 . 2 30 tan
2
16
11
1
2
1
2 6 tan
2 2 2
1
2 6
2
in sq
A A
Area =
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= θ
psi
A Area
F
s
b
b
6793
8
1
1
4
4661 . 2
000 , 10
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|

=

=
π

1 . 8
6793
000 , 55
= = =
b
u
s
s
N

(d) No need to consider the strength of standard bolt head in design since its factor of
safety is higher than for the threaded shank.

230. An axial force is applied to a regular nut which of course tends to shear the
threads on the screw. (a) What is the ratio of the force necessary to shear the
threads (all threads initially in intimate contact) to the force necessary to pull
the bolt in two? Use coarse threads, a 1 ½ -in. bolt, and assume that
u us
s s 75 . 0 = . The head thickness is 1 in. and the nut thickness is 1 5/16 in. (b)
Is failure of the thread by shear likely in this bolt?
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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 10 of 42

Solution:
1 ½ - in. UNC
. . 405 . 1 in sq A
s
=

(a)
s
F = shear force = Dt s
us
π
.
2
1
1 in D =
.
16
5
1 in t =
u us
s s 75 . 0 =
( )( )
u u s
s s F 6388 . 4
16
5
1
2
1
1 75 . 0 = |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= π
u s u
s A s F 405 . 1 = =
Ratio = 3 . 3
405 . 1
6388 . 4
=
u
u
s
s


(b) Ratio > 1, failure by shear is not likely to occur.

231. For bolted structural joints, specifications suggest that ½-in. bolts (high-
strength material) be tightened to an initial tension of lb F
i
500 , 12 = . What
should be the approximate tightening torque? How does your answer compare
with lb ft T − = 90 ., which is the value in the specification?

Solution:
( ) lb in DF T
i
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= = 1250 500 , 12
2
1
2 . 0 2 . 0

lb in lb in lb ft T − < − = − = 1250 1080 90 o.k.

232. One method of estimating the initial tensile stress in a tightened bolt is to turn
the nut until it is snug, but with no significant stress in the bolt. Then the nut is
turned through a predetermined angle that induces a certain unit strain
corresponding to the desired stress. A ¾ - in. bolt of the type shown in Fig.
5.4, Text, is turned down until, for practical purposes, the diameter of the
entire shank is the minor diameter. The material is AISI 4140, OQT 1200
o
F.
The grip is 5 in. and the effective strain length is estimated to be 5.3 in. If the
initial tensile stress at the root diameter is to be about 75 % of the yield
strength, through what angle should the nut be turned after it is just snug? The
threads are UNC and the parts being bolted are assumed to be rigid.

Solution:

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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 11 of 42


For ¾ in., UNC
in D
r
6273 . 0 =
. . 334 . 0 in sq A
s
=
10 . = in Th
AISI 4140, OQT 1200
o
F
ksi s
y
115 =

( ) ksi s 25 . 86 115 75 . 0 = =

E
sL
= δ
in L 3 . 5 =
pitch, in in p 10 . 0
10
1
= =

( )
o
p
360
δ
θ =
( )
o
pE
sL
360 = θ
( )( )
( )( )
( )
o o
55 360
10 30 10 . 0
3 . 5 250 , 86
6
=
×
= θ

233. When both ends of a bolt are accessible for micrometer measurements, the
total elongation δ caused by tightening can be determined by measuring
lengths before and after tightening. In order to reduce this total elongation to
unit elongation, thence to stress, the effective strain length for the bolt must be
known. For a 1 ¼-in steel bolt, threaded for its full length, 8-thread series, the
effective strain length has been found by experiment to be
. 1 . 1 97 . 0 in G L
e
+ = , where G is the grip (by W.A. McDonald, North
Carolina State College). Let the bolt material be AISI 8742, OQT 1000
o
F. (a)
It is desired that the initial tensile stress be about
y
s 7 . 0 . What total elongation
should be obtained for a grip length of 4.8 in.? (b) Investigate the approximate
tightening torque for the specified condition. How could this torque be
obtained?

Solution:
1 ¼ in., 8-thread series
Table 5.1
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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 12 of 42
in D
r
0966 . 1 =
. . 000 . 1 in sq A
s
=
8 . = in Th
AISI 8742, OQT 1000
o
F
ksi s
y
147 =

(a)
y i
s s 70 . 0 =
( ) psi ksi s
i
900 , 102 9 . 102 147 70 . 0 = = =

E
L s
e i
= δ
. 1 . 1 97 . 0 in G L
e
+ =
in G 8 . 4 =
( ) in in L
e
756 . 5 . 1 . 1 8 . 4 97 . 0 = + =

( )( )
in
E
L s
e i
01975 . 0
10 30
756 . 5 900 , 102
6
=
×
= = δ

(b)
G D
TL
p
r
4
64
π
δ
θ = =
psi G
6
10 5 . 11 × =
in in p 125 . 0
8
1
= =
( )
( ) ( )
6 4
10 5 . 11 0966 . 1
756 . 5 64
125 . 0
01975 . 0
×
= =
π
θ
T

lb in T − = 408 , 22

ELASTIC CONSIDERATIONS

235. The member C shown is part of a swivel connection that is to be clamped by a
1-in. bolt D to the member B, which has large dimensions in the plane
perpendicular to the paper. Both B and C are aluminum alloy 2024-T4, HT
aged. The bolt is made of AISI C1113, cold-drawn steel; consider the
unthreaded shank to be 2 in. long; it is well tightened with a torque of 250 ft-
lb.; UNC threads, unlubricated. (a) Estimate the initial tension by equation
(5.2), assume elastic action, and compute the bolt elongation and the total
deformation of B and C. Let the effective strain length be 2 in. (b) After
tightening an external axial force
e
F of 5000 lb. is applied to member C.
Determine the total normal stresses in the bolt and in B and C. (c) Determine
the load required to “open” the connection. Draw a diagram similar to Fig.
5.6, Text, locating points A, B, D and M.
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 13 of 42


Prob. 235, 236
Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4 HT aged,
psi E
6
10 6 . 10 × =
ksi s
y
47 =
For AISI C1113, cold-drawn steel,
psi E
6
10 30× =
ksi s
y
72 =

(a)
i
DF T 2 . 0 =
. 1in D =
lb in lb ft T − = − = 3000 250
lb F
i
000 , 15 =
Deformations: . 2 in L =
Table AT 14, 1-in. UNC Bolt,
. . 66 . 0 in sq A
s
=
( ) . . 785 . 0 1
4
2
in sq A
b
= =
π

Bolt:
( )( )
( )( )
in
E A
L F
i b
i
i
00127 . 0
10 30 785 . 0
2 000 , 15
6
=
×
= = δ
Member B and C
c c
i
c
E A
L F
= δ
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
e
D = (Nut or head width across flats) +
2
h

Table AT 14
in A
2
1
1 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 14 of 42
.
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1 in D
e
= + =
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
( ) ( ) [ ] . . 1234 . 4 1 5 . 2
4
2
2
in sq A
c
= − =
π

( )( )
( )( )
. 000686 . 0
10 6 . 10 1234 . 4
2 000 , 15
6
in
E A
L F
c c
i
c
=
×
= = δ
(b) lb F
e
5000 =
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
00127 . 0 000686 . 0
000686 . 0
5000
c b
b
e
c b
b
e b
F
k k
k
F F
δ δ
δ

lb F
b
1754 = ∆
Bolt:
lb F F F
b i t
754 , 16 1754 000 , 15 = + = ∆ + =
psi
A
F
s
s
t
b
132 , 29
606 . 0
754 , 16
= = =
Member B and C
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
− =
c b
c
e i c
k k
k
F F F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
− =
c b
c
e i c
F F F
δ δ
δ

lb F
c
754 , 11
000686 . 0 00127 . 0
00127 . 0
5000 000 , 15 = |
¹
|

\
|
+
− =
psi
A
F
s
c
c
c
2851
1234 . 4
754 , 11
= = =
(c)
o
F = opening load
lb F F
i
c i
i o
102 , 23
00127 . 0
000686 . 0 00127 . 0
000 , 15 = |
¹
|

\
| +
=
|
|
¹
|

\
| +
=
δ
δ δ

Fig. 5.6

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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 15 of 42

237. A 1-in. steel bolt is used to clamp two aluminum (2014-T6, HT aged) plates
together as shown by Fig. 5.9, Text. The aluminum plates have a total
thickness of 2 in. and an equivalent diameter of 2 in. The bolt is heated to a
temperature of 200
o
F, the inserted in the aluminum plates, which are at 80
o
F,
and tightened so as to have a tensile tightening stress of 30 ksi in the
unthreaded shank while steel at 200
o
F. What is the tensile stress in the bolt
after assembly has cooled to 80
o
F? The deformations are elastic.

Figure 5.9


Solution:
For aluminum 2014-T6
psi E
6
10 6 . 10 × =

psi s
b
000 , 30 =
( ) ( ) lb A s F
b b i
562 , 23 1
4
000 , 30
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
= =
π


Steel bolt. psi E
b
6
10 30× =
( )( )
. 002 . 0
10 30
2 000 , 30
6
in
E
L s
b
b
i
=
×
= = δ

.
c c
i
c
E A
L F
= δ
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
( ) ( ) [ ] . . 3562 . 2 1 2
4
2 2
in sq A
c
= − =
π


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 16 of 42
psi E
c
6
10 6 . 10 × =
( )( )
( )( )
in
E A
L F
c c
i
c
001887 . 0
10 6 . 10 3562 . 2
2 562 , 23
6
=
×
= = δ
. 998113 . 1 001887 . 0 2 in L L
c
= − = − = ′ δ
t L L ∆ ′ = ∆ α
( ) F in in − = . . 000007 . 0 α for steel
( )( )( ) . 001678 . 0 200 80 998113 . 1 000007 . 0 in L − = − = ∆
. 000322 . 0 001678 . 0 002 . 0 in L
i i
= − = ∆ + = ′ δ δ
b
b
i
E
L s′
= ′ δ
( )
6
10 30
2
000322 . 0
×

=
b
s

psi s
b
4830 = ′

238. A 1 1/8-in. steel bolt A passes through a yellow brass (B36-8) tube B as
shown. The length of the tube is 30 in. (virtually the unthreaded bolt length),
the threads on the bolt are UNC, and the tube’s cross-sectional area is 2 sq. in.
After the nut is snug it is tightened ¼ turn. (a) What normal stresses will be
produced in the bolt and in the tube? Assume that washers, nut, and head are
rigid. (b) What are the stresses if an axial load of 5 kips is now applied to the
bolts end? Compute the bolt load that just results in a zero stress in the tube.


Prob. 238

Solution:
For Yellow brass, B36-8,
psi E
6
10 15× =
Steel bolt
psi E
6
10 30× =
Table AT 14, 1 1/8 in., UNC
. 9497 . 0 in D
r
=
. . 763 . 0 in sq A
s
=
7 = in Th

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 17 of 42
. 30 in L =
p
i
δ
θ =
.
7
1
in p =
4
1
= θ turn
.
28
1
7
1
4
1
in
i
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= δ
b b
i
i
E A
L F
= δ
( )
( )
6
2
10 30
8
1
1
4
30
28
1
×
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π
i
F

lb F
i
500 , 35 =

(a) Bolt: psi
A
F
s
s
i
b
527 , 46
763 . 0
500 , 35
= = =

Tube:
c
i
c
A
F
s =
. . 2 in sq A
c
=
psi
A
F
s
c
i
c
750 , 17
2
500 , 35
= = =

(b) lb F
e
5000 =
( )( )
in lb
L
E A
k
c c
c
000 , 000 , 1
30
10 15 2
6
=
×
= =
( )
in lb
L
E A
k
b b
b
000 , 994
30
10 30
8
1
1
4
6
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
π


Bolts:
e
c b
b
i t
F
k k
k
F F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ =
( ) lb F
t
000 , 38 5000
000 , 000 , 1 000 , 994
000 , 994
500 , 35 = |
¹
|

\
|
+
+ =
psi
A
F
s
s
t
t
800 , 49
763 . 0
000 , 38
= = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 18 of 42
Tube:
e
c b
c
i c
F
k k
k
F F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
− =
( ) lb F
c
000 , 33 5000
000 , 000 , 1 000 , 994
000 , 000 , 1
500 , 35 = |
¹
|

\
|
+
− =
psi
A
F
s
c
c
c
500 , 16
2
000 , 33
= = =
For zero stress in the tube
( ) lb F
k
k k
F
i
c
c b
o
787 , 70 500 , 35
000 , 000 , 1
000 , 000 , 1 000 , 994
= |
¹
|

\
| +
=
|
|
¹
|

\
| +
=


ENDURANCE STRENGTH

DESIGN PROBLEMS

239. As shown diagrammatically, a bearing is supported in a pillow block attached
to an overhead beam by two cap screws, each of which, it may be assumed,
carried half the total bearing load. This load acts vertically downward, varying
from 0 to 1500 lb. The screws are to be made of AISI C1118, as rolled, and
they are tightened to give an initial stress of about
y i
s s 5 . 0 = . The pillow
block is made of class-20 cast iron. Assume that the effective length of screw
is equal to the thickness t , as shown, and that the head and beam are rigid
(overly conservative?). The equivalent diameter of the compression area may
be taken as twice the bolt diameter. For a design factor of 1.75, determine the
size of the screw: (a) from the Soderberg line, (b) from the modified Goodman
line. (c) What size do you recommend using?


Problem 239

Solution:
For AISI C1118, as rolled
ksi s
y
46 =
ksi s
u
75 =

y i
s s 5 . 0 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 19 of 42
( ) psi ksi s
i
000 , 23 23 46 5 . 0 = = =

lb A kip A A s F
s s s i i
000 , 23 23 = = =

e
c b
b
b
F
k k
k
F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
psi E
b
6
10 30× = (steel)
t L
b
=

c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
For cast-iron class 20
psi E
c
6
10 6 . 9 × =
t L
c
=
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
2
4
D A
b
π
=
D D
e
2 =
( )
b c
A D D D A 3
4
3
4
2
4
2 2 2
= = − =
π π π

b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
( )
t
A
k
b
b
6
10 30×
=
( )
t
A
k
b
c
6
10 6 . 9 3 ×
=
( ) 588
300
10 6 . 9 3 10 30
10 30
6 6
6
=
× + ×
×
=
+
c b
b
k k
k

0
1
= ∆
b
F
lb F
k k
k
F
e
c b
b
b
383
2
1500
588
300
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
( ) ( ) lb A A F F F F
s s b b i m
192 000 , 23 0 383
2
1
000 , 23
2
1
1 2
+ = + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( ) lb F F F
b b a
192 0 383
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 20 of 42
( ) psi psi s s
u n
500 , 37 000 , 75 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =

For axial loading with size factor
( )( )( ) psi psi s
n
500 , 25 500 , 37 85 . 0 8 . 0 = =

75 . 1 = N

s s s
s
s
m
m
A A A
A
A
F
s
192
000 , 23
192 000 , 23
+ = + = =
s s
a
a
A A
F
s
192
= =

Table AT 12, 8 . 1 =
f
K

(a) Soderberg line

n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )
500 , 25
192
8 . 1
000 , 46
192
000 , 23
75 . 1
1
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
s s
A A

. . 2482 . 0 in sq A
s
=

Table AT 14, UNC
Use .
4
3
in D = , . . 334 . 0 in sq A
s
=

(b) Modifies Goodman line

n
a f
u
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )
500 , 25
192
8 . 1
000 , 75
192
000 , 23
75 . 1
1
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
s s
A A

. . 0609 . 0 in sq A
s
=
Table AT 14, UNC
Use .
8
3
in D = , . . 0775 . 0 in sq A
s
=

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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 21 of 42
(c) Recommended, UNC in D − = .
4
3


240. A connection similar to Fig. 5.9, Text, is subjected to an external load that
varied from 0 to 1250 lb. The bolt is cold forged from AISI B1113 steel; UNC
threads.The aluminum parts C (3003 H14) have a total thickness of 1 ½ in.
and an external diameter of D 2 . It is desired that the connection not open for
an external load of
e
F 5 . 1 . Determine (a) the initial tensile load on the bolt, (b)
the bolt diameter for 2 = N based on the Soderberg line.

Fig. 5.9

Solution:

(a) lb
k k
k
QF F
c b
c
e i
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
5 . 1 = Q
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
2
4
D A
b
π
=
psi E
b
6
10 30× =
.
2
1
1 in L
b
=
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
D D
e
2 =
( )
b c
A D D D A 3
4
3
4
2
4
2 2 2
= = − =
π π π

psi E
c
6
10 10× = (3003-H14 aluminum)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 22 of 42
.
2
1
1 in L
c
=
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
2
1
1
10 30
6
b
b
A
k
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
2
1
1
10 10 3
6
b
c
A
k
( )
( )
5 . 0
10 10 3 10 30
10 10 3
6 6
6
=
× + ×
×
=
+
c b
c
k k
k

lb F
e
1250 =
lb
k k
k
QF F
c b
c
e i
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
( )( )( ) lb F
i
5 . 937 5 . 0 1250 5 . 1 = =

(b) For AISI B1113 steel, cold forged

ksi s
u
83 =
ksi s
y
72 =

( ) psi ksi s s
u n
500 , 41 5 . 41 83 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = = =

For axial loading with size factor
( )( )( ) psi psi s
n
220 , 28 500 , 41 85 . 0 8 . 0 = =

e
c b
b
b
F
k k
k
F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
0
1
= ∆
b
F
( )
( ) lb F
k k
k
F
e
c b
b
b
625 1250
10 10 3 10 30
10 30
6 6
6
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
×
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆

( ) ( ) lb F F F F
b b i m
1250 0 625
2
1
5 . 937
2
1
1 2
= + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( ) lb F F F
b b a
5 . 312 0 625
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =
s s
m
m
A A
F
s
1250
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 23 of 42
s s
a
a
A A
F
s
5 . 312
= =

Soderberg line, 8 . 1 =
f
K Table AT 12
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
s s
A A 220 , 28
5 . 312 8 . 1
000 , 72
1250
2
1
+ =
. . 07459 . 0 in sq A
s
=

Table AT 14, UNC
Use .
8
3
in D = , . . 0775 . 0 in sq A
s
=

243. This problem concerns the Freon compressor of 226: size, 10 x 18 in.; 10
studs, UNC; made of C1118, as rolled; 200 psi gas pressure. The initial
tension in the bolts, assumed to be equally loaded, is such that a cylinder
pressure of 300 psi is required for the joint to be on the opening. The bolted
parts are cast steel and for the first calculations, it will be satisfactorily to
assume the equivalent diameter of the compressed parts to be twice the bolt
size. (a) For 2 = N on the Soderberg criterion, what bolt size is required? (b)
Compute the torque required for the specified initial tension.

Solution:
( )
. 2356
10
10
4
300
2
lb F
o
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
c b
c
o i
k k
k
F F
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
2
4
D A
b
π
=
psi E
b
6
10 30× =
L L
b
=
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
D D
e
2 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 24 of 42
( )
b c
A D D D A 3
4
3
4
2
4
2 2 2
= = − =
π π π

Cast Steel, psi E
c
6
10 30× =
L L
c
=
( )
L
A
k
b
b
6
10 30×
=
( )
b
b
c
k
L
A
k 3
10 30 3
6
=
×
=
( ) lb
k k
k
k k
k
F F
b b
b
c b
c
o i
1767
3
3
2356 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=

(a)
e
c b
b
b
F
k k
k
F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
0
1
= ∆
b
F
( ) ( )
lb
k k
k
F
k k
k
F
b b
b
e
c b
b
b
393
10
200 10
4 3
2
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
π


( ) ( ) lb F F F F
b b i m
1964 0 393
2
1
1767
2
1
1 2
= + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( ) lb F F F
b b a
196 0 393
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =
s s
m
m
A A
F
s
1964
= =
s s
a
a
A A
F
s
196
= =
For C1118, as rolled
ksi s
u
75 =
ksi s
y
46 =
( ) psi ksi s s
u n
500 , 37 5 . 37 75 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = = =

For axial loading with size factor
( )( )( ) psi psi s
n
500 , 25 500 , 37 85 . 0 8 . 0 = =
8 . 1 =
f
K Table AT 12
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
s s
A A 500 , 25
196 8 . 1
000 , 46
1964
2
1
+ =
. . 1131 . 0 in sq A
s
=
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SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 25 of 42

Table AT 14, UNC
Use .
2
1
in D = , . . 1419 . 0 in sq A
s
=

(b)
i
DF T 2 . 0 =
( ) . 7 . 176 1767
2
1
2 . 0 lb in T − = |
¹
|

\
|
=

245. A cast-iron (class 35) Diesel-engine cylinder head is held on 8 stud bolts with
UNC threads. These bolts are made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000
o
F (Fig.
AF2). Assume that the compressed material has an equivalent diameter twice
the bolt size. The maximum cylinder pressure is 750 psi and the bore of the
engine is 8 in. Let the initial bolt load be such that a cylinder pressure of 1500
psi brings the joint to the point of opening. For a design factor of 2, determine
the bolt diameter (a) using the Soderberg equation, (b) using the Goodman
equation. (c) What approximate torque will be required to induce the desired
initial stress? (d) Determine the ratio of the initial stress to the yield strength.
Considering the lessons of experience (i5.8), what initial stress would you
recommend? Using this value, what factor of safety is computed from the
Soderberg equation?

Solution:
( )
. 9425
8
8
4
1500
2
lb F
o
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
c b
c
o i
k k
k
F F
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
2
4
D A
b
π
=
psi E
b
6
10 30× =
L L
b
=
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
D D
e
2 =
( )
b c
A D D D A 3
4
3
4
2
4
2 2 2
= = − =
π π π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 26 of 42
psi E
c
6
10 5 . 14 × = , for cast-iron (class 35)
L L
c
=
( )
L
A
k
b
b
6
10 30×
=
( )
L
A
k
b
c
6
10 5 . 14 3 ×
=
( )
( )
( )
lb
k k
k
F F
c b
c
o i
5578
10 5 . 14 3 10 30
10 5 . 14 3
9425
6 6
6
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
× + ×
×
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=

e
c b
b
b
F
k k
k
F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
0
1
= ∆
b
F
( )
( ) ( )
lb F
k k
k
F
e
c b
b
b
1923
8
750 8
4 10 5 . 14 3 10 30
10 30
2
6 6
6
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
×
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
π


( ) ( ) lb F F F F
b b i m
6540 0 1923
2
1
5578
2
1
1 2
= + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( ) lb F F F
b b a
962 0 1923
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =

s s
m
m
A A
F
s
6540
= =
s s
a
a
A A
F
s
962
= =
(a) For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000
o
F
ksi s
u
153 =
ksi s
y
134 =
( ) psi ksi s s
u n
500 , 76 5 . 76 153 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = = =

For axial loading with size factor
( )( )( ) psi psi s
n
000 , 52 500 , 76 85 . 0 8 . 0 = =
Table AT 12, 3 . 3 =
f
K (hardened)
Soderberg Equation
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
s s
A A 000 , 52
962 3 . 3
000 , 134
6540
2
1
+ =
. . 2197 . 0 in sq A
s
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 27 of 42

Table AT 14, UNC
Use .
8
5
in D = , . . 226 . 0 in sq A
s
=

(b) Goodman Equation

n
a f
u
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
s s
A A 000 , 52
962 3 . 3
000 , 153
6540
2
1
+ =
. . 2076 . 0 in sq A
s
=

Table AT 14, UNC
Use .
8
5
in D = , . . 226 . 0 in sq A
s
=

(c)
i
DF T 2 . 0 =
( ) . 697 5578
8
5
2 . 0 lb in T − = |
¹
|

\
|
=

(d) psi
A
F
s
s
i
i
681 , 24
226 . 0
5578
= = =
Ratio = 184 . 0
000 , 134
681 , 24
= =
y
i
s
s


i5.8 ( ) psi s s
y i
900 , 113 000 , 134 85 . 0 85 . 0 = = =
Factor of safety
( )( ) lb A s F
s i i
742 , 25 226 . 0 900 , 113 = = =
( ) lb F
m
704 , 26 1923
2
1
742 , 25 = + =
( ) lb F
a
962 1923
2
1
= =
psi
A
F
s
s
m
m
159 , 118
226 . 0
704 , 26
= = =
psi
A
F
s
s
a
a
4257
226 . 0
962
= = =
Soderberg Equation
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 28 of 42
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
000 , 52
4257 3 . 3
000 , 134
159 , 118 1
+ =
N

87 . 0 = N

246. A 30,000-lb. body is to be mounted on a shaker (vibrator). The shaker will
exert a harmonic force of . 2 sin 000 , 30 lb f t F π = on the body where f cps is
the frequency and t sec. is the time. The frequency can be varied from 5 to
10,000 cps. The harmonic force will exert a tensile load on the bolts that
attach the body to the shaker when F is positive. Determine the minimum
number of ½-in.-UNF bolts that must be used for 2 = N based on Soderberg
line. The material of the bolts is to be AISI 8630, WQT 1100
o
F; the material
of the body that is to be vibrated is aluminum alloy, 2014-T6 and the joint is
not to open for an external force that is 1.25 times the maximum force exerted
by the shaker. It may be assumed that the equivalent diameter of the material
in compression is twice the bolt diameter.





Solution:
0
min
=
e
F
lb F
e
000 , 30
max
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
c b
c
e i
k k
k
QF F
25 . 1 = Q
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
2
4
D A
b
π
=
psi E
b
6
10 30× =
L L
b
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 29 of 42
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
D D
e
2 =
( )
b c
A D D D A 3
4
3
4
2
4
2 2 2
= = − =
π π π

psi E
c
6
10 6 . 10 × = , (Aluminum 2014-T6)
L L
c
=
( )
L
A
L
E A
k
b
b
b b
b
6
10 30×
= =
( )
L
A
L
E A
k
b
c
c c
c
6
10 6 . 10 3 ×
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
c b
c
e i
k k
k
QF F
( )( )
( )
( )
lb F
i
296 , 19
10 6 . 10 3 10 30
10 6 . 10 3
000 , 30 25 . 1
6 6
6
=
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
×
=

e
c b
b
b
F
k k
k
F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
0
1
= ∆
b
F
( )
( ) lb F
k k
k
F
e
c b
b
b
563 , 14 000 , 30
10 6 . 10 3 10 30
10 30
6 6
6
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
×
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆

( ) ( ) lb F F F F
b b i m
578 , 26 0 563 , 14
2
1
296 , 19
2
1
1 2
= + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( ) lb F F F
b b a
7282 0 563 , 14
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =

s
m
m
nA
F
s =
s
a
a
nA
F
s =
For ½-in.-UNF (Table AT 14)
. . 1419 . 0 in sq A
s
=
n n nA
F
s
s
m
m
300 , 187
1419 . 0
578 , 26
= = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 30 of 42
n n nA
F
s
s
a
a
318 , 51
1419 . 0
7282
= = =

For AISI 8630, WQT 1100
o
F
3 . 3 =
f
K
ksi s
u
137 =
ksi s
y
125 =
( ) psi ksi s s
u n
500 , 68 5 . 68 137 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = = =

For axial loading with size factor
( )( )( ) psi psi s
n
580 , 46 500 , 68 85 . 0 8 . 0 = =

Soderberg Equation, 2 = N
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
n n 580 , 46
318 , 51 3 . 3
000 , 125
300 , 187
2
1
+ =
3 . 10 = n

Minimum number of bolts = 10 bolts

248. The maximum external load on the cap bolts of an automotive connecting rod
end, imposed by inertia forces at top dead center, is taken to be 4000 lb.; the
minimum load is zero at bottom dead center. The material is AISI 4140, OQT
1100
o
F (qualifying for SAE grade 5); assume that
u n
s s 45 . 0 =

. The grip for
through bolts is 1.5 in. For design purposed, let each bolt take half the load,
and use an equivalent .
8
3
1 in D
e
= for the connected parts. The threads extend
a negligible amount into the grip. For the initial computation, use an opening
load
e o
F F 75 . 1 = . Considering the manner in which the bolt is loaded, we
decide that a design factor of 1.4 (Soderberg) should be quite adequate. (a)
Does a 5/16-24 UNF satisfy this situation? If not, what size do you
recommend? (b) Experience suggests that, in situations such as this, an initial
stress of the order suggested in i5.8, Text, is good insurance against fatigue
failure. Decide upon such an
i
s and recomputed N . How does it change?
Would you be concerned about the safety in this case? Consider the variation
of
i
s as a consequences of the use of torque wrench and also the stress
relaxation with time (due to seating and other factors), and discuss. Compute
the required tightening torque for each
i
s .

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 31 of 42
Solution:
( ) lb F F
e o
7000 4000 75 . 1 75 . 1 = = =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
c b
c
e i
k k
k
F F
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
2
4
D A
b
π
=
psi E
b
6
10 30× =
. 5 . 1 in L
b
=
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
2 2
4 4
D D A
e c
π π
− =
b c
A D D A − = − = −
|
¹
|

\
|
= 485 . 1
4
485 . 1
4 8
3
1
4
2 2
2
π π π

psi E
c
6
10 6 . 10 × = , (Aluminum 2014-T6)
. 5 . 1 in L
c
=
b s
A A ≈
( )
5 . 1
10 30
6
×
= =
b
b
b b
b
A
L
E A
k
( )( )
5 . 1
10 30 485 . 1
6
× −
= =
s
c
c c
c
A
L
E A
k
s
s
i
A
A
F 4714 7000
485 . 1
485 . 1
7000 − =
(
¸
(

¸

=

e
c b
b
b
F
k k
k
F
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
0
1
= ∆
b
F
( )
s
s
e
c b
b
b
A
A
F
k k
k
F 2694 000 , 4
485 . 1
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆

( ) ( )
s s s b b i m
A A A F F F F 3367 7000 0 2694
2
1
4714 7000
2
1
1 2
− = + + − = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( )
s s b b a
A A F F F 1347 0 2694
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 32 of 42
Table 5.2
ksi s
u
120 =
ksi s
y
88 =

( ) psi ksi s s
u n
000 , 54 54 120 45 . 0 45 . 0 = = = =


3367
7000
− = =
s s
m
m
A A
F
s
1347 = =
s
a
a
A
F
s
3 . 3 =
f
K (hardened, Table AT 12)
Soderberg Equation, 4 . 1 = N
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
000 , 54
1347 3 . 3
000 , 88
3367
000 , 88
7000
4 . 1
1
+ − =
s
A

. . 1187 . 0 in sq A
s
=
Table At14, we in D
16
7
= , . . 1187 . 0 in sq A
s
=

(a) 5/16-24 UNF will not satisfy the situation. Instead use in D
16
7
= ,
. . 1187 . 0 in sq A
s
=

(b) i5.8, Text
( ) psi ksi s s
y i
800 , 74 8 . 74 88 85 . 0 85 . 0 = = = =
( )( ) lb A s F
s i i
8879 1187 . 0 800 , 74 = = =
( ) ( )
s s b b i m
A A F F F F 1347 8879 0 2694
2
1
8879
2
1
1 2
+ = + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( )
s s b b a
A A F F F 1347 0 2694
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =
1347
8879
+ = =
s s
m
m
A A
F
s
1347 = =
s
a
a
A
F
s
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 33 of 42
( )( )
000 , 54
1347 3 . 3
000 , 88
1347
1187 . 0
8879
1
+
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
N

06 . 1 = N , it decreases
1 > N , therefore, safe.

Considering variation of
i
s ,
i
s tends to exceeds the limiting stress therefore reduces the
factor of safety. While stress relaxation tends to reduce the limiting stress approaching
the
i
s and causing lower design factor.

(c) ( ) lb A F
s i
6440 1187 . 0 4714 7000 4714 7000 = − = − =
( ) lb in DF T
i
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= = 564 6440
16
7
2 . 0 2 . 0

at lb F
i
8879 =
( ) lb in DF T
i
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= = 777 8879
16
7
2 . 0 2 . 0

CHECK PROBLEMS

249. A 1-in. steel bolt A (normalized AISI 1137, cold-rolled threads) passes
through a yellow brass tube B (B36-8, ½ hard) as shown. The tube length is
30 in., its cross-sectional area is 2 sq. in. and the UNC bolt threads extend a
negligible amount below the nut. The steel washers are ¼ in. thick and are
assumed not to bend (clearances are exaggerated). The nut is turned ¼ turn.
(a) If an external tensile axial load, varying from 0 to 5 kips, is repeatedly
applied to the bolt, what is the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg
criterion? (b) What is the external load on the bolt at the instant that the load
on the tube becomes zero.


Problem 249, 250

Solution:

For 1-in. UNC
. . 606 . 0 in sq A
s
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 34 of 42
. 8466 . 0 in D
r
=
8 . = in Th

.
8
1 1
in
in Th
p = =
4
1
=
p
δ

.
32
1
8
1
4
1
in = |
¹
|

\
|
= δ
. 5 . 30
4
1
2 30 in L
b
= |
¹
|

\
|
+ =
psi E
b
6
10 30× =
( )
( ) ( )
6 2
10 30 1
4
5 . 30
32
1
×
= =
π
δ
i
F

lb F
i
141 , 24 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
c b
b
e b
k k
k
F F
( ) ( )
525 , 772
5 . 30
10 30 1
4
6 2
=
×
= =
π
b
b b
b
L
E A
k
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
. . 2 in sq A
c
=
. 30 in L
c
=
psi E
c
6
10 15× = (Yellow Brass)
( )
000 , 000 , 1
30
10 15 2
6
=
×
=
c
k

(a) 0
1
= ∆
b
F
( ) lb F
b
2179
000 , 000 , 1 525 , 772
525 , 772
5000
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
( ) ( ) lb F F F F
b b i m
230 , 25 0 2179
2
1
141 , 24
2
1
1 2
= + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( ) lb F F F
b b a
1090 0 2179
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =
psi
A
F
s
s
m
m
227 , 38
606 . 0
230 , 25
= = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 35 of 42
psi
A
F
s
s
a
a
1799
606 . 0
1090
= = =
For normalized AISI 1137, cold-rolled thread
ksi s
u
98 =
ksi s
y
58 =

( ) psi ksi s s
u n
000 , 49 49 98 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = = =
4 . 1 =
f
K (Table AT 12)

For axial loading, ( ) psi s
n
200 , 39 000 , 49 8 . 0 = =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
200 , 39
1799 4 . 1
000 , 58
227 , 38 1
+ =
N

38 . 1 = N

(b)
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
c b
c
o i
k k
k
F F
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
000 , 000 , 1 525 , 772
000 , 000 , 1
141 , 24
o
F
lb F
o
790 , 42 =


250. A ¾-in. fine-thread bolt, made of AISI 1117, cold drawn, with rolled threads,
passes through a yellow brass tube and two steel washers, as shown. The tube
is 4 in. long, 7/8 in. internal diameter, 1 ¼-in. external diameter. The washers
are each ¼-in. thick. The unthreaded part of the bolt is 3 in. long. Assume that
there is no stretching of the bolt inside the nut in finding its k . The
unlubricated bolt is tightened by a torque of 1800 in-lb. The external load,
varying from 0 to 4 kips, is axially applied to the washers an indefinite
number of times. (a) Compute the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg
criterion. Is there any danger of failure of the bolt? (b) What pull must be
exerted by the washers to remove all load from the brass tube?

Solution:
i
DF T 2 . 0 =
i
F |
¹
|

\
|
=
4
3
2 . 0 1800
lb F
i
000 , 12 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 36 of 42
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
c b
b
e b
k k
k
F F
2 1
1 1 1
b b b
k k k
+ =
1
1
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
. 3
1
in L
b
=
. . 4418 . 0
4
3
4
2
in sq A
b
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

psi E
b
6
10 30× =

( )( )
000 , 418 , 4
3
10 30 4418 . 0
6
1
=
×
=
b
k
2
2
b
b s
b
L
E A
k =
For ¾-in. UNF (Table AT 14)
. . 373 . 0 in sq A
s
=
. 5 . 1 3
2
1
2 4
2
in L
b
= − |
¹
|

\
|
+ =
( )( )
000 , 460 , 7
5 . 1
10 30 373 . 0
6
2
=
×
=
b
k
2 1
1 1 1
b b b
k k k
+ =
000 , 460 , 7
1
000 , 418 , 4
1 1
+ =
b
k

733 , 774 , 2 =
b
k
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
. . 6259 . 0
8
7
4
1
1
4
2 2
in sq A
c
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− |
¹
|

\
|
=
π

psi E
c
6
10 15× =
. 4 in L
c
=
( )( )
125 , 347 , 2
4
10 15 6259 . 0
6
=
×
=
c
k
0
1
= ∆
b
F
( ) lb F
b
2167
125 , 347 , 2 733 , 774 , 2
733 , 774 , 2
4000
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 37 of 42
( ) ( ) lb F F F F
b b i m
084 , 13 0 2167
2
1
000 , 12
2
1
1 2
= + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( ) lb F F F
b b a
1084 0 2167
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =
psi
A
F
s
s
m
m
078 , 35
373 . 0
084 , 13
= = =
psi
A
F
s
s
a
a
2906
373 . 0
1084
= = =
For AISI 111, cold drawn, rolled threads
ksi s
n
40 =
ksi s
y
68 =
4 . 1 =
f
K
( ) psi ksi s
n
000 , 32 32 40 8 . 0 = = = , axial loading

(a)
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
000 , 32
2906 4 . 1
000 , 68
078 , 35 1
+ =
N

56 . 1 = N

(b)
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
c b
c
o i
k k
k
F F
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
125 , 347 , 2 733 , 774 , 2
125 , 347 , 2
000 , 12
o
F
lb F
o
186 , 26 =

251. A coupling bolt (i5.13, Text) is used to connect two parts made of cast-iron,
class 35. The diameter of the coarse-thread bolt is ½-in.; its grip is 2 in., which
is also nearly the unthreaded length. The bolt tightened to have an initial
tension of 4000 lb. The parts support an external load
e
F that tends to separate
them and it varies from zero to 5000 lb. What is the factor of safety,
(Soderberg)?

Solution:
lb F
i
4000 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
c b
b
e b
k k
k
F F
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 38 of 42
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
. . 19635 . 0
2
1
4
2
in sq A
b
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π
(unthreaded length)
psi E
b
6
10 30× =
. 2 in L
b
=
( )( )
250 , 945 , 2
2
10 30 19635 . 0
6
=
×
=
b
k
Table AT 14, UNC
.
2
1
in D =
. . 1419 . 0 in sq A
s
=
.
4
3
in A =
2
h
A D
e
+ =
. 2 in h =
.
4
3
1
2
2
4
3
in D
e
= + =
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
. . 209 . 2
2
1
4
3
1
4 4 4
2 2
2 2
in sq D D A
e c
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− |
¹
|

\
|
= − =
π π π

psi E
c
6
10 5 . 14 × = , (Cast iron, class 35)
. 2 in L
c
=
( )( )
250 , 015 , 16
2
10 5 . 14 209 . 2
6
=
×
=
c
k
0
1
= ∆
b
F
( ) lb F
b
777
250 , 015 , 16 250 , 945 , 2
250 , 945 , 2
5000
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
( ) ( ) lb F F F F
b b i m
4389 0 777
2
1
4000
2
1
1 2
= + + = ∆ + ∆ + =
( ) ( ) lb F F F
b b a
389 0 777
2
1
2
1
1 2
= − = ∆ − ∆ =
psi
A
F
s
s
m
m
930 , 30
1419 . 0
4389
= = =
psi
A
F
s
s
a
a
2741
1419 . 0
389
= = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 39 of 42
For ASTM 354 BC (Table 5.2), .
2
1
in D =
ksi s
u
125 =
ksi s
y
109 =
u n
s s 5 . 0 =
For axial loading
( )( )( ) psi ksi s
n
000 , 50 50 125 5 . 0 8 . 0 = = =
8 . 1 =
f
K
Soderberg Line
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
000 , 50
2741 8 . 1
000 , 109
930 , 30 1
+ =
N

6 . 2 = N

252. The cap on the end of a connecting rod (automotive engine) is held on by two
5/16-in. bolts that are forged integrally with the main connecting rod. These
bolts have UNF threads with a 5/8-in. on an unthreaded length of virtually 5/8
in. The nuts are to be tightened with a torque of 20 ft-lb. and the maximum
external load on one bolt is expected to be 2330 lb. Let the equivalent
diameter of the connected parts be ¾ in. (a) Estimate the maximum force on
the bolt. (b) Compute the opening load. Is this satisfactory? (c) If the bolt
material is AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF, what is the factor of safety based on the
Soderberg criterion?

Solution:
lb in lb ft T − = − = 240 20
i
DF T 2 . 0 =
i
F |
¹
|

\
|
=
16
5
2 . 0 240
lb F
i
3840 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆
c b
b
e b
k k
k
F F
b
b b
b
L
E A
k =
. . 0767 . 0
16
5
4
2
in sq A
b
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π
(unthreaded length)
psi E
b
6
10 30× =
.
8
5
in L
b
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 40 of 42
( )( )
600 , 681 , 3
8
5
10 30 0767 . 0
6
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
b
k
c
c c
c
L
E A
k =
. . 3651 . 0
16
5
4
3
4 4 4
2 2
2 2
in sq D D A
e c
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− |
¹
|

\
|
= − =
π π π

psi E
c
6
10 30× = , (Cast iron, class 35)
.
8
5
in L
c
=
( )( )
800 , 524 , 17
8
5
10 30 3651 . 0
6
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
c
k
( ) lb F
b
405
800 , 524 , 17 600 , 681 , 3
600 , 681 , 3
2330 = |
¹
|

\
|
+
= ∆

(a) lb F F F
b i
4245 405 3840
max
= + = ∆ + =
(b)
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
c b
c
o i
k k
k
F F
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
80 , 524 , 17 600 , 681 , 3
800 , 524 , 17
3840
o
F
max
4647 F lb F
o
< =

(c) lb
F
F F
b
i m
4042
2
405
3840
2
= + =

+ =
lb
F
F
b
a
202
2
405
2
= =

=
For AISI 4140, OQT 1000
o
F
ksi s
u
170 =
ksi s
y
155 =
Table AT 12, 6 . 2 =
f
K
u n
s s 5 . 0 =
For axial loading
( )( )( ) psi ksi s
n
000 , 68 68 170 5 . 0 8 . 0 = = =

Soderberg Line
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 41 of 42
For 5/16-in.-UNF, Table AT 14, . . 0580 . 0 in sq A
s
=
psi
A
F
s
s
m
m
690 , 69
0580 . 0
4042
= = =
psi
A
F
s
s
a
a
3843
0580 . 0
202
= = =
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
000 , 68
3483 6 . 2
000 , 155
690 , 69 1
+ =
N

72 . 1 = N

SET SCREWS

254. A 6-in. pulley is fastened to a 1 ¼ in. shaft by a set screw. If a net tangential
force of 75 lb, is applied to the surface of the pulley, what size screw should
be used when the load is steady?

Solution:
Tangential force = ( ) lb lb 365
25 . 1
6
75 = |
¹
|

\
|

Assume tangential force = holding force
Table 5.3, use Screw size 8, Holding force = 385 lb.

255. An eccentric is to be connected to a 3-in. shaft by a setscrew. The center of the
eccentric is 1 ¼ in. from the center of the shaft when a tensile force of 1000
lb. is applied to the eccentric rod perpendicular to the line of centers. What
size set screw should be used for a deign factor of 6?

Solution:
Tangential force = ( ) lb lb 833
2 3
25 . 1
1000 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|

Holding force = ( )( ) lb 5000 833 6 =
Table 5.3, use Screw size ¾ in.

256. A lever 16 in. long is to be fastened to a 2-in. shaft. A load of 40 lb. is to be
applied normal to the lever at its end. What size of set screw should be used
for a design factor of 5?

Solution:
Torque = ( )( ) lb in − = 640 40 16
Tangential force =
( )
lb 640
2
640 2
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS
Page 42 of 42
Holding force = ( )( ) lb 3200 640 5 =
Table 5.3, use Screw size 9/16 in.

257. A 12-in. gear is mounted on a 2-in. shaft and is held in place by a 7/16 in.
setscrew. For a design factor of 3, what would be the tangential load that
could be applied to the teeth and what horsepower could be transmitted by the
screw.

Solution:
Table 5.3, 7/16 in.
Holding force = 2500 lb
Tangential force = lb 833
3
2500
=
Tangential load on gear = lb 139
12
2
833 = |
¹
|

\
|

Assume fpm v
m
4500 =
Hp transmitted =
( )( )
hp 19
000 , 33
4500 139
=

- end -





http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 1 of 70
HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS

DESIGN – LIGHT, MEDIUM SERVICE

271. A solenoid brake (Fig. 18.2, Text) is to be actuated by a helical compression
spring. The spring should have a free length of approximately 18 in. and is to
exert a maximum force of 2850 lb. when compressed to a length of 15 in. The
outside diameter must not exceed 7 in. Using oil-tempered wire, design a
spring for this brake, (wire diameter, coil diameter, number of active coils,
pitch, pitch angle, “solid stress”). General Electric used a spring made of 1 in.
wire, with an outside diameter of 6 in., and 11 ½ free coils for a similar
application.

Solution:
For oil tempered wire, Table AT 17
ksi
D
s
w
u
19 . 0
146
= , [ ] 5 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D
“solid stress” =
u
s 6 . 0
design stress, (average service)
u sd
s s 324 . 0 =

( )
ksi
D D
s
w w
sd 19 . 0 19 . 0
304 . 47 146 324 . 0
= =

7 ≤ +
m w
D D

kips lb F 85 . 2 2850 = =


19 . 0 3
304 . 47 8
w w
m
s
D D
FD
K s =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

say 3 . 1 = K
( )( )
19 . 0 3
304 . 47 7 85 . 2 8
3 . 1
w w
w
s
D D
D
s =
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

in in D
w
5 . 0 062 . 1 > =

use
( )
ksi ksi s
sd
54
5 . 0
304 . 47
19 . 0
= =
( )( )
54
7 85 . 2 8
3 . 1
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
w
w
s
D
D
s
π

in D
w
015 . 1 =

say in D
w
0 . 1 =
( )
( )
54
1
85 . 2 8
3 . 1
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π
m
s
D
s

in D
m
72 . 5 =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 2 of 70
say in D
m
0 . 5 =
. 7 6 0 . 1 0 . 5 in in D D OD
w m
< = + = + =

5
0 . 1
0 . 5
= = =
w
m
D
D
C

δ
= Free length – Compressed length = 18 in – 15 in = 3 in.
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ

ksi G 500 , 10 = , in D
w
8
3
>
( )( )
( )( ) 1 500 , 10
5 85 . 2 8
3
3
c
N
= = δ

05 . 11 =
c
N

say 5 . 11 =
c
N
( )( ) ( )
( )( )
in 12 . 3
1 500 , 10
5 . 11 5 85 . 2 8
3
= = δ

Free length = 15 + 3.12 = 18.12 in

At 2.85 kips
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3
8
w
m
s
D
FD
K s
π

5 = C

( )
( )
3105 . 1
5
615 . 0
4 5 4
1 5 4 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
= +


= +


=
C C
C
K

( )( )
( )
ksi s
s
55 . 47
1
5 85 . 2 8
3105 . 1
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

Permissible solid stress
( )
( )
ksi ksi s s
u so
93 . 99
5 . 0
146 6 . 0
6 . 0
19 . 0
= = =

using
δ
F
k =

or let
T
δ = Free length – Solid height
T
δ
93 . 99
12 . 3
55 . 47
=

in
T
56 . 6 = δ

T
δ = Free length – Solid height = ( )
c w
N D P−
( )( ) 5 . 11 1 56 . 6 − = P

in P 570 . 1 =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 3 of 70
use in P
2
1
1 =
Pitch angle,
( )
o o
12 5 . 5
5
5 . 1
tan tan
1 1
< =
(
¸
(

¸

= =
− −
π π
λ
D
P
, o.k.

For actual solid stress
( )( ) . 75 . 5 5 . 11 1 5 . 1 in
T
= − = δ

75 . 5 12 . 3
55 . 47
so
s
=

ksi ksi s
so
93 . 99 63 . 87 < = , ok

Summary of answer:
w
D = wire diameter = 1 in.
m
D = coil diameter = 5 in.
c
N = no. of active coils = 11 1/2
P = pitch = 1 ½ in.
γ = pitch angle = 5.5
o

so
s = solid stress = 87.63 ksi

272. A coil spring is to be used for the front spring of a automobile. The spring is
to have a rate of 400 lb./in., an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length
of 14 1/8 in., with squared-and-ground ends. The material is to be oil-
tempered chrome vanadium steel. Decide upon the diameter of the wire and
the number of free coils for a design load of lb F 1500 = . Be sure “solid
stress” is all right. How much is the pitch angle?

Solution:
Table AT 17 Cr-V steel
ksi
D
s
w
u
166 . 0
168
= , [ ] 437 . 0 032 . 0
w
D <
average service
u sd
s s 324 . 0 =

( )
ksi
D D
s
w w
sd 166 . 0 166 . 0
432 . 54 168 324 . 0
= =

Max “solid stress” =
u
s 6 . 0
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 4 of 70
in in D D ID
w m
046875 . 4
64
3
4 = = − =

in D D
w m
046875 . 4 + =


sd
w
m
s
s
D
FD
K s =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3
8
π

Assume 3 . 1 = K
kips lb F 5 . 1 1500 = =

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
+
= =
3 166 . 0
046875 . 4 5 . 1 8
3 . 1
432 . 54
w
w
w
sd
D
D
D
s
π

in in D
w
437 . 0 747 . 0 > =

use
( )
ksi ksi s
sd
45 . 62
437 . 0
432 . 54
19 . 0
= =

( )( )
45 . 62
046875 . 4 5 . 1 8
3 . 1
3
=
(
¸
(

¸
+
=
w
w
sd
D
D
s
π

in D
w
724 . 0 =

use in D
w
4
3
=
in D
m
64
51
4
64
3
4
4
3
= + =

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3
8
w
m
s
D
FD
K s
π

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

4 . 6
4
3
64
51
4

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
w
m
D
D
C

( )
( )
235 . 1
4 . 6
615 . 0
4 4 . 6 4
1 4 . 6 4
= +


= K

( )
ksi ksi s
s
45 . 62 64 . 53
4
3
64
51
4 5 . 1 8
235 . 1
3
< =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π
, (o.k.)
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 5 of 70
ksi G 500 , 10 = , in D
w
8
3
>
in
k
F
75 . 3
400
1500
= = = δ

( )( )
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
4
3
500 , 10
4 . 6 5 . 1 8
75 . 3
3
c
N
δ

4 . 9 =
c
N

Table AT 16, Total coils = 4 . 11 2 4 . 9 2 = + = +
c
N for square and grounded end.

Summary of answer:
w
D = wire diameter = ¾ in.
No. of free coils = 11.4

To check for solid stress.

Permissible solid stress =
( )
( )
ksi 65 . 115
437 . 0
168 6 . 0
166 . 0
=
Free length =
w c
D PN 2 +
Solid height = ( ) ( ) in N D
c w
55 . 8 4 . 11
4
3
2 = |
¹
|

\
|
= +
Solid stress = ( ) ksi ksi 65 . 115 74 . 78
75 . 3
55 . 8
8
1
14
64 . 53 < =
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|

(safe)

Pitch:
in D PN
w c
8
1
14 2 = +

( )
8
1
14
4
3
2 4 . 9 = |
¹
|

\
|
+ P

in in P
32
11
1 343 . 1 = =

Pitch angle,
o o
12 1 . 5
64
51
4
32
11
1
tan tan
1 1
< =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
= =
− −
π
π
λ
D
P
, o.k.



http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 6 of 70
273. A coiled compression spring is to fit inside a cylinder 5/8 in. in diameter. For
one position of the piston, the spring is to exert a pressure on the piston
equivalent to 5 psi of piston area, and in this position, the overall length of the
spring must not exceed (but may be less than) 2 in. A pressure of 46 psi on the
piston is to compress the spring ¾ in. from the position described above.
Design a spring for medium service. Specify the cheapest suitable material,
number of total and active coils for square-and-ground ends, and investigate
the pitch angle, and “solid stress”.

Solution:
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3
8
w
m
s
D
FD
K s
π

2 8
5
w
w m
D
in D D OD − = + =

in D D
w m
8
5
5 . 1 = +

( ) lb F 534 . 1
8
5
4
5
2
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

( ) lb F 647 . 15
8
5
4
5 46
2
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
π


Using hard-drawn spring wire, Cost Index = 1
( ) 85 . 0 324 . 0
u sd
s s =

ksi
D
s
w
u 19 . 0
140
=
,
[ ] 625 . 0 028 . 0 < <
w
D

Max “solid stress” = ksi
D
w
19 . 0
70

( )
19 . 0 19 . 0
556 . 38 140
85 . 0 324 . 0
w w
sd
D D
s = =

psi
D
ksi
D D
FC
K s
w w w
s 19 . 0 19 . 0 2
556 , 38 556 . 38 8
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

( )
81 . 1
556 , 38
647 . 15 8
w
D
C
K =
(
¸
(

¸

π

( )
81 . 1
556 , 38 845 . 39
w
D C K =

625 . 0 5 . 1 = +
w m
D D

625 . 0 5 . 1 = +
w w
D CD

5 . 1
625 . 0
+
=
C
D
w

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 7 of 70
C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

( )
81 . 1
5 . 1
625 . 0
556 , 38 845 . 39
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+


C
C
C C
C

( ) 3 . 413 5 . 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
81 . 1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
+


C C
C C
C

035 . 7 = C

in
C
D
w
0732 . 0
5 . 1 035 . 7
625 . 0
5 . 1
625 . 0
=
+
=
+
=

Table AT 15, in D
w
0720 . 0 = , W & M 15
( ) in D
m
5065 . 0 0720 . 0 035 . 7 = =

For
c
N
( )
w
c
GD
N C F F
3
1 2
1 2
8 −
= −δ δ

psi G
6
10 5 . 11 × =

( )( )
( )( ) 0720 . 0 10 5 . 11
035 . 7 534 . 1 647 . 15 8
4
3
6
3
1 2
×

= = −
c
N
δ δ

8 . 15 =
c
N

Table AT 16,
Total coils = 8 . 17 2 8 . 15 2 = + = +
c
N
Solid height = ( ) ( )( ) in D N
w c
28 . 1 0720 . 0 2 8 . 15 2 = + = +
Free length =
w c
D PN 2 +
Free length =
1
2 δ +
( )
w
c
GD
N C F
3
1
1
8
= δ

( )( ) ( )
( )( )
. 082 . 0
0720 . 0 10 5 . 11
8 . 15 035 . 7 534 . 1 8
6
3
1
in =
×
= δ

Free length = in 082 . 2 082 . 0 2 = +
( )
w
c
GD
N C F
3
2
2
8
= δ

( )( ) ( )
( )( )
. 832 . 0
0720 . 0 10 5 . 11
8 . 15 035 . 7 647 . 15 8
6
3
2
in =
×
= δ

Solid Height

Free Length -
2
δ
Solid Height

in 832 . 0 082 . 2 −
Solid Height

in 25 . 1
But Solid Height > 1.25 in.

Therefore change material to Oil-tempered spring wire, Cost Index = 1.5
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 8 of 70

Table AT 17
ksi
D
s
w
u
19 . 0
146
= , 5 . 0 028 . 0 < <
w
D
Max “solid stress” = ksi
D
w
19 . 0
5 . 87

19 . 0 19 . 0
304 . 47 146
324 . 0
w w
sd
D D
s = =

psi
D
ksi
D D
FC
K s
w w w
s 19 . 0 19 . 0 2
304 , 47 304 . 47 8
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

( )
81 . 1
304 , 47
647 . 15 8
w
D
C
K =
(
¸
(

¸

π

( )
81 . 1
304 , 47 845 . 39
w
D C K =

5 . 1
625 . 0
+
=
C
D
w

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

( )
81 . 1
5 . 1
625 . 0
304 , 47 845 . 39
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+


C
C
C C
C

( ) 1 . 507 5 . 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
81 . 1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
+


C C
C C
C

684 . 7 = C

in
C
D
w
0680 . 0
5 . 1 684 . 7
625 . 0
5 . 1
625 . 0
=
+
=
+
=

Table AT 15, in D
w
0625 . 0 = , W & M 16
( ) in D
m
48025 . 0 0625 . 0 684 . 7 = =

say in D
m
46875 . 0
32
15
= =
5 . 7
0625 . 0
46875 . 0
= = =
w
m
D
D
C

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
8
w
s
D
FC
K s
π

( )
( )
1974 . 1
5 . 7
615 . 0
4 5 . 7 4
1 5 . 7 4 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
= +


= +


=
C C
C
K

( )( )
( )
ksi psi s
s
6 . 91 600 , 91
0625 . 0
5 . 7 647 . 15 8
1974 . 1
2
= =
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

For
c
N
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 9 of 70
( )
w
c
GD
N C F F
3
1 2
1 2
8 −
= −δ δ

psi G
6
10 5 . 11 × =

( )( )
( )( ) 0625 . 0 10 5 . 11
5 . 7 534 . 1 647 . 15 8
4
3
6
3
1 2
×

= = −
c
N
δ δ

32 . 11 =
c
N

Table AT 16, squared and ground ends
Total coils = 32 . 13 2 32 . 11 2 = + = +
c
N
Solid height = ( ) ( )( ) in D N
w c
8325 . 0 0625 . 0 2 32 . 11 2 = + = +
Free length =
w c
D PN 2 +
Free length =
1
2 δ +
( )
w
c
GD
N C F
3
1
1
8
= δ

( )( ) ( )
( )( )
. 082 . 0
0625 . 0 10 5 . 11
32 . 11 5 . 7 534 . 1 8
6
3
1
in =
×
= δ

Free length =
( ) ( ) 0625 . 0 2 32 . 11 082 . 2 082 . 0 2 + = = + P in

in in P
64
11
1729 . 0 ≈ =

Pitch angle,
( )
o o
12 7 . 6
46875 . 0
1729 . 0
tan tan
1 1
< =
(
¸
(

¸

= =
− −
π π
λ
D
P
, o.k.

Solid stress
( ) ksi s
so
6 . 142
75 . 0
8325 . 0 2
6 . 91 = |
¹
|

\
| −
=

Permissible solid stress =
( )
ksi ksi 5 . 137 8 . 148
0625 . 0
5 . 87
19 . 0
> = , safe.

