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According to specialists in the field of education, school and classroom management aims at encouraging and establishing student self-control through a process of promoting positive student achievement and behavior. Thus academic achievement, teacher efficacy, and teacher and student behavior are directly linked with the concept of school and classroom management. Classroom management focuses on three major components: content management, conduct management, and covenant management. Each of these concepts is defined and presented with details in a list of observable elements in effective teaching practices. Research shows that a high incidence of classroom disciplinary problems has a significant impact on the effectiveness of teaching and learning. In this respect, it has been found that teachers facing such issues fail to plan and design appropriate instructional tasks. They also tend to neglect variety in lesson plans and rarely prompt students to discuss or evaluate the materials that they are learning. In addition, student comprehension or seat work is not monitored on a regular basis. In contrast, strong and consistent management and organizational skills have been identified as leading to fewer classroom discipline problems. In this light, content management "does not refer to skills peculiar to teaching a particular subject but rather to those skills that cut across subjects and activities" (Froyen & Iverson, 1999, p. 128). Doyle stressed that the core of instructional management is gaining and maintaining student cooperation in learning activities (as cited in Froyen & Iverson, 1999, p. 128). Related to content management, Kounin (as cited in Froyen & Iverson, 1999, p. 129) places a special emphasis on instructional management skills, sequencing and integrating additional instructional activities, and dealing with instruction-related discipline problems. Conduct management is centered on one’s beliefs about the nature of people. By integrating knowledge about human diversity (and individuality, at the same time) into a particular instructional philosophy, teachers could manage their classrooms in a better, more effective way. Researchers have pointed out the importance of assisting students in positive behaviors. In planning classroom management, teachers should consider using an assertive communication style and behavior. In addition, they should always know what they want their students to do and involve them in the respective learning activities, under the general conditions of clearly and explicitly stated schoolwide and classroom rules. According to Iverson and Froyen (1999), conduct management is essential to the creation of a foundation for "an orderly, task-oriented approach to teaching and learning" (p. 217),
thus leading to granting students greater independence and autonomy through socialization. An effective conduct management plan should also refer to teacher control and administration of consequences. The following components of such a plan are focused on in this summary: acknowledging responsible behaviors, correcting irresponsible and inappropriate behavior, ignoring, proximity control, gentle verbal reprimands, delaying, preferential seating, time owed, time-out, notification of parents/guardians, written behavioral contract, setting limits outside the classroom, and reinforcement systems. All of these components are presented so they can be identified in examples of best teaching practices. Covenant management stresses the classroom group as a social system. Teacher and student roles and expectations shape the classroom into an environment conducive to learning. In other words, the culture of any given school is unique to that school. However, it is directly influenced by the culture of the larger community whose educational goals are to be met. A strong connection between school and community must be constantly revised and modified according to the requirements of societal dynamism. As schools become very diverse, teachers and students should become aware of how to use diversity to strengthen the school/classroom social group. Quality schools are defined by teacher effectiveness and student achievement under the auspices of building strong interpersonal skills. In this light, teacher and student relationships are essential to ensuring a positive school/classroom atmosphere. Classroom management discipline problems can be dealt with either on an individual basis (between teacher and student) or by group problem solving (class meetings). As mutual trust builds up between teacher and students, the latter are gradually released from teacher supervision by becoming individually responsible. This is how both “educators and students become co-participants in the teaching-learning process, striving to make the most of themselves and their collective experience" (Froyen & Iverson, 1999, p. 256). Reference Froyen, L. A., & Iverson, A. M. (1999). Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Definition "Content management occurs when teachers manage space, materials, equipment, the movement of people, and lessons that are part of a curriculum or program of studies" (Froyen & Iverson, 1999, p. 128). Checklist of Observable Behaviors Instructional management skills:
___1. Movement management a. Avoidance of jerkiness: thrusts, dangles, flip-flop, truncations b. Avoidance of slowdowns: task and behavior overdwelling, actone overdwelling, prop overdwelling, fragmentation ___2. Group focus a. Management of group format b. Management of the degree of accountability c. Management of attention ___3. Avoidance of satiation a. Progress b. Variety c. Challenge Sequencing and integration of additional instructional activities: ___4. Management of daily review sessions ___5. Management of daily preview sessions ___6. Management of lectures/presentation sessions ___7. Management of individual/group in-class work: a. Presentation of assignments b. Monitoring of performance c. Selection of assignments d. Evaluation of assignments ___8. Management of individual/group work during a field trip ___9. Management of homework ___10. Management of discussion sessions ___11. Management of projects and problem-solving sessions Dealing with instruction-related discipline problems:
NJ: Prentice-Hall Applications/Examples Content Management Definition “Content management occurs when teachers manage space. [Content management in the classroom]. Poor listening and failure to follow verbal directions ___17. Talking without permission (during class) ___15. Examples Teacher: Kimberly Bradshaw Grade: Pre-Kindergarten Kimberly Bradshaw demonstrates content management by beginning the day by leading her students in a very short hand routine. (2000). The hand movements focus the students’ . Failure to be motivated/doing nothing ___20. and lessons that are part of a curriculum or program of studies” (Froyen & Iverson. the movement of people. Test anxiety References Boboc. Upper Saddle River. (1999). Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader (3rd ed. Failure to raise hand ___16. Tardiness or absenteeism ___19. L. A. M.).___12. Off-task behavior ___13. Unpublished raw data. Late or incomplete assignments ___18. M. Cheating ___21. Talking without permission (during lectures) ___14. p. & Iverson. A. materials. Froyen. 1999. 128).. equipment.
Her management of a daily preview session helps prepare her students for the experiences they will have. Teacher: Patty Bounous Grade: 7-8 Patti Bounous’ students use heart-rate monitors and Digi-Walkers to monitor their performance during aerobic exercise. the students work in partners in the school’s computer lab to develop a graph. Bounous asks them to recall how they can use monitors and Digi-Walkers to find specific information.attention on the teacher and signal that it is time for a learning activity. and the movement of people. such as their average heart rates. Alexander’s management of in-class group work demonstrates her content management. Then. During the course of the lesson. materials. Bradshaw tells the students about the activities they will do for the day. and the amount of time they kept their heart rates in the target zone. A blue cup means that there are no problems. The students will be collecting information about the number of different colored candies in a bag of M& Ms. Terri Vennerberg manages group work by creating a signaling system that enables her to help her students more efficiently. By managing the lesson. This also demonstrates Bradshaw’s content management. Teacher: Kathleen Alexander Grade: 3 Kathleen Alexander’s mathematics students are studying graphs and graphing. After the students have exercised. space. She helps them through the process of interpreting and graphing their data. before going on a field trip. Teacher: Terri Vennerberg Grade: 3 In her Habitats activity. Alexander circulates around the room and monitors students as they work cooperatively on the computer. Teacher: Julie McLaughlin Grade: 9 In her Ocean Exhibits activity. The teacher demonstrates content management as she manages the review session. Vennerberg demonstrates content management. She manages the movement of people by having her students place a red cup on their desk if their group has a question and is in need of assistance. Julie McLaughlin’s ninth grade students divide into small groups and present ocean exhibits they have created to a group of .
p.A. Upper Saddle River. NJ: PrenticeHall.: Prentice-Hall. Conduct Management Note. Acknowledgment of responsible behaviors ___ 2. Gentle verbal reprimands ___ 6. Ignoring ___ 4. References Froyen. M. A. Correction of irresponsible and inappropriate behavior ___ 3. Checklist of Observable Behaviors ___ 1. A.M. She describes the nature and content of the learning activity in which the high school and elementary students will participate. 181). Definition "Conduct management refers to the set of procedural skills that teachers employ in their attempt to address and resolve discipline problems in the classroom" (Froyen & Iverson. By directing the students’ rotations to different exhibits. 1999. Notification of parents/guardians . Time owed ___ 9.elementary students. pp. Froyen and A. The Definition and Checklist sections below are adapted from Schoolwide and Classroom Management: The Reflective Educator-Leader.. Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader (3rd ed. & Iverson. L. 194-208. tells the students how long they will stay at each exhibit. and gives them clear instructions on how to move from one exhibit to the next. (1999). Proximity control ___ 5. Delaying ___ 7. 181.). Preferential seating ___ 8. McLaughlin manages space and the movement of people while using class time efficiently.J. Time-out ___ 10. N. Iverson. 1999. Upper Saddle River. by L.
A. 1999. p.___ 11. Teacher: Vicki Oleson Grade: 6 Vicki Oleson monitors the students as they work together in their groups. As the learners try to reach consensus on the topic. Setting limits outside the classroom ___ 13. Written behavioral contract ___ 12. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Applications/Examples Conduct Management Definition “Conduct management refers to the set of procedural skills that teachers employ in their attempt to address and resolve discipline problems in the classroom” (Froyen & Iverson. Examples Teacher: Terri Vennerberg Grade: 3 In her Habitats activity. L. Upper Saddle River. 181). (1999). Oleson encourages them to remember ways of solving disagreement within the group. Terri Vennerberg uses the strategy of re-directing a group that displays off-task behavior and focuses their attention on their assignment. Teacher: Lyn Countryman Grade: 7 Lyn Countryman’s students are learning about the human heart by gathering and analyzing data on their own heart rates.. A. This demonstrates Conduct Management. Vennerberg’s correction of inappropriate and irresponsible behavior illustrates Conduct Management. The teacher demonstrates Conduct Management as she corrects irresponsible and inappropriate behavior by reminding her students that . Reinforcement systems Reference Froyen. & Iverson.). M. Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader (3rd ed.
___ 4. Get the student to make a value judgment about the behavior.). The Definition and Checklist sections below are adapted from Schoolwide and Classroom Management: The Reflective Educator-Leader. Upper Saddle River. 221. N.: Prentice-Hall. 243-254. A. Do not accept excuses for a failed plan.. In addition. Farrell uses conduct management to get the students back on task and focused on the lesson. ___ 6. Covenant Management Note. 1999. Reference Froyen.A. A. Deal with the student’s present behavior. Get a commitment from the student to stick to the plan. & Ive]rson. ___ 3. ___ 5. A student complains about another student kicking him underneath the table.J. Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader (3rd ed. . she encourages them to respond one at a time.M. Upper Saddle River. Froyen and A.one of the goals of working together is to respect one another. Teacher: Teresa Farrell Grade: 5-6 Teresa Farrell redirects inappropriate student behavior during her group work activity. pp. Definition "Covenant management focuses on the classroom group as a social system that has its own features that teachers have to take into account when managing interpersonal relationships in the classroom" (Froyen & Iverson. NJ: PrenticeHall. ___ 2. Get involved with the student. Help the student develop a plan to change behavior. (1999). Iverson. by L. This demonstrates conduct management. Checklist of Observable Behaviors Problem-solving as a solution to discipline problems: ___ 1. 1999). M. L.
A. A. M. 1999). The teacher demonstrates Covenant Management in an attempt to solve the discipline problem. and invites students to reflect on their work as a group. References . NJ: Prentice-Hall.. (1999). Teacher: Nancy Hemphill Grade: 4-6 Nancy Hemphill uses covenant management as she talks to her students about solving problems that may come up in their groups. and reaffirms its fairness. Hemphill also emphasizes the importance of working together toward achieving a common goal. She reviews the process the group used to assign roles. She encourages them to work together to find possible solutions and reinforces the learners’ efforts to work cooperatively. Do not punish or criticize the student for broken plans. Reference Froyen. Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader (3rd ed. She also prompts him to reflect on the importance of his contribution to the group as a whole. gives specific praise. & Iverson. trying to build a relationship of trust.).___ 7. The teacher expresses concern for the student as an individual. Applications/Examples Covenant Management Definition Covenant management focuses on the classroom group as a social system that has its own features that teachers have to take into account when managing interpersonal relationships in the classroom (Froyen & Iverson. Oleson gives the student an alternative that would allow him to play the role assigned to him in class. and the role that he wanted on his own. L. Examples Teacher: Vicki Oleson Grade: 6 Vicki Oleson’s student resists working with his peers because he didn’t get to play the role he wanted. Upper Saddle River.
& Iverson.Froyen. All rights reserved. M. NJ: PrenticeHall. and. Pedagogy Summary Note. (1999). these standards also incorporate the essential pedagogical knowledge. Cast in terms of actions that teachers take to advance student outcomes. practices. Based on the latest developments in pedagogy. As agents of the public interest in a democracy. The professional teaching standards represent the teaching profession’s consensus on the critical aspects of the art and science of teaching (pedagogy) that characterize accomplished teachers in various fields. dispositions. yet remain critical and reflective about their practice. teachers must master a repertoire of instructional methods and strategies. to pursue organizational change in a constant attempt to improve the school. skills. A. they must also be aware of the ethical dimensions of their profession.nbpts. These standards rest on a fundamental philosophical foundation comprised of five core propositions: • • Teachers are committed to students and their learning. while acknowledging thoughtfully and responsibly a wide range of human needs and conditions. and definitions of knowledge. and honoring the complex nature of the educational mission. In addition to the technical knowledge and skills teachers have to use in their daily practice. dispositions. In this light. . (Early Childhood/Generalist Standards. Therefore. and commitments that allow teachers to practice at a high level. L. the primary mission is to foster the development of skills. A. teachers also have the responsibility to challenge existing structures. Printed with permission from National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.org. Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader (3rd ed. Effective teaching necessitates making difficult and principled choices. Thus. 1998). exercising careful judgment.). Their professional responsibilities focus on educating students. to invent and test new approaches. in addition to participating in wider activities within the school and in partnership with parents and the community. www. teaching has become more than an activity that conserves valued knowledge and skills by transmitting them to succeeding generations. where necessary. and understanding.. Teachers know the subjects they teach and have the necessary pedagogical knowledge. teachers through their work contribute to the dialogue about preserving and improving society. Upper Saddle River. and they initiate future citizens into this ongoing public discourse.
concepts. teachers know how to utilize various forms of play. Teachers understand and respect the diverse cultures. and commitments reflected in the following five core propositions. languages.• • • Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning. In addition. They are highly sophisticated analysts who apply observations of individual students and the overall environment to guide their judgments and responses. designing activities to the latter's "proximal zone" based on Vygotsky's concept. They know how to move from assessment to decisions about curriculum. social support. and think about trends. Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience. seek the views of colleagues and parents. these educators employ a range of instructional strategies and resources to match the variety of student skills and to provide each student several ways of exploring important ideas. and concepts. skills. They are skilled in collecting and interpreting a variety of types of evidence to evaluate where each student is in a sequence or continuum of learning and development. coaches. different strategies for grouping learners. and involve parents and families as active partners in the students' total development. Teachers are members of learning communities. skills. to increase the prospects for successful learning. managers. and different types of media and materials. use community people and settings as resources for learning. Moreover. models. abilities. Teachers observe and assess students in the context of ongoing classroom life. The Five Propositions of Accomplished Teaching The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards seeks to identify and recognize teachers who effectively enhance student learning and demonstrate the high level of knowledge. and teaching strategies. They reflect on their own performance in light of student progress. values. for learning and development. and family backgrounds of their students. options. They calibrate their responses to the interests and ability level of students. Effective teachers display skills at creating curricula designed to build on students' present knowledge and understanding and move them to more sophisticated and in-depth abilities. and the consequences of their options. Each moment presents the opportunity for teachers to respond creatively to the unique challenges of classroom life. and advocates. evaluators. knowledge. They understand how to work as facilitators. Teachers are committed to students and their learning . and performances.
Moreover. and racial differences. motivation. character. organized. they are aware of the influence of context and culture on behavior. They are aware of the preconceptions and background knowledge that students typically bring to each subject and of strategies and instructional materials that can be of assistance. and to the subjects they teach. Effective teachers command a wide range of generic instructional techniques and use them appropriately. knowledge. While faithfully representing the collective wisdom of our culture and upholding the value of disciplinary knowledge. skills. they adjust their practice according to these individual differences based on observation and knowledge of their students' interests. Equally important. cultural. Therefore. Teachers know the subjects they teach and have the necessary pedagogical knowledge Accomplished teachers have a thorough understanding of the subject(s) they teach and appreciate how knowledge in their subject is created. They manage efficiently both the students and the learning environment. teachers develop students' cognitive capacity and their respect for learning. linked to other disciplines. instruction is organized and implemented to allow the schools' goals for students to be met. enrich. civic responsibility. and peer relationships. abilities. and alter instructional settings.Effective teachers are dedicated to making knowledge accessible to all students based on their belief that all students can learn. Educators are able to set the norms for . Under these general circumstances. they understand and solve the possible difficulties likely to arise in the classroom and modify their practice accordingly. maintain. Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning Accomplished teachers create. and applied to real-world settings. religious. They also strive to engage students and adults in assisting their teaching as well as to enhance their practice with their colleagues' knowledge and expertise. Their instructional repertoire allows them to create multiple paths to knowledge. In addition. family circumstances. they treat their learners equitably by acknowledging individual differences among students. Thus. Thus. Effective teachers master pedagogical knowledge used to convey and reveal subject matter to students. in particular. in general. and their respect for individual. and strategies to capture and sustain the interest of their students and to make the most effective use of time. they also develop the critical and analytical capacities of their students. these educators incorporate the prevailing theories of cognition and intelligence in their practice. materials. Accomplished teachers understand how students develop and learn. they foster students' self-esteem. In addition.
respect for diversity. Accomplished teachers can assess the progress of individual students as well as that of the class as a whole. sharpen their judgment. and adapt their teaching to new findings. exemplifying the virtues they seek to inspire in students--curiosity. tolerance. and are skilled at employing such resources as needed. They are knowledgeable about specialized school and community resources that can be engaged for their students' benefit. Available: http://www. They employ multiple methods for measuring student growth and understanding and can clearly explain student performance to parents. Their decisions are grounded not only in the literature. and appreciation of cultural differences. and staff development. Accomplished teachers draw on their knowledge of human development. to be creative and take risks. Striving to strengthen their teaching. and theories. seek to expand their repertoire.org . They can evaluate school progress and the allocation of school resources in light of their understanding of state and local educational objectives. fairness. and their understanding of their students to make principled judgments about sound practice. They also exemplify the capacities that are prerequisites for intellectual growth--the ability to reason and take multiple perspectives. Moreover. Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience Effective teachers are models of educated persons. deepen their knowledge. but also in their experience. curriculum development. (1998). Washington. honesty. quality teachers critically examine their practice.social interaction among students and between students and teachers. Teachers are members of learning communities Exemplary teachers contribute to the effectiveness of the school by working collaboratively with other professionals on instructional policy.nbpts. and to adopt an experimental and problem-solving orientation. They engage in lifelong learning that they seek to encourage in their students. ideas. Reference National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Accomplished teachers find ways to work collaboratively and creatively with parents. they understand how to motivate students to learn and how to maintain their interest even when facing temporary failure. engaging them productively in the proper functioning of the school. DC: Author. subject matter and instruction.
appropriate standards of behavior for students. Cambridge. distributing papers.Vygotsky. MA: Harvard University Press. and effective management of routines and transitions.edu/depts/edu/yes/management.S. using their planners.html Goal To review the strands of effective classroom management Objectives • • • • • • To define the components of classroom management To review the daily routines in a teacher’s day To establish a positive classroom environment To establish and enforce appropriate standards of behavior To engage the students in the classroom activities To review tips for effective classroom management Materials & Resources Classroom management involves a positive classroom environment. student engagement. collecting papers. http://www. Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes.ecsu. recording homework and .ctstateu.com This module in intended to give prospective teachers a guide to classroom management. in which students have to be trained: listening to announcements. L. (1978). The following tasks will require a routine. Classroom Management developed by Jaya Vijayasekar Lakshmi4@excite. Daily Routines Establishing daily routines early in the school year is essential to effective classroom management.
