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. Difference between government and governance is confusing for many people, and this article intends to clarify the meaning and definition of the two words so as to leave no scope for confusion. An analogy can be drawn between officer and official and also bureaucrat and bureaucracy if we wish to understand difference between government and governance. Government This is a body that comprises a person or a group of persons who run the administration of a country. This is a means in which power is exercised. There are various forms of governments such as democracy or autocracy but this article will remain confined to the general term government which is commonly used in social sciences. In normal circumstances, a state is run by a government that has a mandate from the people to run the affairs of the country and also a term that may be of 4-6 years to serve the state. Thus there is a succession of governments in any country or the same government may be elected again for a successive term if people feel that it has done its job of running the country in a fair and close to ideal manner. Governance The word governance refers to the activities of a government. In layman’s terms, it is the rules and laws made by the government that are sought to be implemented through a chosen bureaucracy which is referred to as governance. The process of governing people or a state is called governance. Difference between government and governance To understand the differences between government and governance, one can take the example of a business which is handled by a person or group of persons (called partners or owners). The way they run the business with the help of employees applying their knowledge and experience is called management. In a similar manner, government is the elected body of representatives headed by a person. This body has the mandate to rule or govern people. And the manner in which they use the established system and principles to run the affairs of the country is called governance. Governance can be good or bad depending upon the perception of the people and they may accordingly choose to retain or vote a particular government out of power. In nutshell, governance is what a government does. It is the exercise of powers that are bestowed upon the government according to set rules and regulations using a system of bureaucracy that defines governance. Government is merely an instrument for the purpose of governance.
FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT
There are two functions of government: constituent and ministrant. Constituent functions are those which constitute the very bonds of society and are compulsory in nature. Examples are keeping of order and providing for the protection of persons and property; the fixing of the legal relations between man and wife, and between parents and child; the regulation of property and the determination of contract rights; the definition and punishment of crime, the administration of justice, the determination of political duties, privileges, and relations of citizens, dealings of the state with foreign powers, the preservation of the state from external danger and the advancement of international interest.
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and on the use of data. public charity. health and safety regulations and regulations of trade and industry. and verify performance. but governance is the way rules are set and implemented. In the case of a business or of a non-profit organization. A good government. cohesive policies. for profit or not. etc. or verify performance. obviously. the quality of governance within the organisation is often compared to a standard of good governance. governance may operate in an organization of any size: from a single human being to all of humanity. For example. .). tribe. on behalf of those governed. a worthwhile pattern of good results while avoiding an undesirable pattern of bad circumstances. The ideal purpose. Perhaps the moral and natural purpose of governance consists of assuring. guidance. a worthy pattern of good while avoiding an undesirable pattern of bad. grant power. A reasonable or rational purpose of governance might aim to assure (sometimes on behalf of others) that an organization produces a worthwhile pattern of good results while avoiding an undesirable pattern of bad circumstances. Governance is the act of governing. Origin of the word The word governance derives from the Greek verb κυβερνάω [kubernáo] which means to steer and was used for the first time in a metaphorical sense by Plato. public education. It might be a geo-political entity (nation-state). could consist of a set of inter-related positions exercising coercive power that assures. a corporate entity (business entity). and it may function for any purpose. It consists of either a separate process or part of decisionmaking or leadership processes. following this line of thought. would assure a perfect pattern of good with no bad. managing at a corporate level might involve evolving policies on privacy. To distinguish the term governance from government: "governance" is what a "governing body" does. governance relates to consistent management. It then passed on to Latin and then on to many languages. Examples are public works. good or evil. a socio-political entity (chiefdom. In modern nation-states. particularly coercive power. It relates to decisions that define expectations. grant power. on behalf of those governed. When discussing governance in particular organisations. by making decisions that define expectations. Processes and governance As a process. these processes and systems are typically administered by agovernment.Ministrant functions are those that are undertaken only by way of advancing the general interests of society and are merely optional. family. or any number of different kinds of governing bodies. A government comprises a set of inter-related positions that govern and that use or exercise power. on internal investment. processes and decision-rights for a given area of responsibility.