Summary of answer:
Suitable material = Oil-Tempered Spring Wire
Total Coils = 13.32
Active Coils, 32 . 11 =
c
N

274. A helical spring is to fit about a 11/16-in. rod with a free length of 2 ¾ in. or
less. A maximum load of 8 lb. is to produce a deflection of 1 ¾ in. The spring
is expected to be compressed less than 5000 times during its life, but is
subjected to relatively high temperatures and corrosive atmosphere. Select a
material and determine the necessary wire size, mean coil diameter, and
number of coils. Meet all conditions advised by Text.

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 10 of 70
Solution:
For 5000 cycles < 104 cycles, use light service
Use stainless steel, type 302 (Cr-Ni), ASTM A313 – for relative high temperature and
corrosive atmosphere, Table AT 17.
u sd
s s 32 . 0 =
(i)
ksi
D
s
w
u 14 . 0
170
= , [ ] 13 . 0 01 . 0 < <
w
D
ksi
D
s
w
u 41 . 0
97
= , [ ] 375 . 0 13 . 0 < <
w
D
Maximum “solid”
u o
s s 47 . 0 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3
8
w
m
s
D
FD
K s
π

lb F 8 =

2 16
11
w
w m
D
D D + = −

in D D
w m
6875 . 0 5 . 1 = −

6875 . 0 5 . 1 = −
w w
D CD

5 . 1
6875 . 0

=
C
D
w

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

assume ksi
D
s
w
u 14 . 0
170
=
( )
psi
D
ksi
D D
s
w w w
sd 14 . 0 14 . 0 14 . 0
400 , 54 4 . 54 170 32 . 0
= = =

( )
86 . 1
400 , 54
8 8 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
w
D
C
C C
C
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+


π

86 . 1
5 . 1
6875 . 0
400 , 54
64 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
|
¹
|

\
|

=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+


C
C
C C
C
π

( ) 1330 5 . 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
86 . 1
= − |
¹
|

\
|
+


C C
C C
C

919 . 12 = C

in D
w
0602 . 0
5 . 1 919 . 12
6875 . 0
=

=

Use Table AT 15, in D
w
0625 . 0 = , 16 W & M
( ) in D
m
8074 . 0 0602 . 0 919 . 12 = =

say in in D
m
78125 . 0
32
25
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 11 of 70
16
11
> −
w m
D D

6875 . 0 0625 . 0 78125 . 0 > −

6875 . 0 71875 . 0 >

2
03125 . 0 6875 . 0 71875 . 0
w
D
= = − , o.k.
5 . 12
0625 . 0
71875 . 0
= = =
w
m
D
D
C

[ ] 13 . 0 0625 . 0 <
, therefore, ksi
D
s
w
u 14 . 0
170
= is o.k.
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
8
w
s
D
FC
K s
π

( )
( )
1144 . 1
5 . 12
615 . 0
4 5 . 12 4
1 5 . 12 4
= +


= K

( )( )
( )
psi s
s
648 , 72
0625 . 0
5 . 12 8 8
1144 . 1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

( )
w
c
GD
N C F
3
8
= δ

psi G
6
10 6 . 10 × =

( )( )
( )( ) 0625 . 0 10 6 . 10
5 . 12 8 8
4
3
1
6
3
×
= =
c
N
δ

3 . 9 =
c
N

To check for solid stress and pitch
Minimum solid height = ( )( ) in N D
c w
58125 . 0 3 . 9 0625 . 0 = =
Solid stress =
( )
ksi psi 90 000 , 90
4
3
1
58125 . 0
4
3
2 648 , 72
= =
|
¹
|

\
|


Permissible solid stress =
( )( )
( )
ksi ksi 90 8 . 117
0625 . 0
170 47 . 0
14 . 0
> = , o.k.
Free length =
c
PN , minimum
( )
4
3
2 3 . 9 = P

in P 2957 . 0 =

Pitch angle,
( )
o o
12 5 . 7
71825 . 0
2957 . 0
tan tan
1 1
< =
(
¸
(

¸

= =
− −
π π
λ
D
P
, o.k.
Summary of answer
Material, Stainless Steel, Cr-Ni. ASTM A313
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 12 of 70
in D
w
0625 . 0 = , 16 W & M
in D
m
32
25
=

3 . 9 =
c
N


275. In order to isolate vibrations, helical compression springs are used to support a
machine. The static load on each spring is 3500 lb., under which the deflection
should be about 0.5 in. The solid deflection should be about 1 in. and the
outside coil diameter should not exceed 6 in. Recommend a spring for this
application; include scale, wire size, static stress, material, number of coils,
solid stress, and pitch of coils.

Solution:
Use Music wire (The best material)
Table AT 17
ksi
D
s
w
u 154 . 0
190
= , [ ] 192 . 0 004 . 0 < <
w
D
Maximum “solid”
u so
s s 5 . 0 =
Light service,
u sd
s s 405 . 0 =
( )
psi
D
ksi
D D
s
w w w
sd 154 . 0 154 . 0 154 . 0
950 , 76 95 . 76 190 405 . 0
= = =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
8
w
s
D
FC
K s
π

lb F 3500 =

in D D OD
w m
6 = + =

( ) 6 1 = +
w
D C

1
6
+
=
C
D
w

( )
154 . 0
1
6
950 , 76
1
6
3500 8 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
+


=
C
C
C
C C
C
s
s
π

( ) [ ] 9 . 235 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
846 . 1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
+


C C
C C
C

635 . 5 = C

in in D
w
192 . 0 9043 . 0
1 635 . 5
6
> =
+
=

use
( )
psi s
s
216 , 99
192 . 0
950 . 76
154 . 0
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 13 of 70
( )
216 , 99
1
6
3500 8 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
+


=
C
C
C C
C
s
s
π

( ) 8 . 400 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
2
= + |
¹
|

\
|
+


C C
C C
C

205 . 6 = C

in D
w
8328 . 0
1 205 . 6
6
=
+
=

Say in in D
w
8125 . 0
16
13
= =
( )( ) in D
m
042 . 5 8125 . 0 205 . 6 = =

Say in D
m
5 =
154 . 6
8125 . 0
5
= = =
w
m
D
D
C

( )
( )
2455 . 1
154 . 6
615 . 0
4 154 . 6 4
1 154 . 6 4
= +


= K

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
8
w
s
D
FC
K s
π

( )( )
( )
psi psi s
s
216 , 99 481 , 103
8125 . 0
154 . 6 3500 8
2455 . 1
2
> =
(
¸
(

¸

=
π
, not o.k.
Use in D
m
5 . 4 =
5385 . 5
8125 . 0
5 . 4
= = =
w
m
D
D
C

( )
2763 . 1
5385 . 5
615 . 0
4 5385 . 45
1 5385 . 5 4
= +


= K

( )( )
( )
psi psi s
s
216 , 99 435 , 95
8125 . 0
5385 . 5 3500 8
2763 . 1
2
> =
(
¸
(

¸

=
π
, o.k.
To check for solid stress
Permissible solid stress =
( )( )
( )
psi ksi 488 , 122 488 . 122
192 . 0
190 5 . 0
154 . 0
= =
Solid stress = ( ) psi psi 488 , 122 870 , 190 435 , 95
5 . 0
1
> = |
¹
|

\
|
, not ok
Use
.
psi s
sd
244 , 61
1
5 . 0
488 , 122 = |
¹
|

\
|
=

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 14 of 70
( )
244 , 61
1
6
3500 8 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
+


=
C
C
C C
C
s
s
π

( ) 4 . 247 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
2
= + |
¹
|

\
|
+


C C
C C
C

1 . 5 = C

in D
w
9836 . 0
1 1 . 5
6
=
+
=

Say in D
w
0 . 1 =
( )( ) in D
m
1 . 5 0 . 1 1 . 5 = =

Say in D
m
5 =
5
1
5
= = =
w
m
D
D
C

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
8
w
s
D
FC
K s
π

( )
( )
3105 . 1
5
615 . 0
4 5 4
1 5 4
= +


= K

( )( )
( )
psi psi s
s
244 , 61 400 , 58
0 . 1
5 3500 8
3105 . 1
2
> =
(
¸
(

¸

=
π
o.k.
Use in D
w
0 . 1 = , in D
m
5 =
Solid stress = ( ) psi psi 488 , 122 800 , 116 400 , 58
5 . 0
1
< = |
¹
|

\
|
, o.k.
( )
w
c
GD
N C F
3
8
= δ

(Table AT 17)
psi G
6
10 12× =

( )( )
( )( ) 0 . 1 10 12
5 3500 8
5 . 0
6
3
×
= =
c
N
δ

7143 . 1 =
c
N

say 75 . 1 =
c
N
Free length – Solid length = Solid Deflection
in N D PN
c w c
1 = −

( ) ( )( ) 1 75 . 1 1 75 . 1 = − P

in in P
16
9
1 5714 . 1 ≈ =

Pitch angle,
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 15 of 70
( )
o o
12 68 . 5
5
16
9
1
tan tan
1 1
< =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
− −
π π
λ
D
P
, o.k.

Summary of answer.
Scale, in lb
F
k 7000
5 . 0
3500
= = =
δ

Wire size, in D
w
0 . 1 =
Material = Music Wire
Solid sress = 116,800 psi
Pitch of stress = in P
16
9
1 =

CHECK PROBLEMS – LIGHT, MEDIUM SERVICE

276. The front spring of an automobile has a total of 9 ½ coils, 7 3/8 active coils
(square-and-ground ends), an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length
of 14 ¼ in. It is made of SAE 9255 steel wire, OQT 1000oF, with a diameter
of 43/64 in. Compute (a) the rate (scale) of the spring; (b) the “solid stress”
and compare with a permissible value (is a stop needed to prevent solid
compression?). (c) Can 95 % of the solid stress be repeated 105 times without
danger of failure? Would you advise shot peening of the spring?

Solution:

(a)
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ
in in D
w
8
3
64
43
> =

psi G
6
10 5 . 10 × =

w
m
D
D
C =

ID D D
w m
= −

in D
m
64
3
4
64
43
= −

in D
m
32
23
4 =

0233 . 7
64
43
32
23
4
= = C

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 16 of 70
8
3
7 =
c
N

( )
( )
in lb
N C
GD F
rate k
c
w
345
8
3
7 0233 . 7 8
64
43
10 5 . 10
8 3
6
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= = = =
δ


(b) “Solid Stress”
Solid height = ( )( ) in Coils Total D N
w c
3828 . 6
2
1
9
64
43
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
Solid deflection = Free length – Solid height = 14 ¼ - 6.3828 = 7.8672 in.

Solid Force = ( ) lb F
so
2714 345 8672 . 7 = =
Solid Stress =
(
¸
(

¸

2
8
w
so
D
C F
K
π

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

( )
( )
212 . 1
0233 . 7
615 . 0
4 0233 . 7 4
1 0233 . 7 4
= +


= K

( )( )
psi s
s
322 , 130
64
43
0233 . 7 2714 8
212 . 1
2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

Permissible value,
sy ys s
s s 6 . 0 = = , [ ] in D
w
5 . 0 >
SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
ksi s
y
160 =
,
ksi s
u
180 =

( ) psi psi ksi s
ys
322 , 130 000 , 96 96 160 6 . 0 < = = =

Therefore a stop is needed to prevent solid compression.

(c)
u sd
s s 324 . 0 = (105 cycles)
( ) ksi s
sd
32 . 58 180 324 . 0 = =

( ) ksi ksi psi s
so
32 . 58 8 . 123 800 , 123 322 , 130 95 . 0 95 . 0 > = = =

There is a danger of failure, shot peening is advisable
( )
so ys
s psi s 95 . 0 000 , 120 000 , 96 25 . 1 ≈ = =


277. An oil-tempered steel helical compression spring has a wire size of No. 3 W
& M, a spring index of 4.13, 30 active coils, a pitch of 0.317 in., ground-and-
squared ends; medium service. (a) What maximum load is permitted if the
recommended stress is not exceeded (static approach)? Compute (b) the
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 17 of 70
corresponding deflection, (c) “solid stress,”. (d) pitch angle, (e) scale, (f) the
energy absorbed by the spring from a deflection of 0.25 in. to that of the
working load. (g) Is there any danger of this spring buckling? (h) What
maximum load could be used if the spring were shot peened?

Solution:
Table AT 17, oil-tempered
ksi
D
s
w
u 19 . 0
146
= , [ ] 5 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D
Maximum “solid” ksi
D
s
w
so 19 . 0
5 . 87
=
u sd
s s 324 . 0 = (medium service)

Table AT 15, No. 3 W & M
in D
w
2437 . 0 =

13 . 4 = C

( ) in CD D
w m
0 . 1 2437 . 0 13 . 4 = = =


(a)
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
8
w
s
s
D
C F
K s
π

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

( )
( )
3885 . 1
13 . 4
615 . 0
4 13 . 4 4
1 13 . 4 4
= +


= K

( )
( )
psi ksi s s
sd s
858 , 61 858 . 61
2437 . 0
146 324 . 0
19 . 0
= = = =

( )( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

= =
2
2437 . 0
13 . 4 8
3885 . 1 858 , 61
π
F
s
s

lb F 252 =

w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ

psi G
6
10 5 . 11 × =

30 =
c
N

( )( ) ( )
( )( )
in 52 . 1
2437 . 0 10 5 . 11
30 13 . 4 252 8
6
3
=
×
= δ


(c) For solid stress . Square-and-ground end)

Free length = ( )( ) ( ) in D PN
w c
9974 . 9 2437 . 0 2 30 317 . 0 2 = + = +
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 18 of 70
Solid height = ( )( ) in D N D
w c w
7984 . 7 2437 . 0 2 30 2 = + = +
Solid deflection = 9.9974 – 7.7984 = 2.199 in.
Solid stress = ( ) psi 491 , 89
52 . 1
199 . 2
858 , 61 = |
¹
|

\
|


Maximum “solid”
( )
ksi ksi ksi ksi
D
s
w
so
491 . 89 4 . 114
2437 . 0
5 . 87 5 . 87
19 . 0 19 . 0
> = = = , o.k. safe

(d)
( )
o o
12 76 . 5
1
317 . 0
tan tan
1 1
< =
(
¸
(

¸

= =
− −
π π
λ
D
P
, o.k.
(e) in lb
F
k scale 166
52 . 1
252
= = = =
δ

(f) ( )
2
1
2
2
2
1
δ δ − = k U
s

in lb k 166 =

in 25 . 0
1
= δ

in 52 . 1
2
= δ

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] lb in U
s
− = − = 6 . 186 25 . 0 52 . 1 166
2
1
2 2


(g) i 6.18 Free length = 9.9974 in
Mean Diameter = in D
m
0 . 1 =
4 9974 . 9
0 . 1
9974 . 9
> = =
Diameter Mean
length Free

There is a danger for spring buckling

(h) Shot peened, Table AT 17
( )( ) psi s
sd
322 , 77 25 . 1 858 , 61 = =

( )( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

= =
2
2437 . 0
13 . 4 8
3885 . 1 322 , 77
π
F
s
s

lb F 314 =


280. It is desired to isolate a furnace, weighing 47,300 lb., from the surroundings
by mounting it on helical springs. Under the weight, the springs should deflect
approximately 1 in., and at least 2 in. before becoming solid. It has been
decided to use springs having a wire diameter of 1 in., an outside diameter of
5 3/8 in., 4.3 free coils. Determine (a) the number of springs to be used, (b)
the stress caused by the weight, (c) the “solid stress”. (d) What steel should be
used?

Solution:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 19 of 70
in D
w
1 =

in D D
w m
8
3
5 = +

in D
m
8
3
4 =

375 . 4
1
8
3
4
= = =
w
m
D
D
C



(a)
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ
Assume 3 . 4 =
c
N
psi G
6
10 5 . 10 × = , in D
w
8
3
>
( ) ( )
( )( ) 1 10 5 . 10
3 . 4 375 . 4 8
0 . 1
6
3
×
= =
F
δ

lb F 3645 =

No. of springs = 13
3645
300 , 47
= =
F
W


(b) lb
W
F 3638
13
300 , 47
13
= = =
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
8
w
s
s
D
C F
K s
π

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

( )
( )
3628 . 1
375 . 4
615 . 0
4 375 . 4 4
1 375 . 4 4
= +


= K

( )( )
( )
psi s
s
235 , 55
0 . 1
375 . 4 3638 8
3628 . 1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π


(c) “Solid Stress” = psi s
s
470 , 110
1
2
235 , 55 = |
¹
|

\
|
=
(d) psi s
ys
470 , 110 ≈
ksi psi
s
s
ys
y
117 . 184 117 , 184
6 . 0
470 , 110
6 . 0
= = = =

From Table AT 7,
Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF, ksi s
y
200 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 20 of 70

VARYING STRESS APPROACH

DESIGN PROBLEMS

282. A spring, subjected to a load varying from 100 lb. to 250 lb., is to be made of oil-
tempered, cold-wound wire. Determine the diameter of the wire and the mean
diameter of the coil for a design factor of 1.25 based on Wahl’s line. The spring
index is to be at least 5. Conform to good practice, showing checks for all
significant parameters. Let the free length be between 6 and 8.

Solution:
lb F 250
max
=

lb F 100
min
=

( ) ( ) kip lb F F F
m
175 . 0 175 100 250
2
1
2
1
min max
= = + = + =

( ) ( ) kip lb F F F
a
075 . 0 75 100 250
2
1
2
1
min max
= = − = − =

Wahl’s line
no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=

2 3
8 8
w
a
w
m a
as
D
C KF
D
D KF
s
π π
= =

2 3
8 8
w c
m
w c
m m
ms
D K
C KF
D K
D KF
s
π π
= =

5 = C

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

( )
( )
31 . 1
5
615 . 0
4 5 4
1 5 4
= +


= K

Fig. AF 15,
5 = C

19 . 1 =
c
K

For oil-tempered wire,
19 . 0
5 . 87
w
ys
D
s =
,
[ ] 5 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D

1 . 0
47
w
no
D
s =
,
[ ] 15 . 0 041 . 0 < <
w
D

34 . 0
30
w
no
D
s =
,
[ ] 625 . 0 15 . 0 < <
w
D

25 . 1 = N

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 21 of 70

( )( )( )
2 2
251 . 1 5 075 . 0 31 . 1 8
w w
as
D D
s = =
π

( )( )( )
( )
2 2
453 . 2
19 . 1
5 175 . 0 31 . 1 8
w w
ms
D D
s = =
π

say ksi
D
s
w
no 34 . 0
30
=
no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
=
34 . 0
2
19 . 0
2
30
251 . 1
2
5 . 87
251 . 1 453 . 2
25 . 1
1
w
w
w
w
D
D
D
D

66 . 1 81 . 1
99 . 11
1
8 . 72
1
25 . 1
1
w w
D D
+ =

in in D
w
15 . 0 2857 . 0 > =

Table AT 15, use No. 1, W & M
in D
w
2830 . 0 =


( ) in CD D
w m
415 . 1 2830 . 0 5 = = =

say in D
m
16
7
1 =
Check for Free length
6 in < Free length < 8 in
Free length = in D
m
75 . 5
16
7
1 4 4 = |
¹
|

\
|
=
Increase
m
D
in D
m
2
1
1 =

Free length = in D
m
6
2
1
1 4 4 = |
¹
|

\
|
= , o.k.

Summary of answer
in D
w
2830 . 0 =

in D
m
2
1
1 =


283. A carbon-steel spring is to be subjected to a load that varies from 500 to 1200 lb.
The outside diameter should be between 3.5 and 4 in., the spring index between 5
to 10; approximate scale of 500 lb./in. Choose a steel and for a design factor of
1.4 by the Wahl line, find the wire diameter. Also determine the number of active
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 22 of 70
coils and the free length for squared-and-ground ends. Conform to the general
conditions specified in the Text.
Solution:
For carbon steel, Table AT 17
ksi
D
s
w
ys 1 . 0
91
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
ksi
D
s
w
no 15 . 0
49
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
lb F 1200
max
=

lb F 500
min
=

( ) ( ) kip lb F F F
m
85 . 0 850 500 1200
2
1
2
1
min max
= = + = + =

( ) ( ) kip lb F F F
a
35 . 0 350 500 1200
2
1
2
1
min max
= = − = − =

in OD 0 . 4 ~ 5 . 3 =

10 ~ 5 = C

Wahl’s line
no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=

Figure AF 15, 10 ~ 5 = C
Assume 2 . 1 = K , 125 . 1 =
c
K
3
8
w
m a
as
D
D KF
s
π
=

3
8
w c
m m
ms
D K
D KF
s
π
=

in OD 75 . 3 ≈

w m
D D − = 75 . 3

( )( )( ) ( )
3 3
75 . 3 0695 . 1 75 . 3 35 . 0 2 . 1 8
w
w
w
w
as
D
D
D
D
s

=

=
π

( )( )( )
( )
( )
3 3
75 . 3 3088 . 2
125 . 1
75 . 3 85 . 0 2 . 1 8
w
w
w
w
ms
D
D
D
D
s

=

=
π

( ) ( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
| −

=
15 . 0
3
1 . 0
3
49
75 . 3
0695 . 1 2
91
75 . 3
0695 . 1 3088 . 2
4 . 1
1
w
w
w
w
w
w
D
D
D
D
D
D


85 . 2 9 . 2
9079 . 22
75 . 3
4285 . 73
75 . 3
4 . 1
1
w
w
w
w
D
D
D
D −
+

=

in in D
w
25 . 0 6171 . 0 > =

Use
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 23 of 70
( )
ksi s
ys
53 . 104
25 . 0
91
1 . 0
= =

( )
ksi s
no
33 . 60
25 . 0
49
15 . 0
= =

( ) ( )
33 . 60
75 . 3
0695 . 1 2
53 . 104
75 . 3
0695 . 1 3088 . 2
4 . 1
1
3 3 |
|
¹
|

\
| −
+
|
|
¹
|

\
| −

=
w
w
w
w
D
D
D
D

3 3
205 . 28
75 . 3
346 . 84
75 . 3
4 . 1
1
w
w
w
w
D
D
D
D −
+

=

3
137 . 21
75 . 3
4 . 1
1
w
w
D
D −
=

in D
w
5935 . 0 =

use
in D
w
32
19
=

in D D
w m
4
3
3 ≈ +

in D
m
4
3
3
32
19
= +

in D
m
32
5
3 =

316 . 5
32
19
32
5
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
w
m
D
D
C
. o.k.
Wire Diameter in D
w
32
19
= , Carbon Steel
Number of coils:
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ

ksi psi G 500 , 10 10 5 . 10
6
= × = , in D
w
8
3
>
c
w
N C
GD
k
F
3
8
= =
δ

( )
( )
c
N
3
6
316 . 5 8
32
19
10 5 . 10
500
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=

4 . 10 =
c
N

Table AT 16, square-and-ground ends
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 24 of 70
Free length =
w c
D PN 2 +
Solid height =
w c w
D N D 2 +
Total Coils = 2 +
c
N

Solid height = ( ) in D N D
w c w
3625 . 7
32
19
2 4 . 10 2 = |
¹
|

\
|
+ = +
in
k
F
4 . 2
500
1200
= = = δ

Min. Free length = 2.4 + 7.3625 in = 9.7625 in
Use Free length = 10 in

To check for pitch angle.
Free length =
w c
D PN 2 +
( ) 10
32
19
2 4 . 10 = |
¹
|

\
|
+ P

in P 8474 . 0 =

o o
12 885 . 4
32
5
3
8474 . 0
tan tan
1 1
< =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
= =
− −
π
π
λ
m
D
P
, o.k.

Solid stress:
in deflection solid
T
6375 . 2 3625 . 7 10 = − = = δ

( )( ) lb k F
T
1319 6375 . 2 500 = = = δ

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

( )
( )
29 . 1
316 . 5
615 . 0
4 316 . 5 4
1 316 . 5 4
= +


= K

( )( )
( ) ksi s ksi psi
D
KFD
s
ys
w
m
s
53 . 104 033 . 23 033 , 23
32
19
32
5
3 1319 29 . 1 8
8
3 3
= < = =
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
π
π


284. A helical compression spring, made of oil-tempered, cold-wound carbon steel, is
to be subjected to a working load varying from 100 to 300 lb. for an indefinite
time (severe). A mean coil diameter of 2 in. should be satisfactory. (a) Using the
static approach, compute a wire diameter. (b) For this wire size, compute the
factor of safety as given by the Wahl line.

Solution:

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 25 of 70
Table AT 16,
For carbon steel,
ksi
D
s
w
u 1 . 0
182
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
Max. “solid” ksi
D
s
w
ys 1 . 0
91
=
ksi
D
s
w
ys 1 . 0
91
=

ksi
D
s
w
no 15 . 0
49
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
. 2 in D
m
=

lb F 300
max
=

lb F 100
min
=


(a) kip lb F 3 . 0 300 = =
severe service,
( )( )
ksi
D D
s s
w w
u sd 1 . 0 1 . 0
866 . 47 182 263 . 0
263 . 0 = = =

(
¸
(

¸

=
2
8
w
s
s
D
C F
K s
π

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=

w
m
D
D
C =

C C
D
D
m
w
2
= =

( )( )
1 . 0 3
2
866 . 47
2
2 3 . 0 8 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
|
¹
|

\
|
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

+


=
C C
C C
C
s
s
π

84 . 233
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
9 . 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

+


C
C C
C

075 . 6 = C

in in D
w
25 . 0 3292 . 0
075 . 6
2
> = =

Therefore use
( )
ksi s
sd
984 . 54
25 . 0
866 . 47
1 . 0
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 26 of 70
( )( )
984 . 54
2
2 3 . 0 8 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
3
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

+


=
C
C C
C
s
s
π

9 . 287
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

+


C
C C
C

136 . 6 = C

in D
w
3259 . 0
136 . 6
2
= =

say in D
w
64
21
=

(b)
( )
ksi s
ys
53 . 104
25 . 0
91
1 . 0
= =
( )
ksi s
no
33 . 60
25 . 0
49
15 . 0
= =

( ) ( ) kip lb F F F
m
2 . 0 200 100 300
2
1
2
1
min max
= = + = + =

( ) ( ) kip lb F F F
a
1 . 0 100 100 300
2
1
2
1
min max
= = − = − =

095 . 6
64
21
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
w
m
D
D
C

Figure AF 15
15 . 1 =
c
K

25 . 1 = K

(
¸
(

¸

=
3
8
w
m m
c
ms
D
D F
K
K
s
π

( )( )
ksi s
ms
34 . 31
64
21
2 2 . 0 8
15 . 1
25 . 1
3
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
π


3
8
w
m a
as
D
D KF
s
π
=

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 27 of 70
( )( )
ksi s
as
02 . 18
64
21
2 1 . 0 8
25 . 1
3
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
π


Wahl’s line
no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=

( )
33 . 60
02 . 18 2
53 . 104
02 . 18 34 . 31 1
+

=
N

38 . 1 = N


285. A helical spring of hard-drawn wire with a mean diameter of 1 ½ in. and square-
and-ground ends is to be subjected to a maximum load of 325 lb. (a) Compute the
wire diameter for average service. (b) How many total coils are required if the
scale is 800 lb./in.? (c) For a minimum load of 100 lb., what is the factor of safety
according to Wahl line? Would it be safe for an indefinite life?


Solution:

Table AT 17,
Hard-drawn wire,
ksi
D
s
w
u 19 . 0
140
= , [ ] 625 . 0 028 . 0 < <
w
D
Maximum “solid” ksi
D
s s
w
ys s 19 . 0
70
= =
( )( )
ksi
D
s
w
no 1 . 0
47 9 . 0
= , [ ] 15 . 0 041 . 0 < <
w
D
( )( )
ksi
D
s
w
no 34 . 0
30 9 . 0
= , [ ] 625 . 0 15 . 0 < <
w
D
Average service

(a) ( )
( )
ksi
D D
s s s
w w
u u sd 19 . 0 19 . 0
556 . 38 140 2754 . 0
2754 . 0 324 . 0 85 . 0 = = = =
kip lb F 325 . 0 325 = =
in D
m
2
1
1 =
(
¸
(

¸

=
3
8
w
m
s
D
FD
K s
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 28 of 70
C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=
C
D
w
5 . 1
=
( )( )
19 . 0 3
5 . 1
556 . 38
5 . 1
5 . 1 325 . 0 8 615 . 0
4 4
1 4
|
¹
|

\
|
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+


=
C C
C C
C
s
s
π

05 . 97
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
81 . 2
= |
¹
|

\
|
+


C
C C
C

586 . 4 = C
in in
C
D
w
625 . 0 3271 . 0
586 . 4
5 . 1 5 . 1
< = = =
in D
w
64
21
=

(b) 57 . 4
64
21
5 . 1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
w
m
D
D
C
( )
( )
345 . 1
57 . 4
615 . 0
4 57 . 4 4
1 57 . 4 4
= +


= K
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ
c
w
N C
GD
k
F
3
8
= =
δ

in kip in lb k 8 . 0 800 = =
( )
c
N
3
57 . 84
64
21
500 , 11
8 . 0
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2 . 6 =
c
N

(c) ksi s
ys
5 . 86
64
21
70
19 . 0
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
ksi s
no
44 . 39
64
21
30 9 . 0
19 . 0
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= , in D
w
15 . 0 >
( ) kip lb F
m
2125 . 0 5 . 212 100 325
2
1
= = + =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 29 of 70
( ) kip lb F
a
1125 . 0 5 . 112 100 325
2
1
= = − =
212 . 1 =
c
K , Fig. AF 15
345 . 1 = K
( )( )
ksi
D
D F
K
K
s
w
m m
c
ms
5 . 25
64
21
5 . 1 2125 . 0 8
212 . 1
345 . 1 8
3 3
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π
π

( )( )
ksi
D
D F
K s
w
m m
as
36 . 16
64
21
5 . 1 1125 . 0 8
345 . 1
8
3 3
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π
π

( )
44 . 39
36 . 16 2
5 . 86
36 . 16 5 . 25 2 1
+

= +

=
no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N

[ ]
min
15 . 1 07 . 1 N N < =
Not safe for indefinite life.

286. A helical spring is to be subjected to a maximum load of 200 lb. (a) Determine
the wire size suitable for medium service if the material is carbon steel ASTM
A230; 6 = C . Determine the factor of safety of this spring according to the Wahl
line (b) If the minimum force is 150 lb., (c) if the minimum force is 100 lb., (d) if
the minimum force is 25 lb.

Solution:

For carbon steel ASTM A230
Table AT 17
ksi
D
s
w
u 1 . 0
182
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
ksi
D
s
w
ys 1 . 0
91
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
ksi
D
s
w
no 15 . 0
49
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
Medium Service
u sd
s s 324 . 0 =

(a) psi
D
ksi
D D
s
w w w
sd 1 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0
968 , 58 968 . 58 182
324 . 0 = =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 30 of 70
(
¸
(

¸

=
3
8
w
m
s
D
FD
K s
π

C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=
( )
( )
2525 . 1
6
615 . 0
4 6 4
1 6 4
= +


= K
lb F 200 =
( )( )
1 . 0 2
968 , 58 6 200 8
2525 . 1
w w
s
D D
s =
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

in D
w
2371 . 0 =

Table At 15, use in D
w
2437 . 0 = , No. 3 W & M
in in D
w
25 . 0 2437 . 0 < = , o.k.

Factor of safety.
( )
ksi ksi ksi
D
s
w
ys
8 . 104
2437 . 0
91 91
1 . 0 1 . 0
= = =
( )
ksi ksi ksi
D
s
w
no
56 . 60
2437 . 0
49 49
15 . 0
= = =

(a) ( ) kip lb F
m
175 . 0 175 150 200
2
1
= = + =
( ) kip lb F
a
025 . 0 25 150 200
2
1
= = − =
Figure AF 15, 156 . 1 =
c
K
( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K
K
s
w
m
c
ms
8 . 48
2437 . 0
6 175 . 0 8
156 . 1
2525 . 1 8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K s
w
a
as
1 . 8
2437 . 0
6 025 . 0 8
2525 . 1
8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=
( )
56 . 60
1 . 8 2
8 . 104
1 . 8 8 . 48 1
+

=
N

525 . 1 = N

(b) ( ) kip lb F
m
15 . 0 150 100 200
2
1
= = + =
( ) kip lb F
a
05 . 0 50 100 200
2
1
= = − =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 31 of 70
Figure AF 15, 156 . 1 =
c
K
( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K
K
s
w
m
c
ms
8 . 41
2437 . 0
6 15 . 0 8
156 . 1
2525 . 1 8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K s
w
a
as
11 . 16
2437 . 0
6 05 . 0 8
2525 . 1
8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=
( )
56 . 60
11 . 16 2
8 . 104
11 . 16 8 . 41 1
+

=
N

287 . 1 = N

(c) ( ) kip lb F
m
1125 . 0 5 . 112 25 200
2
1
= = + =
( ) kip lb F
a
0875 . 0 5 . 87 25 200
2
1
= = − =
Figure AF 15, 156 . 1 =
c
K
( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K
K
s
w
m
c
ms
36 . 31
2437 . 0
6 1125 . 0 8
156 . 1
2525 . 1 8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K s
w
a
as
2 . 28
2437 . 0
6 0875 . 0 8
2525 . 1
8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=
( )
56 . 60
20 . 28 2
8 . 104
20 . 28 36 . 31 1
+

=
N

04 . 1 = N

CHECK PROBLEMS

A Diesel valve spring is made of 3/8-in. chrome-vanadium steel wire, shot-peened; inside
diameter is 3 in., 7 active coils, free length is 7 3/8 in., solid length is 4 1/8 in., length
with valve closed, 6 ¼ in., length when open, 5 1/8 in. (a) Compute the spring constant
and the factor of safety as defined by the Wahl criterion (see § 6.13, Text). (b) Is there
any danger of damage to the spring if it is compressed solid? (c) What is the natural
frequency? If this spring is used on a 4-stroke Diesel engine at 450 rpm, is there any
danger of surge? Compute the change of stored energy between working lengths.



Solution:

For chrome-vanadium steel wire, shot-peened, Table AT 17
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 32 of 70
( )( )
ksi
D
s
w
u 166 . 0
168 25 . 1
= , [ ] 437 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D
( )( )
ksi
D
s
w
ys 166 . 0
100 25 . 1
= , [ ] 437 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D
( )( )
ksi
D
s
w
no 15 . 0
49 25 . 1
= , [ ] 5 . 0 028 . 0 < <
w
D
in in D
w
375 . 0
8
3
= =
( )( )
( )
ksi ksi s
ys
1 . 147
375 . 0
100 25 . 1
166 . 0
= =
( )( )
( )
ksi ksi s
no
96 . 70
375 . 0
49 25 . 1
15 . 0
= =
(a)
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ
c
w
N C
GD
k
F
3
8
= =
δ

psi G
6
10 5 . 11 × =
7 =
c
N
in D
w
375 . 0 =
in ID D D
w m
3 = = −
in D
m
375 . 3 =
9
375 . 0
375 . 3
= = =
w
m
D
D
C
nstant co spring k =
( )( )
( ) ( )
in lb
N C
GD
k
c
w
64 . 105
7 9 8
375 . 0 10 5 . 11
8
3
6
3
=
×
= =
in 25 . 3
8
1
4
8
3
7
1
= − = δ
( )( ) lb k F 33 . 343 25 . 3 64 . 105
1 1
= = = δ
in 125 . 1
4
1
6
8
3
7
2
= − = δ
( )( ) lb k F 85 . 118 125 . 1 64 . 105
2 2
= = = δ
( ) kip lb F
m
231 . 0 09 . 231 85 . 118 33 . 343
2
1
= = + =
( ) kip lb F
a
11224 . 0 24 . 112 85 . 118 33 . 343
2
1
= = − =
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
8
w
m
c
ms
D
C F
K
K
s
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 33 of 70
C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=
( )
( )
162 . 1
9
615 . 0
4 9 4
1 9 4
= +


= K
Figure AF 15, 10 . 1 =
c
K
( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K
K
s
w
m
c
ms
8 . 39
375 . 0
9 231 . 0 8
10 . 1
162 . 1 8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K s
w
a
as
3 . 21
375 . 0
9 11224 . 0 8
162 . 1
8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=
( )
96 . 70
3 . 21 2
1 . 147
3 . 21 8 . 39 1
+

=
N

377 . 1 = N

(b) max. “solid” ksi s s
ys s
1 . 147 = =

Min. Solid Height = ( )( ) in N D
c w
625 . 2 7 375 . 0 = =
Solid deflection = . 75 . 4 625 . 2
8
3
7 in = −
( )( ) kip lb k F 5018 . 0 8 . 501 75 . 4 64 . 105 = = = = δ
Solid stress =
( )( )
( )
ksi ksi
D
FC
K s
w
s
1 . 147 95
375 . 0
9 5018 . 0 8
162 . 1
8
2 2
< =
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

There is no danger of damage

(c) Natural frequency

For steel
cps
D N
D
m c
w
2
050 , 14
= φ
cps
D C N
w c
2
050 , 14
= φ
( )( ) ( )
cps cps 66
375 . 0 9 7
050 , 14
2
= = φ
For 450 rpm, cps 47
60
2
450 = |
¹
|

\
|
=
π
φ
12 4 . 1
47
66
< = , there is danger of surging.

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 34 of 70
(d) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] lb in k U
s
− = − = − = 491 125 . 1 25 . 3 64 . 105
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
1
δ δ

289. A helical spring is hot wound from 5/8-in. carbon-steel wire with an outside
diameter of 3 ¼ in. A force of 3060 lb. is required to compress the spring 1 ¾
in to the solid heigh. In service the spring is compressed so that its
deformation varies form ½ in. to1 1/8 in. (a) What is the factor of safety by
the Wahl criterion? (b) Is the “solid stress” safe? Compute (c) the pitch angle,
(d) the change of stored energy between the working lengths, (e) the factor of
safety if the spring is peened?

Solution:

For hot-wound carbon steel wire
in D
w
8
5
=
Table AT 17
ksi
D
s
w
ys 1 . 0
91
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
( )
ksi ksi s
ys
5 . 104
25 . 0
91
1 . 0
= = , . 25 . 0 in D
w
>
ksi
D
s
w
no 15 . 0
49
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
( )
ksi ksi s
no
33 . 60
25 . 0
49
15 . 0
= = , . 25 . 0 in D
w
>

Permissible solid stress = ksi
D
s
w
s 31 . 0
117
= , [ ] . 375 . 0 in D
w
> § 6.3
( )
ksi ksi s
s
4 . 35
625 . 0
117
31 . 0
= =

(a) in lb
F
k 6 . 1748
75 . 1
3060
= = =
δ

( ) lb k F 3 . 874
2
1
6 . 1748
1 1
= |
¹
|

\
|
= = δ
( ) lb k F 2 . 1967
8
1
1 6 . 1748
2 2
= |
¹
|

\
|
= = δ
( ) kip lb F
m
4207 . 1 7 . 1420 3 . 874 2 . 1967
2
1
= = + =
( ) kip lb F
a
5464 . 0 4 . 546 3 . 874 2 . 1967
2
1
= = − =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 35 of 70
in in D
w
625 . 0
8
5
= =
in D D
w m
4
1
3 = +
in D
m
625 . 2 =
2 . 4
625 . 0
625 . 2
= = =
w
m
D
D
C
C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=
( )
( )
3808 . 1
2 . 4
615 . 0
4 2 . 4 4
1 2 . 4 4
= +


= K
234 . 1 =
c
K
( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K
K
s
w
m
c
ms
5 . 43
625 . 0
2 . 4 4207 . 1 8
234 . 1
3808 . 1 8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

( )( )
( )
ksi
D
C F
K s
w
a
as
7 . 20
625 . 0
2 . 4 5464 . 0 8
3808 . 1
8
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π

no
as
ys
as ms
s
s
s
s s
N
2 1
+

=
( )
33 . 60
7 . 20 2
5 . 104
7 . 20 5 . 43 1
+

=
N

106 . 1 = N

(b) Permissible solid stress = 135.4 ksi

kip F 060 . 3 =

Solid stress,
( )( )
( )
ksi ksi
D
FC
K s
w
s
4 . 135 7 . 115
625 . 0
2 . 4 060 . 3 8
3808 . 1
8
2 2
< =
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π π
, safe

(c) Solid deflection = in
4
3
1
( ) in N D P
c w
75 . 1 = −
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ
psi G
6
10 5 . 10 × = , hot-wound
c
w
N C
GD F
k
3
8
= =
δ

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 36 of 70
( )( )
( )
c
N
3
6
2 . 4 8
625 . 0 10 5 . 10
6 . 1748
×
=
332 . 6 =
c
N
( )( ) 75 . 1 332 . 6 625 . 0 = − P
in P 9014 . 0 =
Pitch angle
w m
CD
P
D
P
π π
λ = = tan
( )( )
o
24 . 6
625 . 0 2 . 4
9014 . 0
tan tan
1 1
=
(
¸
(

¸

= =
− −
π π
λ
w
CD
P


(d) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] lb in k U
s
− = − = − = 888 5 . 0 125 . 1 6 . 1748
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
1
δ δ
(e) When peened
( ) ksi s
ys
6 . 130 5 . 104 5 . 12 = =
( ) ksi s
no
4 . 75 33 . 60 25 . 1 = =
( )
4 . 75
7 . 20 2
6 . 130
7 . 20 5 . 43 1
+

=
N

38 . 1 = N


ENERGY STORAGE

293. A 10-lb. body falls 10 in. and then strikes a helical spring. Design a hard-
drawn carbon steel spring that will absorb this shock occasionally without
permanent damage. Determine appropriate values of wire diameter, coil
diameter, pitch, free length, closed length, and the maximum stress under the
specified conditions, and scale. Let 7 = C .

Solution:

For hard-drawn carbon steel, Table AT 17
ksi
D
s
w
u 1 . 0
182
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
Max. “solid” ksi
D
s
w
s 1 . 0
91
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
( )( ) ksi
D
s s
w
u sd 1 . 0
855 . 36
405 . 0 50 . 0 = =
G K
V s
U
s
s 2
2
4
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 37 of 70
C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=
( )
( )
213 . 1
7
615 . 0
4 7 4
1 7 4
= +


= K
( )
c m
w
N D
D
V π
π
|
|
¹
|

\
|

4
2

4
2 2
c m w
N D D
V
π
=
w m
CD D =
4
3 2
c w
N CD
V
π
=
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ
( ) δ + = h W U
s

(
¸
(

¸

=
2
8
w
s
D
FC
K s
π

KC
D s
F
w s
8
2
π
=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
w
c w s
GD
N C
KC
D s
3 2
8
8
π
δ
KG
N C D s
c w s
2
π
δ =
G K
N CD s
KG
N C D s
h W U
c
c w s
s
w s
2
3 2 2
2
16
π
π
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
KG
W C D s
G K
CD s
Wh
N
w s w s
c 2
2
2 2 2
16
π π

=
when ksi
D
s
w
s 1 . 0
855 . 36
=
( )
KG
W C D
G K
CD
Wh
N
w w
c 2 9 . 0
2
8 . 2 2 2
855 . 36
16
855 . 36
π
π

=
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )( ) 500 , 11 213 . 1
010 . 0 7 855 . 36
500 , 11 213 . 1 16
7 855 . 36
10 010 . 0
2 9 . 0
2
8 . 2 2 2
w
D
D
N
w
c
π
π

=
9 . 0 8 . 2
004067 . 0 3466 . 0
10 . 0
w
D D
N
w
c

=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 38 of 70
combination of
w
D and
c
N
Gage No. W & M
w
D
c
N
c w
N D
12 0.1055 991.2 105
11 0.1205 312.1 37.6
10 0.1350 166.1 22.4
9 0.1483 108.0 16.0
8 0.1620 75.2 12.2
7 0.1770 53.7 9.5
6 0.1920 40.2 7.7
5 0.2070 31 6.4
4 0.2253 23.4 5.3
3 0.2437 18.1 4.4

Use in in D
w
25 . 0 2437 . 0 < = , 1 . 18 =
c
N
( ) in in D D
w m
64
45
1 7059 . 1 2437 . 0 7 7 = = = =

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
in
KG
N C D
KG
N C D s
c
c w s w
066 . 2
500 , 11 213 . 1
1 . 18 7 2437 . 0 855 . 36
855 . 36
2 9 . 0 2 9 . 0
2
= = = =
π
π
π
δ
( )
ksi s
s
44 . 42
2437 . 0
855 . 36
1 . 0
= =
( )
ksi
D
s
w
so
8 . 104
2437 . 0
91 91
1 . 0 1 . 0
= = =
Solid deflection
( ) in 1 . 5 066 . 2
44 . 42
8 . 104
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 1 . 5 = −
c w
N D P
( )( ) 1 . 5 1 . 18 2437 . 0 = − P
in P 5255 . 0 =
say in P 53125 . 0
32
17
= =
Minimum Solid Height = ( )( ) in N D
c w
41 . 4 1 . 18 2437 . 0 = =
Assume squared and ground end
Solid height = ( )( ) ( ) in D N D
w c w
0 . 5 2437 . 0 2 1 . 18 2437 . 0 2 = + = +
Solid deflection = ( )( ) in 2 . 5 1 . 18 2437 . 0 53125 . 0 = −
Free length = 5.0 in + 5.2 in = 10.2in



Summary of answer:
in D
w
2437 . 0 = , No. 3 W & M
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 39 of 70
in D
m
64
45
1 =
in P
32
17
=
Free length = 10.2 in
Closed length = 5 in
Maximum stress = 42.44 ksi

294. A helical spring, of hard-drawn steel wire, is to absorb 75 in-lb of energy
without being stressed beyond the recommended value of average service. Let
6 = C . Decide upon satisfactory dimensions;
w
D ,
m
D ,
c
N , free length, pitch
angle, solid stress, volume of metal, possibility of spring buckling.

Solution:

For hard-drawn steel wire, shock load, average service
ksi
D
s
w
u 19 . 0
140
= , [ ] 625 . 0 028 . 0 < <
w
D
Max. “solid” ksi
D
s
w
s 19 . 0
70
= , [ ] 625 . 0 028 . 0 < <
w
D
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) ksi
D D
s s
w w
u sd 19 . 0 19 . 0
278 . 19 140
324 . 0 85 . 0 50 . 0 324 . 0 85 . 0 50 . 0 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
G K
CN D s
G K
V s
U
c w s s
s 2
3 2 2
2
2
16 4
π
= =
6 = C
C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=
( )
( )
2525 . 1
6
615 . 0
4 6 4
1 6 4
= +


= K
kip in lb in U
s
− = − = 075 . 0 75
( )
( ) ( ) 500 , 11 2525 . 1 16
6 278 . 19
075 . 0
2
3 2
19 . 0
c w
w
s
N D
D
U
π
(
¸
(

¸

= =
c w
N D
62 . 2
9837 . 0 =






Table AT-15
W & M
w
D
c
N
c w
N D
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 40 of 70
9 0.1483 146 21.65
8 0.1620 116 18.79
7 0.1770 92 16.28
6 0.1920 74 14.21
5 0.207 61 12.63
4 0.2253 49 11.04
3 0.2437 40 9.75
2 0.2625 32.7 8.58
1 0.2830 26.9 7.61
0 0.3065 21.8 6.68
2-0 0.3310 17.8 5.89
3-0 0.3625 14.0 5.075
4-0 0.3938 11.3 4.45
5-0 0.4305 8.95 3.85

Use in D
w
4305 . 0 = , 5-0 W & M
9 ≈
c
N
( ) in in D
m
16
9
2 583 . 2 4305 . 0 6 ≈ = =
( )
ksi s
s
63 . 22
4305 . 0
278 . 19
19 . 0
= =
Max. Solid Stress =
( )
ksi s
so
16 . 82
4305 . 0
70
19 . 0
= =
( )( )( )( ) ( )
( )( )
in
KG
N C D s
c w s
6885 . 0
500 , 11 2525 . 1
9 6 4305 . 0 63 . 22
2 2
= = =
π π
δ
Solid deflection ( ) in 5 . 2 6885 . 0
63 . 22
16 . 82
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 5 . 2 = −
c w
N D P
( )( ) 5 . 2 9 4305 . 0 = − P
in P 7083 . 0 =
say in P 703125 . 0
64
45
= =
Solid deflection = ( )( ) in 453625 . 2 9 4305 . 0 703125 . 0 = −
Solid stress ksi 65 . 80
6885 . 0
453625 . 2
63 . 22 = |
¹
|

\
|
=
Minimum Solid Height = ( )( ) in in N D
c w
8
7
3 8745 . 3 9 4305 . 0 ≈ = =
Minimum Free Length = ( ) in in PN
c
64
21
6 328125 . 6 9
64
45
≈ = |
¹
|

\
|
=
Pitch Angle
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 41 of 70
o o
12 5
16
9
2
64
45
tan tan
1 1
< =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
= =
− −
π
π
λ
m
D
P

Volume
( )
( )
( )
3
2 2
55 . 10 9
16
9
2
4
4305 . 0
4
in N D
D
V
c m
w
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
≈ π
π
π
π

Summary of answer:
in D
w
4305 . 0 = , No. 5-0 W & M
in D
m
16
9
2 =
9 =
c
N
Free length = in
64
21
6
Pitch Angle =
o
5 = λ
Solid Stress = 80.65 ksi
Volume of metal = 10.55 in
3


Possibility of spring buckling
4 47 . 2
16
9
2
64
21
6
< = , no possibility

CONCENTRIC HELICAL SPRINGS

297. Two concentric helical springs are to be subjected to a load that varies from a
maximum of 235 lb. to a maximum of 50 lb. They are to fit inside a 1 5/8 in.
cylinder. The maximum deflection is to be ¾ in., and the deflection when
compressed solid is to be approximately 1 in. Using the “static approach” for
severe service (maximum load), determine the wire diameter, mean coil
diameter, number of coils, solid length, and free length of both springs. (Start
with oil-tempered wire and assume a diametral clearance between the outer
spring and the cylinder of
2
w
D
, assume a similar clearance between springs.
Search for a suitable spring index and wire size.)

Solution:

For oil-tempered wire
Table AT 17
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SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 42 of 70
ksi
D
s
w
u
19 . 0
146
= , [ ] 5 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D
Max. “solid” ksi
D
s
w
s 19 . 0
5 . 87
= , [ ] 5 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D
Severe service
( )
ksi
D D
s s
w w
u sd 19 . 0 19 . 0
398 . 38 146 263 . 0
263 . 0 = = =
kip lb F 235 . 0 235 = =
i o
δ δ =
wi
i i i
wo
co o o
GD
N C F
GD
N C F
3 3
8 8
=
Assume,
i o
C C =
co
wo
o
N C
GD
F
3
32
3
=
ci
wi
i
N C
GD
F
3
32
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
8
wo
o
so
D
C F
K s
π

(
¸
(

¸

=
2
8
wi
i
si
D
C F
K s
π

wi
mi
wo
mo
D
D
D
D
C = =
C C
C
K
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+


=
wi mi
wi
wo mo
D D
D
D D + = − −
2

wi wo mi mo
D D D D 5 . 1 + = −
wo mo
wo
D D
D
+ = −
2
625 . 1
625 . 1 5 . 1 = +
wo mo
D D
625 . 1 5 . 1 = +
wo wo
D CD
5 . 1
625 . 1
+
=
C
D
wo

5 . 1
625 . 1
+
=
C
C
D
mo

wi wo wi wo
D D CD CD 5 . 1 + = −

( ) ( )
wi wo
D C D C 5 . 1 1 + = −
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 43 of 70
( )
( )
2
5 . 1
1 625 . 1
+

=
C
C
D
wi

( )
( )
2
5 . 1
1 625 . 1
+

=
C
C C
D
mi

ksi
D D
C F
K s
wo wo
o
so 19 . 0 2
398 . 38 8
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

KC
D
F
wo
o
81 . 1
08 . 15
=
ksi
D D
C F
K s
wi wi
i
si 19 . 0 2
398 . 38 8
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

KC
D
F
wi
i
81 . 1
08 . 15
=
kip F F F
i o
235 . 0 = = +
235 . 0
08 . 15 08 . 15
81 . 1 81 . 1
= +
KC
D
KC
D
wi wo

KC D D
wi wo
235 . 0 08 . 15 08 . 15
81 . 1 81 . 1
= +
( )
KC
C
C
C
235 . 0
5 . 1
1 625 . 1
08 . 15
5 . 1
625 . 1
08 . 15
81 . 1 81 . 1
=
(
¸
(

¸

+

+
|
¹
|

\
|
+

( )
( )
( )
C
C C
C
C
C
C
|
¹
|

\
|
+


=
(
¸
(

¸

+

+
+
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
235 . 0
5 . 1
1
5 . 1
1
52 . 154
62 . 3
81 . 1
81 . 1

328 . 5 = C
( )
( )
in D
wi
1509 . 0
5 . 1 328 . 5
1 328 . 5 625 . 1
2
=
+

=
in D
wo
2380 . 0
5 . 1 328 . 5
625 . 1
=
+
=
Table AT 15, use in D
wi
1620 . 0 = , No. 8 W & M and in D
wo
2625 . 0 = , No. 2 W & M
( )( ) in in CD D
wo mo
32
13
1 3986 . 1 2625 . 0 328 . 5 ≈ = = =
( )( ) in in CD D
wi mi
8
7
8631 . 0 1620 . 0 328 . 5 ≈ = = =
401 . 5
1620 . 0
8
7
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
wi
mi
i
D
D
C
357 . 5
2625 . 0
32
13
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
wo
mo
o
D
D
C
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 44 of 70
o o
wo
o
C K
D
F
81 . 1
08 . 15
=
( )
( )
287 . 1
357 . 5
615 . 0
1 357 . 5 4
1 357 . 5 4
= +


=
o
K
( )
( )( )
kip F
o
194 . 0
357 . 5 287 . 1
2625 . 0 08 . 15
81 . 1
= =
i i
wi
i
C K
D
F
81 . 1
08 . 15
=
( )
( )
2843 . 1
401 . 5
615 . 0
1 401 . 5 4
1 401 . 5 4
= +


=
i
K
( )
( )( )
kip F
i
081 . 0
401 . 5 2843 . 1
1620 . 0 08 . 15
= =
kip kip F F
i o
235 . 0 275 . 0 071 . 0 194 . 0 > = + = + , ok
co
wo
o
N C
GD
F
3
32
3
=
( )( )
( )
co
N
3
357 . 5 32
2625 . 0 500 , 11 3
194 . 0 =
5 . 9 =
co
N
ci
wi
i
N C
GD
F
3
32
3
=
( )( )
( )
ci
N
3
401 . 5 32
1620 . 0 500 , 11 3
071 . 0 =
6 . 15 =
ci
N
Max. solid stress, ksi
D
s
w
ss 19 . 0
5 . 87
= ,
( )
ksi s
sso
82 . 112
2625 . 0
5 . 87
19 . 0
= =
( )
ksi s
ssi
65 . 123
1620 . 0
5 . 87
19 . 0
= =
Stress
( )
ksi s
si
26 . 54
1620 . 0
398 . 38
19 . 0
= =
( )
ksi s
so
51 . 49
2625 . 0
398 . 38
19 . 0
= =

Solid stress
ksi ksi s
so
82 . 112 01 . 66
75 . 0
1
51 . 49 < = |
¹
|

\
|
=
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SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 45 of 70
ksi ksi s
si
65 . 123 35 . 72
75 . 0
1
26 . 54 < = |
¹
|

\
|
=
Solid length
( )( ) in N D
co wo
5 . 2 5 . 9 2625 . 0 = =
( )( ) in N D
ci wi
53 . 2 6 . 15 1620 . 0 = =

assume solid length = 3 in
( ) ( )( ) in x x N D
i i ci wi
3 6 . 15 1620 . 0 = + = +
92 . 2 =
i
x
Total coils = 15.6 + 2.92 = 18.52
( ) ( )( ) in x x N D
o o co wo
3 5 . 9 2625 . 0 = + = +
93 . 1 =
o
x
Total coils = 9.5 + 1.93 = 11.43

Free Length = 3 in + 1 in = 4 in

Summary of answer:

Outside wire.
in D
wo
2625 . 0 = , No. 2 W & M
in D
mo
32
13
1 =
43 . 11 =
to
N
Solid length = 3 in
Free length = 4 in

Inside wire.
in D
wi
1620 . 0 = , No. 8 W & M
in D
mi
8
7
=
52 . 18 =
ti
N
Solid length = 3 in
Free length = 4 in

298. Two concentric, helical compression springs are used on a freight car. The
larger spring has an outside diameter of 7 in., a free length of 7 1/8 in., and is
made of a 1 ¾ in. steel bar. The smaller has an outside diameter of 4 1/8 in., a
free length of 6 13/16 in. , and is made of 7/8 in. steel bar. The solid height of
each spring is 5 ¼ in. and the forces required to compress them solid are
15,530 lb. and 7,000 lb., respectively. The working load on the two springs is
11,350 lb. Determine (a) the number of free coils in each spring, (b) the stress
in each spring when compressed solid, (c) the stresses induced by the working
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 46 of 70
load. Notice that the outer spring deflects 5/16 in. before the inner one takes a
load. (d) What energy is absorbed while changing deflection from that at the
working load to that when the springs are compressed “solid”?