Classroom activities Engaging the students throughout the lesson is essential to effective classroom management. Tips for effective classroom management • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Assign tasks ahead of time Train students in routines Always plan ahead and over plan Label necessary materials Color code for easy access of necessary materials Set clear expectations for your students Discussing. Whether students work individually or in groups. an awareness of their attention span for lecture. Setting a friendly tone from the beginning will enable students to ask questions when they are doubtful or confused. etc. and providing consequences are more effective than nagging. given the busy and unpredictable nature of our profession. Appropriate Standards of Behavior Students should be aware of the teacher’s expectations. they should be held accountable for engagement in and completion of the task at hand. To consistently enforce the standards of behavior can at times be challenging. they will be more eager to come to class. and consistently providing praise and support. commenting about improvement. To conference with students calmly and patiently will help in maintaining consistency and fairness to all students. While we may not be able to spell out the rules and regulations for every single circumstance. answering questions in class. lining up to walk to specials and to the cafeteria or playground. general guidelines should be distributed in writing for both students and parents during the first week of school. debating. Proximity to students. will help sustain student engagement. reminders to stay on task. lecturing. etc. The teacher should demonstrate caring and concern by displaying student work. Positive Classroom Environment Establishing a rapport with students starting with the first day of school is essential. and threatening Review rules and standards of behavior periodically Greet students at the door Use humor daily Treat your students with respect Make eye contact Provide plenty of opportunity for participation Involve the students who are disruptive .grades.
but emotionally safe Back to Main Behavioural Views of Learning Understanding Learning (pp. Thus. Conversely. Interestingly. 29 January 2008 (UTC) . remembering and problemsolving. On the other hand. it is always initiated by the learner’s interaction with his or her environment. the experience of placing one’s tongue against a frozen metal post for the first time may prompt the avoidance of a similar situation in the future. (p 197) This condition is logically sound with respect to physiological developments such as growing taller or turning gray. however. For example. It follows that changes attributed to natural development. if the ability to reason is associated with the development of the frontal lobe. do not qualify as learning. However. in the latter example. can critical thinking be considered a learned skill? What are the implications for abstract thought? Given the dichotomy of knowledge and behaviour. it could also be understood to suggest that learning benefits often associated with mental maturation are actually a product of experiences accumulated with age. the behavioural perspective assumes that learning causes observable changes in behaviour. Furthermore. This learning is deliberate. the study of learning is divided into cognitive and behavioural points of view. This learning is inadvertent. its exclusion undermines the significance of the constantly-changing adolescent brain. the experience of reading a textbook brings about additional factual knowledge. learning may be intentional or unintentional. it could be said that behaviour is enacted knowledge and that knowledge is potential behaviour. While it is clear that neurological development does not in itself constitute the act of learning. --Artursedov (talk) 04:17. (p 197) It is not clear why there is such an insistence on favouring one position over the other – both knowledge and behaviour are clearly essential to learning. (p 197) For example. such as maturation. 197-199) Knowledgeable Behaviour • In the text. Cognitive psychologists emphasize internal mental processes such as thinking. learning is defined as a change in knowledge and/or behaviour that occurs exclusively through experience.• Learn about students’ interests Make your classroom not just physically. both new knowledge (tongue sticks to frozen metal) and new behaviours (don’t do it) are gained.
is it merely setting up students to perform poorly in a testing situation that doesn’t provide a positive stimulus? Can a teacher use classical conditioning to reduce negative emotional reactions. The former can be accomplished in two ways. soft relaxation music) this can also help. such as in operant conditioning. if the test space provided is peaceful and comfortable while the testing is being administered (ex. pg. the stress and anxiety that many students feel during tests or presentations. Secondly. The first is the the teacher's demeanour.e. In the classroom students’ emotional reactions to different situations are often viewed as a result of classical conditioning. One way that this could be accomplished is by providing an atmosphere that is peaceful and calm as well as providing tests that are fair (i. Early Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning (pp. Perhaps pairing a test with a positive stimulus could decrease the stress that is created in this situation. which can often result in a poor performance. In the Guidelines on page 201 of the text book. including material that has been taught. classical conditioning is described as an association of automatic responses with new stimuli (Woolfolk et. Discovered by Ivan Pavlov. I wonder if there is a way to apply the theory of classical conditioning to eliminate the stress and possibly evoke a different emotion during a test or performance time. al. or would the use of reinforcements. However. In theory this seems like a potential solution to the negative emotions that a test can produce. I was interested in how emotional reactions will often disrupt learning. and also that perhaps this continuous testing will just perpetuate the anxiety for the student. A testing day was much less dreaded by the class because we knew that we would be given a treat. If the teacher is calm. and not providing trick questions). cheerful and optimistic she can help to alleviate some pre-test anxiety. I think that the use of both methods can be effective. the authors suggest giving un-graded tests so that students can practice daily. 199-202) • I was very intrigued by the discussion in the chapter about classical conditioning and how it can relate to learning in the classroom. In my own experience my high school sociology teacher would give us candy as we took a test. 199-200). If from . since an example of operant conditioning has already been provided I will touch upon classical conditioning. 28 January 2008 (UTC) • In response to the above question. I think testing can be something not feared if it is introduced from the very beginning of classes as a positive experience so that it creates feelings of pleasure instead of pain. However. who was able to train dogs to salivate at the sound of a tuning fork. be more effective? --JollyJamie (talk) 06:40. For example. In particular. My concern with this suggestion is that firstly it seems unrealistic to test students so frequently.
tests. As the text states. until they get it right. As students know they will have many tries to succeed. By providing students with ungraded tests (written in the same format as their upcoming-graded tests). All of these formats still require the students to apply their knowledge. students may feel more control over their end product. Instead of going in thinking they will fail. students may begin to feel comfortable and more at ease during a . students may begin to feel comfortable and more at ease during a graded quiz/test. tests. but I have seen this system work when it is adapted for only certain struggling members of the class. 29 January 2008 (UTC) • Perhaps a way to overcome this sense of fear is by continually assessing students. Now. not only am I relaxed and comfortable when I play in public. before moving onto the next level. students may be more relaxed during the graded tests. there are problems with this system. the setting for testing is associated with positive variables. Another option to overcome fear is to change the format of the tests. (especially the one on operant conditioning)I think that making testing more positive for students also ties into the section on Mastery Learning on pages 215 and 216 of the text. however. --Acardona (talk) 23:53. She allows them multiple tries of a similar task. or assignments. this could be another way to condition students to associate tests with positive consequences instead of the negative consequence of failing. I have had many opportunities to perform in public. I actually enjoy the experience. or assignments. or allow students to bring in one small-cheat. However. I remember the first time I had to play in a recital. They are now familiar with the format. People often feel anxious in unfamiliar environments. which will simply be used as an assessment tool by the teacher and students (and not graded). --Liz P (talk) 02:48. which will simply be used as an assessment tool by the teacher and students (and not graded). By incorporating small quizzes. over the years. the students should not associate testing with fear. these students know that they will eventually succeed. This idea that all students can master a skill. They especially feel anxious when they are being evaluated. phrasing of questions. 12 March 2008 (UTC) • In response to the two above postings. By incorporating small quizzes. 28 January 2008 (UTC) • Perhaps a way to overcome this sense of fear is by continually assessing students. take home tests. User:Belshawm|Belshawm]] (talk) 19:48. I know one teacher who does not allow her students to fail an evaluation. which eliminates some of the pre-test panic.the very beginning of the year. open book tests. and have a firm understanding of the types of questions the teacher may ask. For example. I was so nervous I could not control my shaking hands and made countless mistakes from over-thinking. or achieve an 80-90% mark in a testing situation.
it was the perfect way for students to feel more competent. By providing students with pre-tests (written in the same format as their upcoming-graded tests) and take up the questions in-class. and were given opportunities to re-write the assignment. This practice was particularly used in music theory class for those students who were able to grasp the concepts. This way students were able to see their mistakes. People often feel anxious in unfamiliar environments. but for those students who have the tendency to 'freeze' in test situation. As teacher's. over the years. and have a firm understanding of the types of questions the teacher may ask. Assignments became more than just a 'grade'. not only am I relaxed and comfortable when I play in public. this same teacher allowed students to bring in a 'cheat sheet' into their test. blank piece of paper where they could write anything except for examples. Because students went to such detailed lengths when filling up this piece of paper. phrasing of questions. • In accordance with Liz's response. I remember the first time I had to play in a recital. They are now familiar with the format. but were having trouble applying them to the 'big picture'. could choose to re-do the assignment or be satisfied with the original mark) and because of the constant learning in music theory. students would realize sooner or later that they would need to fully grasp concepts before being able to move on. because it was the satisfaction of mastering a technique and being able to move on to the next step. students no longer needed to use this sheet. students may be relaxed during the graded tests.e. and could seek further help how to do it properly.graded quiz/test. One single-sided. how far should we go to see our students succeed? To make matters more interesting. I have seen a similar system work where a teacher has allowed for students to re-submit their work once the teacher has done a 'basic' marking on the assignment. 31 January 2008 (UTC) . However. Obviously this method would not work with all students. I actually enjoy the experience. but also it was a form of operant conditioning (touching on the next topic-pg. 202). this time making a connect as to why their result was wrong. This was a very smart idea as the teacher encouraged not only independent learning. I was so nervous I could not control my hands from shaking and ended up making countless mistakes from over-thinking. --Winchell (talk) 05:43. when it came to the test. as the students would learn as much as they wanted to (i. Now. They especially feel anxious when they are being evaluated. as they had done a through job of studying and already new the material inside and out. I have had many opportunities to perform in public.
an environment is created condusive to open. hear your • . I believe the power lies with the teacher and their ability to create an environment condusive to support and comfort for students in the performance setting. which is so seldom done in the context of performance classes. Christopher Wilson --chuckstopher (talk) 10:13.• As a music major in university we were given as many chances to perform in a friendly. defined as a "learned response to previously neutral stimulus" (Woolfolk et. I think there are some things you can do. unconditioned response. low-stress environment as possible. but overcoming such a strong basic instinct is near impossible for some people. 200) in the classroom to promote focused learning and also eleviate anxiety. in hopes of aleviating performance anxiety in students. I think this helped because part of the anxiety comes from the performance environment: the nerves REALLY start kicking in when you walk through the doors. 200). Simply put. can use in the classroom to extinguish the unconditioned responses associated with performance anxiety? --Elewis (talk) 03:36. the room where the actual concert will be performed. In response to the above question regarding performance anxiety. Are there methods we. creative. I guess) from performance anxiety and I tried many different strategies to combat it. One that helped was practicing a concert program in a big. pg. when a person is experiencing performance anxiety part of their brain is telling them that their lives are in danger. I believe the teacher needs to put the subject on the "table". and discuss the subject in a group context. and artistic expression. 29 January 2008 (UTC) • It is interesting to explore how a teacher can best use conditioned stimulus defined as "stimulus that evokes an emotional or pshychological response after conditioning" (Woolfolk et. The problem with this is that a performance situation is an unconditioned stimulus which evokes a very primitive "fight or flight" response that is hardwired into every human individual. 29 January 2008 (UTC) In response to Eli's question above. I suffered (still do. to optimize their learning potential in the classroom setting. By shifting the conditioned response within students. Some performers are able to channel the "fight" instinct into creative energy that drives their performance. In short. This is obviously an irrational. pg. open room--ideally. Though my instructors never used the term "Classical Conditioning" I believe that this is exactly what they were attempting. The desired result is a conditioned response from the students. al. while others devote several hours before a performance to meditation in order to convince their mind that what they're about to experience is not a life or death situation. al. supportive. as teachers of the arts.
open space (whether it's the performance hall during off hours or somewhere else). During my practicum. ideas. teachers should try and catch their students being “good”. I find that teachers overlook the importance of reinforcing positive behaviour among his/her students and focus on punishment. but it's a start. Instead. I was amazed with how easy it was to implement punishment over positive reinforcement. comments? --Colillis (talk) 20:55. I had to consistently remind myself to acknowledge this through a reinforcer of some kind. --GavinKistner (talk) 03:57. open space. is it possible for a teacher to run a successful classroom on positive/negative reinforcement alone? Or. This acknowledgement will encourage the student to continue with the desired behaviour which in turn. of course!) and perform my concert program beginning to end. In my own experience both as a student and as a teacher. I would often practice in a normal practice room and when I felt ready. The conditioning comes into play get used to performing in that environment without any stress--you're dulling the conditioned response. The idea is if you perform in a big. etc. When students were behaving. at times. For example. 202-208) • There were a variety of themes in this reading that I found interesting in relation to teaching. just as if it was the real thing. a reward (such as more computer time). does punishment need to be enforced? Is it possible to find a balance between the two? Thoughts. if a student who has been talking throughout the entire class has finally quieted down. practice in a big. walk straight into a lecture hall (ensuring beforehand that there was no class in there.footsteps echo through the hall. Why is it that punishing students seems to be a more of a natural tendency for teachers rather then implementing positive/negative reinforcement? Also. al. will minimize the teacher’s need to manage/punish that student during class-time. such as praising them. pg. I find that a tendency of teachers is to only catch students being “bad”. you can't see anyone but you hear a roar of applause--once I sat down and looked up. One theme in particular dealt with positive/negative reinforcement (which both promote a particular behaviour) and punishment (which weakens and suppresses behaviour) (Woolfolk et. I usually felt pretty small in this giant hall. 31 January 2008 (UTC)  Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses (pp. then the teacher should use this opportunity to acknowledge that student’s compliance either through praise. Of course. the audience won't be there (although inviting friends to watch you practice certainly helps). 203-204). Your relationship to the practice space mimics the performance situation. or playing a piece that they loved. 27 January 2008 (UTC) .
(Maag. whether we are conscious of them or not. A reinforcer encourages a particular form of behaviour. It is important that we recognize the differences between reinforcing and punishing behaviours. People assume that they are free to choose to behave in a responsible way to avoid punishment. Maag proposes that teachers do not use reinforcement effectively because they do not understand important terms related to behaviour modification.• I'd like to quote an outside text in response to your question. Similarly.  ). our society views punishment as a highly effective way to control its members. Punishment often can produce a rapid suppression of undesired behaviours. “Why is it that punishing students seems to be a more of a natural tendency for teachers than implementing positive/negative reinforcement?” In his article “Rewarded by Punishment: Reflections on the Disuse of Positive Reinforcement in Schools” (cf. Our text proposes that positive reinforcement occurs when a behaviour has been strengthened “by presenting a desired stimulus after the behaviour”. she seemed embarrassed at being singled out for her achievement. rather than motivating them intrinsically. positive reinforcement is assumed by many to be coercive. hoping that she would respond to my “positive” encouragement. our actions and interactions encourage behavioural responses. I praised a student’s work on a diorama. and may not demonstrate immediate. . One method is not necessarily preferable to the other. As teachers. In other words. 176) I’d like to suggest that positive reinforcement is proactive. Secondly. Because of this. (Maag. This is not necessarily the case. bribing students to behave well. (Maag. two ways to modify behaviour. author John W. whereas punishment discourages it. we may all too readily assume that punishment has negative connotations. As I did not encourage her. techniques based on positive reinforcement are often understood to threaten personal autonomy. identifiable changes in behaviour. Educational Psychology. rather than reactive. Rather. It is possible that positive reinforcement may not be “positive” in the traditional sense. The terms and concepts addressed in this section are covered in greater depth by our text. They are two means to an end. Because of our traditional understanding of these words. Magg proposes multiple reasons for punishment having traditionally been a preferred form of treatment. During my practicum. 173) Moreover. 178) Furthermore. the terms positive and negative reinforcement carry their own baggage. a teacher encourages said behaviour by their response (or lack of response) to it. Maag believes that positive reinforcement is often misunderstood because it is rarely associated with discipline. First. and that reinforcement is preferable. punishment seems more acceptable in this sense. Ironically. Positive reinforcement is a more complicated process than simply giving praise to students.
it is more likely that he will achieve your desired result. Changing ingrained techniques are hard. Adult attention. we have an advantage. as new teachers.”(Maag. For instance. students who repeatedly misbehave and receive reprimands. Whereas punishment is most effective when delivered consistently. suspensions and the like are not being punished for their actions. Dedicate your attention to academically . they must recognize how positive reinforcement is congruent with the values and techniques they need to apply. Establish classroom rules and the positive reinforcement that will follow them. Effectively changing students’ behaviours also requires teachers to modify their own behaviours. Maag suggests that the second time a teacher gives a student a verbal warning. “These goals can be addressed when teachers prioritize their values” (Maag. and often only react to inappropriate behaviours.I failed to reinforce her behaviour. Maag notes that when punishments are effective. provide positive reinforcement if he is only five minutes late. However. Maag concludes his article by providing a series of easy-to-implement techniques to encourage positive reinforcement. 2) Think Small. and consequently ignore them when they do so. even if it is negative. Simply because verbal praise sounds like a reinforcer does not mean that it will function as one. 183). but first. Its easier to manage specific students with challenging behaviours when the rest of class is well behaved. is a powerful reinforcer . Some students have learned that the only way they will receive attention from teachers is to misbehave. 4) Prevent Behaviour Problems. which I thought I'd share. because they serve to reduce inappropriate behaviours. 1) Catch students being good.especially for students with the most challenging behaviours who typically receive very little positive attention. 3) Have a Group Management Plan. they are used infrequently. “Teachers expect students to behave well. 179) Maag suggests that many teachers do not use reinforcement to their advantage. if a student is usually ten minutes late for class. Teachers often take for granted when students behave well. Control the class before focussing on an individual. they should also be sure to catch the student behaving appropriately. Accordingly. They are instead being positively reinforced. but they usually give them negative attention when they do behave poorly. Once he begins to make improvements. teachers only have to catch students behaving well occasionally to generate desired behaviour modification. Set small goals for students and reinforce incremental strides towards that goal.
a chance to make better choices and do positive things. but the power of peer influence in any classroom is a tool we can all use to positively affect to motivate our students. At the end of this conversation. Teachers should find ways to use peer influence to encourage good behaviour.engaging your students. and was genuinely thrilled at the idea of helping Jacob get back on his feet. This teacher continuously let Jacob know that he was capable of good things. usually not on such a large. good things could arise. This practicum placement was in the One World Youth Arts Project at George Vanier. Students realize that the easiest way to get peer attention is to misbehave. life-altering scale. My AT regularly made connections like this for his students. . I find this last suggestion the least straightforward. Jacob was transfered to another school. Monitor your students behaviours and subtly reinforce them. but. Facilitating peer connections that promote positive self awareness will often diminish disruptive behaviour and foster academic success. 28 January 2008 (UTC) • This story is extreme but gives a powerful example of positive peer influence. and that the transfer was a chance for a fresh start with a clean slate. Self-image is a huge issue for adolescents and is often the reason for bad behavior. Does anyone have any suggestions how we may use peer influence to promote good behaviour? Can anyone provide examples of having used positive and negative reinforcement to their advantage? --Mjcaskenette (talk) 18:22. Jacob was withdrawn and pretty low-achieving from an academic standpoint. and started to make better choices for himself. rather than dealing with problems. 5) Use Peer Influence Favourably. and lends itself veryreadily to these kinds of collaborations. He let him know that from this bad situation. another student was brought in and asked if he would take Jacob to church with him on Sunday. His home life was not the best and outside of school he tended to hang with the "wrong" crowd. At the very end of practicum Jacob was arrested for aggrevated assault when he got into a fight with the owner of a SUBWAY restaurant who had accused Jacob of stealing. The OWYAP setting focuses on musical composition. but before he left Vanier my associate teacher sat down and spoke with Jacob about why the fight at the restaurant was maybe not a good idea and why the people he chose to run with weren't necessarily the best choice in friends. The student—who knew Jacob but was not real tight with him—agreed. Jacob also seemed convinced that good things were in store for him. little connections that did wonders for students' self-image and appreciation for fellow classmates.
) so they wouldn't see me as just another authority figure. By generalizing your reinforcement. Under-praised students are repulsed by the praised students for their conforming nature. but practical in reference to peer motivation for positive behaviour. My conclusion is that you can't have it.--Elewis (talk) 04:31. For instance. In turn. 28 January 2008 (UTC) • When contemplating Mark's question. This allowed some of the more unruly students to put a bit of themselves into my lesson. As far as I'm concerned. I believed that this would lead to other students to recognize this praise and cause them to strive to do better in hopes of receiving praise themselves. therefore enacting positive reinforcement by promoting the good behaviour". I found the opposite reaction occurs. the students who usually followed the bad behavior. I tried to make a connection with the students who enjoyed challenging me. . The symbol of a class "goodie two-shoes" can alienate the rest of the class into a "whatever. As a result. "why don't I praise a group that is doing an assignment well. One way that I did this was to try to understand where they were coming from. However. these "problem" students became engaged with the material. The old teacher's college adage of "what's good for some is good for all" applies to our classroom dynamics when dealing with reinforcement. interests etc. This creates a dangerous learning environment. I also tried to get to know them (i. I tried a number of methods to "tame the beasts". --Acardona (talk) 23:26. students will not single a student out as the prize student creating less social stigma within the classroom. I came across a discovery that may seem cynical. positive peer influence really does promote good behaviour. The teacher loses credibility and any sense of control they may have had. I don't really care" attitude. and the notion that this can be controlled by a theory or a set of standards is preposterous. began to follow the good behavior. What's the solution? Generalized reinforcement. in one lesson. Once I became familiar with these specific students. which created a ripple effect throughout the class. My first notion to reinforce good behaviour was. I've read many a chapter on psychology and 'school and society' and have come to the realization that a student's behaviour in the classroom is ever-evolving. In turn. I asked the students to mime their favourite thing free-time activity.e. In my practicum. 29 January 2008 (UTC) • Here is another example of positive peer influence. I acknowledged the good behaviour by thanking them individually for their great work in my class. I tried to personalize my lessons.
