Excel Function Dictionary

v1.0 Beta Copyright © 1998 - 2001 Peter Noneley

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Documentation Page 2 of 212

What Is In The Dictionary ? This workbook contains 157 worksheets, each explaining the purpose and usage of particular Excel functions. There are also a number of sample worksheets which are simple models of common applications, such as Timesheet and Date Calculations. Formatting Each worksheet uses the same type of formatting to indicate the various types of entry. North 100 100 100 300 =SUM(C13:C15) Text headings are shown in grey. Data is shown as purple text on a yellow background. The results of Formula are shown as blue on yellow. The formula used in the calulations is shown as blue text.

The Arial font is used exclusivley throughout the workbook and should display correctly with any installation of Windows. Each sheet has been designed to be as simple as possible, with no fancy macros to accomplish the desrired result. Printing Each worksheet is set to print on to A4 portrait. The printouts will have the column headings of A,B,C... and the row numbers 1,2,3... which will assist with the reading of the formula. The ideal printer would be a laser set at 600dpi. If you are using a dot matrix or inkjet, it may be worth switching off the colours before printing, as these will print as dark grey. (See the sheet dealing with Colour settings). Protection Each sheet is unprotected so that you will be able to change values and experiment with the calculations. Macros There are only a few very simple macros which are used by the various buttons to naviagte through the sheets. These have been written very simply, and do not make any attempt to change your current Toolbars and Menus.

Rs.

15,235,894.00 Rupees One Crore Fifty Two Lakh Thirty Five Thousand Eight Hundred and Nin

INR Paise

15,235,894.00 Rupees One Crore Fifty Two Lakh Thirty Five Thousand

Integer Portion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 40 91 81 50 30 20 50 10 00 Ninety Eight Five Thirty Two Fifty One Four

Decimal Portion 1 0 00

2

0

00

INR

Rupees

Paise

d Eight Hundred and Ninety Four Only akh Thirty Five Thousand Eight Hundred and Ninety Four Four Ninety Eight Five Thirty Two Fifty One Crore Lakh Four Ninety Hundred and Eight Hundred and Thousand Five Thousand Thirty Two Lakh Fifty One Crore .

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Click this button to sort alphabetically. Click on the View button. then 2. 1. Click on the function name. Built-in indicates that the function is part of Excel itself.2000 Peter Noneley Instructions Page 7 of 212 What Do The Buttons Do ? View View Sort Sort This button will display the worksheet containing the function example. . Click this button to sort alphabetically. Analysis ToolPak indicates the function is stored in the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Category Category Location Location This describes the category the function is a member of. This shows where the function is stored in Excel.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . This button sorts the list of functions into alphabetical order.

The colours are best suited to monitors capable of 256 colours.2000 Peter Noneley Colours Page 8 of 212 Using Different Monitor Settings Each sheet has been designed to fit within the visible width of monitors with a low resolution of 640 x 480. This may take a Colour On few minutes on any computer ! Alan Bob Carol Total North 100 100 100 300 Sample Colour Scheme South East West 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 300 300 300 Total 400 400 400 1200 . On monitors using just 16 colours the greys may look a bit rough! You can switch colours off and on using the button below. This ensures that you do not need to scroll from left and right to see all the data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The Analysis ToolPak must be added-in to Excel before these functions will be available. Analysis ToolPak Check For Analysis Load the Analysis ToolPak UnLoad the Analysis Any formula using these functions without the ToolPak loaded will show the #NAME error.2000 Peter Noneley Analysis ToolPak Page 9 of 212 Analysis ToolPak What Is The Analysis ToolPak ? The Analysis ToolPak is an add-in file containing extra functions which are not built in to Excel. The functions cover areas such as Date and Mathematical operations. .

TYPE EVEN EXACT FACT FIND FIXED FLOOR FORECAST FREQUENCY GCD GESTEP GROWTH HEX2DEC HLOOKUP HOUR IF INDEX INDIRECT INFO INT ISBLANK ISERR ISERROR ISEVEN ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISODD Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Mathematical Logical Statistical Engineering Mathematical Information Text Lookup Text Text Mathematical Text Engineering Statistical Statistical Statistical Information Mathematical Date Date Date Database Date Date Financial Database Database Engineering Engineering Engineering Database Database Database Text Database Date Date Information Mathematical Text Mathematical Text Text Mathematical Statistical Statistical Mathematical Engineering Statistical Engineering Lookup Date Logical Lookup Lookup Information Mathematical Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Using DATEDIF() Using Alt and = Sample Using MID() CELL() and FIND() Using F11 Stock Ordering How to calculate various percentages Example using date calculation. location. Example flexi time sheet. Undocumented in v5/7/97 Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number Returns the average of selected database entries Converts a serial number to a day of the month Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database Counts nonblank cells in a database Converts a decimal number to binary Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal Tests whether two values are equal Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria Returns the maximum value from selected database entries Returns the minimum value from selected database entries Converts a number to text. Using Ctrl and ` Using LEFT() RIGHT() FIND() SUBSTITUTE() How to calculate time. using currency format Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months Returns a number corresponding to an error type Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer Checks to see if two text values are identical Returns the factorial of a number Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals Rounds a number down.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Returns the absolute value of a number Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE Returns the average of its arguments Converts a binary number to decimal Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Returns information about the formatting.2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 10 of 213 Age Calculation AutoSum shortcut key Brackets in formula FileName formula Instant Charts Ordering Stock Percentages Project Dates Show all formula Split ForenameSurname Time Calculation TimeSheet For Flexi ABS AND AVERAGE BIN2DEC CEILING CELL CHAR CHOOSE CLEAN CODE COMBIN CONCATENATE CONVERT CORREL COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK COUNTIF DATE DATEDIF DATEVALUE DAVERAGE DAY DAYS360 DB DCOUNT DCOUNTA DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA DGET DMAX DMIN DOLLAR DSUM EDATE EOMONTH ERROR. toward zero Returns a value along a linear trend Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array Returns the greatest common divisor Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value Returns values along an exponential trend Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell Converts a serial number to an hour Specifies a logical test to perform Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array Returns a reference indicated by a text value Returns information about the current operating environment Rounds a number down to the nearest integer Returns TRUE if the value is blank Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A Returns TRUE if the value is any error value Returns TRUE if the number is even Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value Returns TRUE if the value is not text Returns TRUE if the value is a number Returns TRUE if the number is odd . or contents of a cell Returns the character specified by the code number Chooses a value from a list of values Removes all nonprintable characters from text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects Joins several text items into one text item Converts a number from one measurement system to another Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments Counts how many values are in the list of arguments Counts the number of blank cells within a range Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria Returns the serial number of a particular date Calculates the difference between two dates.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 11 of 213 ISREF ISTEXT LARGE LCM LEFT LEN LOOKUP (vector) LOWER MATCH MAX MEDIAN MID MIN MINUTE MINVERSE MMULT MOD MODE MONTH MROUND N NA NETWORKDAYS NOT NOW ODD OR PERMUT PI POWER PRODUCT PROPER QUARTILE QUOTIENT RAND RANDBETWEEN RANK REPLACE REPT RIGHT ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP SECOND SIGN SLN SMALL STDEV STDEVP SUBSTITUTE SUBTOTAL SUM SUM_as_Running_Total SUM_using_names SUM_with_OFFSET SUMIF SUMPRODUCT SYD T TEXT TIME -Timesheet TIMEVALUE TODAY TRANSPOSE TREND TRIM TRUNC TYPE UPPER VALUE VAR VARP VLOOKUP WEEKDAY WORKDAY Information Information Statistical Mathematical Text Text Lookup Text Lookup Statistical Statistical Text Statistical Date Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Date Mathematical Information Information Date Logical Date Mathematical Logical Statistical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Text Statistical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Text Text Text Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Date Mathematical Financial Statistical Statistical Statistical Text Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Sample Lookup Mathematical Mathematical Financial Text Text Date Sample Date Date Lookup Statistical Text Mathematical Information Text Text Statistical Statistical Lookup Date Date Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Sample Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Sample Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Returns TRUE if the value is a reference Returns TRUE if the value is text Returns the k-th largest value in a data set Returns the least common multiple Returns the leftmost characters from a text value Returns the number of characters in a text string Looks up values in a vector or array Converts text to lowercase Looks up values in a reference or array Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments Returns the median of the given numbers Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments Converts a serial number to a minute Returns the matrix inverse of an array Returns the matrix product of two arrays Returns the remainder from division Returns the most common value in a data set Converts a serial number to a month Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple Returns a value converted to a number Returns the error value #N/A Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates Reverses the logic of its argument Returns the serial number of the current date and time Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects Returns the value of Pi Returns the result of a number raised to a power Multiplies its arguments Capitalises the first letter in each word of a text value Returns the quartile of a data set Returns the integer portion of a division Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Returns a random number between the numbers you specify Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Replaces characters within text Repeats text a given number of times Returns the rightmost characters from a text value Converts an arabic numeral to roman. as text Rounds a number to a specified number of digits Rounds a number down. toward zero Rounds a number up. away from zero Converts a serial number to a second Returns the sign of a number Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population Substitutes new text for old text in a text string Returns a subtotal in a list or database Adds its arguments Sample Using SUM(jan) Sample Adds the cells specified by a given criteria Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period Converts its arguments to text Formats a number and converts it to text Returns the serial number of a particular time Sample Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number Returns the serial number of today's date Returns the transpose of an array Returns values along a linear trend Removes spaces from text Truncates a number to an integer Returns a number indicating the data type of a value Converts text to uppercase Converts a text argument to a number Estimates variance based on a sample Calculates variance based on the entire population Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell Converts a serial number to a day of the week Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 12 of 213 YEAR YEARFRAC Date Date Built-in Converts a serial number to a year Analysis ToolPak Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date .

2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 13 of 213 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 14 of 213 .

Start 1:30 8:00 7:30 AM End 2:30 17:00 5:45 PM Duration 1:00 9:00 10:15 20:15 Formatting time When time is added together the result may go beyond 24 hours. Look at the section about formatting further in this worksheet. the result needs to be formatted with a Custom format. such as 12:30. You must leave a space between the number and the text. Example 1 : Incorrect formatting Start End Duration 7:00 18:30 11:30 8:00 17:00 9:00 7:30 17:45 10:15 Total 6:45 Example 2 : Correct formatting Start End 7:00 18:30 8:00 17:00 7:30 17:45 Total =SUM(E49:E51) Duration 11:30 9:00 10:15 30:45 =SUM(E56:E58) . You may need to reformat the answer.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . This works well until the total time goes above 24 hours.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 B C D E F G H I Time Calculation Page 15 of 212 J Time Calculation Excel can work with time very easily.30 1:30 12:30 20:15 22:45 Excel can cope with either the 24hour system or the am/pm system. For totals greater than 24 hours you may need to apply some special formatting. See the TimeSheet example for an example. Time can be entered in various different formats and calculations performed. To correct this error. Adding time You can add time to find a total time. as in the example below. Usually this gives an incorrect result. rather than 12. To use the am/pm system you must enter the am or pm after the time. Typing time When time is entered into worksheet it should be entered with a colon between the hour and the minutes. There are one or two oddities. Start 1:30 8:00 8:00 AM End 2:30 17:00 5:00 PM Duration 1:00 =D24-C24 9:00 =D25-C25 9:00 AM If the result is not shown correctly. 1:30 AM 1:30 PM 10:15 AM 10:15 PM Finding the difference between two times You can subtract two time values to find the length of time between. but nothing which should put you off working with it.