Solution:
in OD
o
7 =
in D
wo
8
3
1 =
in FL
o
8
1
7 =
in OD
i
8
1
4 =
in D
wi
8
7
=
in FL
i
16
13
6 =

(a) Solid height = in N D
T w
4
1
5 =
82 . 3
375 . 1
25 . 5
= =
To
N
6
875 . 0
25 . 5
= =
Ti
N

(b) lb F
o
530 , 15 =
lb F
i
7000 =
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
8
w
s
D
FC
K s
π

in D
mo
625 . 5
8
3
1 7 = − =
091 . 4
375 . 1
625 . 5
= = =
wo
mo
o
D
D
C
( )
( )
393 . 1
091 . 4
615 . 0
4 091 . 4 4
1 091 . 4 4
= +


=
o
K
in D
mi
25 . 3
8
7
8
1
4 = − =
714 . 3
875 . 0
25 . 3
= = =
wi
mi
i
D
D
C
( )
( )
442 . 1
714 . 3
615 . 0
4 714 . 3 4
1 714 . 3 4
= +


=
i
K

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 47 of 70
Solid stress
( )( )
( )
psi s
so
203 , 119
375 . 1
091 . 4 530 , 15 8
393 . 1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

( )( )
( )
psi s
si
689 , 124
875 . 0
714 . 3 7000 8
442 . 1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π


(b) Stresses induced by working load

lb F F
o i
350 , 11 = +
in lb k
o
8283
4
1
5
8
1
7
530 , 15
=
|
¹
|

\
|

=
in lb k
o
4480
4
1
5
16
13
6
7000
=
|
¹
|

\
|

=
in
i o
3125 . 0
16
5
= = −δ δ
i i i i
k F δ δ 4480 = =
( )
i o o o
k F δ δ + = = 3125 . 0 8283
( ) lb k F F
i i o o o i
350 , 11 3125 . 0 8283 4480 = + + = = + δ δ δ
in
i
6865 . 0 = δ
in
o
9990 . 0 6865 . 0 3125 . 0 = + = δ
( )( ) lb F
i
3076 6865 . 0 4480 = =
( )( ) lb F
o
8275 9990 . 0 8283 = =
Stresses
( )( )
( )
psi s
so
516 , 63
375 . 1
091 . 4 8275 8
393 . 1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π

( )( )
( )
psi s
si
792 , 54
875 . 0
714 . 3 3076 8
442 . 1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π


(d) Energy
( )
2
1
2
2
2
1
o o o so
k U δ δ − =
in
o
875 . 1
4
1
5
8
1
7
2
= − = δ
in
o
9990 . 0
1
= δ
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] lb in U
so
− = − = 427 , 10 999 . 0 875 . 1 8283
2
1
2 2

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SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 48 of 70
( )
2
1
2
2
2
1
i i i si
k U δ δ − =
in
i
5625 . 1
4
1
5
16
13
6
2
= − = δ
in
o
6865 . 0
1
= δ
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] lb in U
si
− = − = 413 , 4 6865 . 0 5625 . 1 4480
2
1
2 2


TORSION-BAR SPRINGS

299. A torsion-bar similar to that shown is to be used for the front spring of an
automobile. Its rate should be 400 lb./in. of deflection of the end of the arm
which is . 10 in e = long. It is made of AISI 9261,OQT 900
o
F, and the
maximum repeated load is 1500 lb. perpendicular to the centerline of the arm.
The support is such that bending of the bar is negligible. (a) Determine its
diameter and length so that no permanent set occurs due to a 30 % overload
(limited by a stop). Use
y ys
s s 6 . 0 = , but check with equation (c) § 6.3, Text, if
appropriate. (b) Determine the factor of safety according to the Soderberg
criterion if the load varies from 1200 lb. to 1500 lb.; minimum 1 . 0 = d r ,
3 = d D . (c) The same as (b) except that the bar is shot-peened all over. What
other steps may be taken to improve the fatigue strength?



Problem 299, 300

Solution:
in e 10 =
For AISI 9261, OQT 900
o
F
ksi s
y
192 =
ksi s
u
215 =
psi ksi s s
y ys
200 , 115 2 . 115 6 . 0 = = =

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SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 49 of 70
(a)
3
16
d
T
s
s
π
=
( )( )( ) lb in Fe T − = = = 500 , 19 10 1500 3 . 1
( )
3
500 , 19 16
200 , 115
d π
=
in d 95 . 0 =
use in d 1 =
§ 6.3
( )
ys
w
s
s ksi
D
s ≈ = = = 117
1
117 117
3 . 0 3 . 0


(b) Soderberg Criterion
ns
as f
ys
ms
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )( ) ksi s
ns
5 . 64 215 5 . 0 6 . 0 = =
Figure AF 12, 1 . 0 = d r , 3 = d D
45 . 1 =
t
K
45 . 1 = ≈
t f
K K

( ) lb F
m
1350 1200 1500
2
1
= + =
( )( ) kips in lb in T
m
− = − = = 5 . 13 500 , 13 10 1350
( )
( )
ksi s
ms
8 . 68
1
5 . 13 16
3
= =
π


( ) lb F
a
150 1200 1500
2
1
= − =
( )( ) kips in lb in T
a
− = − = = 5 . 1 1500 10 150
( )
( )
ksi s
as
64 . 7
1
5 . 1 16
3
= =
π

( )( )
5 . 64
64 . 7 45 . 1
2 . 115
8 . 68 1
+ =
N

30 . 1 = N

(c) Shot-peened
( ) ksi s
ys
144 2 . 115 25 . 1 = =
( ) ksi s
ns
6 . 80 5 . 64 25 . 1 = =
( )( )
6 . 80
64 . 7 45 . 1
144
8 . 68 1
+ =
N

625 . 1 = N
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SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 50 of 70



300. A solid steel torsion bar is loaded through a 10 in. arm as shown. The load F
perpendicular to the center-line of the arm varies from 500 to 1000 lb.,
200,000 cycles. The bar is .
8
7
in d = in diameter and 30 in. long; let 3 = d D ;
1 . 0 = d r ; (a) Determine the maximum stress in the bar, the angular
deflection, and the scale (lb./in.) where F is applied. The support is such that
bending of the bar is negligible. (b) Select a material and heat treatment for
this bar for a minimum 2 . 1 = N , Soderberg criterion.

Problem 299, 300
Solution:
Fig. AF 12, 45 . 1 =
f
K
( ) lb F
m
750 500 1000
2
1
= + =
( ) lb F
a
250 500 1000
2
1
= − =
( )( ) kips in lb in T
m
− = − = = 5 . 7 7500 10 750
( )( ) kips in lb in T
a
− = − = = 5 . 2 2500 10 250
( )
( )
( )
33 . 1
45 . 1
000 , 200
3 45 . 1 log 3 log
= =
f
K
fl
K
n
K
f

3
16
d
T
s
s
π
=
( )
ksi s
ms
57
8
7
5 . 7 16
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

( )
ksi s
as
19
8
7
5 . 2 16
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π


(a) ( )( ) ksi s K s s
as fl ms
27 . 82 19 33 . 1 57
max
= + = + =
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SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 51 of 70
G d
TL
JG
TL
4
64
π
θ = =
( )( )( )
( )
rad 4533 . 0
10 5 . 11
8
7
30 10 500 64
min
6
4
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π
θ
( )( )( )
( )
rad 9066 . 0
10 5 . 11
8
7
30 10 1000 64
max
6
4
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π
θ
( )( )
in lb
e
F
scale 3 . 110
10 9066 . 0
1000
= = =
θ


(c)
ns
as f
ys
ms
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
u u ns
s s s 344 . 0
000 , 200
10
5 . 0 6 . 0
085 . 0
6
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
y ys
s s 6 . 0 =
( )( )
u y
s s 344 . 0
19 33 . 1
6 . 0
57
2 . 1
1
+ =
Use AISI 8760, OQT 800
o
F
ksi s
y
200 =
ksi s
u
220 =
24 . 1 = N

HELICAL SPRINGS – NON CIRCULAR SECTION

301. A spring is to be designed of square oil-tempered steel wire and subjected to a
repeated maximum load of 325 lb.; mean coil diameter, 1 ½ in.; deflection,
13/32 in. Determine (a) the wire size for average service, (b) the required
number of active coils, (c) the solid height, free length, and pitch (the ends are
squared and ground, the “solid stress” must be satisfactory, and the pitch angle
not excessive). (d) What amount of energy is stored when the load is 325 lb.?
Express in in-lb. and Btu.

Solution:

For oil-tempered wire,
19 . 0
146
w
u
D
s = , [ ] 5 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D
Max. “solid”
u s
s s 6 . 0 =

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SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 52 of 70
(a) average service,
w
D b = , b t =
( )
3 2 2
4 . 2
2
8 . 1 3
b
FD
K
t b
t b FD K
s
m
q
m q
s
=
+
=
u sd
s s 324 . 0 = , average service
( )
19 . 0 3
146 324 . 0
2
4 . 2
b b
FD
K
m
q
=
kip F 325 . 0 =
in D
m
2
1
1 =
25 . 1 =
q
K (assumed)
( )( ) ( )
19 . 0 3
146 324 . 0 5 . 1 325 . 0 4 . 2
25 . 1
b b
=
(
¸
(

¸

in b 2902 . 0 =
Table AT 15, use in b 313 . 0 = , # 1 wire size
8 . 4
313 . 0
5 . 1
= = =
b
D
C
m

Figure AF 15, 275 . 1 =
q
K

(b)
( )
4
3
3
3
44 . 0
45 . 2
56 . 0
45 . 2
Gb
N FD
t b Gt
N FD
c m c m
=

= δ
( )( )
( )( )
4
3
313 . 0 500 , 11 44 . 0
5 . 1 325 . 0 45 . 2
32
13
c
N
=
34 . 7 =
c
N

(c) Solid height = ( ) ( ) in N b
c
92 . 2 2 34 . 7 313 . 0 2 = + = +

Free length = b PN
c
2 +
lb F 325 . 0 =
( )( )
( )
ksi
b
FD
K s
m
q s
65 . 48
313 . 0
5 . 1 325 . 0 4 . 2
275 . 1
4 . 2
3 3
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
solid stress =
( )
( )
ksi 2 . 109
313 . 0
146 6 . 0
19 . 0
= =
solid deflection = in 91 . 0
32
13
65 . 48
2 . 109
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 91 . 0 = −
c
N b P
( )( ) 91 . 0 34 . 7 313 . 0 = − P
in P 437 . 0 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 53 of 70
use in P
16
7
=
Free length = ( ) ( ) in in b PN
c
32
27
3 837 . 3 313 . 0 2 34 . 7
16
7
2 ≈ = + |
¹
|

\
|
= +

( ) 5 . 1
16
7
tan
π π
λ
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
m
D
P

o o
10 3 . 5 < = λ

(d) ( ) lb in kip in F k U
s
− = − = |
¹
|

\
|
= = = 66 066 . 0
32
13
325 . 0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
δ δ
Btu U
s
085 . 0
778
66
= =

302. A coil spring, of hard-drawn carbon steel, is to deflect 1 in. under a load of
100 lb. The outside coil diameter is to be 1 in. Compute the number of active
coils, (a) if the wire is round, 5/32 in. in diameter, (b) if the wire is square,
5/32 in. on the side, (c) if the wire is rectangular 1/8 x 3/16 in., long
dimension parallel to the axis, (d) If the wire is rectangular 3/16 x 1/8 in.,
short dimension parallel to the axis. (e) What is the maximum stress in each of
the above springs under the 100-lb load? (f) What is the ratio of the
approximate volumes, square- or rectangular-wire to round wire spring?

Solution:

in D D
w m
1 = +
(a) in D
w
32
5
=
in D
m
32
27
32
5
1 = − =
4 . 5
32
5
32
27
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
w
m
D
D
C
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ
( )( )
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
32
5
10 5 . 11
4 . 5 100 8
1
6
3
c
N

3 . 14 =
c
N
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 54 of 70
(b) Square, in b
32
5
=
in D
m
32
27
32
5
1 = − =
4
3
44 . 0
45 . 2
Gb
N FD
c
m
= δ
( )
( )
4
6
3
32
5
10 5 . 11 44 . 0
32
27
100 45 . 2
1
|
¹
|

\
|
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
c
N

5 . 20 =
c
N

(c) in b
16
3
= , in t
8
1
=
in t D
m
8
7
8
1
1 1 = − = − =
( ) t b Gt
N FD
c
m
56 . 0
45 . 2
3
3

= δ
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
8
1
56 . 0
16
3
8
1
10 5 . 11
8
7
100 45 . 2
1
3
6
3
c
N

1 . 16 =
c
N

(d) in b
8
1
= , in t
16
3
=
in t D
m
16
13
16
3
1 1 = − = − =
( ) t b Gt
N FD
c
m
56 . 0
45 . 2
3
3

= δ
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
16
3
56 . 0
8
1
16
3
10 5 . 11
16
13
100 45 . 2
1
3
6
3
c
N

5 . 11 =
c
N

(e) Maximum Stress

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 55 of 70
For (a)
3
8
w
s
D
FC
K s
π
=
( )
( )
284 . 1
4 . 5
615 . 0
4 4 . 5 4
1 4 . 5 4
= +


= K
( )( )
psi s
s
320 , 72
32
5
4 . 5 100 8
284 . 1
3
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
=
π


For (b)
( )
3 2 2
4 . 2
2
8 . 1 3
b
FD
K
t b
t b FD
K s
m
q
m
q s
=
+
=
4 . 5
32
5
32
27
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
b
D
C
m

25 . 1 =
q
K
( )
psi s
s
355 , 66
32
5
32
27
100 4 . 2
25 . 1
3
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
For (c)
( )
2 2
2
8 . 1 3
t b
t b FD
K s
m
q s
+
=
7
8
1
8
7
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
t
D
C
m

1 . 1 =
q
K
( )
psi s
s
992 , 68
8
1
8 . 1
16
3
3
8
1
16
3
2
8
7
100
1 . 1
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
For (d)
( )
2 2
2
8 . 1 3
t b
t b FD
K s
m
q s
+
=
33 . 4
16
3
16
13
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
t
D
C
m

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 56 of 70
2 . 1 =
q
K
( )
psi s
s
232 , 63
16
3
8 . 1
8
1
3
16
3
8
1
2
16
13
100
2 . 1
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

(e) Ratio of the approximate volumes

For (a) Round wire
( )
c m w a
N D D V π
π
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
4

( )
3
2
727 . 0 3 . 14
32
27
32
5
4
in V
a
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
= π
π

For (b) Square wire
( )
c m b
N D b V π
2
=
( )
3
2
327 . 1 5 . 20
32
27
32
5
in V
b
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= π
For (c) rectangular wire
( )
c m c
N D bt V π =
( )
3
037 . 1 1 . 16
8
7
8
1
16
3
in V
c
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= π
For (d) rectangular wire
( )
c m d
N D bt V π =
( )
3
688 . 0 5 . 11
16
13
16
3
8
1
in V
d
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= π

Ratio of volume
Square to round wire
825 . 1
727 . 0
327 . 1
= = =
a
b
V
V

Rectangular to round wire (long dimension parallel to the axis)
426 . 1
727 . 0
037 . 1
= = =
a
c
V
V

Rectangular to round wire (short dimension parallel to the axis)
946 . 0
727 . 0
688 . 0
= = =
a
d
V
V




http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 57 of 70
TENSION SPRINGS

305. Design two tension springs for a spring balance with a capacity of 200 lb.
Each spring supports a maximum load of 100 lb. The outside diameter must
not exceed 1 ¼ in. and the total length including end loops must not exceed 9
½ in. Select a material and determine the dimension, including wire diameter,
number of coils, and free length.

Solution:
Table AT 17, assume oil tempered wire
ksi
D
s
w
u
19 . 0
146
=
ksi
D
s
w
ys 19 . 0
5 . 87
=
( )
ksi
D D
s
w w
sd 19 . 0 19 . 0
70 5 . 87 8 . 0
= = , [ ] 5 . 0 032 . 0 < <
w
D
δ k F F
i
+ =
3
8
w
m c
s
D
FD K
s
π
=
w
m
w
m
D
D
D
r
C = =
2

w
c a
D G
N C F
3
8
= δ
N C
D G
k
w
3
8
=
a
w
c a w
F
GD
N C F
N C
D G
k =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3
3
8
8
δ
kip lb F
a
10 . 0 100 = =
Figure AF 15, assume 2 . 1 =
c
K
3 3
8 8
w
m a c
w
m i c
s
D
D F K
D
D F K
s
π π
+ =
2
8
w
a c
i c s
D
C F K
s K s
π
+ =
in D D OD
w m
25 . 1 = + =
1
25 . 1
+
=
C
D
w

§ 6.21, assume ksi s
i
18 =
s sd
s s =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 58 of 70
( )( )
( )( )
2 19 . 0
1 . 0 2 . 1 8
18 2 . 1
70
w w
D
C
D π
+ =
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
2
2
19 . 0
19 . 0
25 . 1
1 1 . 0 2 . 1 8
6 . 21
25 . 1
1 70
π
+
+ =
+ C C C

( ) ( )
2 19 . 0
1 1956 . 0 6 . 21 1 1 . 67 + + = + C C C
( ) ( ) 6 . 21 1 1956 . 0 1 1 . 67
2 19 . 0
= + − + C C C
7 . 6 = C
in
C
D
w
1623 . 0
1 7 . 6
25 . 1
1
25 . 1
=
+
=
+
=
Table AT 15, use in D
w
1620 . 0 = , 8 W & M
( )( ) in CD D
w m
085 . 1 1620 . 0 7 . 6 = = =
say in D
m
0 . 1 =
17 . 6
1620 . 0
0 . 1
= = =
w
m
D
D
C
ksi s
i
7 . 17 =
To check, Fig. AF 15, 15 . 1 =
c
K
( )
( )( )( )
( )
ksi s
s
20 . 89
1620 . 0
17 . 6 10 . 0 15 . 1 8
7 . 17 15 . 1
2
= + =
π

( )
ksi ksi s
sd
20 . 89 92 . 98
1620 . 0
70
19 . 0
> = = , o.k.

Total length = ( )
w m c w
D D N D + + 2
( ) ( ) 162 . 0 0 . 1 2 162 . 0 5 . 9 + + =
c
N
coils N
c
3 . 44 =

Free length = ( )( ) in N D
c w
18 . 7 3 . 44 1620 . 0 = =

Summary of answer:
Material, oil-tempered wire
in D
w
1620 . 0 = , 8 W & M
coils N
c
3 . 44 =
Free length = 7.18 in.

306. Two helical tension springs are to be used in scales for weighing milk. The
capacity of the scales is 30 lb., each spring carries 15 lb. with a deflection of 3
9/16 in. The springs are made of No. 14, W & M steel wire, outside diameter,
29/32 in. (a) how many coils should each spring have? (b) What is the
maximum stress in the wire? What material should be used?


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 59 of 70
Solution:

lb k 15 = δ
in
16
9
3 = δ
(a) Table AT 15, No. 14 W &M

in D
w
0800 . 0 =
in D OD D
w m
82625 . 0 0800 . 0
32
29
= − = − =
328 . 10
0800 . 0
82625 . 0
= = =
w
m
D
D
C
( )
w
c
GD
N C k
3
8 δ
δ =
( )( )
( )( ) 080 . 0 10 5 . 11
328 . 10 15 8
16
9
3
6
3
×
=
c
N

8 . 24 =
c
N

(b) δ k F F
i
+ =
m
w i
i
D
D s
F
8
3
π
=
§ 6.21, 328 . 10 = C
psi s
i
272 , 11 =
( )( )
( )
lb F
i
743 . 2
82625 . 0 8
08 . 0 272 , 11
3
= =
π

lb F 743 . 17 15 743 . 2 = + =
Figure AF 15, 09 . 1 =
c
K
( )( )( )
( )
psi
D
FD K
s
w
m c
s
476 , 79
080 . 0
82625 . 0 743 . 17 09 . 1 8 8
3 3
= = =
π π

ksi psi
s
s
s
ys
345 . 99 345 , 99
8 . 0
476 , 79
8 . 0
= = = ≈
Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire
( )
ksi ksi
D
s
w
ys
345 . 99 113
080 . 0
70 70
19 . 0 19 . 0
> = = =

307. A tension spring for a gas-control lever is made of in D
w
078 . 0 = steel wire;
inside diameter, 0.609 in.; number of coils, 55; free length including end
loops, 5 9/16 in. When the spring is extended to a length of 6 5/16 in., it must
exert a force 5 ½ lb.; it must extend to (a) the initial tension, (b) the stress in
the spring caused by the initial tension (compare with the recommended
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 60 of 70
maximum values), (c) the stress caused by the 5 ½-lb load, (d) the maximum
stress. What material should be used? (e) What energy is absorbed from the
point where the load is the initial tension until the spring’s length is 6 5/16 in.?
(Data courtesy Worthington Corporation.)

Solution:
in D
w
078 . 0 =
in D D
w m
609 . 0 = −
in D
m
687 . 0 078 . 0 609 . 0 = + =
8 . 8
078 . 0
687 . 0
= = =
w
m
D
D
C
55 =
c
N
w
c
GD
N FC
3
8
= δ
lb F
2
1
5 =
in 75 . 0
16
9
5
16
5
6 = − = δ
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) 078 . 0 10 5 . 11
5 8 . 8 8
75 . 0
6
3
×
= =
δ
δ
k

lb k 244 . 2 = δ

(a) lb k F F
i
256 . 3 244 . 2 5 . 5 = − = − = δ
(b)
( )( )
( )
psi
D
C F
s
w
i
i
000 , 12
078 . 0
8 . 8 256 . 3 8 8
2 2
= = =
π π

§ 6.21, 8 . 8 = C
psi psi s
i
000 , 12 300 , 13 > = , ok

(c) lb F 5 . 5 =
2
8
w
c
s
D
FC K
s
π
=
8 . 8 = C
Figure AF 15
1 . 1 =
c
K
( )( )( )
( )
psi s
s
284 , 22
078 . 0
8 . 8 5 . 5 1 . 1 8
2
= =
π


(d) maximum stress
in lb
k
k 992 . 2
75 . 0
244 . 2
= = =
δ
δ

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 61 of 70
δ′ = k F
in 75 . 3
16
9
5
16
5
9 = − = ′ δ
( )( ) lb k F F
i
476 . 14 75 . 3 992 . 2 256 . 3 = + = ′ + = δ
( )( )( )
( )
psi
D
FC K
s
w
c
s
651 , 58
078 . 0
8 . 8 476 . 14 1 . 1 8 8
2 2
= = =
π π

Table AT 16
ksi psi
s
s
s
ys
3 . 73 300 , 73
8 . 0
651 , 58
8 . 0
= = = ≈
Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire
( )
ksi ksi
D
s
w
ys
3 . 73 658 . 113
078 . 0
70 70
19 . 0 19 . 0
> = = =

(e) ( )( ) lb in k U
s
− = = = 8415 . 0 75 . 0 992 . 2
2
1
2
1
2 2
δ

TORSION SPRINGS

308. A carbon-steel (ASTM A230) torsion spring is to resist a force of 55 lb. at a
radius of 2 in.; the mean diameter is to be 2 ½ in. Compute (a) the diameter of
the wire for average service, (b) the number of coils for a deflection of 180
o

under the given torque, (c) the energy the spring has absorbed when the force
is 55 lb.

Solution:
Fa M T = =
lb F 55 =
in a 2 =
( )( ) lb in M T − = = = 110 2 55
in D
m
5 . 2 =
Table AT 17, ksi
D
s
w
u 1 . 0
182
= , [ ] 25 . 0 093 . 0 < <
w
D
Average service
( )( ) psi
D
ksi
D D
s s
w w w
u d 1 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0
936 , 117 936 . 117 182
648 . 0 405 . 0 6 . 1 = =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =

(a)
I
KMc
s
s
=
For round wire, assume 08 . 1 = =
ci c
K K , Table AT 18
2
w
D
c =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 62 of 70
32
3
w
D
c
I π
=
( )( )( )
1 . 0 3
936 , 117 32 110 08 . 1
w w
s
D D
s = =
π

in in D
w
25 . 0 2060 . 0 < =
Table AT 15, use in D
w
2070 . 0 = , No. 5 W & M
To check: 9 66 . 9
2070 . 0
2
> = = =
w
m
D
D
c
r
, ok
Table AT 18, 08 . 1 = K
( )( )( )
( )
psi s
s
430 , 136
2070 . 0
32 110 08 . 1
3
= =
π

( )
psi psi s
sd
430 , 136 054 , 138
2070 . 0
936 , 117
1 . 0
> = =
Therefore, use No. 5 W & M, in D
w
2070 . 0 =

(b)
EI
N D M
c m
π
θ =
psi E
6
10 30× =
64
4
w
D
I
π
=
π θ = =
o
180
4
64
w
c m
ED
N MD
= θ
( )( )
( )( )
4 6
2070 . 0 10 30
2 110 64
×
=
c
N
π
29 . 12 =
c
N

(c) ( )( ) lb in T U
s
− = = = 8 . 172 110
2
1
2
1
π θ

312. A pivoted roller follower is held in contact with the cam by a torsion spring.
The moment exerted by the spring varies from 20 lb-in to 50 lb-in. as the
follower oscillates through 30
o
. The spring is made of AISI 6152 steel, OQT
1000
o
F. What should be the value of
w
D ,
m
D , and
c
N if the factor of safety
is 1.75 based on the Soderberg line? Would this be a conservative or risky
approach?

Solution:
AISI 6152, OQT 1000
o
F
ksi s
u
184 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 63 of 70
ksi s
y
173 =
ksi s s
u n
92 5 . 0 = =
( ) in lb M
m
− = + = 35 20 50
2
1

( ) in lb M
a
− = − = 15 20 50
2
1

assume 08 . 1 = K
( )( )
psi
D D D
KM
s
w w w
m
m 3 3 3
385 35 08 . 1 32 32
= = =
π π

( )( )
psi
D D D
KM
s
w w w
a
a 3 3 3
165 15 08 . 1 32 32
= = =
π π

n
a
y
m
s
s
s
s
N
+ =
1

3 3
000 , 92
165
000 , 173
385
75 . 1
1
w w
D D
+ =
in D
w
1916 . 0 =
Table AT 15, use in D
w
1920 . 0 = , No. 6 W & M
To solve for K
( )
( )
psi K
K
s
m
369 , 50
1920 . 0
35 32
3
= =
π

( )
( )
psi K
K
s
a
587 , 21
1920 . 0
15 32
3
= =
π

000 , 92
587 , 20
000 , 173
369 , 50
75 . 1
1 K K
+ =
0868 . 1 = K
Table AT 18 0868 . 1 = = K K
ci

9 32 . 9 > = =
w
m
D
D
c
r
, ok
( ) in D
m
7894 . 1 1920 . 0 32 . 9 = =
use in in D
m
875 . 1
8
7
1 = =
4
64
w
c m c m
ED
N MD
EI
N D M ∆
=

= ∆
π
θ
( )( )
( )( )
4 6
1920 . 0 10 30
875 . 1 20 50 64
180
30
×

=
c
N π

93 . 5 =
c
N
Summary of answer:
in D
w
1920 . 0 = , No. 6 W & M
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 64 of 70
in D
m
8
7
1 =
93 . 5 =
c
N , 4 . 1 > N , therefore conservative.

FLAT AND LEAF SPRINGS

315. A cantilever flat spring of uniform strength, Fig. 6.20, Text, is to absorb an
energy impact of 500 ft-lb. Let the thickness of the steel, AISI 1095, OQT 900
o
F, be ½ in. and let the maximum stress be half of the yield strength. (a) Find
the width b of the spring at the widest point in terms of the length L .
Determine values of b for lengths of 36 in., 48 in., 60 in., and 72 in. (b)
Determine the deflection of the spring for each set of values found in (a).

Solution.
Fig. 6/20

2
6
bh
FL
s
B
=
3
3
6
Ebh
FL
= δ
AISI 1095, OQT 900
o
F, ksi s
y
104 = , Table AT 9
( ) psi ksi s s
y B
000 , 52 52 104 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = = =
δ F U
s
2
1
=
L
bh s
F
B
6
2
=
Eh
L s
Ebh
L
L
bh s
B B
2
3
3 2
6
6 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= δ
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
E
bhL s
Eh
L s
L
bh s
U
B B B
s
2 2 2
12
1
6 2
1

lb in lb ft U
s
− = − = 6000 500
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 65 of 70
( )
6
2
10 30
2
1
000 , 52
12
1
6000
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
L b

2
1598 in bL =
L
in
b
2
1598
=

in L 36 = , in
in
in
b 4 . 44
36
1598
2
= =
in L 48 = , in
in
in
b 3 . 33
48
1598
2
= =
in L 60 = , in
in
in
b 6 . 26
60
1598
2
= =
in L 72 = , in
in
in
b 2 . 22
72
1598
2
= =

(b)
Eh
L s
B
2
= δ
in L 36 = ,
( )( )
( )
in 4928 . 4
2
1
10 30
36 000 , 52
6
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= δ
in L 48 = ,
( )( )
( )
in 9872 . 7
2
1
10 30
48 000 , 52
6
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= δ
in L 60 = ,
( )( )
( )
in 48 . 12
2
1
10 30
60 000 , 52
6
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= δ
in L 72 = ,
( )( )
( )
in 9712 . 17
2
1
10 30
72 000 , 52
6
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= δ

317. One of the carbon contacts on a circuit breaker is mounted on the free end of
a phosphor-bronze beam ( 35 . 0 = µ ). This beam has the shape of the beam
shown in Fig. 6.24, Text, with . 1in b = , .
16
9
in b = ′ , .
2
1
4 in L = , and .
16
1
in h =
When the contacts are closed, the beam deflects ¾ in. Compute (a) the force
on the contacts, (b) the maximum stress.

Solution:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 66 of 70
Figure 6.24
2 2
3 6
bh
WL
bh
FL
s = =
( ) ( )
EI
WL K
EI
FL K
6
1
3
1
2 3
1
2 3
1
µ µ
δ

=

=
5625 . 0
1
16
9
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=

b
b

Figure 6.25, 14 . 1
1
= K

(a) Force on contacts = F
( )
EI
FL K
3
1
2 3
1
µ
δ

=
psi E
6
10 16× = (phosphor bronze)
as a beam,
12
3
bh
I =
( )
3
2 3
1
1 4
Ebh
FL K µ
δ

=
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )( )
3
6
2 3
16
1
1 10 16
35 . 0 1 5 . 4 14 . 1 4
4
3
|
¹
|

\
|
×

=
F

lb F 8 =

(b)
( )( )
( )
psi
bh
FL
s 296 , 55
16
1
1
5 . 4 8 6 6
2 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =

318. A cantilever leaf spring 26 in. long is to support a load of 175 lb. The
construction is similar to that shown in Fig. 6.22 (a), Text. The leaves are to
be 2 in. wide, 3/16 in. thick; SAE 9255 steel, OQT 1000
o
F; 107 cycles (§
6.26). (a) How many leaves should be used if the surfaces are left as rolled?
(b) The same as (a) except that the leaves are machined and the surfaces are
not decarburized. (c) The same as (b), except that the surface is peened all
over. (d) Which of these springs absorbs the most energy? Compute for each:
(e) What are the load and deflection of the spring in (b) when the maximum
stress is the standard-test yields strength?

Solution:
Figure 6.22 (a)
2
6
bh
FL
s
A
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 67 of 70
3
3
6
Ebh
FL
A
= δ
b N b ′ =
1

lb F 175 =
in b 2 = ′
in h
16
3
=
in L 26 =
§ 6.26, SAE 9255, OQT 1000
o
F
ksi s
u
180 =
ksi s
y
160 =
in in t 1875 . 0
16
3
= =
ksi s
d
75 . 83 =

(a) As rolled, Figure AF 5

Surface factor = 0.275
( ) psi ksi s
d
000 , 23 23 75 . 83 275 . 0 = = =
2
6
bh
FL
s
A
=
( )( )
( )
2
1
16
3
2
26 175 6
000 , 23
|
¹
|

\
|
=
N

88 . 16
1
= N
say 17
1
= N

(b) Machined, Figure AF 5
Surface factor = 0.75
( ) psi ksi s
d
800 , 62 8 . 62 75 . 83 75 . 0 = = =
2
6
bh
FL
s
A
=
( )( )
( )
2
1
16
3
2
26 175 6
800 , 62
|
¹
|

\
|
=
N

2 . 6
1
= N
say 7
1
= N

(c) Peened surface, (b)

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 68 of 70

( ) psi ksi s
d
500 , 78 5 . 78 8 . 62 25 . 1 = = =
2
6
bh
FL
s
A
=
( )( )
( )
2
1
16
3
2
26 175 6
500 , 78
|
¹
|

\
|
=
N

95 . 4
1
= N
say 5
1
= N

(d) δ F U
s
2
1
=
lb F 175 =
3
1
3
6
h b EN
FL

= δ
For (a) 17
1
= N
( )( )
( )( )( )
in 745 . 2
16
3
2 17 10 30
26 175 6
3
6
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= δ
( )( ) lb in U
s
− = = 240 745 . 2 175
2
1

For (b) 7
1
= N
( )( )
( )( )( )
in 666 . 6
16
3
2 7 10 30
26 175 6
3
6
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= δ
( )( ) lb in U
s
− = = 583 666 . 6 175
2
1

For (c) 5
1
= N
( )( )
( )( )( )
in 332 . 9
16
3
2 5 10 30
26 175 6
3
6
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= δ
( )( ) lb in U
s
− = = 817 332 . 9 175
2
1


answer – spring (c)

(e) ksi s s
y d
160 = = , 7
1
= N (b)

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 69 of 70
2
1
2
6 6
h b N
FL
bh
FL
s
d

= =
( )
( )( )
2
16
3
2 7
26 6
000 , 160
|
¹
|

\
|
=
F

load lb F 505 =
( )( )
( )( )( )
in 24 . 19
16
3
2 7 10 30
26 505 6
3
6
3
=
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= δ

319. The rear spring of an automobile has 9 leaves, each with an average thickness
of 0.242 in. and a width of 2 in.; material is SAE 9261, OQT 1000
o
F. The
length of the spring is 56 in. and the total weight on the spring is 1300 lb.
Assume the spring to have the form shown in Fig. 6.22 (b), Text. Determine
(a) the rate of the spring, (b) the maximum stress caused by the dead weight.
(c) What approximate repeated maximum force (0 to
max
F ) would cause
impending fatigue in 10
5
cycles, the number of applications of the maximum
load expected during the ordinary life of a car? (If the leaves are cold rolled
to induce a residual compressive stress on the surfaces, the endurance limit as
2
u
s should be conservative.)

Solution:
Figure 6.22 (b)
2
2
3
bh
FL
s
A
=
3
3
8
3
Ebh
FL
A
= δ
lb F 1300 =
in h 242 . 0 =
9
1
= N
in b 2 = ′
in L 56 =

(a) Rate ,
3
3
3
8
L
Ebh F
k
A
= =
δ

( )( )( )( )
( )
in lb
L
h b EN
k 21 . 116
56 3
242 . 0 2 9 10 30 8
3
8
3
3 6
3
3
1
=
×
=

=

(b)
( )( )
( )( )( )
psi
h b N
FL
s
A
590 , 103
242 . 0 2 9 2
56 1300 3
2
3
2 2
1
= =

=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Page 70 of 70
(c) SAE 9261. OQT 1000
o
F
ksi s
u
192 =
ksi s
n
96
2
192
= =
2
1
2
3
h b N
FL
s
A

=
( )
( )( )( )
2
242 . 0 2 9 2
56 3
000 , 96
F
=
lb F 1200 =

321. The front spring of an automobile is made similar to Fig. 6.23, Text. The
average thickness for each of the 6 leaves, 0.213 in.; material is SAE 9255,
OQT 1000
o
F. The load caused by the weight of the car is 775 lb. (a) What
stress is caused by a force of twice the dead weight? (b) What load would
stress the spring to the yield strength?

Solution:
Figure 6.23
2
1
2 2
3 3 6
h b N
WL
bh
WL
bh
FL
s

= = =
lb W 775 = , 6
1
= N , in b 2 = ′ , in h 213 . 0 =
in
in
L 18
2
36
= =
(a) ( ) lb W 1550 775 2 = =
( )( )
( )( )( )
psi s 740 , 153
213 . 0 2 6
18 1550 3
2
= =

(b) SAE 9255, OQT 1000
o
F
ksi s
y
160 =
2
1
2 2
3 3 6
h b N
WL
bh
WL
bh
FL
s

= = =
( )
( )( )( )
2
213 . 0 2 6
18 3
000 , 160
W
=
lb W 1613 =

- end -
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 1 of 18
DESIGN PROBLEMS

334. A round steel rod made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled, is to be used as
a column, centrally loaded with 10 kips; 3 = N . Determine the diameter for (a)
. 25 in L = , (b) . 50 in L = (c) The same as (a) and (b) except that the material is
AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. Is there any advantage in using this material rather than
structural steel?

Solution:
For AISI C1020,as rolled
ksi s
y
48 =
kips F 10 =
3 = N

(a) . 25 in L L
e
= =
Consider first J.B. Johnson
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− = =
E
k
L
s
A s NF F
e
y
y c 2
2
4
1
π

4
2
D
A
π
=
4
D
k =
ksi E
3
10 30× =
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3 2
2
2
10 30 4
4
25
48
1
4
48 10 3
π
π
D
D

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
2 2
2
4
1 12 30
D
D
π
π
π
π
48
12 30
2
− = D
in D 096 . 1 =
say in in D 0625 . 1
16
1
1 = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 2 of 18
∴ < =
|
¹
|

\
|
= 120 94
4
0625 . 1
25
k
L
e
o.k.
(b) . 50 in L L
e
= =
Consider Euler’s Equation
2
2
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
k
L
EA
NF F
e
c
π

( )( )
( )
2
2
3 2
4
50
4
10 30
10 3
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
D
D π
π

4 3
1875 . 0 30 D π =
in D 507 . 1 =
say in in D 5 . 1
2
1
1 = =
∴ > =
|
¹
|

\
|
= 120 133
4
5 . 1
50
k
L
e
o.k.

(c) For AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F
ksi s
y
150 =
2
1
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
y
e
s
E
k
L π

( )
83 . 62
150
10 30 2
2
1
3 2
=
(
¸
(

¸
×
=
π
k
L
e

For (a) . 25 in L L
e
= =
Consider first J.B. Johnson
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− = =
E
k
L
s
A s NF F
e
y
y c 2
2
4
1
π



http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 3 of 18
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3 2
2
2
10 30 4
4
25
150
1
4
150 10 3
π
π
D
D

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
2 2
2
5 . 12
1 5 . 37 30
D
D
π
π
π
π
75 . 468
5 . 37 30
2
− = D
in D 23 . 1 =
say in D 25 . 1 =
∴ > =
|
¹
|

\
|
= 83 . 62 80
4
25 . 1
25
k
L
e
use Euler’s equation
2
2
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
k
L
EA
NF F
e
c
π

( )( )
( )
2
2
3 2
4
25
4
10 30
10 3
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
D
D π
π

4 3
75 . 0 30 D π =
in D 0657 . 1 =
say in in D 0625 . 1
16
1
1 = =
∴ > =
|
¹
|

\
|
= 83 . 62 94
4
0625 . 1
25
k
L
e
ok
For (b) . 50 in L L
e
= =
Consider Euler’s Equation
2
2
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
k
L
EA
NF F
e
c
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 4 of 18
( )( )
( )
2
2
3 2
4
50
4
10 30
10 3
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
×
=
D
D π
π

4 3
1875 . 0 30 D π =
in D 507 . 1 =
say in in D 5 . 1
2
1
1 = =
∴ > =
|
¹
|

\
|
= 83 . 62 133
4
5 . 1
50
k
L
e
o.k.
There is no advantage.

335. A hollow circular column, made of AISI C1020, structural steel, as rolled, is to
support a load of 10,000 lb. Let in L 40 = ,
o i
D D 75 . 0 = , and 3 = N . Determine
o
D by (a) using either Euler’s or the parabolic equation; (b) using the straight-
line equation. (c) What factor of safety is given by the secant formula for the
dimensions found in (a)?

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
y
48 =

in L L
e
40 = =
kips lb F 10 000 , 10 = =
3 = N
o i
D D 75 . 0 =

A
I
k =
( )
( ) [ ]
4 4 4
4 4
033556 . 0 75 . 0
64
o o o
i o
D D D
D D
I = − =

= π
π

( ) ( ) [ ]
2
2 2 2 2
343612 . 0
4
75 . 0
4
o
o o i o
D
D D D D
A =

=

=
π π

o
o
o
D
D
D
k 3125 . 0
343612 . 0
033556 . 0
2
4
= =


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 5 of 18
(a) Consider parabolic equation
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− = =
E
k
L
s
A s NF F
e
y
y c 2
2
4
1
π

( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
3 2
2
2
10 30 4
4
3125 . 0
25
48
1 343612 . 0 48 10 3
π
o
o
D
D
9519 . 10 493376 . 16 30
2
− =
o
D
in D
o
576 . 1 =
say in in D
o
5625 . 1
16
9
1 = =
( )
∴ < = = 120 82
5625 . 1 3125 . 0
40
k
L
e
o.k.

(b) Straight-line equation
k
L
A
F
70 000 , 16 − =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
o o
D D 3125 . 0
40
70 000 , 16
343612 . 0
000 , 10
2

o o
D D 3078 5498 000 , 10
2
− =
in D
o
6574 . 1 =
say in in D
o
625 . 1
8
5
1 = =
( )
∴ < = = 120 8 . 78
625 . 1 3125 . 0
40
k
L
e
o.k.

(c) Secant formula
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
EA
NF
k
L
k
ec
A
NF
s
e
y
2
sec 1
2

in D
o
5625 . 1 =
in D k
o
4883 . 0 3125 . 0 = =
2 2
8389 . 0 343612 . 0 in D A
o
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 6 of 18
25 . 0
2
=
k
ec
, (i7.8)

( )
( ) ( )( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ =
8389 . 0 10 30
10
4883 . 0 2
40
sec 25 . 0 1
8389 . 0
10
48
3
N N

( ) [ ] N N 81645 . 0 sec 25 . 0 1 92 . 11 48 + =
289 . 2 = N

336. A column is to be built up of ½-in., AISI C1020, rolled-steel plates, into a square
box-section. It is 6 ft long and centrally loaded to 80,000 lb. (a) Determine the
size of section for 74 . 2 = N . (b) Compute N from the secant formula for the
size found and compare with 2.74.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, rolled-steel plate
ksi s
y
48 =

( ) ( )
12
1
12
1
12
4 4 4 4
− −
=

− =
b b b b
I
( )
2 2
1 − − = b b A
( )
( ) [ ]
2 2
4 4
1 12
1
− −
− −
= =
b b
b b
A
I
k
in ft L L
e
72 6 = = =
kips lb F 80 000 , 80 = =

(a) 74 . 2 = N
Consider J.B. Johnson
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
E
k
L
s
A s NF
e
y
y 2
2
4
1
π

( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
3 2
2
10 30 4
72
48
1 48 80 74 . 2
π
k
A
2
085 . 10
48 2 . 219
k
A
A− =


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 7 of 18
try in b 23 . 3 =
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
in k 1331 . 1
1 23 . 3 23 . 3 12
1 23 . 3 23 . 3
2 2
4 4
=
− −
− −
=
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
46 . 5 1 23 . 3 23 . 3 1 in b b A = − − = − − =
( )
( )
( )
2 . 219
1331 . 1
46 . 5 085 . 10
46 . 5 48 2 . 219
2
= − = ok
Therefore use in b 23 . 3 =
∴ < = = 120 54 . 63
1331 . 1
72
k
L
e
o.k.
in b 23 . 3 = or in b
4
1
3 =

(b)
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
EA
NF
k
L
k
ec
A
NF
s
e
y
2
sec 1
2

25 . 0
2
=
k
ec
, (i7.8)

( )
( ) ( )( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ =
46 . 5 10 30
80
1331 . 1 2
72
sec 25 . 0 1
46 . 5
80
48
3
N N

( ) [ ] N N 70214 . 0 sec 25 . 0 1 652 . 14 48 + =
74 . 2 2 . 2 < = N

337. A column is to be made of ½-in structural steel plates (AISI 1020, as rolled),
welded into an I-section as shown in Table AT 1 with H G = . The column, 15 ft
long, is to support a load of 125 kips. (a) Determine the cross-sectional
dimensions from the straight-line equation. (Using either Johnson’s or Euler’s
equation, compute the equivalent stress and the factor of safety. (c) Compute N
from the secant formula.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
ksi s
y
48 =

in ft L L
e
180 15 = = =
kips F 125 =





http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 8 of 18
Table AT 1.



H G =
( )( ) ( ) ( ) 1 3 5 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 1 5 . 0 5 . 1 1 5 . 0
2 2 2
− = − = + − − = − − − = − = H H H H H H H H gh GH A
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( ) 1 3 6
1 5 . 0
1 3 5 . 0
1 5 . 0
12
1
12
1
3 4 3 4 3 3

− − −
=
(
¸
(

¸


− − −
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|


=
H
H H H
H
H H H
gh GH
gh GH
k

(a) Straight-line equation
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
k
L
A F 0044 . 0 1 000 , 16
( )
(
¸
(

¸

− =
k
A
180
0044 . 0 1 000 , 16 000 , 125
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
k
A
792 . 0
1 8125 . 7
use in H 37 . 7 =
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
in k 04527 . 3
1 37 . 7 3 6
1 37 . 7 5 . 0 37 . 7 37 . 7
3 4
=

− − −
=
( ) [ ] in A 555 . 10 1 37 . 7 3 5 . 0 = − =
81 . 7
04527 . 3
792 . 0
1 555 . 10 8125 . 7 =
|
¹
|

\
|
− ≈
Therefore use in H 37 . 7 =
Or in in H 375 . 7
8
3
7 = =
(b) Consider J.B. Johnson, 120 59
04527 . 3
180
< = =
k
L
e

N
s
s
y
e
=
( )
( )
ksi
E
k
L
s
A
F
s
e
y
e
8 . 13
10 30 4
04527 . 3
180
48
1 555 . 10
125
4
1
3 2
2
2
2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
¹
|

\
|

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|

=
π π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 9 of 18
48 . 3
8 . 13
48
= = =
e
y
s
s
N

(c) From secant formula
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
EA
NF
k
L
k
ec
A
NF
s
e
y
2
sec 1
2

25 . 0
2
=
k
ec
, (i7.8)

( )
( ) ( )( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ =
555 . 10 10 30
125
04527 . 3 2
180
sec 25 . 0 1
555 . 10
125
48
3
N N

( ) [ ] N N 5872 . 0 sec 25 . 0 1 843 . 11 48 + =
8 . 2 = N

338. The link shown is to be designed for 5 . 2 = N to support an axial compressive
load that varies from 0 to 15 kips; in L 20 = ; Material AISI 1030, as rolled. (a)
Determine the diameter considering buckling only. (b) Determine the diameter
considering varying stresses and using the Soderberg line (perhaps too
conservative). Estimate an appropriate strength-reduction factor (see Fig. AF 6).
(c) Keeping in mind that the stress is always compressive, do you think that the
answer from (a) will do? Discuss.

Problem 338.
Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
ksi s
y
51 =
ksi s
u
80 =

( )
108
51
10 30 2 2
2
1
3 2 2
1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸
×
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π
y
e
s
E
k
L

in L 20 =
5 . 2 = N
(a) kips F 15 =
Consider J.B. Johnson
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 10 of 18
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
E
k
L
s
A s NF
e
y
y 2
2
4
1
π

4
D
k =
4
2
D
A
π
=
in L L
e
20 = =
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3 2
2
2
10 30 4
4
20
51
1
4
51 15 5 . 2
π
π
D
D

(
¸
(

¸

− =
2 2
2
72 . 2
1 75 . 12 5 . 37
D
D
π
π
π
π
68 . 34
75 . 12 5 . 37
2
− = D
in D 101 . 1 =
say in in D 1875 . 1
16
3
1 = =
∴ < = = 108 68
4
1875 . 1
20
k
L
e
o.k.

(b) Variable stresses
( ) ksi s s
u n
40 80 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
Size factor = 0.85
( ) ksi s
n
34 40 85 . 0 = =
8 . 2 =
f
K (Figure AF 6)
n
a f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

F = 0 to 15 kips
kips F F
a m
5 . 7 = =
ea em
s s =
( )
34
8 . 2
51 5 . 2
1
em em
s s
+ =
ksi s
em
923 . 3 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 11 of 18
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
E
k
L
s
A s F
e
em
em m 2
2
4
1
π

( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3 2
2
2
10 30 4
4
20
51
1
4
923 . 3 5 . 7
π
π
D
D

(
¸
(

¸

− =
2 2
2
72 . 2
1 98 . 0 5 . 7
D
D
π
π
π
π
67 . 2
98 . 0 5 . 7
2
− = D
in D 65 . 1 =
say in in D 625 . 1
8
5
1 = =
∴ < = = 108 49
4
625 . 1
20
k
L
e
o.k.

(c) The answer in (a) will not do because it is lower than (b)

339. The connecting link for a machine (see figure) is subjected to a load that varies
fro + 450 (tension) to –250 lb. The cross section is to have the proportions
H G 4 . 0 = , H t 1 . 0 = , fillet radius H r 05 . 0 ≈ ; in L 10 = ; material, AISI C1020,
as rolled. (a) Considering buckling only, determine the dimensions for a design
factor of 2.5. (b) For the dimension found compute the factor of safety from the
Soderberg criterion.

Problems 339, 340
Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
ksi s
y
48 =
ksi s
u
65 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 12 of 18
Table AT 1


H G 4 . 0 =
H t 1 . 0 =
H r 05 . 0 ≈

gh GH A − =
H H H t G g 3 . 0 1 . 0 4 . 0 = − = − =
( ) H H H h 8 . 0 1 . 0 2 = − =
( )( ) ( )( )
2
16 . 0 8 . 0 3 . 0 4 . 0 H H H H H A = − =
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
H
H
H H H H
gh GH
gh GH
k 35824 . 0
16 . 0
8 . 0 3 . 0 4 . 0
12
1
12
1
2
3 3 3 3
=
(
¸
(

¸


=
|
|
¹
|

\
|


=

(a) Consider J.B. Johnson
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
E
k
L
s
A s NF
e
y
y 2
2
4
1
π

kip lb F 35 . 0 350 = =
in L
e
10 =
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
3 2
2
2
2
10 30 4
35824 . 0
10
48
1 16 . 0 48 35 . 0 5 . 2
π
H
H
2425 . 0 68 . 7 875 . 0
2
− = H
in H 3815 . 0 =
( )( )
∴ < = = 120 73
3815 . 0 35824 . 0
10
k
L
e
ok
say in in H 46875 . 0
32
15
= =
in in H G
16
3
1875 . 0 4 . 0 = = =
in in H t
64
3
046875 . 0 1 . 0 = = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 13 of 18
(b) with in H 46875 . 0 =
( )
2 2
0352 . 0 46875 . 0 16 . 0 in A = =
( ) in k 1679 . 0 46875 . 0 35824 . 0 = =
( )
ksi psi
E
k
L
s
A
F
s s
e
y
e
6 . 11 600 , 11
10 30 4
1679 . 0
10
48
1
0352 . 0
350
4
1
3 2
2
2
2
min
min
− = − =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
¹
|

\
|


=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|

= =
π π

psi psi
A
F
s 8 . 12 800 , 12
0352 . 0
450
max
max
+ = + =
+
= =
( ) ksi s
m
6 . 0 6 . 11 8 . 12
2
1
= − =
( ) ksi s
a
1 . 12 6 . 11 8 . 12
2
1
= + =
( ) ksi s s
n u
5 . 32 65 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
Size factor = 0.85
( ) ksi ksi s
u
62 . 27 5 . 32 85 . 0 = =
Figure AF 9, ( ) 023 . 0 46875 . 0 05 . 0 05 . 0 = = = H r
( ) in H h 7031 . 0 46875 . 0 . 15 5 . 1 = = =
in H d 4688 . 0 = =
05 . 0
05 . 0
= =
H
H
d
r

5 . 1
5 . 1
= =
H
H
d
h

65 . 2 =
t
K
70 . 0
023 . 0
01 . 0
1
1
01 . 0
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
r
q
( ) 2 . 2 1 1 65 . 2 70 . 0 = + − =
f
K
n
q f
y
m
s
s K
s
s
N
+ =
1

( )( )
62 . 27
1 . 12 2 . 2
48
6 . 0 1
+ =
N

024 . 1 = N

CHECK PROBLEMS

341. The link shown is subjected to an axial compressive load of 15 kips. Made of
AISI C1030, as rolled, it has sectional length of 20 in. Assume a loose fit with the
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 14 of 18
pins. What is (a) the critical load for this column, (b) the design factor, (c) the
equivalent stress under a load of 15 kips? What material does the secant formula
indicate as satisfactory for the foregoing load, when (e) 25 . 0
2
= k ec , (f)
400
e
L
e = .

Problem 341, 342
Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
ksi s
y
51 =

in b 75 . 0 =
in h 75 . 1 =
( )( )
2
3125 . 1 75 . 1 75 . 0 in bh A = = =
For loose fit
12
3
bh
I =
in
h
bh
bh
A
I
k 5052 . 0
12
75 . 1
12 12
3
= = = = =
108 6 . 39
5052 . 0
20
< = =
k
L
e
for AISI C1030, as rolled
use J.B. Johnson equation

(a) ( )( )
( )
kips
E
k
L
s
A s F
e
y
y c
42 . 62
000 , 30 4
5052 . 0
20
51
1 3125 . 1 51
4
1
2
2
2
2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
π π

(b) NF F
c
=
16 . 4
15
42 . 62
= = =
F
F
N
c

(c) ksi
N
s
s
y
e
26 . 12
16 . 4
51
= = =
(d) Actual ksi
A
F
s 43 . 11
3125 . 1
15
= = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 15 of 18

Secant Formula
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
EA
NF
k
L
k
ec
A
NF
s
e
y
2
sec 1
2

(e) 25 . 0
2
=
k
ec

( ) ( )( )
ksi s
y
4 . 64
3125 . 1 10 30
42 . 62
5052 . 0 2
20
sec 25 . 0 1
3125 . 1
42 . 62
3
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ =
use AISI C1020, cold drawn, ksi s
y
66 =

(f) in
L
e
e
05 . 0
400
20
400
= = =
in
h
c 875 . 0
2
75 . 1
2
= = =
( )( )
( )
1714 . 0
5052 . 0
875 . 0 05 . 0
2 2
= =
k
ec

( ) ( )( )
ksi s
y
12 . 59
3125 . 1 10 30
42 . 62
5052 . 0 2
20
sec 1714 . 0 1
3125 . 1
42 . 62
3
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ =
use AISI C1045, cold drawn, ksi s
y
59 =

343. A schedule-40, 4-in. pipe is used as a column. Some of its properties are:
in D
o
5 . 4 = , in D
i
026 . 4 = , . . 174 . 3 in sq I = , ft L 15 = ; material equivalent to
AISI C1015, as rolled. The total load to be carried is 200 kips. (a) What
minimum number of these columns should be used if a design factor of 2.5 is
desired and the load evenly distributed among them? For the approximately fixed
ends, use L L
e
65 . 0 = as recommended by AISC. (b) What is the equivalent stress
in the column?

Solution:
For AISI C1015, as rolled
ksi s
y
5 . 45 =

( )
114
5 . 45
10 30 2 2
2
1
3 2 2
1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸
×
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π
y
e
s
E
k
L

in ft L 180 15 = =
( ) in L L
e
117 180 65 . 0 65 . 0 = = =
114 5 . 77
509 . 1
117
< = =
k
L
e

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 16 of 18
Use J.B. Johnson equation
(a)
( )( ) ( )
( )
kips
E
k
L
s
N
A s
F
e
y
y
4 . 44
000 , 30 4
5 . 77 5 . 45
1
5 . 2
174 . 3 5 . 45
4
1
2
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

− =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
π π

No. of columns
5 . 4
4 . 44
200
= = say 5 columns

(b)
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|

=
E
k
L
s
A
F
s
e
y
e
2
2
4
1
π

kips F 40
5
200
= =
( )
ksi
k
s
e
4 . 16
000 , 30 4
5 . 77
5 . 45
1
174 . 3
40
2
2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|

=
π



344. A generally loaded column is a 10-in. x 49 lb., wide-flange I-beam whose
properties are (see figure); in k
x
35 . 4 = , in k
y
54 . 2 = , area . . 4 . 14 in sq A = ,
4
9 . 272 in I
x
= ,
4
0 . 93 in I
y
= ; length ft L 30 = , material AISI 1022, as rolled. Let
the ends be a “little” fixed with L L
e
8 . 0 = and determine the critical load (a)
according to the Johndon or the Euler equation; (b) according to the secant
formula if
2
k ec is assumed to be 0.25.



http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 17 of 18
Solution:
For AISI C1022, as rolled
ksi s
y
52 =

( )
107
52
10 30 2 2
2
1
3 2 2
1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸
×
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π
y
e
s
E
k
L

(a) in k 54 . 2 =
4
0 . 93 in I =
( )( ) in L
e
288 12 30 8 . 0 = =
107 4 . 113
54 . 2
288
> = =
k
L
e

Use Euler’s Equation
( )( )
( )
kips
k
L
EA
F
e
c
332
4 . 113
4 . 14 000 , 30
2
2
2
2
= =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π


(b) Secant formula
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
EA
NF
k
L
k
ec
A
NF
s
e
y
2
sec 1
2

( )( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ =
4 . 14 10 30 2
4 . 113
sec 25 . 0 1
4 . 14
52
3
c c
F F

[ ] { }
c
c
F
F
0863 . 0 sec 25 . 0 1
4 . 14
52 + =
kips F
c
273 =

348. A 4 x 3 x ½-in. angle is used as a flat-ended column, 5 ft. long, with the resultant
load passing through the centroid G (see figure); in k
x
25 . 1 = , in k
y
86 . 0 = ,
in k
u
37 . 1 = , in k
v
64 . 0 = , . . 25 . 3 in sq A = Find the safe load if 8 . 2 = N and the
material is (a) structural steel, (b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C (i7.12.\, Text), (c)
magnesium alloy AZ 80A, (d) magnesium alloy AZ 80A as before, but use the
Johnson formula and compare.

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 5 – COLUMNS
Page 18 of 18
Solution:
( )( )
in
L
L
e
30
2
12 5
2
= = =
in k k 64 . 0
min
= =
875 . 46
64 . 0
30
= =
k
L
e

(a) Structural steel, ksi s
y
48 =
120 875 . 46 < =
k
L
e

use J.B. Johnson
( )( ) ( )
( )
kips
E
k
L
s
N
A s
F
e
y
y
75 . 50
000 , 30 4
875 . 46 48
1
8 . 2
25 . 3 48
4
1
2
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

− =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
π π

(b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C
6
2
10 4 . 64
1
×
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
k
L
C
C
A
NF
e

000 , 57 = C
( )( )
( )
psi
F
6
2
10 4 . 64
875 . 46 000 , 57
1
000 , 57
25 . 3
8 . 2
×
+
=
kips lb F 467 . 22 467 , 22 = =
(c) magnesium alloy AZ 80A
900 , 82 = C
( )( )
( )
psi
F
6
2
10 4 . 64
875 . 46 900 , 82
1
900 , 82
25 . 3
8 . 2
×
+
=
kips lb F 134 . 25 134 , 25 = =

(d) By J.B. Johnson

For magnesium alloy AZ 80A, ksi s
y
36 =
( )( ) ( )
( )
kips kips
E
k
L
s
N
A s
F
e
y
y
134 . 25 39
000 , 30 4
875 . 46 36
1
8 . 2
25 . 3 36
4
1
2
2
2
2
> =
(
¸
(

¸

− =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
π π

- end -
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 1 of 76
471. A short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receivers 30 hp at 300 rpm via a
12-in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible
coupling. The gear is keyed (profile keyway) midway between the bearings. The
pressure angle of the gear teeth
o
20 = φ ; 5 . 1 = N based on the octahedral shear
stress theory with varying stresses. (a) Neglecting the radial component R of the
tooth load W , determine the shaft diameter. (b) Considering both the tangential
and the radial components, compute the shaft diameters. (c) Is the difference in
the results of the parts (a) and (b) enough to change your choice of the shaft size?