I was more worried about what I was doing. as I began to feel more comfortable with the class and started to observe the dynamics within the classroom. An intermittent reinforcement schedule (page 204) is the most constructive approach to her attitudes towards study. 29 January 2008 (UTC) • I agree with Chris.That being said. but the more balanced you try to make it. I found that during my practicum students began to respond better to my lessons once I began to develop some sort of relationship with each of them individually. The results were tremendous and highly rewarding! . Magoo (talk) 16:25. One student was so astonished. I don't believe this will completely solve the situation. but it will help for a more equitable classroom. Engaging with students during that time allowed me to develop a strong mutual respect between the students and myself. they quickly developed a focused work ethic during class. During my practicum.Christopher Wilson --chuckstopher (talk) 10:20. I started to notice that those students—apart from the four or five extremely extroverted students—had shut down mentally. I was fortunately able to "accentuate the positive" (page 208) in order to clearly communicate to the students which behaviour I was reinforcing to promote positive. At first I didn’t realize the impact it was having on the class because I was so overwhelmed by the mechanics of teaching a lesson. with their never-ending questions. as well as their ability to work as a group. Period. some even physically! It was then that I realized I had to start becoming more even-handed in my teaching. both as a student and teacher. --Mr. especially as it relates to her study habits. and her ability to concentrate on her homework. I realize that my opinion is based on my high school experiences. I realize that you can try to balance your positive and negative reinforcement techniques. By encouraging their individual abilities. grade ten performance vocal class. After that. It is vital to highlight students’ individual strengths. She responds well to positive energy. 29 January 2008 (UTC) • The power of positive reinforcement shows up in my personal life daily with my fourteen year old daughter in grade nine. Then. To conclude. This was accompanied by positive energy and overall enthusiasm for musical task at hand. the fact that they are only a few years younger than myself. I remember at the beginning of my practicum I got weighed down by constantly attending to those students who required a lot of personal attention. repeated classroom patterning. I found walking around the classroom and conversing with them while they were doing seatwork to be a great tool for me in terms of classroom management. especially the introverted students. I made it a point to say at least one thing to every student every day. They would monopolize class time and time with me. the greater the l imbalance amongst students. I was faced with an unruly. their skill set. and. dazed even— . and schoolwork. yet talented.
this is always keeping your back to a wall when talking with a group so that even though your focus is on a couple individuals. so they stop trying to succeed. I was particularly interested in the part about reinforcement with teacher attention. especially when dealing with behavioural students. the Premack principle. Being in a drama setting. My focus was to highlight his postive qualities and instead of putting him down encourage him to use his skills to the best of his abilities. can you focus?" and he would start working towards the task at hand. 208-214) • This section addresses methods for encouraging existing behaviour. The lead advisor tried various methods of discipline. 30 January 2008 (UTC) • Something I learned while on practicum to go along with this point. until one day I stepped in and took this student into the hall for a one on one discussion. why are you being bad?" --Ajlaflamme (talk) 13:19. I know this may not work with every student.to literally praise students for good behaviour. Immediately after. This allows you to still have some attention on the rest of the class and give the needed attention to individuals. When talking to him. and continued my lesson. This was very effective in managing his behaviour. It states that to increase a particular behaviour. because I think I woke him up." to "You're really good.not surprizing. your always facing the entire group. the class was often divided into groups for group projects and I would circulate and give feedback to groups. When I was volunteering as an Advisor with a program called Junior Achievement. "ok". shaping and positive practice. It is the difference in saying "No. Many psychologists advise teachers to “accentuate the positive”. we had one grade 9 student that was continually disruptive and halted the work of the rest of the members. "The Cowboy Method". My AT told me to use. 31 January 2008 (UTC)  Applied Behaviour Analysis (pp. I addressed the areas of his disruptive behaviour that were concerning me and reinforced the great potential I saw in him and asked if he could be my ambassador in the company and use his outgoing and vibrant personality to rally the company to be more productive. he sat up in his chair and began to look on with the person sitting next to him. I have always found postive reinforcement to be the most effective. he became engaged. In regards to postive or negative reinforcement. I let him know that I believed in him and wanted him to succeed and that the only person he was failing was himself. but when he did I was able to just say "Max. . He said “I don’t know”. --Thomas20 (talk) 19:59. what she called. I said. After awhile I came back to him with another question and he answered it perfectly! Because I made that small gesture of grace towards him. but I did witness my AT use a similar method in my practicum with one of the more difficult students and it proved effective in that case too. we must reinforce it. is to always have one ear on the class and one ear with your students. you're bad. but sometimes they lack someone to believe in them. Kids never want to fail. such as praise. I'm not saying that he did not act out again.
fluid movement etc). However.I would like the address “Using Praise Appropriately” (on page 209). In some situations this system of earning tokens to be turned in for rewards works. the kids worked harder and improved but did they do it to win my approval? I didn’t particular care for the technique of singling out individual students but obviously there was major benefits to having the students examine each others work during the “creation process”. It makes me wonder.g.good use of line. I was asked to hold up a students work (in front of their peers) and to point out what aspects were working well (E. For gesture drawing. Later during practicum I tried a different method.) During my practicum experience. they were extremely focused and their individual drawings improved drastically by viewing the work of their peers. I began to have students casually take turns walking around the class to examine each other’s work.I suddenly thought: “This is a horrible technique”. especially when it begins to promote a dependency on the student’s part. My heart was absolutely shattered. As teachers we are responsible for facilitating the growth and independence of our students and praise is one of the tools we can use to help us facilitate this. I had to reassure the student that she worked hard. This sort of demonstrates what the book states: “Psychologists have suggested that teachers’ use of praise tends to focus students on learning to win approval rather than on learning for its own sake”. 30 January 2008 (UTC) • In response to the above question. I was hesitant to use this technique because some students may be more technically skilled than others and I felt like I was being ask to compare students work rather then assess them on their individual growth and development. however only for a short time. The entire class did in fact work harder. Basically. some students appeared to like the attention and others were embarrassed. it suggests not to single students out for praise because it tends to backfire (because you risk embarrassing the student you have chosen to praise. I was asked by my Associate Teacher to single out students that were doing the assignments as asked/a phenomenal job. I believe in the power of praise and agree that it needs to be handled with care. some institutions do not fully understand the power of praise and rely solely on systems such as token economies to shape behavior. I found that this girl in particular was always seeking my help and looking for affirmation. then it usually becomes meaningless (unless the reward is money that can be accumulate and spend on . after class one of the students that didn’t receive public praise approached me and said: “I’m sorry Miss that I didn’t do a good job for you”. Q: What type of experiences have you all had with praise? --SuzieQ (talk) 00:16. Unfortunately. did a great job and that I noticed a tremendous amount of growth within the period (which was true). They were able to learn from one another without feeling bad about themselves or embarrassed in front of their peers. In conclusion. I found that this approach was extremely affective because no one was depicted as superior to the other.
208 make a lot of sense. Pretty simple! --Lisa chupa (talk) 17:41. a human element being that in this example the staff were required to interact with those individuals in a positive way.numerous seductive consumer goods…). Specifically. buying trinkets from the treasure box at the end of the week just didn’t cut it for him. opportunities to learn. I have worked in situations where the staff working with extremely behavioral individuals wore buzzers that went off every five minutes. Many times now we have all heard that more than half of the emotional battle for teachers is classroom management. In addition to the above. They were all on a program where they were responsible for filling their clients emotional tanks on the basis that this would have a positive effect on their overall behavior. However. as an alternate to items. . On interviewing the student I discovered that the rewards were meaningless to them. for example.A. in my years of piano teaching I have noticed that while all students require at least some amount of praise. This student was looking for interaction. then their behavior took a turn for the worse. the student viewed the system as “for a one year old”. When I surveyed the student on what was interesting or meaningful for them they told me that they wanted to earn quality time with their teacher and E. To add to this. and feel good about himself. It is my understanding that it is best to praise for the correct behavior in ABA. and such skills are valued highly by employers. their is another element to this whole behavior modification phenomenon. the above example shows not only how ineffective a reward system can be if you do not know what motivates the individual but also the value of consciously adding praise to such a program. Such kids are typically praised by their parents and circle of peers 24/7 and have completely lost their sense of humility within their area of giftedness--an effect I have seen as the catalyst to the complete atrophy of a students' motivation and ability to function independently. I would assert that there also needs to be consideration for individual student personalities. This is where the power of praise comes in. there are some students (usually those who are especially gifted) for whom there sometimes comes a point when praise can actually become detrimental. 30 January 2008 (UTC) • I find the amount of consideration and intentionality with which we need to oversee our classrooms incredible. As the parent of this individual student I was proud to see that human interaction was my sons main motivator. In reviewing an individual students progress on the token system I observed that they did well for a while until they stopped buying into it. one that is often overlooked in the sciences. to remind the staff to praise that individual. For example. praise needs to be given appropriately--not sporadically. I want to mention that the praise guidelines on p. I mentioned that praise is one of the tools we can use to develop growth in our students.
it holds great promise because it provides the teacher with the opportunity to “reward” students with classroom-based. this is something I use fairly frequently. I often let my students know that while we will begin with one of the less-preferred activities. though they may be unhappy with the order in which I have assigned the tasks. However. know full well the danger of this mindset. I know that. I have difficulty with the concept of a token reinforcement system. as I worry about the fact that many students will place emphasis on the reward and not the task itself. and others that my students favour and consistently request. There are some skills (or even apparatuses) on which my students are hesitant to work – for a number of reasons. Additionally. “The best way to determine appropriate reinforcers for your students may be to watch what they do in their free time.This dangerous consequence of indiscriminate praise is also known as performance addiction--a state in which students' self-esteem is linked to the tone of feedback they receive from those in positions of authority over them. Ahhhh the joy of music for its own sake!!! I think that only in that place have we truly reached freedom. 31 January 2008 (UTC) . Furthermore. though likely not consciously. learning focused activities. healthy self-motivation with which to fuel our development as artists (or still have yet to break free of it!) Of course. One possible solution to this problem was mentioned briefly in the text book on page 210. Those of us who followed the music path (and also those who didn't. I am sure). The thing I most appreciate about this approach is the fact that it demonstrates recognition of the students needs and desires on the part of the teacher. depending the approach. I find this strategy extremely effective and students seem to respond fairly positively – if only because the “end is in sight”.” This seems almost deceptively simple and. As a gymnastics coach. and the fullest expression of our artistry. --JonathanisFTMFW (talk) 20:47. once this has been accomplished we can move on to some of their favourite things to do. This idea works very well with the Premack principle. 30 January 2008 (UTC) • Like many others. and many of us (including myself) have had to break free of it in order to gain an independent. students may also enjoy having input and control over their own learning. be appreciative of the fact that the teacher knows and understands them as individuals. when it comes to teaching teenagers the arts--people whose identities are still very liminal--we can only praise and hope to encourage them into the kind of rigorous pursuit that one day might enable them to transcend that issue. --Ayanda (talk) 04:03. does have the potential to degenerate into a simple material reward system. wherein low-frequency behaviours must precede those of high-frequency. if the teacher is able to observe the students preferences – without his/her students articulating them at all – students may also. my students appreciate the fact that I am aware of and acknowledge their preferences.
I'd like to echo Jonathan's point about praise sometimes being detrimental to certain students. She smiled and said "ok.• At the risk of sounding repetitive. By simply praising her genuinely (I truly was impressed by the drawing) and unconditionally (I made no mention of the fact that she shouldn't be ignoring the lesson or whatever) I think I created a positive space for us. and add to it that sometimes while it's not detrimental. appropriately used. --GavinKistner (talk) 05:27." and I never had any problems with her after that. Eventually I took this a step further and began telling the students the format of the lesson at the outset and this helped--once they knew that whatever difficult task was over. it seemed like it didn't make that much of a difference to her. As another example. I find that when if I finish with something "dry" like some kind of intense theory stuff. they could enjoy or sail through the rest of the lesson. I instantly told her how cool I thought it was. there was little resistance. or something really difficult (learning bar chords for beginner students) the students become quite disengaged. I'd still like her to at least TRY to pay attention to the lessons. and finish with the "fun" stuff. Yet. In general. I kind of got the impression that she received a lot of praise and that although she wasn't being smug or anything about it. she seemed pleasantly surprised and said "thanks. I politley mentioned that as cool as it was. including the principles for Using Praise Appropriately. when she looked up. I also use the Premack Principle in structuring my private music lessons: I almost always do the "not-so-fun" stuff first. while other students don't even seem to notice it (I should stress that "seem" is key here--I'm not suggesting you stop giving praise to these students). you just have to know how to give praise to certain students-some students will thrive with even a minimal amount. When I saw it. I'm thinking of my practicum when I would praise certain a high-achieving student and she seemed rather indifferent to it. I believe praise. it doesn't seem to make a difference. there was another student--a student my AT had mentioned to me as having a few academic/engagement issues--who I gave some praise to early on and I found that I had no problems at all with her. I agree with a lot of what's been said here. and 2) I think there was some of what Ayanda mentioned above about taking an interest in their lives outside the classroom (or at least the course content). I think ultimately. so that when it came time to discuss that she needed to pay attention to the lessons. 31 January 2008 (UTC) . I think there were two things going on here: 1) I opened up our relationship with praise (my comment about her illustration was the first thing I'd ever said to her). I should mention the context of the praise: I was distributing a handout in the middle of a class when I noticed that all the "writing" she'd been doing was actually an illustration that had nothing to do with my lesson. At the end of the conversation." I asked her about the drawing after class and spoke with her briefly about her drawing skills and that type of thing. is a great way to build a positive self-image and positive experience in general for students.
Two methods with which I have come into contact are the group consequences and the token reinforcement program. we often call on additional types of exercises that isolate and strengthen a skill. It would be a misnomer to equate task analysis directly with ‘chunking. try ‘hearing’ a perfect 5th first. Any student who came to class late resulted in a half-mark being deducted for the entire class. What then? In music. in order to master an isolated element of a piece before moving on to its larger elements. Musicians are often isolating smaller sections of a piece. and then moving up a tone to the major 6th. First. or groups of instruments within a larger band. Woolfolk et al describe shaping as a method of reinforcing progress through the successful attainment of smaller goals in order to achieve some larger goal (211). For example. the overall goal does not necessarily yield itself to hierarchical sub-division. Student scan often become frustrated because they do not receive any reinforcement from their efforts because the end goal is not yet within reach. aimed at controlling and changing behaviour by offering a reward of some sort. spatially through a performer’s location in the ensemble). it seems to yield itself intuitively to an array of shaping strategies. In some cases. How do you help the student who is having trouble identifying or singing various intervals? Or perhaps a student might be having trouble with a rhythmic passage because their counting gets mixed up. I don’t think this is necessarily at odds with what is being suggested by task analysis. 31 January 2008 (UTC)  Behavioural Approaches to Teaching and Management (pp. one eventually begins to hear the 6th without having to go the 5th first. often students who were . My experience as a music student and teacher has shown me the benefits of using shaping as a strategy to employ positive reinforcement. After some practice. Perhaps because music practice is readily dissectable across a multitude of planes (temporally. More difficult are the individual problems that occur with students that do not yield themselves as obviously to task analysis. Let’s take ear training as an example. --Maurosavo (talk) 05:28. 214219) • The section offers a variety of methods for encouraging good behaviour. if you having trouble singing a major 6th.’ Often the identification of the sub-skills entails understanding the skill set in a more abstract manner. Though this program seemed to motivate students to arrive in class ontime.• The notion of shaping (or successive approximations) struck me as particularly relevant to students of the arts. I volunteered in a math classroom where the teacher was attempting to curb lateness by offering 5 bonus marks if all students were in class on time for the term. vertically through pitch/harmony. Task analysis (the system of breaking down skill hierarchically into sub-skills) would seem to be particularly relevant in artistic areas that are governed by the reproduction/creation of repertoire and specific techniques.
In my mind. feedback is the essential aspect of applied behaviour analysis or any learning goal for that matter. since the group I was working with was difficult to control. This involves what our text refers to as cueing. This is an example of Woolfolk et al. it would not work in every situation. after a few months. Providing students will clear feedback gives them the impression that you care . this frustrated students who made greater effort to follow the rules. I set up a program so every student who read 5 books got a small prize. Does anyone have an example of times when behaviour incentive programs were not successful and why? --Liz P (talk) 02:27. unmotivated and were not making progress in school the token system gave them a reason to change their behaviour and set reading goals. Perhaps this idea could be tweaked slightly.always on time were made to lose marks because of their punctuality challenged peers. (I wish I had read that sooner!) Though this system worked for me. First. I introduced a form of the token reinforcement while running a reading program last year. After having read this section of the book. however. This way students who used the bonus marks as extrinsic motivation would continue to be motivated to be on time. the teacher needs to clearly set up the expectations and then using cueing (and prompting and feedback) to assist students in developing an understanding of how to implement the expectations. I soon discovered that students were often choosing short books below their reading level or adding false entries to their log sheets to get prizes.'s warning that group consequences should not be used when students do not have influence of the group. In hopes of rewarding the behaviour of those who read more. which would only be deducted if they were late. I find the approach that works best is to assume that all students want to do well and find ways to help them do that. If they got to 10 or 15 books they got a bigger prize. Naturally. so I required students to read more books before receiving any prizes. even when their peers were late. As well. 29 January 2008 (UTC) • I have always been hesitant of using obvious forms of reward or punishment with my students because I worry that it could inhibit the development of intrinsic motivation by taking the students attention away from the importance of the task itself. fearing the annoyance of their classmates did not bother coming to class at all if they were running late. I learned that the children in the program were often extremely reluctant to read and that their behaviour was difficult to control. so that each student was responsible for their own bonus marks. prompting. Firstly. some students. and far too many prizes. Secondly. This definately motivated them to read. I realized my experience was a very good example of this type of system's strengths and weaknesses. applied behaviour analysis and praise (206-8). I recognized that I needed to offer the rewards less frequently. Students need to have a clear idea of what they are doing right and how they can improve.
so both teacher and student are in a position of control. Clearly we must do more than encourage students to exhibit "good" behavior through a system of rewards and punishments. they already have a reward to work toward. he ignores the complex inner processes of the the human psyche. and then give them encouraging feedback on their plan. . In its understanding of pedagogical dynamics. Even in situations where students are having behavioural issues. 219-224) • As I see it. Talk to them about what cause them to be late. I think that in most cases it is better to avoid obvious positive or negative reinforcements with secondary students. if a student is often late to class.that which can be addressed (figuratively speaking) by a pat on the head or a slap on the wrist.” Giving empty praise could undermine the encouragement you have given students in previous experiences. assume they would rather be on time. --Malexander (talk) 04:17. have them write ways to avoid this. I do agree however." In other words. Chomsky has critiqued Skinner as a reductive empiricist because his theoretical framework is limited to "observables. and through this their academic performance. I think encouraging students to develop metacognitive skills by having them reflect on their behaviour and giving them feedback is more effective. What interests me about the "cognitive behavior modification" approach is its potential ability to give students the tools by which they can adjust and improve their behavior. If you set things up so that you are helping them to achieve the high level of learning (which they will likely see in terms of the highest possible mark). as we learned in Chapter 10. For example. Teachers need to be careful that students do not get the impression that the teacher is just “being nice. 30 January 2008 (UTC)  Recent Approaches: Self-Regulation and Cognitive Behaviour Modification (pp. especially in today's classroom where the notion of transferable skills and lifelong learning are becoming more and more pertinent. Its point that "students taught with classic behavioral methods seldom generalized their learning to new situations"(218) is highly relevant.about their success and that whatever criticism you give them is for their benefit and whatever praise you give them is genuine. the central problem with the behavioural approach to learning is one of oversimplification. I use a considerable amount of praise in my teacher because I think it is more useful for students to start from what they are doing right and work toward improvement. instead reducing them to their lowest common denominator -. This section of the book would seem to validate the above critique. And. Students need to learn how to manage their own behavior. that there are risks with overusing praise and I think the Guidelines for Using Praise Appropriate in the text are useful (15). when students feel that they are in control they are more likely to be motivated to succeed. with learning and the pursuit of knowledge a secondary concern. This is done through a partnership model. teacher and learner are reduced to the roles of controller and controlled.
and self-instruction can be encouraged in the way that lessons or assignments are delivered. 2 February 2008 (UTC) The Difficulty of knowing WHEN to use Punishments • I have a strong belief that one of the hardest things to deal with as a teacher regardless of how many years experience you have is the choices you have to make in regards to punishment.Unfortunately. As we have always heard. --Irenedongas (talk) 19:50. “Does my argument hold up against opposing viewpoints?”. the hardest things that I find I have to deal with is keeping with the punishment and not being persuaded to change the punishment. I can imagine a teacher using this strategy when it comes to independent lessons. When I am dealing with a student and they are doing something that I do not really like I usually provide that student with options in order to avoid "punishment.) I can envision integrating various goal-setting mechanisms into a future classroom. When the student does not accept one of the options provided and I need to enforce some form of punishment. here are some sample questions: “Is my spelling and grammar correct?”. “Have I re-read this assignment?”. Maybe I am being stereotypic by saying that perhaps what I am doing in terms of not sticking to the punishment is something a lot of women teachers tend to do. Many of these things are things we learn about when dealing with children of any age but for me I never really think about it when I am doing it. and I have had no first hand exposure to it as a methodology in the classroom (although it's pretty amazing to watch my 5-year old "self-talk" himself out of an emotional melt-down. Page 215 of the Educational Psychology textbook illustrates the complexity of the use of punishment within the classroom. For example. It illustrates how complicated the understanding and use of punishments are. They work especially well when creating rubrics that are formulated as questions. especially since it allows the student to actively monitor or coach their behaviour by themselves. etc. 28 January 2008 (UTC) The idea of cognitive behaviour modification is very intriguing. What was interesting to me was how many things a teacher can do to avoid punishing a student by provide the student with options. Any other ideas? Has anyone seen "cognitive behavior modification" in action? --Tearney (talk) 22:08. when a situations comes up in our classroom we have to think to our selves "does this behaviour disrupt the other students ability to learn or does it prevent me from teaching. Having the students ask themselves these types of questions on their own helps them put themselves in the teacher mindset during the process of an assignment or lesson. as well as guiding students individually or as a class to self-generate various checklists. you can create a checklist as part of the rubric or lesson. One thing I have learned this year is how to evaluate a situation and when to step in." I think this is really key but so hard to learn because every situation we are presented with is different and as a result the reaction you have to the situation . the text doesn't give many concrete examples of this in action in a secondary school context." According to the textbook I now know that what I am doing is called negative reinforcement.