2. Choose the Format menu.2000 Peter Noneley A 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 B C D E F G H I Time Calculation Page 16 of 212 J How To Apply Custom Formatting The custom format for time use a pair of square brackets [hh] on either side of the hours indicators. . 7. Click on the cell which needs the format. Click the Number tag at the top right. 6. 4. Choose Cells. Click inside the Type: box. 1. 3. 8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 5. Choose Custom. Click OK to confirm. Type [hh]:mm as the format.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . "-") =IF(G3-G11<0. Type the times you arrive and leave work in the appropriate columns. This ensures the total hours can be expressed as a value above 24 hours. Cells.G3-G11. Instructions : Type the week start date in cell C3. Number. Note The Total Hours cell has been formatted as [hh]:mm. Use the format of hh:mm. Use the format dd/mm/yy. it can be created using Format. This is used later to calculate if have worked over or under the required hours.ABS(G3-G11). the Normal Hours. the name of the day will appear automatically. 14:45 ."-") Under worked by Over worked by This is simple example of a timesheet. Custom. If the [hh]:mm format had not been used the Total Hours would show as : If the [hh]:mm format does not show in the cell format dialog box on your computer. the Week beginning.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I TimeSheet For Flexi Page 17 of 212 J K TimeSheet for Flexi Week beginning Mon 05-Jan-98 Day Mon 05 Tue 06 Wed 07 Thu 08 Fri 09 Arrive 8:00 8:45 9:00 8:30 8:00 Lunch Out Lunch In 13:00 14:00 12:30 13:30 13:00 14:00 13:00 14:00 12:00 13:00 Normal Hours Depart 17:00 17:00 18:00 17:00 17:00 Total Hours 37:30 Total 8:00 7:15 8:00 7:30 8:00 38:45 1:15 =(F6-C6)-(E6-D6) =SUM(G6:G10) =IF(G3-G11>0. Type the amount of hours you are expected to work in G3. The date is then passed down to the Day column.

""))))) Finding the Middle name Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Middle Name David John Susan =LEFT(RIGHT(C45.RIGHT(C45.SUBSTITUTE(C37.1)) =LEFT(C15. If there is also a middle name.1)).C22)) =RIGHT(C23.C23)) =RIGHT(C24.LEN(C23)-FIND(" ". Finding the First Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams First Name Alan Bob Carol =LEFT(C14.C14.C45. the last name formula will be incorrect.LEN(C45)-FIND(" ". To solve the problem you have to use a much longer calculation.C15."#".LEN(C45)-FIND(" ".FIND(" ".1)) .LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".C24)) Finding the Last name when a Middle name is present The formula above cannot handle any more than two names.1)) Finding the Last Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams =RIGHT(C22. Each of the techniques uses the space between the names to identify where to split.FIND(" ".C16.C45.LEN(C37)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(C37.LEN(C37)-FIND("#".1)) =LEFT(C16. One of the most common examples of this is when a persons Forename and Surname are entered in full into a cell.1))." ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ." ". The formula use various text functions to accomplish the task. Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams =RIGHT(C37.FIND(" ".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F Split ForenameSurname Page 18 of 212 G H Split Forename and Surname The following formula are useful when you have one cell containing text which needs to be split up.LEN(C22)-FIND(" ".FIND(" ".

$C$18:$C$20.000 £ 20.2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 C D E F G H I Percentages Page 19 of 213 J Percentages There are no specific functions for calculating percentages.$D$18:$D$20)+E49 =E50*LOOKUP(D50.000 £ 3.$D$18:$D$20) =E28*LOOKUP(D28.200 =E23*LOOKUP(D23.$C$18:$C$20.$C$18:$C$20.$D$18:$D$20)+E50 =E51*LOOKUP(D51.000 £ 25.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .$C$18:$C$20.$C$18:$C$20.750 £ 32.$D$18:$D$20) Finding a percentage increase Initial value % increase Increased value 120 25% 150 =D33*D34+D33 Example 2 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.$D$18:$D$20) =E24*LOOKUP(D24. Staff on different grades get different pay rises. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C Old Salary Increase £ 10.$C$18:$C$20.000 £ 23.$D$18:$D$20)+E52 .$D$18:$D$20) =E26*LOOKUP(D26.000 £ 38.000 £ 20.000 £ 3.$C$18:$C$20.000 £ 11.000 £ 30.400 £ 12.$C$18:$C$20.000 £ 6.000 £ 28.000 £ 1.$D$18:$D$20)+E51 =E52*LOOKUP(D52. The wages department need to calculate the increases.$C$18:$C$20.$C$18:$C$20. The wages department need to calculate the new salary including the % increase.750 £ 32.000 £ 36.$D$18:$D$20) =E25*LOOKUP(D25.$D$18:$D$20)+E48 =E49*LOOKUP(D49. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Frank % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C A Old Salary Increase £ 10.000 £ 6.000 £ 30. Staff on different grades get different pay rises.000 £ 1. You have to use the skills you were taught in your maths class at school! Finding a percentage of a value Initial value % to find Percentage value 120 25% 30 =D8*D9 Example 1 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.000 £ 25.$D$18:$D$20) =E27*LOOKUP(D27.$C$18:$C$20.400 =E48*LOOKUP(D48.

000 3.500 13. The manager knows what has been spent by each region in the previous year.000 West 8.000 7.$C$18:$C$20.000 Finding an original value after an increase has been applied Increased value % increase Original value Example 4 150 25% 120 =D100/(100%+D101) .000 Total 100.000 Q3 2.000 12.000 5.000 6.000 20.000 Percentages Page 20 of 213 F G H I 13.500 Q3 9% 9% 7% 6% 31% Q4 7% 5% 3% 5% 20% =G74/$H$78 =G75/$H$78 =G76/$H$78 =G77/$H$78 =G78/$H$78 Q3 13. The manger needs to specify what will be required each quarter.500 Total 39.000 9.500 6.500 4.000 West 12.000 23.000 13.000 Total 26.000 5.500 3.000 Last years Quarters as % of last years Total Region Q1 Q2 North 9% 2% South 7% 4% East 2% 8% West 8% 9% Total 26% 23% Next years budget 150.500 9.000 8.000 Q4 7. By analysing the past years spending.000 9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example 3 An manager has been asked to submit budget requirements for next year. Last years figures Region Q1 Q2 North 9.500 7.000 9.500 10.000 South 10.000 34.000 Next years estimated budget requirements Region Q1 Q2 North 13.200 =E53*LOOKUP(D53.000 =G82*$E$88 =G83*$E$88 =G84*$E$88 Total 150.000 46.500 30.000 4.000 East 3.500 Q4 10.500 7.$D$18:$D$20)+E53 J £ £ Finding one value as percentage of another Value A Value B A as % of B 120 60 50% =D59/D58 You will need to format the result as % by using the % button on the toolbar.000 East 2.2000 Peter Noneley A B 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 C Frank D A E 12.000 31.000 South 7. the manager hopes to predict what will need to be spent in the next year.

50 =D115/(100%+$D$110) Percentages Page 21 of 213 J =D113-D113/(100%+$D$110) .00 £ 8.00 £ 117.00 £ 35. Unfortunately the receipts held by the employee only show the total amount. The employee needs to split this total to show the original value and the VAT amount.2000 Peter Noneley A B 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 C D E F G H I An employ has to submit an expenses claim for travelling and accommodation.00 £ 17. VAT rate Receipt Petrol Hotel Petrol 17.00 £ 200.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 £ 100.50% Total Actual Value Vat Value £ 10.49 £ 235. The claim needs to show the VAT tax portion of each receipt.51 £ 1.

2000 Peter Noneley Show all formula Page 22 of 212 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B C D E F G H Show all formula You can view all the formula on the worksheet by pressing Ctrl and `.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . (The screen may look a bit odd. Press Ctrl and ` to see the formula below. 10 30 50 70 20 40 60 80 =A9+B9 =SUM(A10:B10) =MAX(A11:B11) =IF(A12>B12.A9.A10) .) Press the same combination to see the original view. The ' is the left single quote usually found on the key to left of number 1.

. and the names change to Feb and Mar. Options. You can switch it on by using Tools. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer. Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show. Accept Labels in Formula. This formula can be copied to D16 and E16.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 23 of 212 H SUM using names You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Calculation.

8 Series1 0.6 Series2 Series3 0.2 1 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 .4 0.1.

Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B C D E F G Instant Charts Page 25 of 212 H Instant Charts You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data. Then press F11. .

xls.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Worksheet name.ms_office. This can be done by using the CELL() function.1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F G Filename formula Page 26 of 212 Filename formula There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook or worksheet in to a cell.FIND("[".CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Workbook name. 153159678.CELL("filename"))+1.CELL("filename"))+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To pick the Path.xls.FIND("[".255) . To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions.xls]Welcome =CELL("filename") The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders.xls =MID(CELL("filename"). \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_4\[153159678.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".FIND("]". Welcome =MID(CELL("filename").FIND("]".ms_office. shown below. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_4\ =MID(CELL("filename").

The * and / operations will be calculated before + and . (also known as 'braces'). 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first. resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60 . The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply.. Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and ..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need. in formula. Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50 Example 2 : The correct answer.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G Brackets in formula Page 27 of 212 H Brackets in formula Sometimes you will need to use brackets.

TODAY(). 5 Months and 19 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 5 19 =DATEDIF(C8. which creates a text version."ym") =DATEDIF(C8. Age is 53 Years.47 =(TODAY()-C23)/365.5 represents 6 months."md") You can put this all together in one calculation."y")&" Years.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G Age Calculation Page 28 of 212 H Age Calculation You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date."y") =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY()."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8.5. but it is in 2000.TODAY(). the .TODAY().TODAY().25 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function. If the age is 20. Birth date : Age is : 1-Jan-60 53."md")&" Days" Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months. The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5. 7 or 97. "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G

AutoSum Shortcut Key Page 29 of 212 H

AutoSum Shortcut Key
Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar, you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column, then press Alt and =. or Select a row, column or all cells and then press Alt and =. Jan 10 20 30 40 Feb 50 60 70 80 Mar 90 100 200 300 Total

North South East West Total

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G

ABS Page 30 of 212 H

ABS
Number 10 -10 1.25 -1.25 Absolute Value 10 10 1.25 1.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7)

What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number, irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number, no special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short, the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. Table 1 shows the original calculations. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative, which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated. Whether the wood was too long or short, the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

Required Length 120 120 120

Actual Length 120 90 150

Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36

Error Percentage 0% 25% -25%

Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

Required Length 120 120 120

Actual Length 120 90 150

Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45-E45) Difference

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H

ADDRESS Page 31 of 212 I

ADDRESS
Type a column number : Type a row number : Type a sheet name : $B$3 B$3 $B3 B3 R3C2 R3C[2] R[3]C2 R[3]C[2] Hello!$B$3 Hello!B$3 Hello!$B3 Hello!B3 2 3 Hello

=ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,TRUE,F5) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,TRUE,F5) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,TRUE,F5) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,TRUE,F5)

What Does It Do ? This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text, based on a row and column numbers given by the user. This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet. Syntax =ADDRESS(RowNumber,ColNumber,Absolute,A1orR1C1,SheetName) The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384. The ColNumber is from 1 to 256, cols A to IV. The Absolute can be 1,2,3 or 4. When 1 the reference will be in the form When 2 the reference will be in the form When 3 the reference will be in the form When 4 the reference will be in the form $A$1, column and row absolute. A$1, only the row absolute. $A1, only the column absolute. A1, neither col or row absolute.