Problem 471.

Solution:
For SAE 1035, as rolled
ksi s
y
55 =
ksi s
u
85 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 42 85 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =

φ cos W A =
( )
lb in
n
hp
T − = = = 6300
300
30 000 , 63 000 , 63

2
AD
T =
( )
2
12
6300
A
=
lb A 1050 =
φ cos W A =
20 cos 1050 W =
lb W 1118 =
Shear stress
( )
3 3
6300 16 16
d d
T
s
s
π π
= =
3
800 , 100
d
s s
ms s
π
= =
0 =
as
s


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 2 of 76
bending stress

From Table AT 2
4
FL
M =
(a) Negligible R :
( )( )
lb in
AL
M − = = = 4200
4
16 1050
4

( )
3 3 3
400 , 134 4200 32 32
d d d
M
s
π π π
= = =
0 =
m
s
3
400 , 134
d
s s
a
π
= =
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
For profile keyway
0 . 2 =
f
K
6 . 1 =
fs
K
85 . 0 = SF
( )( )
( )( )
3 3
661 , 100
85 . 0
400 , 134 0 . 2
d d SF
s K
s
a f
e
= = =
π

SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
294 . 1
1
55
5 . 42
= = =
y
n
ys
ns
s
s
s
s

3 3
796 , 24 800 , 100
294 . 1
1
d d
s
s
s
s
ms
ys
ns
es
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
π

Octahedral-shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3
500 , 42 577 . 0
796 , 24
500 , 42
661 , 100
5 . 1
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
d d

in d 569 . 1 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 3 of 76
use in d
16
11
1 =

(b) Considering both radial and tangential component.
( )( )
lb in
WL
M − = = = 4472
4
16 1118
4

( )
3 3 3
104 , 143 4472 32 32
d d d
M
s
π π π
= = =
0 =
m
s
3
104 , 143
d
s s
a
π
= =
( )( )
( )( )
3 3
180 , 107
85 . 0
104 , 143 0 . 2
d d SF
s K
s
a f
e
= = =
π

2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3
500 , 42 577 . 0
796 , 24
500 , 42
180 , 107
5 . 1
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
d d

in d 597 . 1 =
use in d
16
11
1 =

(c) The difference in the results of the parts (a) and (b) is not enough to change the choice
of the shaft size.

472. A cold-finished shaft, AISI 1141, is to transmit power that varies from 200 to 100
and back to 200 hp in each revolution at a speed of 600 rpm. The power is
received by a 20-in. spur gear A and delivered by a 10-in. spur gear C. The
tangential forces have each been converted into a force ( A and C shown) and a
couple (not shown). The radial component R of the tooth load is to be ignored in
the initial design. Let 2 and, considering varying stresses with the maximum
shear theory, compute the shaft diameter.

Problems 472 – 474

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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 4 of 76
Solution:
For AISI 1141, cold-finished
ksi s
y
90 =
ksi s
n
50 =
8 . 1
1
=
y
n
s
s

85 . 0 = SF
n
hp
T
000 , 63
=
( )
lb in T − = = 000 , 21
600
200 000 , 63
max

( )
lb in T − = = 500 , 10
600
100 000 , 63
min

( ) ( ) lb in T T T
m
− = + = + = 750 , 15 500 , 10 000 , 21
2
1
2
1
min max

( ) ( ) lb in T T T
a
− = − = − = 250 , 5 500 , 10 000 , 21
2
1
2
1
min max

3
16
d
T
s
s
π
=
( )
3 3
000 , 252 750 , 15 16
d d
s
ms
π π
= =
( )
3 3
000 , 24 5250 16
d d
s
as
π π
= =
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
For profile keyway
0 . 2 =
f
K
6 . 1 =
fs
K
8 . 1
1
= =
y
n
ys
ns
s
s
s
s

( )( )
3 3 3
894 , 94
85 . 0
000 , 84 6 . 1 000 , 252
8 . 1
1
d d d
s
es
= +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π

Bending stress, negligible radial load
lb in T − = 000 , 21 at 200 hp

For A:
T A = |
¹
|

\
|
2
20

( ) 000 , 21 10 = A
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 5 of 76
lb A 2100 = at 200 hp
For C:
T C = |
¹
|

\
|
2
10

( ) 000 , 21 5 = C
lb C 4200 = at 200 hp



[ ]

= 0
B
M ( ) ( ) ( ) 15 25 10 C D A = +
at 200 hp
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) 15 4200 25 10 2100 = + D
lb D 1680 =
[ ]

= 0
V
F
D B C A + = +
at 200 hp
1680 4200 2100 + = + B
lb B 4620 =
At 200 hp: lb A 2100 = , lb B 4620 = , lb C 4200 = , lb D 1680 =
Shear Diagram

Maximum moment at B
( )( ) lb in M − = = 000 , 21 10 2100
( )
3 3 3
000 , 672 000 , 21 32 32
d d d
M
s
π π π
= = =
0 =
m
s
3
000 , 672
d
s s
a
π
= =
( )( )
3 3
304 , 503
85 . 0
000 , 672 0 . 2
0
d d SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
= + = + =
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 6 of 76
3
894 , 94
d
s
es
=
Maximum Shear Theory
2
1
2 2
5 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3
000 , 50 5 . 0
894 , 94
000 , 50
304 , 503
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
d d

in d 78 . 2 =
use in d
4
3
2 =

475. A shaft S, of cold-drawn AISI 1137, is to transmit power received from shaft W,
which turns at 2000 rpm, through the 5-in. gear E and 15-in. gear A. The power
is delivered by the 10-in. gear C to gear G, and it varies from 10 hp to 100 hp and
back to 10 hp during each revolution of S. The design is to account for the
varying stresses, with calculations based on the octahedral shear stress theory.
Let 8 . 1 = N and compute the shaft diameter, using only the tangential driving
loads for the first design.

Problem 475 – 477

Solution.
For AISI 1137, cold drawn
ksi s
y
93 =
ksi s
u
103 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 51 103 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
806 . 1
1
93
5 . 51
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

n
hp
T
000 , 63
=
( ) rpm rpm
A in
E in
n 667 2000
. 15
. 5
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 7 of 76
( )
lb in T − = = 9450
667
100 000 , 63
max

( )
lb in T − = = 945
667
10 000 , 63
min

( ) ( ) lb in T T T
m
− = + = + = 5 . 5197 945 9450
2
1
2
1
min max

( ) ( ) lb in T T T
a
− = − = − = 5 . 4252 945 9450
2
1
2
1
min max

3
16
d
T
s
s
π
=
( )
3 3
160 , 83 5 . 5197 16
d d
s
ms
π π
= =
( )
3 3
040 , 68 5 . 4252 16
d d
s
as
π π
= =
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
For profile keyway
0 . 2 =
f
K
6 . 1 =
fs
K
85 . 0 = SF
( )( )
3 3 3
425 , 55
85 . 0
040 , 68 6 . 1 160 , 83
806 . 1
1
d d d
s
es
= +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π

Bending stress, using only tangential loads

For 100 hp:
lb in T − = 9450
T A = |
¹
|

\
|
2
15

( ) 9450 5 . 7 = A
lb A 1260 =
For C:
T C = |
¹
|

\
|
2
10

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 8 of 76
( ) 9450 5 = C
lb C 1890 =
[ ]

= 0
B
M C D A 14 20 6 = +
( ) ( ) 1890 14 20 1260 6 = + D
lb D 945 =
[ ]

= 0
V
F
D B C A + = +
945 1890 1260 + = + B
lb B 2205 =
Shear diagram


Maximum moment at B
( )( ) lb in M − = = 7560 6 1260
( )
3 3 3
920 , 241 7560 32 32
d d d
M
s
π π π
= = =
0 =
m
s
3
920 , 241
d
s s
a
π
= =
( )( )
3 3
189 , 181
85 . 0
920 , 241 0 . 2
d d SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
= = + =
π

3
425 , 55
d
s
es
=
Octahedral Shear Theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3
500 , 51 577 . 0
425 , 55
500 , 51
189 , 181
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
d d

in d 997 . 1 =
use in d 2 =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 9 of 76
478. A shaft made of AISI 1137, cold rolled, for a forage harvester is shown.
Power is supplied to the shaft by a vertical flat belt on the pulley A. At B, the
roller chain to the cutter exerts a force vertically upwards, and the V-belt to
the blower at C exerts a force vertically upwards. At maximum operating
conditions, the flat belt supplies 35 hp at 425 rpm, of which 25 hp is delivered
to the cutter and 10 hp to the blower. The two sections of the shaft are joined
by a flexible coupling at D and the various wheels are keyed (sled-runner
keyway) to the shafts. Allowing for the varying stresses on the basis of the
von Mises-Hencky theory of failure, decide upon the diameters of the shafts.
Choose a design factor that would include an allowance for rough loading.

Problem 478.
Solution:
For AISI 1137, cold rolled
ksi s
y
93 =
ksi s
u
103 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 51 103 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
806 . 1
1
93
5 . 51
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

Pulley,
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
A
− = = = 5188
425
35 000 , 63 000 , 63

For flat-belt
( )
( )
lb
D
T
F F F F F
A
A
A
692
30
5188 4 2
2 2
1 2 2 1
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= − = + =
Sprocket,
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
B
− = = = 3706
425
25 000 , 63 000 , 63

For chain,
( )
lb
D
T
F
B
B
B
741
10
3706 2 2
= = =
Sheave,
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
C
− = = = 1482
425
10 000 , 63 000 , 63

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 10 of 76
For V-belt,
( )
( )
lb
D
T
F F F F F
C
C
C
445
10
1482 3 2
5 . 1 5 . 1
1 2 2 1
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= − = + =
Consider shaft ABD.

35 hp
Shaft ABD

[ ]

= 0
' D
M
( ) ( )
B A
F A F 4 ' 4 8 4 8 6 + + = + +
( ) ( ) 741 4 ' 12 692 18 + = A
lb A 791 ' =

[ ]

= 0
V
F
A F D F
B A
′ + = ′ +
791 741 692 + = ′ + D
lb D 840 = ′


Shear Diagram

Maximum M at A’.
( )( ) . 4152 692 6 lb in M − = =
( )
3 3 3
864 , 132 4152 32 32
d d d
M
s
π π π
= = =

0 =
m
s
3
864 , 132
d
s s
a
π
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 11 of 76
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13)
6 . 1 =
f
K
6 . 1 =
fs
K
85 . 0 = SF
( )( )
3 3
610 , 79
85 . 0
864 , 132 60 . 1
0
d d SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
= + = + =
π


at A’ lb in T T
A
− = = 5188
( )
3 3 3
008 , 83 5188 16 16
d d d
T
s
s
π π π
= = =
s ms
s s =
0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
3 3
630 , 14 000 , 83
806 . 1
1
d d
s
es
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

Choose a design factor of 2.0
0 . 2 = N
von Mises-Hencky theory of failure (Octahedral shear theory)
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3
500 , 51 577 . 0
630 , 14
500 , 51
610 , 79
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
d d

in d 48 . 1 =
use in d
2
1
1 =

Consider shaft D-C
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
C
− = = = 1482
425
10 000 , 63 000 , 63

For V-belt,
( )
( )
lb
D
T
F F F F F
C
C
C
445
10
1482 3 2
5 . 1 5 . 1
1 2 2 1
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= − = + =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 12 of 76

[ ]

= 0
' C
M
C
F D 3 8 = ′ ′
( ) 445 3 8 = ′ ′ D
lb D 167 = ′ ′

[ ]

= 0
V
F
C
F D C + ′ ′ = ′
445 167 + = ′ C
lb C 612 = ′
Shear Diagram

( )( ) lb in M − = = 1336 8 167
( )
3 3 3
752 , 42 1336 32 32
d d d
M
s
π π π
= = =
0 =
m
s , s s
a
=
( )( )
3 3
616 , 25
85 . 0
752 , 42 60 . 1
0
d d SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
= + = + =
π

at C’, lb in T
C
− =1482
( )
3 3 3
712 , 23 1482 16 16
d d d
T
s
s
π π π
= = =
s ms
s s =
0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
3 3
4180
0
712 , 23
806 . 1
1
d d
s
es
= +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3
500 , 51 577 . 0
4180
500 , 51
616 , 25
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
d d

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 13 of 76
in d 011 . 1 =
use in d 1 =


479. A shaft for a punch press is supported by bearings D and E (with L = 24 in.)
and receives 25 hp while rotating at 250 rpm, from a flat-belt drive on a 44-
in. pulley at B, the belt being at 45
o
with the vertical. An 8-in. gear at A
delivers the power horizontally to the right for punching operation. A 1500-lb
flywheel at C has a radius of gyration of 18 in. During punching, the shaft
slows and energy for punching comes from the loss of kinetic energy of the
flywheel in addition to the 25 hp constantly received via the belt. A
reasonable assumption for design purposes would be that the power to A
doubles during punching, 25 hp from the belt, 25 hp from the flywheel. The
phase relations are such that a particular point in the section where the
maximum moment occurs is subjected to alternating tension and
compression. Sled-runner keyways are used for A, B, and C; material is cold-
drawn AISI 1137, use a design factor of 5 . 2 = N with the octahedral shear
theory and account for the varying stresses. Determine the shaft diameters.

Problems 479-480
Solution:
Flat-Belt Drive (B)
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
B
− = = = 6300
250
25 000 , 63 000 , 63

( )
( )
lb
D
T
F F F F F
B
B
B
573
44
6300 4 2
2 2
2 1 2 1
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= − = + =
Gear A, Doubled hp
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
A
− =
+
= = 600 , 12
250
25 25 000 , 63 000 , 63

( )
lb
D
T
F
A
A
A
3150
8
600 , 12 2 2
= = =
Loading:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 14 of 76





Vertical:

lb F B
B V
405 45 cos 573 45 cos = = =
[ ]

= 0
D
M
( )
V V
E B 24 8 1500 6 = +
( ) ( )
V
E 24 405 8 1500 6 = +
lb E
V
510 =
[ ]

= 0
V
F
V V V
B D E + = + 1500
405 510 1500 + = +
V
D
lb D
V
1605 =
Shear Diagram
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 15 of 76

( )( ) lb in M
V
D
− = = 9000 1500 6
( )( ) lb in M
V
B
− = = 8160 510 16
( )( ) lb in M
V
A
− = = 2550 510 5

Horizontal:

lb F B
B h
405 45 sin 573 45 sin = = =
[ ]

= 0
D
M
A h h
F E B 19 24 8 = +
( ) ( ) 3150 19 24 405 8 = +
h
E
lb E
h
2359 =
[ ]

= 0
h
F
A h h h
F E B D = + +
3150 2359 405 = + +
h
D
lb D
h
386 =

Shear Diagram

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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 16 of 76

lb in M
h
D
− = 0
( )( ) lb in M
h
B
− = = 3088 386 8
( )( ) lb in M
h
A
− = = 795 , 11 2359 5

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) lb in M M M
V h
A A A
− = + = + = 068 , 12 2550 795 , 11
2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) lb in M M M
V h
B B B
− = + = + = 8725 8160 3088
2 2 2 2

lb in M
D
− = 9000
Therefore
lb in M − = 068 , 12
max

( )
3 3 3
176 , 386 068 , 12 32 32
d d d
M
s
π π π
= = =

Maximum moment subjected to alternating tension and compression
0 =
m
s
3
176 , 386
d
s s
a
π
= =

SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
For AISI 1137, cold-drawn,
ksi s
y
93 =
ksi s
u
103 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 51 103 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13)
6 . 1 =
f
K
6 . 1 =
fs
K
85 . 0 = SF
( )( )
3 3
386 , 231
85 . 0
176 , 386 60 . 1
0
d d
s
e
= + =
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 17 of 76

At A, 50 hp max. and 25 hp min.

50 hp
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
A
− =
+
= = 600 , 12
250
25 25 000 , 63 000 , 63

( )
lb
D
T
F
A
A
A
3150
8
600 , 12 2 2
= = =
( )
3 3 3 max
600 , 201 600 , 12 16 16
d d d
T
s
s
π π π
= = =

25 hp
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
A
− = = = 300 , 6
250
25 000 , 63 000 , 63

( )
lb
D
T
F
A
A
A
1575
8
300 , 6 2 2
= = =
( )
3 3 3 min
800 , 100 300 , 6 16 16
d d d
T
s
s
π π π
= = =
( )
3 3 min max
200 , 151 800 , 100 600 , 201
2
1
2
1
d d
s s s
s s ms
π π
=
|
|
¹
|

\
| +
= + =
( )
3 3 min max
400 , 50 800 , 100 600 , 201
2
1
2
1
d d
s s s
s s as
π π
=
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
= − =
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
( )( )
3 3 3
848 , 56
85 . 0
400 , 50 6 . 1 200 , 151
806 . 1
1
d d d
s
es
= +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π

2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3
500 , 51 577 . 0
848 , 56
500 , 51
386 , 231
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
d d

in d 14 . 2 =
say in d
16
3
2 =

THRUST LOADS

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 18 of 76
481. A cold-drawn monel propeller shaft for a launch is to transmit 400 hp at 1500
rpm without being subjected to a significant bending moment; and 40 < k L
e
.
The efficiency of the propeller is 70 % at 30 knots (1.152 mph/knot). Consider
that the number of repetitions of the maximum power at the given speed is 2x
10
5
. Let 2 = N based on the maximum shear theory with varying stress.
Compute the shaft diameter.

Solution:
For cold-drawn monel shaft, Table AT 10
ksi s
y
75 =
ksi s
n
42 = at 10
8

at 2 x 10
5

ksi s
n
23 . 71
10 2
10
42
085 . 0
5
8
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
×

053 . 1
1
75
23 . 71
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

( )
lb in
n
hp
T − = = = 800 , 16
1500
400 000 , 63 000 , 63

( )
3 3 3
800 , 268 800 , 16 16 16
D D D
T
s
s
π π π
= = =
s ms
s s =
0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
85 . 0 = SF
assume 0 . 1 = =
fs f
K K
3 3
255 , 81
0
800 , 268
053 . 1
1
D D
s
es
= +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

hp
Fv
m
η =
000 , 33

( )( )( )( ) fpm hr mi ft knot mph knots v
m
3041 min 60 1 5280 152 . 1 30 = =
( )
( )( ) 400 70 . 0
000 , 33
3041
=
F

lb F 3040 =
( )
2 2 2
160 , 12 3040 4 4
D D D
F
s
π π π
= = =
s s
m
=
0 =
a
s
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 19 of 76
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
2 2
3676
0
160 , 12
053 . 1
1
D D
s
e
= +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π


Maximum Shear Theory
2
1
2 2
5 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
2
230 , 71 5 . 0
255 , 81
230 , 71
3676
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
D D

2
1
2
3
2
2
2815 . 2
377 . 19
1
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
D D

By trial and error
in in D
16
11
1 66 . 1 = =

482. A shaft receives 300 hp while rotating at 600 rpm, through a pair of bevel gears,
and it delivers this power via a flexible coupling at the other end. The shaft is
designed with the average forces ( at the midpoint of the bevel-gear face); the
tangential driving force is F , lb G 580 = , lb Q 926 = ; which are the rectangular
components of the total reaction between the teeth; in D
m
24 = , in L 36 = ,
in a 10 = . Let the material be AISI C1045, cold drawn; 2 = N . Considering
varying stresses and using the octahedral shear theory, determine the shaft
diameter.

Problems 482, 485, 486.

Solution:

For AISI C1045, cold drawn
ksi s
y
85 =
ksi s
u
100 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 20 of 76
( ) ksi s s
u n
50 100 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
85 . 0 = SF
7 . 1
1
85
50
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

( )
lb in
hp
T − = = = 500 , 31
600
300 000 , 63
600
000 , 63

( )
3 3 3
000 , 504 500 , 31 16 16
D D D
T
s
s
π π π
= = =
s ms
s s =
0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
3 3
370 , 94
0
000 , 504
7 . 1
1
D D
s
es
= +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

T
D
F
m
= |
¹
|

\
|
2

500 , 31
2
24
= |
¹
|

\
|
F
lb F 2625 =

Vertical:

lb in
D
Q
m
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
112 , 11
2
24
926
2

lb G 580 =
[ ] 0

=
B
M
( ) ( ) 0 10
2
36 = − + − G
QD
A
m
v

( ) ( ) 36 10
2
v
m
A G
QD
+ =
( ) ( ) 36 10 580 112 , 11
v
A + =
lb A
v
148 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 21 of 76
[ ] 0

=
v
F
lb B A
v v
580 = +
lb B
v
580 148 = +
lb B
v
432 =
Shear Diagram



Moment Diagram


lb in M
v
C
− = 112 , 11
lb in M
v
B
− = 5328

Horizontal:

[ ] 0

=
B
M
( ) ( )( ) 10 2625 36 =
h
A
lb A
h
729 =
[ ] 0

=
h
F
F A B
h h
+ =
2625 725+ =
h
B
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 22 of 76
lb B
h
3354 =

Shear Diagram

0 =
h
C
M
( )( ) lb in M
h
B
− = = 244 , 26 729 36


Maximum M
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) lb in M M M M
V h
B B B
− = + = + = = 780 , 26 5328 244 , 26
2 2 2 2

( ) ( )
2 3 2 3 2 3 max
704 , 3 960 , 856 926 4 780 , 26 32 4 32
D D D D D
Q
D
M
s
π π π π π π
+ = + = + =
3 2 3 2 min
960 , 856 3704 32 4
D D D
M
D
Q
s
π π π π
− = − =
( )
min max
2
1
s s s
m
+ =
2 3 2 2 3
3704 960 , 856 3704 3704 960 , 856
2
1
D D D D D
s
m
π π π π π
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− + + =
( )
min max
2
1
s s s
a
− =
3
960 , 856
D
s
a
π
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
assume 0 . 1 =
f
K at B
3 2 3 2
916 , 320 964 960 , 856
85 . 0
0 . 1 3704
7 . 1
1
D D D D
s
e
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π

Octahedral Shear Theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 23 of 76
( )
2
1
2
3
2
3 2
2
1
2
3
2
3 2
27 . 3 42 . 6
72
1
000 , 50 577 . 0
370 , 94
000 , 50
916 , 320 694
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
+ =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
D D D D
D D

By trial and error, use
in D
2
1
2 =

483. The worm shown is to deliver 65.5 hp steadily at 1750 rpm. It will be integral
with the shaft if the shaft size needed permits, and its pitch diameter 3 in. The 12-
in. pulley receives the power from a horizontal belt in which the tight tension
2 1
5 . 2 F F = . The forces (in kips) on the worm are as shown, with the axial force
taken by bearing B. The strength reduction factor for the thread roots may be
taken as 5 . 1 =
f
K , shear or bending. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045, as
rolled. (a) For 2 . 2 = N (Soderberg criterion) by the octahedral-shear theory,
compute the required minimum diameter at the root of the worm thread (a first
approximation). (b) What should be the diameter of the shaft 2.5 in. to the left of
the centerline of the worm? (c) Select a shaft size D and check it at the pulley A.

Problem 483.
Solution:
For AISI 1045, as rolled
ksi s
y
59 =
ksi s
u
96 =
ksi s s
u n
48 5 . 0 = =
229 . 1
1
59
48
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

( )
lb in
hp
T − = = = 2358
1750
5 . 65 000 , 63
1750
000 , 63

( ) T F F = |
¹
|

\
|

2
12
2 1

( )( ) 2358 6 5 . 2
2 2
= − F F
lb F 262
2
=
lb F F 655 5 . 2
2 1
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 24 of 76
lb F F F
A
917 262 655
2 1
= + = + =

Horizontal

[ ] 0

=
B
M
( )( ) ( )( )
h
E 13 5 . 6 1570 6 917 = +
lb E
h
1208 =
[ ] 0

=
h
F
1570 917 + = +
h h
B E
1570 1208 917 + = +
h
B
lb B
h
555 =

Shear Diagram

0 =
h
A
M
( )( ) lb in M
h
B
− = = 5502 6 917
( )( ) lb in M
h
C
− = = 7852 5 . 6 1208

Vertical:

( ) lb in M − = |
¹
|

\
|
= ′ 3810
2
3
2540
[ ] 0

=
E
M
( )( )
v
B M 13 5 . 6 1170 = + ′
( )( )
v
B 13 5 . 6 1170 3810 = +
lb B
v
878 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 25 of 76
[ ] 0

=
v
F
1170 = +
v v
B E
1170 878 = +
v
E
lb E
v
292 =



Shear Diagram




Moment Diagram

0 =
v
A
M
0 =
v
B
M
lb in M
v
C
− = 5707

( ) ( )
2 2
v h
M M M + =
( ) ( ) 0 0 0
2 2
= + =
A
M
( ) ( ) lb in M
B
− = + = 5502 0 5502
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
C
− = + = 9707 5707 7852
2 2


(a) Minimum diameter at the root of the warm thread.
5 . 1 = =
fs f
K K
lb in M M
C
− = = 9707
lb F 2540 =

( ) ( )
2 3 2 3 2 3 max
160 , 10 624 , 310 2540 4 9707 32 4 32
r r r r r r
D D D D D
F
D
M
s
π π π π π π
+ = + = + =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 26 of 76
2 3 min
160 , 10 624 , 310
r r
D D
s
π π
+ − =
( )
min max
2
1
s s s
m
+ =
2
160 , 10
r
m
D
s
π
=
( )
min max
2
1
s s s
a
− =
3
624 , 310
r
a
D
s
π
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
3 2 3 2
485 , 174 2632 624 , 310
85 . 0
5 . 1 160 , 10
229 . 1
1
r r r r
e
D D D D
s + =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π

( )
3 3 3
000 , 12 2358 16 16
r r r
s
D D D
T
s = = =
π π

s ms
s s =
0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
3 3
9764
0
000 , 12
229 . 1
1
r r
es
D D
s = +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2 . 2 = N , Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3 2
2
1
2
3
2
3 2
84 . 2
1 635 . 3
24 . 18
1
000 , 48 577 . 0
9764
000 , 48
485 , 174 2632
2 . 2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
r r r r
r r
D D D D
D D

By trial and error
in D
r
023 . 2 =
say in D
r
16
1
2 =
(b) D – shaft diameter 2.5 in. to the left of the center line of worm
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 27 of 76
in r
16
3
=
Figure AF 12
1 . 0
16
3
2 2 023 . 2
16
3

|
¹
|

\
|

=
d
r

2 . 1
16
3
2 2 023 . 2
023 . 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|

=
d
D

65 . 1 = =
t f
K K
34 . 1 = =
ts fs
K K
at 2.5 in to the shaft
( )( ) ( )( ) lb in M
h
− = − + = 6950 5 . 2 5 . 6 362 6 917
( )( ) lb in M
v
− = − = 3512 5 . 2 5 . 6 878
( ) ( ) lb in M − = + = 7787 3512 6950
2 2

2
160 , 10
D
s
m
π
=
( )
3 3 3
184 , 249 7787 32 32
D D D
M
s
a
π π π
= = =
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
3 2 3 2
970 , 153 2632 184 , 249
85 . 0
65 . 1 160 , 10
229 . 1
1
D D D D
s
e
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π

3
9764
D
s
es
=
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3 2
2
1
2
3
2
3 2
84 . 2
1 21 . 3
24 . 18
1
000 , 48 577 . 0
9764
000 , 48
970 , 153 2632
2 . 2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
+ =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
D D D D
D D

By trial and error
in D 9432 . 1 =
say in D
16
15
1 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 28 of 76

(c) Selecting in in D 9375 . 1
16
15
1 = =
At the pulley A, or 3 in. right of centerline
( )( ) lb in M
h
− = = 2751 3 917
0 =
v
M
lb in M − = 2751
For sled runner keyway
6 . 1 =
f
K
6 . 1 =
fs
K
0 =
m
s
( )
( )
psi
D
M
s
a
3853
9375 . 1
2751 32 32
3 3
= = =
π π

SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
( ) psi s
e
7253 3853
85 . 0
6 . 1
0 = |
¹
|

\
|
+ =
( )
psi s
es
1343
9375 . 1
9764
3
= =
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
000 , 48 577 . 0
1343
000 , 48
7253 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

2 . 2 30 . 6 > = N , therefore o.k.

484. A propeller shaft as shown is to receive 300 hp at 315 rpm from the right through
a flexible coupling. A 16-in. pulley is used to drive an auxiliary, taking 25 hp.
The belt pull
B
F is vertically upward. The remainder of the power is delivered to
a propeller that is expected to convert 60% of it into work driving the boat, at
which time the boat speed is 1500 fpm. The thrust is to be taken by the right-hand
bearing. Let 2 = N ; material cold-worked stainless 410. Use the octahedral shear
theory with varying stresses. (a) Determine the shaft size needed assuming no
buckling. (b) Compute the equivalent column stress. Is this different enough to
call for another shaft size? Compute N by the maximum shear stress theory,
from both equations (8.4) and (8.11).
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 29 of 76

Problem 484.

Solution:
For stainless 410, cold-worked
ksi s
y
85 =
ksi s
n
53 =
85 . 0 = SF
Belt drive
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
B
− = = = 5000
315
25 000 , 63 000 , 63

( )
( )
lb
D
T
F F F F F
B
B
B
1250
16
5000 4 2
2 2
2 1 2 1
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= − = + =
Propeller
( )
lb in
n
hp
T
P
− =

= = 000 , 55
315
25 300 000 , 63 000 , 63

Thrust
( ) 000 , 33 hp Fv
m
η =
( ) ( )( )( ) 000 , 33 25 300 60 . 0 1500 − = F
lb F 3630 =

Vertical loading

[ ] 0

=
E
M
( )( ) C 60 1250 20 =
lb C 417 =
[ ] 0

=
v
F
B
F C A = +
1250 417 = + A
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 30 of 76
lb A 833 =

Shear Diagram

( )( ) lb in M
B
− = = 660 , 16 833 20
Maximum T at B
lb in T T T
P B
− = + = 000 , 60

(a) Shaft size assuming no buckling
lb in M − = 660 , 16
lb F 3630 =
( )
2 2 2
520 , 14 3630 4 4
D D D
F
s
m
π π π
= = =
( )
3 3 3
120 , 533 660 , 16 32 32
D D D
M
s
a
π π π
= = =
For sled-runner keyway
6 . 1 =
f
K
6 . 1 =
fs
K
604 . 1
1
85
53
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
3 2 3 2
430 , 319 2882 120 , 533
85 . 0
6 . 1 520 , 14
604 . 1
1
D D D D
s
e
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π

( )
3 3 3
000 , 960 000 , 60 16 16
D D D
s s
ms s
π π π
= = = =
0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
3 2
510 , 190
0
000 , 960
604 . 1
1
D D
s
es
= +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 31 of 76
2
1
2 2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
ns
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

2 = N , Octahedral Shear Theory,
n ns
s s 577 . 0 =
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2
3
2
3 2
2
1
2
3
2
3 2
230 . 6 027 . 6
39 . 18
1
000 , 53 577 . 0
510 , 190
000 , 53
430 , 319 2882
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
+ =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
D D D D
D D

By trial and error
in D 6 . 2 =
say in in D 625 . 2
8
5
2 = =

(b) Equivalent Column Stress
α
π
2
4
D
F
s =
in L
e
82 10 60 12 = + + =
( ) in D k 65625 . 0 625 . 2
4
1
4
1
= = =
120 125
65625 . 0
82
> = =
k
L
e


Use Euler’s equation
( )
( )
486 . 4
10 30
125 85
3 2
2
2
2
=
×
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π π
α
E
k
L
s
e
y

( )
( )
( ) psi
D
F
s 3000 486 . 4
625 . 2
3630 4 4
2 2
= = =
π
α
π

Since 1 > α , it is different enough to call for another shaft size.

Solving for N by maximum shear theory.
( ) ( )
psi
D D
s
e
078 , 18
625 . 2
430 , 319
625 . 2
2882 430 , 319 2882
3 2 3 2
= + = + =
( )
psi s
es
533 , 10
625 . 2
510 , 190
3
= =
Equation (8.4)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 32 of 76
( ) psi
s
s
s
880 , 13
2
078 , 18
533 , 10
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ = τ
( )
91 . 1
880 , 13
000 , 53 5 . 0 5 . 0
= = =
τ
n
s
N
Equation (8.11)
n ns
s s 5 . 0 =
( )
2
1
2 2 2
1
2 2
000 , 53 5 . 0
533 , 10
000 , 53
078 , 18 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
ns
s
n
s
s
s
s
N

91 . 1 = N

CHECK PROBLEMS

485. A 3-in. rotating shaft somewhat as shown (482) carries a bevel gear whose mean
diameter is in D
m
10 = and which is keyed (profile) to the left end. Acting on the
gear are a radial force lb G 8 . 1570 = , a driving force lb Q 6 . 3141 = . The thrust
force is taken by the right-hand bearing. Let in a 5 = and in L 15 = ; material,
AISI C1040, annealed. Base calculations on the maximum shearing stress theory
with variable stress. Compute the indicated design factor N . With the use of a
sketch, indicate the exact point of which maximum normal stress occurs.

Solution:
For AISI C1040, annealed, Figure AF 1
ksi s
y
48 =
ksi s
u
80 =
ksi s s
u n
40 5 . 0 = =
2 . 1
1
48
40
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

( )( )
lb in
FD
T
m
− = = = 416 , 31
2
10 2 . 6283
2

( )
( )
psi
D
T
s
s
5926
3
416 , 31 16 16
3 3
= = =
π π

s ms
s s =
0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
( ) psi s
es
4940 0 5926
2 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Vertical
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 33 of 76

( )( )
lb in
QD
m
− = = 708 , 15
2
10 6 . 3141
2

[ ] 0

=
E
M
V
m
A G
QD
15 5
2
+ =
( )
V
A 15 8 . 1570 5 708 , 15 + =
lb A
V
6 . 523 =
[ ] 0

=
v
F
G B A
V V
= +
8 . 1570 6 . 523 = +
V
B
lb B
V
2 . 1047 =
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram



lb in M
V
C
− = 708 , 15
lb in M
V
B
− = 7854



http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 34 of 76
Horizontal

[ ] 0

=
B
M
( ) 2 . 6283 5 15 =
h
A
lb A
h
4 . 2094 =
[ ] 0

=
h
F
F A B
h h
+ =
2 . 6283 4 . 2094 + =
h
B
lb B
h
6 . 8377 =

Shear Diagram

0 =
h
C
M
( )( ) lb in M
h
B
− = = 416 , 31 4 . 2094 15

Maximum Moment
( ) ( ) lb in M M M
Bv B
h
− = + = + = 383 , 32 7854 416 , 31
2 2 2 2

Since thrust force is taken by the right-hand bearing
0 =
ms
s
( )
( )
psi
D
M
s
as
217 , 12
3
383 , 32 32 32
3 3
= = =
π π

SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
Assume 0 . 1 =
f
K at the bearing B
( ) psi s
e
373 , 14 217 , 12
85 . 0
0 . 1
0 = |
¹
|

\
|
+ =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 35 of 76
Maximum shear theory
n ns
s s 5 . 0 =
2
1
2 2
5 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
000 , 40 5 . 0
4940
000 , 40
373 , 14 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

3 . 2 = N

Location of maximum normal stress



487. A 2 7/16-in. countershaft in a machine shop transmits 52 hp at 315 rpm. It is
made of AISI 1117, as rolled, and supported upon bearing A and B, 59-in. apart.
Pulley C receives the power via a horizontal belt, and pulley D delivers it
vertically downward, as shown. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear-
stress theory considering varying stresses.


Problem 487, 488

Solution:
For AISI 1117, as rolled
ksi s
y
3 . 44 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 36 of 76
ksi s
u
6 . 70 =
ksi s s
u n
3 . 35 5 . 0 = =
255 . 1
1
3 . 44
3 . 35
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

85 . 0 = SF
( )
lb in T − = = 400 , 10
315
52 000 , 63

Pulley C
( )
( )
lb
D
T
F F F F F
C
C
2311
18
400 , 10 4 2
2 2
1 2 2 1
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= − = + =
Pulley D
( )
( )
lb
D
T
F F F F F
D
D
1664
25
400 , 10 4 2
2 2
1 2 2 1
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= − = + =

Horizontal

[ ] 0

=
A
M
( )
h
B 59 2311 15 =
lb B
h
588 =
[ ] 0

=
h
F
2311 = +
h h
B A
2311 588 = +
h
A
lb A
h
1723 =

Shear Diagram

( )( ) lb in M
h
C
− = = 845 , 25 15 1723
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 37 of 76
( )( ) ( )( ) lb in M
h
D
− = − = 557 , 10 26 588 15 1723

Vertical

[ ] 0

=
B
M
( )
v
A 59 1664 18 =
lb A
v
508 =
[ ] 0

=
v
F
1664 = +
v v
B A
1664 508 = +
v
B
lb B
v
1156 =

Shear Diagram


( )( ) lb in M
v
C
− = = 7620 15 508
( )( ) lb in M
v
D
− = = 808 , 20 18 1156

( ) ( ) lb in M M M
v h
C C C
− = + = + = 945 , 26 7620 845 , 25
2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M M M
v h
D D D
− = + = + = 333 , 23 808 , 20 557 , 10
2 2 2 2

Maximum M at C
lb in M M
C
− = = 945 , 26
0 =
m
s
3
32
D
M
s
a
π
=
in in D 4375 . 2
16
7
2 = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 38 of 76
( )
( )
psi s
a
952 , 18
4375 . 2
945 , 26 32
3
= =
π

assume 0 . 1 = =
fs f
K K
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
( )
( )( )
psi s
e
300 , 22
85 . 0
952 , 18 0 . 1
0
255 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
( )
psi
D
T
s
s
3658
4375 . 2
400 , 10 16 16
3 3
= = =
π π

psi s s
s ms
3658 = =
0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
( ) psi s
es
2915 0 3658
255 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
n ns
s s 577 . 0 =
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
300 , 35 577 . 0
2915
300 , 35
300 , 22 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

544 . 1 = N



489. A shaft for a general-purpose gear-reduction unit supports two gears as shown.
The 5.75-in. gear B receives 7 hp at 250 rpm. The 2.25-in. gear A delivers the
power, with the forces on the shaft acting as shown; the gear teeth have a
pressure angle of
o
2
1
14 = φ (
v
h
v
h
B
B
A
A
= = φ tan ). Both gears are keyed (profile) to
the shaft of AISI 1141, cold rolled. (a) If the fillet radius is 1/8 in. at bearing D,
where the diameter is 1 3/8 in., compute N based on the octahedral-shear-stress
theory (Soderberg line). The shaft diameter at A is 1 11/16 in. What is N here?
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 39 of 76

Problem 489, 490
Solution:
For AISI 1141, cold rolled
ksi s
y
90 =
ksi s
n
50 =
8 . 1
1
90
50
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

85 . 0 = SF
( )
lb in T − = = 1764
250
7 000 , 63

3
16
D
T
s
ms
π
=
0 =
as
s

Gear B:
lb in T B
v
− = = |
¹
|

\
|
1764
2
75 . 5

lb B
v
614 =
lb B B
v h
159 5 . 14 tan 614 tan = = = φ

Gear A:
lb in T A
v
− = = |
¹
|

\
|
1764
2
25 . 2

lb A
v
1568 =
lb A A
v h
406 5 . 14 tan 1568 tan = = = φ

Vertical

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 40 of 76
[ ] 0

=
D
M
( ) ( ) 614 3 1568 4 8 − =
v
C
lb C
v
554 =
[ ] 0

=
v
F
v v v v
B A D C + = +
614 1568 554 + = +
v
D
lb D
v
1628 =

Shear Diagram


( )( ) lb in M
v
A
− = = 2216 4 554
( )( ) lb in M
v
D
− = = 1842 3 614

Horizontal

[ ] 0

=
C
M
( ) ( ) 159 11 8 406 4 = +
h
D
lb D
h
16 =
[ ] 0

=
h
F
h h h h
D A B C + = +
16 406 159 + = +
h
C
lb C
h
263 =

Shear Diagram

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 41 of 76
( )( ) lb in M
h
A
− = = 1052 4 263
( )( ) lb in M
h
D
− = = 477 3 159

( ) ( ) lb in M M M
v h
A A A
− = + = + = 2453 2216 1052
2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M M M
v h
D D D
− = + = + = 1903 1842 477
2 2 2 2


(a) At bearing D
in r
8
1
=
in d
8
3
1 =
10 . 0
375 . 1
125 . 0
≈ =
d
r

2 . 1
375 . 1
25 . 0 375 . 1

+
=
d
D

6 . 1 = ≈
f t
K K
34 . 1 = ≈
fs ts
K K
D
M M =
0 =
m
s
( )
( )
psi
d
M
s
a
7456
375 . 1
1903 32 32
3 3
= = =
π π

SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
( )( )
psi s
e
035 , 14
85 . 0
7456 6 . 1
0 = + =
( )
( )
psi
D
T
s
ms
3456
375 . 1
1764 16 16
3 3
= = =
π π


0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
( ) psi s
es
1920 0 3456
8 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 42 of 76
( )
2
1
2 2
000 , 50 577 . 0
3456
000 , 50
035 , 14 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

28 . 3 = N

(b) At A
For profile keyway
0 . 2 =
f
K , 6 . 1 =
fs
K
in in d 6875 . 1
16
11
1 = =
lb in M M
A
− = = 2453
0 =
m
s
( )
( )
psi
d
M
s
a
5200
6875 . 1
2453 32 32
3 3
= = =
π π

SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
( )( )
psi s
e
235 , 12
85 . 0
5200 0 . 2
0 = + =
( )
( )
psi
D
T
s
ms
1870
6875 . 1
1764 16 16
3 3
= = =
π π


0 =
as
s
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
( ) psi s
es
1040 0 1870
8 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
000 , 50 577 . 0
1040
000 , 50
235 , 12 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

043 . 4 = N


THRUST LOADS

491. The high-speed shaft of a worm-gear speed reducer, made of carburized AISI
8620, SOQT 450 F, is subjected to a torque of 21,400 in-lb. Applied to the right
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 43 of 76
end with no bending. The force on the worm has three components: a horizontal
force opposing rotation of lb W 6180 = , a vertical radial force lb S 1940 = , and a
rightward thrust of lb F 6580 = . The shaft has the following dimensions: 6 = a ,
8
7
4 = b , 10 = c ,
16
9
4 = d ,
4
3
2 = e ,
16
9
13 = f , 646 . 11 = g , 370 . 10 = h ,
740 . 3
1
= D ,
16
13
4
2
= D , 4
3
= D , 3469 . 3
4
= D , 253 . 3
5
= D , 098 . 0
1
= r ,
4
3
3 2
= = r r , 098 . 0
4
= r ,
16
1
5
= r , all in inches. The pitch diameter of the worm,
6.923 in., is the effective diameter for the point of application of the forces. The
root diameter, 5.701 in. is used for stress calculations. The left-hand bearing
takes the thrust load. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear-stress theory
with varying stresses. (Data courtesy of Cleveland Worm and Gear Company.)


Problem 491
Solution:
Table AT 11n For AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F
ksi s
y
120 =
ksi s
u
167 =
ksi s s
u n
5 . 83 5 . 0 = =
437 . 1
1
120
5 . 83
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

85 . 0 = SF
lb in T − = 400 , 21

Vertical

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 44 of 76
lb in F M − = |
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
= ′ 777 , 22
2
923 . 6
6580
2
923 . 6

[ ] 0

=
A
M
( )( ) ( )
v
G 370 . 10 646 . 11 1940 646 . 11 777 , 22 + = +
lb G
v
2061 =
[ ] 0

=
v
F
v v
G A S = +
2061 1940 = +
v
A
lb A
v
121 =
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

0 =
v
A
M
( )( ) lb in M
v
B
− − = − = 146 2035 . 1 121
( )( ) lb in M
v
C
− − = + − = 736 875 . 4 2035 . 1 121
( )( ) lb in M
v
D
− − = + + − = 1409 5675 . 5 875 . 4 2035 . 1 121 at left side
lb in M M
v
D
− = + − = ′ + − = 368 , 21 777 , 22 1409 1409 at right side
( )( ) lb in M
v
E
− = − = 233 , 12 4325 . 4 2061 368 , 21
( )( ) lb in M
v
F
− = − = 2830 5625 . 4 2061 233 , 12
( )( ) 0 375 . 1 2061 2830 = − =
v
G
M
Horizontal


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 45 of 76
[ ] 0

=
A
M
( )( ) ( )
h
G 370 . 10 646 . 11 6180 646 . 11 + =
lb G
h
3269 =
[ ] 0

=
h
F
W G A
v h
= +
6180 3269 = +
h
A
lb A
h
2911 =
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

0 =
h
A
M
( )( ) lb in M
h
B
− = = 3500 2035 . 1 2911
( )( ) lb in M
h
C
− = + = 695 , 17 875 . 4 2035 . 1 2911
lb in M
h
D
− = 900 , 33
( )( ) lb in M
h
E
− = − = 410 , 19 4325 . 4 3269 900 , 33
( )( ) lb in M
h
F
− = − = 4495 5625 . 4 3269 410 , 19
( )( ) 0 375 . 1 3269 4495 = − =
h
F
M

Combined
2 2
v h
M M M + =
( ) ( ) lb in M
A
− = + = 0 0 0
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
B
− = + = 3503 146 3500
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
C
− = + = 710 , 17 736 695 , 17
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
D
− = + = 930 , 33 1409 900 , 33
2 2
(left)
( ) ( ) lb in M
D
− = + = 073 , 40 368 , 21 900 , 33
2 2
(right)
( ) ( ) lb in M
E
− = + = 944 , 22 233 , 12 410 , 19
2 2

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 46 of 76
( ) ( ) lb in M
F
− = + = 5312 4495 2830
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
G
− = + = 0 0 0
2 2


Bending stresses (Maximum)
At A, 0 =
A
s
At B,
( )
( )
psi
D
M
s
B
B
682
740 . 3
3503 32 32
3 3
1
= = =
π π

At C,
( )
( )
psi
D
M
s
C
C
1618
8125 . 4
710 , 17 32 32
3 3
2
= = =
π π

At D,
( )
( )
psi
D
M
s
r
D
D
2203
701 . 5
073 , 40 32 32
3 3
= = =
π π

At E,
( )
( )
psi
D
M
s
E
E
3652
4
944 , 22 32 32
3 3
3
= = =
π π

At F,
( )
( )
psi
D
M
s
F
F
1443
3469 . 3
5312 32 32
3 3
4
= = =
π π

At G, 0 =
G
s

Shear Stresses:
( )
( )
psi
D
T
s s
sB sA
2083
740 . 3
400 , 21 16 16
3 3
1
= = = =
π π

( )
( )
psi
D
T
s
sC
978
8125 . 4
400 , 21 16 16
3 3
2
= = =
π π

( )
( )
psi
D
T
s
r
sD
588
701 . 5
400 , 21 16 16
3 3
= = =
π π

( )
( )
psi
D
T
s
sE
1703
4
400 , 21 16 16
3 3
3
= = =
π π

( )
( )
psi
D
T
s s
sG sF
2907
3469 . 3
400 , 21 16 16
3 3
4
= = = =
π π


Tensile stresses: lb F 6580 =
( )
( )
psi
D
F
s s
B A
599
740 . 3
6580 4 4
2 2
1
= = = ′ = ′
π π

( )
( )
psi
D
F
s
C
362
8125 . 4
6580 4 4
2 2
2
= = = ′
π π

( )
( )
psi
D
F
s
r
D
258
701 . 5
6580 4 4
2 2
= = = ′
π π

( )
( )
psi
D
F
s
E
524
4
6580 4 4
2 2
3
= = = ′
π π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 47 of 76
( )
( )
psi
D
F
s s
F E
748
3469 . 3
6580 4 4
2 2
4
= = = ′ = ′
π π


At B: 03 . 0
740 . 3
098 . 0
1
1
= =
D
r

3 . 1
740 . 3
8125 . 4
1
2
= =
D
D

Figure AF 12
3 . 2 = ≈
t f
K K
7 . 1 = ≈
ts fs
K K
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
psi s s
B m
599 = ′ =
psi s s
B a
682 = =
( )
( )( )
psi s
e
2262
85 . 0
682 3 . 2
599
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
psi s s
sB ms
2083 = =
0 =
as
s
( ) psi s
es
1450 0 2083
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
500 , 83 577 . 0
1450
500 , 83
2262 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

7 . 24 = N

At C: 16 . 0
8125 . 4
75 . 0
2
2
= =
D
r

2 . 1
8125 . 4
701 . 5
2
= =
D
D
r

Figure AF 12
5 . 1 = ≈
t f
K K
2 . 1 = ≈
ts fs
K K
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 48 of 76
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
psi s
m
362 =
psi s
a
1618 =
( )
( )( )
psi s
e
3107
85 . 0
1618 5 . 1
362
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
psi s s
sC ms
978 = =
0 =
as
s
( ) psi s
es
681 0 978
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
500 , 83 577 . 0
681
500 , 83
3107 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

1 . 25 = N

At D:

Assume 5 . 1 =
f
K as in Prob. 483
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
psi s
m
258 =
psi s
a
2203 =
( )
( )( )
psi s
e
4067
85 . 0
2203 5 . 1
258
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
psi s s
sD ms
588 = =
0 =
as
s
( ) psi s
es
409 0 588
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 49 of 76
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
500 , 83 577 . 0
409
500 , 83
4067 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

2 . 20 = N

At E: 19 . 0
4
75 . 0
3
3
= =
D
r

43 . 1
4
701 . 5
3
= =
D
D
r

Figure AF 12
45 . 1 = ≈
t f
K K
25 . 1 = ≈
ts fs
K K
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
psi s s
E m
524 = ′ =
psi s s
E a
3652 = =
( )
( )( )
psi s
e
6595
85 . 0
3652 45 . 1
524
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
psi s s
sE ms
1703 = =
0 =
as
s
( ) psi s
es
1185 0 1703
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
500 , 83 577 . 0
1185
500 , 83
6595 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

12 = N

At F: 03 . 0
3469 . 3
098 . 0
4
4
= =
D
r

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 50 of 76
2 . 1
3469 . 3
4
4
3
= =
D
D

Figure AF 12
3 . 2 = ≈
t f
K K
7 . 1 = ≈
ts fs
K K
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
psi s s
F m
748 = ′ =
psi s s
F a
1443 = =
( )
( )( )
psi s
e
4425
85 . 0
1443 3 . 2
748
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
psi s s
sF ms
2907 = =
0 =
as
s
( ) psi s
es
2023 0 2907
437 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
500 , 83 577 . 0
2023
500 , 83
4425 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

8 . 14 = N

Then 12 = N at in r
4
3
3
= (E)

492. The slow-speed shaft of a speed reducer shown, made of AISI 4140, OQT 1200
F, transmits 100 hp at a speed of 388 rpm. It receives power through a 13.6 in.
gear B. The force on this gear has three components: a horizontal tangential
driving force lb F
t
2390 = , a vertical radial force lb S 870 = , and a thrust force
lb Q 598 = taken by the right-hand bearing. The power is delivered to a belt at
F that exerts a downward vertical force of 1620 lb.; sled runner keyways. Use
the octahedral shear theory with the Soderberg line and compute N at sections C
and D. (Data courtesy of Twin Disc Clutch Company.)
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 51 of 76

Problem 492, 493
Solution:
For AISI 4140, OQT 1200 F
ksi s
y
83 =
ksi s
u
112 =
ksi s s
u n
56 5 . 0 = =
482 . 1
1
83
56
= = =
ys
ns
y
n
s
s
s
s

85 . 0 = SF
( )
lb in T − = = 237 , 16
388
100 000 , 63


Vertical

( ) lb in Q M − = |
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
= ′ 4 . 4066
2
6 . 13
598
2
6 . 13

[ ] 0

=
A
M
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 52 of 76
( ) ( )
v
G
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + + =
+ |
¹
|

\
|
+ + + + + + + |
¹
|

\
|
+
32
7
1
8
3
3
8
5
1
16
3
1
4 . 4066 1620
4
3
2
16
13
32
11
1
32
7
1
8
3
3
8
5
1
16
3
1 870
8
5
1
16
3
1

lb G
v
3573 =
[ ] 0

=
v
F
v v
G F S A = + +
3573 1620 870 = + +
v
A
lb A
v
1083 =
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

0 =
v
A
M
( ) lb in M
v
P
− − = |
¹
|

\
|
− = 1286
16
3
1 1083
( ) lb in M
v
B
− − = |
¹
|

\
|
− + − = 3046
8
5
1 1083 1286 at the left
lb in M
v
B
− = + − = 1021 4 . 4066 3046 at the right
( ) lb in M
v
C
− − = |
¹
|

\
|
− = 5570
8
3
3 1953 1021
( ) lb in M
v
G
− − = |
¹
|

\
|
− − = 7950
32
7
1 1953 5570
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 53 of 76
( ) lb in M
v
D
− − = |
¹
|

\
|
+ − = 5773
32
11
1 1620 7950
( ) lb in M
v
E
− − = |
¹
|

\
|
+ − = 4457
16
13
1620 5773
( ) lb in M
v
F
− = |
¹
|

\
|
+ − = 0
4
3
2 1620 4457

Horizontal

[ ] 0

=
A
M
( )
h
G |
¹
|

\
|
+ + |
¹
|

\
|
32
19
4
16
13
2 2390
16
13
2
lb G
h
908 =
[ ] 0

=
h
F
t h h
F G A = +
2390 908 = +
h
A
lb A
h
1482 =
Shear Diagram

0 =
h
A
M
( ) lb in M
h
P
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= 1760
16
3
1 1482
( ) lb in M
h
B
− = |
¹
|

\
|
+ = 4168
8
5
1 1482 1760
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 54 of 76
( ) lb in M
h
C
− = |
¹
|

\
|
− = 1104
8
3
3 908 4168
( ) lb in M
h
C
− = |
¹
|

\
|
− = 0
32
7
1 908 1104
lb in M
h
D
− = 0
lb in M
h
E
− = 0
lb in M
h
F
− = 0

Combined
2 2
v h
M M M + =
lb in M
A
− = 0
( ) ( ) lb in M
P
− = + = 2180 1286 1760
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
B
− = + = 5163 3046 4168
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
C
− = + = 5678 5570 1104
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
D
− = + = 5773 5773 0
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
E
− = + = 4457 4457 0
2 2

( ) ( ) lb in M
F
− = + = 0 0 0
2 2


at C: in in r 125 . 0
8
1
= =
in d 750 . 2 =
in D 953 . 2 =
05 . 0
750 . 2
125 . 0
= =
d
r

10 . 1
750 . 2
953 . 2
= =
d
D

Figure AF 12
9 . 1
1
= ≈
t f
K K
3 . 1
1
= ≈
ts fs
K K
For sled runner keyway
6 . 1
2
=
f
K
6 . 1
2
=
fs
K

( )( ) 4 . 2 6 . 1 9 . 1 8 . 0 8 . 0
2 1
= = =
f f f
K K K
( )( ) 7 . 1 6 . 1 3 . 1 8 . 0 8 . 0
2 1
= = =
fs fs fs
K K K
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 55 of 76
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
( )
( )
psi
d
Q
s
m
101
750 . 2
598 4 4
2 2
= = =
π π

( )
( )
psi
d
M
s
C
a
2781
750 . 2
5678 32 32
3 3
= = =
π π

( )
( )( )
psi s
e
7920
85 . 0
2781 4 . 2
101
482 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
( )
( )
psi
d
T
s
ms
3976
750 . 2
237 , 16 16 16
3 3
= = =
π π

0 =
as
s
( ) psi s
es
2683 0 3976
482 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
000 , 56 577 . 0
2683
000 , 56
7920 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

6 = N

at D: in in r 0625 . 0
16
1
= =
in d 953 . 2 =
in in D 375 . 3
8
3
3 = =
02 . 0
953 . 2
0625 . 0
= =
d
r

14 . 1
953 . 2
375 . 3
= =
d
D

Figure AF 12
4 . 2 = ≈
t f
K K
6 . 1 = ≈
ts fs
K K
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
a f
m
y
n
e
+ =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 56 of 76
( )
( )
psi
d
Q
s
m
3 . 87
953 . 2
598 4 4
2 2
= = =
π π

( )
( )
psi
d
M
s
C
a
2284
953 . 2
5773 32 32
3 3
= = =
π π

( )
( )( )
psi s
e
6508
85 . 0
2284 4 . 2
3 . 87
482 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
SF
s K
s
s
s
s
as fs
ms
ys
ns
es
+ =
( )
( )
psi
d
T
s
ms
3211
953 . 2
237 , 16 16 16
3 3
= = =
π π

0 =
as
s
( ) psi s
es
2167 0 3211
482 . 1
1
= + |
¹
|

\
|
=
Octahedral shear theory
2
1
2 2
577 . 0
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
n
es
n
e
s
s
s
s
N

( )
2
1
2 2
000 , 56 577 . 0
2167
000 , 56
6508 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
N

5 . 7 = N

TRANSVERSE DEFLECTIONS

494. The forces on the 2-in. steel shaft shown are kips A 2 = , kips C 4 = . Determine
the maximum deflection and the shaft’s slope at D.

Problems 494-496
Solution:

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 57 of 76
[ ] 0 =
B
M
( ) ( ) 15 4 25 10 2 = + D
kips D 6 . 1 =
[ ] 0 =
v
F
D B C A + = +
6 . 1 4 2 + = + B
kips B 4 . 4 =

Shear Diagram


Moment Diagram



4
64
D E
M
EI
M
π
=

A B C D
( ) kip in M − 0 -20 16 0
4 4
10 D
EI
M
|
¹
|

\
|
0 -135.8 108.6 0









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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 58 of 76
Scale in in s
s
10 =

EI
M
, Scale in per
D
s
EI
M 4
4
10 200

×
=

Slope θ , Scale in rad D s
4
2 . 0 =
θ


y deflection, Scale in in D s
y
4
0 . 2 =

Deflection:
At A: in
D
y
A 4
625 . 0
=
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 59 of 76
At C: in
D
y
C 4
375 . 0
=
Slope:
At A: rad
D
4
075 . 0
= θ
At B: rad
D
4
0125 . 0
= θ
At D: rad
D
4
05625 . 0
= θ

Maximum deflection:
( )
in y y
A
04 . 0
2
625 . 0
4
= = =
Shaft’s slope at D
( )
rad 0035 . 0
2
05625 . 0
4
= = θ

495. The forces on the steel shaft shown are kips A 2 = , kips C 4 = . Determine the
constant shaft diameter that corresponds to a maximum deflection of 0.006 in. at
section C.