especially beginning teachers or teachers that are beginning to burn out. the teachers at the school were becoming very tired and stressed and making escalated the nature of their threats in an attempt to scare the students. Winne and Perry substantiate my concerns by stating. It was an uphill battle. There were teachers that wished to quit the new system during the beginning stages due to the escalation of bad behaviour. "some psychologists fear that rewarding students for all learning will cause them to lose interest in learning for its own sake.225) • I had some concerns regarding the overuse of rewards in the classroom. have difficulty in knowing if they are inadvertantly reinforcing the misbehaviour and also with maintaining the consistency. 224-229) "What do you think about using rewards and punishments in teaching?" (pg. but evetually the students began to change their behaviour and in the end became more happy and productive. --Ali. 31 January 2008 (UTC)  Problems and Issues (pp. I find that teachers.will be different. A colleague and I attempted to implement a new school wide system of punishment that all teachers were required to follow. It is often the case. When I was a kindergarten teacher at a very small private school. As a result. but after sticking with it they did see the improvement in the students. The teachers spent most of the time threatened the students rather than teaching because the students knew that the threats were empty and continued to misbehave. We hear quite a lot about not being overly critical of students so as not to damage their fragile sense of self. where students would rather hear an honest opinion about their work rather than empty praise that does not help them learn or improve in the least. Studies have suggested that using reward programs with students who are already interested in . This just shows that punishment must be thought about and planned prior to beginning a class and not something to dole out randomly as the class progresses. This will especially become the case during very stressful times of the year when both the teacher and the students become very busy with school assignments and activities.dormady (talk) 13:47. especially in the arts. for the students did not like that the punishments were actually being issued and became worse in their behaviour for a period of time. While I think this has merit. This system meant that all classes faced the same punishments and rewards for the same behaviours in every class with every teacher. I noticed a real lack of consistency in punishment between the different teachers at the school and also a lack of follow through with threatened punishments. • --Naddles (talk) 23:36. 28 January 2008 (UTC) I agree with the above comment that dealing with punishment is one the hardest things for a teacher. For me even though I do think about the misbehaviour and how it affects the students or my ability to teach I still find it really hard to determine the response to the infraction. I also think that students will quickly see the diminishing value of reward or praise that is handed out too frequently. Woolfolk.
it is problematic when the reward becomes the purpose of learning. 1st Ed.e. food. Punishment should be used carefully. --Elewis (talk) 05:05. Then I started to use sticker as reward . I totally agree with Eli's idea of giving 'an honest opinion about student work rather than empty praise'.the subject matter may. the teacher implies that homework is a punishment rather than a learning practice. I got a beginner Grade 1 boy as a private piano student.giving one sticker after completing one piece. gift certificates. No matter what kind of other incentive the students are given (i. If reward encourages certain behaviours and punishment suppresses. but usually the only reward students are looking for in a secondary situation is the marks and the break. A teacher must consider the implication of the reward before presenting it to the class.). Giving sticker seemed like a successful attempt at the first few weeks. Firm punishment should be used only in the situation with the issues that cannot be tolerated. tickets. Few years ago. By making homework exemption as a reward. Therefore. your reward will seem like a gimmick and will fall flat if . 29 January 2008 (UTC) • 1. and I had to find some way to engage him into music. However. 3. The teacher should start from positive approaches to more complicated procedures (pg. The boy was pushed by his mother to learn piano. Rewards can be used to celebrate student achievement or to motivate students to aim for higher goals. --GraceHa (talk) 05:10. in fact. a teacher must be aware of the negative emotional reactions that punishment might bring. 4. 31 January 2008 (UTC) The use of rewards in any teaching strategy often has a tricky catch to it at the end of the day. etc.. It may sound redundant. paint brushes.. After a month. 227). constructive feedback should be used effectively to guide students into the right direction which helps them to higher achievement. Give constructive feedback to students. The example of exempting students from homework as a reward (pg. 2. I realized that the boy was spending more time on choosing sticker from my sticker book rather than playing piano. 225) is a bad example of choosing the right rewards. 221. Classroom should be an enjoyable place with quality learning experiences for the students. He wanted to play piece through once and move onto another piece in order to get more sticker when there were much more music elements that had to be polished in the piece. Teachers must be careful about what to use as rewards. The ultimate reward one would assume a teacher hopes to inspire in his or her students is that of knowing one’s stuff and being able to use the information wisely." (pg. free resin for your violin. cause students to be less interested int the subject when the reward program ends. if the marks don’t follow up.).
These types of commercials focus on what will happen if the behaviour continues and have been known to be effective. The decision lies in the "size and shape" of the reward or punishment. a punishment is the exact opposite. it needs to be given right away. but mearly when and how we should do it. It seems to follow that it will lead to future expectations being exceeded if this type of behavior is reinforced in a positive way. The reason I think this topic is vital in today's classrooms is because of the ever increasing move towards the need for youth to have immediate gratification. At the end of the day. Rewards and punishiments therefore need not be something physical and immediate. The students will likely see this. As with the example of a student that exceeds expectations they will most probably be rewarded in the future with a better job. Anti-smoking advertising is a great example of this. A positive response to a positive behaviour is the basic idea of a reward. but should not carry the lesson. there will likely be no need for any reward other than the student’s success at completing the task. If a student can be taught to appreciate what will happen if a negative behavior continues they will actually be pushed in the direction of positive behavior. The simplest reward in education is a good mark for the effort of studying and applying that knowledge to a test or assignment. That is why connections to future rewards should be an emphasis on a consistent basis. It isn't enough to have a reward. Is this enough? If the expectation is that the students should be doing this then that should be reward enough to motivate the students to continue that behavior.attempted again. . but instead can be in the form of a reminder that rewards come with hard work and patients. Only as an act of desperation to try and hook the students to do an assignment would rewards help. A negative behavior should be met with negative reinforment. In this case it is questionable whether or not a reward will be necessary for that behavior to continue. or in other words a clear response to that behavior. In my opinion a reward can be broken down to positive reinforcement. The difficulty presents itself when a student exceeds expectations. however. etc. • Rewards and punishments come in all shapes and sizes. As a teacher who likely will enjoy the material he or she is teaching. a schlarship. In the case of punishment the same idea can be applied. especially since we have our respective teachable subjects in the secondary program. and will get the impression that the lesson itself is not good enough to stand on its own. It becomes a case of knowing the consequences and being able to understand how those consequences will come about. perhaps rewards work as unexpected perks. As a teacher it isn't our job to decide whether or not we need to give rewards or punishments. that pin points it as being unacceptable. even though in the short run it is extremely difficult to quit smoking. On the other hand.
” Both times. I wonder how much of that came from breaking their classroom conditioning? --Chareth Cutestory (talk) 04:18. and gave the students the impression that they were there to observe him. A positive word and a smile can go along way. 27 February 2008 (UTC) I think that conditioning comes into play in classrooms in many different ways. In turn. In both of my practica. or extreme. coming into a class where they had been conditioned to certain behaviours as signals for “please listen. which gave him physical prominence in the classroom. And it was interesting in both practica. I realized very quickly that it was important for me to work within the conditioning of the students that I’d been given. but perfectly effective. after that. and naturally. I’m the boss here. the students realized that it was a cue that he was telling them something important and they needed to listen. which the students would echo.” When he wanted the students’ attention. he would clap his hands in a rhythm. 8 April 2008 (UTC) Retrieved from "http://en. I had them move their desks the clear a space for the activity. University of Georgia . he would stop talking. especially because it’d been built up for a long time before I started teaching at the school. He uses several cues that clearly reenforce his position of authority in the classroom.org/wiki/PsycholARTSical:_Psyched_about_the_arts/Behavioral_Vi ews_of_Learning" Melissa Standridge Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology. and it’s hard to break conditioning like that. When I tried to do a drama activity with the English class. chaos held sway. to get students’ attention. but don’t CLEARLY say “hey students.wikibooks. a frown and a word of disappointment can have a lasting effect as well. There are a lot of benefits to this method of conditioning – it illustrates a hierarchy to students without having to spend time dictating it. My other AT showed me his conditioning of his students that they were trained to recognize signals when he wanted attention. I’d say. It’s a little sneaky. One of my ATs kept the classroom set up almost like a stage. Also. and only using it when he was telling them important information.It is important to remember that a reward or punishment need not be big. extravegant. --Hassan (talk) 20:08. the teachers had different cues that they used to maintain their classroom management. By not overusing this technique.
F. if a teacher wishes to teach the behavior of remaining seated during the class period. This chapter introduces behaviorism's principal advocates and their distinct approaches to the theory. An individual selects one response instead of another because of prior conditioning and psychological drives existing at the moment of the action (Parkay & Hass. 2000). classroom teachers. Rewards vary.Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable and measurable aspects of human behavior. As with all teaching methods. thus. media developers. For example. Skinner (1904-1990) are the two principal originators of behaviorist approaches to learning. behaviorists also hold that all behaviors can also be unlearned. A key element to this theory of learning is the rewarded response. In education. which are the legitimate object of study. Behaviorists assert that the only behaviors worthy of study are those that can be directly observed. along with methods for maintaining and eliminating behaviors. running an errand. success depends on each student's stimulus and response. and attempts to account for how these habits are formed. Some implications for classroom management are also presented. This paper presents information useful to instructional designers. Behavior is directed by stimuli. rather than thoughts or emotions. Pavlov was studying the digestive process and the interaction of salivation and stomach function when he realized that reflexes in the autonomic nervous system closely linked these phenomena. 2000). especially. it is actions. that is. In defining behavior. 2000). Rather. but must be important to the learner in some way. and on associations made by each learner.  Behaviorism Advocates John B. and. it posits that all behavior is learned habits. when a behavior becomes unacceptable. it can be replaced by an acceptable one. In assuming that human behavior is learned. Watson (1878-1958) and B. the successful student's reward might be checking the teacher's mailbox. The desired response must be rewarded in order for learning to take place (Parkay & Hass. To determine whether external stimuli . Watson's basic premise was that conclusions about human development should be based on observation of overt behavior rather than speculation about subconscious motives or latent cognitive processes. Watson believed that human behavior resulted from specific stimuli that elicited certain responses. Watson's view of learning was based in part on the studies of Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). or being allowed to go to the library to do homework at the end of the class period. advocates of behaviorism have effectively adopted this system of rewards and punishments in their classrooms by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing inappropriate ones. (Shaffer. and replaced by new behaviors. behaviorist learning theories emphasize changes in behavior that result from stimulus-response associations made by the learner. Behaviorist theory does not explain abnormal behavior in terms of the brain or its inner workings.
Skinner remarked that "the things we call pleasant have an energizing or strengthening effect on our behavior" (Skinner. Food + Stimulus = salivation (conditioned stimulus) 3. Operant conditioning is the rewarding of part of a desired behavior or a random act that approaches it. Pavlov also found that the conditioned reflex was repressed if the stimulus proved "wrong" too frequently. 1. Operant Conditioning . and suppress those that produced unfavorable results (Shaffer. the sound of the bell alone (a conditioned stimulus) would cause the dogs to salivate (a conditioned response). on the other hand. Skinner believed the habits that each of us develops result from our unique operant learning experiences (Shaffer. Through Skinner's research on animals. Punishers. are consequences that suppress a response and decrease the likelihood that it will occur in the future. Food= salivation 2. the dog eventually ceased to salivate at the sound of the bell. and the food pellet as a reinforcer. Bell alone produces salivation (conditioned response) Expanding on Watson's basic stimulus-response model. He noticed that the dogs salivated shortly before they were given food. 74). Classical Conditioning Figure 1. if the bell rang and no food appeared. he concluded that both animals and humans would repeat acts that led to favorable outcomes. Pavlov rang a bell when he gave food to the experimental dogs. 2000). He discovered that when the bell was rung at repeated feedings. Skinner defined the bar-pressing response as operant. p. while unsatisfying ones are not. known as operant conditioning.had an affect on this process. 2000). If a rat presses a bar and receives a food pellet. 1972. Skinner developed a more comprehensive view of conditioning. This illustration shows the steps of classical conditioning. he will be likely to press it again. If the rat had been shocked every time it pressed the bar that behavior would cease. His model was based on the premise that satisfying responses are conditioned.
will sit in front of the teacher. Consequences occur after the "target" behavior occurs. The relevant behavior should be identified. Positive reinforcement is presentation of a stimulus that . Two examples of behavior contracts are listed below: • • A student is not completing homework assignments. and during free periods for additional assistance. Teacher will be available after school. The teacher and student devise a behavioral contract to minimize distractions.Figure 2. A student is misbehaving in class. Behavioral contracts can be used in school as well as at home. and behavior modification. reinforcement. consequences. It is helpful if teachers and parents work together with the student to ensure that the contract is being fulfilled. Among the methods derived from behaviorist theory for practical classroom application are contracts. Consequences. Provisions include that the student will be punctual. immediate or long-term. Therefore. extinction. Reinforcement. emotional/interpersonal or even unconscious. when either positive or negative reinforcement may be given.  Educational Implications Behaviorist techniques have long been employed in education to promote behavior that is desirable and discourage that which is not. and Extinction Simple contracts can be effective in helping children focus on behavior change. The mouse pushes the lever and receives a food reward. and complete assigned work on time. and the child and counselor should decide the terms of the contract. The teacher and the student design a contract providing that the student will stay for extra help. material or symbolic (a failing grade). he will push the lever repeatedly in order to get the treat. This illustration illustrates operant conditioning. will raise hand with questions/comments. Consequences occur immediately after a behavior. and will not leave his seat without permission. Consequences may be positive or negative. ask parents for help. extrinsic or intrinsic. expected or unexpected.  Contracts.
This type of reinforcement occurs frequently in the classroom. Many classroom teachers mistakenly believe that negative reinforcement is punishment administered to suppress behavior. Praising students' ability to parents. Late assignments are given a grade of "0". as does positive reinforcement.increases the probability of a response. Negative implies removing a consequence that a student finds unpleasant. Selecting them for a special project. Three tardies to class results in a call to the parents. negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior. Submitting all assignments on time results in the lowest grade being dropped. Negative reinforcement increases the probability of a response that removes or prevents an adverse condition. Examples of punishment include: • • • • Students who fight are immediately referred to the principal. Punishment is effective in quickly eliminating undesirable behaviors. Perfect attendance is rewarded with a "homework pass. Teachers may provide positive reinforcement by: • • • • Smiling at students after a correct response. Table1. Failure to do homework results in after-school detention (privilege of going home is removed)." Punishment involves presenting a strong stimulus that decreases the frequency of a particular response. Negative reinforcement might include: • • • Obtaining a score of 80% or higher makes the final exam optional. however. Reinforcement and punishment comparison REINFORCEMENT (Behavior Increases) Positive Reinforcement POSITIVE Something is added to increase (Something is desired behavior added) Ex: Smile and compliment student on good performance NEGATIVE (Something is removed) PUNISHMENT (Behavior Decreases) Positive Punishment Something is added to decrease undesired behavior Ex: Give student detention for failing to follow the class rules Negative Punishment Negative Reinforcement Something is removed to decrease Something is removed to increase undesired behavior desired behavior Ex: Make student miss their time Ex: Give a free homework pass in recess for not following the for turning in all assignments class rules . Commending students for their work.
The student explains that it made her feel good when the teacher told her she did a good job and it made her want to do well again. other teachers think this is unfair. 1986.45) . A teacher gives partial credit for late assignments. They decide that she should go to study hall while the other students go outside for recess. He comes out and asks the student how she should be punished.Click Here to Play the Movie Caption: This video illustrates negative reinforcement. and Anne Meyers. and punishment. In the first example. In the last example. Students are frequently late for class. By Keith Connor. or a student who is always late for class because his friends are late is displaying the results of observational learning. The teacher asks the disruptive student to go stand outside. and the teacher does not require a late pass. (2004) Extinction decreases the probability of a response by contingent withdrawal of a previously reinforced stimulus. the teacher sees that one student has turned in all of her homework assignments. The student explains that it made her feel very badly to be punished for her behavior and it made her not want to get in trouble again. Chesley Cypert. the teacher decides to then give zeros for the late work. The student explains that receiving a homework pass made her want to turn in all of her homework on time. The teacher tells her she did a very good job and he smiles giving her positive reinforcement for her behavior. Albert Bandura has suggested that modeling is the basis for a variety of child behavior. a student is distracting another student during class time. Examples of extinction are: • • • A student has developed the habit of saying the punctuation marks when reading aloud. Shaping. "Of the many cues that influence behavior. p. thus extinguishing the behavior. and Cueing Modeling is also known as observational learning. and the students arrive on time. positive reinforcement. In the second example. none is more common than the actions of others" (Bandura. contrary to school policy. The teacher tells the students not to laugh. the teacher asks a student to complete a problem on the board and she completes the problem correctly. Children acquire many favorable and unfavorable responses by observing those around them. Classmates reinforce the behavior by laughing when he does so. A child who kicks another child after seeing this on the playground. He gives her a free homework pass as negative reinforcement for her behavior. at any point in time. The rule is subsequently enforced.  Modeling.
Click here to download a Word document. The teacher gives the class one point for improvement. in that all students are seated. The student is being taught how to accept criticism appropriately by not throwing a temper tantrum. looking at the teacher introduced. if the teacher is working with a student that habitually answers aloud instead of raising his hand. the child is modeling the behavior of the adult. which may be accumulated and redeemed for rewards. and Kristen Sabo (2006) Cueing may be as simple as providing a child with a verbal or non-verbal cue as to the appropriateness of a behavior. For example. concrete units. and asking for help. In this picture. Click Here to Play the Movie Caption: This video illustrates a teacher using shaping to modify a student's behavior. In the following scenario. but continue to talk after the bell rings. or positive movements. the new expectations are introduced until the student masters all of the steps. By Candi Chandler. Children watch and imitate the adults around them. Only when the student demonstrates the first step of not throwing a temper tantrum is the second step. the classroom teacher employs shaping to change student behavior: the class enters the room and sits down. the students must be seated and quiet to earn points. looking at the teacher. the result may be favorable or unfavorable behavior! Shaping is the process of gradually changing the quality of a response. The desired behavior is broken down into discrete. Leigh Davis. answering when spoken to. For example.Figure 3. the teacher might arrange for him to receive a cue immediately before the action is expected rather than after it has been performed incorrectly. As the desired behaviors are demonstrated. to teach a child to remember to perform an action at a specific time.  Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a method of eliciting better classroom performance from reluctant students. Subsequently. each of which is reinforced as it progresses towards the overall behavioral goal. It has six basic components: . the teacher should discuss a cue such as hand-raising at the end of a question posed to the class.
Other classroom strategies I have found successful are contracts. 4. 5. Evaluation and assessment of the effectiveness of the approach based on teacher expectations and student results. If behaviors can be learned. Behavioral change occurs for a reason. 3.  Classroom Importance Using behaviorist theory in the classroom can be rewarding for both students and teachers. and calling on the student when it is evident that she knows the answer to the question posed. Development of a positive. 2. Behaviorist learning theory is not only important in achieving desired behavior in mainstream education. When the teacher does not respond angrily. & Petty. and for approval from people they admire. developing positive expectations. Campbell. Further suggestions for modifying behavior can be found at the mentalhealth. I have found that a behavior that goes unrewarded will be extinguished. Reduction in the frequency of rewards--a gradual decrease the amount of one-onone review with the student before class discussion. These include changing the environment. this would involve a student-teacher conference with a review of the relevant material. nurturing environment (by removing negative stimuli from the learning environment). 2000). punishment and others that have been described in detail earlier in this chapter.net/psyhelp/chap11/.net web site. recording behavior. In my own teaching. substituting new behavior to break bad habits. and determine whether the student is independently engaging in class discussions (Brewer. Consistently ignoring an undesirable behavior will go far toward eliminating it. students work for things that bring them positive feelings. 6. This informative website's URL is http://mentalhelp.1. A student receives an intrinsic reinforcer by correctly answering in the presence of peers. In the above example. Specification of the desired outcome (What must be changed and how it will be evaluated?) One example of a desired outcome is increased student participation in class discussions. special education teachers have classroom behavior . Reinforcement of behavior patterns develop until the student has established a pattern of success in engaging in class discussions. 2000). Compare the frequency of student responses in class discussions to the amount of support provided. using models for learning new behavior. The entire rationale of behavior modification is that most behavior is learned. Identification and use of appropriate reinforcers (intrinsic and extrinsic rewards). and increasing intrinsic satisfaction. They generally avoid behaviors they associate with unpleasantness and develop habitual behaviors from those that are repeated often (Parkay & Hass. then they can also be unlearned or relearned. consequences. the problem is forced back to its source--the student. thus increasing self-esteem and confidence. They change behaviors to satisfy the desires they have learned to value.