The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE. When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1, the normal style for cell addresses. When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1, the alternative style of cell address. The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference. The SheetName does not actually have to exist.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E F G H

AND Page 32 of 212 I

AND
Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100,D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100,D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100,D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1,D7<=52)

What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions. It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Syntax =AND(Test1,Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results. The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average. The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE

=AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38),D38>=AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38),E38>=AVERAGE($E$29:$E$38))

Averages

47

54

60

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G AREAS Page 33 of 212 H AREAS Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 2 =AREAS(PeopleLists) Green What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data. If it is a single block the result will be 1. Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. or whether it is a multiple selection. If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected. When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range. Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used. then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range. In the above example the pink range was selected as normal. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . The function is designed to be used in macros. The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range.

through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.. If the cell is blank or contains text.3333 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.571 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1. the cell will not be used in the average calculation.3333 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24. If the cell contains zero 0.667 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.667 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range3. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA().2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G H I J K L M AVERAGE Page 34 of 212 N AVERAGE Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.Range2..667 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Temp Rain Further Usage . the cell will be included in the average calculation.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H

BIN2DEC Page 35 of 212 I

BIN2DEC
Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 0 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 -1 1111111110 -2 1111111101 -3 1000000000 -512 11111111111 #NUM! =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13)

What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G

CEILING Page 36 of 212 H

CEILING
Number 2.1 1.5 1.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4,1) =CEILING(C5,1) =CEILING(C6,1) =CEILING(C7,30) =CEILING(C8,30) =CEILING(C9,30)

What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound,MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14

Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10

=CEILING(D28,7) =CEILING(D29,7) =CEILING(D30,7)

Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck. This results of the division are not whole numbers, and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3.33 8.33 5.71

=D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 B C D E F G Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number, and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed. Table 2 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 4 9 6

CEILING Page 37 of 212 H

=CEILING(D54/E54,1) =CEILING(D55/E55,1) =CEILING(D56/E56,1)

Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item. The shopkeeper buys products by the box. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence. Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs. Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters

Box Qnty 11 7 5 16

Box Cost £20 £18.25 £28.10 £28

Cost Per Item 1.81818 2.60714 5.62000 1.75000

=D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72

Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence. Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters

In Box 11 7 5 16

Box Cost £20 £18.25 £28.10 £28

Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.81818 1.99 2.60714 2.99 5.62000 5.99 1.75000 1.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83,1),0.99)

Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83,1) =CEILING(MOD(E83),0.99)

Calculates the integer part of the price. Calculates the decimal part of the price. Raises the decimal to 0.99

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B C D E F G H

CELL Page 38 of 213 I

CELL
This is the cell and contents to test. The cell address. The column number. The row number. The actual contents of the cell. The type of entry in the cell. Shown as b for blank, l for text, v for value. The alignment of the cell. Shown as ' for left, ^ for centre, " for right. Nothing is shown for numeric entries. The width of the cell. The number format fo the cell. (See the table shown below) 17.50% $D$3 4 3 0.175 v =CELL("address",D3) =CELL("col",D3) =CELL("row",D3) =CELL("contents",D3) =CELL("type",D3)

9

=CELL("prefix",D3) 12 P2 =CELL("width",D3) =CELL("format",D3)

10 11 12

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values. 0 =CELL("parentheses",D3) 1 for yes, 0 for no. Formatted for coloured negatives. 0 =CELL("color",D3) 1 for yes, 0 for no. The type of cell protection. 1 =CELL("protect",D3) 1 for a locked, 0 for unlocked. The filename containing the cell. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_4\[153159678.xls.ms_office.xls]CELL =CELL("filename",D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents, position and formatting. Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired",CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ". Formatting No special formatting is needed. Codes used to show the formatting of the cell. Numeric Format General 0 #,##0 0.00 #,##0.00 $#,##0_);($#,##0) $#,##0_);[Red]($#,##0) $#,##0.00_);($#,##0.00) $#,##0.00_);[Red]($#,##0.00) 0% 0.00% 0.00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 ,0 F2 ,2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8

Example

ms_office.xls =MID(CELL("filename").2000 Peter Noneley A 56 57 58 59 B C D E F The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.xls.CELL("filename"))-1) CELL Page 39 of 213 G H I .CELL("filename"))+1.FIND("]".CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".FIND("[".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The name of the current file is : 153159678.

Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent. Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ţ 167 168 169 Ř 170 ř 171 Ŗ 172 ŗ 173 • 174 Ŕ 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters.70 . Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting. 69 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Note 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U CHAR Page 40 of 213 V W CHAR ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. these will be displayed as a small box.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character. Q R S T U CHAR Page 41 of 213 V W .

18%) =CHOOSE(C8."Gold".15%. Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required."Gold".15%.18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6."Gold". Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3. The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3.CHOOSE(D33."Bob"."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7. Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race."Bronze").CHOOSE(D32.15%."Bronze")."Alan"."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3."Bronze")."Silver"."Bronze")."Silver"."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5."Bronze"). Item1.C30:C34) . due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it. The Time for each athlete is entered."Gold".18%) =CHOOSE(C9.10%."Silver". The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3. as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear.CHOOSE(D30."Bob"."Silver". Item2.CHOOSE(D31. The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete."Bob"."Alan"."Silver"."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 42 of 212 J CHOOSE Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% =CHOOSE(C4.CHOOSE(D34."unplaced") =RANK(C34.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .10%."Alan"."Gold".10%."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The result will show as normal text. These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes. Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H CLEAN Page 43 of 212 I CLEAN Dirty Text Hello He llo Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text. .

69 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number. < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ţ 167 168 169 Ř 170 ř 171 Ŗ 172 ŗ 173 • 174 Ŕ 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ .70 . 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D E F G H I J CODE Page 44 of 212 K CODE Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character. the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255. Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. or the first character in a piece of text. There are 255 characters in the ANSI set. Example See the example for FREQUENCY.

Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 The four letters : Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Pair 5 Pair 6 Combinations 6 ABCD AB AC AD BC BD CD =COMBIN(C25. The internal order of the combination does not matter.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41.D5) =COMBIN(C6. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD. Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black Scheme 1 Red Scheme 2 Red Scheme 3 Red Scheme 4 Red Scheme 5 Red .D25) Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F COMBIN Page 45 of 212 G COMBIN Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4.D4) =COMBIN(C5.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items. The decorator is given five colours to work with.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required. but can only use three in any scheme. so AB is the same as BA.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Blue Yellow C Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Blue Black D Green Black Scheme 8 Green Yellow Black E Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Yellow Black F COMBIN Page 46 of 212 G Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .

Text2. "&C29 =D30&".C8) =CONCATENATE(D9.D7) =CONCATENATE(D8.. Bob Davies.. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator." ". Carol =C25&D25 =C26&D26 =C27&D27 =C28&" "&D28 =D29&".D4) =CONCATENATE(C5. ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .".D6) =CONCATENATE(C7. Carol =CONCATENATE(C4. Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1. Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams. ".D5) =CONCATENATE(C6.C9) What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G CONCATENATE Page 47 of 212 H CONCATENATE Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams.". Formatting No special formatting is needed. Bob Davies.Text3.Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined. "&C30 . the result will be shown as normal text.

Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.3048 =CONVERT(C5.5146 2 1.D10. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system. to the same value expressed in a different type of unit.E5) 0. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 B C D E F G CONVERT Page 48 of 212 H CONVERT Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1. such as Inches to Centimetres.E4) 0."lbm".) g kg sg lbm u ozm m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica yr .81 3 2.9144 =CONVERT(C6.E8) =CONVERT(C9."ozm".UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed."kg")+CONVERT(E28.UnitToConvertFrom.D5.E10) =CONVERT(C11. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert."ft".D9.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec Converted Amount 2.E11) What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit.35301 =CONVERT(D28.D11.5 0.D6."m")+CONVERT(E34.54 =CONVERT(C4.5748 =CONVERT(D34."m") Weight Height Length Width Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.E9) =CONVERT(C10.D8.D4.E6) 365.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3."in".25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8.

00E-09 1.00E-06 1.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a .00E-15 1.00E+15 P 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00E-02 1.00E-03 1. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.00E+18 E 1.00E+03 k 1.00E+09 G 1.00E+06 M 1.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E+12 T 1. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Day Hour Minute Second Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU B C day hr mn sec D E Pressure Pascal Atmosphere mm of Mercury Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F Pa atm mmHg G CONVERT Page 49 of 212 H C F K N dyn lbf tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU HP W Magnetism Tesla Gauss T ga These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.00E-12 1.00E+02 h 1.00E-01 1.

000 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50 Sales £20.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 B C D E F G H I CORREL Page 50 of 212 J CORREL Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400 Table 2 Advertising Costs £2. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales. The correlation shows that there is an 0. .000 £5. the greater the correlation.000 £40.000 £20.000 £8.000 £40.E5:E10) Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10.000 Correlation 0.H5:H10) What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.000 £1.864 =CORREL(D5:D10.000 £20. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units.864 realtionship between the data.000 £30. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1.000 £1. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data. The larger the result. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result.000 £1. Syntax =CORREL(Range1.

Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month. text and errors.430423 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 .Range2.000 £1. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.. It will ignore blanks. Syntax =COUNT(Range1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I COUNT Page 51 of 212 J COUNT Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.000 Metal £1.000 Wood £5. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1..000 Glass £2.Range3.

Each exam passed was graded as 1. A failure was entered as Fail.Range3. Maths Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam.399142 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1. The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 B C D E F G H I COUNTA Page 52 of 212 J COUNTA Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. It will ignore blanks.Range2. 2 or 3... The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H COUNTBLANK Page 53 of 212 I COUNTBLANK Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned. Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy. The response to the question could be Y or N. The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41."N") Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : . As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table.

"Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. ."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G COUNTIF Page 54 of 212 COUNTIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12. Type the name of the item to count.">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed."Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes.CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways. To match a specific number type the number. How many Tyres have been bought.">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted. How many items cost £100 or above.100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes.

D5.month.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G H I DATE Page 55 of 212 J DATE Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4.Cells. Syntax =DATE(year.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 2000 =DATE(E6.D6. By using the Format.Date command the format can be changed. .C5) January 2.D4.Number.C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format.

TODAY()."yd") =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY()."d") =DATEDIF(C5."md") You can put this all together in one calculation. "y" Years between the two dates."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY()."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates."y") 5 =DATEDIF(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H DATEDIF Page 56 of 212 I DATEDIF FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference 3782 124 10 130 4 9 =DATEDIF(C4. as if the dates were in the same year."ym") =DATEDIF(C9. as if the dates were in the same year.D5.TODAY(). Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 =DATEDIF(C8."y")&" Years."md")&" Days" . which creates a text version. Age is 53 Years. as if the dates were in the same month and year. months or years."ym") 19 =DATEDIF(C8. Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate. "d" Days between the two dates.TODAY(). "ym" Months between the dates.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed. 5 Months and 19 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8.D7. SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates.D8. "&DATEDIF(C8."m") =DATEDIF(C6.D6.D4.TODAY().SecondDate. "m" Months between the two dates. "md" Days between the two dates."y") =DATEDIF(C7.D9."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates. "yd" Days between the dates. These are the available intervals. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate. It can show the result in weeks.

Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date.Cells. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F DATEVALUE Page 57 of 212 G DATEVALUE Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 #VALUE! 36519 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text. Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs.Date. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4926 10-july/99 -5094 13-sep-98 -5394 30/5/2000 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as exports from mainframe computers. Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format.Number. probably after being imported from an external program.

00 £0.F3.00 £5. such as Horizon as a brand name. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.80 20 5 £180. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Formatting No special formatting is needed.50 15 0 £0.00 15 2 £60.50 4 3 £54.25 10 4 £50.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. such as "Unit Cost" or F3.00 £1.00 £0. which are to be selected.00 £2. .20 25 2 £10. such as the category Brand or Wattage.50 10 3 £15. of the values to be averaged. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.FieldName.00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb. The FieldName is the name.00 £2. The second set of information is the actual record.50 £0. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I DAVERAGE Page 58 of 212 J DAVERAGE Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.20 30 2 £12.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average.00 3 2 £30. or cell.15 25 0 £0.80 25 6 £120.80 10 5 £40. or names.00 £0. The first set of information is the name.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.25 10 5 £12.00 £0. or records. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £0. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.20 40 3 £24. or 100 as the wattage.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £1.00 £0.00 £0. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange.

E67:F68) ."Unit Cost".16 F Brand Horizon =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Product Bulb The average of Horizon Bulb is : £1. £1.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.E49:F50) G H I DAVERAGE Page 59 of 212 J This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address."Unit Cost". Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.F3."Unit Cost".

Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 25 =DAY(F21) . Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Number.Cells.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G DAY Page 60 of 212 DAY Full Date 25-Dec-98 20-Jun-13 20-Jun-13 The Day 25 Fri 20 20 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.

End.TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months). Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate.D4.TRUE) 89 =DAYS360(C6.TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F DAYS360 Page 61 of 212 DAYS360 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between * See the Note below.TRUE)+1 .TRUE) 30 =DAYS360(C5. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. =DAYS360(Start. Note The calculation does not include the last day.TRUE) 359 =DAYS360(C7. To correct this add 1 to the result.D7.EndDate. Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months.D5.D6. FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems. Formatting The result will be shown as a number. 4 =DAYS360(C4.

375. the function calculates the necessary percentage.SalvageValue.E5.58 * See example 4 below. but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation.D10) =DB(E3.D8) =DB(E3.000 £1.E4.000 5 . Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone.43 =DB(E3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .67 £180.D12) £4.88 £654.800. using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years.PeriodToCalculate.E4. Purchase Price : Salvage value : Life in Years : £5. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year.E4. if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value.E4.246.E4. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G DB Page 62 of 212 H I DB Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : £5.D11) =DB(E3.E5. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Life. the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year.E5.FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year. Any subsequent years use the same percentage. The second year uses the same percentage. What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage. The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user.000 5 £200 Deprecation £2.00 £1. This is an optional value.E5. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased.E5. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice.61 £343. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation.D9) =DB(E3. which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user.