Solution:
(see Problem 494)
006 . 0
375 . 0
4
= =
D
y
C

in D 812 . 2 =
say in D
8
7
2 =
496. The forces on the steel shaft shown are kips A 2 = , kips C 4 = . Determine a
constant shaft diameter that would limit the maximum deflection at section A to
0.003 in.

Solution:
(see Problem 494)
003 . 0
625 . 0
4
= =
D
y
A

in D 80 . 3 =
say in D
8
7
3 =

497. A steel shaft is loaded as shown and supported in bearings at
1
R and
2
R .
Determine (a) the slopes at the bearings and (b) the maximum deflection.
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 60 of 76

Problem 497
Solution:
[ ]

= 0
1 R
M
( ) ( )
2
8
7
2
4
1
2
8
7
1
4
1
2
8
7
2100
8
1
1
8
7
3000 R |
¹
|

\
|
+ + + = |
¹
|

\
|
+ + − |
¹
|

\
|
+
lb R 444
2
− =
[ ]

= 0 F
3000 2100
2 1
= + + R R
3000 2100 444
1
= + − R
lb R 1344
1
=

Loading


Shear Diagram


Moment Diagram

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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 61 of 76

lb in M
A
− = 0
( ) lb in M
B
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= 1176
8
7
1344
( ) lb in M
C
− = |
¹
|

\
|
+ = 2688
8
1
1
8
7
1134
( ) lb in M
D
− = |
¹
|

\
|
− = 825
8
1
1 1656 2688
( )( ) lb in M
E
− − = − = 831 1 1656 825
( )( ) lb in M
F
− − = + − = 387 1 444 831
( ) lb in M
G
− = |
¹
|

\
|
+ − = 0
8
7
444 387

A B
1
B
2
C D
1
D
2
E F
1
F
2
G
( ) kips in M − 0 1.18 1.18 2.69 0.83 0.83 -0.83 -0.39 -0.39 0
( ) in D 1 ½ 1 ½ 2 2 2 1 ¾ 1 ¾ 1 ¾ 1 ½ 1 ½
( )( )
4
10
EI
M
0 1.58 0.50 1.14 0.35 0.60 -0.60 -0.28 -0.52 0

Scale in in s
s
2 =

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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 62 of 76
EI
M
, Scale in per
D
s
EI
M 4
4
10 2

×
=

Slope θ , Scale in rad D s
4 4
10 4

× =
θ


y deflection, Scale in in D s
y
4 4
10 8

× =


(a) Slopes at the bearings

at
1
R , ( ) rad
A
4 4
10 5 . 1 10 4 375 . 0
− −
× = × = θ
at
2
R , rad
G
0 = θ

(b) Maximum deflection

at C, ( ) in y
C
4 4
10 5 . 1 10 8 1875 . 0
− −
× = × =



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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 63 of 76
498. (a) Determine the diameter of the steel shaft shown if the maximum deflection is
to be 0.01 in.; kips C 5 . 1 = , kips A 58 . 1 = , in L 24 = . (b) What is the slope of the
shaft at bearing D? See 479.

Problems 498, 505, 506.
Solution:
Vertical


[ ]

= 0
D
M
( ) ( )
v
E 24 424 . 0 8 5 . 1 6 = +
kip E
v
516 . 0 =
[ ]

= 0
v
F
v v
E D + = + 5 . 1 424 . 0
516 . 0 5 . 1 424 . 0 + = +
v
D
kip D
v
592 . 1 =

Shear Diagram

0 =
C
M ; ( ) kips in M
D
− − = − = 9 5 . 1 6
( ) kips in M
B
− − = + − = 264 . 8 092 . 0 8 9
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 64 of 76
( ) kips in M
A
− − = + − = 588 . 2 516 . 0 11 264 . 8
( ) 0 516 . 0 5 588 . 2 = + − =
E
M

C D B A E
( ) kips in M −
0 -9 -8.264 -2.588 0
( )
4 4
10 × D
EI
M

0 -61.1 -56.1 -17.6 0


Scale in in s
s
8 =

EI
M
, Scale in per
D
s
EI
M 4
4
10 120

×
=



Slope θ , Scale in rad D s
4
096 . 0 =
θ





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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 65 of 76
y deflection, Scale in in D s
y
4
768 . 0 =



Deflections.
in
D
y
v
C 4
384 . 0
=
in
D
y
v
B 4
288 . 0
=
in
D
y
v
A 4
168 . 0
=
Slope
rad
D
v
D 4
057 . 0
= θ
Horizontal

[ ]

= 0
D
M
( ) ( ) 58 . 1 19 24 424 . 0 8 = +
h
E
kip E
h
1095 . 1 =
[ ]

= 0
h
F
58 . 1 424 . 0 = + +
h h
E D
58 . 1 424 . 0 1095 . 1 = + +
h
D
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 66 of 76
kip D
h
0465 . 0 =
Shear Diagram

Moments
0 =
C
M
0 =
D
M
( ) kip in M
B
− − = − = 372 . 0 0465 . 0 8
( ) kips in M
A
− − = − + − = 5475 . 5 4705 . 0 11 372 . 0
( ) 0 1095 . 1 5 5475 . 5 = + − =
E
M

C D B A E
( ) kips in M −
0 0 -0.372 -5.5475 0
( )
4 4
10 × D
EI
M

0 0 -2.53 -37.7 0

Scale in in s
s
8 =

EI
M
, Scale in per
D
s
EI
M 4
4
10 4

×
=

Slope θ , Scale in rad D s
4
032 . 0 =
θ

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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 67 of 76

y deflection, Scale in in D s
y
4
256 . 0 =


Deflections.
in
D
y
h
C 4
064 . 0
=
in
D
y
h
B 4
072 . 0
=
in
D
y
h
A 4
096 . 0
=
Slope
rad
D
h
D 4
012 . 0
= θ

Resultant deflection:
( )
2
1
2 2
v h
y y y + =
( ) ( ) [ ]
4 4
2
1
2 2
390 . 0 384 . 0 064 . 0
D D
y
C
=
+
=
( ) ( ) [ ]
4 4
2
1
2 2
297 . 0 288 . 0 072 . 0
D D
y
B
=
+
=
( ) ( ) [ ]
4 4
2
1
2 2
194 . 0 168 . 0 096 . 0
D D
y
A
=
+
=
Slope:
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 68 of 76
( )
2
1
2 2
v h
θ θ θ + =
( ) ( ) [ ]
rad
D D
D 4 4
2
1
2 2
05823 . 0 057 . 0 012 . 0
=
+
= θ

(a) Diameter D.
Maximum deflection = in
D
y
C
01 . 0
390 . 0
4
= =
in D 50 . 2 =

(b) slope of the shaft at bearing D
( )
rad
D
D
0015 . 0
5 . 2
05823 . 0 05823 . 0
4 4
= = = θ


CRITICAL SPEED

499. A small, high-speed turbine has a single disk, weighing 0.85 lb., mounted at the
midpoint of a 0.178-in. shaft, whose length between bearings is 6 ½ in. What is
the critical speed if the shaft is considered as simply supported?
Solution:

Table AT 2
( )( )
( )
( )
in
EI
WL
y 052634 . 0
64
178 . 0
10 30 3
5 . 6 85 . 0
3
4
6
3 3
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
= =
π

( )
rpm
y
g
Wy
Wy g
n
o
o
c
818
052634 . 0
386 30 30 30
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
¸
(

¸

=


π π π



500. The bearings on a 1 ½-in. shaft are 30 in. apart. On the shaft are three 300-lb
disks, symmetrically placed 7.5 in. apart. What is the critical speed of the shaft?

Solution:

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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 69 of 76

Table AT 2
Deflection of B.
3 2 1
B B B B
y y y y + + =
( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
B
01273 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
5 . 7 5 . 22 30 5 . 7 5 . 22 300
4
6
2 2 2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
B
01556 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
5 . 7 15 30 5 . 7 15 300
4
6
2 2 2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
B
00990 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
5 . 7 5 . 7 30 5 . 7 5 . 7 300
4
6
2 2 2
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

in y
B
03819 . 0 01556 . 0 00990 . 0 01273 . 0 = + + =

Deflection of C.
3 2 1
C C C C
y y y y + + =
( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
C
01556 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
15 30 5 . 7 30 15 30 5 . 7 300
4
6
2 2 2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− − − −
=
π

( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
C
02264 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
15 30 15 30 15 30 15 300
4
6
2 2 2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− − − −
=
π

( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
C
01556 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
15 5 . 7 30 15 5 . 7 300
4
6
2 2 2
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

in y
C
05376 . 0 01556 . 0 02264 . 0 01556 . 0 = + + =
Deflection of D.
3 2 1
D D D D
y y y y + + =
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 70 of 76
( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
D
00990 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
5 . 22 30 5 . 7 30 5 . 22 30 5 . 7 300
4
6
2 2 2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− − − −
=
π

( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
D
01556 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
5 . 22 30 15 30 5 . 22 30 15 300
4
6
2 2 2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− − − −
=
π

( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
D
01273 . 0
30
64
5 . 1
10 30 6
5 . 22 5 . 7 30 5 . 22 5 . 7 300
4
6
2 2 2
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

in y
D
03819 . 0 01273 . 0 01556 . 0 00990 . 0 = + + =
( )
( )
2
1
2 2 2
2
1
2
30 30
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+ +
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

=


D C B
D C B o
o
c
y y y
y y y g
Wy
Wy g
n
π π

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
rpm n
c
888
03819 . 0 05376 . 0 03819 . 0
03819 . 0 05376 . 0 03819 . 0 386 30
2
1
2 2 2
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
+ +
=
π



501. A fan for an air-conditioning unit has two 50-lb. rotors mounted on a 3-in. steel
shaft, each being 22 in. from an end of the shaft which is 80 in. long and simply
supported at the ends. Determine (a) the deflection curve of the shaft considering
its weight as well as the weight of the rotors, (b) its critical speed.

Solution:

lb W 50
1
=
lb W 50
3
=
( ) ( ) ( ) lb W 160 80 3
4
284 . 0
2
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
π
weight of shaft
in lb w 2
80
160
2
= =
Deflection of B.
3 2 1
B B B B
y y y y + + =
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 71 of 76
( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
B
002844 . 0
80
64
35
10 30 6
22 58 80 22 50 50
4
6
2 2 2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
B
002296 . 0
80
64
3
10 30 6
22 22 80 22 22 50
4
6
2 2 2
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
in y
B
006843 . 0
64
3
10 30 6
22 22 80 2 80 22 2
4
6
3 2 3
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

in y
B
011983 . 0 002296 . 0 006843 . 0 002844 . 0 = + + =

Deflection of C.
3 2 1
C C C C
y y y y + + =
( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
C
003317 . 0
80
64
35
10 30 6
40 80 22 80 40 80 22 50
4
6
2 2 2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− − − −
=
π

( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
in y
C
003317 . 0
80
64
3
10 30 6
40 22 80 40 22 50
4
6
2 2 2
3
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
in y
C
008942 . 0
64
3
10 30 6
40 40 80 2 80 40 2
4
6
3 2 3
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

×
− −
=
π

in y
C
015576 . 0 003317 . 0 008942 . 0 003317 . 0 = + + =

By symmetry
in y y
B D
011983 . 0 = =

(a) Deflection curve




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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 72 of 76
(b) Critical speed

( )
2
1
2
30
(
(
¸
(

¸

=


Wy
Wy g
n
o
c
π

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 69046 . 3 011983 . 0 50 015576 . 0 160 011983 . 0 50 = + + =

Wy
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 053177 . 0 011983 . 0 50 015576 . 0 160 011983 . 0 50
2 2 2
2
= + + =

Wy
( )
rpm n
c
1563
053177 . 0
69046 . 3 386 30
2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
π


ASME CODE

502. A cold-rolled transmission shaft, made of annealed AISI C1050, is to transmit a
torque of 27 in-kips with a maximum bending moment of 43 in-kips. What
should be the diameter according to the Code for a mild shock load?

Solution:
For AISI C1050, annealed
ksi s
y
53 =
ksi s
u
92 =
ksi s
y
9 . 15 3 . 0 =
ksi s
u
56 . 16 18 . 0 =
use ksi s
y d
9 . 15 3 . 0 = = τ
kips in M − = 43
kips in T − = 27
( )
( )
( )
2
1
2
2
2
4
3
8
1
1
16
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
| +
+ +

=
B FD
M K T K
B
D
m s
d
α
πτ

Reduce to
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
2
1
2 2
4
3
1
16
M K T K
B
D
m s
d
+

=
πτ

For mild shock load, rotating shafts
75 . 1 =
m
K
25 . 1 =
s
K
0 = B
( )
( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) [ ] { }
2
1
2 2 3
000 , 43 75 . 1 000 , 27 25 . 1
900 , 15
16
+ =
π
D
in D 98 . 2 =
say in D 3 =
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 73 of 76

503. A machinery shaft is to transmit 82 hp at a speed of 1150 rpm with mild shock.
The shaft is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 7500 in-lb. and an axial
thrust load of 15,000 lb. The material is AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F. (a) What
should be the diameter when designed according to the Code? (b) Determine the
corresponding conventional factor of safety (static-approach and maximum-shear
theory).

Solution:

For AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F
ksi s
y
130 =
ksi s
u
151 =
ksi s
y
39 3 . 0 =
ksi s
u
18 . 27 18 . 0 =
use ksi s
u d
18 . 27 18 . 0 = = τ
( )
lb in T − = = 4492
1150
82 63000

lb in M − = 7500
lb F 000 , 15 =

(a)
( )
( )
( )
2
1
2
2
2
4
3
8
1
1
16
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
| +
+ +

=
B FD
M K T K
B
D
m s
d
α
πτ




For mild shock load
75 . 1 =
m
K
25 . 1 =
s
K
0 = B
1 = α
( )
( )( ) [ ] ( )( )
( )( )
2
1
2
2 3
8
000 , 15 1
7500 75 . 1 4492 25 . 1
27180
16
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =
D
D
π

[ ] { }
2
1
2 3
875 . 1 125 . 13 53 . 31 1874 . 0 D D + + =
in D 4668 . 1 =
say in D 5 . 1 =

(b)
( )
( )
( )
( )
ksi psi
D
F
D
M
s 124 . 31 124 , 31
5 . 1
000 , 15 4
5 . 1
7500 32 4 32
2 3 2 3
= = + = + =
π π π π

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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 74 of 76
( )
( )
ksi psi
D
T
s
s
7785 . 6 5 . 6778
5 . 1
4492 16 16
3 3
= = = =
π π

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2 2
1
ys
s
y
s
s
s
s
N

Maximum shear theory
y ys
s s 5 . 0 =
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
2
2
130 5 . 0
7785 . 6
130
124 . 31 1
N

83 . 3 = N




504. short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receives 30 hp at 300 rpm via a
12-in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible
coupling. The gear is keyed midway between the bearings and its pressure angle
o
20 = φ . See the figure for 471. (a) Neglecting the radial component of the tooth
load, determine the shaft diameter for a mild shock load. (b) Considering both
tangential and radial components, compute the shaft diameter. (c) Is the
difference in the foregoing results enough to change your choice of the shaft
size?

Solution:


Figure for 471.


For SAE 1035, as rolled
ksi s
y
55 =
ksi s
u
85 =
ksi s
y
5 . 16 3 . 0 =
ksi s
u
3 . 15 18 . 0 =
use ksi s
u d
3 . 15 18 . 0 = = τ
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SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 75 of 76

Data are the same as 471.
From Problem 471.

(a) kips in lb in M − = − = 2 . 4 4200
kips in lb in T − = − = 3 . 6 6300
( )
( )
( )
2
1
2
2
2
4
3
8
1
1
16
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
| +
+ +

=
B FD
M K T K
B
D
m s
d
α
πτ

Reduce to
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
2
1
2 2
4
3
1
16
M K T K
B
D
m s
d
+

=
πτ

For mild shock load, rotating shafts
75 . 1 =
m
K
25 . 1 =
s
K
0 = B
( )
( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) [ ] { }
2
1
2 2 3
2 . 4 75 . 1 3 . 6 25 . 1
3 . 15
16
+ =
π
D
in D 5306 . 1 =
say in D
16
9
1 =

(b) kips in lb in M − = − = 472 . 4 4472
kips in lb in T − = − = 3 . 6 6300
( )
( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) [ ] { }
2
1
2 2 3
472 . 4 75 . 1 3 . 6 25 . 1
3 . 15
16
+ =
π
D
in D 5461 . 1 =
say in D
16
9
1 =

(c) Not enough to change the shaft size.

505. Two bearings D and E, a distance in D 24 = . Apart, support a shaft for a punch
press on which are an 8-in. gear A, a 44-in. pulley B, and a flywheel C, as
indicated (498). Weight of flywheel is 1500 lb.; pulley B receives the power at an
angle of 45
o
to the right of the vertical; gear A delivers it horizontally to the right.
The maximum power is 25 hp at 250 rpm is delivered, with heavy shock. For
cold-finish AISI 1137, find the diameter by the ASME Code.

Solution:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN
Page 76 of 76

Data and figure is the same as in Problem 479. Also figure is the same as in Problem 498.
For AISI 1137, cold-finished
ksi s
y
93 =
ksi s
u
103 =
ksi s
y
9 . 27 3 . 0 =
ksi s
u
54 . 18 18 . 0 =
use ksi s
u d
54 . 18 18 . 0 = = τ
From Problem 479
kips in lb in M M
B
− = − = = 343 . 14 343 , 14
kips in lb in T T
A
− = − = = 6 . 12 600 , 12
For heavy shock load
5 . 2 =
m
K
75 . 1 =
s
K
0 = B
( )
( )
( )
2
1
2
2
2
4
3
8
1
1
16
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
| +
+ +

=
B FD
M K T K
B
D
m s
d
α
πτ

( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
2
1
2 2
4
3
1
16
M K T K
B
D
m s
d
+

=
πτ

( )
( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) [ ] { }
2
1
2 2 3
343 . 14 5 . 2 6 . 12 75 . 1
54 . 18
16
+ =
π
D
in D 2613 . 2 =
say in D
16
5
2 =

- end -



http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 1 of 63
LIGHTLY LOADED BEARINGS

551. (a) A 3 x 3 – in. full bearing supports a load of 900 lb., 0015 . 0 = D c
d
,
rpm n 400 = . The temperature of the SAE 40 oil is maintained at 140
o
F.
Considering the bearing lightly loaded (Petroff), compute the frictional torque,
fhp, and the coefficient of friction. (b) The same as (a) except that the oil is
SAE 10W.

Solution.

(a)
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2 2
D
c
DLv
T
d
ips
f
µπ

in L 3 =
in D 3 =
( )( )
ips
Dn
v
ips
π
π π
20
60
400 3
60
= = =
0015 . 0 = D c
d

SAE 40 oil, 140
o
F, Figure A16.
reyns µ µ 25 . 7 =
( )
( )( )( )( )( )
( )
lb
c
DLv
F
d
ips
173 . 17
2 0015 . 0
20 3 3 10 25 . 7
2
6
=
×
= =

π π
µπ

( ) lb in
D
F T
f
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
= 76 . 25
2
3
173 . 17
2

000 , 33
m
Fv
fhp =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
16 . 314
12
400 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
1635 . 0
000 , 33
16 . 314 173 . 17
000 , 33
= = =
0191 . 0
900
173 . 17
= = =
W
F
f

(b) SAE 10W oil, 140
o
F, Figure A16.
reyn reyns
6
10 2 . 2 2 . 2

× = = µ µ
( )
( )( )( )( )( )
( )
lb
c
DLv
F
d
ips
211 . 5
2 0015 . 0
20 3 3 10 2 . 2
2
6
=
×
= =

π π
µπ

( ) lb in
D
F T
f
− = |
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
= 817 . 7
2
3
211 . 5
2

000 , 33
m
Fv
fhp =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 2 of 63
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
16 . 314
12
400 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
0496 . 0
000 , 33
16 . 314 211 . 5
000 , 33
= = =
00579 . 0
900
211 . 5
= = =
W
F
f


553. The average pressure on a 6-in. full bearing is 50 psi, . 003 . 0 in c
d
= , 1 = D L .
While the average oil temperature is maintained at 160
o
F with rpm n 300 = ,
the frictional force is found to be 13 lb. Compute the coefficient of friction
and the average viscosity of the oil. To what grade of oil does this
correspond?

Solution:
LD
W
p =
. 6 in D =
1 = D L
. 6 in L =
( )( )( ) lb pLD W 1800 6 6 50 = = =
lb F 13 =
Coefficient of Friction
0072 . 0
1800
13
= = =
W
F
f
( ) 2
d
ips
c
DLv
F
µπ
=
( )( )
ips
Dn
v
ips
π
π π
30
60
300 6
60
= = =
( )
( )( )( )( )
( )
lb
c
DLv
F
d
ips
13
2 003 . 0
30 6 6
2
= = =
π π µ
µπ

reyns reyn µ µ 8 . 1 10 8 . 1
6
= × =


Figure AF 16, 160
o
F use SAE 10W or SAE 20W

FULL BEARINGS

554. The load on a 4-in. full bearing is 2000 lb.,
rpm n 320 = ; 1 = D L ; 0011 . 0 = D c
d
; operating temperature = 150
o
F;
in h
o
00088 . 0 = . (a) Select an oil that will closely accord with the started
conditions. For the selected oil determine (b) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (c)
the hydrodynamic oil flow through the bearing, (d) the amount of end leakage,
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 3 of 63
(e) the temperature rise as the oil passes through the bearing, (f) the maximum
pressure.

Solution:

(a) in D 4 =
1 = D L
in L 4 =
( ) in D c
d
0044 . 0 4 0011 . 0 0011 . 0 = = =
in h
o
00088 . 0 =
( )
6 . 0
0044 . 0
00088 . 0 2
1
2
1 = − = − =
d
o
c
h
ε
Table AT 20
6 . 0 = ε , 1 = D L
Sommerfield Number
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
d
s
c
D
p
n
S
µ

rps n
s
333 . 5
60
320
= =
( )( )
psi
LD
W
p 125
4 4
2000
= = =
0011 . 0 = D c
d

( )
2
0011 . 0
1
125
333 . 5
121 . 0
|
¹
|

\
|
=
µ

reyns reyn µ µ 4 . 3 10 4 . 3
6
= × =


Figure AF-16, 150
o
F, use SAE 30 or SAE 20 W
Select SAE 30, the nearest
reyn
6
10 9 . 3

× = µ

(b) Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 6 . 0 = ε
22 . 3 = f
c
r
r

0011 . 0
1
= =
d r
c
D
c
r

22 . 3
0011 . 0
1
= |
¹
|

\
|
f
003542 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 084 . 7 2000 003542 . 0 = = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 4 of 63
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
1 . 335
12
320 4
12
= = =
π π

Frictional loss = ( )( ) min lb ft Fv
m
− = 2374 1 . 335 084 . 7
(c) Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 6 . 0 = ε
33 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

in
D
r 0 . 2
2
= =
in
c
c
d
r
0022 . 0
2
0044 . 0
2
= = =
rps n
s
333 . 5 =
in L 4 =
( )( )( )( ) sec in L n rc q
s r
3
4064 . 0 4 333 . 5 0022 . 0 0 . 2 33 . 4 33 . 4 = = =

(d) Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 6 . 0 = ε
680 . 0 =
q
q
s

( ) sec in q q
s
3
2764 . 0 4064 . 0 680 . 0 680 . 0 = = =

(e) Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 6 . 0 = ε
2 . 14 =

p
t c
o
ρ

112 = c ρ , psi p 125 =
( )
F
c
p
t
o
o
85 . 15
112
125 2 . 14 2 . 14
= = = ∆
ρ


(f) Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 6 . 0 = ε
415 . 0
max
=
p
p

psi p 2 . 301
415 . 0
125
max
= =

555. A 4-in., 360
o
bearing, with 1 . 1 = D L (use table and chart values for 1), is to
support 5 kips with a minimum film thickness 0.0008 in.; . 004 . 0 in c
d
= ,
rpm n 600 = . Determine (a) the needed absolute viscosity of the oil .(b)
Suitable oil if the average film temperature is 160 F, (c) the frictional loss in
hp. (d) Adjusting only
o
h to the optimum value for minimum friction,
determine the fhp and compare. (e) This load varies. What could be the
magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity ration ε
becomes 0.8? Ignore “squeeze” effect.
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 5 of 63

Solution:
in D 4 =
( ) in D L 4 . 4 4 1 . 1 1 . 1 = = =
( )( )
psi
LD
W
p 284
4 4 . 4
5000
= = =
in h
o
0008 . 0 =
. 004 . 0 in c
d
=
( )
6 . 0
004 . 0
0008 . 0 2
1
2
1 = − = − =
d
o
c
h
ε
rps 10
60
600
= = η

(a) Table AT20, 1 = D L , 6 . 0 = ε

121 . 0 = S
2 2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
d
s s
r
c
D
p
n
p
n
c
r
S
µ µ

( )
2
004 . 0
4
284
10
121 . 0
|
¹
|

\
|
=
µ

reyn
6
10 4 . 3

× = µ

(b) Figure AF16, 160 F

Use SAE 30, reyn
6
10 2 . 3

× = µ

(c) Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 6 . 0 = ε

22 . 3 = f
c
r
r

22 . 3 = f
c
D
d

22 . 3
004 . 0
4
= |
¹
|

\
|
f
00322 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb lb W f F 1 . 16 5000 00322 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
3 . 628
12
600 4
12
= = =
π π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 6 of 63
( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
3065 . 0
000 , 33
3 . 628 1 . 16
000 , 33
= = =

(d) adjusting
o
h , . 004 . 0 in c
d
=

Table AT 20, 1 = D L
30 . 0 =
r o
c h optimum value for minimum friction
46 . 2 = f
c
r
r

46 . 2 = f
c
D
d

46 . 2
004 . 0
4
= |
¹
|

\
|
f
00246 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb lb W f F 3 . 12 5000 00246 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
3 . 628
12
600 4
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
( ) c fhp hp
Fv
fhp
m
< = = = 234 . 0
000 , 33
3 . 628 3 . 12
000 , 33


(e) 8 . 0 = ε , Table AT 20, 1 = D L

0446 . 0 = S
2 2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
d
s s
r
c
D
p
n
p
n
c
r
S
µ µ

( )( )
2
6
004 . 0
4 10 10 2 . 3
0446 . 0
|
¹
|

\
| ×
=

p

psi p 5 . 717 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 628 , 12 4 . 4 4 5 . 717 = = =

556. For an 8 x 4 – in. full bearing, . 0075 . 0 in c
r
= , rpm n 2700 = , average
reyn
6
10 4

× = µ . (a) What load may this bearing safely carry if the minimum
film thickness is not to be less than that given by Norton, i11.14, Text? (b)
Compute the corresponding frictional loss (fhp). (c) Complete calculations for
the other quantities in Table AT 20, φ , q ,
s
q ,
o
t ∆ ,
max
p . Compute the
maximum load for an optimum (load) bearing (d) if
r
c remains the same, (e)
if
o
h remains the same.

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 7 of 63
Solution:
4 8× = × L D
2 1 = D L
in c
r
0075 . 0 =
in D r 4 2 = =
reyn
6
10 4

× = µ

(a) by Norton, ( ) in D h
o
002 . 0 8 00025 . 0 00025 . 0 = = =
27 . 0
0075 . 0
002 . 0
= =
r
o
c
h

Table AT 20, 2 1 = D L , 27 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

172 . 0 = S
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
rps n
s
45
60
2700
= =
( )( )
p
S
45 10 4
0075 . 0
4
172 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
psi p 298 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 9536 4 8 298 = = =

(b) Table AT 20, 2 1 = D L , 27 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

o
5 . 38 = φ
954 . 4 = f
c
r
r

954 . 4 = f
c
D
d

954 . 4
004 . 0
4
= |
¹
|

\
|
f
0093 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb lb W f F 7 . 88 9536 0093 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
5655
12
2700 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
2 . 15
000 , 33
5655 7 . 88
000 , 33
= = =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 8 of 63
(c) Table AT 20, 2 1 = D L , 27 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

o
5 . 38 = φ
214 . 5 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( ) sec 2 . 28 4 45 0075 . 0 4 214 . 5 214 . 5
3
in L n rc q
s r
= = =
824 . 0 =
q
q
s

( ) sec 2 . 23 2 . 28 824 . 0
3
in q
s
= =
26 . 20 =

p
t c ρ

( )
F t
o
54
112
298 26 . 20
= = ∆
3013 . 0
max
=
p
p

psi p 989
3013 . 0
298
max
= =
To solve for maximum load, Table AT 20, 2 1 = D L , 43 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

388 . 0
2
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ


(d) in c
r
0075 . 0 =
( )( )
p
S
45 10 4
0075 . 0
4
388 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
psi p 132 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 4224 4 8 132 = = =

(e) in h
o
002 . 0 =
43 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

in c
r
00465 . 0
43 . 0
002 . 0
= =
( )( )
p
S
45 10 4
00465 . 0
4
388 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
psi p 3 . 343 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 986 , 10 4 8 3 . 343 = = =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 9 of 63
557. A 6 x 6 – in full bearing has a frictional loss of 11 = fhp when the load is
68,500 lb. and rpm n 1600 = ; 001 . 0 = r c
r
. (a) Compute the minimum film
thickness. Is this in the vicinity of that for an optimum bearing? (b) What is
the viscosity of the oil and a proper grade for an operating temperature of 160
F? (c) For the same
o
h , but for the maximum-load optimum, determine the
permissible load and the fhp.

Solution:
in L 6 =
in D 6 =
1 = D L
in D r 3 2 = =
001 . 0 = r c
r

rpm n 1600 =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
2513
12
1600 3
12
= = =
π π

000 , 33
m
Fv
fhp =
( )
lb F 45 . 144
2513
11 000 , 33
= =
00211 . 0
500 , 68
45 . 144
= = =
W
F
f
(a) ( ) 11 . 2 00211 . 0
001 . 0
1
= |
¹
|

\
|
= f
c
r
r

Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 11 . 2 = f
c
r
r

Near the vicinity of optimum bearing
( ) in r c
r
003 . 0 3 001 . 0 001 . 0 = = =
( ) in c h
r o
0008 . 0 003 . 0 254 . 0 254 . 0 = = =

(b) Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 11 . 2 = f
c
r
r

0652 . 0 = S
388 . 0
2
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ

rps n
s
67 . 26
60
1600
= =
( )( )
psi
LD
W
p 8 . 1902
6 6
500 , 68
= = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 10 of 63
( )( )
8 . 1902
67 . 26
001 . 0
1
0652 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
= = S
reyn
6
10 7 . 4

× = µ
Figure AF 16, 160 F, use SAE 40.

(c) Table AT 20, 1 = D L
optimum bearing, maximum load, 53 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

o
h the same, in
h
c
o
r
0015 . 0
53 . 0
0008 . 0
53 . 0
= = =
53 . 0 =
r
o
c
h
, 214 . 0 = S , 89 . 4 = f
c
r
r

p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
p
S
67 . 26 10 7 . 4
0015 . 0
3
214 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
psi p 2343 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 348 , 84 6 6 2343 = = =
89 . 4 = f
c
r
r

89 . 4
0015 . 0
3
= |
¹
|

\
|
f
00245 . 0 = f
( ) lb W f F 65 . 206 348 , 84 00245 . 0 = = =
fpm v
m
2513 =
( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
74 . 15
000 , 33
2513 65 . 206
000 , 33
= = =

558. The maximum load on a 2.25 x 1.6875 in. main bearing of an automobile is
3140 lb. with wide-open throttle at 1000 rpm. If the oil is SAE 20W at 210 F,
compute the minimum film thickness for a bearing clearance of (a) 0.0008 in.
and (b) 0.0005 in. Which clearance results in the safer operating conditions?
Note: Since a load of this order exists for only 20-25
o
of rotation, the actual
o
h does not reach this computed minimum (squeeze effect).

Solution:
in L D 6875 . 1 25 . 2 × = ×
75 . 0
25 . 2
6875 . 1
= =
D
L

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 11 of 63
SAE 20 W at 210
o
F
reyn
6
10 96 . 0

× = µ
lb W 3140 =
rpm n 1000 =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 827
6875 . 1 25 . 2
3140
= = =
rps n
s
67 . 16
60
1000
= =
in
D
r 125 . 1
2
= =
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r
s
c
r
p
n
S
µ

(a) in c
r
0008 . 0 =
( )( )
038 . 0
0008 . 0
125 . 1
827
67 . 16 10 96 . 0
2
6
=
|
¹
|

\
| ×
=

S
Table AT 20, 4 3 = D L , 038 . 0 = S

D L
r o
c h S
1 0.2 0.0446
½ 0.2 0.0923

¾ 0.2 0.0685

D L
r o
c h S
1 0.1 0.0188
½ 0.1 0.0313

¾ 0.1 0.0251

At 4 3 = D L
( ) 13 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0
0251 . 0 0685 . 0
0251 . 0 038 . 0
= + − |
¹
|

\
|


=
r
o
c
h

( ) in c h
r o
0001 . 0 0008 . 0 13 . 0 13 . 0 = = =

(b) in c
r
0005 . 0 =
( )( )
098 . 0
0005 . 0
125 . 1
827
67 . 16 10 96 . 0
2
6
=
|
¹
|

\
| ×
=

S

Table AT 20, 4 3 = D L , 098 . 0 = S

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 12 of 63

D L
r o
c h S
1 0.2 0.0446
½ 0.2 0.0923

¾ 0.2 0.0685

D L
r o
c h S
1 0.4 0.121
½ 0.4 0.319

¾ 0.4 0.220

At 4 3 = D L
( ) 239 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 4 . 0
0685 . 0 220 . 0
0685 . 0 098 . 0
= + − |
¹
|

\
|


=
r
o
c
h

( ) in c h
r o
00012 . 0 0005 . 0 239 . 0 239 . 0 = = =

use in c
r
0005 . 0 = , in h
o
00012 . 0 =

561. A 360
o
bearing supports a load of 2500 lb.; . 5 in D = , . 5 . 2 in L = ,
. 003 . 0 in c
r
= , rpm n 1800 = ; SAE 20 W oil entering at 100 F. (a) Compute
the average temperature
av
t of the oil through the bearing. (An iteration
procedure. Assume µ ; compute S and the corresponding
o
t ∆ ; then the
average oil temperature 2
o i av
t t t ∆ + = . If this
av
t and the assumed µ do not
locate a point in Fig. AF 16 on the line for SAE 20 W oil, try again.) Calculate
(b) the minimum film thickness, (c) the fhp, (d) the amount of oil to be
supplied and the end leakage.

Solution:
in D 5 =
in L 5 . 2 =
5 . 0
5
5 . 2
= =
D
L

in c
r
003 . 0 =

(a) Table AT 20
Parameter,
p
t c
o
∆ ρ
, 112 = c ρ
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 13 of 63
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 200
5 . 2 5
2500
= = =
rps n
s
30
60
1800
= =
in
D
r 5 . 2
2
= =
in c
r
003 . 0 =
Fig. AF 16, SAE 20 W, Table AT 20, 5 . 0 = D L , F t
i
o
100 =
Trial µ ( F t
o
), reyns S
p
t c
o
∆ ρ
F t
o
o
∆ F t t t
o i av
o
2 ∆ + =
3.5 x 10
-6
(130 F) 0.365 36.56 65 132.5
3.2 x 10
-6
(134 F) 0.333 34.08 61 130.5
3.4 x 10
-6
(132 F) 0.354 35.71 64 132.0

Therefore, use F t
av
o
132 = , 354 . 0 = S

(b) Table AT 20, 5 . 0 = D L , 354 . 0 = S
415 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

( ) in h
o
00125 . 0 003 . 0 415 . 0 = =

(c) Table AT 20, 5 . 0 = D L , 354 . 0 = S
777 . 8 = f
c
r
r

777 . 8
003 . 0
5 . 2
= |
¹
|

\
|
f
0105 . 0 = f
( ) lb W f F 25 . 26 2500 0105 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
2356
12
1800 5
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
874 . 1
000 , 33
2356 25 . 26
000 , 33
= = =

(d) Table AT 20, 5 . 0 = D L , 354 . 0 = S
807 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( ) sec 704 . 2 5 . 2 30 003 . 0 5 . 2 807 . 4 807 . 4
3
in L n rc q
s r
= = =
7165 . 0 =
q
q
s

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 14 of 63
( ) sec 937 . 1 704 . 2 7165 . 0
3
in q
s
= =

PARTIAL BEARINGS

562. A 2 x 2-in. bearing has a clearance in c
r
001 . 0 = , and . 0004 . 0 in h
o
= ,
rpm n 2400 = , and for the oil, reyn
6
10 3

× = µ . Determine the load, frictional
horsepower, the amount of oil to enter, the end leakage of oil, and the
temperature rise of the oil as it passes through for : (a) a full bearing, partial
bearings of (b) 180
o
, (c) 120
o
, (d) 90
o
, (e) 60
o
.

Solution:
in L D 2 = =
1 = D L
in c
r
001 . 0 =
in D r 1 2 = =
rpm n 2400 =
rps n
s
40 =
reyn
6
10 3

× = µ
. 004 . 0 in h
o
=
4 . 0
001 . 0
0004 . 0
= =
r
o
c
h

( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
1257
12
2400 2
12
= = =
π π


(a) Full bearing

Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 4 . 0 =
r o
c h
121 . 0 = S
22 . 3 =
r
c
rf

33 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

680 . 0 =
q
q
s

2 . 14 =

p
t c
o
ρ

415 . 0
max
=
p
p

Load W
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 15 of 63
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
p
40 10 3
001 . 0
1
121 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
psi p 992 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 3968 2 2 992 = = =
fhp:
W f F =
22 . 3 =
r
c
rf

22 . 3
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00322 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 78 . 12 3968 00322 . 0 = = =
( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
4868 . 0
000 , 33
1257 78 . 12
000 , 33
= = =
Oil flow, q
33 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( )
33 . 4
2 40 001 . 0 1 . 0
=
q

sec 3464 . 0
3
in q =
End leakage
680 . 0 =
q
q
s

( ) sec 2356 . 0 3464 . 0 68 . 0
3
in q
s
= =
Temperature rise,
o
t ∆
2 . 14 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
2 . 14
992
112
=

o
t

F t
o
o
126 = ∆

(b) 180
o
Bearing

Table AT 21, 1 = D L , 4 . 0 =
r o
c h
128 . 0 = S
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 16 of 63
28 . 2 =
r
c
rf

25 . 3 =
L n rc
q
s r

572 . 0 =
q
q
s

4 . 12 =

p
t c
o
ρ


Load W
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
p
40 10 3
001 . 0
1
128 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
psi p 5 . 937 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 3750 2 2 5 . 937 = = =
fhp:
W f F =
28 . 2 =
r
c
rf

28 . 2
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00228 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 55 . 8 3750 00228 . 0 = = =
( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
3257 . 0
000 , 33
1257 55 . 8
000 , 33
= = =
Oil flow, q
25 . 3 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( )
25 . 3
2 40 001 . 0 1 . 0
=
q

sec 26 . 0
3
in q =
End leakage
572 . 0 =
q
q
s

( ) sec 1487 . 0 26 . 0 572 . 0
3
in q
s
= =
Temperature rise,
o
t ∆
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 17 of 63
4 . 12 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
4 . 12
5 . 937
112
=

o
t

F t
o
o
104 = ∆


(c) 12
o
Bearing

Table AT 22, 1 = D L , 4 . 0 =
r o
c h
162 . 0 = S
16 . 2 =
r
c
rf

24 . 2 =
L n rc
q
s r

384 . 0 =
q
q
s

15 =

p
t c
o
ρ


Load W
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
p
40 10 3
001 . 0
1
162 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
psi p 741 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 2964 2 2 741 = = =
fhp:
W f F =
16 . 2 =
r
c
rf

16 . 2
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00216 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 4 . 6 2964 00216 . 0 = = =
( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
2438 . 0
000 , 33
1257 4 . 6
000 , 33
= = =
Oil flow, q
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 18 of 63
24 . 2 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( )
24 . 2
2 40 001 . 0 1 . 0
=
q

sec 1792 . 0
3
in q =
End leakage
384 . 0 =
q
q
s

( ) sec 0688 . 0 1792 . 0 384 . 0
3
in q
s
= =
Temperature rise,
o
t ∆
15 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
15
741
112
=

o
t

F t
o
o
99 = ∆


(d) 60
o
Bearing

1 = D L , 4 . 0 =
r o
c h
450 . 0 = S
29 . 3 =
r
c
rf

56 . 1 =
L n rc
q
s r

127 . 0 =
q
q
s

2 . 28 =

p
t c
o
ρ


Load W
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
p
40 10 3
001 . 0
1
450 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
psi p 267 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 1068 2 2 267 = = =
fhp:
W f F =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 19 of 63
29 . 3 =
r
c
rf

29 . 3
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00329 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 514 . 3 1068 00329 . 0 = = =
( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
1339 . 0
000 , 33
1257 514 . 3
000 , 33
= = =
Oil flow, q
56 . 1 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( )
56 . 1
2 40 001 . 0 1 . 0
=
q

sec 1248 . 0
3
in q =
End leakage
127 . 0 =
q
q
s

( ) sec 0158 . 0 1248 . 0 127 . 0
3
in q
s
= =
Temperature rise,
o
t ∆
2 . 28 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
2 . 28
267
112
=

o
t

F t
o
o
67 = ∆

563. A 2 x 2 in. bearing sustains a load of . 5000 lb W = ; . 001 . 0 in c
r
= ;
rpm n 2400 = ; reyn
6
10 3

× = µ . Using Figs. AF 17 and AF 18, determine the
minimum film thickness and the frictional loss (ft-lb/min.) for (a) a full
bearing, and for partial bearings of (b) 180
o
, (c) 120
o
, (d) 90
o
, (e) 60
o
.

Solution:
in L 2 =
in D 2 =
lb W 5000 =
. 001 . 0 in c
r
=
rpm n 2400 =
rps n
s
40 =
reyn
6
10 3

× = µ
in D r 1 2 = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 20 of 63
( )( )
psi
LD
W
p 1250
2 2
5000
= = =
( )( )
10 . 0
1250
40 10 3
001 . 0
1
6
2
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ

( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
1257
12
2400 2
12
= = =
π π

Using Fig. AF 17 and AF 18

(a) Full Bearing

346 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

8 . 2 = f
c
r
r

( ) in h
o
000346 . 0 001 . 0 346 . 0 = =
8 . 2
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
0028 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 14 5000 0028 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 600 , 17 1257 14 lb ft Fv
m
− = =

(b) 180
o
Bearing

344 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

0 . 2 = f
c
r
r

( ) in h
o
000344 . 0 001 . 0 344 . 0 = =
0 . 2
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
0020 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 10 5000 0020 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 570 , 12 1257 10 lb ft Fv
m
− = =

(c) 120
o
Bearing

302 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 21 of 63
7 . 1 = f
c
r
r

( ) in h
o
000302 . 0 001 . 0 302 . 0 = =
7 . 1
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
0017 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 5 . 8 5000 0017 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 685 , 10 1257 5 . 8 lb ft Fv
m
− = =

(d) 60
o
Bearing

20 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

4 . 1 = f
c
r
r

( ) in h
o
0002 . 0 001 . 0 20 . 0 = =
4 . 1
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
0014 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 7 5000 0014 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 800 , 8 1257 7 lb ft Fv
m
− = =

564. A 120
o
partial bearing is to support 4500 lb. with . 002 . 0 in h
o
= ; 1 = D L ;
. 4 in D = ; . 010 . 0 in c
d
= ; rpm n 3600 = . Determine (a) the oil’s viscosity,(b)
the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (c) the eccentricity angle, (d) the needed oil
flow, (e) the end leakage, (f) the temperature rise of the oil as it passes
through, (g) the maximum pressure. (h) If the clearance given is the average,
what approximate class of fit (Table 3.1) is it? (i) What maximum impulsive
load would be on the bearing if the eccentricity ratio suddenly went to 0.8?
Ignore “squeeze” effect.

Solution:
lb W 4500 =
in h
o
002 . 0 =
1 = D L
in D 4 =
in L 4 =
in D r 2 2 = =
. 010 . 0 in c
d
=
rpm n 3600 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 22 of 63
rps n
s
60
60
3600
= =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
3770
12
3600 2
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
psi
LD
W
p 25 . 281
4 4
4500
= = =
( )
4 . 0
010 . 0
002 . 0 2 2
= = =
r
o
r
o
c
h
c
h

Table AT 22, 1 = D L , 4 . 0 =
r o
c h
162 . 0 = S
o
65 . 35 = φ
16 . 2 = f
c
r
r

24 . 2 =
L n rc
q
s r

384 . 0 =
q
q
s

0 . 15 =

p
t c
o
ρ

356 . 0
max
=
p
p


(a)
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
p
n
c
D
S
s
d
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
25 . 281
60
010 . 0
4
162 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
=
reyn
6
10 75 . 4

× = µ

(b) 16 . 2 = f
c
r
r

16 . 2 = f
c
D
d

16 . 2
010 . 0
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
0054 . 0 = f
( ) lb W f F 30 . 24 4500 0054 . 0 = = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 23 of 63
( )( ) min 611 , 91 3770 30 . 24 lb ft Fv
m
− = =

(c)
o
65 . 35 = φ

(d) 24 . 2
4
= =
L n Dc
q
L n rc
q
s d s r

( )( )( )( )
24 . 2
4 60 010 . 0 4
4
=
q

sec 4 . 5
3
in q =

(e) 384 . 0 =
q
q
s

( ) sec 07 . 2 4 . 5 384 . 0
3
in q
s
= =

(f) 0 . 15 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
0 . 15
25 . 281
112
=

o
t

F t
o
o
38 = ∆

(g) 356 . 0
max
=
p
p

psi p 790
356 . 0
25 . 281
max
= =

(h) in c
d
010 . 0 = , in D 4 =
Table 3.1
RC 8, Hole, average = + 0.0025
Shaft, average = - 0.00875
in c
d
010 . 0 01125 . 0 00875 . 0 0025 . 0 ≈ = + =
Class of fit = RC 9

(i) 80 . 0 = ε
Table AT 22, , 1 = D L
162 . 0 = S
p
n
c
D
S
s
d
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
p
60 10 3
010 . 0
4
0531 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
psi p 542 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 24 of 63
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 8672 4 4 542 = = =

565. A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb., . 3 in D = , . 003 . 0 in c
d
= ;
rpm n 3600 = ; SAE 20W entering at 110 F. Calculate (a) the average
temperature of the oil as it passes through,(b) the minimum film thickness, (c)
the fhp, (d) the quantity of oil to be supplied. HINT: In (a) assume µ and
determine the corresponding values of S and
o
t ∆ ; then 2
o i av
t t t ∆ + = . If
assumed µ and
av
t do not locate a point in Fig. AF 16 that falls on line for
SAE 20W, iterate.

Solution:
lb W 4500 =
in D 3 =
in L 3 =
1 = D L
. 003 . 0 in c
d
=
p
n
c
D
S
s
d
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
rps n
s
60
60
3600
= =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 500
3 3
4500
= = =
p
t c
o
∆ ρ
, (SAE 20W)

(a) Using Table AT22, 1 = D L , 112 = c ρ , F t
i
o
110 =

Trial µ t ,
o
F S
p
t c
o
∆ ρ

o
t ∆ 2
o i av
t t t ∆ + =
3.5 x 10
-6
130 0.42 19.8 88 154
2.0 x 10
-6
160 0.24 15.4 68 144
2.6 x 10
-6
145 0.312 17.7 79 149.5
2.35 x 10
-6
150 0.282 17.2 76 148
2.4 x 10
-6
149 0.288 17.3 78 149

∴ Use F t
av
o
149 =

(b) Table AT 22, 1 = D L , 288 . 0 = S

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 25 of 63
513 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

513 . 0
2
=
d
o
c
h

( ) 003 . 0 513 . 0 2 =
o
h
in h
o
00077 . 0 =

(c) Table At 22, 1 = D L , 288 . 0 = S
974 . 2 = f
c
r
r

974 . 2
003 . 0
3
= = f f
c
D
r

002974 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 383 . 13 4500 002974 . 0 = = =
000 , 33
m
Fv
fhp =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
2827
12
3600 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
15 . 1
000 , 33
2827 383 . 13
000 , 33
= = =

(d) Table At 22, 1 = D L , 288 . 0 = S

528 . 2 =
L n rc
q
s r

528 . 2
4
=
L n Dc
q
s d

( )( )( )( )
528 . 2
3 60 003 . 0 3
4
=
q

sec 024 . 1
3
in q =

566. The 6000-lb. reaction on an 8 x 4 –in., 180
o
partial bearing is centrally
applied; rpm n 1000 = ; in h
o
002 . 0 = . For an optimum bearing with minimum
friction determine (a) the clearance, (b) the oil’s viscosity, (c) the frictional
horsepower. (d) Choose a D c
d
ratio either smaller or larger than that
obtained in (a) and show that the friction loss is greater than that in the
optimum bearing. Other data remain the same.

Solution:
lb W 6000 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 26 of 63
in D 8 =
in L 4 =
rpm n 1000 =
rps n
s
67 . 16
60
1000
= =
2 1 = D L
in h
o
002 . 0 =

(a) Table AT 21, 2 1 = D L

Optimum value (minimum friction)
23 . 0 =
r o
c h
in c
r
0087 . 0
23 . 0
002 . 0
= =

(b) Table AT 21, 2 1 = D L , 23 . 0 =
r o
c h

126 . 0 = S
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 5 . 187
8 4
6000
= = =
in
D
r 4
2
= =
( )
5 . 187
67 . 16
0087 . 0
4
126 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
= = S
reyn
6
10 70 . 6

× = µ

(c) Table AT 21, 2 1 = D L , 23 . 0 =
r o
c h

97 . 2 = f
c
r
r

97 . 2
0087 . 0
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00646 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 76 . 38 6000 00646 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
2094
12
1000 8
12
= = =
π π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 27 of 63
( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
46 . 2
000 , 33
2094 76 . 38
000 , 33
= = =

For (a)
( )
0022 . 0
8
0087 . 0 2 2
= = =
D
c
D
c
r d

0022 . 0 >
D
c
d

0030 . 0 =
D
c
d

( ) in c
d
0240 . 0 8 0030 . 0 = =
in c
r
0120 . 0 =
1667 . 0
012 . 0
002 . 0
= =
r
o
c
h

Table AT 21, 2 1 = D L
67 . 1 = f
c
r
r

67 . 1
0016 . 0
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00668 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 08 . 40 6000 00668 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
2094
12
1000 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp hp
Fv
fhp
m
46 . 2 54 . 2
000 , 33
2094 08 . 40
000 , 33
> = = =

0022 . 0 <
D
c
d

0020 . 0 =
D
c
d

( ) in c
d
0160 . 0 8 0020 . 0 = =
in c
r
0080 . 0 =
25 . 0
008 . 0
002 . 0
= =
r
o
c
h

Table AT 21, 2 1 = D L
26 . 3 = f
c
r
r

26 . 3
0016 . 0
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00652 . 0 = f
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 28 of 63
( )( ) lb W f F 12 . 39 6000 00652 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
2094
12
1000 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp hp
Fv
fhp
m
46 . 2 48 . 2
000 , 33
2094 12 . 39
000 , 33
> = = =

567. A 120
o
partial bearing supports 3500 lb. when rpm n 250 = ; . 5 in D = ,
. 5 in L = ; reyn
6
10 3

× = µ . What are the clearance and minimum film
thickness for an optimum bearing (a) for maximum load, (b) for minimum
friction? (c) On the basis of the average clearance in Table 3.1, about what
class fit is involved? Would this fit be on the expensive or inexpensive side?
(d) Find the fhp for each optimum bearing.

Solution:

. 5 in D =
. 5 in L =
1 =
D
L

rpm n 250 =
rps n
s
17 . 4
60
250
= =
reyn
6
10 3

× = µ
lb W 3500 =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 140
5 5
3500
= = =

(a) Table AT 22, 1 =
D
L
, max. load 46 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

229 . 0 = S
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
in
D
r 5 . 2
2
= =
( )( )
140
17 . 4 10 0 . 3 5 . 2
229 . 0
6
2

×
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
r
c
S
in c
r
00156 . 0 =
( ) in c h
r o
00072 . 0 00156 . 0 46 . 0 46 . 0 = = =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 29 of 63
(b) Table AT 22, 1 =
D
L
, min. friction 40 . 0 =
r
o
c
h


162 . 0 = S
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
in
D
r 5 . 2
2
= =
( )( )
140
17 . 4 10 0 . 3 5 . 2
162 . 0
6
2

×
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
r
c
S
in c
r
00186 . 0 =
( ) in c h
r o
00074 . 0 00186 . 0 40 . 0 46 . 0 = = =

(c) ( ) in c
d
00312 . 0 00156 . 0 2
1
= =
( ) in c
d
00372 . 0 00186 . 0 2
2
= =
Use Class RC4, ave. in c
d
00320 . 0 = , expensive side

(d) Table AT 22, 1 =
D
L
, max. load 46 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

592 . 2 = f
c
r
r

592 . 2
00156 . 0
5 . 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00162 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 67 . 5 3500 00162 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
25 . 327
12
250 5
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
0562 . 0
000 , 33
25 . 327 67 . 5
000 , 33
= = =

For minimum friction, 40 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

16 . 2 = f
c
r
r

16 . 2
00186 . 0
5 . 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00161 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 635 . 5 3500 00161 . 0 = = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 30 of 63
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
25 . 327
12
250 5
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
0559 . 0
000 , 33
25 . 327 635 . 5
000 , 33
= = =

570. A 180
o
partial bearing is to support 17,000 lb. with psi p 200 = ,
rpm n 1500 = , in h
o
003 . 0 = , 1 = D L . (a) Determine the clearance for an
optimum bearing with minimum friction. (b) Taking this clearance as the
average, choose a fit (Table 3.1) that is approximately suitable. (c) Select an
oil for an average temperature of 150 F. (d) Compute fhp.

Solution:

lb W 000 , 17 =
psi p 200 =
rpm n 1500 =
rps n
s
25
60
1500
= =
1 = D L
D L =
DL
W
p =
2
000 , 17
200
D
=
in L D 22 . 9 = =
in
D
r 61 . 4
2
22 . 9
2
= = =
(a) For optimum bearing with minimum friction

Table AT 21, 1 = D L , 44 . 0 =
r o
c h
44 . 0 =
r o
c h
44 . 0
003 . 0
=
r
c

in c
r
00682 . 0 =

(b) Table 3.1, in D 22 . 9 =
( ) in c c
r d
01364 . 0 00682 . 0 2 2 = = =
Use Class RC7, average in c
d
01065 . 0 =
Or use Class RC8, average in c
d
01575 . 0 =
(c) Table AT 21, 1 = D L , 44 . 0 =
r o
c h
158 . 0 = S
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 31 of 63
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
200
25
00682 . 0
61 . 4
158 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
=
reyn
6
10 8 . 2

× = µ
Fig. AF 16, at 150 F
Use Either SAE 20W or SAE 30.

(d) Table AT 21, 1 = D L , 44 . 0 =
r o
c h
546 . 2 = f
c
r
r

546 . 2
00682 . 0
61 . 4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00377 . 0 = f
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
3621
12
1500 22 . 9
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) lb W f F 09 . 64 000 , 17 00377 . 0 = = =
( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
0 . 7
000 , 33
3621 09 . 64
000 , 33
= = =

571. The reaction on a 120
o
partial bearing is 2000 lb. The 3-in journal turns at
1140 rpm; . 003 . 0 in c
d
= ; the oil is SAE 20W at an average operating
temperature of 150 F. Plot curves for the minimum film thickness and the
frictional loss in the bearing against the ratio D L , using = D L 0.25, 0.5, 1,
and 2. (Note: This problem may be worked as a class problem with each
student being responsible for a particular D L ratio.)

Solution:
lb W 2000 =
. 3 in D =
rpm n 1140 =
rps n
s
19
60
1140
= =
in c
d
003 . 0 =
in c
r
0015 . 0 =
For SAE 20W, 150 F
reyn
6
10 75 . 2

× = µ

(a) 25 . 0 =
D
L

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 32 of 63
( ) in D L 75 . 0 3 25 . 0 25 . 0 = = =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 889
75 . 0 3
2000
= = =
Table AT 22, 25 . 0 =
D
L

in
D
r 5 . 1
2
= =
( )( )
0588 . 0
889
19 10 75 . 2
0015 . 0
5 . 1
6
2
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ

083 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

( ) in h
o
000125 . 0 0015 . 0 083 . 0 = =
193 . 2 = f
c
r
r

193 . 2
0015 . 0
5 . 1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
002193 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 386 . 4 2000 002193 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
895
12
1140 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
119 . 0
000 , 33
895 386 . 4
000 , 33
= = =
(b) 5 . 0 =
D
L

( ) in D L 5 . 1 3 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 444
5 . 1 3
2000
= = =
Table AT 22, 5 . 0 =
D
L

in
D
r 5 . 1
2
= =
( )( )
1177 . 0
444
19 10 75 . 2
0015 . 0
5 . 1
6
2
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ

2159 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

( ) in h
o
000324 . 0 0015 . 0 2159 . 0 = =
35 . 2 = f
c
r
r

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 33 of 63
35 . 2
0015 . 0
5 . 1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00235 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 7 . 4 2000 00235 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
895
12
1140 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
1275 . 0
000 , 33
895 7 . 4
000 , 33
= = =
(c) 1 =
D
L

in D L 3 = =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 222
3 3
2000
= = =
Table AT 22, 1 =
D
L

in
D
r 5 . 1
2
= =
( )( )
2354 . 0
222
19 10 75 . 2
0015 . 0
5 . 1
6
2
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ

4658 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

( ) in h
o
000699 . 0 0015 . 0 4658 . 0 = =
634 . 2 = f
c
r
r

634 . 2
0015 . 0
5 . 1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
002634 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 268 . 5 2000 002634 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
895
12
1140 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
1429 . 0
000 , 33
895 268 . 5
000 , 33
= = =
(d) 2 =
D
L

( ) in D L 6 3 2 2 = = =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 111
6 3
2000
= = =
Table AT 22, 2 =
D
L

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 34 of 63
in
D
r 5 . 1
2
= =
( )( )
47 . 0
111
19 10 75 . 2
0015 . 0
5 . 1
6
2
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ

718 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

( ) in h
o
00108 . 0 0015 . 0 718 . 0 = =
8118 . 3 = f
c
r
r

8118 . 3
0015 . 0
5 . 1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
003812 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 624 . 7 2000 003812 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
895
12
1140 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
2068 . 0
000 , 33
895 624 . 7
000 , 33
= = =

D
L
in h
o
, fhp
0.25 0.000125 0.119
0.5 0.000324 0.128
1.0 0.000699 0.143
2.0 0.001080 0.207


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 35 of 63
STEADY-STATE TEMPERATURE

572. A 180
o
partial bearing is subjected to a load of 12,000 lb.; . 8 8 in L D × = × ,
0015 . 0 = r c
r
, . 0024 . 0 in h
o
≈ , rpm n 500 = . The air speed about the bearing
is expected to be in excess of 1000 fpm (on moving vehicle) and the effective
radiating area is DL 20 . Determine: (a) the eccentricity factor, (b) µreyns, (c)
the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (d) the estimated temperature of oil and bearing
( a self-contained oil-bath unit) for steady-state operation, and a suitable
oil.(e) Compute
o
t ∆ of the oil passing through the load-carrying area, remark
on its reasonableness, and decide upon whether some redesign is desirable.