(2000). The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behavior. (1998). In 1981 the US National Educational Association reported that 36% of teachers said they would probably not go into teaching if they had to decide again. Available at: http://chiron. NJ: Prentice Hall. (2000). February 15.html. In John Martin Rich. G.html Classroom management is a term used by many teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. A. CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning. Belmont.tripod. These plans assure success for these students in and out of school.. & Hass. Curriculum Planning (7th Ed. Retrieved via the World Wide Web. Dubuque.modification plans to implement for their students. Utopia through the control of human behavior.html Parkay.).valdosta. What is ABA? http://rsaffran.. A. 2002. CA: Wadsworth.com/whatisaba. Foundations of Workforce Education. They also try to be . D. Social foundation of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.byu. Behaviorist Learning Theory Term http://mse. The Behavioral System.(Wolfgang and Glickman) Classroom management is closely linked to issues of motivation. Needham Heights.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/behsys.C. J. Englewood Cliffs. Huitt. E. F.. (2000) Social and Personality Development (4th Ed. G. B. although many teachers see using behavioral approaches alone as overly simplistic. Belmont. Campbell. Brewer. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers and indeed experiencing problems in this area causes some to leave teaching altogether.). MA: Allyn & Bacon. discipline and respect. A major reason was "negative student attitudes and discipline".W. approaches vary depending on the beliefs a teacher holds regarding educational psychology.C. (1972). (1986). Skinner. Shaffer. Petty.  References Bandura. Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. A large part of traditional classroom management involves behavior modification.. Many teachers establish rules and procedures at the beginning of the school year. & Hummel. Methodologies remain a matter of passionate debate amongst teachers. ed.W. W. Readings in the Philosophy of Education.edu/ipt/ipt301/jordan/learnterm_b.
it is very commonly used. it is a comprehensive. Allen Mendler. It relies upon creating an environment where students are successful as a result of their own efforts Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Techniques 2 Systematic approaches 3 External links 4 See also 5 References  Techniques Corporal punishment Until recently. and negative consequences when rules are broken. which attempts to guide students toward success by helping them see how their effort pays off in the classroom.  Systematic approaches Discipline with Dignity According to its founders.consistent in enforcing these rules and procedures. Founded by Dr. Corporal punishment was widely used as a means of controlling disruptive behavior but it is now no longer fashionable. and shared decision-making. . Richard Curwin and Dr. Discipline with Dignity is one of the most widely practiced behavior management philosophies in the world. though it is still advocated in some contexts by people such as James Dobson. Many would also argue for positive consequences when rules are followed. With a strong focus on developing responsibility. the program is utilized in more than 12 different countries. cooperation. Among the many types of classroom management approaches. There are newer perspectives on classroom management that attempt to be holistic. provides an in-depth flexible approach for effective school and classroom management. One example is affirmation teaching. It involves assigning a disorderly student sentences or the classroom rules to write repeatedly. mutual respect. Rote Discipline Also known as `lines`. Rote Discipline is a negative sanction used for behavior management. Discipline with Dignity. practical program that leads to improved student behavior through responsible thinking.
how skillfully they teach content (instructional dimension). Behaviorists assess the learners to determine at what point to begin instruction as well as to determine which reinforcers are most effective for a particular student. The learner is characterized as being reactive to conditions in the environment as opposed to taking an active role in discovering the environment. Behaviorism focuses on the importance of the consequences of those performances and contends that responses that are followed by reinforcement are more likely to occur in the future. strengthened. Forgetting is attributed to the "nonuse" of a response over time. Robert DiGiulio sees positive classroom management as the result of four factors: how teachers regard their students (spiritual dimension). and how well they address student behavior (managerial dimension). however. when presented with a math flashcard showing the equation "2+4=?" the learner replies with the answer of "6". Learning is accomplished when a proper response is demonstrated following the presentation of a specific environmental stimulus. The key elements are the stimulus. how they set up the classroom environment (physical dimension). as commonly defined by the layman. is not typically addressed by behaviorists. little attention is given as to how these habits are stored or recalled for future use. and maintained. the response and the association between the two. The use of periodic practice or review serves to maintain a learner’s readiness to respond. The most critical factor. environment al conditions receive the greatest emphasis.Tools for Teaching is a classroom management method created and taught by Fred Jones on speaking tours and in the eponymous book series Positive Classrooms developed by Dr.com/learningenvironments/learningenvironments. Although the acquisition of "habits" is discussed. http://www.geocities. How does transfer occur? . Which factors influence learning? Although both learner and environmental factors are considered important by behaviorists. Of primary concern is how the association between the stimulus and response is made. is the arrangement of stimuli and consequences within the environment. The equation is the stimulus and proper answer is the associated response.html#B Behaviorism equates learning with changes in either the form or frequency of observable performance. For example. No attempt is made to determine the structure of a student’s knowledge nor to assess which mental processes it is necessary for them to use. What is the role of memory? Memory.
Transfer refers to the application of learned knowledge in new ways or situations, as well as to how prior learning affects new learning. In behavioral learning theories, transfer is a result of generalization. Situations involving identical or similar features allow behaviors to transfer across elements. For example, the student who has learned to recognize and classify elm trees demonstrates transfer when (s)he classifies maple trees using the same process. The similarities between the elm and maple trees allow the learner to apply the previous elm tree classification learning experience to the maple tree classification task. What types of learning are best explained by this position? Behaviorists attempt to prescribe strategies that are most useful for building and strengthening stimulus-response associations, including the use of instructional cues, practice, and reinforcement. These prescriptions have generally been proven reliable and effective in facilitating learning that involves discriminations (recalling facts), generalizations (defining and illustrating concepts), associations (applying explanations), and chaining (automatically performing a specified procedure). However, it is generally agreed that behavioral principles cannot adequately explain the acquisition of higher level skills ore those that require a greater depth of processing (e.g. language development, problem solving, inference generating, critical thinking). What basic assumptions/principles of this theory are relevant to instructional design? Many of the basic assumptions and characteristics of behaviorism are imbedded in current instructional design practices. Behaviorism was used as the basis for designing many of the early audio-visual materials and gave rise to many related teaching strategies, such as Skinner’s teaching machines and programmed texts. More recent examples include principles utilized within computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and mastery learning. Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following (possible current ID applications are listed in brackets[ ] following the listed principle):
An emphasis on producing observable and measurable outcomes in students [behavioral objectives, task analysis, criterionreferenced assessment] Pre-assessment of students to determine where instruction should begin [learner analysis] Emphasis on mastering early steps before progressing to more complex levels of performance [sequencing of instructional presentation, mastery of learning]
of cues, shaping and practice to ensure a strong stimulus-response association [simple to complex sequencing of practice, use of prompts] Use of reinforcement to impact performance [tangible rewards, informative feedback]
How should instruction be structured? The goal of instruction for the behaviorist is to elicit the desired response from the learner who is represented with a target stimulus. To accomplish this, the learner must know how to execute the proper response, as well as the conditions under which that response should be made. Therefore, instruction is structured around the representation of the target stimulus and the provision of opportunities for the learner to practice making the proper response. To facilitate the linking of stimulusresponse pairs, instruction frequently uses cues (to initially prompt the delivery of the response) and reinforcement (to strengthen correct responding in the presence of the target stimulus). Behavioral theories imply that the job of the teacher/designer is (1) to determine which cues elicit the desired responses; (2) arrange practice situations in which prompts are paired with the target stimuli that initially have no eliciting power but which will be expected to elicit the responses in the "natural" (performance) setting; and (3) arrange environmental conditions so that students can make the correct responses in the presence of those target stimuli and receive reinforcement for those responses. For example, a newly-hired manager of human resources may be expected to organize a meeting agenda according to the company’s specific format. The target stimulus (the verbal command "to format a meeting agenda") does not initially elicit the correct response nor does the new manager have the capability to make the correct response. However, with the repeated presentation of cues (e.g. completed templates of past agendas, blank templates arranged in standard format) paired with the verbal command stimulus, the manager begins to make the appropriate responses. Although the initial responses may not be in final proper form, repeated practice and reinforcement shape the response until it is correctly executed. Finally, learning is demonstrated when, upon the command to format a meeting agenda, the manager reliably organizes the agenda according to company standards and does so without the use of previous examples or models.
Classroom Management Plan
A. Theoretical Introduction
I believe in a progressive classroom where management and learning is student centered. My role as a teacher is to be a leader, not an authoritarian or dictator. A classroom environment needs to be supportive and must be able to meet a student’s basic needs in order for learning to take place. The foundation of a good management plan must be built on the following essential elements: positivity, consistency, and most important of all, respect. I believe in a management plan that avoids any form of punishment at all costs. Students work much harder for rewards than to avoid punishment. Instead, with student input, I plan to implement a system of logical consequences for when students break classroom rules. It is very important for students to contribute and have some control over their classroom environment because they want power and freedom. Students need to see a cause and effect relationship in order to understand the consequences of their actions. These consequences will be enforced in a fair and consistent manner throughout the year. Students also need recognition. They take pride in their work, but without recognition they easily lose motivation. Part of my role as a teacher is to provide positive feedback and recognition for work and effort. Providing recognition gives students a sense of accomplishment, which helps to promote intrinsic motivation. Students are mostly motivated at this age by extrinsic forces. They do things for rewards or to avoid punishment. I believe in using rewards at certain times to motivate students, but in the long run students need to be intrinsically motivated so they will do things for themselves. Overuse of rewards will not promote intrinsic motivation and those rewards will lose effectiveness. By using rewards sparingly, I can keep my students motivated on the short term while helping them to develop intrinsic motivation. Organization is also a key component of a good management plan. Part of my role as a teacher is to plan and present the curriculum in such a way as to keep students engaged and to maximize student participation. Student engagement minimizes student misbehavior. Also, if students get bored, then they stop paying attention which means they’re not learning. Students want and need to have fun to remain engaged. I plan to teach using as many hands-on activities with real life applications as possible. By minimizing traditional lectures and using a variety of different interactive activities, my students will be too busy and be having too much fun to misbehave. Another important part of keeping students engaged and creating a fun atmosphere is being enthusiastic about what you’re teaching. Enthusiasm will rub off on students (and so will boredom). Students are also extremely social creatures. They want to fit in and be a part of a group. I will promote social interactions between my students by providing them with a variety of opportunities to work in groups. Flexibility, diversity in activities, and good assessment techniques are other important organizational and instructional components of a good management plan. The theorists that best support my philosophy of classroom management are Gordon, Kounin, and Glasser. Gordon believes that the best learning and classroom environment happens when students are able to use their inner sense of self-control. Gordon has come up with “helping skills” that prevent misbehaviors and he is against the use of a discipline system based on rewards and punishment. In his theory, Gordon discusses the use of helping skills. Gordon says that teachers should avoid communication roadblocks such as criticism, orders, and lectures. These roadblocks lead to a break down in communication between students and their teacher, which in turn can
I . In Kounin’s theory there were different techniques for effective classroom management. which include rule setting. A teacher must be well organized in order to keep a good momentum going. Glasser sees a teacher’s role as being a leader who is responsible for providing a warm and supportive atmosphere. While rewards here and there can help to motivate students. use of I-messages and decisionmaking. fun. is extremely important in good management. A teacher needs to be able to identify a problem right when it begins in order to prevent it from escalating. Gordon also discusses the use of preventive skills. where a teacher knows what is going on in the whole classroom. Expectations of students: I expect my students to act with the utmost respect towards one another and myself at all times. participative problem solving. to teach instead of traditional lecture-style teaching. Expectations/Policies/Rules/Boundaries 1. I believe its very important to keep an open line of communication with your students so they know exactly where you stand on issues and so they can feel like they can talk to you.e. I expect my students to come to class ready and willing to learn. Allowing student input on things like classroom rules and classroom environment (i. Another good point Kounin has is that a teacher needs to show a lot of enthusiasm for whatever they are teaching. Disrespect of any kind will not be tolerated in my classroom. These needs are belonging. Accountability promotes responsibility. The need of belonging can be met by being involved in the class during activities and discussions. hands-on activities. Students are also less likely to misbehave if they think you’ll catch them. Enthusiasm will rub off onto your students and inspire them. This is especially important because students won’t try that hard if they know that their work isn’t counting towards their grade. Receiving attention or recognition from the teacher can also satisfy this need. B. Any downtime or abrupt transitions allow time for student misbehavior. A student’s need for fun can be met by using interesting. Kounin also discusses the importance of keeping students accountable for their work. and freedom. power. Students will feel that they have power and freedom when they are allowed to give input and make choices within the classroom. This means that they will come prepared with the required supplies and completed homework assignments. let them decorate the walls or bulletin boards) will give them a sense of power and freedom. Glasser’s theory involves the fulfillment of students’ needs.lead to misbehaviors. Another idea of Kounin’s is that you have to keep the momentum of your class going. which is much easier than dealing with a problem once it happens. “Withitness”. He also says you should challenge your students. Sharing student success will also promote a fun atmosphere within a classroom. Kounin uses various methods that promote student involvement in learning and he attempts to minimize misbehaviors through various techniques that emphasize teacher organization and student responsibility. Gordon is also against the use of a discipline program based on rewards. A teacher needs to help students become intrinsically motivated in order for motivation to last and for students who will continue to want to learn. I think these techniques are all good ways to prevent problems before they ever start. when you use rewards all of the time the effect soon wears off. It is when these needs aren’t met that misbehaviors occur and student work will not be of the highest quality.
expect 100% participation from my students. This means that they are all listening when someone else is speaking and that during activities everyone participates and does the work. I expect my students to follow the rules on their own (without always being reminded) so learning can take place. I expect my students to work cooperatively as a class and in groups and provide help and support for one another. Lastly, I do not expect students to be perfect. I understand that things happen and people have bad days. I will be understanding as long as students always try to do their best. 2. Expectations of classroom climate: My classroom atmosphere will be positive and supportive where students will feel safe and welcome. Students will be responsible for keeping the classroom clean and will also help to decorate walls and bulletin boards. I plan on displaying student expectations, rules and consequences on the wall so students have an easy reminder for what is expected of them. This also makes for a useful reference when someone breaks a rule. I also plan to display student work to help promote a sense of accomplishment and to give students the recognition they deserve. I will use cues in my classroom (not a loud voice) to get students’ attention. I will stay positive and consistent when enforcing consequences with students. I will arrange desks to allow easy movement in between them so I can have easy access to each student whenever someone needs helps. I will use supportive language that is neither derogatory, nor condescending. 3. Rules and Policies: I will develop classroom rules and policies with the help of my students. I will teach them the difference between a punishment and a consequence and together we will come up with reasonable consequences for violations of each rule. Students will copy each rule into their notebook and will have both themselves and their parents sign it so everyone knows what is expected. When a student breaks a rule I will remind them of which rule they broke by pointing it out on the display. Then I will remind them that we agreed as a class not to break that rule and I will then issue the consequence. I will do this in a positive and consistent matter throughout the year. The most important rules that I will make sure are a part of the class rules are: 1. Respect one another- remain quiet and attentive while others are talking, be kind to one another, work cooperatively as a team and help each other out 2. Come to class ready and willing to learn- be sitting in your desk with all needed supplies ready to go when the bell rings, homework will be completed and ready to turn in at the beginning of class, come with an open mind and enthusiasm for learning and do your best 3. Keep the classroom clean- pick up all trash, treat classroom supplies (especially expensive equipment) well and keep them organized and in good shape
C. Instructional and Assessment Strategies that Promote my Management Goal
Once I’ve provided for my student’s basic needs of belonging, power, freedom, and fun, learning needs to take place. I will structure my curriculum around the California State Content Standards for Biology and Life Science. I will communicate my very high expectations to my class. Students respond directly to a teacher’s level of
expectation. If they know that you don’t expect much, they won’t try as hard. I will design my lessons to be as engaging and fun as possible. I will try and make the curriculum as relevant to real life as possible so students understand why it is important to learn. Students are more willing to learn when they know that the knowledge will be useful later in life. I will also try to work creativity into activities and assignments. Students take more pride in their work when allowed a creative outlet. I plan to have my lessons very well organized in order to prevent students’ need to act out. Kounin states that maintaining smoothness and momentum throughout the lesson is essential in minimizing misbehavior. Any downtime in a lesson is a chance for students to socialize or misbehave. Downtime happens when the lesson is dragging, during transitions, and if students finish work early. Flexibility is an important tool in combating down time. If I sense my students getting restless with something we’ve been working on for awhile, I’ll simply move on to something else and go back to it later. Or, I’ll try a different way of teaching the same thing (ex. instead of lecturing have students present the material to the class in groups). By breaking up lessons into different activities you don’t give students the time to get bored with what they are doing. I plan on giving my students adequate warning before a transition is going to happen (ex. “In five minutes you need to begin cleaning up so we can go over you homework.”). Then I will give them a time limit for the transition (ex. “You have two minutes to clean up and get your homework out.”). If the students don’t make the time limit I’ll have them practice until they do. When students finish work early I’ll either have them start that evenings homework or assign them to help another student who hasn’t finished. Other techniques of Kounin’s I’ll use to prevent misbehaviors are “withitness” and overlapping. “Withitness” simply means I’ll be aware of everything going on in my classroom so I can catch things early before any situation escalates. Over lapping is the ability to handle more than one situation at a time. I will also use some of Gordon’s techniques to prevent communication roadblocks. By keeping an open line of communication with my students they will feel comfortable and won’t need to act out as much. Per haps the most important thing I can do to prevent students from acting out is to give them the attention they want and need. My assessment promotes my management goals in a number of ways. My assessment is going to focus just as much on the learning process as on the final product. This makes students more accountable for all the work they do and helps to promote intrinsic motivation because they are rewarded just as much for their effort as for their quality of work. This helps prevent students from giving up if they think something is too hard. My assessments will be authentic and will determine whether students have developed a meaningful understanding of the subject. This encourages students to look at how information fits into the “big picture” which in turn makes the learning more relevant which is motivating. I will always hand out rubrics before an assignment so students understand exactly what is expected of them and so they have a goal to work towards. Rubrics can be very motivating as well because students can self or peerevaluate their work and then improve upon it. Flexibility and awareness are the two most important factors in allowing for the various learning styles, cultures, and diversity in your classroom. I plan on using as many different techniques as possible when teaching to account for different learning styles. For example, some students are more visual learners where others are more
tactile. For a given subject I would give a power point lecture (visual and verbal) and then follow it with a hands-on lab or group activity that demonstrated the same thing (tactile). By mixing up each lesson with various techniques each learning style is going to benefit from instruction. Whenever possible I will adapt my curriculum to meet student’s special needs. When this is not possible I will try and give those students extra help and make sure they understand what is going on. One way I plan on doing this is through peer helpers. I will always try to be aware of any cultural differences that may affect learning styles in my class and will take those into account.
I’ve found that students are generally extrinsically motivated. They usually work for rewards (good grades, prizes, candy, awards, praise etc.) and avoid punishment. Using some type of a rewards system for good work and behavior is definitely motivating to students in the short-term. For example, I had a teacher who used to reward us with fake money (or punish us by taking it away). The money could later be used to buy grade points, gift certificates, candy and more. While extrinsic motivation works fine for the short-term, students need to develop intrinsic motivation to do well in the long-term. Intrinsic motivation is doing something just for sense of accomplishment, or because even though you might not enjoy it, you know you’ll benefit from it in the long run. Intrinsic motivation is what helps students work towards their goals. Feeling a sense of accomplishment and achieving or working towards one’s goals is what motivates students in the long term. I plan on using rewards sparingly (when overused they become less effective) to help keep students motivated for the short-term. I will do this by praising and giving recognition for good work. I will also surprise my students from time to time with tactile rewards like candy for good work and behavior. I will use a variable ratio enforcement schedule so my students don’t know when to expect their rewards. This means that I will randomly reward good work, not every time it happens but on occasion. This motivates them to work hard all of the time, not just when they know they will be rewarded. This way the rewards remain effective because you’re only doing it some of the time. I will not punish my students but I will enforce consequences when they break a rule. I will do this consistently, which will motivate students to behave and follow the rules. To motivate students for the long-term I will have them keep a portfolio of their work where they can track their progress and accomplishments throughout the year. I will also display good work on classroom walls so students have a visual reminder of accomplishment. I will have students set academic goals and list the steps they need to take to accomplish them. I will do everything I can to help my students meet those goals. I would characterize this approach as a mixture of behaviorism and a humanistic approach. The short-term motivation technique of random rewards utilizes part of Skinners theory of behaviorism. The techniques to foster intrinsic motivation would be better characterized by Gordon’s or Kounin’s theories where rewards and punishment systems are avoided and student’s inner sense of control and power are promoted. They both strongly believed that only through intrinsic motivation would students continue on their quest for knowledge.
you’re a pretty fun guy (i. “What did one mushroom say to the other mushroom?” Miss Allen asks her class with a grin. After a pause. Miss Allen puts a starter activity on the board each morning for the students to work on the first five minutes of class. The desks are actually lab benches arranged in wide rows with plenty of room for movement between them. She asks if there are any questions and students say no. Next to the starter activity is the day’s schedule so students already know what is in store for them today. Miss Allen does not say anything she simply notes it in her roll book and the student sits down and begins working knowing that it is useless to give her an excuse. By the time the bell rings each student is ready for class and has already begun working on the vocabulary words they need to know for the unit’s lesson. There are bright posters on the walls showing everything from cell parts to nutrient cycles. hangs out next to Miss Allen’s desk. There is an aquarium with colorful fish as well. We’ll go over the vocab words you just wrote down and I’ll give a power point presentation showing different types of fungi and the different parts of a mushroom. I sit in the back of the class and gaze in amazement at the walls and ceiling.” While reviewing the vocabulary words Miss Allen randomly calls on students for answers. There is a life-size model of a human torso with removable organs in the back and Jerry. She is very warm and encouraging in the way she speaks and the students feel very comfortable talking with her. “Today we are going to begin studying the Kingdom Fungi. A student strolls in two minutes late. Vision I’m here today to observe Miss Allen’s class for teacher reviews. Just to make sure she randomly calls . participation points. Miss Allen greets each student as they begin to trickle into her classroom. and grades periodically throughout the semester or whenever a student asks. I see some students talking but on closer inspection I realize that those students that have already finished are actually helping those students who haven’t. She takes the time to ask the students questions about their lives like how the football team did at the game last night. kind of like they are all one big team. and whale models hanging from the ceiling. You can tell they know she truly cares about them as a person and this makes them feel important. There are shark. Student work is displayed on bulletin boards around the room. Miss Allen uses this time to silently take roll. “Hey. As the minute hand clicks closer to the hour students begin to settle down into their desks and they get out their supplies that they will need for the day. fungi)!) The students groan in laughter at the cheesy joke. a real skeleton. fish. Students are allowed two “freebie” tardies for the semester and after that they lose participation points. which gives the effect of being underwater in the ocean. like they really belong in this class.E. The atmosphere is fun and warm. Miss Allen waits a few seconds and the two students get nudged by their classmates and they also turn their attention to Miss Allen.e. Miss Allen notifies students of their tardies. “We have about one minute left before we move on to the next activity so start wrapping it up. After one minute Miss Allen cues the students by turning the lights off for a second.” Miss Allen warns her students of the upcoming transition. Then we’ll divide up into our lab groups and we’ll be finishing our plant dissections from yesterday and we’ll also dissect and label mushrooms. When they come back on everyone is looking at her except two students who are finishing up. you can tell the students and Miss Allen take extreme pride in the classroom decorations.