50% DB Page 63 of 212 H I Total Depreciation : Example 2 This example is similar to the previous.000 5 £1.998.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .185.24 £7.375.72 £7.54 % Deprc 13.E67*12. This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction.D75) Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account.89 =DB(E47.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 B C D Year 1 2 3 4 5 E F Deprecation £1.88 £722. with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis.E76.73 £523.50 £1.000 6 Deprecation £687.50% 27. .E75.50% 27.E48.D84.00 £996.50% 27.50% 27.79 £8.D56) £3. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5.000 £5 100 Deprecation £8. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12.23 £6.50% 27.50% 27.94 £859.80 £623.E68. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5.E77) £3.E49.75% 27.93 =DB(E74.50% Total Depreciation : Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.98 £379.50% 27.808.36 £451.78 =DB(E66.48 G % Deprc 27.

375.((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function.8873 £3.2000 Peter Noneley A 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 DB Page 64 of 212 I B C D E F G H The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 .376.000.9824 £379.998.7344 £523. the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation.000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1. This is the 'real' deprecation percentage. The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate.500% Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : Error difference : .00 £1.1017 £997.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .52 Excel % Deprc 27.3705 £722. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation.500% 27.48 Real Depreciation £1. calculated manually : 27.500% 27. when applied to large values.7297 £4.500% 27.522034% =1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5.8739 £523.000 = 1 .8750 £722.500% 27.((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). Example 4 This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually.9243 £379.0000 £996. Salvage value : £1.

such as the category Brand or Wattage.FieldName.80 10 5 £40.20 25 2 £10. or names.00 £1.50 10 3 £15. or cell.50 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.20 40 3 £24. such as Horizon as a brand name. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.25 10 4 £50. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.80 25 6 £120.00 £0.00 £0.80 20 5 £180.00 £1. It can only count values. Formatting No special formatting is needed. or 100 as the wattage.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I DCOUNT Page 65 of 212 J DCOUNT Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.50 4 3 £54.10 20 5 £10.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.15 25 1 £3. which are to be selected. The FieldName is the name.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. the text items and blank cells are ignored. Examples . Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19. including the field names at the top of the columns. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.25 10 5 £12.00 15 2 £60.00 £2. The second set of information is the actual record.75 £0.00 3 2 £30. The first set of information is the name.00 £5.D3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.00 £2. of the values to Count.00 £0.00 £0.50 £0.50 15 1 £37.00 £0. or records.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E F G H The count of a particular product, with a specific number of boxes in stock. Boxes In Stock 5 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,H3,E50:F51) I

DCOUNT Page 66 of 212 J

Product Bulb The number of products is : 3

This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address. 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E50:F51)

The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E61:F62)

The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E68:G69)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I

DCOUNTA Page 67 of 212 J

DCOUNTA
Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.50 4 3 £54.00 £2.00 15 2 £60.00 £0.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.00 £1.25 10 4 £50.00 £2.50 15 1 £37.50 £0.50 10 3 £15.00 £5.00 3 2 £30.00 £1.80 20 5 £180.00 £0.25 10 5 £12.50 £0.20 25 2 £10.00 £0.15 25 1 £3.75 £0.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.00

Count the number of products of a particular Brand. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,E3,E23:E24)

Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is :

What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column. It counts values and text items, but blank cells are ignored. Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the field names at the top of the columns. The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to Count, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage. The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Examples

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D E F G The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value. H I

DCOUNTA Page 68 of 212 J

Product Bulb The number of products is : 1

Life Hours unknown =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,D3,E50:F51)

This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address. 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Life Hours",E50:F51)

The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand. Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Product",E61:F62)

The count of particular products from specific brands. Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Product",E68:F70)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G

DEC2BIN Page 69 of 212 H

DEC2BIN
Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 #NUM! =DEC2BIN(C9) -1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) -2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) -3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) -511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) -512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 -1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111

=DEC2BIN(C17,D17) =DEC2BIN(C18,D18) =DEC2BIN(C19,D19) =DEC2BIN(C20,D20) =DEC2BIN(C21,D21)

What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros, although this is ignored for negatives. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber,PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

813.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .755.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 -26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 #NUM! #NUM! Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23. Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.813.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent.D23) =DEC2HEX(C24.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25. although this is ignored for negatives.813.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.887.888 -549.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27.888 to 549.887 -549.888 549.813. Formatting No special formatting is needed.813.755.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G DEC2HEX Page 70 of 212 H DEC2HEX Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 549. . It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549.813.755.755.755.755. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.

If the numbers are the same the result will be 1. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I DELTA Page 71 of 212 J DELTA Number1 10 50 17.D30) =DELTA(C31.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .D31) =DELTA(C32.D8) =DELTA(C9. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber. text values produce a result of #VALUE. It only works with numbers. otherwise the result is 0.D9) =DELTA(C10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) =DELTA(C7. The formatting of the number is not significant. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.D7) =DELTA(C8.D33) =DELTA(C34.D5) =DELTA(C6.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17.5 17.5 17.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.175 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 #VALUE! 1 =DELTA(C4.D35) =DELTA(C36.D4) =DELTA(C5. Number1 10 50 30 17. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.D34) =DELTA(C35.5 18 0.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D32) =DELTA(C33.

50 £0.10 20 5 £10.50 10 3 £15.20 30 2 £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.FieldName.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H I DGET Page 72 of 212 J DGET Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £1.00 £2.00 15 2 £60.80 25 6 £120.00 £1.50 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.H3. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £0.00 £0. The FieldName is the name.00 £5.00 £2. such as the category Brand or Wattage.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown. or names.75 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.80 20 5 £180.50 4 3 £54.25 10 5 £12.00 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 3 2 £30.50 15 1 £37.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.20 25 2 £10.20 40 3 £24. The first set of information is the name. of the values to Get. or 100 as the wattage. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange. or cell.00 £0.15 25 1 £3.00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £0.25 10 4 £50. . Formatting No special formatting is needed.

How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours G H I DGET Page 73 of 212 J Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19.H3.C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19."No such product.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C51:F52) The number in stock is : Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error.C85:F86) No such product.H3.H3.H3.TYPE(F88)/3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.CHOOSE(ERROR.") .C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record."). How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : #NUM! =DGET(B3:I19. =IF(ISERR(F88)."One product found."Duplicates products found.".

FieldName.00 £5. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.80 20 5 £180.00 3 2 £30.20 25 2 £10. Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange.25 10 4 £50. or names.00 £0.00 £0. The first set of information is the name.50 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.80 10 5 £40.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 10 3 £15.00 £1. Product Bulb Brand sunbeam .00 =DMAX(B3:I19.50 15 0 £0. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £1.15 25 0 £0. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £2. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage.80 25 6 £120.I3.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.50 4 3 £54. which are to be selected.20 30 2 £12.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.25 10 5 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I J DMAX Page 74 of 212 K DMAX Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. or records.00 £2. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 15 2 £60. such as the category Brand or Wattage. The FieldName is the name or cell. of the values to pick the Max from. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Horizon £60. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0.

00 =DMAX(B3:I19.E67:F68) .00 F G H =DMAX(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24. Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £40."Value Of Stock"."Value Of Stock".E49:F50) I J DMAX Page 75 of 212 K This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.00 Wattage 100 =DMAX(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D The largest value is : E £30.E49:F50) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage. £30.I3.E60:F61) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".

such as the category Brand or Wattage.20 25 2 £10. including the field names at the top of the columns. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.75 £0.00 3 2 £30.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £1. or 100 as the wattage.50 £0. of the values to pick the Min from.00 £0.15 25 1 £3.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.25 10 5 £12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £2. or names. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 76 of 212 K DMIN Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £0.50 10 3 £15.20 40 3 £24.80 20 5 £180.00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. Horizon £10.50 15 1 £37.00 £5.10 20 5 £10. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.80 25 6 £120. or records.00 £0.00 £0.00 =DMIN(B3:I19.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.50 4 3 £54. The first set of information is the name.20 30 2 £12.00 £1.00 £0.50 £0.FieldName. such as Horizon as a brand name. The FieldName is the name.00 £2. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange. or cell.25 10 4 £50.00 £0.00 15 2 £60. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand. The second set of information is the actual record. which are to be selected. Product Bulb Brand sunbeam .I3.

"Value Of Stock". £3. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 Wattage 100 =DMIN(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".E60:F61) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DMIN(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".E49:F50) I J DMIN Page 77 of 212 K This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.I3.75 F G H =DMIN(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D The lowest value is : E £3.75 =DMIN(B3:I19.E67:G68) .E49:F50) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9.0) =DOLLAR(C10.00 $10 $10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F G H DOLLAR Page 78 of 212 I DOLLAR Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.1) =DOLLAR(C11.DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.25 $10 $10.1) =DOLLAR(C7.3 $10.25 10.25 =DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5.2) What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency. DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.25 10.00 $10. The result will be shown as a text entry.25 Converted To Text $10.25 10. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number.0 $10.0) =DOLLAR(C6. .

00 =DSUM(B3:I19.00 £0. of the values to be totalled.00 £0. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £5.00 £2.00 £0.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The stock value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total.00 £0.50 4 3 £54.00 £0.25 10 4 £50.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 15 2 £60. including the field names at the top of the columns. Horizon £248. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. such as Horizon as a brand name.80 20 5 £180.15 25 0 £0.00 £2.50 15 0 £0.00 3 2 £30. or cell.00 £1.20 25 2 £10.10 20 5 £10. which are to be selected.50 10 3 £15. or records. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.FieldName. The first set of information is the name. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £0.00 £1.50 £0. or 100 as the wattage.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I DSUM Page 79 of 212 J DSUM Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange. The second set of information is the actual record.80 25 6 £120. .00 To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.I3.00 £0. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.20 40 3 £24. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The FieldName is the name. or names.25 10 5 £12. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.80 10 5 £40.00 £0.

"Value Of Stock". £54.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Product Bulb Total stock value is : £54.50 =DSUM(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".E49:F50) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock".I3.50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19.E49:F50) G H I DSUM Page 80 of 212 J This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.E60:F61) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56.50 F Brand sunbeam =DSUM(B3:I19.E67:F68) . Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52.00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 3 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 1000 2000 3000 6 Bob 4000 5000 6000 7 Carol 7000 8000 9000 8 Total 12000 15000 18000 F EAST Page 81 of 212 Total 6000 15000 24000 45000 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Eastern data. 2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.

If the week day number is 6 or 7.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.2)-5.D30) =EDATE(C31.0) .Cells. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 =EDATE(C48.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number. The company needed to know the end date of the employment.D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future. Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.Number.D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48. Syntax =EDATE(StartDate. The contract Duration is entered as months. (Sat or Sun).D48). then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.D32) =EDATE(C33.D5) =EDATE(C6. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date.D31) =EDATE(C32. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract.D4) =EDATE(C5.D27) =EDATE(C28. The Start date is entered.2)>5.D28) =EDATE(C29. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27.Date command.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F EDATE Page 82 of 212 G EDATE Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4.D29) =EDATE(C30.D48).

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Date command. . Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate.Number. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.Cells.D4) =EOMONTH(C5.D5) =EOMONTH(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F EOMONTH Page 83 of 212 G EOMONTH StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G ERROR. .TYPE(E4) =ERROR.TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred.TYPE(E6) =ERROR.TYPE Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! ############## Error Type 2 5 4 #N/A =ERROR.TYPE Page 84 of 212 ERROR.TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function. Syntax =ERROR.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number.TYPE(E5) =ERROR.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G EVEN Page 85 of 212 H EVEN Original Value 1 1. Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures. Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars.2 2.3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 . Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.

D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. Syntax =EXACT(Text1. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess.D4) =EXACT(C5. only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal. . If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown.D5) =EXACT(C6. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown. The case of the password is important. the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions.Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. You need to guess the correct password. The case of the characters is taken into account.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example Here is a simple password checking formula.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I EXACT Page 86 of 212 J EXACT Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though. either red blue or green. The password is the name of a colour.

The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5.432.000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number.800 2. The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . which results in 120.5 5 10 20 Factorial 6 6 120 3.176.902.640. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G FACT Page 87 of 212 H FACT Number 3 3..008. Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting.628.etc. No special formatting is needed.

