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Rapra Review Reports

ISSN: 0889-3144

PVC Compounds and Processing

S. Patrick

Volume 15, Number 3, 2004

Expert overviews covering the science and technology of rubber and plastics

A Rapra Review Report comprises three sections, as follows: 1. A commissioned expert review, discussing a key topic of current interest, and referring to the References and Abstracts section. Reference numbers in brackets refer to item numbers from the References and Abstracts section. Where it has been necessary for completeness to cite sources outside the scope of the Rapra Abstracts database, these are listed at the end of the review, and cited in the text as a.1, a.2, etc. 2. A comprehensive References and Abstracts section, resulting from a search of the Rapra Polymer Library database. The format of the abstracts is outlined in the sample record below. 3. An index to the References and Abstracts section, derived from the indexing terms which are added to the abstracts records on the database to aid retrieval.

Source of original article Title

Item 1

33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83 EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han Akron,University The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and ether-based commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.

Authors and affiliation




Companies or organisations mentioned

Accession no.771897

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and BIP Chemicals Ltd.) Ltd. Building Research Establishment.A. H. Kirby. Report 33 Report 34 . Composites .A. Pira Packaging Division. Report 19 Report 20 Report 21 Report 22 Report 23 Report 24 Volume 3 Report 55 Report 25 Report 26 Report 27 Report 28 Report 29 Report 30 Report 31 Report 32 Foams and Blowing Agents. R. D. Processing and Applications.Winnan. Consultant. U. A. Polymers and Their Uses in the Sports and Leisure Industries. Methven. Gale. Daniels.J.F.R. S. Conductive Polymers II. Engelmann & Buckham Ancillaries.Brockbank. London School of Polymer Technology. Trego and H. Corrosion Monitoring Consultancy. Turner.J. Biomedical Applications of Polymers. Fluoroelastomers . Johansson Volume 2 Report 13 Report 14 Injection Moulding of Engineering Thermoplastics. Materials Handling in the Polymer Industry.J.H.N. J.Properties and Applications.Previous Titles Still Available Volume 1 Report 1 Report 2 Report 3 Report 4 Report 5 Report 8 Report 10 Report 11 Report 12 Conductive Polymers. Lawson. Internal Mixing of Rubber. Grigo.M. Physical Testing of Thermoplastics.C. D. Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry. Gebelein. R. National NDT Centre. H. Physical Testing of Rubber. Lupton Failure of Plastics. J.W. L. L. Tooltex.P.P. Coulson. Plessey Research (Caswell) Ltd. P.Materials. A. Consultant. Cook and M.R. Maxwell. Polycarbonates. R. Methven.F. M. Brain. University of Cambridge.T. O’Reilly. The Open University. W. Rapra Technology Ltd. and J.K. Nutt. M.L. ICI. Freitag. W. Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding. Leicester Polytechnic. Wheelans. Cellcom Technology Associates. Hardy. Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions.F.S. K. Hollaway. Flammability and Flame Retardants in Plastics. Joining of Plastics.W.J. D. FMC Corp. P. Arnold Nutt & Co. Surgical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers. D.G. Processing and Applications. Plastics in Building. N. Feast Medical. Polyimides . Wilton. Reynolds. Nova Petrochemicals Inc. Rapra Technology Ltd. Wilton. R. R. S.Britton. Friend. A. K.W. Cattell Consultancy Services. Engineering Thermoplastics. Whelan.G.F. Lynn. Polyamides. 3M United Kingdom Plc and 3M Belgium SA. A. Du Pont (U. Sidwell. Epoxy Resins. D. Automotive Applications of Polymers II. Forrest. Materials. Woods.C. Brown. Queen Mary College. M. Wright. Offshore Applications of Polymers.A. Pakull.W. Lovegrove. Hinrichsen. Chemical Analysis of Polymers. R.K. University of Surrey. Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd.A. Polyetheretherketone. Lewis. Recycling and Disposal of Plastics Packaging. Williams Advanced Composites. Roberts. Garnaud. Djordjevic. International Committee for Plastics in Agriculture.M. Plas/Tech Ltd. Report 56 Report 57 Report 58 Report 59 Report 60 Volume 6 Report 61 Report 62 Report 63 Report 64 Food Contact Polymeric Materials.A. Hodd Polymers in Chemically Resistant Applications. Cox and R. G. Hawley. D. W. J. Coextrusion. Weathering of Polymers. Wade. Rapra Technology Ltd. Polyurethane. B. Cambridge Applied Technology. J. S. Norway. Exxon Chemical International Marketing. British Telecom. J. Andreassen.Goosey. D. Dow Corning Ltd. Armitage.D. G.M.A. Adhesives for Structural and Engineering Applications. Harwell. Plastics in High Temperature Applications. Hodge. J. R. Evans.D.K. M. Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing.A. Å. Volume 4 Report 37 Report 38 Report 39 Report 40 Report 41 Report 42 Report 43 Report 44 Report 45 Report 46 Report 47 Report 48 Polymers in Aerospace Applications. Coates and A. J. University of Surrey.F. ICI. Kemmish. City University. RAE. P. Senter for Industriforskning. Consultant.L. Quality Today in Polymer Processing. C. van de Grampel.A. Spratling.T. Cousans. Liquid Crystal Polymers. Cattell. Klöckner ER-WE-PA GmbH.C.W. J. Report 15 Report 16 Report 17 Report 18 Volume 5 Report 49 Report 50 Report 51 Report 52 Report 53 Report 54 Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics. C. Recent Developments in Materials for Food Packaging. Injection Moulding of Rubber. Consultant. T & N Technology Ltd. Pultrusion. Thomas.Alvey. Process Control in the Plastics Industry. Rapra Technology Ltd.H.T. Green. CAD/CAM in the Polymer Industry. Agricultural and Horticultural Applications of Polymers. J. Hollaway. Hotpoint Ltd.M. Brown. University of Manchester. Youngstown State University / Florida Atlantic University.M. Larsen and E.W. Report 35 Report 36 Polymers in Household Electrical Goods. N. S. J. Allen. Williams and T. Sebborn. E. Bayer AG.Tooling and Component Processing. General Electric Plastics BV. Johnson Communications Applications of Polymers.R. Developments in Additives to Meet Health and Environmental Concerns. University of Surrey. Electronics Applications of Polymers. Extrusion. Rapra Technology Ltd. P. R. I. G. Rapra Technology Ltd. Consultant. UMIST. Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil Engineering. Polymers in Marine Applications. Designing with Plastics. Extrusion of Rubber. Cavendish Laboratory. Farnborough.G. Sandland and M. Chronos Richardson Ltd. A. D.N.J. Non-destructive Testing of Polymers. Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources. Loctite (Ireland) Ltd. Cox. Barrie. C. C. Fox. Elliott. Silicone Rubbers. Halliwell.