As the hour is almost to a close. She pulls aside the two note passers and speaks to them privately in her office. The lights are turned down low for the presentation. By John Shindler. “What do you think this part of the mushroom is called?” She pauses a good three to five seconds even though five hands immediately shot into the air. During the presentation Miss Allen asks questions to ensure that her students are understanding everything. this part of the mushroom is the cap. Without missing a beat Miss Allen walks over to the note passers (while still giving the presentation) and sticks out her hand. Students take notes and label diagrams on handouts that correlate to each power point slide.Workshops by JVS From Chapter 7: Transformative Classroom Management. Allyn Bacon Publishers (2008) Reproduction is unlawful without permission . It shows a lack of respect towards me. In a calm quiet tone Miss Allen states. The students work very well in their groups. which is our number one class rule. Satisfied that everyone understands she begins the power point presentation. Miss Allen then walks to the other side of the classroom and taps the doodler on the shoulder to get him back on task. asking questions to make sure students know exactly what is expected of them. “Bobby? That’s right.” The students promise it won’t happen again and Miss Allen excuses them to go to their next class. She moves back into her classroom to great her next class. Is there a reason why you were passing notes?” The students reply no and they apologize. Two students take advantage of this by passing a note to each other while another student begins doodling. the students quickly get together with their lab groups without any direction from Miss Allen. Miss Allen tells students they need to begin clean up which should take five minutes. The bell rings and Miss Allen excuses the students who leave to go to their next class. After the presentation is complete.on a few students and asks them about what they just went over.” She rewards Bobby with a smile. everyone is participating and helping each other out and they need little if any guidance from Miss Allen who circulates between groups to monitor student progress. I don’t like doing this because you are such good students most of the time but that is the consequence we decided on as a class. Students clean up and sit back down at their desks. Classroom Management Resource Page – Shindler – School Climate – PLSI – Teaching . This is the second time I have had to speak with you about this so I will have to deduct points from your participation grades. “I don’t appreciate it when students pass notes when I am giving a presentation. which I really don’t want to do. “I accept your apology and please remember that if this happens again I’m going to have to call your parents (consequence for third violation). There are a few minutes left in class so they do the first problem together as a class. Miss Allen gives them their homework assignments and goes over it thoroughly. The students hand the note over blushing and get back to their work. When I asked her about this amazing feat she told me that they had to practice this transition numerous times at the beginning of the year but now the students are very efficient.
quality work.). If the student views the C grade as consistent with their academic self-concept. assignments completed. This section also includes recommendations for applying these strategies in a manner that produces more beneficial and effective results. for example. This is why grading systems that incorporate more authentic measures such as performance assessment rubrics will be more motivational than more artificial uses such as a total of the number of correct responses on a worksheet. praise. it is common for students to perceive the grade as such. While this is rarely the intention of the teacher for giving the grade. In most cases. As students progress in their academic careers. rather than being entirely an extrinsic reinforcement.Extrinsic Motivation Techniques The following section examines what could be considered the leading principally extrinsic motivational strategies used in classrooms historically. So. they will find no need to do any better or adopt any different strategies in . etc. scholarship or financial aid opportunities. However. when a student gets a C on a paper they may perceive that grade as a reflection of themselves or their ability in that subject. Therefore. grades are a more motivational influence on some students than others. They only represent something of value (e. These opportunities vary greatly depending on several variables (e. Moreover. grades have only a symbolic meaning. students who see a relationship between their grades and their ability to reach their personal goals will be most influenced by this source of motivation and therefore more concerned with the kinds of grades that they receive. students commonly see grades as something “given” to them by the teacher (the external agent). As representations of the level of quality performance. etc. Too often they view grades as a representation of their aptitude. Grades also act as an incentive.. only some students are much more influenced or even aware of these incentives. As a result. Moreover. and 2) act as an incentive for later benefits and opportunities. they are similar in that neither will result in motivation to do better in the future. and have no inherent value. importance to parents and/or schools. ability.. or even self-worth rather than the quality of their investment. the way that a grade is derived can help it become more meaningful and tap into an intrinsic source. rewards. Their primary purposes are to 1) provide a concrete representation of either the completion of a task and/or the quality of a performance. A survey of a typical high school will support the wide discrepancy in how students view the importance of grades.g. Given this reaction they find themselves in the position that they must respond to the level of the grade by either accepting or rejecting it as an accurate reflection of their ability. as we know. public recognition and phone calls home. These include grades. While each of these two responses--accepting the grade as consistent or rejecting it as inconsistent— may appear somewhat different.). Grades Grades are the most prevalent example of a formal extrinsic motivator used in schools. scores on a test. in practice.g. And those teachers who rely primarily on students’ being motivated by grades are commonly frustrated with the number of students who are unaffected by the threat of a poor grade if their performance does not improve. grades become more effective when they are clearly related to a meaningful outcome. punishments. grades have the effect of creating future opportunities.
and inadequacy along with resentment toward the teacher.e. and is most associated with one of its pioneers. incentives can be helpful in clarifying what is desirable behavior. the operant--or desired behavior that is being conditioned--is reinforced by an extrinsic reinforcement/reward. you will get something that you should like.. we will discuss how the assessment of meaningful learning targets that are clear and standing will produce better student performance as well as higher quality behavior. the teacher either liked or did not like you)? Did they confirm or conflict with your expectation and academic self concept? In Chapter 13. In this case the operant is the act of desirable behavior on the part of the student. even after the incentive is not longer present. Rewards Such as Tokens. This technique originated in the field of psychology called behaviorism. used primarily at the elementary level. In the case of healthy behaviors that . Therefore they are intended to act as the reinforcement in the process of operant conditioning. or group privileges for being first or best. Sticker. For example. Incentives Incentives can take many forms such as prizes at the end of the week for successfully performing a task or refraining from an undesirable task. if the cause is viewed externally and the student does not feel that their grade reflects concrete and constructive feedback. Stars and Prizes Another common extrinsic motivational strategy. Even if there is a great deal of intensity to the emotion connected to this second response. In operant conditioning. is to give tokens and other prizes to student when they perform a desired behavior. confusion. Chapter Reflection 7-c: Recall your response to various grades that you were given as a student. Skinner. Giving more Cs is not one of them.” In this way. or rewarding students who do well on one task the chance to opt out of a further task.the future. At their best they can help promote good habits and shape more functional patterns of action. there are very effective strategies for helping the student desire excellence. If the student perceives the grade as inconsistent with their academic selfconcept. As we will discuss throughout the remainder of this chapter and in the next. The result is the all-too-familiar phenomenon – the student gets used to getting Cs. These extrinsic rewards act as concrete representations that something of “value” has been accomplished. They concretize the non-verbal bargain: “If you (the student) do something that the teacher has determined is good. the child may become comfortable with that behavior and continue it throughout their lifetime. and the extrinsic reward is the token or prize. Did they motivate you to do better? Did you view them as including a personal component (i. they are more likely to experience the assessment process as meaningful and a process that leads them on a clear pathway to achievement. B. When students recognize their grade as resulting from a valid representation of their performance as assessed in relation to meaningful criteria. the result will be little motivation to change future behavior. they will likely feel shame.F. if a mother provides a child an incentive to make the bed every day.
If we bribe students with a preferred activity. He told the children that he really hoped that they would come out and play. it has two undesirable byproducts. you will be given the opportunity to do something that you really like to do later. and thought the old man was the greatest. “preferred to what?” What is the association that we are creating? Is it that academics are inherently unenjoyable? While this strategy is attractive. it made him very angry.become intrinsically satisfying once they become habits. After a quick conference. He tried to ignore the noise. As promised. He lived alone and did not like children very much. Second. like other bribes it will lose its effect over time. PAT sets up the bargain that if you (in this case. 2000). by the way).” That is. The next day the old man arrived and paid each child a quarter. However. Then he told them that if they came to play faithfully. we actually generate the previously-unconsidered question. Chapter Reflection 7–e: Reflect on the following parable: There was once an old man who lived by a park and worked the night shift at the factory. So when the children began to play ball at the park and make lots of noise. to say the least. The next day he arrived right on time. but that he was out of money and could no longer pay them. the student) apply yourself acceptably to an academic task now. The children were pleased. The children were very happy. the children decided that .” However. At this the children were very upset. it will reinforce the principle that the work that is being done in the academic time is something that is undesirable. Students will eventually return to their previous level of motivation for the academic activity. this can lead to positive longterm benefits. with any extrinsic reward. On the surface. but on the next day he again had some bad news. Were you motivated? What is your association with that task today? One popular incentive strategy is that of Preferred Activity Time (PAT) (Jones. and that he once had children and it reminded him of them (neither was true. you may want to consider the alternative of making the learning activities in your class engaging and inherently motivating (Chapter 13 will offer ideas on how to do this). but he did not have much money and could only pay them a quarter each. consider its costs and long-term effects. or has just bribed students to do something that they would not have done without the bribe. he went to the field and addressed the children. we must question whether the incentive has contributed to the development of good behavioral patterns. but agreed to come back and play for the smaller amount. The children were a little disappointed. this strategy “works. Chapter Reflection 7-d: Recall situations in which you were given rewards for doing a task others wanted you to do. but it did not work. Moreover. He did the same thing the next day. As he reflected on his dilemma. they will become accustomed to the bribe and likely demand it. as we examine this strategy closer. the incentive will eventually lose its power. And if you feel you need to bribe your students to engage in learning. During the day he liked it to be quiet so that he could get some sleep. we discover that when put into practice. it motivates the student to do what it takes to attain their “preferred activity. he was struck by a cunning plan. and will not do once the bribe has been removed. He told them that he loved the sound of their play. he paid them a dime for the next 3 days. but gave the children some bad news. or to do better. he would pay them each a quarter. The next day. And if over time the students do not experience any internal satisfaction from the behavior being induced. He told them how much he loved to hear their voices as they played and how it made him so happy (which was a lie). First. while it may work in the short run.
as educators we need to recognize the power of environmental conditioning. they work in the short-term to motivate behavior. and only if he/she brought back the stick. we might give the dog a treat each time he/she brought back the stick. we will see a teacher who understands behavioral principles. it is understandable why they are so popular. They include the following: 1. The old man went home and was able to sleep in peace and quiet that afternoon. they will be reinforced (obtaining the doggy treat). In most cases. That does not mean the teacher will overuse extrinsic conditioning or even rely on it as a motivational strategy. The starting point to making sense of behavioral conditioning is to understand that in a conditioning situation there will be something that acts as a focal event/action/operant and then there is something that happens afterward to reinforce it. and they left. Will the schedule of reinforcements be sustainable? Or will a greater amount of reinforcement be needed in the future (see discussion on weed pulling later in the chapter). Do you think the story represents a valid reality? Can you think of an example of this same principle in your own experience? Adopting a More Intentional and Effective Approach to the Use of Extrinsic Behavioral Reinforcement It is a well-established reality that human behavior can be conditioned by environmental stimuli. 3. especially when it relates to humans. but will understand that the forces of behavioral conditioning are operating continuously. But what is actually learned is much more complex and typically takes the form of a disincentive to interact with the source of the punishment or the creation of a new set of skills to get around the punishment in the future (we will examine punishments in more detail in Chapter 10). But there are several questions that should be asked if one is to use extrinsic reinforcements for an extended period. Is the motivation to perform the behavior increasing. For example if we examine most punishments. When we examine the use of extrinsic rewards in practice. little or none of the actual conditioning/learning that actually occurs will necessarily resemble the conditioning/learning that was intended. While we can debate the extent to which one’s behavior is externally conditioned or has its source in more internal drives. never to return. Yet.they could not play if they were not going to be paid. What is ultimately being learned? . or just the motivation to obtain the reward? 2. as well as why some would view their byproducts as undesirable. it is important to remember that in one’s efforts toward behavioral conditioning. If we examine an effectively managed classroom. For example if we wished the family dog to consistently fetch a stick that we throw. In this case the dog learns that when they do the desired behavior (bringing the stick back). the intention is to create a disincentive related to the unwanted action.
especially meaningful rewards. • Intermittent and/or random schedules of reinforcement will be more powerful than regular and predictable schedules of reinforcement. and/or academic performance will undermine the level of motivation in the class and can even backfire with many students when it comes to the desired behavior change. They will work against the development of such outcomes as self-responsibility and the inclination to reflect on what will lead to one’s personal growth and/or the common good of the group – dispositions that are essential to the 1-Style classroom. the frequent and/or sustained use of extrinsic rewards will be inherently counterproductive. Rewarding effort.4. • Avoid putting students in situations in which they are competing for rewards. I will give the class a prize on Friday. the probability that a reward is going to be needed for every desirable behavior. parental support. The primary focus should be on the accomplishing the desired behavior rather attaining the reward. For those who feel compelled to include extrinsic forms of reinforcement among their motivational strategies. good choices. and as a result extinguishing our students’ intrinsic motivation? If you are attempting to develop a student-centered 1-Style classroom. • Reinforcements that are given after the display of an “expected” behavior will be more effective than arrangements and “deals” made before the desired behavior is performed. they can be part of a very effective teacher-centered classroom and assist the teacher attempting a 2-Style approach in his/her effort to promote more efficient student behavior. but they will likely be effective in changing behavior in the short-term. they will help reduce the dependency of students on rewards and make it easier to remove them over time. personality.” Problems include: the reward is too far removed in time. On the other hand. When we do gradually remove the reinforcements. it may be helpful to consider the following guiding principles for how to use them effectively. you will likely be in a difficult spot. are we replacing an internal source of motivation with an external one. Following these guidelines will not lead to higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Below are three examples of typical but problematic uses of extrinsic rewards followed by a more effective strategy in the same situation: Typical but Problematic: “If you all do your work. Like the children in the story above. • The more closely in time the attainment of the reward is to the desired behavior the stronger the effect of the reinforcement will be. and when Friday comes. Moreover. Only use competition in cases where all students are in an equal position to display the behavior if they so choose. But competition that includes rewarding winners for ability. cooperation and other things that students can control can be effective at attaining more of those behaviors. It . we should be left with a substantial amount of new “learned behavior” and only a minimal amount of “withdrawal” from the students who have developed a dependency on the reinforcement. • Relate the reinforcement to a clearly identified desired behavior.
the teacher will reward us (recall social frame development in Chapter 2). Typical but Problematic: “The group that does the best job of ___ at the end of the day will get a prize. it reinforces your expectations – real learning took place in a very concrete example. time. do our jobs). Problems include: behavior done primarily for extrinsic rewards. Use it to clarify your expectations. and the focus is on the “expected” behavior first and the reward second. Use only random and/or intermittent reinforcement schedules. They will not expect it. Better Idea: “I asked you to put away ____ and take out ______. It ends up creating a lose-lose decision. being on task.” This is better because it was random.. “Do I increase the reward to maintain the motivation level. the work is done in anticipation of the prize – the prize is primary and the purpose of the behavior is secondary. but will exhibit behavior that they understand may be reinforced. The schedule of reinforcement is continuous. That is. when we ___ (e. 3. This is essentially paying students to do what they should be doing and what we want them to love to do for its own sake. Continuous reinforcement leads to a gradual decrease of motivation. listening. A lesson was learned. immediate. Typical but Problematic: A “token economy” or arrangements where students get points for certain behaviors and the points are added up for some reward at the end of a certain period. students realize what the desired behavior is supposed to be (working cooperatively. as the other tables will be much quicker in the future anticipating that something similar might happen again. raising hands. it was immediate and clearly related both in time and causality.) but they do . or do I slowly watch my students begin to demand an extrinsic reward for everything and increasingly avoid behaviors that are not rewarded (including just about everything that we want them to care about in our class)?” Better Idea: If you are committed to the use of a point system: 1.” Problems include: this is competitive and there will be some resentful people eventually. and will cause behavior change. cooperation. this table did it right away without being asked again. Relate your reward system to the critical expectations that are necessary for the class to function. This process may be useful when attempting to shift from a 2-Style to a 1-Syle classroom. such as listening. that is the first time you have all been able to do that. 2. Random is the best. We are destroying both of those goals. efficient procedures. The students know what they did.” This is better because: it will change behavior. Use it for a short duration at the start of the year (three weeks or less).is a certainty that some students will have met their end of the bargain and others will have not. etc). and the reinforcement is not well connected any particular repeatable behavior (good reinforcement promotes the repetition of desired behavior). Do you see the potential problem? Better Idea: “You have just spent the entire period focused on a task. so they will get (thing. first choice. etc.g. being first. so they will likely repeat it. I am going to give you all ___ (extrinsic reward or removal of a negative reinforcer).
Chapter Reflection 7-f: Recall a situation in which you were rewarded with points or prizes for certain behavior. Make it a game for fun and mutual entertainment.Workshops by JVS – PLSI – Chapter 10: Developing Logical and Related Consequences within the Social Contract (and Why to Avoid the Use of Punishments) From Transformative Classroom Management. ©2008 Reproduction is unlawful without permission In this Chapter • What is a Consequence? • What is a Punishment? • What is wrong with the Use of Punishments? • Creating Effective Consequences within the Social Contract • Examples of Effective Logical Consequences An essential part of a well-functioning system of social interactions and bonds—the “classroom social contract” (Chapter 9)—is the development of a clear relationship in the . 5. not know when the reinforcement will occur (If you compare the level of the desired behavior in a random reinforcement condition vs. a fixed condition. simply achieving the most points can be enough of a reward in and of itself.Alfie Kohn (1999) Classroom Management Resource Page – Shindler – School Climate Teaching . you will be amazed at the difference).4. your affection. and may be a preferable reward in our effort to emphasize that the process was the point. 7. or were rewarded with prizes? Do you remember what you were asked to do to achieve those rewards? Which memory is more powerful? What does your memory tell you about the source of your motivation to perform? “Giving students extrinsic rewards for engaging in learning tasks makes the implicit statement that the activity was not worth doing on its own merits.“ . Do not give a large amount of attention to the points. In fact. Attach your emotion to the accomplishment of the behavior rather than the attainment of the points. The ultimate reward cannot be meaningful or substantive. 6. It cannot relate to grades. Again the extrinsic is always presented as a material reminder of something of real and intrinsic value such as learning or becoming a better class. Do you remember if you won. and focus on how it is leading to behavior change. not who won or lost. Warnings always weaken reinforcements. By John Shindler. or something of real material worth. Give points and take points away without warning.
identify all the ways in which these two situations vary from one another. Without consequences a social contract is merely an abstract ideal. Often we use the terms consequences and punishments interchangeably. The student arrives at the bus stop at 8:05. . concrete manifestation of accountability and what it means to be a responsible member of the class. it may be useful to examine two cases related to what might happen if a student misses a school bus. Therefore it is necessary to develop within the context of our classroom social contract a set of logical and related consequences for student behavior that violates the contract. Case #2 Again the student understands that the bus was to stop at 8:00. and practically ineffectual. which example would you characterize as a consequence and which as a punishment? Case #1 The student understands that the bus to school arrives at his stop at 8:00. As you compare the two cases. participated in voluntarily. we will see that they are very different and have dramatically varying effects. agreed upon consequences for violating ones agreement act as a practical. or on your own. In this example. However.students’ minds between their actions and the consequences of those actions. He gets to the stop at 8:05. It may appear that they are different variations of the same idea – doing something to or toward students to give them a disincentive to misbehave--but as we examine each more closely. Along with providing meaningful cause and effect connections. consequences and punishments are very different things. As the student moves to their seat on the bus the other students berate them and shame them for making them wait. To illustrate the differences between consequences and punishments. The questions below may be helpful in your analysis. Chapter Reflection 10-a: In a group discussion. you will recognize many ways in which they do. These consequences act to create boundaries and clarity of expectations. The bus has come and gone as scheduled. As you examine them more deeply. The bus driver is very angry and lectures the student about the importance of getting to the stop on time. The student realizes the bus is no longer an option and that he must find an alternative form of transportation to school. the bus has been waiting.