An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text. thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter.6) =FIND(D9. it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin. Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result #VALUE is shown. . StartPosition : This is optional. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor.TextToLookInside. the result will be shown as a number. If the letter is not found in the text.C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the first occurrence is used.C7) =FIND(D8.C5) =FIND(D6.C6) =FIND(D7.C8. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character.C4) =FIND(D5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F FIND Page 88 of 212 G FIND Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4. If the text contains more than one reference to the letter. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I FIXED Page 89 of 212 J FIXED Original Converted Number To Text 10 10.23 1.2) 1000 1. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert.000's.0) 10 10.0.000 =FIXED(C13. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.0) 1000.25 10. Number command will not have any effect.DecimalPlaces.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5.25 =FIXED(C11.25 10. Note that any further formatting with the Format. .25 10.00 =FIXED(C7.3 =FIXED(C10.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000. Cells.25 10 =FIXED(C9. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE. and commas can be inserted at the 1.1) 10 10.Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.0 =FIXED(C6.2) 10. Formatting No special formatting is needed.25 =FIXED(C8) 10.1) 10.TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text.000.23 1000 =FIXED(C14.0) 10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . which is then used as the basis for Commission. The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =FLOOR(C5. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound.000 £230 £56. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G FLOOR Page 90 of 212 H FLOOR Number 1.1) =FLOOR(C7. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23.50) =FLOOR(C9.9 123 145 175 Rounded Down 1 2 2 100 100 150 =FLOOR(C4.890 £18. Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.3 2.5 2.500 £56.000 £560 £18.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29.50) =FLOOR(C8.1) =FLOOR(C6.50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23.1000) .

000 20 £8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . for which you need the forecast.500 £3.500 £3. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Year 1996 1997 1998 Size Of Known Sales Team Performance 10 £5. Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team. The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered.500 40 £10. The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values.667 Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : =FORECAST(E43. (Jan to Jun).800 £4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H FORECAST Page 91 of 212 I FORECAST Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7. you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month. RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data. If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6.F4:F9.000 £2. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend.000 £2. such as Month number. (or past). The size of the New Sales team is entered. The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend. such as Sales figures.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future. Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast.RangeY.D39:D41) .997 Sales £1.000 =FORECAST(E11.E39:E41.000 30 £8.E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.

000 £2.66 17. so how can the frequency .000 up to £6.000 £4.28 20. The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals.000 £10.000 £999.000 £6.800 £3.15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.000 Sales above £6.000 Mar £4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY Page 92 of 212 I FREQUENCY North South East West Jan £5.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .83 15.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.67 18. Weight Kg 20. A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.000 Feb £6. The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals.C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values. The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.74 10.500 £12. the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children. Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData.000 and below. that is why it is enclosed in { } braces. A.500 £3. E.ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E9:E11)} Sales £4. V.47 22. The function is entered in the cells as an array.36 16.80 8. Unfortunately.000 Sales above £4.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.000 £7. £4. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.000 £6.000 £5. P or D.

CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C of text be calculated? D E F G H FREQUENCY Page 93 of 212 I The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions. the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Rating E V A P D Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). As this code is a numeric value. The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V D P V E e V a E d P A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 is a record of all the results from the past seven weeks.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. as an array.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. It has to be entered.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. Table 2 Lottery Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 How Many Appearances 1 1 3 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 4 0 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY 2 Page 94 of 212 I FREQUENCY 2 This example shows how the =FREQUENCY() function has been used to calculate how often certain numbers appear in the Lottery results. 31 =SUM(1/COUNTIF(C10:I16. just Enter alone. so press Ctrl+Shift+Enter rather than.C10:I16)) . and how many appearances each number has made during the past seven weeks.B24:B72)} Special tip! To count how many unique numbers in a range use the following formula. Unique values. Table 1 Week 1 1st Number 2nd Number 3rd Number 4th Number 5th Number 6th Number Bonus Ball 3 6 15 32 37 5 17 Week 2 36 3 44 15 31 22 13 Week 3 5 19 35 32 13 30 15 Week 4 3 37 20 46 22 8 25 Week 5 2 23 47 6 49 49 18 Week 6 41 15 29 45 13 11 17 Week 7 45 4 44 23 43 46 1 Table 2 is the list of possible number from 1 to 49.

2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 FREQUENCY 2 Page 95 of 212 C 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 1 0 2 D E F G H I .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

E11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified. Decimal fractions are ignored.Number3.D4) =GCD(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E9) =GCD(C10. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H GCD Page 96 of 212 I GCD Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 =GCD(C4.Number2.D11.5 Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 =GCD(C9.E10) =GCD(C11.D6) Greatest Divisor 6 100 2 18 300 2. The result is always a whole number. Syntax =GCD(Number1.D10..D9.. .D5) =GCD(C6.

000 £4.D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target.000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27. Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets.000 £1.D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest.E27) =GESTEP(D28. If the number is greater than or equal.000 £7. otherwise 0 is shown.E30) =GESTEP(D31.000 Target £4.000 £2.D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8. the result of 1 will be shown.E29) =GESTEP(D30.000 £8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I GESTEP Page 97 of 212 J GESTEP Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4.000 £2.000 £5.E28) =GESTEP(D29. and the results are totalled.D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10.000 £2.E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

755.813.888 -1 -2 -3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813.755.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F HEX2DEC Page 98 of 212 G HEX2DEC Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549.887 -549. Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) . Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together.

To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted.Mar is correct.Jan.D3:F10.Mar. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month. Formatting No special formatting is needed.FALSE) row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed. even though to us the order of Jan. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted.RangeToLookIn. Unfortunately. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from. If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. they are part of the illustration. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. TRUE for yes.F11. because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range. FALSE for no. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry. When the item is found.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I HLOOKUP Page 99 of 212 J HLOOKUP Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 =HLOOKUP(F10.RowToPickFrom. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. It then calculates the position of the name in the list. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry. Jan 10 20 30 Feb 80 90 100 Mar 97 69 45 Bob Eric Alan .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.Feb.

The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C. the function will produce an error.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. Wood and Glass. The name of the Item is typed in column C.0)+1.D47:F54.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 B C Carol David D 40 50 E 110 120 F 51 77 feb alan G H I HLOOKUP Page 100 of 212 J Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54.G72:I77. =HLOOKUP(C127. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. .0)+1. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells.C48:C52. If a match is not found.MATCH(F55. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1.200 =HLOOKUP(B79.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. When the make is found.E111:G112.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $.MATCH(C79.F73:F77.2. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B.

TRUE) Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 Brick £2 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1. the next lowest value is used.TRUE) .E115:G118.FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127.0)+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D116:D118.MATCH(C127. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match.2.2000 Peter Noneley A 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 HLOOKUP Page 101 of 212 B C D E F G H I J The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted. and the discount from the 100 column is used.0)+1. =HLOOKUP(D127. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.E111:G112.MATCH(C127.D116:D118.E115:G118.275 =HLOOKUP(C127.

25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number. Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B C D E F G H HOUR Page 102 of 212 I HOUR Number 21:15 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

"Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33. Each has their own target which they must reach."Achieved".C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function. . If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown."Achieved". The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers. Depending upon the result. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells.C43*10%. such as A1=A2. Formatting No special formatting is required.C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target. The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. the Commission is only 5% of Sales."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32. the Commission is 10% of Sales. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. Syntax =IF(Condition. text or calculations. one of two actions will be carried out."Achieved".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H IF Page 103 of 212 I IF Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines."Achieved".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Achieved". Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".C45*10%. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE.ActionIfTrue. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43."Achieved". This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps. If the Sales do not reach Target."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6.C44*10%.C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45.

700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes".D61*10%.000 £ 500 £ 3.000 £ 2.D61>=1000).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Special Offer Yes No Yes Yes Order Value £ 2.000 IF Page 104 of 212 I Product Wood Glass Cement Turf Discount Total £ 200 £ 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 B C D E F G H The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer.800 £ £ 2.000 £ £ 500 £ 300 £ 2.0) . when the Order Value is £1000 or above. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000.

Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 Type 1.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns. but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34. or non-continuos blocks.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row. It can be used with a single block of data.G11.H36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns. Both of the examples below use the same syntax.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1. Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function.2.D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1. The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 105 of 213 I INDEX Holiday booking price list. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.RowCoordinate. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9.3 or 4 for the country : .

F77.000 £12.000 Qtr3 £3.500 Qtr3 £3. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.500 £11.RowCoordinate.500 £10.500 Type 1. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.000 £8.500 £5.F51) Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn.500 £6.ColumnColumnCordinate.500 Type 1.000 £9. In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth.500 £5.000 Qtr2 £2.000 £10. 2.500 £10.000 Qtr1 £1.000 £6.000 £7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 Qtr4 £4.000 Qtr4 £4.500 Qtr2 £2.000 Qtr3 £3.000 £5.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 B C D E Type 1.500 £6.000 £5. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.500 Qtr2 £2. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.500 £7.000 £8. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : .500 wood qtr2 Qtr4 £4.000 £10. 2. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.F50.F78) Qtr4 £4.000 Qtr2 £2. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.000 £11.500 £12.000 £7.500 £8.000 £11.2 or 3 for statistics : The result is : F 3 Paris G H INDEX Page 106 of 213 I =INDEX(D45:F48.F76.000 Qtr1 £1.000 £12.500 Qtr3 £3. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.500 £11.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.500 £9.500 1 3 2 3500 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.500 £9.500 £8.500 £7.500 £12.000 £6. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 £9.

MATCH(F100.IF(F102=C95.C91:C93.MATCH(F101.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1.2))) .D90:G90.IF(F102=C90.0).2000 Peter Noneley A 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : F west 6500 G H INDEX Page 107 of 213 I =INDEX(EastAndWest.0).

Type the name of the sheet. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 120 =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above. The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range. such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : 1200 =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) . such as South : South Type the start cell of the range. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I INDIRECT Page 108 of 213 J K INDIRECT North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table. SOUTH and EAST. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. Type the name of the sheet.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B C D E F G H I INDIRECT Page 109 of 213 J K .

0 pcdos =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer. . (PC or Mac) System Information C:\Users\user\Documents\ #N/A #N/A #N/A 167 $A:$A$1 Windows (32-bit) NT 6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.01 Automatic 14. Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D INFO Page 110 of 212 E INFO Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system.

5 2.25 7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .75 -1.8678987 7. This has the effect of increasing the child age. Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 =INT((D49-C49)/365.47589 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number.668035592 =(D27-C27)/365.570157426 8. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H INT Page 111 of 212 I INT Number 1.25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age. Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365. Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8.504449008 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed.25) . A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old.3 10.

2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 D 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 E 8 7 F G H INT Page 112 of 212 I Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days.25 The reason for using 365. The number of days is then divided by 365.25 is to take account of the leap years. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

When the cheque is cleared the date is entered. but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user.E36.E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36). Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co. Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE. The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36). It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors.0) Totals 550 1050 . Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank.0. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked. Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company. chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G ISBLANK Page 113 of 212 H ISBLANK Data 1 Hello 25-Dec-98 Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne. The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0. or if the error is the #NA message. Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error. which Excel does not do.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H ISERR Page 114 of 212 I ISERR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell. Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function. Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation.E40/E41) . by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate."Try again!". Table 2 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41).

Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : Error in data entry =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39). Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula. Formatting No special formatting is needed. It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found. Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format.D40-D39) ."Error in data entry".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G ISERROR Page 115 of 212 H ISERROR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated. Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : #VALUE! =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry. Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates.

6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE #VALUE! FALSE TRUE =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even. Note that decimal fractions are ignored.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 2. . Note that dates can be even or odd.5 3.6 3. An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 116 of 212 ISEVEN Number 1 2 2. Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.

the result FALSE is shown. If the cell does contain a logical value. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H I ISLOGICAL Page 117 of 212 J ISLOGICAL Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical. the result TRUE is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the cell does not contain a logical value. The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE.

but will be used for data entry in the future. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H ISNA Page 118 of 212 I ISNA Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A. Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function. The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data.

300. Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up. Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation.D40*E40. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E F ISNONTEXT Page 119 of 212 G ISNONTEXT Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number. is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 2 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40). The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function."Retype the Price") . such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0. rather than text. rather than text which looks like a number.

ID No. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.3.000 £15.000 £12.000 £8. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made. If the cell or calculation is not numeric.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I ISNUMBER Page 120 of 212 J ISNUMBER Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.C29:E33. or is blank.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £ 12. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.VLOOKUP(E35. the result FALSE is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35).VLOOKUP(E35. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.FALSE)) .000 £12. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.2.D29:E33. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation.FALSE). If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown.