they may grant power through political action. on the other hand.Politics provides a means by which the governance process operates. structures of authority and even collaboration to allocate resources and coordinate or control activity in society or the economy . to non-profits. And it has been used to invoke the efficacy of government and the achievement of consensus by democratic means (participation). and on the basis of a critique of existing approaches to governance. Such an argument continues to assume the possibility of the traditional separation . and to any number of humans engaged in some purposeful activity.  This considers the process by which governments are selected. For example. conveys the administrative and process-oriented elements of governing rather than its antagonistic ones. people may choose expectations by way of political activity.  governance can be defined in broader terms. It refers to the "processes of interactions and decision-making among the actors involved in a collective problem. The GAF was developed in the context of the research programme NCCR North-South. processes and nodal points. Governance processes are found in any society. The Worldwide Governance Indicators project of the World Bank defines governance as: The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies and the respect of citizens and the state of the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them. The state and politics It is useful to note the distinction between the concepts of governance and politics. Conceiving of governance in this way. that lead to the creation. Governance. reinforcement or reproduction of social norms and institutions". It has also been used to describe the "proper functioning of institutions and their acceptance by the public" (legitimacy). and they can be analyzed from a nonnormative perspective. one can apply the concept to states. According to the United Nations Development Programme's Regional Project on Local Governance for Latin America: Governance has been defined as the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decision (legality). and enforced as common policy. to project teams. and they may judge performance through political behavior. Politics involves processes by which a group of people (perhaps with divergent opinions or interests) reach collective decisions generally regarded as binding on the group. actors. monitored and replaced. social norms. the GAF. to corporations. The proposed method is based on five analytical tools: problems. to NGOs.  According to the Governance Analytical Framework (GAF). Different definitions The World Bank defines governance as: the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country's economic and social resources for development. to partnerships and other associations. An alternate definition sees governance as: the use of institutions.
These modes of governance often appear in terms of hierarchy. both interand non-governmental. Corporate organizations Corporate organizations often use the word governance to describe both: 1. the Legislature and the Supreme Court). In contrast to the traditional meaning of "governance". more global. The term.  The best example of this is the international system or relationships between independent states. through which collective interests on the global plane are articulated.but also in democracies. some authors like James Rosenau have used the term "global governance" to denote the regulation of interdependent relations in the absence of an overarching political authority.between "politics" and "administration".  The term captures the tendency of policy regimes to deal with complexity with delegated system of rules. governance occurs in three broad ways: 1. can apply wherever a group of free equals needs to form a regular relationship. The manner in which boards or their like direct a corporation 2. more contested and more liberally democratic. the tripartite governance of the United States consists of three branches of power (the Executive. Through top-down methods that primarily involve governments and the state bureaucracy. . premising that both "governance" and "politics" involve aspects of power. Through the use of market mechanisms whereby market principles of competition serve to allocate resources while operating under government regulation. Types Global of governance governance Main article: Global governance Global governance is defined[by whom?] as "the complex of formal and informal institutions. and processes between and among states. however. and differences are mediated". relationships. For instance. in a spirit ofdemocracy. markets. Through networks involving public-private partnerships (PPP) or with the collaboration of community organisations. Contemporary governance practice and theory sometimes questions this distinction. markets. Regulatory governance Main article: Regulatory governance Regulatory governance reflects the emergence of decentered and mutually adaptive policy regimes which rests on regulation rather than service provision or taxing and spending. citizens and organizations. right and obligations are established. The laws and customs (rules) applying to that direction Fair governance A fair governance implies that mechanisms function in a way that allows the executives (the "agents") to respect the rights and interests of the stakeholders (the "principals"). 2. In general terms. and networks . 3. mechanisms. It is likely to appear in arenas and nations which are more complex.
Information technology governance Main article: Information technology governance IT governance primarily deals with connections between business focus and IT management. The principal players include the shareholders. Corporate governance also includes the relationships among the many players involved (the stakeholders) and the corporate goals. regulators. banks and other lenders. customs. section Participatory governance Participatory governance focuses on deepening democratic engagement through the participation of citizens in the processes of governance with the state. The "corporate government" concept itself is older and was already used in finance textbooks at the beginning of the 20th century (Becht. Röell 2004). The goal of clear governance is to assure the investment in IT generate business value and mitigate the risks that are associated with IT projects. and the board of directors. The term builds upon and extends the terms of the regulatory state on the one hand and governance on the other. 108) to denote "the structure and functioning of the corporate polity". Other stakeholders include employees. Project governance Main article: Project governance The term governance as used in industry (especially in the information technology (IT) sector) describes the processes that need to exist for a successful project. In practice. the term governance marginalize regulation as a constitutive instrument of governance. These origins support a multiple constituency (stakeholder) definition of corporate governance. customers. Government officials should also be responsive to this kind of engagement. the environment and the community at large. Bolton. suppliers. management. administer or control a corporation. The term regulatory governance therefore allow us to understand governance beyond the state and governance via regulation. laws and institutions affecting the way people direct. participatory governance can supplement the roles of citizens as voters or as watchdogs through more direct forms of involvement. Corporate governance Main article: Corporate governance Corporate governance consists of the set of processes. policies.  Non-profit governance Non-profit governance focuses primarily on the fiduciary responsibility that a board of trustees (sometimes called directors—the terms are interchangeable) has with respect to the exercise of authority over the explicit public trust that is understood to exist between the mission of an organization and those whom the organization serves. Participatory governance See Kafue River article. While the term regulatory state marginalize non-state actors (NGOs and Business) in the domestic and global level. . The first documented use of the word "corporate governance" is by Richard Eells (1960. The idea is that citizens should play a more direct roles in public decision-making or at least engage more deeply with political issues. pg.