It was dependent on the mood and the whims of the bus driver. Did you learn a lesson? Did it change your behavior in the future? In the second case. In this second case. while it would have been if the student had gotten to the stop on time. but it is not logical.get to the stop on time and the bus will be there. and so there can be little or no effect on the development of the student’s internal locus of control and thus growth toward more responsible future choices. a lesson was learned. and the bus would still be waiting for them. . most students begin to realize that what they received from their parents were mostly punishments. Chapter Reflection 10-c: At this point in the chapter. There was a lot of sound and fury. as we examine the two cases more closely. The lesson to be learned is clear -. the causality was external. we see that only the first case was logically related to the problem. The student was late (cause). and the second case even may have motivated the student to get to the stop on time the next day. we find a lot of difficulty recognizing the logical relationship between being yelled at and taking too long to get to the bus stop. Chapter Refection 10-b: Recall a situation in which you missed a bus. Reflect on whether this is true for you. and has more to do with avoiding the discomfort that may (or may not) come from the bus driver. deadline. in the second. In the first case. the first case would best be characterized as a consequence and the second case as a punishment. flight. The bus was still there. The student learned that they could be late to the stop. or arrived at a store after it closed. It may seem like a common response to such student behavior. While both cases may have had an effect on the student in the short-term. the result was merely discomfort.Reflect on the two cases: • Which one is more likely to change behavior in the long-term? • Which one teaches the more useful lesson for life? • Which one builds the student’s sense of responsibility and internal LOC? • Who is in control in each case? Is that important? As you likely identified. the lesson learned has little to do with a need to change behavior. And like many punishments. The ownership of the problem rests with the student. there was no real consequence for being late. but it signified very little. and therefore the bus was no longer available (effect). In this situation.
the teacher must create a manufactured consequence that is as related as possible to the situational behavior. An infinite number of events act as consequences for each of us daily. For example. both academically and managerially. the most powerful means to developing a responsible mindset in students is to help make them aware of this causeand-effect relationship between their thoughts and actions and the consequent effects that occur as a result. A requirement for helping students recognize this cause and effect is to create it within the logic of the classroom social contract. Moreover. Clearly in this case.” “sleeping in the bed we have made. Most are natural and occur without any teacher intervention. natural. the natural consequence is insufficient to meet the needs of the class as a whole. All thoughts and actions have consequences. when a student is in a hurry or careless they make a spelling mistake. students experience countless consequences each day. And if we are perceptive. they associate that feeling of success to a great extent with the person who helped them get there. In other words. related. or may provide academic or emotional support. the naturally occurring consequence of a student getting up and sharpening a pencil several times a day is that others are annoyed and learning is disrupted. As we will discuss in more detail in the next Chapter. In each of these cases. and logical consequences for both positive and negative behaviors. consequences are things that happens as a result of our actions. the teacher may offer a verbal recognition of effort. the best consequences (and inherently most logical and related) are those that are naturally occurring. in the instance of the student who arrived late for the bus. In the absence of clear and direct natural consequences the teacher (with the help of the students if they wish) must manufacture one. we begin to learn which actions and thoughts (causes) bring us the kinds of circumstances (effects) that we desire. One of the many logical consequences in this case would be that a student might lose the privilege of using the sharpener for a while. and 2) well-established. And in that case.What is a consequence? In life generally. when the student works at a task.” “emotional bank accounts. Or a student may be friendly to other students and as a result be perceived as likable. students learn that when they make certain choices. when the student raises a hand the teacher recognizes them for a response. the only person affected was the student. Therefore the consequence must be artificial but related. the consequence was natural. Ideally. The “cause” of course is the student’s choosing to misuse a privilege. the “effect” is that the privilege is withheld for a time. . For example. No one needed to implement it. the teacher. and hopefully they will take a more responsible approach to the use of the privilege in the future. The student may be given the opportunity to try again later. We may choose to describe them with such labels as “reaping what we have sown. But in the natural world all causes have effects. And in most classrooms. when these are not sufficient given the situational demands. However. and those that bring us unwanted outcomes. and that is usually you. a logical and related consequence will follow.” etc. there is a fairly apparent cause-and-effect relationship between the thoughts and actions of the student and the consequences they experience. The keys to this logic are: 1) the use of cause-and-effect in your explanations for why things happen. For example. Most consequences related to most teachers are typically positive. or miscalculate a math problem. Nothing happens in a vacuum. when a student feels successful.” “karmic reactions. For example. In the classroom.
In nature there are only consequences.1 Consequences vs. etc. we may run into trouble. detentions. and/or are not the portion of the intervention that had the desirable effect. public shaming. There are no natural and/or logical punishments. In a punishment condition. Punishments come in many forms. losing class points. whereas with the punishment the price is determined artificially. The locus of control of a punishment is the punisher. lowering of expectations. being sent to the office. such as writing standards or lines.we did not prepare properly or we underestimated the task -. Table 10. A Comparison Consequences Intend to teach lessons Foster internal locus of control Are proactive Are logical and related Work in the long-term Promote responsibility Punishments Intend to give discomfort Foster external locus of control Are reactive Are unrelated and personal Work in the short-term Can promote obedience (but more likely resentment) What is so Wrong with Punishments? On the surface punishments can appear to “work. There is therefore an illusion that it works.in cause and effect. But as we examine their effects more closely. angry outbursts. These include lectures. experience hunger or feel frightened. names on the board. guilt throwing. punishments teach avoidance of the punisher. Punishments. the cost or benefit is determined by natural laws. picking up trash. Punishments are typically reactive. calls home.so consequently. being more critical of student work after they have misbehaved. Some are very overt and obvious. It is always rooted in the laws of nature -. Consequences teach lessons. but none of the pain we experience could be defined as a punishment. we will see that punishments either do not really improve behavior in the long-term. We made a bad choice -. For instance. we may get lost. the “punisher. we paid a price. Some punishments are much more subtle. but the lesson learned is not related to the problem behavior and so will not .What is a punishment? A punishment is an external intervention that is intended to give discomfort for the purpose of payback or out of the belief that it will change behavior. Punishment may stop unwanted behavior in the short term. etc. Most consequences are understood before decisions are made and actions take place. having to sit alone. the pain and discomfort inflicted on the “punished” is always calculated by an external agent. NO punishments.” They produce what appears to be a desirable outcome.” With consequences. overt disappointment. if we take a wrong turn on a hiking trail.
so more frequent and more severe forms of punishment are required to obtain the same result. It is a safe bet that mixed in with the punishments are a lot of high expectations and the implicit message that you believe in the students and will not accept poor behavior. Try keeping the high expectations and exchange the use of punishments for consequences. You may be surprised at how the students respond with a level of behavioral maturity that you did not think that they had. you will find yourself experiencing an emotional ease and lightness that gives you more positive energy throughout the day. it is either . we see that they build responsibility in students. the teacher will still be required to yell when they want quiet. if a teacher angrily tells the class to “BE QUIET!” the effect will likely be that the class stops talking momentarily. Moreover. For example. There is nothing learned that relates to an appropriate use of voice. So without the fundamental learning (which consequences provide). What is the saying about digging yourself a hole? The first step is to stop digging. The lesson that is being learned by the students from this punishment intervention is to tolerate the teacher’s yelling and anger for a while and then wait for the opportunity to go back to the behavior that meets their previous needs. as the students become comfortable with the negative impact of the punishment they become increasingly immune. But if we return to this same class a week later. But it only stops the problem for an instant. In the end. and worst of all. “But my class is improving. shame. lectures) do not build responsibility because (as was discussed in Chapter 8) the locus of control in punishment is external and responsibility comes from an internal locus of control. So what do punishments promote? For the most part.lead to learning or behavior change. and I do rely heavily on punishments. Children who are fed a steady diet of punishment (especially guilt. or a respectful orientation to others’ need for a peaceful learning environment. the use of punishments is only holding the class back from its potential. the teacher’s external and emotional intervention appears to be the only thing that works. As we examine the effect of consequences more closely. Moreover.” Let’s examine typical practices in such a situation and analyze what is making things better. these positive messages of caring and validation are having the positive effect. Some readers may be saying.
obedience or rebellion. why would we incorporate a practice that fundamentally stunts personal growth? Chapter Reflection 10-d: In groups or individually. and consider whether you would want to be put in a position where you were expected to do only what you were told. were they consequences or punishments? . “consequences are fine for the small things. but for the big things. and in the role of the teacher. You think. we need to use punishments. but it can be a slippery slope down a path that leads to emotionally immature and dependent students. It might be useful to put yourself in the position of the student (a useful cure for most “teacher power trips” by the way). “Well. then I am fine with that.” Do you find this to be sound logic? It may help to recall you answer to the earlier question related to the events that changed your life the most. respond to the teacher that suggests that. So if our job is to teach and promote our students’ growth. The primary skill one learns from a teacher who loves to punish and demands obedience is how to play the game of pretending to be repentant. it may seem to make life easier. but it is difficult to see the benefits to the student. This is not the kind of skill that translates into high quality relationships over a lifetime. if it is obedience. You can see the benefit of this arrangement for the selfcentered teacher.” Obedience may sound desirable on the surface.
As a result. At the heart of their thinking is a “pain-based logic. and to pay them back. and they are working for me. I will be viewed as weak and powerless.” On the surface this sounds reasonable. an ever-increasing hostile climate in the class. it has more to do with one’s mental conditioning than any evidence of efficacy.Why We Love to Give Punishments (and the Pain-Based Logic) If we examine why one would have a compelling attraction to the use of punishments (detailed in Chapter 19 in our discussion of the 4-Style appraoch). and why the teacher spends a lot of time emotionally miserable. punishment dichotomy become upset and feel the need to defend the use of punishments.” This form of reasoning implies something to the effect that. The inner dialogue is. “Because I was personally offended by the students’ actions.” It’s possible to assume that somewhere in the past of the teacher who clings to a “painbased logic” and cannot give up defending the use of punishments is an attachment to a past authority figure who used this logic and a high quantity of punishments.” There is a fictional and faulty working assumption by the teacher that suggests that people cannot be trusted and that they only respond to pain and domination. It’s only fair. I need to give them some pain. the teacher continually misinterprets the evidence. Within this mental fiction is misinterpretation of one’s own past. to teach them a lesson. “If I do not give pain for unwanted behavior. while the effects of the use of punishments are to the objective eye (and to their own inner conscience) not very desirable – little improvement of behavior. Like an addiction. They often use the phrase “I have tried to use consequences. Very often teachers (and students in teacher education classes) after examining the consequence vs. If . and a feeling on the part of the teacher that they are more law enforcement than learning facilitator – the teacher continues to hold to the belief that the punishments are necessary. but my students only understand punishments. to motivate change. But as we examine the logic a bit closer we can see why these classes are not developing more responsible and desirable behavior.
” And . we will continue to review. It is about the results that one achieves. “If you are able to be attentive and use this opportunity well. and others say no. one comes to internalize the belief that one only responds to punishment. or leader) from trusting their students and giving up the illusion that the use of punishments is doing anything positive. so let’s show it here. or ask questions.” After a few minutes the students look restless. reactive (you were fed up). She asks them. “What did the student learn from that event?” and “Who and what was it about?” If it was experienced as being about their choice and supported the processing for how a better choice could have been made. consider the following two cases: Case #1 Teacher reviews with students. it was most likely a successful consequence. Keep in mind. it could best be characterized as a punishment. To illustrate the difference between a consequence situation that could be similar to a punishment situation. Sometimes it is not what we do. This interpretation is likely giving one’s self a great deal less credit for being responsible and trustworthy than one actually warranted. those basic elements are: • A review is being provided as a service to help the student be prepared for an upcoming exam. if it looks like you are getting bored and restless. In practice. “I am seeing less attention than I did earlier. it is punishment. “Okay. what distinguishes a punishment from a consequence can be in how it is perceived by the students.one regularly receives the message that one cannot be trusted. and giving the influence of the punishments far too much credit for promoting positive behavior. it may be helpful to compare two interventions with the same basic elements. that management success is not about being able to defend one’s self. Moreover. • The expectation is that students are quiet during an exam. and most importantly. and has all the negative impact of a punishment-even if the intent is a clear and logical consequence. it is in the current moment keeping this teacher (or parent or coach. or intended to give pain (they needed to be taught a lesson for what they did). The teacher says. This might seem confusing. If was perceived as being about you the teacher. the teacher senses that the students are restless. that will tell me that it is time to give the test out. Give these basic elements above. After about 40 minutes. does that mean you have had enough review and we are ready to take the test?” Some students say yes. let’s take everything off our desks and get out a pen or pencil (gives additional instructive and supportive comments related to the material). • Students need to listen during the review. “We have done well on this in class. So she makes the deal. Ask yourself after each consequence implementation intervention (discussed in detail in the next chapter). but how we do it that distinguishes a punishment from a consequence. If the student perceives an event as external (you were mad). • The review will last as long as it needs to. For this example. and the student left the situation feeling like they “got in trouble” and were therefore given some discomfort. however.
In both cases.“Remember. “There is too much talking right now. so she tells them. the teachers made the determination that as a result of the students’ behavior they seemed not to be taking advantage of the review and therefore were ready to take the test. “If you keep talking I am going to give you the test. they are essentially the same in terms of the teachers’ actions.” Case #2 Teacher reviews with the students. they will “get a big fat 0!” As you examine the two cases. She tells them. After about 40 minutes. the teacher hears talking.” After a couple of minutes talking continues. you are getting the test now!” As she passes out the test she angrily tells the students that if they talk during the exam. But would you characterize them both as consequences? Or was the second a punishment? . we need to be respectful of one another. so please be quiet until everyone is done.” After a few minutes the teacher again becomes frustrated with the amount of talking and says. “That’s it.
the relationship is damaged. and the students were in control of the outcome. revenge. As a result. What was the emotional cost to the paingiver? Chapter Reflection 10-g: Reflect on the following situation: A teacher decides to let students work together on an assignment. “That’s it! I am fed up! You are making too much noise. In Case Two. In Case Two the primary lesson learned was most likely to do a better job of interpreting what does and does not make the teacher mad. And finally. In Case One the lesson learned was that if we (the class) want to have the privilege of having a review. In this case. The teacher has withdrawn a great deal from the emotional bank account that had been accrued. It was proactive.” What in the teacher’s reaction would you call a punishment? How could they have accomplished a more effective result with a consequence? . the locus was shifted externally. the expectation will remain vague. In Case One the expectation was strengthened. there were significant differences. It was reactive. we need to use the opportunity maturely. What would you label each intervention? Case One seems to meet the qualification for a consequence. after a couple of warnings the teacher reached a point of intolerance and implements a punishment. reflect on the differences in the two situations. etc. because the cause and effect was not well established. the teacher was angry and therefore the students perceived the case of the action as being related to the level of the teacher’s frustration. In Case One. Is this true in your experience? Reflect on the last interaction that you would characterize as being driven by a pain-based logic. What does that do to the students’ association with the purpose of tests and other assessments? If the teacher in Case Two had not resorted to a “pain-based logic.” a much better result would have been manufactured. logical and related. The relationship in Case One stays intact and the students take a step forward in learning to be responsible class members. embarrassment. Case Two falls into the classification of a punishment condition. guilt. Moreover. While similar. punishments. Everyone is going to have to do (a worksheet) on your own. tomorrow is going to be better as a result of the teacher’s intervention today. angrily stating. In Case Two. how about the energy level of the teachers? Which teacher used more energy? Chapter Reflection 10-f: The cases above seem to imply that interactions that are driven by a pain-based logic (anger.) are more exhausting for the teacher.Chapter Reflection 10-e: In your group or on your own. shaming. Conversely. the students felt responsible for what happened. in the end the test was used as a punishment. As a result.
Neither is effective in helping students grow or learn. And its sibling. coercive and manipulative punishment disguised as corrective feedback.” So whereas consequences promote an internal locus of control and a success psychology.g.” Recall our discussion of praise in Chapter 6 . Comparison of Positive Consequences versus Rewards Positive Consequences Rewards Increased Opportunities Personal Praise Examples Achievement Recognition of Effort Opportunities to contribute Learning Internal to Student Responsibility and a clear cause and effect between one’s effort and the outcome. is an external. rewards inevitably promote an external locus of control and a failure psychology.it is an external.Rewards. stickers. artificial. and to an extent even grades) are really just the other side of a punishment/reward coin. but their interactions with students are defined by “are you doing what I want? – then I like you. Table 10-2. and if you are not. to an external and artificial object. but someone else – the “rewarder. this characterization is well supported. The focus is shifted from the value of the process or even the accomplishment. personal praise. The source of the reward is not one’s own efforts. As with punishments. disappointment. prizes. coercive and manipulative reward given under the guise of positive reinforcement. To get the reward Locus of Control Teaches Motivation . and to shift attention away from the value of the task to the value of the reward. As we examine the nature of rewards in relation to our concept of consequences. beware of the less visible but often more insidious version of this reward and punishment paradigm in practice – the use of love and withdrawal of love in the form of praise and disappointment. and externalizing their cause and effect. What we learn from rewards is to do what it takes to continue to get the reward. the Other Side of the Punishment/Reward Coin In his book Punished by Rewards. Satisfaction of Needs Tokens and grades Preferred Activity Time Party at the end of the week Stickers and Stars External from Teacher To do what it takes to get the reward. Many teachers will say that they don’t like rewards and punishments. and do a poor job of teaching lessons related to the learning event. rewards are external. I don’t. awards. but each is very effective at keeping them in fear of failure. Likewise. dependent upon praise to perform. preferred activity time.. Alfie Kohn (1999) makes the argument that rewards (e.
as we try to explain that their actions reflect that they have made a choice to violate the social contract --“Teacher. it is critical to recognize if we are to help this student grow in a more functional and healthy direction. 4. and will worsen in the long run. unmotivated and irresponsible class as long as we keep up this form of practice. these students can be found in schools in which the discipline culture is defined by a 4-Style mentality. this student is exhibiting a deeply conditioned “negative identity” pattern. We are perpetuating a failure psychology in the students. we need to give them what they are used to. The behavior in the class will not get better. In many cases. While it may even seem as though we are getting results in the short-term. The logic is that since the students come to us with a well-formed failure psychology (discussed in Chapter 8) that frequently includes a negative identity. So to them punishment is what authorities use in their “real word. Often in these cases. 3. the group of students will have friends and even family who have very real experience with gangs. crime. and threaten the students with poor grades. we often are told to become domineering. In many cases. we see a seemingly unmotivated student come to life and make a substantial effort toward the task. lower our expectations. We had a transformative opportunity and we missed it. why are you getting me in trouble?” We state the situation as a consequence. We are bringing them one year closer to taking that failure orientation out into the world and on to the next grade. They are often acculturated into a “crime and punishment” orientation toward those in authority. Sometimes we will be given a class that is mostly full of such students. Here are four of them: 1. Students with a negative identity are actually habituated to and desire punishment and pain. And when we dangle rewards in front of them.You Just Don’t Know My School It is true that many of our students respond to punishment and a pain-based logic because it is familiar to them. there are several reasons not to revert to a 4-Style approach with this group of students. and/or to give awards to the top students to motivate the rest. they hear it as a punishment. When we ask the experienced faculty for advice. While this may seem odd. We have lost out on a chance to make a difference in the lives of these students. So the temptation is to accept that this is “what works” for these students.” When we respond to their misbehavior or observe others responding with abusive language and/or pain-based penalties. Like any 4-Style teacher. and violence. We can hear it in their voices. 2. It is likely that these students have never been supported in a cause-and-effect pattern of thinking about their choices and actions. It is tempting to give in and mete out pain and punishment and take on the 4-Style approach. they often react with repentance and improved behavior in the short-term. . we will struggle with a hostile. Chapter 16 describes in detail how to help a student change a negative identity pattern. calls home.
we will discuss the importance of how consequences are implemented. It will take time. Furthermore. The remainder of this chapter and the next will describe practical strategies for creating cause-and-effect thinking. Without logical and related consequences students can experience teacher interventions as very external and arbitrary. In the next chapter. First. For example. or other manifestations of a failure psychology.Chapter Reflection 10-h: Reflect on the approach Ellen Gruwell took to such a group of students as depicted in the movie Freedom Writers.or 2-Style approach class structure. Yet many of the students who come from these situations do not know how to operate in a 1. We need to teach them how. To begin we need to understand the nature of the patterns in which our students are operating. Maintaining a working knowledge of how to promote a success psychology will be an invaluable tool in any classroom with any students. The most successful consequences will be those that are . there may be a negative identity pattern. There may be a helpless pattern. and offer a more effective path toward a system that really works rather than resorting to the use of punishments and bribes. For the social contract to be effective students must feel as though being faithful to their agreements to the contract is making the class better and helping them become more responsible while achieving their goals of inclusion and achievement. as they internalize the emerging success psychology the more effective environment is fostering. The quality and effectiveness of the contract and how successfully it evolves is contingent on the care and deliberateness of the implementation. what did she do? What was the result? The fact is that students who are used to 4-Style management will adjust to a 1. or external locus of control. but in conjunction with that. it is worth it for the reasons listed above. If students view consequences as arbitrary or subjective. the contract will have little meaning and will likely feel imposed and artificial. it is worth it because we will get results and transform lives. they will recognize that the 4-Style environment was unhealthy. the success of the contract will depend on the quality of the consequences we build into it. Second. When presented with a group of students that was accustomed to a crime and punishment mentality. but it is worth it. This was depicted beautifully in the films Freedom Writers and To Sir with Love.or 2Style management approach eventually. I have seen it firsthand in countless classes myself. more responsible behavior and the development of functional social bonds. Creating Effective Consequences within the Social Contract Developing logical and related consequences is crucial to successfully achieving a social contract that feels democratic and is built on promoting responsibility.