5 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6 3. Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.5 2.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE #VALUE! TRUE FALSE =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H ISODD Page 121 of 212 I ISODD Number 1 2 2. . Note that decimal fractions are ignored. An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error. Note that dates can be odd or even.

or FALSE for any other type of value. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Its a bit of an odd one. as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H ISREF Page 122 of 212 I ISREF TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISREF(A1) =ISREF(B99) =ISREF(Hello) =ISREF(10) =ISREF(NOW()) =ISREF("A1") =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. but when used on the worksheet.

C27:E31.000 £12. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33).3.VLOOKUP(E33.D27:E31. ID No.000 £15.000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £ 8.VLOOKUP(E33.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.FALSE). The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.000 £8. Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the entry is text is shows TRUE.FALSE)) .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H ISTEXT Page 123 of 212 I ISTEXT Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE.2. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.000 £12.

1) =LARGE(D24:F27.000 £6.000 =LARGE(D24:F27.000 £12.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2) =LARGE(C4:C8.1) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 Mar £4. Sales North South East West Jan £5.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £4. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine.000 Feb £6.800 £3.000 £7.000 £2.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 £3.000 £7.4) =LARGE(C4:C8. Feb and Mar.000 £10. Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £5. Highest Lowest £12.000 £10.500 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H LARGE Page 124 of 212 I LARGE Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £2.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .

D4) =LCM(C5. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H LCM Page 125 of 212 I LCM Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 =LCM(C4. Syntax =LCM(Number1.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple. which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number2..Number3. ..D5) =LCM(C6.

NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H LEFT Page 126 of 212 I LEFT Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 =LEFT(C4.FIND(" ". Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space. The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText.C29)-1) .D4) =LEFT(C5.FIND(" ".D7) =LEFT(C8.D5) =LEFT(C6.C28)-1) =LEFT(C29.D6) =LEFT(C7.FIND(" ". Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan Bob Smith Bob Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C27. The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.C27)-1) =LEFT(C28.

=RIGHT(C24. Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed.C24) This is the position of the space.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .LEN(C24)-FIND(" ". =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ". Carol Williams 8 . Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name. Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ".C24) This is the length of the second name. Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space. including spaces and numbers. in a piece of text. Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H LEN Page 127 of 212 I LEN Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters.C24)) This is just the second name.

D4:G10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. as in the description above. When a match is found. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Array) Page 128 of 212 J LOOKUP (Array) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 =LOOKUP(F12. the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column. . It always picks the data from the end of the row or column.RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. When a match is found. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table.

Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88. either as #N/A or incorrect results. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct. but not sorted.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D Example 1 In this table there are more rows than columns. Sometimes the results will be correct. Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Jan Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.B80:E86) 45 =LOOKUP(H88. E LOOKUP (Array) Page 129 of 212 F G H I J Example 2 In this table there are more columns than rows. otherwise errors will occur. but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure. Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically. Jan Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Eric 100 Fred 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed. so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .G80:J86) . Table 2 shows the same data.

If the name Carol is used.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .RangeToLookIn. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values.F4:F10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. either as #N/A or incorrect results. otherwise errors will occur. The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. . and then picks an item from a second range of cells.D4:G10.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names.RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.C38:C43.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G H LOOKUP (Vector) Page 130 of 212 I J LOOKUP (Vector) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 =LOOKUP(F12. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G LOWER Page 131 of 212 H LOWER Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123 =LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case.

Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . so the #NA is shown. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown.1) Using 0 will look for an exact match.0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match.0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A Example 2 . or the next highest number if no exact match exists. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match.G40:G43.WhereToLook. or the next lowest number if no exact match exists. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. The Descending list gives the exact match. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. The Ascending list gives the exact match. Using 1 will look for an exact match.TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0. If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown.2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C D E F G H MATCH Page 132 of 212 I MATCH Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value : Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000 The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9.I4:I7. Using -1 will look for an exact match.E4:E7. 1 or -1. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match. It can be used with text and numbers.

D95:D99. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62. After the =MATCH() function has found the bus. The Descending list gives the #NA error. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number.G74:G77. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 #N/A Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79.MATCH(H94.0) Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 . The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers. If the number of passengers is not an exact match.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .G57:G60. The Ascending list gives the exact match.1) MATCH Page 133 of 212 I 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match. the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required.-1). The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats.. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered. the next biggest bus will be picked.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match.-1) Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours. The Ascending list gives the #NA error. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list.

The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list.1).0) . If an exact match is not found.2000 Peter Noneley A B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 C D E F G H MATCH Page 134 of 212 I Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils.MATCH(G114. The pupils scores were entered in another list.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114. the next lowest breakpoint is used.C111:C114.

000 £12.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.000 £5.000 £10.000 £12.000 £4.800 £3. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =MAX(C23:E26) .Range2.000 £7...500 £3.000 Feb £6.000 £7.000 £6.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MAX Page 135 of 212 I MAX Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data. Sales North South East West Month Max Jan £5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7.000 £2.500 £12.000 £10.000 Mar £4.Range3. month and overall.000 £10. 4-Jul-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region. Syntax =MAX(Range1.000 Overall Max £12.

Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . ..2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H I MEDIAN Page 136 of 212 J MEDIAN Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it. The median is not the average. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median.Range3. If there is no exact median number in the group.Range2..

Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company.2) WA =MID(C36.3) =MID(C10.2) NP =MID(C37.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.12.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5.12.PositionToStartPicking.3) =MID(C9.D4.5.D6. The function needs to know at what point it should start. other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.D5. It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions. Syntax =MID(OriginalText. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.5. only the available characters will be picked.5.99) =MID(C13. Full Branch Code DRS/STC/872 HDRS/FC/111 S/NORTH/874 HQ/K/875 Postal Region STC FC NORTH K .99) =MID(C14.3) =MID(C12. and how many characters to pick. Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E6) =MID(C8.5.E5) 2 ED =MID(C6.5.12.2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 B C D E F G MID Page 137 of 212 H MID Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . occurring after the first / Calculate the length of the text to extract.C50)+1.FIND("/". Find the second /.FIND("/".FIND("/". by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / MID Page 138 of 212 H .C50.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50.C50)-1) Find the first /. plus 1 for the Start of the code.C50)+1)-FIND("/".

000 Overall MIN £2.000 £5. Syntax =MIN(Range1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £4.000 Mar £4.000 £2.000 £2. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.500 £3.000 £3. month and overall..000 £10.000 £2.000 £6.Range2.800 £3.500 Feb £6.Range3.000 £7.500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3.000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4.000 £3. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 £12. 4-Jul-98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MIN Page 139 of 212 I MIN Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.000 =MIN(C23:E26) .000 £4..

"00") =REPT("|". Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.75 2 0.02 0. Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G MINUTE Page 140 of 212 H I MINUTE Number 6/20/2013 23:19 9:15:00 PM 0.52 Minute 19 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()). To update the clock press the function key F9.75 3:45 =F49/24 .MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()). Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : 3.52 1."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2. The time functions of =HOUR().75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24."00") =REPT("|". =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats. Clock Hour ||||||||||||||||||||||| 23 Minute ||||||||||||||||||| 19 Second |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 42 =REPT("|". Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F 3:00 0:45 G =INT(F49)/24 =MOD(F49. . Cells.1)/24 MINUTE Page 141 of 212 H I To extract the hours in hh:mm format : To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format. Number. Time command.

C26:E28) was typed. The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2.500 21. Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates. The ranges do not have to be of equal size.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 {=MMULT(C32:E32. (but not yet entered). The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders.000 25. In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box.C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected. It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination. The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1. Dark and White. The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array. The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges. Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H MMULT Page 142 of 212 I J MMULT What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values. The formula then showed the correct result. The formula =MMULT(C32:E32. Dark and White. Syntax =MMULT(Range1. Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37. The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce. Size Giant Standard Economy .Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The types of chocolate produced were Milk. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce.

Range 2 contains the amount Butter. Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1.G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates. The company has four factories. . The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target. set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0. then change a single value in each. Eggs and Sugar to ensure they can meet production targets. and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory. each of which has to order enough Butter.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E F G H MMULT Page 143 of 212 I J Example 2 The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate. Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72.

Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D5) =MOD(C6.D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H MOD Page 144 of 212 I MOD Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4.D7) =MOD(C8.D6) =MOD(C7.D4) =MOD(C5. Syntax =MOD(Number.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I MODE Page 145 of 212 J MODE Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 20 10 #N/A =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers.."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size.."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same.Range2.Range3. Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop. The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1. When there is more than one set of duplicates. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : .

7 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 B 019 020 C Dress Skirt D 10 8 E F G H I MODE Page 146 of 212 J Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! 9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Cells.Number. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) . but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F MONTH Page 147 of 212 G MONTH Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 January =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date.Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm. Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.

Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.D6) =MROUND(C7.D4) =MROUND(C5.D5) =MROUND(C6.D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H I MROUND Page 148 of 212 J MROUND Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4.MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .D7) =MROUND(C8.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H I N Page 149 of 212 J N Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3.5 =N(C5) 3.5 =N(C6) 3. Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.035 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 3. . due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally. Excel does not really need this function.50% 0. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available.NA(). The Salary and Tax percentage are entered.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H NA Page 150 of 213 I NA #N/A Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =NA() =IF(ISBLANK(C6). the Wage is still calculated. It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation.NA(). It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet. Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered. Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee. The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage.NA().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required. On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid. any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA.C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7).C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). Table 2 Alan Bob Salary 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A Pay 750 #N/A =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 . When the =NA() is used. Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered.

2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B Carol C 1000 D 20% E 800 F G =C51-C51*D51 H NA Page 151 of 213 I .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

C29. To correct this add 1 to the result.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5. It will exclude weekends and any holidays.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F NETWORKDAYS Page 152 of 212 NETWORKDAYS Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4.EndDate. Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates.C28. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. Note The calculation does not include the last day. such as Xmas and Bank holidays.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.C30.Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation. =NETWORKDAYS(Start. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate.End.Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .

2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function. 3 Alan 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 10 20 30 6 Bob 40 50 60 7 Carol 70 80 90 8 Total 120 150 180 9 F G NORTH Page 153 of 212 Total 60 150 240 450 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Northern data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

(A type of reverse logic)."OK") =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34). Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation."OK") . The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time. otherwise OK is shown. by adding the Loan value to the Taken date. The period of the Loan is entered.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H I NOT Page 154 of 212 J NOT Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails."Overdue". then the result is FALSE. The date the book was Taken out is entered."OK") =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). If the test is met."Overdue". Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Overdue". Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. If the test fails. The date the book was returned is entered. Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK 15-Jan-98 OK 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33). the result is TRUE.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G NOW Page 155 of 212 H NOW The current Date and Time 6/20/2013 23:19 =NOW() 41445.97201 =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time. The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet. . If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.

4 2.9 =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number. Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.9 3 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H ODD Page 156 of 212 I ODD Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2.4 3.

AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ £ 5 £ £ 5 =IF(OR(E4="Visa".Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.5.0) £ 5 £ £ 5 Order No. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 . The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.E5="Delta"). Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.E7="Delta").5.E27="Delta").Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Syntax =OR(Test1.5.5. It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true. Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ =IF(OR(E27="Visa". Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.5.0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa". A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H I OR Page 157 of 212 J OR Order No.0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa".E6="Delta").E4="Delta").

550 £ 1.500 18.500 24.335 £ 1.000 4. (As a % of the stock value) : Quantity of Exhausts used per day : Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : Ordering Intervals to evaluate.000 19.500 £ 1.295 £ 1. Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.500 9.530 £ 1. (Expressed in Days) : Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : Output Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Annual Orders Admin Per Year Cost 365 £ 9. Each time an order is made for new stock.150 37 £ 925 31 £ 775 27 £ 675 23 £ 575 21 £ 525 19 £ 475 17 £ 425 16 £ 400 15 £ 375 14 £ 350 13 £ 325 12 £ 300 11 £ 275 11 £ 275 Annual Ware house Costs £ 45 £ 90 £ 180 £ 270 £ 360 £ 450 £ 540 £ 630 £ 720 £ 810 £ 900 £ 990 £ 1.000 7.225 £ 1.080 £ 1.000 16.000 Order Discount £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 150 £ 165 £ 180 £ 195 £ 210 £ 225 £ 240 £ 255 £ 270 Annual Total £ 9.305 £ 1.500 21.500 3. Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.260 £ 1.625 .170 £ 1. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems.500 6.525 46 £ 1.510 £ 1.300 61 £ 1. Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.170 £ 4.440 £ 1.000 22.400 £ 1.000 10.795 £ 1.500 15.620 The Best Ordering Interval Best £75 12% 10 £25 0.250 £ 1. The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.000 25.125 183 £ 4.315 £ 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 27.500 12.5 2 200 750 1% 5% 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Order Value 750 1.450 £ 1. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 B C D E F G H Ordering Stock Page 158 of 212 I Ordering Stock This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.665 £ 2.375 £ 1.000 13. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.480 £ 1.300 £ 1.350 £ 1.350 £ 1.575 92 £ 2. there is a fixed administrative cost.

Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.500 39.350 2.980 2.500 36.IF(B29>=$G$25.675 1.000 43.875 1. but below the second Price Break. the second Price Break discount is used. Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.000 40.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break. which would require stock to be ordered every day.800 1.160 2.520 2. then the first Price Break discount is used.000 2. .700 H 1. This is the smallest ordering period.075 2.425 Ordering Stock Page 159 of 212 I - 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.610 2. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier.150 2. The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval.070 2. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.500 33.430 2. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.000 37.275 2.500 42.200 2. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value. If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break.710 1.500 45. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 34.B29<$G$25).340 2.$H$25.2000 Peter Noneley A 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 B 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 C 28. Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.925 2.750 1.800 1. Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered.250 2.000 D 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 E 10 10 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 F £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 250 250 225 225 200 200 200 200 175 175 175 175 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ G 1.000 31. Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount. Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30.890 1.500 30.$H$24.

zero discount is used. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*$G$20 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse. as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems. Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal. =CEILING(365/A29.IF(B29>=$G$25. based upon how frequently the orders are made.OrderDiscount =F29+G29-D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number.1) Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders. It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .B29<$G$25).B29<$G$25). otherwise a dash is shown."Best". =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts . It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts."-") . the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads.3 This decimal will cause problems. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts. If the two values match the word Best is shown.$H$24. giving the lowest annual overheads. =IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59).$H$25. With an interval of 1.$H$24.0)) Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval. due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number.2000 Peter Noneley A 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 B Ordering Stock Page 160 of 212 C D E F G H I =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. However.$H$25. there will have to be 365 orders.IF(B29>=$G$25. It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H. such as 2.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B Box size Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Box size C Sample 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Sample D E F G PACKERS Page 161 of 212 Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 21 30 28 35 30 11 9 10 10 21 20 0 20 31 28 30 30 8 10 12 10 22 20 20 19 32 28 30 30 Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

ItemsInAGroup) Formatting No special formatting is needed. B.928.990. Syntax =PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom.000 In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A.D6) =PERMUT(C7.600 =PERMUT(C4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G PERMUT Page 162 of 212 H PERMUT Pool Of Items 4 4 10 26 Items In A Group 2 3 4 6 Permutations 12 24 5040 165.D4) =PERMUT(C5. the following twelve permutations would be possible. so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .765. C and D.D7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items. Example The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet.D5) =PERMUT(C6. It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9. ABCD Password 1 Password 2 Password 3 Password 4 Password 5 Password 6 AB AC AD BC BD CD Password 7 Password 8 Password 9 Password 10 Password 11 Password 12 BA CA DA CB DB DC . The internal order is significant. Letter In Alphabet Password Size Permutations 26 8 62.

It is correct to 15 decimal places. Radius 5 25 Area 78.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H PI Page 163 of 212 I PI p 3.14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 =PI()*(C21^2) . Example To calculate the area of a circle. Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed.54 1963. it is a self contained function. It does not need any input.

50 =PI()*POWER(C22. Example To calculate the area of a circle. It is the same as using the ^ operator.D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power.D5) =POWER(C6.Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G H POWER Page 164 of 212 I POWER Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4. which result is 81.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as 3^4.D6) =POWER(C7.D4) =POWER(C5. Radius 5 25 Area 78.54 1963. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3.2) .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1..Number2.Number2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H PRODUCT Page 165 of 212 I PRODUCT Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4..) Formatting No special formatting is needed.. through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1.Number3.D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6. which results in 6300. It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7. ..Range.10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together.

and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case. Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H PROPER Page 166 of 212 I PROPER Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase.

75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. .E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.2.H12) 1 285.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No.QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0.3 or 4.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I J QUARTILE Page 167 of 212 K QUARTILE Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No.E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. 3rd and 4th quarters of the data. Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.1. 2nd.

Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided. only showing the whole number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E39) . The merchant can only sell full crates. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G QUOTIENT Page 168 of 212 QUOTIENT Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4. Table 1 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10. Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.75 12.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number. It ignores any remainder.5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result. Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division.D4) =QUOTIENT(C5. Table 2 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39.5 25 3.

75006993 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .105181 0. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates.0658344 .31778296 0. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.763294621 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1. A list of cards has been entered in column C. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Random 0.391244941 0. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data.311587518 0. 7.28139 0.815665 0.539202889 0.779637 0.112633352 0.378037903 0.60139 0.911091 0.878983 0.208959311 0.011128 0.224525 0. or when F9 is pressed. 0.327281 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 Random 0.295141449 =RAND()*10 Random between 5 and 10. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled.096533214 0.835155 0.595030816 0.633412 0.499533 0.871443608 0.049858 0.716390561 0.415990405 0. Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed. and =RAND() in column D.421580666 =RAND() Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H RAND Page 169 of 212 I RAND Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.354144659 0.215217731 0.583865664 0.154822 0.396948 0. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information.926375 0.942668 0.965059938 0.

369772779 0.163942 E F 3 45 47 49 35 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.056953 0.787101271 0.633192 0.027035 0.098481 0.343947 0.987846 0.612044 0.111315029 0.808056 0.434314671 0.00813517 0.822459442 0.719149542 0.885616 0.992306 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Diamond 6 Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.606701557 0.989526888 0.820220531 0.964042 0.925698 0.761241841 0.374185 0.86465299 0.238923253 0.553139677 0.459955 0.789850155 0.236619874 0.411376427 0.441195 0.817176 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .001178 0.523123 0.194665 0.6481 0.000307886 0.359594286 0.080748 0.553779 0.676610655 0.726505543 H RAND Page 170 of 212 I .764454 0.146127886 0.96292878 0.348645 0.85167 0.313383 0.685256 0.079144321 0.955359 0.594169 0.778997 0.227164409 0.0492894 0.538588 0.910319079 0.328833 0.976019183 0.391401726 0.540234268 0.365431847 0.618183 0.

$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.E24:E30))<>7."Duplicates! Spin again".$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery. the same number could be generated twice or more. The Winning Ticket! 25 41 45 3 22 40 18 Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate. Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed.D5) What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers. It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter. Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique.HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .$D$24) Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball All OK {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H RANDBETWEEN Page 171 of 212 I RANDBETWEEN Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 7 1 =RANDBETWEEN(C4.D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.

they will be assigned the same rank.C18:C22) =RANK(C22. 20. If there are duplicate values in the list. (This is optional.C11:C15. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top.C11:C15.C4:C8) =RANK(C5.C4:C8) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 =RANK(C11.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank. 20 and 10 were ranked. leaving it out has the same effect).1) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Values 10 30 20 30 40 Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 =RANK(C18. both 20's are ranked as 2.1) =RANK(C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .B34:B37) =RANK(B37.C4:C8) =RANK(C7.C18:C22) =RANK(C21.1) =RANK(C13.1) =RANK(C12. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner.C4:C8) =RANK(C8.C11:C15.C4:C8) =RANK(C6.1) =RANK(C14.C18:C22) =RANK(C20. 30 is ranked as 1.B34:B37) =RANK(B36.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.C11:C15.B34:B37) =RANK(B35.ListOfNumbers.C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list.C11:C15. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially. but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H RANK Page 172 of 212 I RANK Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Values 7 4 25 8 16 =RANK(C4. If the numbers 30. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34. and the 10 would be ranked as 4. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.

E F G H RANK Page 173 of 212 I Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.1) =RANK(C55.2000 Peter Noneley A 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =RANK(C54.1) =RANK(C56.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.C53:C58.C53:C58.C53:C58.1) .C53:C58.C53:C58. Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2 =RANK(C53.1) =RANK(C58.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C57.

F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text.NumberOfCharactersToReplace.F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7.D6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D7.E4.D5.E5.F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6.F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5.StartPosition. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText.D4. how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H REPLACE Page 174 of 212 I REPLACE Start Characters New Modified Text Original Text Position To Replace Character ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 .E7.E6.NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed. You need to specify where the replacement should start.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1.D7) What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times.000 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| =REPT("||".000 £3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £5.D5) =REPT(C6.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200.D29/100) Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()). Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures.D4) =REPT(C5."00") =REPT("|". =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats. To update the clock press the function key F9. Clock Hour ||||||||||||||||||||||| 23 Minute ||||||||||||||||||| 19 Second |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 42 =REPT("|". Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales. Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat."00") =REPT("|". The time functions of =HOUR(). but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200. You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it."00") .D6) =REPT(C7.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D E F G H REPT Page 175 of 212 I REPT Text To Repeat A AB | Number Of Repeats 3 3 10 10 Repeated Text AAA ABABAB ---------|||||||||| =REPT(C4.000 £2.

D5) =RIGHT(C6.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text.D7) =RIGHT(C8.C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30.C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29. The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name. The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText. Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H RIGHT Page 176 of 212 I RIGHT Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 =RIGHT(C4. The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ".D6) =RIGHT(C7.LEN(C28)-FIND(" ".D4) =RIGHT(C5. Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.LEN(C29)-FIND(" ".C30)) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

3 is even more Concise still. Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats. 1 is more Concise.1) =ROMAN(C12. 0 is Classic.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .4) =ROMAN(C15.3) =ROMAN(C14.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H ROMAN Page 177 of 212 I ROMAN Number 1 2 3 5 10 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Roman I II III V X MCMXCVIII MCMXCVIII MLMVLIII MXMVIII MVMIII MVMIII MCMXCVIII MVMIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10. 4 is Simplified. .2) =ROMAN(C13.0) =ROMAN(C11.TRUE) =ROMAN(C16. 2 is even more Concise. TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber.RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following. This is used if no format is specified.

D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8.47589 13643.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1. .47589 13643.47589 1.47589 13643.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H ROUND Page 178 of 212 I ROUND Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7.D4) 1 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47589 1. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound.D5) 2 1.47589 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places.48 =ROUND(C6.5 =ROUND(C5. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9.

If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number.D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8.D5) 2 1.48 13643.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.47589 1.D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9. .48 13643.47589 13643.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.D4) 1 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47589 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I ROUNDDOWN Page 179 of 212 J ROUNDDOWN Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.

48 13643.47589 1.48 13643.D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9.D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound.D4) 1 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I ROUNDUP Page 180 of 212 J ROUNDUP Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4. If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D5) 2 1.47589 13643.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 =ROUNDUP(C5.47589 1. .DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7.

Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. Cost Per Second : £0.5) . The Cost of the call is then calculated.10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36). Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call.25 1 50 £1.70 2 5 £1. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5. The Duration of the call is entered. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.50 0. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.51 Second 42 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G SECOND Page 181 of 212 H SECOND Number 20/Jun/13 23:19:42 12:00:00 PM 0.51 1. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated.

. If the value is negative the result is -1. Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H I SIGN Page 182 of 212 J SIGN Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1 =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0. If the value is positive the result is 1. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time.F11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item. the SLN which is calculated will.000 £8. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method).£8. However. specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month. The result is a uniform depreciation value.000 =SLN(F9. . days.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period.000. Formatting No special formatting is needed. the SLN is calculated as £12.000 4 £2.000 £2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G H SLN Page 183 of 212 I SLN Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12.000.SellingPrice. months or years.000 6 £2.F5) Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation £20. then kept it for 6 years.000 which is £12. Because you owned the car for 6 years. be for that time.F4. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8.000 / 6 which is £2.500 =SLN(F3.000.000 . Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost.F10. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20. An example would be if you bought a new car for £20.000.

800 £3.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.000 £6.500 Mar £4.000 =SMALL(D24:F27. Sales North South East West Jan £5.000 £3.000 £4.2) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £2. Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.000 £2.2) =SMALL(D24:F27.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .000 £3.500 £12.4) =SMALL(C4:C8.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 £5.000 £2.500 £3. Feb and Mar.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H SMALL Page 184 of 212 I SMALL Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8.1) =SMALL(C4:C8. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.000 Feb £6.000 £7.000 £10.3) =SMALL(C4:C8.1) =SMALL(D24:F27. Highest Lowest £12.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 3 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 100 200 300 6 Bob 400 500 600 7 Carol 700 800 900 8 Total 1200 1500 1800 F SOUTH Page 185 of 212 Total 600 1500 2400 4500 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Southern data. 2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.