Solution:
. 8 in D =
. 8 in L =
1 = D L
lb W 000 , 12 =
in
D
r 4
2
= =
( ) in r c
r
0060 . 0 4 0015 . 0 0015 . 0 = = =
4 . 0
0060 . 0
0024 . 0
= =
r
o
c
h

rpm n 500 =
rps n
s
33 . 8
60
500
= =
Table AT 21, 4 . 0 =
r o
c h , 1 = D L
128 . 0 = S
28 . 2 = f
c
r
r

4 . 12 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 5 . 187
8 8
000 , 12
= = =

(a) 6 . 0 4 . 0 1 1 = − = − =
r
o
c
h
ε
(b)
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
5 . 187
33 . 8
0060 . 0
4
128 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
= = S
reyn
6
10 5 . 6

× = µ
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 36 of 63
(c) 28 . 2 = f
c
r
r

28 . 2
0060 . 0
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00342 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 04 . 41 000 , 12 00342 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
1047
12
500 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
302 . 1
000 , 33
1047 04 . 41
000 , 33
= = =
Frictional loss = 43,000 ft-lb/min

(d)
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ = ft-lb/min
min 000 , 43 lb ft Q − =
r c cr
h h h + =
F in sq lb ft h
r
− − − = . . min 108 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0
017 . 0
D
v
h
a
c
= , fpm v
a
1000 ≥
( )
( )
F in sq lb ft h
c
− − − = = . . min 467 . 0
8
1000
017 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0

F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = + = . . min 575 . 0 108 . 0 467 . 0
( )( ) . . 1280 8 8 20 20 in sq DL A
b
= = =
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
( )( )( )
b
t ∆ = 1280 575 . 0 000 , 43
F t
b
42 . 58 = ∆
Oil-bath, 1000 fpm
( )( )( )
b oa
t t ∆ ≈ ∆ 3 . 1 2 . 1
( )( )( ) F t
oa
1 . 91 42 . 58 3 . 1 2 . 1 = = ∆
assume 100 F ambient temperature
F F t
b
42 . 158 42 . 58 100 = + =
F F t
b
1 . 191 1 . 91 100 = + =

(c) 4 . 12 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
4 . 12
5 . 187
112
=

o
t

F t
o
8 . 20 = ∆
Solve for
2 o
t
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 37 of 63
( ) F t t
o o
2 . 382 1 . 191 2
2 1
= = +
2 1
2 . 382
o o
t t − =
F t t
o o
8 . 20
1 2
= −
8 . 20 2 . 362
2 2
= + −
o o
t t
F F t
o
200 5 . 201
2
≈ =
∴ not reasonable since the oil oxidizes more rapidly above 200 F, a redesign is
desireable.

573. A 2 x 2-in. full bearing (ring-oiled) has a clearance ratio 001 . 0 = D c
d
. The
journal speed is 500 rpm, reyn
6
10 4 . 3

× = µ , and . 0005 . 0 in h
o
= The ambient
temperature is 100 F; DL A
b
25 = , and the transmittance is taken as
F ft sq hr Btu h
cr
− − = . . 2 . Calculate (a) the total load for this condition; (b)
the frictional loss, (c) the average temperature of the oil for steady-state
operation. Is this temperature satisfactory? (d) For the temperature found,
what oil do you recommend? For this oil will
o
h be less or greater than the
specified value? (e) Compute the temperature rise of the oil as it passes
through the bearing. Is this compatible with other temperatures found? (f)
What minimum quantity of oil should the ring deliver to the bearing?

Solution:
. 2 in L =
. 2 in D =
001 . 0 = D c
d

( )( ) in c
d
0020 . 0 2 001 . 0 = =
reyn
6
10 4 . 3

× = µ
. 0005 . 0 in h
o
=
in c
r
0010 . 0 =

5 . 0 0010 . 0 0005 . 0 = =
r o
c h

Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 5 . 0 =
r o
c h , Full Bearing
1925 . 0 = S
505 . 4 = f
c
r
r

16 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

25 . 19 =

p
t c
o
ρ


(a) 1925 . 0 = S
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 38 of 63
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
in
D
r 1
2
= =
rps n
s
33 . 8
60
500
= =
( )( )
p
S
330 . 8 10 4 . 3
0010 . 0
1
1925 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
psi p 147 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 588 2 2 147 = = =

(b) 505 . 4 = f
c
r
r

505 . 4
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
004505 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 649 . 2 588 004505 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
8 . 261
12
500 2
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 5 . 693 8 . 261 649 . 2 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =

(c)
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
F in sq lb ft F ft sq hr Btu h
cr
− − − = − − = . . min 18 . 0 . . 2
( )( ) . . 100 2 2 25 25 in sq DL A
b
= = =
f
U Q =
( )( )( ) 5 . 693 100 18 . 0 = ∆
b
t
F t
b
53 . 38 = ∆
( ) F t t
b oa
77 53 . 38 2 2 = = ∆ = ∆
F t
o
177 100 77 = + = , near 160 F
∴ satisfactory.

(d) F t
o
177 = , reyn
6
10 4 . 3

× = µ
Figure AF 16
Use SAE 40 oil, reyn
6
10 3 . 3

× = µ
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 39 of 63
( )( )
187 . 0
147
33 . 8 10 3 . 3
0010 . 0
1
6
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=

S
Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 187 . 0 = S
4923 . 0 =
r o
c h
( ) ( ) in h in h
o o
0005 . 0 00049 . 0 0010 . 0 4923 . 0 = < = =
(e) 25 . 19 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
25 . 19
147
112
=

o
t

F t
o
3 . 25 = ∆
( ) F t t
o o
354 177 2
2 1
= = ∆ + ∆
F t t
o o
3 . 25
1 2
= ∆ − ∆
3 . 25 354 2
2
+ = ∆
o
t
F F t
o
200 190
2
< = ∆
∴ compatible.

(f) 16 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( )
16 . 4
2 33 . 8 001 . 0 1
=
q

sec 0693 . 0
3
in q =

574. An 8 x 9-in. full bearing (consider 1 = D L for table and chart use only)
supports 15 kips with rpm n 1200 = ; 0012 . 0 = r c
r
; construction is medium
heavy with a radiating-and-convecting area of about DL 18 ; air flow about the
bearing of 80 fpm may be counted on (nearby) pulley; ambient temperature is
90 F. Decide upon a suitable minimum film thickness. (a) Compute the
frictional loss and the steady state temperature. Is additional cooling needed
for a reasonable temperature? Determine (b) the temperature rise of the oil as
it passes through the load-carrying area and the grade of oil to be used if it
enters the bearing at 130 F, (c) the quantity of oil needed.

Solution:
. 8 in D =
. 9 in L =
. 000 , 15 lb W =
. 1200 rpm n =
rps n
s
20
60
1200
= =
0012 . 0 = r c
r

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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 40 of 63
in D r 4 2 = =
( ) in c
r
0048 . 0 4 0012 . 0 = =
By Norton: ( ) in D h
o
002 . 0 8 00025 . 0 00025 . 0 = = =
4 . 0
0048 . 0
002 . 0
= =
r
o
c
h

Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 4 . 0 =
r o
c h
121 . 0 = S
22 . 3 = f
c
r
r

33 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

2 . 14 =

p
t c
o
ρ


(a) 22 . 3 = f
c
r
r

22 . 3
0048 . 0
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
003864 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 96 . 57 000 , 15 003864 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
2513
12
1200 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 654 , 145 2513 96 . 57 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
F in sq lb ft h
r
− − − = . . min 108 . 0
F in sq lb ft
D
v
h
a
c
− − − = . . min 017 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0

( )
( )
F in sq lb ft h
c
− − − = = . . min 103 . 0
8
80
017 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0

F in sq lb ft h h h
r c cr
− − − = + = + = . . min 211 . 0 108 . 0 103 . 0
( )( ) . . 1296 9 8 18 18 in sq DL A
b
= = =
Q U
f
=
( )( )
b
t ∆ = 1296 211 . 0 654 , 145
F t
b
533 = ∆ , very high, additional cooling is necessary.

(b) 2 . 14 =

p
t c
o
ρ

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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 41 of 63
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 208
9 8
000 , 15
= = =
( )
2 . 14
208
112
=

o
t

F t
o
26 = ∆
F t
i
130 =
F t
o
156 =
( ) F t
ave
143 156 130
2
1
= + =
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
208
20
0048 . 0
4
121 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
= = S
reyn
6
10 8 . 1

× = µ
Figure AF 16, reyns µ µ 8 . 1 = , 143 F
Use SAE 10W

(c) 33 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( )
33 . 4
9 20 0048 . 0 4
=
q

sec 96 . 14
3
in q =

575. A 3.5 x 3.5-in., 360
o
bearing has 0012 . 0 = r c
r
; rpm n 300 = ; desired
minimum in h
o
0007 . 0 ≈ . It is desired that the bearing be self-contained (oil-
ring); air-circulation of 80 fpm is expected; heavy construction, so that
DL A
b
25 ≈ . For the first look at the bearing, assume reyn
6
10 8 . 2

× = µ and
compute (a) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (b) the average temperature of the
bearing and oil as obtained for steady-state operation, (c)
o
t ∆ as the oil passes
through the load-carrying area (noting whether comparative values are
reasonable). (d) Select an oil for the steady-state temperature and decide
whether there will be any overheating troubles.

Solution:
. 5 . 3 in D =
. 5 . 3 in L =
0012 . 0 = r c
r

. 75 . 1 2 in D r = =
( )( ) in c
r
0021 . 0 75 . 1 0012 . 0 = =
in h
o
0007 . 0 ≈
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 42 of 63
333 . 0 0021 . 0 0007 . 0 = =
r o
c h
Table AT 20, 360
o
Bearing, 1 = D L , 333 . 0 =
r o
c h
0954 . 0 = S
71 . 2 = f
c
r
r

12 . 12 =

p
t c
o
ρ


(a)
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
rps n
s
5
60
300
= =
reyn
6
10 8 . 2

× = µ
( )( )
p
S
5 10 8 . 2
0021 . 0
75 . 1
0954 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
psi p 102 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 1250 5 . 3 5 . 3 102 = = =
71 . 2 = f
c
r
r

71 . 2
0021 . 0
75 . 1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00325 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 0625 . 4 1250 00325 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
275
12
300 5 . 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 1117 275 0625 . 4 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =

(b)
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
F in sq lb ft h
r
− − − = . . min 108 . 0
F in sq lb ft
D
v
h
a
c
− − − = . . min 017 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0

( )
( )
F in sq lb ft h
c
− − − = = . . min 143 . 0
5 . 3
80
017 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0

F in sq lb ft h h h
r c cr
− − − = + = + = . . min 251 . 0 108 . 0 143 . 0
( )( ) . . 25 . 306 5 . 3 5 . 3 25 25 in sq DL A
b
= = =
Q U
f
=
( )( )
b
t ∆ = 25 . 306 251 . 0 1117
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 43 of 63
F t
b
5 . 14 = ∆
( ) F t t
b oa
29 5 . 14 2 2 = = ∆ = ∆
assume ambient temperature of 100 F
F t
b
5 . 114 =
F t
o
129 =

(c) 12 . 12 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
12 . 12
102
112
=

o
t

F t
o
11 = ∆
( ) F t t
o o
258 129 2
2 1
= = +
F t t
o o
11
1 2
= −
F t
o
269 2
2
=
F F t
o
140 135
2
< =
∴ reasonable

(d) F t
o
129 = , reyn
6
10 8 . 2

× = µ
use SAE 10W
Figure AF 16, F t
o
126 =
F t
oa
26 100 126 = − = ∆
b oa
t t ∆ = ∆ 2
F t
b
13
2
26
= = ∆
( )( )( )
f b b cr
U lb ft t A h Q < − = = ∆ = min 999 13 25 . 306 251 . 0
∴ there is an overheating problem.

576. A 10-in. full journal for a steam-turbine rotor that turns 3600 rpm supports a
20-kip load with psi p 200 = ; 00133 . 0 = r c
r
. The oil is to have
reyn
6
10 06 . 2

× = µ at an average oil temperature of 130 F. Compute (a) the
minimum film thickness (comment on its adequacy), (b) the fhp, (c) the
altitude angle, the maximum pressure, and the quantity of oil that passes
through the load-carrying area (gpm).(d) At what temperature must the oil be
introduced in order to have 130 F average? (e) Estimate the amount of heat
lost by natural means from the bearing (considered oil bath) with air speed of
300 fpm. If the amount of oil flow computed above is cooled back to the
entering temperature, how much heat is removed? Is this total amount of heat
enough to care for frictional loss? If not, what can be done (i11.21)?

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 44 of 63
Solution:
. 10 in D =
rpm n 3600 =
rps n
s
60
60
3600
= =
lb W 000 , 20 =
psi p 200 =
DL
W
p =
L 10
000 , 20
200 =
in L 10 =
1 = D L
in
D
r 5
2
= =
00133 . 0 = r c
r

( ) in c
r
00665 . 0 5 00133 . 0 = =
reyn
6
10 06 . 2

× = µ
F t
ave
130 =
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
35 . 0
200
60 10 06 . 2
00665 . 0
5
6
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=

S
Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 35 . 0 = S
647 . 0 =
r o
c h
o
66 . 65 = φ
433 . 7 = f
c
r
r

90 . 3 =
L n rc
q
s r

495 . 0
max
=
p
p

8 . 30 =

p
t c
o
ρ

446 . 0 =
q
q
s


(a) ( ) in c h
r o
00430 . 0 00665 . 0 647 . 0 647 . 0 = = =
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 45 of 63
Norton’s recommendation = ( ) in in D 00430 . 0 00250 . 0 10 00025 . 0 00025 . 0 < = =
∴ adequate

(b) 433 . 7 = f
c
r
r

433 . 7
00665 . 0
5
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
0099 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 198 000 , 20 0099 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
9425
12
3600 10
12
= = =
π π

( )( )
hp
Fv
fhp
m
55 . 56
000 , 33
9425 198
000 , 33
= = =

(c)
o
66 . 65 = φ
psi
p
p 404
495 . 0
200
495 . 0
max
= = =
L n rc q
s r
90 . 3 =
( )( )( )( ) sec 805 . 77 10 60 00665 . 0 5 90 . 3
3
in q = =
( )( )( ) gpm in gpm in q 21 . 0 min sec 60 231 1 sec 805 . 77
3 3
= =

(d) 8 . 30 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
8 . 30
200
112
=

o
t

F t
o
55 = ∆
2
o
i ave
t
t t

+ =
2
55
130 + =
i
t
F t
i
5 . 102 =
(e)
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
F in sq lb ft h
r
− − − = . . min 108 . 0
F in sq lb ft
D
v
h
a
c
− − − = . . min 017 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0

( )
( )
F in sq lb ft h
c
− − − = = . . min 207 . 0
5 . 3
300
017 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0

F in sq lb ft h h h
r c cr
− − − = + = + = . . min 315 . 0 108 . 0 207 . 0
Assume
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 46 of 63
( )( ) . . 2500 10 10 25 25 in sq DL A
b
= = =
F t
oa
30 100 130 = − = ∆
b oa
t t ∆ = ∆ 3 . 1
F t
b
23
3 . 1
30
= = ∆
( )( )( ) min 113 , 18 23 2500 315 . 0 lb ft Q − = =
( ) sec lb in t q q c Q
o s r
− ∆ − = ρ
( )( )( )( )( )( ) min 602 , 327 , 1 60 12 1 55 805 . 77 446 . 0 1 112 lb ft Q
r
− = − =
min 735 , 345 , 1 602 , 327 , 1 113 , 18 lb ft Q Q Q
r T
− = + = + =
( )( )
T m f
Q lb ft Fv U > − = = = min 150 , 866 , 1 9425 198
not enough to care for frictional loss, use pressure feed (i11.21).

DESIGN PROBLEMS

578. A 3.5-in. full bearing on an air compressor is to be designed for a load of 1500
lb.; rpm n 300 = ; let 1 = D L . Probably a medium running for would be
satisfactory. Design for an average clearance that is decided by considering both
Table 3.1 and 11.1. Choose a reasonable
o
h , say one that gives 5 . 0 ≈
r o
c h .
Compute all parameters that are available via the Text after you have decided on
details. It is desired that the bearing operate at a reasonable steady-state
temperature (perhaps ring-oiled medium construction), without special cooling.
Specify the oil to be used and show all calculations to support your conclusions.
What could be the magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity
ration ε becomes 0.8, “squeeze” effect ignored?

Solution:
1 = D L
in D 5 . 3 =
in L 5 . 3 =
lb W 1500 =
rpm n 300 =
rps n
s
5
60
300
= =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 45 . 122
5 . 3 5 . 3
1500
= = =
Table 3.1, medium running fit,
in D 5 . 3 =
RC 5 or RC 6
Use RC 6
Average in c
d
0052 . 0 =
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 47 of 63
Table 11.1, air-compressor
General Machine Practice
Average in c
d
0055 . 0 =
Using in c
d
0055 . 0 =
in c
r
00275 . 0 =
( ) in c h
r o
001375 . 0 00275 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 5 . 0 =
r o
c h
5 . 0 = ε
1925 . 0 = S
o
84 . 56 = φ
505 . 4 = f
c
r
r

16 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

25 . 19 =

p
t c
o
ρ

4995 . 0
max
=
p
p

Specifying oil:
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
m f
Fv U =
505 . 4 = f
c
r
r

505 . 4
00275 . 0
75 . 1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00708 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 62 . 10 1500 00708 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
275
12
300 5 . 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 2921 275 62 . 10 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
Assume F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 516 . 0
Medium construction
( )( ) . . 875 . 189 5 . 3 5 . 3 5 . 15 5 . 15 in sq DL A
b
= = =
Oil-ring bearing
b oa
t t ∆ = ∆ 2
f
U Q =
( )( )( ) 2921 875 . 189 516 . 0 = ∆
b
t
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 48 of 63
F t
b
30 = ∆
( ) F t t
b oa
60 30 2 2 = = ∆ = ∆
assume ambient temperature = 90 F
F t
o
150 =
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
45 . 122
5
00275 . 0
75 . 1
1925 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
= = S
reyn
6
10 6 . 11

× = µ
Figure AF 16, 150 F, reyn
6
10 6 . 11

× ≈ µ
Use SAE 70 oil

Maximum load, W with 8 . 0 = ε
Table AT 20, 1 = D L
0446 . 0 = S
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
p
S
5 10 6 . 11
00275 . 0
75 . 1
0446 . 0
6
2

×
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
psi p 527 =
( )( )( ) 6456 5 . 3 5 . 3 527 = = = pDL W

580. A 2500-kva generator, driven by a water wheel, operates at 900 rpm. The weight
of the rotor and shaft is 15,100 lb. The left-hand, 5 –in, full bearing supports the
larger load, lb R 8920 = . The bearing should be above medium-heavy
construction (for estimating
b
A ). (a) Decide upon an average clearance
considering both Table 3.1 and 11.1, and upon a minimum film thickness
( 5 . 0 ≈
r o
c h is on the safer side). (b) Investigate first the possibility of the
bearing being a self-contained unit without need of special cooling. Not much air
movement about the bearing is expected. Then make final decisions concerning
oil-clearance, and film thickness and compute all the parameters given in the text,
being sure that everything is reasonable.

Solution:
rpm n 900 =
rps n
s
15
60
900
= =
in D 5 =
lb R W 8920 = =

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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 49 of 63
(a) Table 3.1, in D 5 =
RC 5, average in c
d
0051 . 0 =
in c
r
00255 . 0 =
( ) in c h
r o
00128 . 0 00255 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =

(b) Use 1 = D L
in L 5 =
in
D
r 5 . 2
2
= =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 8 . 356
5 5
8920
= = =
Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 5 . 0 =
r o
c h
1925 . 0 = S
505 . 4 = f
c
r
r

16 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

25 . 19 =

p
t c
o
ρ

p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
8 . 356
15
00255 . 0
5 . 2
1925 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
= = S
reyn
6
10 8 . 4

× = µ
505 . 4 = f
c
r
r

505 . 4
00255 . 0
5 . 2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00460 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 032 . 41 8920 00460 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
1178
12
900 5
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 336 , 48 1178 032 . 41 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
Medium-Heavy
( )( ) . . 25 . 506 5 5 25 . 20 25 . 20 in sq DL A
b
= = =
Assume F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 516 . 0
f
U Q =
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 50 of 63
( )( )( ) 336 , 48 25 . 506 516 . 0 = ∆
b
t
F t
b
185 = ∆ , very high
Therefore, special cooling is needed.
25 . 19 =

p
t c
o
ρ

( )
25 . 19
8 . 356
112
=

o
t

F t
o
61 = ∆
Assume F t
i
100 =
F t
ave
130
2
61
100 ≈ + =
Figure AF 16, reyns µ µ 8 . 4 = , 130 F
Select SAE 30 oil. reyns µ µ 0 . 6 =
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
242 . 0
8 . 356
15 10 0 . 6
00255 . 0
5 . 2
6
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=

S
Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 242 . 0 = S
SAE 30 oil at 130 F
569 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

o
17 . 61 = φ
395 . 5 = f
c
r
r

04 . 4 =
L n rc
q
s r

75 . 22 =

p
t c
o
ρ

4734 . 0
max
=
p
p

Oil, SAE 30
in c
r
00255 . 0 =
( ) in h
o
00145 . 0 00255 . 0 569 . 0 = =

PRESSURE FEED

581. An 8 x 8-in. full bearing supports 5 kips at 600 rpm of the journal; . 006 . 0 in c
r
= ;
let the average reyn
6
10 5 . 2

× = µ . (a) Compute the frictional loss
f
U . (b) The
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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 51 of 63
oil is supplied under a 40-psi gage pressure with a longitudinal groove at the
point of entry. Assuming that other factors, including
f
U , remain the same and
that the heat loss to the surrounding is negligible, determine the average
temperature rise of the circulating oil.

Solution:
in L 5 =
in D 5 =
lb W 5000 =
rpm n 600 =
rps n
s
10
60
600
= =
in c
r
006 . 0 =
reyn
6
10 5 . 2

× = µ
1 = D L
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 125 . 78
8 8
5000
= = =
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
1422 . 0
125 . 78
10 10 5 . 2
006 . 0
4
6
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=

S

(a) Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 1422 . 0 = S
6 . 3 = f
c
r
r
, 57 . 0 = ε
6 . 3
006 . 0
4
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
0054 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 27 5000 0054 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
1257
12
600 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 940 , 33 1257 27 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =

(b) Longitudinal Groove.
( ) sec 5 . 1 1
2
tan
3
5 . 2
3 2 1
3
in
L
r p c
q
i r
ε
π
µ
+
|
¹
|

\
|
=


psi p
i
40 =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) [ ] sec 57 . 0 5 . 1 1
8
4 2
tan
10 5 . 2 3
40 006 . 0
5 . 2
3 2 1
6
3
in q +
(
¸
(

¸

×
=


π

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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 52 of 63
sec 41 . 5
3
in q =
o f
t cq U ∆ = ρ
( )( )( ) ( )( )
o
t ft in lb ft ∆ = − 41 . 5 12 sec 60 min 1 12 min 940 , 33
F t
o
2 . 11 = ∆

583. A 4-in. 360
o
bearing, with 1 = D L , supports 2.5 kips with a minimum film of
. 0008 . 0 in h
o
= , . 01 . 0 in c
d
= , . 600 rpm n = The average temperature rise of the oil
is to be about 25 F. Compute the pressure at which oil should be pumped into the
bearing if (a) all bearing surfaces are smooth, (b) there is a longitudinal groove at
the oil-hole inlet. (c) same as (a) except that there is a 360
o
circumferential
groove dividing the bearing into 2-in. lengths.

Solution:
in D 4 =
in L 4 =
in r 2 =
lb W 2500 =
in c
d
010 . 0 =
in c
r
005 . 0 =
rpm n 600 =
rps n
s
10
60
600
= =
F t
o
25 = ∆
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 25 . 156
4 4
2500
= = =
in h
o
00080 . 0 =
16 . 0
005 . 0
0008 . 0
= =
r
o
c
h

Table AT 20, 1 = D L , 16 . 0 =
r o
c h
44 . 1 = f
c
r
r
, 84 . 0 = ε
44 . 1
005 . 0
2
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
0036 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 9 2500 0036 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
628
12
600 4
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) sec 1130 min 5652 628 9 lb in lb ft Fv U
m f
− = − = = =
0343 . 0 = S
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 53 of 63
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
25 . 156
10
005 . 0
2
0343 . 0
2
µ
|
¹
|

\
|
= = S
reyn
6
10 35 . 3

× = µ
o f
t cq U ∆ = ρ
( )( )( ) 25 112 1130 q =
sec 404 . 0
3
in q =

(a) Smooth

( ) sec 5 . 1 1
2
tan
3
3 2 1
3
in
L
r p c
q
i r
ε
π
µ
+
|
¹
|

\
|
=


( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) [ ] sec 84 . 0 5 . 1 1
4
2 2
tan
10 35 . 3 3
005 . 0
404 . 0
3 2 1
6
3
in
p
i
+
(
¸
(

¸

×
=


π

psi p
i
5 . 12 =
(b) Longitudinal groove

( ) sec 5 . 1 1
2
tan
3
5 . 2
3 2 1
3
in
L
r p c
q
i r
ε
π
µ
+
|
¹
|

\
|
=


( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) [ ] sec 84 . 0 5 . 1 1
4
2 2
tan
10 35 . 3 3
005 . 0 5 . 2
404 . 0
3 2 1
6
3
in
p
i
+
(
¸
(

¸

×
=


π

psi p
i
5 =
(c) Circumferential groove

( ) sec 5 . 1 1
3
2
3 2
3
in
L
p rc
q
i r
ε
µ
π
+ =
( )( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) [ ] sec 84 . 0 5 . 1 1
4 10 35 . 3 3
005 . 0 2 2
404 . 0
3 2
6
3
in
p
i
+
×
=

π

psi p
i
5 =

BEARING CAPS

584. An 8-in. journal, supported on a 150
o
partial bearing, is turning at 500 rpm;
bearing length = 10.5 in., in c
d
0035 . 0 = ., in h
o
00106 . 0 = . The average
temperature of the SAE 20 oil is 170 F. Estimate the frictional loss in a 160
o
cap
for this bearing.

Solution:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 54 of 63
in h
o
00106 . 0 =
in c
d
0035 . 0 =
in c
r
00175 . 0 =
in
c
h
c h
r
o
r av
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
− + =
2
1 74 . 0 1
( ) in h
av
00195 . 0
00175 . 0
00106 . 0
1 74 . 0 1 00175 . 0
2
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− + =
For SAE 20, 170 F
reyn
6
10 7 . 1

× = µ
av
ips
h
Av
F
µ
=
DL A θ
2
1
=
in D 8 =
in L 5 . 10 =
9
8
180
160
160
π
π θ = = =
o

( )( ) . . 3 . 117 5 . 10 8
9
8
2
1
in sq A =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

( ) ips Dn v
s ips
5 . 209
60
500
8 =
|
¹
|

\
|
= = π π
( )( )( )
lb F 424 . 21
00195 . 0
5 . 209 3 . 117 10 7 . 1
6
=
×
=


( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
1047
12
500 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) sec 1130 min 430 , 22 1047 424 . 21 lb in lb ft Fv U
m f
− = − = = =

585. A partial 160
o
bearing has a 160
o
cap; in D 2 = .,
in L 2 = ., in c
d
002 . 0 = ., in h
o
0007 . 0 = ., rpm n 500 = , and reyn
6
10 5 . 2

× = µ .
For the cap only, what is the frictional loss?

Solution:
in c
d
002 . 0 =
in c
r
001 . 0 =
in h
o
0007 . 0 =
7 . 0
001 . 0
0007 . 0
= =
r
o
c
h

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 55 of 63
3 . 0 7 . 0 1 1 = − = − =
r
o
c
h
ε
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] in c h
r av
001067 . 0 3 . 0 74 . 0 1 001 . 0 74 . 0 1
2 2
= + = + = ε
av
ips
h
Av
F
µ
=
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
8 . 261
12
500 2
12
= = =
π π

( ) ips v
ips
36 . 52
60
12
8 . 261 =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )( ) . . 585 . 5 2 2
180
160
2
1
180
160
2
1
in sq DL A =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= π π
( )( )( )
lb F 685 . 0
001067 . 0
36 . 52 585 . 5 10 5 . 2
6
=
×
=


( )( ) min 3 . 179 8 . 261 685 . 0 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =

586. The central reaction on a 120
o
partial bearing is 10 kips; in D 8 = .,
1 = D L ., 001 . 0 = r c
r
. Let rpm n 400 = and reyn
6
10 4 . 3

× = µ . The bearing has
a 150
o
cap. (a) For the bearing and the cap, compute the total frictional loss by
adding the loss in the cap to that in the bearing. (b) If the bearing were 360
o
,
instead of partial, calculate the frictional loss and compare.

Solution:
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
rps n
s
67 . 6
60
400
= =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 25 . 156
8 8
000 , 10
= = =
( )( )
145 . 0
25 . 156
67 . 6 10 4 . 3
001 . 0
1
6
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=

S
(a) Table AT 22, 1 = D L , 145 . 0 = S
021 . 2 = f
c
r
r

6367 . 0 = ε
021 . 2 = f
c
r
r

021 . 2
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
002021 . 0 = f
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 56 of 63
( )( ) lb W f F 21 . 20 000 , 10 002021 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
838
12
400 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 936 , 16 838 21 . 20
1
lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =
CAP:
( )
2
74 . 0 1 ε + =
r av
c h
r c
r
001 . 0 =
in
D
r 4
2
= =
( ) in c
r
004 . 0 4 001 . 0 = =
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] in c h
r av
0052 . 0 6367 . 0 74 . 0 1 004 . 0 74 . 0 1
2 2
= + = + = ε
av
ips
h
Av
F
µ
=
( ) ips v
ips
6 . 167
60
12
838 =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )( ) . . 78 . 83 8 8
180
150
2
1
180
150
2
1
in sq DL A =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= π π
( )( )( )
lb F 18 . 9
0052 . 0
6 . 167 78 . 83 10 4 . 3
6
=
×
=


( )( ) min 7693 838 18 . 9
2
lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =
Total Frictional Loss
= min 629 , 24 7693 936 , 16
2 1
lb ft U U
f f
− = + = +
(b) 360
o
Bearing, 1 = D L , 145 . 0 = S
65 . 3 = f
c
r
r

5664 . 0 = ε
BEARING:
65 . 3
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00365 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 5 . 36 000 , 10 00365 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
838
12
400 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 587 , 30 838 5 . 36
1
lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =
CAP:
( )
2
74 . 0 1 ε + =
r av
c h
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] in c h
r av
00495 . 0 5664 . 0 74 . 0 1 004 . 0 74 . 0 1
2 2
= + = + = ε
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 57 of 63
av
ips
h
Av
F
µ
=
( )( )( )
lb F 645 . 9
00495 . 0
6 . 167 78 . 83 10 4 . 3
6
=
×
=


( )( ) min 8083 838 645 . 9
2
lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =
Total Frictional Loss
= min 670 , 38 8083 587 , 30
2 1
lb ft U U
f f
− = + = +

587. The central reaction on a 120
o
partial bearing is a 10 kips; . 8 in D = , 1 = D L ,
001 . 0 = r c
r
; rpm n 1200 = . Let reyn
6
10 5 . 2

× = µ . The bearing has a 160
o
cap.
(a) Compute
o
h and fhp for the bearing and for the cap to get the total fhp. (b)
Calculate the fhp for a full bearing of the same dimensions and compare.
Determine (c) the needed rate of flow into the bearing, (d) the side leakage
s
q .
(e) the temperature rise of the oil in the bearing both by equation (o), i11.13,
Text, and by Table AT 22. (f) What is the heat loss from the bearing if the oil
temperature is 180 F? Is the natural heat loss enough to cool the bearing? (g) It is
desired to pump oil through the bearing with a temperature rise of 12 F. How
much oil is required? (h) For the oil temperature in (f), what is a suitable oil to
use?

Solution:
p
n
c
r
S
s
r
µ
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
rps n
s
20
60
1200
= =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 25 . 156
8 8
000 , 10
= = =
( )( )
32 . 0
25 . 156
20 10 5 . 2
001 . 0
1
6
2
=
×
|
¹
|

\
|
=

S
(a) Table AT 22, 1 = D L , 32 . 0 = S
5417 . 0 = ε
4583 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

18 . 3 = f
c
r
r

60 . 2 =
L n rc
q
s r

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 58 of 63
305 . 0 =
q
q
s

834 . 17 =

p
t c
o
ρ

38434 . 0
max
=
p
p

( )( ) in c h
r o
00183 . 0 4 001 . 0 4583 . 0 4583 . 0 = = =
BEARING:
18 . 3 = f
c
r
r

18 . 3
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00318 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 8 . 31 000 , 10 00318 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
2513
12
1200 8
12
= = =
π π

( )( ) min 913 , 79 2513 8 . 31
1
lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = = , hp 42 . 2
CAP:
( )
2
74 . 0 1 ε + =
r av
c h
r c
r
001 . 0 =
in
D
r 4
2
= =
( ) in c
r
004 . 0 4 001 . 0 = =
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] in c h
r av
00487 . 0 5417 . 0 74 . 0 1 004 . 0 74 . 0 1
2 2
= + = + = ε
av
ips
h
Av
F
µ
=
( ) ips v
ips
503
60
12
2513 =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )( ) . . 36 . 89 8 8
180
160
2
1
180
160
2
1
in sq DL A =
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= π π
( )( )( )
lb F 1 . 23
00487 . 0
5036 36 . 89 10 5 . 2
6
=
×
=


( )( ) min 050 , 58 2513 1 . 23
2
lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = = , hp 76 . 1
Total Frictional Loss
= min 963 , 137 050 , 58 913 , 79
2 1
lb ft U U
f f
− = + = +
hp
U
fhp
f
18 . 4
000 , 33
963 , 137
000 , 33
= = =
(b) Full Bearing, 1 = D L , 32 . 0 = S
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 59 of 63
Table AT 20
6305 . 0 =
r
o
c
h

86 . 6 = f
c
r
r

3695 . 0 = ε
( ) in h
o
002522 . 0 004 . 0 6305 . 0 = =
BEARING:
86 . 6 = f
c
r
r

86 . 6
001 . 0
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
f
00686 . 0 = f
( )( ) lb W f F 6 . 68 000 , 10 00686 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 392 , 172 2513 6 . 68
1
lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = = , hp 224 . 5
CAP:
( )
2
74 . 0 1 ε + =
r av
c h
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] in c h
r av
00440 . 0 3695 . 0 74 . 0 1 004 . 0 74 . 0 1
2 2
= + = + = ε
av
ips
h
Av
F
µ
=
( )( )( )
lb F 54 . 25
00440 . 0
503 36 . 89 10 5 . 2
6
=
×
=


( )( ) min 182 , 64 2513 54 . 25
2
lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = = , hp 946 . 1
Total Frictional Loss
= min 574 , 236 182 , 64 392 , 172
2 1
lb ft U U
f f
− = + = +
hp
U
fhp
f
17 . 7
000 , 33
574 , 236
000 , 33
= = =

(c) 120
o
Bearing
60 . 2 =
L n rc
q
s r

( )( )( )( )
60 . 2
8 20 004 . 0 4
=
q

sec 656 . 6
3
in q =
(d) 305 . 0 =
q
q
s

305 . 0
656 . 6
=
s
q

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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 60 of 63
sec 03 . 2
3
in q
s
=

(e) Equation(o)
o f
t cq U ∆ = ρ
1

sec 983 , 15 sec
60
12
913 , 79 min 913 , 79
1
lb in lb in lb ft U
f
− = −
|
¹
|

\
|
= − =
( )( )
o f
t U ∆ = = 656 . 6 112 983 , 15
1

F t
o
4 . 21 = ∆
Table 22.
834 . 17 =

p
t c
o
ρ

834 . 17
25 . 156
112
=

o
t

F t
o
9 . 24 = ∆

(f)
b b cr
t A h Q ∆ =
assume F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 516 . 0
( )( ) . . 1600 8 8 25 25 in sq DL A
b
= = =
2
oa
b
t
t

= ∆
assume ambient = 100 F
F t
b
40
2
100 180
=

= ∆
( )( )( )
1
min 024 , 33 40 1600 516 . 0
f
U lb ft Q < − = =
Therefore not enough to cool the bearing.

(g)
2 1 f f r
U U Q Q + = +
963 , 137 024 , 33 = +
r
Q
min 939 , 104 lb ft Q
r
− =
sec 988 , 20 lb in Q
r
− =
o r
t cq Q ∆ = ρ
( ) ( ) 12 112 988 , 20 q =
sec 62 . 15
3
in q =

(h) Fig. AF 16, 180 F, reyn
6
10 5 . 2

× = µ

use SAE 30 oil



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SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 61 of 63
IMPERFECT LUBRICATION:

588. A 0.5 x 0.75-in. journal turns at 1140 rpm. What maximum load may be
supported and what is the frictional loss if the bearing is (a) SAE Type I, bronze
base, sintered bearing, (b) nylon (Zytel) water lubricated, (c) Teflon, with
intermittent use, (d) one with carbon graphite inserts.

Solution:
(a) 12 . 0 = f
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
23 . 149
12
1140 5 . 0
12
= = =
π π

000 , 50 =
m
pv
( ) 000 , 50 23 . 149 = p
psi p 335 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 126 75 . 0 5 . 0 335 = = =
( )( ) lb W f F 12 . 15 126 12 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 2256 23 . 149 12 . 15 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =

(b) 18 . 0 ~ 14 . 0 = f , use 16 . 0 = f
2500 =
m
pv , water
( ) 2500 23 . 149 = p
psi p 75 . 16 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 28 . 6 75 . 0 5 . 0 75 . 16 = = =
( )( ) lb W f F 005 . 1 28 . 6 16 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 150 23 . 149 005 . 1 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =

(c) fpm v
m
100 >
25 . 0 = f
000 , 20 =
m
pv , intermittent
( ) 000 , 20 23 . 149 = p
psi p 134 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 25 . 50 75 . 0 5 . 0 134 = = =
( )( ) lb W f F 5625 . 12 25 . 50 25 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 1875 23 . 149 5625 . 12 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =

(d) 000 , 15 =
m
pv
( ) 000 , 15 23 . 149 = p
psi p 5 . 100 =
( )( )( ) lb pDL W 69 . 37 75 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 100 = = =
assume 20 . 0 = f
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 62 of 63
( )( ) lb W f F 54 . 7 69 . 37 20 . 0 = = =
( )( ) min 1125 23 . 149 54 . 7 lb ft Fv U
m f
− = = =

590. A bearing to support a load of 150 lb at 800 rpm is needed; . 1in D = ; semi-
lubricated. Decide upon a material and length of bearing, considering sintered
metals, Zytel, Teflon, and graphite inserts.

Solution:
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
44 . 209
12
800 1
12
= = =
π π

assume, in D L 1 = =
( )( )
psi
DL
W
p 150
1 1
150
= = =
( )( ) 416 , 31 44 . 209 150 = =
m
pv
Use sintered metal, limit 000 , 50 =
m
pv

THRUST BEARINGS

592. A 4-in. shaft has on it an axial load of 8000 lb., taken by a collar thrust
bearing made up of five collars, each with an outside diameter of 6 in. The
shaft turns 150 rpm. Compute (a) the average bearing pressure, (b) the
approximate work of friction.

Solution:

(a)
( )
( )
psi
D
W
p
o
283
6
8000 4 4
2 2
= = =
π π


(b) assume 065 . 0 = f , average
( )( ) lb W f F 520 8000 065 . 0 = = =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
81 . 117
12
150 3
12
= = =
π π

( )( )( ) min 306 , 306 81 . 117 520 5 lb ft nFv U
m f
− = = =

593. A 4-in. shaft, turning at 175 rpm, is supported on a step bearing. The bearing
area is annular, with a 4-in. outside diameter and a 3/4 –in. inside diameter.
Take the allowable average bearing pressure as 180 psi. (a) What axial load
may be supported? (b) What is the approximate work of friction?

Solution:
12
Dn
v
m
π
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS
Page 63 of 63
( ) in D 375 . 2 75 . 0 4
2
1
= + =
( )( )
fpm
Dn
v
m
81 . 108
12
175 375 . 2
12
= = =
π π

assume 065 . 0 = f , average

(a)
( )
2 2
4
i o
D D
W
p

=
π

( ) ( ) lb W 2182 180
4
3
4
4
2
2
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
π

(b) ( )( )( ) min 433 , 15 81 . 108 2182 065 . 0 lb ft Wv f U
m f
− = = =

- end -
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SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 1 of 17
601. The radial reaction on a bearing is 1500 lb.; it also carries a thrust of 1000 lb.;
shaft rotates 1500 rpm; outer ring stationary; smooth load, 8-hr./day service, say
15,000 hr. (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. (b) What is the rated 90 % life
of the selected bearing? (c) For 34 . 1 = b , compute the probability of the selected
bearing surviving 15,000 hr.

Solution:
lb F
x
1500 =
lb F
y
1000 =
( )( )( )( ) mr B 1350 10 1500 60 000 , 15
6
10
= =


z t x r e
F C F C F + = 56 . 0
1 =
r
C , outer ring stationary
assume 8 . 1 =
t
C
( )( ) ( )( ) lb F
e
2640 1000 8 . 1 1500 1 56 . 0 = + =
( ) ( ) lb F
B
B
F
e
r
r
178 , 29 2640 1350 3
1 3
1
10
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
(a) Table 12.3
use 320, lb F
r
900 , 29 =
lb F
s
900 , 29 =
To check:
0340 . 0
400 , 29
1000
= =
s
z
F
F

Table 12.2, 93 . 1 =
t
C , 2286 . 0 = Q
( )( )
Q
F C
F
x r
z
> = = 667 . 0
1500 0 . 1
1000

z t x r e
F C F C F + = 56 . 0
( )( ) ( )( ) lb F
e
2770 1000 93 . 1 1500 1 56 . 0 = + =
( ) ( ) lb F
B
B
F
e
r
r
614 , 30 2770 1350 3
1 3
1
10
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2.4 % higher than 29,900 lb. Safe.
Therefore use Bearing 320, Deep-Groove Ball Bearing.

(b) lb F
r
900 , 29 =
lb F
e
2770 =
( ) lb
mr
B
614 , 30 2770
1
900 , 29
3
1
10
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
mr B 1258
10
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 2 of 17
( )( )( )( ) 1258 10 1500 60
6
10
= =

HR B
hr HR 000 , 14 ≈

(c)
b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
10
P

mr B 1258
10
=
mr B 1350 =
34 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
1258
1350
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
P

891 . 0 = P

602. A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 500 lb. and a thrust of 300 lb. The
load imposes light shock; the desired 90 % life is 10 hr./day for 5 years at
rpm n 3000 = . (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. What is its bore? Consider
all bearings that may serve. (b) What is the computed rated 90 % life of the
selected bearing? (c) What is the computed probability of the bearing surviving
the specified life? (d) If the loads were changed to 400 and 240 lb., respectively,
determine the probability of the bearing surviving the specified life, and the 90 %
life under the new load.

Solution:
lb F
x
500 =
lb F
z
300 =
Assume 1 =
r
C
( )( )
6 . 0
500 0 . 1
300
= =
x r
z
F C
F

Table 12.2, Q
F C
F
x r
z
>
(a)
z t x r e
F C F C F + = 56 . 0
1 =
r
C
Assume 8 . 1 =
t
C
( )( ) ( )( ) lb F
e
820 300 93 . 1 500 1 56 . 0 = + =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 3 of 17
For light shock, service factor ~ 1.1
( )( ) lb F
e
902 820 1 . 1 = =
( ) ( ) lb F
B
B
F
e
r
r
614 , 30 2770 1350 3
1 3
1
10
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )( )( )( )( ) mr B 3285 10 3000 60 10 365 5
6
10
= =


( ) ( ) lb F
B
B
F
e
r
r
409 , 13 902 3285 3
1 3
1
10
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Table 12.3,
Bearing No.
r
F , lb
s
F , lb Bore
217 14,400 12,000 85 mm
312 14,100 10,900 60 mm

Select, Bearing No. 312
lb F
r
100 , 14 =
lb F
s
900 , 10 =

(b) Table 12.2
0285 . 0
900 , 10
300
= =
s
z
F
F

99 . 1 =
t
C
22 . 0 = Q
z t x r e
F C F C F + = 56 . 0
( )( ) ( )( ) lb F
e
877 300 99 . 1 500 1 56 . 0 = + =
( )( ) lb F
e
965 877 1 . 1 = =
e
r
r
F
B
B
F
3
1
10
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 965
1
100 , 14
3
1
10
|
¹
|

\
|
=
B

mr B 3119
10
=
( )( )( )( )( )( ) 3119 10 3000 60 10 365
6
10
= =

YR B
years YR 75 . 4 =

(c)
b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 4 of 17
use 125 . 1 = b
mr B 3119
10
=
mr B 3285 =
125 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
3119
3285
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
P

8943 . 0 = P

(d) lb F
x
400 =
lb F
z
240 =
1 =
r
C
( )( )
6 . 0
400 0 . 1
240
= =
x r
z
F C
F

Table 12.2
15 . 2 =
t
C
6 . 0 21 . 0 < = Q
z t x r e
F C F C F + = 56 . 0
( )( ) ( )( ) lb F
e
740 240 15 . 2 400 1 56 . 0 = + =
( )( ) lb F
e
814 740 1 . 1 = =
e
r
r
F
B
B
F
3
1
10
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 814
1
100 , 14
3
1
10
|
¹
|

\
|
=
B

mr B 5197
10
=
b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
125 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
5197
3285
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
P

939 . 0 = P
Life:
( )( )( )( )( )( ) 5197 10 3000 60 10 365
6
10
= =

YR B
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 5 of 17
years YR 8 =

603. The smooth loading on a bearing is 500-lb radial, 100 lb. thrust; rpm n 300 = . An
electric motor drives through gears; 8 hr./day, fully utilized. (a) Considering
deep-groove ball bearings that may serve, choose one end specify its bore. For
the bearing chosen, determine (b) the rated 90 % life and (c) the probability of
survival for the design lufe.

Solution:
lb F
x
500 =
lb F
z
100 =
Table 12.1, 8 hr./day fully utilized, assume 25,000 hr
( )( )( )( ) mr B 450 10 300 60 000 , 25
6
10
= =


(a) assume 1 =
r
C
( )( )
2 . 0
500 0 . 1
100
= =
x r
z
F C
F

consider
x r
z
F C
F
Q >
( )( ) lb F C F
x r e
500 500 0 . 1 = = =
( ) ( ) lb F
B
B
F
e
r
r
3832 500 450 3
1 3
1
10
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Table 12.3
Bearing No.
r
F , lb
s
F , lb
207 4440 3070
306 4850 3340
305 3660 2390
Select 305, lb F
r
3660 = , lb F
s
2390 =
Bore (Table 12.4) = 25 mm

(a) 0418 . 0
2390
100
= =
s
z
F
F

Table 12.2, 26 . 0 22 . 0 Q <
x r
z
F C
F
Q >
( )( ) lb F C F
x r e
500 500 0 . 1 = = =
( ) 500
1
3660
3
1
10
|
¹
|

\
|
=
B

mr B 392
10
=
Rated Life:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 6 of 17
( )( )( )( ) 392 10 300 60
6
10
= =

HR B
hr HR 000 , 22 ≈

(c)
b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
125 . 1 = b
125 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
392
450
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
P

884 . 0 = P

605. A No. 311, single-row, deep-groove ball bearing is used to carry a radial load of
1500 lb. at a speed of 500 rpm. (a) What is the 90 % life of the bearing in hours?
What is the approximate median life? What is the probability of survival if the
actual life is desired to be (b) 10
5
hr., (c) 10
4
hr.?

Solution:
Table 12.3, No. 311
lb F
s
9400 =
lb F
r
12400 =

lb F
x
1500 =
assume 1 =
r
C
( )( ) lb F C F
x r e
1500 1500 1 = = =
(a)
e
r
r
F
B
B
F
3
1
10
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 1500
1
12400
3
1
10
|
¹
|

\
|
=
B

mr B 565
10
=
( )( )( )( ) 565 10 500 60
6
10
= =

HR B
hr HR 800 , 18 ≈

For median life = 5( 90 % life) = ( ) hr 000 , 94 800 , 18 5 =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 7 of 17
(b) ( )( )( )( ) mr B 3000 10 500 60 10
6 5
= =


b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
125 . 1 = b
125 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
565
3000
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
P

502 . 0 = P

(c) 10
4
hr

( )( )( )( ) mr B 300 10 500 60 10
6 4
= =


b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
125 . 1 = b
125 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
565
300
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
P

950 . 0 = P

606. The load on an electric-motor bearing is 350 lb., radial; 24 hr. service,
rpm n 1200 = ; compressor drive; outer race stationary. (a) Decide upon a deep-
groove ball bearing, giving its significant dimensions. Then compute the selected
bearing’s 90 % life, and the probable percentage of failures that would occur
during the design life. What is the approximate median life of this bearing? (b)
The same as (a), except that a 200 series roller bearing is to be selected.

Solution:
lb F
x
350 =
x r e
F C F =
outer race stationary, 1 =
r
C
( )( ) lb F
e
350 350 1 = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 8 of 17
Table 12.1
90 % Life, hrs = 50,000 hrs
( )( )( )( ) mr B 3600 10 1200 60 000 , 50
6
= =


(a) ( ) ( ) lb F
B
B
F
e
r
r
5364 350 3600 3
1 3
1
10
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Table AT 12.3
earing No.
r
F , lb
s
F , lb
208 5040 3520
209 5660 4010
306 4850 3340
307 5750 4020
Use No. 209 lb F
r
5660 =
Table 12.4, Dimension
Bore = 45 mm
O.D. = 85 mm
Width of Races = 19 mm
Max. Fillet r = 0.039 mm

90 % Life:
e
r
r
F
B
B
F
3
1
10
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 350
1
5660
3
1
10
|
¹
|

\
|
=
B

mr B 4229
10
=
( )( )( )( ) 4229 10 1200 60
6
10
= =

HR B
hr HR 740 , 58 ≈
Probability.
b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
125 . 1 = b
125 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
4229
3600
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
P

916 . 0 = P
% failures = 1 – 0.916 = 0.084 = 8.4 %
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 9 of 17
Median Life = 5(58,740) = 293,700 hrs

(b) Table 12.3, lb F
r
5364 =
use No. 207, lb F
r
5900 =
Bore = 35 mm
O.D. = 72 mm
Width of Races = 17 mm

90 % life:
e
r
r
F
B
B
F
3
1
10
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 350
1
5900
3
1
10
|
¹
|

\
|
=
B

mr B 4790
10
=
( )( )( )( ) 4790 10 1200 60
6
10
= =

HR B
hr HR 530 , 66 ≈
Probability.
b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
125 . 1 = b
125 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
1
ln
4790
3600
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
P

926 . 0 = P
% failures = 1 – 0.926 = 0.074 = 7.4 %
Median Life = 5(66,530) = 332,650 hrs

608. A deep-groove ball bearing on a missile, supporting a radial load of 200 lb., is to
have a design life of 20 hr.; with only a 0.5 % probability of failure while
rpm n 4000 = . Using a service factor of 2 . 1 , choose a bearing. ( A 5- or 6- place
log table is desirable.)

Solution: No need to use log table.
lb F
x
200 =
assume 1 =
r
C
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 10 of 17
( )( ) lb F C F
x r e
200 200 0 . 1 = = =
( )( ) lb F
e
240 200 2 . 1 = =
( )( )( )( ) mr B 8 . 4 10 4000 60 20
6
10
= =


995 . 0 005 . 0 1 = − = P
b
P
P
B
B
1
10
10
1
ln
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
125 . 1 = b
125 . 1
1
10
9 . 0
1
ln
995 . 0
1
ln
8 . 4
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
B

mr B 72
10
=
( ) ( ) lb F
B
B
F
e
r
r
4 . 998 240 72 3
1 3
1
10
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Table 12.3
Select No. 201, lb F
r
1180 =

VARIABLE LOADS
610. A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 10 kip at a speed of 10 rpm for 20 %
of the time, a load of 8 kips at a speed of 50 rpm for 50 % of the time, and a load
of 5 kips at 100 rpm during 30 % of the time, with a desired life of 3000 hr.; no
thrust. (a) What is the cubic mean load? (b) What ball bearings may be used?
What roller bearings?

Solution:

(a)
3
1
3
3
3 2
3
2 1
3
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
=

n
n F n F n F
F
m
L

3 2 1
n n n n + + =


For 1 min.
( )( ) rev n 2 10 2 . 0
1
= =
( )( ) rev n 25 50 5 . 0
2
= =
( )( ) rev n 30 100 3 . 0
3
= =
rev n 57 30 25 2 = + + =


kips F 10
1
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 11 of 17
kips F 8
2
=
kips F 5
3
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
kips F
m
88 . 6
57
30 5 25 8 2 10
3
1
3 3 3
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
=

(b) lb kips F
x
6880 88 . 6 = =
assume 1 =
r
C
( )( ) lb F
e
6880 6880 0 . 1 = =
1 min = 57 rev
( )( )( )( ) mr B 26 . 10 10 57 60 3000
6
10
= =


( ) ( ) lb F
B
B
F
e
r
r
950 , 14 6880 26 . 10 3
1 3
1
10
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Table 12.3, Ball Bearing
Use Bearing No. 217, lb F
r
400 , 14 =

(c) Table 12.3 (Roller Bearing)
Use Bearing No. 213, lb F
r
900 , 14 =

612. A deep-groove ball bearing No. 215 is to operate 30 % of the time at 500 rpm
with lb F
x
1200 = and lb F
z
600 = , 55 % of the time at 800 rpm with
lb F
x
1000 = and lb F
z
500 = , and 15 % of the time at 1200 rpm with
lb F
x
800 = and lb F
z
400 = . Determine (a) the cubic mean load; (b) the 90 % life
of this bearing in hours, (c) the average life in hours.

Solution:
Bearing No. 215, lb F
r
400 , 11 = , lb F
s
250 , 9 =
Table 12.2,
s z
F F
At 30 % of the time, 500 rpm
065 . 0
9250
600
= =
s
z
F
F

66 . 1 =
t
C
266 . 0 = Q
( )( )
Q
F C
F
x r
z
> = = 5 . 0
1200 1
600

( )( ) ( )( ) lb F C F C F
z t c r e
1668 600 66 . 1 1200 1 56 . 0 56 . 0
1
= + = + =
At 55 % of the time, 800 rpm
054 . 0
9250
500
= =
s
z
F
F

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 12 of 17
73 . 1 =
t
C
257 . 0 = Q
( )( )
Q
F C
F
x r
z
> = = 5 . 0
1000 1
500

( )( ) ( )( ) lb F C F C F
z t c r e
1425 500 73 . 1 1000 1 56 . 0 56 . 0
2
= + = + =
At 15 % of the time, 1200 rpm
043 . 0
9250
400
= =
s
z
F
F

84 . 1 =
t
C
242 . 0 = Q
( )( )
Q
F C
F
x r
z
> = = 5 . 0
800 1
400

( )( ) ( )( ) lb F C F C F
z t c r e
1184 400 84 . 1 800 1 56 . 0 56 . 0
1
= + = + =

(a)
3
1
3
3
3 2
3
2 1
3
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
=

n
n F n F n F
F
m
L

3 2 1
n n n n + + =


lb F 1668
1
=
lb F 1425
2
=
lb F 1184
3
=
For 1 min.
( )( ) rev n 150 500 3 . 0
1
= =
( )( ) rev n 440 800 55 . 0
2
= =
( )( ) rev n 180 1200 15 . 0
3
= =
rev n 770 180 440 150 = + + =



( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
kips F
m
1434
770
180 1184 440 1425 150 1668
3
1
3 3 3
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
=

(b) lb F F
m e
1434 = =
e
r
r
F
B
B
F
3
1
10
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( ) 1434
1
400 , 11
3
1
10
|
¹
|

\
|
=
B

mr B 503
10
=
For 1 min = 770 rev
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 13 of 17
( )( )( )( ) 503 10 770 60
6
10
= =

HR B
hr HR 000 , 11 ≈

(c) Average life = 5(11,000) = 55,000 hrs

MANUFACTURER’S CATALOG NEEDED

614. A shaft for the general-purpose gear-reduction unit described in 489 has radial
bearing reactions of lb R
C
613 = and lb R
D
1629 = ; rpm n 250 = . Assume that
the unit will be fully utilized for at least 8 hr./day, with the likelihood of the same
uses involving minor shock. (a) Select ball bearings for this shaft. (b) Select
roller bearings. (c) What is the probability of both bearings C and D surviving for
the design life?