 Institutional arrangements can take many forms in both the public (a regulatory agency) and private (the financial market) sectors. who is experiencing it and what an appropriate solution may be. This is where the 'Orders of Governance' conceptualisation comes in. Once a problem is identified. What is important is that a framework is provided that enables first-order governance to take place. a solution usually comes in the form of laws and/or regulations passed by the governing body.  It represents the established ethical principles. both seek to establish values in such a way that they become accepted 'norms'. first. Second-order Second-order governance is the level at which the "institutional arrangements" are provided "within which first order governing takes place". that shape and steer the entire governing process. Examples of this include the publishing of codes of conduct at the highest level of international government. This is done through interaction between the governing organisation and its citizens  which helps identify what the problem is. there is a distinct "two-way role" at this level with both "those being governed and those governing"  having input into the process to provide an effective and legitimate institutional setting.  The interaction with those being governed helps in this respect as it legitimises the definition. governance is becoming an increasingly complex issue. second and meta. This approach enables a more comprehensive analysis of governing interactions. The fact that 'norms' can be established at any level and can then be used to shape the governance process as whole. means metagovernance is part of the both the input and the output of the governing system.Orders of governance With the process of governing now involving a variety of private as well as public actors. It breaks down governance into three different orders. It is important to note that there are no clearly defined settings within which metagoverning takes place. While some[who?] believe metagoverning to be the role of the state which is assumed to want to steer actors in a particular direction. modern nature of interactions between governing actors.  and media focus on specific issues  at the socio-cultural level. More traditional theories of conceptualizing and understanding governance (such as the Westminster system) are now considered unsuitable. Despite their different sources. First-order First-order governance is the level at which problems are identified and solutions enacted. it can "potentially be exercised by any resourceful actor" who wishes to influence the governing process. Again. There can be differing opinions in an organisation as to what constitutes a problem and there is. a degree of subjectivity in coming up with an "ordered problem definition". as they are too "government-oriented" and are unable to examine the more complex. to some extent. as actors can often "be influenced by institutions (and the way) these help or hinder them" in the pursuit of their goals. Metagovernance "Metagovernance" is widely defined as the "governing of governing". which "correlate to the different levels at which governance is used" and allow for a more detailed analysis of the governing process. or 'norms'. or particular persons who are responsible for it. Measuring governance Further information: Good governance .
or more specifically the City of Westminster. business people and public sector workers to diagnose governance vulnerabilities and suggest concrete approaches for fighting corruption. in the form of indicators and composite indexes. were selected to achieve the development of the WGI: Peace and Security. and Human Development. and ensure their future viability. control of corruption. The seat of government is defined by Brewer's Politics as "the building.[when?] several efforts have been conducted in the research and international development community in order to assess and measure the quality of governance of countries all around the world. A distinction is therefore made between external assessments. Additionally. In the United Kingdom. complex of buildings or city from which a government exercises its authority". in the Netherlands where The Hague is the seat of government and Amsterdam is the de jure capital of the Netherlands. Seat of government See: capital city for details and list of national capitals for each country's seat of government. . it is the same city. which are country-level governance assessment tools that operate at the micro or sub-national level and use information gathered from a country’s own citizens. government effectiveness. Examples of self-assessments are country-led assessments that can be led by government. researchers and/or other stakeholders at the national level. civil society. Examples of external assessments are donor assessments or comparative indices produced by international non-governmental organisations. The project reports aggregate and individual indicators for more than 200 countries for six dimensions of governance: voice and accountability. Rule of Law. Sustainable Development. political stability and lack of violence.  Examples of country-led assessments include the Indonesian Democracy Index. peer assessments and self-assessments. formulate and implement effective reforms that render a society well-equipped to meet future challenges.Over the last decade. which systematically measure the need for reform and the capacity for reform within theOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. The following domains.g. rule of law. regulatory quality. A new World Governance Index (WGI) has been developed and is open for improvement through public participation. developed by members of the World Bank and the World Bank Institute. e. In some countries the seat of government differs from the capital. the capital. in 2009 the Bertelsmann Foundation published the Sustainable Governance Indicators (SGI). Measuring governance is inherently a controversial and political exercise. To complement the macro-level cross-country Worldwide Governance Indicators. In most. The project examines to what extent governments can identify. The seat of government is usually located in the capital. Human Rights and Participation. the seat of government is London. for example Moscow as the capital and seat of government of Russia. One of these efforts to create an internationally comparable measure of governance and an example of an external assessment is the Worldwide Governance Indicators project. An example of a peer assessment is the African Peer Review Mechanism. the World Bank Institute developed the World Bank Governance Surveys. monitoring of the Millennium Development Goal 9 on Human Rights and Democratic Governance in Mongoliaand the Gross National Happiness Index in Bhutan.
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