1291 The smallest deviation is : 0.7 1. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.H34:H36.8 0.5 1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). Syntax =STDEV(Range1.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.Range2.5 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).2909944 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.0816 1. .H34:H36.H34:H36.4 1. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I STDEV Page 186 of 212 J K STDEV Values 10 10 9 10 0.0500 1.0)) find the machine name.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 0.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.5 0. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.5 1.6 1. The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.4 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.6 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.5 1.

5 0. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.0433 1.5 0. .6 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34). =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34). ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.8 0. A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.6 1. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.5 1.118034 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.433013 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.4 1.0)) find the machine name.H32:H34.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.H32:H34. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.4 1.H32:H34.7 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H I STDEVP Page 187 of 212 J K STDEVP Values 10 10 9 10 0. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.5 1.1118 The smallest variance is : 0.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.5 1.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).433013 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.Range2. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.0707 1.

D5) Northern Region Region Area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(B6.D10.TextToInsert. The function is case sensitive. It can either replace all occurrences of the text.C39.C7.C5. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 1 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Updated Text Northern Region Region Area Northern Area Northern region Region Area Northern region Northern Region region Area Northern Region Northern Region Region area Northern area Northern Region region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.TextToRemove.C6.C10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) ABCDABCD CD hello ABhelloABhello =SUBSTITUTE(B5.D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases. or a specific instance.D11.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional.D6) Sand and Cement and & S& & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B7.E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G SUBSTITUTE Page 188 of 212 H SUBSTITUTE Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Updated Text ABCDEF CD hello ABhelloEF =SUBSTITUTE(B4. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution. Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER(). =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.D7) Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10.C4. Table 2 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Northern Region Region Area Updated Text Northern Area .C11.

2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 B Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region C D E F G Region Area Northern Area region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50).PROPER(C50).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .PROPER(D50)) SUBSTITUTE Page 189 of 212 H .

Range2. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =SUM(Range1.MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers. through to Range30).Range3. It can be used either horizontally or vertically.. Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly. The numbers can be in single cells. 100 200 300 .E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25).E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19.D14. The formula is actually doing more work than needed. This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols.. It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I SUM Page 190 of 213 J SUM Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13. ranges are from other functions.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 B C 600 D E =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) =C48+C49+C50 F G Wrong! Correct Correct H I SUM Page 191 of 213 J .

.$D$7:D7.0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function.0)) =SUM(IF(D9.$D$7:D9. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down.0)) =SUM(IF(D8.$D$7:D10.$D$7:D12.0)) =SUM(IF(D10. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H SUM_as_Running_Total Page 192 of 212 I J SUM (Running Total) Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM($D$7:D7) =SUM($D$7:D8) =SUM($D$7:D9) =SUM($D$7:D10) =SUM($D$7:D11) =SUM($D$7:D12) =SUM($D$7:D13) =SUM($D$7:D14) =SUM($D$7:D15) =SUM($D$7:D16) =SUM($D$7:D17) =SUM($D$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.$D$7:D11. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.0)) =SUM(IF(D12. It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static as the formula is copied down.0)) =SUM(IF(D11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .$D$7:D8.

How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point.0. . A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function.0. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. but this would be time consuming and open to human error.0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 1. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45. 3.1):OFFSET(E45.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered. 2.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I SUM_with_OFFSET Page 193 of 212 J SUM and the =OFFSET function Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34.0. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.0. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29.

0.0. . but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72. These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79. the first offset is offset by 1 column.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Type in the Start month.0. 1500 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E57.0. the second by 2 columns. The formula displayed below are only dummies.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number.0. the second by 3 columns. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled.0.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.0.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B SUM_with_OFFSET Page 194 of 212 J C D E F G H I 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79.0.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets.1):OFFSET(E57.2) : OFFSET(D79. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets. Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 Mar-98 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79. the first offset is offset by 1 column. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.1):OFFSET(E51.0. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled. Example The following table shows five months of data. Type in the End month.0.0.0. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H

SUMIF Page 195 of 212 I

SUMIF
Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Tyres",E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12,E18,E4:E12)

Total cost of all Brakes bought. Total cost of all Tyres bought. Total of items costing £100 or above. Total of item typed in following cell.

What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user. Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined,CriteriaToBeMatched,RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12. It then identifies the entries for Brakes. It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 This examines the values in E4:E12. If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.

=SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100")

Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H

SUMPRODUCT Page 196 of 212 I

SUMPRODUCT
Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6,E4:E6)

Total Sales Value :

What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column. The total of all the values is the result of the calculation. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1, Range, Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock, and the potential value of the stock when it is sold, takinging into account the markup percentage. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price, to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.

Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager

Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100

Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30

Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12

Bottle Cost Markup £12.00 25% £13.00 25% £33.33 80% £2.00 20% £2.50 25% =D39/E39

Bottle Selling Price £15.00 £16.25 £60.00 £2.40 £3.13 =F39+F39*G39

Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit :

£7,440 £9,790 £2,350

=SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39,D35:D39) =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39,E35:E39,H35:H39) =E44-E43

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H

SYD Page 197 of 212 I

SYD
Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20,000 £8,000 6 £3,429 £2,857 £2,286 £1,714 £1,143 £571 £12,000 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,1) =SYD(F3,F4,F5,2) =SYD(F3,F4,F5,3) =SYD(F3,F4,F5,4) =SYD(F3,F4,F5,5) =SYD(F3,F4,F5,6) =SUM(F7:F12)

What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life, using the sum of the years digits. The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life. A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years. Year 3 is 50% of 6, year 2 is 33% of 6, year 1 is 17% 6. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500, 33% being £3000, 17% being £1500. £9,000 £1,500 £3,000 £4,500

1 2 3

17% 33% 50%

As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted, year 1 is $4500, year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10,000 £1,000 3 £4,500 ===> £3,000 ===> £1,500 ===> =SYD(E39,E40,E41,3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0.5 0.333333 0.166667

1. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits, 1+2+3=6. 2. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation, £10000-£1000=£9000. 3. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits, £9000/6=£1500.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F G H 4. Invert the year digits, 1,2,3 becomes 3,2,1. 5. Multiply 3,2,1 by £1500 to get £4500, £3000, £1500, these values are the depreciation values for each of the three years in the life of the item. Example 2 The same example using 4 years. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : £10,000 £1,000 4 £3,600 £2,700 £1,800 £900 £9,000

SYD Page 198 of 212 I

As % Of Total Depriciation 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 100%

Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10,000 £1,000 7 £2,250 £1,929 £1,607 £1,286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4%

£9,000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

100%

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G H I T Page 199 of 212 J T Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. . Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The function is not specifically needed by Excel. but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the result is a blank. then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text. If the value is text.

. Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert."0. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.3 £10."0.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 B C D E F G H I TEXT Page 200 of 212 J TEXT Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.25 10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00") =TEXT(C6.FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required.25 Converted To Text 10."£0.00") =TEXT(C5."£0.3 =TEXT(C4."£0") =TEXT(C8."0") =TEXT(C7.00 10 £10 10.00 £10.0") =TEXT(C9.

E4) =TIME(C5.E5) =TIME(C6. Syntax =TIME(Hour. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day. .D6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .60485 =TIME(C4.D4.D5.E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.Minute.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H TIME Page 201 of 212 I TIME Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.

which convert all values to text. such as from mainframe computers. Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . It is useful when data is imported from other applications. Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G TIMEVALUE Page 202 of 212 H TIMEVALUE Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0.604849537 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time.

To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added. Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 6015 5794 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 6014 5793 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G TODAY Page 203 of 212 TODAY Today Is 20-Jun-13 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date. Year 2000 01-Jan-2000 Days Until -4919 =C36-TODAY() . Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format. Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day.

The transpose range must be the same size as the original range. If changes need to be made to the formula. Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows. . and the data originally in rows is in columns. and places in it in a new range. The function needs to be entered as an array formula. the entire array has to be highlighted. Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it. Next type the formula.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I TRANSPOSE Page 204 of 212 J TRANSPOSE Alan Bob Carol Total 0 Jan Feb Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5).

such as Months. The months to predict were entered.968 15 -£1.B5:B10.451 17 -£1.KnownXs.709 16 -£1.E5:E10)} What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values.000 {=TREND(C8:C13. the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year.B5:B10.600 4 -£4.226 14 -£1.800 3 -£4. such as Sales Figures.RequiredXs. The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values.386 12 £7.500 7 -£4. such as Months.940 8 £5.E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an .300 10 -£2. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data.B5:B10.800 6 -£4.000 Predicted Values Month Profit 13 -£2.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.774 11 £7.Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values.000 2 £2.163 10 £6.800 6 £4. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year.500 5 £3.500 4 £3.800 9 -£3.B5:B10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 13 to 24. To prove to the bank that.551 9 £6.193 18 -£935 19 -£676 20 -£418 21 -£160 22 £98 {=TREND(C41:C52. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.000 2 -£4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I TREND Page 205 of 212 J TREND WHAT IS CONST b ? Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4. the =TREND() function was used.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.000 3 £2. the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility.997 Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1.000 8 -£3.B5:B10. The historical data for the past year was entered.B41:B52. Syntax =TREND(KnownYs.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.B8:B13. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Historical Data Month Profit 1 -£5. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit. based upon the past years performance.E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10. months 1 to 12.750 5 -£4.

2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B 11 12 C -£2.500 -£2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . Press Enter to enter the formula as an array. Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52.800 D E 23 24 F £356 £615 G array formula H I TREND Page 206 of 212 J How To Enter An Array Formula Select all the cells where the array is required.B41:B52. Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down. but do not press Enter.E41:E52). such as F41 to F52.

The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H TRIM Page 207 of 212 I TRIM Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I TRUNC Page 208 of 212 J TRUNC Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.47589 -1.4 =TRUNC(C5.47589 1.D6) 1 -1.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.47 =TRUNC(C8.48 What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number. . Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate. it does not actually round the number.47589 1.D4) 1 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 13643.D5) 2 1.4 =TRUNC(C7.47589 -1.D11) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9.D7) 2 -1.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed.48 13643.47 =TRUNC(C6.48 13643.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G UPPER Page 209 of 212 H UPPER Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case. Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example See the example for FREQUENCY. .

2% Approx 50% increase in sales.5 A 100% increase was achieved. 0.02 There was a 50% increase in sales. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH().2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C D E F G VALUE Page 210 of 213 H VALUE Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C4." ")." The winning time was 1:30 seconds." ". 50% There was a 100% increase in sales.99)) There was a 2% increase in sales. To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long.C15). it can be either one." ". Explanation of formula shown above. If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign. To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length. the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage. The result will be shown as a value. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time. 0. The winning time was 1:30 seconds.C14).C17).C4). =FIND(). The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign. There was a 2% increase in sales. other than it is preceded by a space.SEARCH("??:??". Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.SEARCH("??:??".SEARCH("??:??".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . =MID(). The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract. based upon the original text. 0.5)) =VALUE(MID(C17. =LEFT() or =RIGHT(). Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11. If the % sign is included in the text.SEARCH("??:??".5)) =VALUE(MID(C15. The same will be true for other recognised formats. If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored.0625 1:30 10:30 0:30 ")). The winning time was 10:30 seconds. 0. two or three digits long.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14.SEARCH("???%".5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value. 1 Only a 2% increase in sales. There is no way to identify the beginning of the value.C16).02 .5)) =VALUE(MID(C16.SUBSTITUTE(C11.SEARCH("£". =SUBSTITUTE. 100% * See explanation below. The winning time was 0:30 seconds. as alphabetic characters will be included.

=VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52." D 0. There was a 100% increase in sales.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .SUBSTITUTE(C52." "." E F G VALUE Page 211 of 213 H ")).5 1 ").SEARCH("???%".4)) ." ".2000 Peter Noneley A B 51 52 53 54 C There was a 50% increase in sales.

5 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.H34:H36. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.6 1. .5 0.0025 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I VAR Page 212 of 212 J VAR Values 10 10 9 10 0.8 0.5 1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0167 The smallest variance is : 0.H34:H36.6 1.H34:H36.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 0. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.Range2.6666667 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.4 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. Syntax =VAR(Range1.0067 1.7 1. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.0)) find the machine name.5 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 1.4 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.

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