Solution:
Problem 489, in in D 375 . 1
8
3
1 = =
Ref: Design of Machine Members, Doughtie and Vallance
( )
r t s p o l a c
F K K K K K K F =
at C. lb R F
C r
613 = =
0 . 1 =
t
K
0 . 1 =
p
K
0 . 1 =
o
K
3
c
a r
s
N
N K
K =
rpm N
a
250 =
rpm N
c
500 =
5 . 1 =
r
K
( )( )
90856 . 0
500
250 5 . 1
3
= =
s
K
0 . 1 =
a
K
3
rel c
a
l
K H
H
K =
Table 12.1, 8 hr/day, fully utilized, Text
hr H
a
000 , 25 =
hr H
c
000 , 10 =
assume 0 . 1 =
rel
K for 90 % reliability
3572 . 1
000 , 10
000 , 25
3 = =
l
K
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 14 of 17
( )
r t s p o l a c
F K K K K K K F =
( )( )( )( )( )( )( ) lb F
c
756 613 0 . 1 90856 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 3572 . 1 0 . 1 = =
Table 9-7, Doughtie and Vallance,
Two-row spherical Type, No. 207
Bore = 1.3780 in, lb F
c
880 =

At D. lb R F
D r
1629 = =
( )
r t s p o l a c
F K K K K K K F =
( )( )( )( )( )( )( ) lb F
c
2009 1629 0 . 1 90856 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 3572 . 1 0 . 1 = =
Table 9-7, Doughtie and Vallance,
Two-row spherical Type, No. 407
Bore = 1.3780 in, lb F
c
2290 =

(b) at C, lb F
c
756 =
Table 9.8, Doughtie and Vallance
Use No. 207, Bore = 1.3780 in, lb F
c
1540 =

at C, lb F
c
2009 =
Table 9.8, Doughtie and Vallance
Use No. 307, Bore = 1.3780 in, lb F
c
2660 =

(c) For probability:

(c.1) at C, Bearing No. 207, Two-row spherical bearing, lb F
c
880 =
( ) ( )( )( )( )( ) 613 1 90856 . 0 1 1 1 880
l c
K lb F = =
58 . 1 =
l
K
3
rel c
a
l
K H
H
K =
3
000 , 10
000 , 25
58 . 1
rel
K
=
634 . 0 =
rel
K
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 95.8 %

at D, Bearing No. 407, Deep-groove bearing, lb F
c
2290 =
( ) ( )( )( )( )( ) 1627 1 90856 . 0 1 1 1 2290
l c
K lb F = =
547 . 1 =
l
K
3
rel c
a
l
K H
H
K =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 15 of 17
3
000 , 10
000 , 25
547 . 1
rel
K
=
675 . 0 =
rel
K
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 93.3 %

(c.2) at C, Roller Bearing No. 207, lb F
c
1540 =
( ) ( )( )( )( )( ) 613 1 90856 . 0 1 1 1 1540
l c
K lb F = =
765 . 2 =
l
K
3
rel c
a
l
K H
H
K =
3
000 , 10
000 , 25
765 . 2
rel
K
=
118 . 0 =
rel
K
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 98.8 %

at D, Roller Bearing No. 407, lb F
c
2660 =
( ) ( )( )( )( )( ) 1627 1 90856 . 0 1 1 1 2660
l c
K lb F = =
80 . 1 =
l
K
3
rel c
a
l
K H
H
K =
3
000 , 10
000 , 25
80 . 1
rel
K
=
43 . 0 =
rel
K
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 95.7 %

615. A shaft similar to that in 478 has the following radial loads on the bearings, left
to right: 803 lb, 988 lb, 84 lb, and 307 lb; no thrust. The minimum shaft diameter
at the bearings are 1.250 in, 1.125 in, 1.000 in, and 1.0625 in. Assume that the
service will not be particularly gentle; intermittently used, with rpm n 425 = . (a)
Select ball bearing for this shaft. (b) Select roller bearings.

Solution:

Ref: Design of Machine Members by Doughtie and Vallance
( )
r t s p o l a c
F K K K K K K F =
0 . 1 =
a
K
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 16 of 17
3
rel c
a
l
K H
H
K =
hr H
c
000 , 10 =
Table 12.1, Text, hr H
a
000 , 10 = (intermittent)
90 % reliability, 0 . 1 =
rel
K
0 . 1
000 , 10
000 , 10
3 = =
l
K
0 . 1 =
o
K
0 . 1 =
p
K
5 . 1 =
r
K assumed
3
c
a r
s
N
N K
K =
rpm N
a
425 =
rpm N
c
500 =
( )( )
0844 . 1
500
425 5 . 1
3
= =
s
K
0 . 1 =
t
K

(a) Ball Bearing

(a.1) 803 lb, in D 250 . 1 =

( )( )( )( )( )( )( ) lb F
c
870 803 0 . 1 0844 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 = =
Table 9-7, Ref.
Two-row spherical type, 207
lb F
c
880 =
Bore = 1.3780 in

(a.2) 988 lb, in D 125 . 1 =

( )( )( )( )( )( )( ) lb F
c
1071 988 0 . 1 0844 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 = =
Table 9-7, Ref.
Two-row spherical type, 306
lb F
c
1050 =
Bore = 1.1811 in

(a.3) 84 lb, in D 000 . 1 =

( )( )( )( )( )( )( ) lb F
c
91 84 0 . 1 0844 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS
Page 17 of 17
Table 9-7, Ref.
Deep-groove type, 106
lb F
c
544 =
Bore = 1.1811 in

(a.4) 307 lb, in D 0625 . 1 =

( )( )( )( )( )( )( ) lb F
c
333 307 0 . 1 0844 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 = =
Table 9-7, Ref.
Deep-groove type, 106
lb F
c
544 =
Bore = 1.1811 in

(b) Roller Bearing

(b.1) 803 lb, in D 250 . 1 =
lb F
c
870 = , Bore = 1.3780 in
use No. 207, lb F
c
1540 =

(b.2) 988 lb, in D 125 . 1 =
lb F
c
1071 = , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, lb F
c
1320 =

(b.3) 84 lb, in D 000 . 1 =
lb F
c
91 = , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, lb F
c
1320 =

(b.4) 307 lb, in D 0625 . 1 =
lb F
c
333 = , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, lb F
c
1320 =

- end -



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SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 1 of 14
DESIGN PROBLEMS

701. For continuous duty in a speed reducer, two helical gears are to be rated at 7.4 hp
at a pinion speed of 1750 rpm; 75 . 2 ≈
w
m ; the helix angle 15
o
; 20
o
F.D. teeth in
the normal plane; let 21 =
p
N teeth, and keep
p
D b 2 < . Determine the pitch, face,
g
N , and the material and heat treatment. Use through-hardened teeth with a
maximum of 250 BHM (teeth may be cut after heat treatment).

Solution:
o
15 = ψ
o
n
20 = φ
12
p p
m
n D
v
π
=
d d
p
p
P P
N
D
21
= =
rpm n
p
1750 =
( )
d
d
m
P
P
v
9621
12
1750
21
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

( )( )
d
d
m
t
P
P
v
hp
F 38 . 25
9621
4 . 7 000 , 33 000 , 33
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
p
D b 2 ≤
d d
P P
b
42 21
2 =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
( )
lb
Cb F v
Cb F v
F F
t m
t m
t d
2
1
2
2
cos 05 . 0
cos cos 05 . 0
ψ
ψ ψ
+ +
+
+ =
Table AT 25
Assume 1660 = C
o
15 = ψ
lb
P
P
P
P
P
P
P F
d
d
d
d
d
d
d d
2
1
2
2
15 cos
42
1660 38 . 25
9621
05 . 0
15 cos 15 cos
42
1660 38 . 25
9621
05 . 0
38 . 25
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 2 of 14
lb
P
P
P
P
P
P
P F
d
d
d
d
d
d
d d
2
1
65050
38 . 25
481
65050
38 . 25
465
38 . 25
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ =
For continuous service:
d w
F F ≥
ψ
2
cos
g p
w
QK bD
F =
( )
467 . 1
1 75 . 2
75 . 2 2
1
2
=
+
=
+
=
g
g
m
m
Q
Table At 26, Bhn = 250
Sum of BHN = 500,
o
n
20 = φ
131 =
g
K
( )( )
2 2
670 , 181
15 cos
131 467 . 1 21 42
d d d
w
P P P
F =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
d w
F F ≥
By trial and error method

d
P
d
F
w
F
7 3967 3708
6 4758 5046

use 6 =
d
P
in
P
D
d
p
5 . 3
6
21 21
= = =
in
P
b
d
7
6
42 42
= = =
fpm
P
v
d
m
1604
6
9621 9621
= = =
Fig. AF 19, permissible error = 0.0018 in
Fig. AF 20
Use carefully cut gears, 6 =
d
P
Error = 0.001 in is o.k.

For material
Strength
d f
s
P K
sbY
F
ψ cos
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 3 of 14
23
15 cos
21
cos
3 3
= = =
ψ
p
ep
N
N
Table AT 24, Load near middle
23 =
ep
N , FD
n
o
20 = φ
565 . 0 = Y
assume 0 . 2 =
f
K
d sf s
F N F =
assume 0 . 2 =
sf
N
( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) 2 4758
6 2
15 cos 565 . 0 7
=
s

psi s 892 , 29 =
use
3
u
n
s
s =
( ) psi s
u
676 , 89 892 , 29 3 = =
Use C1050, OQT 1100 F,
ksi s
u
122 = , 250 248 < = BHN

Ans.
6 =
d
P
in b 7 =
( )( ) 58 21 75 . 2 = = =
p w g
N m N
Material. C1050, OQT 1100 F

703. A pair of helical gears, subjected to heavy shock loading, is to transmit 50 hp at
1750 rpm of the pinion.; 25 . 4 =
g
m ;
o
15 = ψ ; minimum .
4
3
4 in D
p
= ; continuous
service, 24 hr/day; 20
o
F.D. teeth in the normal plane, carefully cut; through-
hardened to a maximum BHN = 350. Decide upon the pitch, face width, material
and its treatment.

Solution:
( )( )
fpm v
m
2176
12
1750 75 . 4
= =
π

( )( )
( )
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
758
2176
50 000 , 33 000 , 33
= = =
Dynamic load:
( )
( )
lb
Cb F v
Cb F v
F F
t m
t m
t d
2
1
2
2
cos 05 . 0
cos cos 05 . 0
ψ
ψ ψ
+ +
+
+ =
Fig. AF 19, fpm v
m
2176 =
Permissible error = 0.0014 in
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 4 of 14
Use carefully cut gears, in e 001 . 0 = , 5 =
d
P as standard

Table AT 25,
Steel and steel, 20
o
FD
1660 = C
( )( )
( ) ( )
lb
b
b
F
d
2
1
2
2
15 cos 1660 758 2176 05 . 0
15 cos 15 cos 1660 758 2176 05 . 0
758
+ +
+
+ =
( )
( )
lb
b
b
F
d
2
1
8 . 1548 758 8 . 108
8 . 1548 758 1 . 105
758
+ +
+
+ =
Wear load:
ψ
2
cos
g p
w
QK bD
F =
( )
619 . 1
1 25 . 4
25 . 4 2
1
2
=
+
=
+
=
g
g
m
m
Q
Table At 26, 20
o
FD,
Sum of BHN =2(350)=700
270 =
g
K
( )( )( )
b
b
F
w
2225
15 cos
270 619 . 1 75 . 4
2
= =
d w
F F ≥ , . 69 . 4
tan
2
2
min
in
P
P b
d
a
= = =
ψ
π

By trial and error method

b
d
F
w
F
5 5203 11125
6 5811 13350

use in b 5 =

Material:
Strength:
d f dn f
s
P K
sbY
P K
sbY
F
ψ cos
= =
ψ
3
cos
p
ep
N
N =
( )( ) 22 375 . 4 5 = = =
p d p
D P N
25
15 cos
22
3
= =
ep
N
Table AT 24, Load near middle
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 5 of 14
25 =
ep
N , FD
n
o
20 = φ
580 . 0 = Y
assume 7 . 1 =
f
K
( )( )
( )( )
s
s
F
s
32955 . 0
5 7 . 1
15 cos 580 . 0 5
= =
d sf s
F N F =
for 24 hr/day service, heavy shock loading
75 . 1 =
sf
N
( )( ) 5203 75 . 1 32955 . 0 = s
psi s 629 , 27 =
use
3
u
n
s
s =
( ) psi s
u
887 , 82 629 , 27 3 = =
Table AT 9
Use 4150, OQT 1200 F,
ksi s
u
159 = , 350 331< = BHN
Ans.
5 =
d
P
in b 5 =
Material. 4150, OQT 1200 F

705. Design the teeth for two herringbone gears for a single-reduction speed reducer
with 80 . 3 =
w
m . The capacity is 36 hp at 3000 rpm of the pinion;
o
30 = ψ ; F.D.
teeth with
o
20 =
n
φ . Since space is at a premium, the initial design is for 15 =
p
N
teeth and carburized teeth of AISI 8620; preferably
p
D b 2 < .

Solution:
d d
p
p
P P
N
D
15
= =
p
D b 2 ≈
d
p
P
D b
30
2 = =
12
p p
m
n D
v
π
=
( )
d
d
m
P
P
v
781 , 11
12
3000
15
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 6 of 14
( )( )
d
d
m
t
P
P
v
hp
F 101
781 , 11
36 000 , 33 000 , 33
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
Dynamic load
( )
( )
lb
Cb F v
Cb F v
F F
t m
t m
t d
2
1
2
2
cos 05 . 0
cos cos 05 . 0
ψ
ψ ψ
+ +
+
+ =
o
n
20 = φ
o
30 = ψ
Assume 1660 = C , Table AT 25, 20
o
FD
lb
P
P
P
P
P
P
P F
d
d
d
d
d
d
d d
2
1
2
2
30 cos
30
1660 101
781 , 11
05 . 0
30 cos 30 cos
30
1660 101
781 , 11
05 . 0
101
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
lb
P
P
P
P
P
P
P F
d
d
d
d
d
d
d d
2
1
350 , 37
101
589
350 , 37
101
510
101
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ =
Wear load
ψ
2
cos
g p
w
QK bD
F =
( )
583 . 1
1 80 . 3
80 . 3 2
1
2
=
+
=
+
=
g
g
m
m
Q
For AISI 8620, carburized, 20
o
FD
750 =
g
K for 10
10
cycles
( )( )
2 2
350 , 712
30 cos
750 583 . 1 15 30
d d d
w
P P P
F =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
By trial and error,
d w
F F ≥
d
P
d
F
w
F
5 4433 28,494
4 5454 44,522
6 3817 19,788
8 3173 11,130
9 3008 8794

For carefully cut gears, 001 . 0 = e
fpm v 1400
max
= (Fig. AF 9)

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 7 of 14
d
P
d
m
P
v
781 , 11
=
5 2356.2
4 1963.5
6 1683
8 1473
9 1309 fpm

use 9 =
d
P
lb F
d
3008 =
d w
F lb F > = 5794
in
P
b
d
3 . 3
9
30 30
= = =
use in b 0 . 3 =

To check for strength
d f dn f
s
P K
sbY
P K
sbY
F
ψ cos
= =
ψ
3
cos
p
ep
N
N =
15 =
p
N
23
30 cos
15
3
= =
ep
N
Table AT 24, Load near middle
23 =
ep
N , FD
n
o
20 = φ
565 . 0 = Y
assume 7 . 1 =
f
K
8620, SOQT 450, ksi s
u
167 =
3
u
n
s
s =
5 . 83
2
167
2
= = =
u
n
s
s
( )( )( )
( )( )
( ) lb F lb F
d s
3008 8011
9 7 . 1
30 cos 565 . 0 0 . 3 500 , 83
= > = =
Designed Data:
9 =
d
P
in b 0 . 3 =
15 =
p
N
( )( ) 57 15 8 . 3 = = =
p w g
N m N
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 8 of 14
in
P
N
D
d
p
p
67 . 1
9
15
= = =
in
P
N
D
d
g
g
33 . 6
9
57
= = =

CHECK PROBLEMS

707. The data for a pair of carefully cut gears are: 5 =
dn
P ,
o
20 =
n
φ ,
o
12 = ψ ,
. 5 . 3 in b = , 18 =
p
N , 108 =
g
N teeth; pinion turns 1750 rpm. Materials: pinion,
SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350; gear, SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300. Operation
is with moderate shock for 8 to 10 hr./day. What horsepower may be transmitted
continuously?

Solution:
d
p
p
P
N
D =
( ) 89 . 4 15 cos 5 cos = = = ψ
dn d
P P
in D
p
681 . 3
89 . 4
18
= =

Wear load
ψ
2
cos
g p
w
QK bD
F =
. 5 . 3 in b =
( )
7143 . 1
108 18
108 2
2
=
+
=
+
=
g p
g
N N
N
Q
Table AT 26,
o
20 =
n
φ
Sum of BHN = 350 + 300 = 650
233 =
g
K
( )( )( )( )
lb F
w
5379
12 cos
233 7143 . 1 681 . 3 5 . 3
2
= =
Strength of gear
lb
P K
sbY
F
dn f
s
=
For gear: SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300
ksi s
u
151 =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 75 151 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
116
12 cos
108
cos
3 3
= = =
ψ
g
eg
N
N
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 9 of 14
Table AT 24, Load near middle,
o
20 =
n
φ
763 . 0 = Y
( )( ) 6 . 57 763 . 0 5 . 75 = = Y s
n

For pinion: SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350
( ) ksi BHN s
u
175 350 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
( ) ksi s s
u n
5 . 87 175 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
19
12 cos
18
cos
3 3
= = =
ψ
p
ep
N
N
Table AT 24, Load near middle,
o
20 =
n
φ
534 . 0 = Y
( )( ) 7 . 46 534 . 0 5 . 87 = = Y s
n


Therefore use pinion as weak
Assume 7 . 1 =
f
K
( )( )( )
( )( )
lb F
s
240 , 19
5 7 . 1
534 . 0 5 . 3 500 , 87
= =
For moderate shock, 8 to 10 hr./day
Use 5 . 1 =
sf
N
d sf s
F N F ≥
d
F 5 . 1 240 , 19 =
lb F
d
827 , 12 ≤
Therefore use lb F F
w d
5379 = =
( )
( )
lb
Cb F v
Cb F v
F F
t m
t m
t d
2
1
2
2
cos 05 . 0
cos cos 05 . 0
ψ
ψ ψ
+ +
+
+ =
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, 5 =
dn
P , in e 001 . 0 =
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20
o
FD
1660 = C
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
1686
12
1750 681 . 3
12
= = =
π
π

( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
lb
F
F
F F
t
t
t d
2
1
2
2
12 cos 5 . 3 1660 1686 05 . 0
12 cos 12 cos 5 . 3 1660 1686 05 . 0
+ +
+
+ =
[ ]
[ ]
lb
F
F
F F
t
t
t d
5379
5559 3 . 84
5559 46 . 82
2
1
=
+ +
+
+ =
Trial and error
lb F
t
1800 =
( )( )
hp
v F
hp
m t
92
000 , 33
1686 1800
000 , 33
= = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 10 of 14

708. Two helical gears are used in a single reduction speed reducer rated at 27.4 hp at
a motor speed of 1750 rpm; continuous duty. The rating allows an occasional 100
% momentary overload. The pinion has 33 teeth. 10 =
dn
P , . 2 in b = ,
o
20 =
n
φ ,
o
20 = ψ , 82 . 2 =
w
m . For both gears, the teeth are carefully cut from SAE 1045
with BHN = 180. Compute (a) the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength;
estimate 7 . 1 =
f
K . Also decide whether or not the 100 % overload is damaging.
(c) Are these teeth suitable for continuous service? If they are not suitable
suggest a cure. (The gears are already cut.)

Solution:
d
p
p
P
N
D =
( ) 66 . 9 15 cos 10 cos = = = ψ
dn d
P P
in D
p
42 . 3
66 . 9
33
= =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
1567
12
1750 42 . 3
12
= = =
π
π

( )
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
577
1567
4 . 27 000 , 33 000 , 33
= = =
(a) Dynamic load
( )
( )
lb
Cb F v
Cb F v
F F
t m
t m
t d
2
1
2
2
cos 05 . 0
cos cos 05 . 0
ψ
ψ ψ
+ +
+
+ =
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, 10 =
dn
P , in e 001 . 0 =
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20
o
FD
1660 = C
in b 2 =
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
lb F
d
2578
15 cos 2 1660 577 1567 05 . 0
15 cos 15 cos 2 1660 577 1567 05 . 0
577
2
1
2
2
=
+ +
+
+ =

(b) Endurance strength
lb
P K
sbY
F
dn f
s
=
For SAE 1045, BHN = 180
( ) ksi BHN s
u
90 180 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
( ) ksi s s
u n
45 90 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
37
15 cos
33
cos
3 3
= = =
ψ
p
ep
N
N
Table AT 24, Load near middle,
o
20 =
n
φ
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 11 of 14
645 . 0 = Y

7 . 1 =
f
K
( )( )( )
( )( )
lb
P K
sbY
F
dn f
s
3415
10 7 . 1
645 . 0 2 000 , 45
= = =
For 100 % overload
( ) lb F
t
1154 577 2 = =
( )
( )
lb
Cb F v
Cb F v
F F
t m
t m
t d
2
1
2
2
cos 05 . 0
cos cos 05 . 0
ψ
ψ ψ
+ +
+
+ =
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
lb F
d
3475
15 cos 2 1660 1154 1567 05 . 0
15 cos 15 cos 2 1660 1154 1567 05 . 0
1154
2
1
2
2
=
+ +
+
+ =
Since
d s
F F ≈ , 100 % overload is not damaging

(c)
ψ
2
cos
g p
w
QK bD
F =
. 2 in b =
( )
476 . 1
1 82 . 2
82 . 2 2
1
2
=
+
=
+
=
w
w
m
m
Q
Table AT 26,
o
20 =
n
φ
Sum of BHN = 2(180) = 360
5 . 62 =
g
K
( )( )( )( )
( ) lb F lb F
d w
2578 676
15 cos
5 . 62 476 . 1 42 . 3 2
2
= < = =
Therefore not suitable for continuous service.
Cure: Through hardened teeth
For Bhn
( ) 238 5 . 62
676
2578
= =
g
K
min Bhn = 0.5(650) = 325

709. Two helical gears are used in a speed reducer whose input is 100 hp at 1200 rpm,
from an internal combustion engine. Both gears are made of SAE 4140, with the
pinion heat treated to a BHN 363 – 415, and the gear to 321 – 363; let the teeth
be F.D.; 20
o
pressure angle in the normal plane; carefully cut; helix angle
o
15 = ψ ; 22 =
p
N , 68 =
g
N teeth; 5 =
d
P , in b 4 = . Calculate the dynamic load,
the endurance strength load, and the limiting wear load for the teeth. Should these
gears have long life if they operate continuously? (Data courtesy of the Twin
Disc Clutch Co.)

Solution:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 12 of 14
in
P
N
D
d
p
p
4 . 4
5
22
= = =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
1382
12
1200 4 . 4
12
= = =
π
π

( )
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
2388
1382
100 000 , 33 000 , 33
= = =
Dynamic load
( )
( )
lb
Cb F v
Cb F v
F F
t m
t m
t d
2
1
2
2
cos 05 . 0
cos cos 05 . 0
ψ
ψ ψ
+ +
+
+ =
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, 5 =
dn
P , in e 001 . 0 =
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20
o
FD
1660 = C
in b 4 =
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
lb F
d
5930
15 cos 4 1660 2388 1382 05 . 0
15 cos 15 cos 4 1660 2388 1382 05 . 0
2388
2
1
2
2
=
+ +
+
+ =
Endurance strength load
lb
P K
sbY
F
d f
s
ψ cos
=
Assume 7 . 1 =
f
K
Pinion
( ) ksi BHN s
n
75 . 90 363 25 . 0 25 . 0 = = =
25
15 cos
22
cos
3 3
= = =
ψ
p
ep
N
N
Table AT 24, Load near middle,
o
20 =
n
φ
580 . 0 = Y
( )( )( )
( )( )
lb
P K
sbY
F
d f
s
925 , 23
5 7 . 1
15 cos 580 . 0 4 750 , 90 cos
= = =
ψ

Gear
( ) ksi BHN s
n
25 . 80 321 25 . 0 25 . 0 = = =
75
15 cos
68
cos
3 3
= = =
ψ
p
ep
N
N
Table AT 24, Load near middle,
o
20 =
n
φ
735 . 0 = Y
( )( )( )
( )( )
lb
P K
sbY
F
d f
s
811 , 26
5 7 . 1
15 cos 735 . 0 4 250 , 80 cos
= = =
ψ

use lb F
s
925 , 23 =


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 13 of 14
Limiting Wear Load
ψ
2
cos
g p
w
QK bD
F =
Table AT 26,
o
20 =
n
φ
Sum of BHN = 684 to 778 use 700
270 =
g
K
( )
511 . 1
68 22
68 2
2
=
+
=
+
=
g p
g
N N
N
Q
( )( )( )( )
lb F
w
7696
15 cos
270 511 . 1 4 . 4 4
2
= =
Since ( ) ( ) lb F lb F
d w
5930 7696 = > = these gears have long life if they operate
continuously.

CROSSED HELICAL

710. Helical gears are to connect two shafts that are at right angles
( 20
1
= N , 40
2
= N , 10 =
dn
P ,
o
45
2 1
= =ψ ψ ). Determine the center distance.

Solution:
1 1
1 1
1
cos
cos
ψ
ψ π
D P
P
D
N
dn
cn
= =
( )( ) 45 cos 10 20
1
D =
in D 83 . 2
1
=
2 2 2
cosψ D P N
dn
=
( )( ) 45 cos 10 40
2
D =
in D 66 . 5
2
=
( ) ( ) in D D C 25 . 4 66 . 5 83 . 2
2
1
2 1 2
1
= + = + =

712. Two shafts that are at right angles are to be connected by helical gears. A
tentative design is to use 20
1
= N , 60
2
= N , 10 =
dn
P , and a center distance of 6
in. What must be the helix angles?

Solution:
o
90
2 1
= + = Σ ψ ψ
1
1
1
cosψ
dn
P
N
D =
2
2
2
cosψ
dn
P
N
D =
( )
2 1 2
1
D D C + =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 12 – HELICAL GEARS
Page 14 of 14
2
2
1
1
cos cos
2
ψ ψ
dn dn
P
N
P
N
C + =
( )
2 1
cos 10
60
cos 10
20
6 2
ψ ψ
+ =
2 1
cos
6
cos
2
12
ψ ψ
+ =
2 1
cos
3
cos
1
6
ψ ψ
+ =
By trial and error method
1 1
sin
3
cos
1
6
ψ ψ
+ =
o
5 . 39
1
= ψ
o
5 . 50
2
= ψ

- end -
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 1 of 17
DESIGN PROBLEMS

751. Decide upon the pitch, face,
g
N , material, and heat treatment of a pair of straight
bevel gears to transmit continuously and indefinitely a uniform loading of 5 hp at
900 rpm of the pinion, reasonable operating temperature, high reliability;
75 . 1 ≈
g
m ; in D
p
333 . 3 ≈ . Pinion overhangs, gear is straddle mounted.

Solution:
( )
2
1
2 2
g p
r r L + =
75 . 1
1 1
tan = =
g
p
m
γ
o
75 . 29 =
p
γ
p p
r L = γ sin
2
333 . 3
75 . 29 sin = L
in L 358 . 3 =
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
000 , 33
=
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
4 . 785
12
900 333 . 3
12
= = =
π
π

( )
lb F
t
210
4 . 785
5 000 , 33
= =
( )
t m sf d
F K N VF F =
( )
56 . 1
50
4 . 785 50
50
50
2
1
2
1
=
+
=
+
=
m
v
VF
One gear straddle, one not
2 . 1 =
m
K
Table 15.2, uniform
0 . 1 =
sf
N
( )( )( )( ) lb F
d
393 210 2 . 1 0 . 1 56 . 1 = =
Wear load
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

in D
p
333 . 3 =
( ) in L b 0 . 1 358 . 3 3 . 0 3 . 0 = = =
Temperature factor
0 . 1 =
t
K , reasonable operating temperature
Life factor for wear
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 2 of 17
0 . 1 =
l
C for indefinite life
Reliability factor for wear
25 . 1 =
r
C high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.7
Assume 080 . 0 = I
Elastic coefficient (Table 15.4)
Steel on steel , 2800 =
e
C
d w
F F =
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
393
25 . 1 0 . 1
0 . 1
2800
08 . 0 0 . 1 333 . 3
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

cd
s

psi s
cd
370 , 134 =
Table 15.3, use Steel, (300)
ksi s
cd
135 =
Strength of bevel gears
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
Size factor, assume 71 . 0 =
s
K
Life factor for strength
1 =
l
K for indefinite life
Temperature factor,
1 =
t
K good operating condition
Reliability factor
5 . 1 =
r
K high reliability
Geometry factor for strength (Fig. 15.5)
Assume 240 . 0 = J

in b 0 . 1 =
d
s = design flexural stress
Min. BHN = 300
ksi s
d
19 =
d s
F F =
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
393
5 . 1 1 71 . 0
1 240 . 0 0 . 1 000 , 19
=
(
¸
(

¸

d
P

11 =
d
P
say 10 =
d
P
so that in
P
b
d
0 . 1
10
10 10
= = =

( )( ) in m D D
g p g
833 . 5 75 . 1 333 . 3 = = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 3 of 17
( )( ) 33 . 58 833 . 5 10 = = =
g d g
D P N
say 58 =
g
N
Use 10 =
d
P , in b 0 . 1 = , 58 =
g
N
Material = steel, min. Bhn = 300

752. A pair of steel Zerol bevel gears to transmit 25 hp at 600 rpm of the pinion;
3 =
g
m ; let 20 ≈
p
N teeth; highest reliability; the pinion is overhung, the gear
straddle mounted. An electric motor drives a multi-cylinder pump. (a) Decide
upon the pitch, face width, diameters, and steel (with treatment) for intermittent
service. (b) The same as (a) except that indefinite life is desired.

Solution:
d d
p
p
P P
N
D
20
= =
( )
fpm
P
P n D
v
d
d p p
m
π
π
π
1000
12
600
20
12
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
Let
d
P
b
10
=
Dynamic load
( )
t m sf d
F K N VF F =
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
000 , 33
=
( )
d
d
t
P
P
F 6 . 262
1000
25 000 , 33
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
π

d d
d m
P P
P v
VF
121 . 1
1
121 . 1
1
50
1000
50
50
50
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ = + =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
+
=
π

Table 15.2, electric motor drives a multi-cylinder pump
Service factor, 25 . 1 =
sf
N
One gear straddle, one not, 2 . 1 =
m
K
( )( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
d
d d
d
d
P
P P
P
F
121 . 1
1 394 6 . 262 2 . 1 25 . 1
121 . 1
1
(a) Strength of Bevel Gears
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
Size factor, assume 71 . 0 =
s
K
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 4 of 17
Life factor for strength
Intermittent service, use 6 . 4 =
l
K
Temperature factor, say 0 . 1 =
t
K
Reliability factor, highest reliability
0 . 3 =
r
K
Geometry factor for strength
p
g
g
N
N
m =
20 =
p
N
( ) 60 20 3 = =
p
N
Fig. 15.5, 205 . 0 = J
d
P
b
10
=
Design flexural stress, steel
Assume ksi s
d
15 =
d s
F F =
( ) ( )( )
( )( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
d
d
d
d
P
P
P
P 121 . 1
1 394
3 0 . 1 71 . 0
6 . 4 205 . 0
10
000 , 15

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
d
d
d
P
P
P
121 . 1
1 394
408 , 66
2

814 . 4 =
d
P
say 5 =
d
P
in
P
b
d
0 . 2
5
10 10
= = =

Wear load for bevel gears
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

in
P
N
D
d
p
p
4
5
20
= = =
0 . 1 =
t
K

Life factor for wear, intermittent service
5 . 1 =
l
C
Reliability factor for wear, highest reliability
25 . 1 =
r
C
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.7
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 5 of 17
20 =
p
N , 60 =
g
N
083 . 0 = I
Elastic coefficient, steel on steel (Table 15.4)
2800 =
e
C
5 =
d
P

d w
F F =
( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) |
¹
|

\
|
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

5
121 . 1
1 5 394
25 . 1 0 . 1
5 . 1
2800
083 . 0 2 4
2
2
2
cd
s

psi s
cd
730 , 155 =
Table 15.3
Use steel, min. BHN = 360, ksi s
cd
160 =
5 =
d
P
in b 2 =
in D
p
4 =
( )( ) in D m D
p g g
12 4 3 = = =
steel, min. BHN = 360

(b) For indefinite life,
0 . 1 =
l
K , life factor for strength
0 . 1 =
l
C , life factor for wear

Strength:
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
d s
F F =
( ) ( )( )
( )( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
d
d
d
d
P
P
P
P 121 . 1
1 394
3 0 . 1 71 . 0
0 . 1 205 . 0
10
000 , 15

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
d
d
d
P
P
P
121 . 1
1 394
437 , 14
2

799 . 2 =
d
P
say 3 =
d
P
in
P
b
d
33 . 3
3
10 10
= = =

Wear load
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 6 of 17
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

in
P
N
D
d
p
p
67 . 6
3
20
= = =
d w
F F =
( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) |
¹
|

\
|
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

3
121 . 1
1 3 394
25 . 1 0 . 1
0 . 1
2800
083 . 0 33 . 3 67 . 6
2
2
2
cd
s

psi s
cd
744 , 113 =
Table 15.3
Use steel, min. BHN = 240, ksi s
cd
115 =
3 =
d
P
in b 33 . 3 =
in D
p
67 . 6 =
( )( ) in D m D
p g g
20 67 . 6 3 = = =
steel, min. BHN = 240

753. Decide upon the pitch, face, and number of teeth for two spiral-bevel gears for a
speed reducer. The input to the pinion is 20 hp at 1750 rpm; 9 . 1 ≈
g
m ; pinion
overhung, gear-straddle mounted. It is hoped not to exceed a maximum
p
D of 4
3/8-in.; steel gears with minimum 245 BHN on pinion and 210 BHN on gear.
The gear is motor-driven, subject to miscellaneous drives involving moderate
shock; indefinite life against breakage and wear with high reliability. If the gears
designed for the foregoing data are to be subjected to intermittent service only,
how much power could they be expected to transmit?

Solution:
(a)
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
2000
12
1750 375 . 4
12
= = =
π
π

( )
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
330
2000
20 000 , 33 000 , 33
= = =
Dynamic load
( )
t m sf d
F K N VF F =
One gear straddle, one not
2 . 1 =
m
K
Table 15.2
Motor-driven, moderate shock
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 7 of 17
25 . 1 =
sf
N
2
1
2
1
70
70
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
m
v
VF , spiral
( )
254 . 1
70
2000 70
2
1
2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
= VF
( )( )( )( ) lb F
d
621 330 2 . 1 25 . 1 254 . 1 = =

Wear load
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

in D
p
375 . 4 =
Temperature Factor, 0 . 1 =
t
K
Design contact stresses,
245 = BHN , pinion
ksi s
cd
116 =
Life factor for wear
0 . 1 =
l
C , indefinite life
Reliability factor for wear
25 . 1 =
r
C , high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.8
Assume 12 . 0 = I
Elastic coefficient, steel on steel (Table 15.4)
2800 =
e
C
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
b b F
w
721
25 . 1 0 . 1
0 . 1
2800
000 , 116
12 . 0 375 . 4
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
d w
F F =
621 721 = b
in b 8613 . 0 =
say in in b 875 . 0
8
7
= =

Strength of gear
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
d
s = design flexural stress
min. BHN = 210
ksi s
d
4 . 15 =
Size factor, assume 71 . 0 =
s
K
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 8 of 17
Life factor for strength
1 =
l
K for indefinite life
Temperature factor,
1 =
t
K
Reliability factor
5 . 1 =
r
K high reliability
Geometry factor Fig. 15.6
Assume 28 . 0 = J
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
d d
s
P P
F
3543
5 . 1 1 71 . 0
1 28 . 0 875 . 0 400 , 15
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
d s
F F =
621
3543
=
d
P

7 . 5 =
d
P
say 6 =
d
P
Then, 6 =
d
P , in b
8
7
= , ( )( ) 26 6 375 . 4 = = =
d p p
P D N
( )( ) 50 26 9 . 1 = = =
p w g
N m N

(b) Intermittent service only
Strength
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
psi s
d
400 , 15 = (Gear)
For 6 =
d
P , 64 . 0 =
s
K
For indefinite service, 6 . 4 =
l
K
0 . 1 =
t
K , 5 . 1 =
r
K
Geometry factor, Fig. 15.6, 26 =
p
N , 50 =
g
N
292 . 0 = J
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
lb F
s
3142
5 . 1 1 71 . 0
6 . 4
6
292 . 0 875 . 0 400 , 15
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
Wear load
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

in D
p
375 . 4 =
0 . 1 =
t
K
ksi s
cd
116 =
2800 =
e
C
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 9 of 17
5 . 1 =
l
C intermittent service
25 . 1 =
r
C
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.8
26 =
p
N , 50 =
g
N
116 . 0 = I
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
lb F
w
1098
25 . 1 0 . 1
5 . 1
2800
000 , 116
116 . 0 875 . 0 375 . 4
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
use
d w
F F =
( )
t m sf d
F K N VF F =
( )( )( )
t
F 2 . 1 125 254 . 1 1098 =
lb F
t
584 =
( )( )
hp
v F
hp
m t
35
000 , 33
2000 584
000 , 33
= = =

CHECK PROBLEMS

755. A pair of straight-bevel gears are to transmit a smooth load of 45 hp at 500 rpm
of the pinion; 3 =
g
m . A proposed design is . 15 in D
g
= , .
8
3
2 in b = , 4 =
d
P .
Teeth are carburized AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F. The pinion overhangs, the gear is
straddle-mounted. Would these gears be expected to perform with high reliability
in continuous service? If not would you expect more than 1 failure in 100?

Solution:
in
m
D
D
g
g
p
5
3
15
= = =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
655
12
500 5
12
= = =
π
π

( )
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
2267
655
45 000 , 33 000 , 33
= = =
Dynamic load
( )
t m sf d
F K N VF F =
( )
512 . 1
50
655 50
50
50
2
1
2
1
=
+
=
+
=
m
v
VF
One gear straddle, one not
2 . 1 =
m
K
Smooth load, 0 . 1 =
sf
N
( )( )( )( ) lb F
d
4113 2267 2 . 1 0 . 1 512 . 1 = =


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 10 of 17
Strength of bevel gears
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
Size factor, for 4 =
d
P ,
71 . 0 =
s
K
Life factor for strength
1 =
l
K
Temperature factor,
1 =
t
K
Geometry factor for strength (Fig. 15.5)
( )( ) 20 5 4 = = =
p d p
D P N
( )( ) 60 15 4 = = =
g d g
D P N
205 . 0 = J

ksi s
d
30 = (55 – 63 Rc) for carburized teeth
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
r r
s
K K
F
5143
1 71 . 0
1
4
205 . 0 375 . 2 000 , 30
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
d s
F F =
4113
5143
=
r
K

5 . 1 25 . 1 < =
r
K will not perform high reliability.

Wear load
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

in D
p
5 =
in b 375 . 2 =
Table 15.3, ksi s
cd
225 =
Table 15.4, 2800 =
e
C
Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
20 =
p
N , 60 =
g
N
083 . 0 = I
1 =
t
K
life factor for wear 1 =
l
C
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2
2
6364
1
1
2800
000 , 225
083 . 0 375 . 2 5
r r
w
C C
F =
(
¸
(

¸

=
d w
F F =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 11 of 17
4113
6364
2
=
r
C

25 . 1 244 . 1 ≈ =
r
C , high reliability

Since 5 . 1 <
r
K ,this will not perform high reliability but 1 in 100, 25 . 1 12 . 1 < ≈
r
K

756. A gear catalog rates a pair of cast-iron, straight-bevel gears at 15.26 hp at 800
rpm of the 16-tooth pinion; 5 . 3 =
g
m , . 3 in b = , 3 =
d
P ; pinion overhangs,
straddle-mounted gear. Assume the cast iron to be class 30. If the load is smooth
is this rating satisfactory, judging by the design approach of the Text for good
reliability (a) when strength alone is considered, (b) when long continuous
service is desired?

Solution:
in
P
N
D
d
p
p
333 . 5
3
16
= = =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
1117
12
800 333 . 5
12
= = =
π
π

( )
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
451
1117
26 . 15 000 , 33 000 , 33
= = =
Dynamic load
( )
t m sf d
F K N VF F =
( )
668 . 1
50
1117 50
50
50
2
1
2
1
=
+
=
+
=
m
v
VF
One gear straddle, one not
2 . 1 =
m
K
Smooth load, 0 . 1 =
sf
N
( )( )( )( ) lb F
d
903 451 2 . 1 0 . 1 668 . 1 = =

(a) Strength
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
3 =
d
P ,
76 . 0 =
s
K
1 =
l
K
1 =
t
K
5 . 1 =
r
K
ksi s
d
6 . 4 = , cast-iron class 30
16 =
p
N
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 12 of 17
( )( ) 56 16 5 . 3 = = =
p w g
N m N
184 . 0 = J
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )
d s
F lb lb F = < =
(
¸
(

¸

= 903 742
5 . 1 1 76 . 0
1
3
184 . 0 3 600 , 4

with
4 . 1 =
l
K for 10
6
cycles
( )( ) ( )
d s
F lb lb F = > = = 903 1040 742 4 . 1
Therefore satisfactory for 10
6
cycles.

(b) Continuous service
Wear load
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

in D
p
333 . 5 =
in b 3 =
Table 15.3, ksi s
cd
50 = , cast-iron class 30
Table 15.4, cast-iron and cast-iron 2250 =
e
C
1 =
l
C
1 =
t
K
25 . 1 =
r
C
Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
16 =
p
N , 56 =
g
N
077 . 0 = I
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) lb F lb F
d w
903 389
25 . 1 1
1
2250
000 , 50
077 . 0 3 333 . 5
2
2
2
= < =
(
¸
(

¸

=
Therefore, not satisfactory for long continuous service.

757. An 870-rpm motor drives a belt conveyor through bevel gears having 18 and 72
teeth; 6 =
d
P , in b
4
3
1 = . Both gears are straddle-mounted. What horsepower may
these gears transmit for an indefinite life with high reliability if both gears are (a)
cast-iron, class 40; (b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F; (c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F,
flame hardened (d) AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F?

Solution:
in
P
N
D
d
p
p
3
6
18
= = =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
683
12
870 3
12
= = =
π
π

Dynamic load
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 13 of 17
( )
t m sf d
F K N VF F =
Both gears straddle mounted
0 . 1 =
m
K
Table 15.2, 0 . 1 =
sf
N
( )
523 . 1
50
683 50
50
50
2
1
2
1
=
+
=
+
=
m
v
VF
( )( )( )
t t d
F F F 523 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 523 . 1 = =

(a) Cast-iron, class 40
Strength
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
ksi s
d
7 = , cast-iron class 40
in b
4
3
1 =
1 =
l
K , indefinite life
6 =
d
P
64 . 0 =
s
K
1 =
t
K
5 . 1 =
r
K , high reliability
Figure 15.5, 18 =
p
N , 72 =
g
N
204 . 0 = J
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
lb F
s
434
5 . 1 1 64 . 0
1
6
204 . 0 75 . 1 7000
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
Wear:
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

in D
p
3 =
in b
4
3
1 =
Table 15.3, ksi s
cd
65 = , cast-iron class 40
Table 15.4, cast-iron and cast-iron 2250 =
e
C
1 =
l
C , indefinite life
1 =
t
K
25 . 1 =
r
C , high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
18 =
p
N , 72 =
g
N
082 . 0 = I
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 14 of 17
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
lb F
w
230
25 . 1 1
1
2250
000 , 65
082 . 0 75 . 1 3
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
w d
F F =
230 523 . 1 =
t
F
lb F
t
151 =
( )( )
hp
v F
hp
m t
3
000 , 33
683 151
000 , 33
= = =

(b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F, BHN = 300
Strength
psi s
d
000 , 19 =
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
lb F
s
1178
5 . 1 1 64 . 0
1
6
204 . 0 75 . 1 000 , 19
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
Wear:
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

Table 15.3, ksi s
cd
135 =
Table 15.4, steel and steel, 2800 =
e
C
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
lb F
w
640
25 . 1 1
1
2800
000 , 135
082 . 0 75 . 1 3
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
w d
F F =
640 523 . 1 =
t
F
lb F
t
420 =
( )( )
hp
v F
hp
m t
7 . 8
000 , 33
683 420
000 , 33
= = =

(c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F, Flame Hardened
Strength
ksi s
d
5 . 13 =
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
lb F
s
837
5 . 1 1 64 . 0
1
6
204 . 0 75 . 1 500 , 13
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
Wear:
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

Table 15.3, ksi s
cd
190 =
Table 15.4, steel and steel, 2800 =
e
C
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 15 of 17
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
lb F
w
1269
25 . 1 1
1
2800
000 , 190
082 . 0 75 . 1 3
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
s d
F F =
837 523 . 1 =
t
F
lb F
t
550 =
( )( )
hp
v F
hp
m t
4 . 11
000 , 33
683 550
000 , 33
= = =

(d) AISI 86200, SOQT 450 F, carburized
Strength
ksi s
d
30 = (55 – 63 Rc)
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
lb F
s
1859
5 . 1 1 64 . 0
1
6
204 . 0 75 . 1 000 , 30
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
Wear:
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

Table 15.3, ksi s
cd
225 =
Table 15.4, steel and steel, 2800 =
e
C
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
lb F
w
1779
25 . 1 1
1
2800
000 , 225
082 . 0 75 . 1 3
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
w d
F F =
1779 523 . 1 =
t
F
lb F
t
1168 =
( )( )
hp
v F
hp
m t
2 . 24
000 , 33
683 1168
000 , 33
= = =

758. A pair of straight-bevel gears transmits 15 hp at a pinion speed of 800 rpm;
5 =
d
P , 20 =
p
N , 60 =
p
N , in b 2 = . Both gears are made of AISI 4140 steel,
OQT 800 F. What reliability factor is indicated for these gears for strength and
for wear (a) for smooth loads, (b) for light shock load from the power source and
heavy shock on the driven machine?

Solution:
in
P
N
D
d
p
p
4
5
20
= = =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
p p
m
838
12
800 4
12
= = =
π
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 16 of 17
( )
lb
v
hp
F
m
t
591
838
15 000 , 33 000 , 33
= = =
( )
t m sf d
F K N VF F =
( )
579 . 1
50
838 50
50
50
2
1
2
1
=
+
=
+
=
m
v
VF
assume 0 . 1 =
m
K
( )( )( )( )
sf sf d
N N F 933 591 0 . 1 579 . 1 = =
Strength of bevel gear
r t s
l
d
d
s
K K K
K
P
bJ s
F =
For AISI 4140, OQT 800 F, BHN = 429
ksi s
d
24 =
assume 1 =
l
K
1 =
t
K
5 =
d
P
675 . 0 =
s
K
Figure 15.5, 20 =
p
N , 60 =
g
N
205 . 0 = J
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
r r
s
K K
F
2916
1 675 . 0
1
5
205 . 0 2 000 , 24
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
d s
F F =
sf
r
N
K
933
2916
=
sf
r
N
K
1254 . 3
=
Wear load:
2
2
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r t
l cd
p w
C K
C
C
s
bI D F
e

BHN = 429
Table 15.3, ksi s
cd
190 =
Table 15.4, steel and steel, 2800 =
e
C
in D
p
4 =
in b 2 =
Assume 0 . 1 =
l
C , 0 . 1 =
t
K
Fig. 15.7, 20 =
p
N , 60 =
g
N
083 . 0 = I
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 13 – BEVEL GEARS
Page 17 of 17
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2
2
3058
1
1
2800
000 , 190
083 . 0 2 4
r r
w
C C
F =
(
¸
(

¸

=
w d
F F =
2
3058
933
r
sf
C
N =
sf
r
N
C
810 . 1
=
(a) Table 15.2, smooth load

0 . 1 =
sf
N
For strength, 1254 . 3
1
1254 . 3 1254 . 3
= = =
sf
r
N
K
For wear, 810 . 1
1
810 . 1 810 . 1
= = =
sf
r
N
C

(b) Table 15.2, light shock source, heavy shock driven

0 . 2 =
sf
N
For strength, 5627 . 1
2
1254 . 3 1254 . 3
= = =
sf
r
N
K
For wear, 2799 . 1
2
810 . 1 810 . 1
= = =
sf
r
N
C

- end -
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 1 of 19
DESIGN PROBLEMS

791. (a) Determine a standard circular pitch and face width for a worm gear drive with
an input of 2 hp at 1200 rpm of the triple-threaded worm; the 1.58-in. (
w
D ) is
steel with a minimum BHN = 250; gear is manganese bronze (Table AT 3);
12 =
w
m . Consider wear and strength only. Use a
n
φ to match the lead angle λ .
(See i16.13, Text.) (b) compute the efficiency.
Solution:

a) lb F
v
F
t
mg
d







 +
=
1200
1200

mg
t
v
hp
F
000 , 33
=
12
g g
mg
n D
v
π
=
rpm
m
n
n
w
w
g
100
12
1200
= = =
λ tan
w w g
D m D =
w
c t
D
P N
π
λ = tan
( )( )
c
c c w t
w
c t
w w g
P
P P m N
D
P N
D m D 46 . 11
12 3
= = =








=
π π π

( )( )
c
c
mg
P
P
v 300
12
100 45 . 11
= =
π

( )
c c
t
P P
F
220
300
2 000 , 33
= =
( )
lb
P
P
P
P
F
c
c
c
c
d
+
=













 +
=
4 55 220
1200
300 1200

Wear load
w g w
bK D F =
say
c
P b 2 = ,
c g
P D 46 . 11 =

d w
F F =
( )( )( )
( )
c
c
w c c
P
P
K P P
+
=
4 55
2 46 . 11
( )
c
c
w c
P
P
K P
+
=
4 55
92 . 22
2

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 2 of 19
( )( )
c
c
w w
g
P
P
D m
D
60443 . 0
58 . 1 12
46 . 11
tan = = = λ

By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( λ φ ≈
n
)
w
K
c
P
c
P (std) λ
max
λ i16.11
n
φ
36 0.678 ¾ 24.4 16 14 ½
50 0.605 5/8 20.7 25 20

Use
o
20 =
n
φ ,
o
7 . 20 = λ , in P
c
8
5
=
d w
F F =
( )( )( )
( )
c
c
w c
P
P
K b P
+
=
4 55
46 . 11
( ) ( )( )
8
5
8
5
4 55
50
8
5
46 . 11






+
=






b
in b 1365 . 1 =
say in b
32
5
1 =
To check for strength.
π
λ
π
cos
c cn
s
sYbP sYbP
F = =
For manganese bronze,
psi s 000 , 30 =

o
20 =
n
φ
392 . 0 = Y
o
7 . 20 = λ
in P
c
8
5
=
in b
32
5
1 =
( )( )
d s
F lb F > =












= 2530
7 . 20 cos
8
5
32
5
1 392 . 0 000 , 30
π

use in P
c
8
5
=
in b
32
5
1 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 3 of 19
(b)








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
o
20 =
n
φ
o
7 . 20 = λ
( )( )
fpm fpm
n D
v
w w
r
70 531
7 . 20 cos 12
1200 58 . 1
cos 12
> = = =
π
λ
π

( )
0334 . 0
531
32 . 0 32 . 0
36 . 0 36 . 0
= = =
r
v
f
% 2 . 90 902 . 0
0334 . 0 7 . 20 tan 20 cos
7 . 20 tan 0334 . 0 20 cos
7 . 20 tan = =






+

= e

792. A high-efficiency worm-gear speed reducer is desired, to accept 20 hp from a
1750-rpm motor. The diameter
w
D of the integral worm has been estimated to be
.
8
7
1 in ; the next computations are to be for a steel worm with a minimum BHN =
250; phosphor-bronze gear (Table AT 3); 11 =
w
m . Probably, the worm should
not have less than 4 threads. (a) Considering wear and strength only (i16.13),
decide upon a pitch and face width that satisfies these requirements (i16.11,
Text); specifying the pressure angle, diameters, and center distance. How does
w
D used compare with that from equation (m), i16.11, Text? What addendum
and dedendum are recommended by Dudley? Compute a face length for the
worm. (b) Compute the efficiency. What do you recommend as the next trial for
a “better” reducer?

Solution:
mg
t
v
hp
F
000 , 33
=
12
g g
mg
n D
v
π
=
rpm
m
n
n
w
w
g
1 . 159
11
1750
= = =
( )( )
c
c t w c
g c
g
P
P N m P
N P
D 14
4 11
= = = =
π π π

( )( )
c
c
mg
P
P
v 583
12
1 . 159 14
= =
π

( )
c c
t
P P
F
1132
583
20 000 , 33
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 4 of 19
lb F
v
F
t
mg
d







 +
=
1200
1200

( )
lb
P
P
P
P
F
c
c
c
c
d
4858 . 0 1 1132 1132
1200
583 1200 +
=













 +
=

(a) Wear
w g w
bK D F =
c
P b 2 = ,
c g
P D 14 =

d w
F F =
( )( )( )
( )
c
c
w c c
P
P
K P P
4858 . 0 1 1132
2 14
+
=
( )
c
c
w c
P
P
K P
4858 . 0 1 1132
28
2
+
=
Table AT 27, steel, min. BHN = 250, and bronze
And by trial and error ethod
( )
( )( )
c
c
w
c t
P
P
D
P N
6791 . 0
875 . 1
4
tan = = =
π π
λ

By trial and error and using Table AT 27
w
K
c
P
c
P (std) λ
max
λ i16.11
n
φ
36 1.213 1 ¼ 40.33 16 14 ½
50 1.071 1 ¼ 40.33 25 20
60 1.000 1.0 34.18 35 25

Use
o
25 =
n
φ ,
o
18 . 34 = λ , in P
c
1 =
d w
F F =
( )( )( )
( )
c
c
w c
P
P
K b P
4858 . 0 1 1132
14
+
=
( )( )( )( )
( )
1
4858 . 0 1 1132
60 1 14
+
= b
in b 2 =

To check for strength
π
λ
π
cos
c cn
s
sYbP sYbP
F = =
For phosphor-bronze,
psi s s
n
000 , 31 = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 5 of 19

For
o
25 =
n
φ , 470 . 0 = Y
( )( )( )( )
d s
F lb F > = = 7674
18 . 34 cos 0 . 1 0 . 2 470 . 0 000 , 31
π
, ok
use in P
c
0 . 1 =
in b 0 . 2 =
o
25 =
n
φ
in D
w
8
7
1 =
( ) in D m D
w w g
0 . 14 18 . 34 tan
8
7
1 11 tan =






= = λ
( ) in D D C
g w
9375 . 7 14
8
7
1
2
1
2
1
=






+ = + =
Equation (m)
( )
in in in
C
D
w
875 . 1 785 . 2
2 . 2
9375 . 7
2 . 2
875 . 0 875 . 0
> = = = , ok
Addendum and dedendum (by Dudley)

Addendum = ( ) in P P a
c cn
2633 . 0 18 . 34 cos 0 . 1 3183 . 0 cos 3183 . 0 3183 . 0 = = = = λ
Whole depth = ( ) in P P
c cn
5791 . 0 18 . 34 cos 0 . 1 7 . 0 cos 7 . 0 7 . 0 = = = λ
Dedendum = whole depth – addendum = 0.5791 in – 0.2633 in = 0.3158 in

Face length =








+
50
5 . 4
g
c
N
P
( )( ) 44 4 11 = = =
p w g
N m N
Face length = in 38 . 5
50
44
5 . 4 0 . 1 =






+
Or
Face length = ( ) [ ]
2
1
2 2 2 a D a
g

in D
g
14 =
in a 2633 . 0 =
Face length = ( ) ( ) [ ] { } in 33 . 5 2633 . 0 2 14 2633 . 0 2 2
2
1
= −
Use Face length = 5.38 in

(b)








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
( )( )
fpm fpm
n D
v
w w
r
70 1038
18 . 34 cos 12
1750 875 . 1
cos 12
> = = =
π
λ
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 6 of 19
( )
0263 . 0
1038
32 . 0 32 . 0
36 . 0 36 . 0
= = =
r
v
f ( fpm v
r
3000 70 < < )
o
25 =
n
φ ,
o
18 . 34 = λ ,
% 94 94 . 0
0263 . 0 18 . 34 tan 25 cos
18 . 34 tan 0263 . 0 25 cos
18 . 34 tan = =






+

= e
recommendation for next trial
o
30 =
n
φ
o
45
max
= λ

793. The input to a worm-gear set is to be 25 hp at 600 rpm of the worm with
20 =
w
m . The hardened-steel worm is to be the shell type with a diameter
approximately as given in i16.11, Text, and a minimum of 4 threads; the gear is
to be chilled phosphor bronze (Table AT 3). (a) Considering wear and strength
only determine suitable values of the pitch and face width. Let
n
φ be appropriate
to the value of λ . (b) Compute the efficiency. (c) Estimate the radiating area of
the case and compute the temperature rise of lubricant. Is special cooling needed?

Solution:
mg
t
v
hp
F
000 , 33
=
12
g g
mg
n D
v
π
=
rpm
m
n
n
w
w
g
30
20
600
= = =
( )( )
π π π π
c c t w c
g c
g
P P N m P
N P
D
80 4 20
= = = =
( )
c
c
mg
P
P
v 200
12
30
80
=






=
π
π

( )
c c
t
P P
F
4125
200
25 000 , 33
= =
lb F
v
F
t
mg
d







 +
=
1200
1200

( )
lb
P
P
P
P
F
c
c
c
c
d
+
=













 +
=
6 5 . 687 4125
1200
200 1200

shell type: in P D
c w
1 . 1 4 . 2 + =
( )
( )( ) ( ) 1 . 1 4 . 2
4
1 . 1 4 . 2
4
tan
+
=
+
= =
c
c
c
c
w
c t
P
P
P
P
D
P N
π π π
λ
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 7 of 19
(a) Wear load
w g w
bK D F =
c
P b 2 = ,
π
c
g
P
D
80
=

d w
F F =
( )( )
( )
c
c
w c
c
P
P
K P
P +
=





 6 5 . 687
2
80
π

( )
c
c
w c
P
P
K P
+
=
6 5 . 687
93 . 50
2

Table AT 27, Hardened steel and chilled bronze
By trial and error method


By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( λ φ ≈
n
)
w
K
c
P
c
P (std) λ
max
λ i16.11
n
φ
90 1.017 1.0 20 16 14 ½
125 0.907 1.0 20 25 20

Use
o
20 =
n
φ ,
o
20 = λ , in P
c
1 =
d w
F F =
( )( )
( )
1
1 6 5 . 1687
125
80 +
=






b
π

in b 512 . 1 =
say in b
8
5
1 =
(b)








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
o
20 =
n
φ
o
20 = λ
in P D
c w
5 . 3 1 . 1 4 . 2 1 . 1 4 . 2 = + = + =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
w w
r
585
20 cos 12
600 5 . 3
cos 12
= = =
π
λ
π

( )
0323 . 0
585
32 . 0 32 . 0
36 . 0 36 . 0
= = =
r
v
f ( fpm v
r
3000 70 < < )
% 23 . 90 9023 . 0
0323 . 0 20 tan 20 cos
20 tan 0323 . 0 20 cos
20 tan = =






+

= e
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 8 of 19
(c) Radiating area
7 . 1
min
2 . 43 C A = ≈ sq. in.