Below (Chart 10. This is a step in the right direction in many ways.1) is an example of a typical school-wide policy chart displayed on classroom walls in many schools. A well-intentioned and fairly common practice in many schools is to have a standardized set of consequences for incidents of misbehavior. it is not a true consequence (no matter how many other teachers call them consequences). and developing consequences that are unrelated to the problem behavior do not teach lessons and are essentially quasipunishments. and contribute to long term growth and behavior change. A consequence is by definition related to the problem. . represent a strong cause and effect relationship to both problems and solutions. But the reality is that it can often be a challenge to find a logical and related consequence for some things. Reverting to punishments will undermine the success of your contract. built-in proactively. It is difficult. It encourages the individual teacher (especially those with a 4-Style tendency) to take a less punitive approach and it builds in proactivity and clarity of the policy. Logical and Related It would be nice if all problems had naturally logical and related consequences built-in to them like our example of the student arriving late to the bus. but taking the time and effort to come up with quality consequences (alone or with the help of the students) is well worth it.logical and related. If it is not related.
Or we could take a more hard line stand and say that only work that is turned in on time will be accepted. a warning can be a useful tool to help improve behavior and/or cognizance of the social contract. In Chart 10.1 Common uniform school-wide policy chart depicting levels of consequences for each misbehavior Misbehavior 1st offense 2nd offense 3rd offense Consequence Warning Time at recess or after school Detention and/or contacting parents As you can see from the chart. Both are grounded in cause-and-effect. Bringing in students (as discussed in Chapter 9) may be a great way to get them to buy into the fairness and legitimacy of each consequence. the same consequences are applied for all types of problem behavior. Therefore. a consequence for late work could be that it would only receive partial credit. As a result. By definition. When understanding and/or memory are the issue. we might ask our students what we can do to promote more work being turned in on time.1 warnings are listed as the first level consequence. In practice.Chart 10. In professional life. causing others to be let down or to have our efforts become less valuable. As we have discussed. The primary problem with this approach is that it eliminates the opportunity to have logical and related consequences. Recall our discussion of warnings from Chapter 6. Expect this to be the most powerful and memorable “concept attainment” exercise that the students participate in all year. Make sure that you instruct them to think in terms of logical and related consequences. as well as a real-world precedent. For each problem behavior. if we discover that we have a problem with homework being turned in late. But they are not consequences. They have their use. as this is likely very new thinking for them. and to take part in conceiving what would be “related” consequences. undefined time-outs and detentions are at best merely quasi-punishments. a logical guiding principle could be that work needs to be in on time to get full credit. and as a result no meaningful lesson is learned from this set of standardized consequences. Either of these options makes sense. For example. They are characterized as favors from the teacher to help support students toward the development of functional behavior free of the need for reminders. Be patient. it is a real stretch to characterize what are referred to as consequences in these school codes as true consequences. Moreover. the consequence for being late with work can be that we miss a deadline. select a corresponding consequence that is as logically related to it as possible. as do others. A more effective approach to developing consequences for our social contract is to begin with our most pressing problems. establishing the logic . that means there is little if any cause-and-effect connection between the consequence and the behavior that warranted the consequence.
and strengthen the social contract. In the example of the student’s arriving late to the bus. help to improve the behavior. as opposed to the student’s perspective of the teacher “getting them in trouble. the consequence would not have been educational if the bus has left at a different time each day. our need for power is unmet. Second. Making students very clear about the consequences before the fact has many benefits. . Post them. First.and relatedness of the consequences we ultimately choose will make all the difference in how well they are accepted by the students. It is a good idea to put consequences in writing. When we know what to expect. the focus of the student after the contract violation is much more likely to be on how they can find more effective behavior rather than on what the teacher said or did. But the most valuable teaching tool will be your actions. Be Proactive: Build Consequences into the Contract from the Start Effective consequences are proactively built into the contract before they are implemented. Being proactive promotes internal locus of control. or feeling that they were unfairly penalized. The time used in the development of creating class consequences is time well spent. or the student did not know when the bus was supposed to leave.” Third. it makes it possible to implement the consequence by simply recognizing that a choice was made to violate the contract. we have power. it will make contract violations less common since students know what is expected. Review them and give general reminders when you sense that a little prevention could be valuable. students will learn from what you do. when the climate of the class is accidental. Recall Chapter 5 and the social learning model.
For example. we might use the mantra. Again. “In this class. “If we do a good job of taking care of the equipment. periodic class meetings during which a problem is discussed and students are enlisted to brainstorm logical and related solutions and consequences for the problem can be a good way to promote buy-in. This is especially true for grades K-8.” But again.In addition.” Or the clarifying statement. they are much more likely to carry them out and respect them. . the contract and the consequences built into it will only be as powerful as the students’ sense of ownership of them. the expectation and understanding of the consequence is strengthened. if we do not it is weakened. When we follow through. there is no better way to do this than to have the students involved in the process of developing the consequences. the use of verbal clarifications can be invaluable (recall Chapter 6). Promote Buy-in and Ownership of Consequences As was discussed in Chapter 9. if we don’t we will need to go back to using the old equipment until we can show that we are more responsible. and ask clarifying questions when we don’t understand. When they fully accept the purpose of the contract as being related to them and their welfare rather than being just the “teacher’s set of rules.” the results can be remarkable. Over time. we actively listen to the other members of our group. It cannot be emphasized enough. For high school grades. the words can only support the actions. we will continue to get the privilege of using it. if students own and clearly understand the expectations and consequences in their social contract.
If it does not teach the students to be more responsible and self-disciplined. and one in which the rules were imposed upon the students. It the reaction is one of repentance. It is simplistic to assume that a consequence that deters an immediate behavior is a good consequence. If the reaction implies. A useful clue to the long-term effectiveness of a consequence is the reaction that one receives from a student when it is implemented.” it has a good chance to be effective. Was there a difference in behavior? How about motivation? Keep Your Eyes on the Long-term benefits The test of a good consequence is what it does in the long term. it is therefore not perceived as a consequence but as a punishment. look for the behavior to be revisited.--one in which there was a great deal of ownership and buy in of the rules and/or social contract.Chapter Reflection 10-i: Compare two classes that you have observed at some point. As we discussed earlier in the chapter. it needs to be re-examined. “I knew not to do that. this illusion of effectiveness keeps us in the trap of using familiar but flawed consequences and/or punishments. .
Here is one possible series of ascending consequences: First offense (the student turns to a neighbor to talk while the teacher is talking): Consequence . If the problem behavior is minor and it is infrequent.teacher stops talking (when they are interrupted) and waits for 100% attention or says something to the effect. so I will start over with the directions. it is likely that the student is learning a useful lesson related to the problem behavior. However. “I need everyone’s attention. and makes “tomorrow” more healthy and functional. Ascending/Increasing Level of Impact of Consequences for Each Problem Behavior All contract violations do not have the same degree of damage to the class’s health and function.It may be useful here to recall Chapter 5. “What is being learned each time this consequence is implemented?” If the consequence is logic and related and built-in proactively. Fourth offense (student has the same problem in the new location): Consequence – conference with the teacher after school resulting in a written contract.” This consequence is simple but effective. Most contract violations will be a result of forgetfulness or immaturity. a particular student action does not necessarily imply that the student has a problem. It therefore makes sense to have within our social contract an increasingly more powerful series of consequences for particular problem behavior. or the particular student cannot help it. It is unlikely that many students would require all four levels of consequences. Much of the stress experienced by teachers and the frustration experienced by students comes from . but it is active and gets the message across. it becomes quite significant. Moreover. but if it happens regularly. Some require that the student loses an opportunity so that they may experience a clear consequence for their inability to be a responsible member of the group. a small consequence may be all that is necessary. Ask yourself. Third offense (student does it again): Consequence – student is moved to another seat. Given that this series of consequences implies escalating degrees of power. Since every class is different and every student in the class is different. the student is given logical and appropriate opportunities to solve their problem. It does not take a lot of time or energy. Dynamic #6: Make tomorrow better as a result of what you do today. If it is prevalent or is a persistent problem for a particular student. Let’s take the example of a student who cannot resist talking to the next door student when they should be attending to those contributing in a class discussion. Some will indicate a need to examine why the behavior occurred or continues to occur. but it is comforting for both the teacher and the students in the class to know that they are in place. more significant consequences may be necessary. It may also require some collective soul searching on the part of the class. we can only consider success if the behavior changes rather quickly and for the right reasons. finding the right consequences may take a bit of active research on the part of the teacher. It is not a major problem if it does not happen often. Second offense (the teacher notices that the student is talking to their neighbor when they are supposed to be attentive to another student who is contributing): Next level consequence – student comes up with a strategy to make sure they are able to pay attention when it is required.
they will discover that nearly all of them came in the form of consequences.g. having students move their cards from the green level to the yellow level to the red level. it does not work. standards. Not only is it a punishment or “pain-based” system at its core. missing the cut. or its sibling. but like all punishment systems. Chapter 19 is devoted entirely to an examination of it. painful relationships. “At what point do we include in the series of consequences something that will give the student some pain to “teach them a lesson?” Watch out for the tendency to get more negative rather than more powerful. In the pain-based logic. The ownership for making good behavioral choices rests with the students. One of the most prevalent examples of this brand of punishment is the idea of writing names of students on the board. Their only price is discomfort. its fundamental problems and a more effective and positive alternative. all year.worrying about what particular students may do on a given day.) as it is not related to the misbehavior. Therefore. Some examples are negative calls home. picking up trash. lecture. lost jobs. since the small amount of pain did not change the behavior pattern. Punishments may feel bad. Likewise. and you will see the same names on the board or the same cards changed from green to yellow. it is simply untrue. They involve a real price to pay. The power of consequences is that they are meaningful. The problem with this logic is that no lesson will be learned from the blow (e. However.. there is often a misconception that consequences are easier than punishments. picking up trash. Chapter Reflection 10-j: Are you asking yourself. shaming. Check in on a class that uses such a system. then maybe two will. a greater amount will work only to make the student more hostile and defiant. if one blow to the head does not do the trick. Close scrapes with nature. it is common to see punishments and punishmentbased systems sold as assertive discipline consequences. Having clearly established consequences in place eases much of that stress. losing loved ones. Because of the widespread use of this procedure. etc. Beware of Punishments that are Sold as Logical Consequences Since the use of the term “consequences” is attached to all manner of teacher-imposed penalization in schools today. The teacher simply needs to be a fair and consistent manager of the social contract. but in the end they merely need to be tolerated. its main function is to make the teacher feel better. An important distinction should be made here between the increasingly powerful (consequences) and the increasingly painful (punishments). . running laps. Even some teachers who are opposed to punishments for ethical reasons hold this belief. but it will not do much to change behavior for the better and does a great deal of harm on other levels. If one examines the most difficult and painful lessons they have learned in life. missed opportunities are all examples of life’s consequences. Few of the punishments that have been imposed on us have had the same power to impact or teach. Like other pain-based systems. being sent to the office. This practice is essentially a systematic shame-based punishment sold as a system of rational consequences.
it’s because they appear to deter certain behaviors in the short term and they produce the desired level of repentance in the students. pick up trash around the school. But are they really logical and related? What is the relationship between talking in class and having to write 50 times “I will not talk in class?” Or what is the relationship between being tardy. we can see that in the long run the use of activity as a penalty will take us a step backward in our efforts. they will be deterred from making the same choice again. They are based in the principle that if one has a lousy enough time doing the activity. memorize capital cities.Chapter Reflection 10-k: Observe a class that uses a colored card behavioral system at the beginning of the year and then months later. one learns that the act of writing is a punishment to avoid. Yet we can be assured that the student will develop a negative association (and therefore a disincentive to perform) with the behavior. But as we examine this practice more closely.” And even today they can seem somewhat related to our misbehavior. First. post-penalty. Do you see the same students with their cards on a lower color level? What does it tell you? Avoid Giving Activity as a Negative Consequence Most of us can think of countless examples throughout our schooling where we were given an activity as a punishment. We had to run laps. Likewise. So much for all the time we spend telling our students that they should love to write. except possibly some avoidance of getting caught. clean up the room. do pushups. and having to run laps? Second. In the long-term. since no related lesson is learned there will be no desired behavior change. Recognize the pain-logic? As we examine why we are attracted to these types of penalties and even perceive that they have a desired effect. we are going to penalize you with a behavior we would like to see you do more of. . The message that we are sending is. write lines or standards. help the teacher at recess or any number of activities that were supposed to “teach us a lesson.” This acts to create a disincentive to engage in a desired behavior. if we tell them they must run as a punishment we are saying that the only reason that they should ever consider running in their lives is if someone forces them to. it is difficult to classify activities as something other than punishments. the actual lesson that these punishments teach is to avoid the activity. If one is given standards as a punishment. “Since you did something that we want you to stop doing.
and so on. Developing social bonds can set the table for communal bonds. and if failure does take place. Nevertheless. never do anything helpful or altruistic unless you are forced to. The social contract can transform a class from a self-centered and dysfunctional group of individuals into a selfresponsible and functional collective. a sense of fairness. Over time. I will give you more challenging work. beautify the school. Clarify this principle by creating a clear cause-and-effect relationship in your class. help clean. when you show that you are not responsible. logical and related consequences. ask them to stay after school and help you clean up. acts as a team/tribe. How did it affect your association with that activity at the time? Has that negative association carried on to the present? A helpful guiding principle might be to use activity as a positive consequence and inactivity as a negative consequence. clean-up. students learn only to do what is externally rewarded. In this responsibility-based classroom failing to earn the opportunity to take part is a powerful and related consequence. If the student has a great day. I will give you more freedom and responsibility. until you show you are ready. and puts the needs of one another first. “When you work hard and invest. It may help to use such clarifying statements as. it reinforces the student’s intrinsic sources of motivation. and a functioning social contract will ultimately lead to ever-increasing levels of emotional safety.If we punish the student by having them help. it is a wise and likely necessary starting point for most groups. the result will be the development of more intrinsically motivated students. I will give you work better suited to a less motivated and responsible group. then we are saying in effect. Most likely he or she will consider it an honor. you will not be given the same opportunities. we must make an intentional effort to promote a success psychology (outlined in Chapter 8) and to foster community (discussed in Chapter 17). the presence of the clear cause-and-effect logic within the expectation provides an opportunity for reflection. and behavior changes for the better. if we want to foster the transformation of the group into one that is bonded. Observe the effect this has on the student.” Watch the student rise to the occasion. Chapter Reflection 10-l: Recall a situation in which you were forced to do work (run laps. When work is seen as a reward. Developing clear expectations. but they cannot by themselves create in a student a cause beyond themselves or community. When work is seen as a punishment. However. . but it will not create them.” “When you show that you can be responsible (recall the social frames discussed in Chapter 4). If a student makes an exceptional effort in an area. give them an extra task that stretches and challenges them. write. when you show that you are not ready for the challenging work. This idea will be explored further in Chapter 17. etc) as a penalty for misbehavior.
-Problem-solve solutions to fix problem. alongside a list of possible related consequences for the same problem. -Loss of opportunity to take part in activity. confirm understanding. but as discussed in Ch.3 represents a list of common problems that occur in a class. 3rd intervention – loss of .3 Examples of Consequences. -Splitting them up. 12. 2nd intervention – clarify need to resolve conflict – confirm commitment to conflict-free effort. and inductive lesson designs will ensure more students are engaged more of the time. strategies that one can put into practice that make the need for such behavior less necessary. The level of side-talk is usually related to 1) how engaging the work is and 2) whether or not the teacher has created a culture of listening (Ch. Transformative Idea Be positive. lost points. 12) Clear directions. -Loss of points. but we can attempt to get close. Project-driven work and meaningful assignments will reduce the tendency for students to neglect assignments. -Asking for an excuse. Frequent talking out of turn -Writing lines. See Ch. transformative ideas are offered for each problem-that is. -Negative recognitions. followed by a list of what not to do but are examples of common punishments that teachers use. -Shaming them. Punishments and Transformative ideas for Problem Behaviors: Problem Problem lining up Punishment (What not to do) -Disappointment. Finally. help the students learn to be successful and then take joy in their success. Group can not refrain from conflict that leads to poor performance -Hovering over the group. (See Chapter 14: Cooperative Learning) 1st intervention – clarify task. Table 10. -Shaming. Related Consequence -Practice lining up.Chapter Reflection 10-m: Recall in your experience a time when you were part of a class or group that lacked structure. Turning in assignment late -Public embarrassment. -Loss of opportunity to talk. 13 for more ideas. did you recognize the need to feel that the social bonds were functional before you could feel a sense of community? Table 10. As you may notice there is rarely a case when we are able to manufacture a consequence as logical and related as the bus’s being gone when the student arrived late to the bus stop. Did it limit your ability to feel a deeper sense of pride and group identity? In other words. assessing the quality of group participation (see Appendix X).
and . Cheating No credit for work. Going to Bathroom -Publicly questioning why the student needs to go. The next chapter will provide a step-by-step system for implementing one’s consequences and social contract. Confiscate phone for a time. Student uses them as they see fit. In your experiences have teachers more often used punishments of consequences? What do you see as the effect of each on you personally? Do you recognize the pain-based logic inside yourself and others? Reflect on how in your own experience pain is traded back and forth between parents and children. -Public Humiliation. -Have students put everything down and have their hands free while listening Meet students’ basic need for power. Conclusion It is hoped that this chapter has helped you clarify the distinction between punishments and consequences. and has demonstrated why the use of consequences produces more desirable and effective outcomes. It is best to set an expectation early in the year that there is no reason to have a cell phone out. potentially needing to reflect on solutions for future efforts. Develop a culture of listening. teachers and students. and that they have faith that no one will cheat will usually have little cheating. Zero tolerance early will save a lot of pain later. and when they are gone the student is out of privileges to go.opportunity to take part in activity. -Angry power struggle. and/or need to complete work on own time. Tapping pencils on desks -Public negative recognition -spending time after class. Help the students take make wise use of the privilege. A thoughtful and intentional approach to the development of the consequences within the social contract will help in your efforts to promote more responsible behavior and a positive classroom climate. -Questioning the students intentions. Some set amount of bathroom visits per quarter. 2. Teachers who project the expectation that to cheat is to lose out. Cell phone -Public Humiliation. Create engaging lessons. Journal Reflections 1.
1. and discuss why you felt each was a consequence rather than a punishment. Incentive Plans. Punishments. E. Praise. In groups take part in the following exercise. in any given situation? 3. Pass them to the group next to you. 1. In groups of four. What are the differences between a punishment condition and a consequence condition? 2. Once you have had your neighbor’s two problems. Namaste Publishing . In groups. Negative Natural and logical consequences for poor choices. 2. develop consequences for them. 2. 3 Positive Natural Positive Consequences for good choices. 3. Be sure that they are true consequences. discuss the differences between the two conditions in the student missing the bus example in the beginning of the chapter. In groups. Extrinsic Rewards. Houghton Mifflin Tolle. Discuss the difference between logical and related (but manufactured) consequences and naturally occurring consequences. 3. pass them to another group. 2. 1. 3. This group will need to come up with logical and related consequences for each problem. 2. Refer to Table 10.1 (Consequences vs. and Other Bribes. Share your ideas with the whole. brainstorm two common student behavioral problems that you have seen recently or feel are pertinent (it is more effective if they are not severe problems such as fighting or disrespect--those are addressed in another chapter). When you are done. (2001) Practicing the Power of Now. I recommend that you read Eckhart Tolle’s Practicing the Power of Now. fill in the following chart with teacher practices. compare your answers with the rest of the class. (If this idea resonates with you.those with whom you are in relationships.) Group Class Activities: 1. When you are done. not simply quasi-punishments. It will be helpful to use the table comparing consequences and punishments in the chapter. (1999) Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars. Healthy and Effective Unhealthy and Ineffective Chapter Activities 1. Punishments) to assess your answers. A. References: Kohn. A's. Start by having each group develop a list of two or three common social contract violations (don’t make them too severe--we will save those for a later chapter). 2. 1. What criteria would use to decide which it best. This is more difficult than it sounds.
.Questionaires Punishment: 1. 2. I believe that classroom management must avoids any form of punishment at all costs Reinforcement 1. Part of my role as a classroom manager is to provide positive feedback and recognition for work and effort.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?