( )
g w
D D C + =
2
1

in D
w
5 . 3 =
( )
in
P
D
c
g
5 . 25
1 80 80
= = =
π π

( ) in C 5 . 14 5 . 25 5 . 3
2
1
= + =
( ) . . 4072 5 . 14 2 . 43
7 . 1
min
in sq A = =

Temperature rise = t ∆
min lb ft t A h Q
cr c
− ∆ =

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) min 600 , 80 min 000 , 33 4425 . 2 25 9023 . 0 1 1 lb ft hp lb ft hp hp e Q
i
− = − − = − = − =
Figure AF 21, . . 3 . 28 . . 4072 ft sq in sq A = =
F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 42 . 0
c
Q Q =
( )( )( ) t ∆ = 4072 42 . 0 600 , 80
F t 47 = ∆
with F t 100
1
=
F F t 150 147
2
< =
Therefore, no special cooling needed.

794. A 50-hp motor turning at 1750 rpm is to deliver its power to a worm-gear
reducer, whose velocity ratio is to be 20. The shell-type worm is to be made of
high-test cast iron; since a reasonably good efficiency is desired, use at least 4
threads; manganese –bronze gear (Table AT 3). (a) Decide upon
w
D and
n
φ , and
determine suitable values of the pitch and face width. Compute (b) the efficiency,
(c) the temperature rise of the lubricant. Estimate the radiating area of the case. Is
special cooling needed?

Solution:
mg
t
v
hp
F
000 , 33
=
12
g g
mg
n D
v
π
=
rpm
m
n
n
w
w
g
5 . 87
20
1750
= = =
( )( )
π π π π
c c t w c
g c
g
P P N m P
N P
D
80 4 20
= = = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 9 of 19
( )
c
c
mg
P
P
v 583
12
5 . 87
80
=






=
π
π

( )
c c
t
P P
F
2830
583
50 000 , 33
= =

(a) lb F
v
F
t
mg
d







 +
=
1200
1200

( )
lb
P
P
P
P
F
c
c
c
c
d
+
=













 +
=
06 . 2 1375 2830
1200
583 1200

Wear load
w g w
bK D F =
c
P b 2 = ,
π
c
g
P
D
80
=

d w
F F =
( )( )
( )
c
c
w c
c
P
P
K P
P +
=





 06 . 2 1375
2
80
π

( )
c
c
w c
P
P
K P
+
=
06 . 2 1375
93 . 50
2

w
c t
D
P N
π
λ = tan
Shell-type
in P D
c w
1 . 1 4 . 2 + =
( ) 1 . 1 4 . 2
4
tan
+
=
c
c
P
P
π
λ
Table AT 27, high-test cast-iron and manganese bronze
By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( λ φ ≈
n
)
w
K
c
P
c
P (std) λ
max
λ i16.11
n
φ
80 1.012 1.0 20 16 14 ½
115 0.885 7/8 19.2 25 20

Use
o
2 . 19 = λ ,
o
20 =
n
φ , in P
c
8
7
=
in P D
c w
2 . 3 1 . 1
8
7
4 . 2 1 . 1 4 . 2 = +






= + =
d w
F F =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 10 of 19
( )( )
8
7
8
7
06 . 2 1375
115
8
7 80






+
=












b
π

in b 80 . 1 =
say in b
8
7
1 =

(b)








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
o
2 . 19 = λ
o
20 =
n
φ
λ
π
cos 12
w w
r
n D
v =
rpm n
w
1750 =
in D
w
2 . 3 =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
w w
r
1552
2 . 19 cos 12
1750 2 . 3
cos 12
= = =
π
λ
π

( )
0227 . 0
1552
32 . 0 32 . 0
36 . 0 36 . 0
= = =
r
v
f ( fpm v
r
3000 70 < < )
% 73 . 92 9273 . 0
0227 . 0 2 . 19 tan 20 cos
2 . 19 tan 0227 . 0 20 cos
2 . 19 tan = =






+

= e

(c) ( )( ) ( )( ) min 955 , 119 635 . 3 50 9273 . 0 1 1 lb ft hp hp e Q
i
− = = − = − =
min lb ft t A h Q
cr c
− ∆ =
. . 2 . 43
7 . 1
min
in sq C A A = =
( )
g w
D D C + =
2
1

in D
w
2 . 3 =
in
P
D
c
g
3 . 22
8
7
80
80
=






= =
π π

( ) in C 75 . 12 35 . 22 2 . 3
2
1
= + =
( ) . . 3272 75 . 12 2 . 43
7 . 1
in sq A = =
Figure AF 1
2
7 . 22
144
3272
ft A = =
F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 43 . 0
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 11 of 19
c
Q Q =
( )( )( ) t ∆ = 3272 43 . 0 955 , 119
F t 85 = ∆
with F t 100
1
=
F F t 150 185
2
> =
Therefore, special cooling is needed.

CHECK PROBLEMS

795. A worm-gear speed reducer has a hardened-steel worm and a manganese-bronze
gear (Table AT 3); triple-threaded worm with . 15278 . 1 in P
c
= , . 136 . 3 in D
w
= ,
o
25 =
n
φ , .
4
1
2 in b = , 12 =
w
m , rpm n
w
580 = . The output is 16 hp. Compute (a)
the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength of the teeth and the indicated
service factor on strength, (c) the limiting wear load (is it good for indefinitely
continuous service?), (d) the efficiency and input hp, (e) the temperature rise of
the oil (estimate case area as
min
A , i16.6). (f) Determine the tangential and radial
components of the tooth load. (g) Is this drive self-locking?

Solution:
mg
t
v
hp
F
000 , 33
=
12
g g
mg
n D
v
π
=
rpm
m
n
n
w
w
g
3 . 48
20
580
= = =
( )( )( )
in
N m P
N P
D
t w c
g c
g
21 . 13
3 12 15278 . 1
= = = =
π π π

( )( )
fpm v
mg
167
12
3 . 48 21 . 13
= =
π


(a)
t
mg
d
F
v
F







 +
=
1200
1200

t d
F F





 +
=
1200
167 1200

( )
lb F
t
3162
167
16 000 , 33
= =
( ) lb F
d
3602 3162
1200
167 1200
=





 +
=

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 12 of 19
(b)
π
λ
π
cos
c cn
s
sYbP sYbP
F = =
( )( )
( ) 136 . 3
15278 . 1 3
tan
π π
λ = =
w
c t
D
P N

o
34 . 19 = λ
For manganese-bronze, psi s s
n
000 , 30 = =
For
o
25 =
n
φ , 470 . 0 = Y
( )( ) ( )
lb F
s
984 , 10
34 . 19 cos 15278 . 1
4
1
2 470 . 0 000 , 30
=






=
π

Service factor
05 . 3
3602
984 , 10
= = =
d
s
sf
F
F
N
(c)
w g w
bK D F =
in D
g
21 . 13 =
in b 25 . 2 =
Table AT 27, hardened-steel worn and manganese bronze gear
o
25 =
n
φ
100 =
w
K
( )( )( ) ( ) lb F lb F
d w
3602 2972 100 25 . 2 21 . 13 = < = =
Therefore, not good for indefinitely continuous service

(d)








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
w w
r
5 . 185
34 . 19 cos 12
580 15278 . 1
cos 12
= = =
π
λ
π

( )
0488 . 0
5 . 185
32 . 0 32 . 0
36 . 0 36 . 0
= = =
r
v
f ( fpm v
r
3000 70 < < )
% 85 85 . 0
0488 . 0 34 . 19 tan 25 cos
34 . 19 tan 0488 . 0 25 cos
34 . 19 tan = =






+

= e
hp
hp
e
hp
hp
o
i
82 . 18
85 . 0
16
= = =

(e) Temperature rise, t ∆

( )( ) ( )( )( ) min 159 , 93 000 , 33 82 . 18 85 . 0 1 1 lb ft hp e Q
i
− = − = − =
min lb ft t A h Q
cr c
− ∆ =
. . 2 . 43
7 . 1
min
in sq C A A = =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 13 of 19
( )
g w
D D C + =
2
1

( ) in C 18 . 7 21 . 13 15278 . 1
2
1
= + =
( ) . . 1233 18 . 7 2 . 43
7 . 1
in sq A = =
Figure AF 1
2
6 . 8
144
1233
ft A = =
F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 47 . 0
c
Q Q =
( )( )( ) t ∆ = 1233 47 . 0 159 , 93
F t 161 = ∆

(f) Tangential components on the worm
lb
f
f
F W
n
n
t t
1305
34 . 19 sin 0488 . 0 34 . 19 cos 25 cos
34 . 19 cos 0488 . 0 34 . 19 sin 25 cos
3162
sin cos cos
cos sin cos
=







+
=









+
=
λ λ φ
λ λ φ


on the gear
lb F
t
3162 =

radial components
lb
f
F
S
n
n t
1593
34 . 19 sin 0488 . 0 34 . 19 cos 25 cos
25 sin 3162
sin cos cos
sin
=

=

=
λ λ φ
φ


(g)
o o
5 34 . 19 > = λ , not self-locking

797. A worm-gear speed reducer has a hardened-steel worm and a phosphor-bronze
gear. The lead angle of the 5-threaded worm ' 57 28
o
= λ , . 2812 . 1 in P
c
= ,
o
25 =
n
φ , .
2
1
2 in b = , 8 =
w
m ; worm speed = 1750 rpm. The gear case is 35 3/8
in. high, 22 in. wide, 14 in. deep. Compute (a) the efficiency, (b) the limiting
wear load, the strength load, and the corresponding safe input and output
horsepowers. (c) The manufacturer rates this reducer at 53-hp input. Is this rating
conservative or risky? (d) What is the calculated temperature rise of the oil with
no special cooling? (e) The manufacturer specifies that for continuous service
power should not exceed 36.5 hp if there is to be no artificial cooling and if t ∆ is
to be less than 90 F. Make calculations and decide whether the vendor is on the
safe side. (Data courtesy of the Cleveland Worm Gear Co.)

Solution:

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 14 of 19
(a)








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
o o
95 . 28 ' 57 28 = = λ
o
25 =
n
φ
λ
π
cos 12
w w
r
n D
v =
rpm n
w
1750 =
π
c g
g
P N
D =
( )( ) 40 5 8 = = =
t w g
N m N
( )( )
in D
g
31 . 16
2812 . 1 40
= =
π

w
c t
D
P N
π
λ = tan
( )( )
w
D π
2812 . 1 5
95 . 28 tan =
in D
w
686 . 3 =
( )( )
fpm v
r
1923
' 57 28 cos 12
150 686 . 3
= =
o
π

( )
0210 . 0
1923
32 . 0 32 . 0
36 . 0 36 . 0
= = =
r
v
f ( fpm v
r
3000 70 < < )
% 75 . 94 9475 . 0
0210 . 0 95 . 28 tan 25 cos
95 . 28 tan 0210 . 0 25 cos
95 . 28 tan = =






+

= e

(b)
w g w
bK D F =
in D
g
31 . 16 =
in b 5 . 2 =
Table AT 27, hardened-steel worn and phosphor bronze gear
o
25 =
n
φ
100 =
w
K
( )( )( ) lb F
w
4078 100 5 . 2 31 . 16 = =

π
λ
π
cos
c cn
s
sYbP sYbP
F = =
For phosphor-bronze, psi s s
n
000 , 31 = =
For
o
25 =
n
φ , 470 . 0 = Y
( )( )( )( )
lb F
s
000 , 13
95 . 28 cos 2812 . 1 5 . 2 470 . 0 000 , 31
= =
π

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 15 of 19
For safe input and output
t
mg
d
F
v
F







 +
=
1200
1200

12
g g
mg
n D
v
π
=
rpm
m
n
n
w
w
g
75 . 218
8
1750
= = =
( )( )
fpm v
mg
934
12
75 . 218 31 . 16
= =
π

d w
F F =
t
F





 +
=
1200
934 1200
4078
lb F
t
2293 =
safe output =
( )( )
hp
v F
hp
mg t
o
9 . 64
000 , 33
934 2293
000 , 33
= = =
safe input = hp
e
hp
hp
o
i
5 . 68
9475 . 0
9 . 64
= = =

(c) 53-hp input < 68.5 hp. ∴ conservative.

(d) ( )( ) ( )( )( ) min 676 , 118 000 , 33 5 . 68 9475 . 0 1 1 lb ft hp e Q
i
− = − = − =
min lb ft t A h Q
cr c
− ∆ =
( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] . . 5 . 2172 375 . 35 22 14 22 2 in sq A = + =
Figure AF 1
2
15
144
5 . 2172
ft A = =
F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 45 . 0
c
Q Q =
( )( )( ) t ∆ = 5 . 2172 45 . 0 676 , 118
F t 4 . 121 = ∆

(e) F t 90 = ′ ∆
t
t
hp
p h
i
i

′ ∆
=


124
90
5 . 68
=

i
p h

hp p h
i
8 . 50 = ′
Since 36.5 hp < 50.8 hp, therefore on the safe side.


http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 16 of 19
HEATING

799. The input to a worm-gear reducer is 50.5 hp at 580 rpm of the 4-threaded worm.
The gear case is 22 x 31 x 45 in. in size;
o
n
25 = φ , in P
c
5 . 1 = , in D
w
432 . 4 = ,
035 . 0 = f , room temperature = 80 F. Compute the steady-state temperature for
average cooling.

Solution:
( )
( ) 432 . 4
5 . 1 4
tan
π π
λ = =
w
c t
D
P N

o
3 . 23 = λ








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
9025 . 0
035 . 0 3 . 23 tan 25 cos
3 . 23 tan 035 . 0 25 cos
3 . 23 tan =






+

= e
( )( ) ( )( )( ) min 484 , 162 000 , 33 5 . 50 9025 . 0 1 1 lb ft hp e Q
i
− = − = − =
min lb ft t A h Q
cr c
− ∆ =
( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] . . 4154 45 31 31 22 2 in sq A = + =
Figure AF 1
2
85 . 28
144
4154
ft A = =
F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 42 . 0
c
Q Q =
( )( )( ) t ∆ = 4154 42 . 0 484 , 162
F t 93 = ∆
F t 80
1
=
F t 173
2
=

801. A hardened-steel, 4-threaded worm drives a bronze gear; in D
w
875 . 1 = ,
in D
g
14 ≈ , in P
c
0 . 1 = ,
o
n
25 = φ , area of case . . 1500 in sq ≈ , fpm v
r
1037 ≈ ;
input = 20 hp at 1750 rpm of the worm; room temperature = 80 F. Compute the
steady-state temperature of the lubricant for average ventilation.

Solution:
( )
( ) 875 . 1
0 . 1 4
tan
π π
λ = =
w
c t
D
P N

o
2 . 34 = λ
( )
0263 . 0
1037
32 . 0 32 . 0
36 . 0 36 . 0
= = =
r
v
f ( fpm v
r
3000 70 < < )
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 17 of 19








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
94 . 0
0263 . 0 2 . 34 tan 25 cos
2 . 34 tan 0263 . 0 25 cos
2 . 34 tan =






+

= e
( )( ) ( )( )( ) min 600 , 39 000 , 33 20 94 . 0 1 1 lb ft hp e Q
i
− = − = − =
min lb ft t A h Q
cr c
− ∆ =
. . 1500 in sq A =
Figure AF 1
2
4 . 10
144
1500
ft A = =
F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 46 . 0
c
Q Q =
( )( )( ) t ∆ = 1500 46 . 0 600 , 39
F t 57 = ∆
F t 80
1
=
F t 137
2
=

802. The input to a 4-threaded worm is measured to be 20.8 hp; in P
c
0 . 1 = , in D
w
2 = ,
o
n
25 = φ . The area of the case is closely 1800 sq. in.; ambient temperature = 100
F; oil temperature = 180 F. Operation is at a steady thermal state. Compute the
indicated coefficient of friction.

Solution:
min lb ft t A h Q
cr c
− ∆ =
Figure AF 1
2
5 . 12
144
1800
ft A = =
F in sq lb ft h
cr
− − − = . . min 46 . 0
. . 1800 in sq A =
F t 80 100 180 = − = ∆
( )( )( ) min 240 , 66 80 1800 46 . 0 lb ft t A h Q
cr c
− = = ∆ =
( )( )( ) min 000 , 33 1 lb ft hp e Q
i
− − =
c
Q Q =
( )( )( ) 240 , 66 000 , 33 1 = −
i
hp e
9035 . 0 = e








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 18 of 19
( )
( ) 2
0 . 1 4
tan
π π
λ = =
w
c t
D
P N

o
5 . 32 = λ








+

=
f
f
5 . 32 tan 25 cos
5 . 32 tan 25 cos
5 . 32 tan 9035 . 0
f f 4059 . 0 5774 . 0 9035 . 0 5217 . 0 − = +
0425 . 0 = f

FORCE ANALYSIS

804. The input to a 4-threaded worm is 21 hp at 1750 rpm; % 90 = e , in D
w
4
1
2 = ,
in D
g
14 = , 44 =
g
N ,
o
n
25 = φ . (a) From the horsepowers in and out, compute
the tangential forces on the worm
t
W and the gear
t
F . (b) Using this value of
t
F ,
compute
t
W from equation (k), i16.8, Text. (Check?) (c) Compute the separating
force. (d) What is the end thrust on the worm shaft? On the gear shaft?

Solution:
hp hp
i
21 =
( )( ) ( )( ) hp e hp hp
i o
9 . 18 90 . 0 21 = = =
λ tan
w
g
t
g
w
D
D
N
N
m = =
λ tan
4
1
2
14
4
44






=
o
5 . 29 = λ








+

=
f
f
e
n
n
λ φ
λ φ
λ
tan cos
tan cos
tan








+

=
f
f
5 . 29 tan 25 cos
5 . 29 tan 25 cos
5 . 29 tan 90 . 0
f f 32 . 0 5128 . 0 90 . 0 4615 . 0 − = +
0420 . 0 = f
12
g g
mg
n D
v
π
=
g
t
w
g
N
N
n
n
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 14 – WORM GEARS
Page 19 of 19
44
4
1750
=
g
n

rpm n
g
159 =
( )( )
fpm v
mg
583
12
159 14
= =
π


(a)
( )
lb
v
hp
F
mg
o
t
1070
583
9 . 18 000 , 33 000 , 33
= = =
w
i
t
v
hp
W
000 , 33
=
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
w w
w
1031
12
1750 25 . 2
12
= = =
π π

( )
lb W
t
672
1031
21 000 , 33
= =

(b) lb
f
f
F W
n
n
t t
672
5 . 29 sin 0420 . 0 5 . 29 cos 25 cos
5 . 29 cos 0420 . 0 5 . 29 sin 25 cos
1070
sin cos cos
cos sin cos
=







+
=









+
=
λ λ φ
λ λ φ

(c) lb
f
F
S
n
n t
589
5 . 29 sin 0420 . 0 5 . 29 cos 25 cos
25 sin 1070
sin cos cos
sin
=

=

=
λ λ φ
φ

(d) End thrust
Worm shaft = lb F
t
1070 =
Gear shaft = lb W
t
672 =

- end -
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 1 of 56

LEATHER BELTS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

841. A belt drive is to be designed for 3
2 1
= F F , while transmitting 60 hp at 2700
rpm of the driver
1
D ; 85 . 1 ≈
w
m ; use a medium double belt, cemented joint, a
squirrel-cage, compensator-motor drive with mildly jerking loads; center distance
is expected to be about twice the diameter of larger pulley. (a) Choose suitable
iron-pulley sizes and determine the belt width for a maximum permissible
psi s 300 = . (b) How does this width compare with that obtained by the ALBA
procedure? (c) Compute the maximum stress in the straight port of the ALBA
belt. (d) If the belt in (a) stretches until the tight tension lb F 525
1
= ., what is
2 1
F F ?

Solution:

(a) Table 17.1, Medium Double Ply,
Select in D 7
1
= . min.
in t
64
20
=
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
4948
12
2700 7
12
1 1
= = =
π π

fpm fpm fpm 6000 4948 4000 < <
( )
000 , 33
2 1 m
v F F
hp

=
( )( )
000 , 33
4948
60
2 1
F F −
=
lb F F 400
2 1
= −
2 1
3F F =
lb F F 400 3
2 2
= −
lb F 200
2
=
( ) lb F F 600 200 3 3
2 1
= = =
sbt F =
1

η 300 =
d
s
For cemented joint, 0 . 1 = η
psi s
d
300 =
( )( )
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
64
20
300 600
1
b F
in b 4 . 6 =
say in b 5 . 6 =
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SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 2 of 56

(b) ALBA Procedure
( )( )( ) L
2 1
1 . 17 .,
f f p m
C C C bC Table in hp hp =
Table 17.1, fpm v
m
4948 =
Medium Double Ply
448 . 12 = in hp
Table 17.2
Squirrel cage, compensator, starting
67 . 0 =
m
C
Pulley Size, in D 7
1
=
6 . 0 =
p
C
Jerky loads, 83 . 0 =
f
C
( )( )( )( )( ) 83 . 0 6 . 0 67 . 0 448 . 12 60 b hp = =
in b 5 . 14 =
say in b 15 =

(c)
( )( )
psi
bt
F
s 128
64
20
15 1
600
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
η


(d) ( ) ( )2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
200 600 2 + = + = F F F
o

lb F
o
2 . 373 =
lb F 525
1
=
( ) ( )
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
525 2 . 373 2 F + =
lb F 247
2
=
1255 . 2
247
525
2
1
= =
F
F


842. A 20-hp, 1750 rpm, slip-ring motor is to drive a ventilating fan at 330 rpm. The
horizontal center distance must be about 8 to 9 ft. for clearance, and operation is
continuous, 24 hr./day. (a) What driving-pulley size is needed for a speed
recommended as about optimum in the Text? (b) Decide upon a pulley size (iron
or steel) and belt thickness, and determine the belt width by the ALBA tables. (c)
Compute the stress from the general belt equation assuming that the applicable
coefficient of friction is that suggested by the Text. (d) Suppose the belt is
installed with an initial tension in lb F
o
70 = . (§17.10), compute
2 1
F F and the
stress on the tight side if the approximate relationship of the operating tensions
and the initial tensions is
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
o
F F F = + .

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 3 of 56
Solution:
fpm to v
m
4500 4000 =
assume fpm v
m
4250 =
12
1 1
n D
v
m
π
=
( )
12
1750
4250
1
D π
=
in D 26 . 9
1
=
say in D 10
1
=

(b) Using Heavy Double Ply Belt, in t
64
23
=
Minimum pulley diameter for fpm v
m
4250 ≈ , in D 10
1
=
Use in D 10
1
=
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
4581
12
1750 10
12
1 1
= = =
π π

ALBA Tables
( )( )( ) L
2 1
1 . 17 .,
f f p m
C C C bC Table in hp hp =
8 . 13 = in hp
Slip ring motor, 4 . 0 =
m
C
Pulley Size, in D 10
1
=
7 . 0 =
p
C
Table 17.7, 24 hr/day, continuous
8 . 1 =
sf
N
Assume 74 . 0 =
f
C
( )( ) ( )( )( )( )( ) 74 . 0 7 . 0 4 . 0 8 . 13 20 8 . 1 b hp = =
in b 59 . 12 =
use in b 13 =

(c) General belt equation
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

fps v
s
35 . 76
60
4581
= =
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ for leather
in t
64
23
=
in b 13 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 4 of 56
( )( )
lb F F 260
4581
20 8 . 1 000 , 33
2 1
= = −
3 . 0 = f on iron or steel
C
D D
1 2

± ≈ π θ
ft C 9 ~ 8 = use 8.5 ft
( ) in D 53 10
330
1750
2
= |
¹
|

\
|
=
( )
rad 72 . 2
12 5 . 8
10 53
=

− = π θ
( )( ) 816 . 0 72 . 2 3 . 0 = = θ f
5578 . 0
1 1
816 . 0
816 . 0
=

=

e
e
e
e
f
f
θ
θ

( )
( )( )
( ) 5578 . 0
2 . 32
35 . 76 035 . 0 12
64
23
13 260
2
2 1 (
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
= = − s F F
psi s 176 =

(d)
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
o
F F F = +
( )( ) lb in in lb F
o
910 13 70 = =
lb F F 260
2 1
= −
lb F F 260
1 2
− =
( ) ( ) 33 . 60 910 2 260 2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
= = − + F F
lb F 1045
1
=
lb F 785 260 1045
2
= − =

( )
psi
bt
F
s 224
64
23
13
1045
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
331 . 1
785
1045
2
1
= =
F
F


843. A 100-hp squirrel-cage, line-starting electric motor is used to drive a Freon
reciprocating compressor and turns at 1140 rpm; for the cast-iron motor pulley,
in D 16
1
= ; in D 53
2
= , a flywheel; cemented joints;l ft C 8 = . (a) Choose an
appropriate belt thickness and determine the belt width by the ALBA tables. (b)
Using the design stress of §17.6, compute the coefficient of friction that would be
needed. Is this value satisfactory? (c) Suppose that in the beginning, the initial
tension was set so that the operating 2
2 1
= F F . Compute the maximum stress in
a straight part. (d) The approximate relation of the operating tensions and the
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 5 of 56
initial tension
o
F is
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
o
F F F = + . For the condition in (c), compute
o
F . Is it
reasonable compared to Taylor’s recommendation?

Solution:
(a) Table 17.1
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
4775
12
1140 16
12
1 1
= = =
π π

Use heavy double-ply belt
in t
64
23
=
1 . 14 = in hp
( )( )( ) L
2 1
1 . 17 .,
f f p m
C C C bC Table in hp hp =
line starting electric motor , 5 . 0 =
m
C
Table 17.7, squirrel-cage, electric motor, line starting, reciprocating compressor
4 . 1 =
sf
N
in D 16
1
= , 8 . 0 =
p
C
assume, 74 . 0 =
f
C
( )( ) hp hp 140 100 4 . 1 = =
( )( )( )( )( ) 74 . 0 8 . 0 5 . 0 1 . 14 140 b hp = =
in b 5 . 33 =
use in b 34 =

(b) §17.6, η 400 =
d
s
00 . 1 = η for cemented joint.
psi s
d
400 =
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

fps v
s
6 . 79
60
4775
= =
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ for leather
in t
64
23
=
in b 34 =
( )( )
lb F F 968
4775
100 4 . 1 000 , 33
2 1
= = −
( )
( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
(
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
= = −
θ
θ
f
f
e
e
F F
1
2 . 32
6 . 79 035 . 0 12
400
64
23
34 968
2
2 1

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 6 of 56
2496 . 0
1
=

θ
θ
f
f
e
e

28715 . 0 = θ f
C
D D
1 2

± ≈ π θ
ft C 8 =
( )
rad 7562 . 2
12 8
16 53
=

− = π θ
( ) 28715 . 0 7562 . 2 = f
3 . 0 1042 . 0 < = f
Therefore satisfactory.

(c) lb F F 968
2 1
= −
2 1
2F F =
lb F F 968 2
2 2
= −
( ) lb F F 1936 968 2 2
2 1
= = =
( )
psi
bt
F
s 159
64
23
34
1936
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =

(d) lb F 1936
1
= , lb F 968
2
=
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2 F F F
o
+ =
( ) ( )2
1
2
1
2
1
968 1936 2 + =
o
F
lb F
o
1411 =

in lb F
o
5 . 41
34
1411
= = of width is less than Taylor’s recommendation and is reasonable.

844. A 50-hp compensator-started motor running at 585 rpm drives a reciprocating
compressor for a 40-ton refrigerating plant, flat leather belt, cemented joints. The
diameter of the fiber driving pulley is 13 in., in D 70
2
= ., a cast-iron flywheel;
. 11 . 6 in ft C = Because of space limitations, the belt is nearly vertical; the
surroundings are quite moist. (a) Choose a belt thickness and determine the width
by the ALBA tables. (b) Using recommendations in the Text, compute s from
the general belt equation. (c) With this value of s , compute
1
F and
2 1
F F . (d)
Approximately,
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
o
F F F = + , where
o
F is the initial tension. For the
condition in (c), what should be the initial tension? Compare with Taylor, §17.10.
(e) Compute the belt length. (f) The data are from an actual drive. Do you have
any recommendations for redesign on a more economical basis?
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 7 of 56

Solution:
(a)
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
2944
12
865 13
12
1 1
= = =
π π

Table 17.1, use Heavy Double Ply,
in D 9
min
= for fpm v
m
2944 =
belts less than 8 in wide
in t
64
23
=

( )( )( ) L
2 1
1 . 17 .,
f f p m
C C C bC Table in hp hp =
86 . 9 = in hp
Table 17.2
67 . 0 =
m
C
8 . 0 =
p
C
( )( ) 592 . 0 80 . 0 74 . 0 = =
f
C
Table 17.7, electric motor, compensator-started (squirrel cage) and reciprocating
compressor
4 . 1 =
sf
N
( )( ) hp hp 70 50 4 . 1 = =
( )( )( )( )( ) 592 . 0 8 . 0 67 . 0 86 . 9 70 b hp = =
in b 4 . 22 =
use in b 25 =

(b) General Belt Equation
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

in b 25 =
in t
64
23
=
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ for leather
fps v
s
1 . 49
60
2944
= =
Leather on iron, 3 . 0 = f
C
D D
1 2

− = π θ
( )
rad 35 . 2
12 6
13 70
=

− = π θ
( )( ) 705 . 0 35 . 2 3 . 0 = = θ f
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 8 of 56
5059 . 0
1 1
705 . 0
705 . 0
=

=

e
e
e
e
f
f
θ
θ

( )( )
lb F F 785
2944
50 4 . 1 000 , 33
2 1
= = −
( )
( )( )
( ) 5059 . 0
2 . 32
1 . 49 035 . 0 12
64
23
25 785
2
2 1 (
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
= = − s F F
psi s 204 =
Cemented joint, 0 . 1 = η
psi s 204 =

(c) ( )( ) lb sbt F 1833
64
23
25 204
1
= |
¹
|

\
|
= =
lb F 1048 785 1833
2
= − =
749 . 1
1048
1833
2
1
= =
F
F


(d)
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2 F F F
o
+ =
( ) ( )2
1
2
1
2
1
1048 1833 2 + =
o
F
lb F
o
1413 =

in lb F
o
5 . 56
25
1413
= =
Approximately less than Taylor’s recommendation ( = 70 lb/in.)

(e) ( )
( )
C
D D
D D C L
4
57 . 1 2
2
1 2
1 2

+ + + ≈
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
in L 286
12 6 4
13 70
13 70 57 . 1 12 6 2
2
=

+ + + =
(f) More economical basis
12
1 1
n D
v
m
π
=
( )
12
865
4500
1
D π
=
in D 87 . 19
1
=
use in D 20
1
=




http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 9 of 56
CHECK PROBLEMS

846. An exhaust fan in a wood shop is driven by a belt from a squirrel-cage motor that
runs at 880 rpm, compensator started. A medium double leather belt, 10 in. wide
is used; in C 54 = .; in D 14
1
= . (motor), in D 54
2
= ., both iron. (a) What
horsepower, by ALBA tables, may this belt transmit? (b) For this power,
compute the stress from the general belt equation. (c) For this stress, what is
2 1
F F ? (d) If the belt has stretched until psi s 200 = on the tight side, what is
2 1
F F ? (e) Compute the belt length.

Solution:

(a) For medium double leather belt
in t
64
20
=
( )( )
f p m
C C C b in hp hp =
Table 17.1 and 17.2
67 . 0 =
m
C
8 . 0 =
p
C
74 . 0 =
f
C
in b 10 =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
3225
12
880 14
12
1 1
= = =
π π

6625 . 6 = in hp
( )( )( )( )( ) hp hp 43 . 26 74 . 0 8 . 0 67 . 0 10 6625 . 6 = =

(b)
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

in b 10 =
in t
64
20
=
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ
fps v
s
75 . 53
60
3225
= =
C
D D
1 2

− = π θ
rad 4 . 2
54
14 54
=

− = π θ
Leather on iron 3 . 0 = f
( )( ) 72 . 0 4 . 2 3 . 0 = = θ f
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 10 of 56
51325 . 0
1 1
72 . 0
72 . 0
=

=

e
e
e
e
f
f
θ
θ

( )
lb F F 270
3225
43 . 26 000 , 33
2 1
= = −
( )
( )( )
( ) 51325 . 0
2 . 32
75 . 53 035 . 0 12
64
20
10 270
2
2 1 (
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
= = − s F F
psi s 206 =

(c) ( )( ) lb sbt F 644
64
20
10 206
1
= |
¹
|

\
|
= =
lb F 374 270 644
2
= − =
72 . 1
374
644
2
1
= =
F
F


(d) psi s 200 =
( )( ) lb sbt F 625
64
20
10 200
1
= |
¹
|

\
|
= =
lb F 355 270 625
2
= − =
76 . 1
355
625
2
1
= =
F
F


(e) ( )
( )
C
D D
D D C L
4
57 . 1 2
2
1 2
1 2

+ + + ≈
( ) ( )
( )
( )
in L 222
54 4
14 54
14 54 57 . 1 54 2
2
=

+ + + =

847. A motor is driving a centrifugal compressor through a 6-in. heavy, single-ply
leather belt in a dusty location. The 8-in motor pulley turns 1750 rpm;
in D 12
2
= . (compressor shaft); ft C 5 = . The belt has been designed for a net
belt pull of in lb F F 40
2 1
= − of width and 3
2 1
= F F . Compute (a) the
horsepower, (b) the stress in tight side. (c) For this stress, what needed value of
f is indicated by the general belt equation? (d) Considering the original
data,what horsepower is obtained from the ALBA tables? Any remarks?

Solution:
(a)
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
3665
12
1750 8
12
1 1
= = =
π π

in b 6 =
( )( ) lb F F 240 6 40
2 1
= = −
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 11 of 56
( ) ( )( )
hp
v F F
hp
m
65 . 26
000 , 33
3665 240
000 , 33
2 1
= =

=

(b)
2 1
3F F =
lb F F 240 3
2 2
= −
lb F 120
2
=
lb F 360
1
=
bt
F
s
1
=
For heavy single-ply leather belt
in t
64
13
=
( )
psi s 295
64
13
6
360
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=

(c)
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ
fps v
s
1 . 61
60
3665
= =
lb F F 240
2 1
= −
( )
( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
(
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
= = −
θ
θ
f
f
e
e
F F
1
2 . 32
1 . 61 035 . 0 12
295
64
13
6 240
2
2 1

7995 . 0
1
=

θ
θ
f
f
e
e

C
D D
1 2

− = π θ
( )
rad 075 . 3
12 5
8 12
=

− = π θ
9875 . 4 =
θ f
e
607 . 1 = θ f
( ) 607 . 1 075 . 3 = f
5226 . 0 = f

(d) ALBA Tables (Table 17.1 and 17.2)
( )( )
f p m
C C C b in hp hp =
fpm v
m
3665 =
965 . 6 = in hp
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 12 of 56
in b 10 =
0 . 1 =
m
C (assumed)
6 . 0 =
p
C
74 . 0 =
f
C

( )( )( )( )( ) hp hp hp 65 . 26 6 . 18 74 . 0 6 . 0 0 . 1 6 965 . 6 < = =

848. A 10-in. medium double leather belt, cemented joints, transmits 60 hp from a 9-
in. paper pulley to a 15-in. pulley on a mine fab; dusty conditions. The
compensator-started motor turns 1750 rpm; in C 42 = . This is an actual
installation. (a) Determine the horsepower from the ALBA tables. (b) Using the
general equation, determine the horsepower for this belt. (c) Estimate the service
factor from Table 17.7 and apply it to the answer in (b). Does this result in better
or worse agreement of (a) and (b)? What is your opinion as to the life of the belt?

Solution:
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
4123
12
1750 9
12
1 1
= = =
π π

(a) ( )( )
f p m
C C C b in hp hp =
Table 17.1 and 17.2
Medium double leather belt
in t
64
20
=
fpm v
m
4123 =
15 . 11 = in hp
67 . 0 =
m
C
7 . 0 =
p
C
74 . 0 =
f
C
in b 10 =
( )( )( )( )( ) hp hp 7 . 38 74 . 0 7 . 0 67 . 0 10 15 . 11 = =

(b)
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

in b 10 =
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ
η 400 = s
0 . 1 = η cemented joint
psi s 400 =
C
D D
1 2

− = π θ
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 13 of 56
rad 9987 . 2
42
9 15
=

− = π θ
Leather on paper pulleys, 5 . 0 = f
( )( ) 5 . 1 9987 . 2 5 . 0 = = θ f
77687 . 0
1
=

θ
θ
f
f
e
e

fps v
s
72 . 68
60
4123
= =
( )
( )( )
( ) lb F F 822 77687 . 0
2 . 32
72 . 68 035 . 0 12
400
64
20
10
2
2 1
=
(
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
= −
( ) ( )( )
hp
v F F
hp
m
7 . 102
000 , 33
4123 822
000 , 33
2 1
= =

=

(c) Table 17.7
6 . 1 =
sf
N
hp hp hp 7 . 102 2 . 64
6 . 1
7 . 102
< = =
Therefore, better agreement

Life of belt, not continuous, hp hp 7 . 38 60 > .

MISCELLANEOUS

849. Let the coefficient of friction be constant. Find the speed at which a leather belt
may transmit maximum power if the stress in the belt is (a) 400 psi, (b) 320 psi.
(c) How do these speeds compare with those mentioned in §17.9, Text? (d)
Would the corresponding speeds for a rubber belt be larger or smaller? (HINT:
Try the first derivative of the power with respect to velocity.)

Solution:
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

( )
000 , 33
2 1 m
v F F
hp

=
( )
000 , 33
60
2 1 s
v F F
hp

=
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s s
e
e v
s
bt v
hp
1
2 . 32
12
000 , 33
60
2

s
s
f
f
v
v
s
e
e bt
hp
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
| −
=
2 . 32
12 1
000 , 33
60
2
ρ
θ
θ

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 14 of 56
( )
( )
0
2 . 32
24
2 . 32
12 1
000 , 33
60
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸


|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
| −
=
s s
f
f
s
v v
s
e
e bt
v d
hp d ρ ρ
θ
θ

2 . 32
36
2
s
v
s
ρ
=
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ

(a) psi s 400 =
( )
2 . 32
035 . 0 36
400
2
s
v
=
fps v
s
105 . 101 =
fpm v
m
6066 =

(b) psi s 320 =
( )
2 . 32
035 . 0 36
320
2
s
v
=
fps v
s
431 . 90 =
fpm v
m
5426 =

(c) Larger than those mentioned in §17.9 (4000 – 4500 fpm)

(d) Rubber belt, . . 045 . 0 in cu lb = ρ

(a) psi s 400 =
( )
2 . 32
045 . 0 36
400
2
s
v
=
fps v
s
166 . 89 =
fpm fpm v
m
6066 5350 < =

Therefore, speeds for a rubber belt is smaller.

850. A 40-in. pulley transmits power to a 20-in. pulley by means of a medium double
leather belt, 20 in. wide; ft C 14 = , let 3 . 0 = f . (a) What is the speed of the 40-in
pulley in order to stress the belt to 300 psi at zero power? (b) What maximum
horsepower can be transmitted if the indicated stress in the belt is 300 psi? What
is the speed of the belt when this power is transmitted? (See HINT in 849).

Solution:
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 15 of 56
( )
000 , 33
60
2 1 s
v F F
hp

=
s
s
f
f
v
v
s
e
e bt
hp
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
| −
=
2 . 32
12 1
000 , 33
60
2
ρ
θ
θ

( )
( )
0
2 . 32
24
2 . 32
12 1
000 , 33
60
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸


|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
| −
=
s s
f
f
s
v v
s
e
e bt
v d
hp d ρ ρ
θ
θ

2 . 32
36
2
s
v
s
ρ
= for maximum power
(a) At zero power:

2 . 32
12
2
s
v
s
ρ
=
psi s 300 =
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ
( )
2 . 32
035 . 0 12
300
2
s
v
=
fps v
s
6575 . 151 =
fpm v
m
9100 =

Speed, 40 in pulley,
( )
( )
rpm
D
v
n
m
869
40
9100 12 12
2
2
= = =
π π

(b) Maximum power
2 . 32
36
2
s
v
s
ρ
=
( )
2 . 32
035 . 0 36
300
2
s
v
=
fps v
s
5595 . 87 =
fpm v
m
5254 =
s
s
f
f
v
v
s
e
e bt
hp
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
| −
=
2 . 32
12 1
000 , 33
60
2
ρ
θ
θ

in t
64
20
=
in b 20 =
C
D D
1 2

− = π θ
( )
rad 0225 . 3
12 14
20 40
=

− = π θ
3 . 0 = f
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 16 of 56
( )( ) 90675 . 0 0225 . 3 3 . 0 = = θ f
5962 . 0
1
=

θ
θ
f
f
e
e

( )
( )
( )( )
( ) 64 . 118 5595 . 87
2 . 32
5595 . 87 035 . 0 12
300 5962 . 0
000 , 33
64
20
20 60
2
=
(
¸
(

¸


|
¹
|

\
|
= hp
fpm v
m
5254 =

AUTOMATIC TENSION DEVICES

851. An ammonia compressor is driven by a 100-hp synchronous motor that turns
1200 rpm; 12-in. paper motor pulley; 78-in. compressor pulley, cast-iron;
in C 84 = . A tension pulley is placed so that the angle of contact on the motor
pulley is 193
o
and on the compressor pulley, 240
o
. A 12-in. medium double
leather belt with a cemented joint is used. (a) What will be the tension in the
tight side of the belt if the stress is 375 psi? (b) What will be the tension in the
slack side? (c) What coefficient of friction is required on each pulley as indicated
by the general equation? (d) What force must be exerted on the tension pulley to
hold the belt tight, and what size do you recommend?

Solution:
(a) sbt F =
1

in b 12 =
in t
64
20
=
( )( )
|
¹
|

\
|
=
64
20
12 375
1
F

(b)
m
v
hp
F F
000 , 33
2 1
= −
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
3770
12
1200 12
12
1 1
= = =
π π

Table 17.7, 2 . 1 =
sf
N
( )( )
lb F F 1050
3770
100 2 . 1 000 , 33
2 1
= = −
lb F F 356 1050 1406 1050
1 2
= − = − =

(c)
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

fps v
s
83 . 62
60
3770
= =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 17 of 56
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ
( )
( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
(
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
=
θ
θ
f
f
e
e 1
2 . 32
83 . 62 035 . 0 12
375
64
20
12 1050
8655 . 0
1
=

θ
θ
f
f
e
e

006 . 2 = θ f
Motor pulley
rad 3685 . 3
180
193 193 = |
¹
|

\
|
= =
π
θ
o

( ) 006 . 2 3685 . 3 = f
5955 . 0 = f

Compressor Pulley
rad 1888 . 4
180
240 2403 = |
¹
|

\
|
= =
π
θ
o

( ) 006 . 2 1888 . 4 = f
4789 . 0 = f



(d) Force:




Without tension pulley
rad
C
D D
356 . 2
84
12 78
1 2
1
=

− =

− = π π θ
rad
C
D D
9273 . 3
84
12 78
1 2
2
=

+ =

+ = π π θ
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 18 of 56

o
5 . 35 6197 . 0
2
356 . 2
356 . 2 3685 . 3
2
1
1 1 1
= =

− − =

− − ′ = rad
π θ π
θ θ α

o
5 . 37 6544 . 0 9273 . 3 1888 . 4
2
9273 . 3
2
2 2
2
2
= = − +

= − ′ +

= rad
π
θ θ
π θ
α
( ) ( ) lb F Q 1672 5 . 37 sin 5 . 35 sin 1406 sin sin
2 1 1
= + = + = α α of force exerted
Size of pulley; For medium double leather belt,
fpm v
m
3770 = , width = in in 8 12 >
in D 8 2 6 = + =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 19 of 56
852. A 40-hp motor, weighing 1915 lb., runs at 685 rpm and is mounted on a pivoted
base. In Fig. 17.11, Text, in e 10 = ., in h
16
3
19 = . The center of the 11 ½-in.
motor pulley is 11 ½ in. lower than the center of the 60-in. driven pulley;
in C 48 = . (a) With the aid of a graphical layout, find the tensions in the belt for
maximum output of the motor if it is compensator started. What should be the
width of the medium double leather belt if psi s 300 = ? (c) What coefficient of
friction is indicated by the general belt equation? (Data courtesy of Rockwood
Mfg. Co.)

Solution:
(a)

lb R 1915 =
Graphically
in b 26 ≈
in a 9 ≈

[ ]

= 0
B
M
b F a F eR
2 1
+ =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 26 9 1915 10
2 1
F F + =
150 , 19 26 9
2 1
= + F F
For compensator started
( ) ( ) hp hp rated hp 56 40 4 . 1 4 . 1 = = =
m
v
hp
F F
000 , 33
2 1
= −
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 20 of 56
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
2062
12
685 5 . 11
12
1 1
= = =
π π

( )
lb F F 896
2062
56 000 , 33
2 1
= = −
896
1 2
− = F F
Substituting
( ) 150 , 19 896 26 9
1 1
= − + F F
lb F 1213
1
=
lb F 317 896 1213
2
= − =

For medium leather belt, in t
64
20
=
sbt F =
1

( )( )
|
¹
|

\
|
=
64
20
300 1213 b
in b 13 =

(c)
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

fps v
s
37 . 34
60
2062
= =
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ
( )
( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
(
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
=
θ
θ
f
f
e
e 1
2 . 32
37 . 34 035 . 0 12
300
64
20
13 896
775 . 0
1
=

θ
θ
f
f
e
e

492 . 1 = θ f
rad
C
D D
1312 . 2
48
5 . 11 60
1 2
=

− =

− = π π θ
( ) 492 . 1 1312 . 2 = f
70 . 0 = f

853. A 50-hp motor, weighing 1900 lb., is mounted on a pivoted base, turns 1140 rpm,
and drives a reciprocating compressor; in Fig. 17.11, Text, in e
4
3
8 = .,
in h
16
5
17 = . The center of the 12-in. motor pulley is on the same level as the
center of the 54-in. compressor pulley; in C 40 = . (a) With the aid of a graphical
layout, find the tensions in the belt for maximum output of the motor if it is
compensator started. (b) What will be the stress in the belt if it is a heavy double
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 21 of 56
leather belt, 11 in. wide? (c) What coefficient of friction is indicated by the
general belt equation? (Data courtesy of Rockwood Mfg. Co.)

Solution:
(a) For compensator-started
( ) hp hp 70 50 4 . 1 = =
m
v
hp
F F
000 , 33
2 1
= −
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
3581
12
1140 12
12
1 1
= = =
π π

( )
lb F F 645
2062
70 000 , 33
2 1
= = −

in b 25 ≈
in a 5 ≈
lb R 1900 =
b F a F eR
2 1
+ =
( )( ) ( ) ( ) 25 5 1900 75 . 8
2 1
F F + =
lb F F 3325 5
2 1
= +
lb F F 3325 5 645
2 2
= + +
lb F 447
2
=
lb F F 1092 447 645 645
2 1
= + = + =

(b) For heavy double leather belt
in t
64
23
=
in b 11 =
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 22 of 56
( )
psi
bt
F
s 276
64
20
11
1092
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
(c)
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
θ
θ
ρ
f
f
s
e
e v
s bt F F
1
2 . 32
12
2
2 1

fps v
s
68 . 59
60
3581
= =
. . 035 . 0 in cu lb = ρ
( )
( )( )
|
|
¹
|

\
| −
(
¸
(

¸

− |
¹
|

\
|
=
θ
θ
f
f
e
e 1
2 . 32
68 . 59 035 . 0 12
276
64
23
11 645
241 . 1 = θ f
rad
C
D D
092 . 2
40
12 54
1 2
=

− =

− = π π θ
( ) 492 . 1 092 . 2 = f
60 . 0 = f


RUBBER BELTS

854. A 5-ply rubber belt transmits 20 horsepower to drive a mine fan. An 8-in., motor
pulley turns 1150 rpm; in D 36
2
= ., fan pulley; ft C 23 = . (a) Design a rubber
belt to suit these conditions, using a net belt pull as recommended in §17.15,
Text. (b) Actually, a 9-in., 5-ply Goodrich high-flex rubber belt was used. What
are the indications for a good life?

Solution:
(a)
( )
o
174 040 . 3
12 23
8 36
1 2
= =

− =

− = rad
C
D D
π π θ
976 . 0 =
θ
K
2400
θ
K N bv
hp
p m
=
976 . 0 =
θ
K
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
2409
12
1150 8
12
1 1
= = =
π π

5 =
p
N
( )( )( )
2400
976 . 0 5 2409
20
b
hp = =
in b 1 . 4 =
min. in b 5 =

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 23 of 56
(b) With in b 9 = is safe for good life.

855. A 20-in., 10-ply rubber belt transmits power from a 300-hp motor, running at 650
rpm, to an ore crusher. The center distance between the 33-in. motor pulley and
the 108-in. driven pulley is 18 ft. The motor and crusher are so located that the
belt must operate at an angle 75
o
with the horizontal. What is the overload
capacity of this belt if the rated capacity is as defined in §17.15, Text?

Solution:
2400
p m
N bv
hp =
in b 20 =
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
5616
12
650 33
12
1 1
= = =
π π

10 =
p
N
( )( )( )
hp hp 468
2400
10 5616 20
= =
Overlaod Capacity = ( ) % 56 % 100
300
300 468
=



V-BELTS

NOTE: If manufacturer’s catalogs are available, solve these problems from catalogs as
well as from data in the Text.


856. A centrifugal pump, running at 340 rpm, consuming 105 hp in 24-hr service, is to
be driven by a 125-hp, 1180-rpm, compensator-started motor; in to C 49 43 = .
Determine the details of a multiple V-belt drive for this installation. The B.F.
Goodrich Company recommended six C195 V-belts with 14.4-in. and 50-in.
sheaves; in C 2 . 45 ≈ .

Solution:
Table 17.7
4 . 1 2 . 0 2 . 1 = + =
sf
N (24 hr/day)
Design hp =
sf
N (transmitted hp) = ( )( ) hp 175 125 4 . 1 =
Fig. 17.4, 175 hp, 1180 rpm
in D 13
min
= , D-section
4 . 14
50
340
1180
1
2
= =
D
D

use in in D 13 4 . 14
1
> =
in D 50
2
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 24 of 56
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
4449
12
1180 4 . 14
12
1 1
= = =
π π

3 6
2
1
09 . 0
3
10 10
10
m m
d m
v v
e
D K
c
v
a hp Rated
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Table 17.3, D-section
788 . 18 = a , 7 . 137 = c , 0848 . 0 = e
Table 17.4, 47 . 3
1
2
=
D
D

14 . 1 =
d
K
( )( )
( )
( )
hp hp Rated 294 . 28
10
4449
10
4449
0848 . 0
4 . 14 14 . 1
7 . 137
4449
10
788 . 18
3 6
2
09 . 0
3
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

Back to Fig. 17.14, C-section must be used.
792 . 8 = a , 819 . 38 = c , 0416 . 0 = e
3 6
2
1
09 . 0
3
10 10
10
m m
d m
v v
e
D K
c
v
a hp Rated
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
( )( )
( )
( )
hp hp Rated 0 . 20
10
4449
10
4449
0416 . 0
4 . 14 14 . 1
819 . 38
4449
10
792 . 8
3 6
2
09 . 0
3
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

Adjusted rated hp = ( ) hp rated K K
L θ

Table 17.5,
77 . 0
46
4 . 14 50
1 2
=

=

C
D D

88 . 0 =
θ
K
Table 17.6
( )
( )
C
D D
D D C L
4
57 . 1 2
2
1 2
1 2

+ + + ≈
( ) ( )
( )
( )
in L 200
46 4
4 . 14 50
4 . 14 50 57 . 1 46 2
2
=

+ + + =
use C195, in L 9 . 197 =
07 . 1 =
L
K
Adjusted rated hp = ( )( )( ) hp 83 . 18 20 07 . 1 88 . 0 =
belts
hp rated Adjusted
hp Design
belts of No 3 . 9
83 . 18
175
. = = = use 9 belts

Use 9 , C195 V-belts with 14.4 in and 50 in sheaves

http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 25 of 56
( )
16
32
2
1 2
2
D D B B
C
− − +
=
( ) ( ) ( ) in D D L B 2 . 387 4 . 14 50 28 . 6 9 . 197 4 28 . 6 4
1 2
= + − = + − =
( ) ( )
in C 9 . 44
16
4 . 14 50 32 2 . 387 2 . 387
2 2
=
− − +
=

857. A 50-hp, 1160-rpm, AC split-phase motor is to be used to drive a reciprocating
pump at a speed of 330 rpm. The pump is for 12-hr. service and normally
requires 44 hp, but it is subjected to peak loads of 175 % of full load; in C 50 ≈ .
Determine the details of a multiple V-belt drive for this application. The Dodge
Manufacturing Corporation recommended a Dyna-V Drive consisting of six
5V1800 belts with 10.9-in. and 37.5-in. sheaves; in C 2 . 50 ≈ .

Solution:
Table 17.7, (12 hr/day)
2 . 1 2 . 0 4 . 1 = − =
sf
N
Design hp = ( )( )( ) hp 105 50 75 . 1 2 . 1 =
Fig. 17.4, 105 hp, 1160 rpm
in D 13
min
= , D-section
2 . 13
4 . 46
330
1160
1
2
≈ =
D
D

use in in D 13 2 . 13
1
> =
in D 4 . 46
2
=
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
4009
12
1160 2 . 13
12
1 1
= = =
π π

3 6
2
1
09 . 0
3
10 10
10
m m
d m
v v
e
D K
c
v
a hp Rated
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Table 17.3, D-section
788 . 18 = a , 7 . 137 = c , 0848 . 0 = e
Table 17.4, 5 . 3
2 . 13
4 . 46
1
2
= =
D
D

14 . 1 =
d
K
( )( )
( )
( )
hp hp Rated 32 . 24
10
4009
10
4009
0848 . 0
2 . 13 14 . 1
7 . 137
4009
10
788 . 18
3 6
2
09 . 0
3
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

Back to Fig. 17.14, C-section must be used.
792 . 8 = a , 819 . 38 = c , 0416 . 0 = e

in D 9
min
=
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 26 of 56
1 . 9
32
330
1160
1
2
≈ =
D
D

use in D 1 . 9
1
=
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
2764
12
1160 1 . 9
12
1 1
= = =
π π

( )( )
( )
( )
hp hp Rated 96 . 10
10
2764
10
2764
0416 . 0
1 . 9 14 . 1
819 . 38
2764
10
792 . 8
3 6
2
09 . 0
3
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

Adjusted rated hp = ( ) hp rated K K
L θ

Table 17.5,
458 . 0
50
1 . 9 32
1 2
=

=

C
D D

935 . 0 =
θ
K
Table 17.6
( )
( )
C
D D
D D C L
4
57 . 1 2
2
1 2
1 2

+ + + ≈
( ) ( )
( )
( )
in L 167
50 4
1 . 9 32
1 . 9 32 57 . 1 50 2
2
=

+ + + =
use C158, in L 9 . 160 =
02 . 1 =
L
K
Adjusted rated hp = ( )( )( ) hp 45 . 10 96 . 10 02 . 1 935 . 0 =
belts
hp rated Adjusted
hp Design
belts of No 10
43 . 10
105
. = = =

( )
16
32
2
1 2
2
D D B B
C
− − +
=
( ) ( ) ( ) in D D L B 5 . 385 1 . 9 32 28 . 6 9 . 160 4 28 . 6 4
1 2
= + − = + − =
( ) ( )
in C 8 . 46
16
1 . 9 32 32 5 . 385 5 . 385
2 2
=
− − +
=
Use 10-C158 belts, in D 1 . 9
1
=
in D 32
2
= , in C 8 . 46 =

858. A 200-hp, 600-rpm induction motor is to drive a jaw crusher at 125 rpm; starting
load is heavy; operating with shock; intermittent service; in to C 123 113 = .
Recommend a multiple V-flat drive for this installation. The B.F. Goodrich
Company recommended eight D480 V-belts with a 26-in. sheave and a 120.175-
in. pulley; in C 3 . 116 ≈ .

Solution:
http://ingesolucionarios.blogspot.com
SECTION 15 – FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS
Page 27 of 56
Table 17.7
4 . 1 2 . 0 6 . 1 = − =
sf
N
( )( ) hp hp 280 200 4 . 1 = =
Fig. 17.14, 280 hp, 600 rpm
Use Section E
But in Table 17.3, section E is not available, use section D
13
min
= D
8 . 4
125
600
1
2
= =
D
D

For
max 1
D :
1
2 1
2
min D
D D
C +
+
=
1
1 1
2
8 . 4
113 D
D D
+
+
=
in D 28
1
=
2
min D C =
in D 113
2
=
in D 5 . 23
8 . 4
113
1
= =
use ( ) in D 18 5 . 23 13
2
1
1
= + ≈
( )( ) in D 4 . 86 18 8 . 4
2
= =
( )
( )
C
D D
D D C L
4
57 . 1 2
2
1 2
1 2

+ + + ≈
( ) ( )
( )
( )
in L 410
118 4
18 4 . 86
18 4 . 86 57 . 1 118 2
2
=

+ + + =
using in D 19
1
= , in D 2 . 91
2
= , in C 118 =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
in L 420
118 4
19 2 . 91
19 2 . 91 57 . 1 118 2
2
=

+ + + =
Therefore use D420 sections
in D 19
1
= , in D 2 . 91
2
=
( )( )
fpm
n D
v
m
2985
12
600 19
12
1 1
= = =
π π

3 6
2
1
09 . 0
3
10 10
10
m m
d m
v v
e
D K
c
v
a hp Rated
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Table 17.3, D-section
788 . 18 = a , 7 . 137