L.G. J. Adams. University of Hamburg.S. Brydson. Hepburn.J. Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers. Advances in Biodegradable Polymers. Tooling and Manufacturing.C. University of Surrey. Report 110 Long-Term and Accelerated Ageing Tests on Rubbers.E.G. Lee.J. J. Gas Injection Ltd.J.M. Goodyear Technical Center. Report 105 Rubber Extrusion Theory and Development. Mulhouse. Rapra Technology Ltd. The Nottingham Trent University. Holding and E. Fouassier. National Research Council Canada. I. Report 98 Report 99 Report 74 Report 75 Report 76 Report 77 Report 78 Report 79 Report 100 Photoinitiated Polymerisation . P. J. IRC in Polymer Science and Technology. Compressive Behaviour of Composites. Brydson. and Polymer Laboratories Ltd. J. Meteor Gummiwerke.E. Prentice.A. Report 102 Plastics in Pressure Pipes. H. Kelleher. Robinson. M. Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 117 Rapid Prototyping.Leadbitter. Andres Garcia-Rejon. Rapra Technology Ltd. Schissel.F. G. Fardell.A. Rapra Technology Ltd. Theory and Innovation. D. Applications and Implications. Tunghai University. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie. Kemmish. Report 80 Report 81 Report 82 Volume 10 Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding . Building Research Establishment. . Rotational Moulding.P. Advances in Thermoforming. B. Report 67 Report 68 Report 69 Report 70 Report 71 Report 72 Volume 9 Report 97 Rubber Compounding Ingredients . Theves. Reeves. Spassky. Université Pierre et Marie Curie.L. Oxford Brookes University.C. Coates and A. Maier. Vredestein Rubber Recycling B.P. University of Ulster. Rubber to Metal Bonding. Naylor. J. Cure Assessment by Physical and Chemical Techniques. Report 101 Solvent-Free Adhesives. P. Forrest and G.J. Edward Mackenzie Consulting.B. S. H.M.J. Victrex Ltd. Production and Applications. Rapra Technology Ltd. T. Kaminsky. University of Ulster. Technology and Medicine. Plastics in Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulation. Pearson. I. Dierkes.A. Report 83 Report 84 Volume 8 Report 85 Report 86 Report 87 Report 88 Report 89 Ring Opening Polymerisation. P. Processing and Applications.Nanopolyacetylene. Theory and Innovation. P. P. P. H.Materials. Report 90 Report 91 Report 92 Report 93 Report 94 Report 95 Report 96 Rubber Mixing. Structures and Separation Performance. Lewis. Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation. Y. Plasticisers . Forrest.Report 65 Report 66 Decorating and Coating of Plastics. Wilson. Rapra Technology Ltd. B. T. Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK. J. Ryan. Keskkula. Report 103 Gas Assisted Moulding. MRM Engineering Consultancy.P. Rapra Technology Ltd. Boustead Consulting Ltd. T. M. V. R. Report 112 Polystyrene . The Smart Chemical Company. P. Brown. Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric Polysulfides. Brown. M. Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing. Crawford. Hamerton.G. Polymer Membranes . Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins. Lewis.V.A. New Jersey Polymer Extension Center at Stevens Institute of Technology. Reinforced Thermoplastics . A.G.R.Theory and Applications. R.R.A.Need. Hydro Polymers Ltd.R. R. A.P. Russian Academy of Sciences. Antidegradants and Particulate Fillers for General Purpose Rubbers. P. T.Composition. C. International Automotive Design. The Queen’s University of Belfast.F. Boustead. Colborn.Compounds. Manuel and W. Soutis. Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire.A Practical Guide. Meehan.Industrial Materials Institute. Advances in Injection Moulding.E. Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres. Hickman. Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics. Hepburn. J. C. Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization. Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology. Wood. Kobryanskii. W. Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene . Part I: Vulcanising Systems.E. PVC .J. PEKK and Other Polyaryls. Recycling of Rubber.L. Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials. N. University of Bradford.C. The Open University. C. B. BASF AG. Fire Research Station. Crowther. Rubber Compounding Ingredients . Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers. R. Sepe. Report 104 Plastics Profile Extrusion. Tangram Technology Ltd. Kingston University. R. Fuller Company. Hill. Willoughby. P.J. Lindsay.J. Cubbon. W. Hague and P. M. Fire Retardants. C.Need. The Open University. Part II: Processing. Sherwood Technologies Inc.J. M. Processing and Applications. High Performance Engineering Plastics. D. St Clair (Polymers) Ltd.R. Johnson. Saunders. Moore & S. Wang. Speciality Rubbers. Ridha. R.P. Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes. Thermal Analysis of Polymers. Soulagnet. Imperial College of Science. Rolando.N. Kefford.W.D. Day. Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders. Report 111 Polymer Product Failure.J. Wünsch. Buckley.Synthesis. Bonding. V. Advances in Tyre Mechanics. Volume 7 Report 73 Reactive Processing of Polymers. G. Throne. Kent. deV.R. Continuous Vulcanisation of Elastomer Profiles.M.A. Stafford. M.A. R. J. University of Texas at Austin. T. Dickten & Masch Manufacturing Co. Econology Ltd. Thermoplastic Elastomers . General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center. Crowther.Properties and Applications.Selection. England and D. Plastics and the Environment. Pritchard. J.R. J.

Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers - Synthesis, Properties and Applications, D. Coates, CRL Ltd. Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food, M.J. Forrest and J.A. Sidwell, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II, M.T. Goosey, Shipley Ronal.

Volume 13
Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding, V. Goodship and J.C. Love, The University of Warwick. Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics, J.C. Love and V. Goodship, The University of Warwick. Report 147 Rubber Product Failure, Roger P. Brown.

Volume 11
Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials, I.B. Page, BIP Ltd. Report 122 Flexible Packaging - Adhesives, Coatings and Processes, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company. Report 123 Polymer Blends, L.A. Utracki, National Research Council Canada. Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling, R.D. Pascoe, University of Exeter. Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR, H.N. Cheng, Hercules Incorporated. Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications, C.D. Rudd, University of Nottingham. Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications, B.J. Lambert and F.-W. Tang, Guidant Corp., and W.J. Rogers, Consultant. Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers, P.A. Mirau, Lucent Technologies. Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack, D.C. Wright. Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins, C. Kröhnke and F. Werner, Clariant Huningue SA.

Report 148 Plastics Waste – Feedstock Recycling, Chemical Recycling and Incineration, A. Tukker, TNO. Report 149 Analysis of Plastics, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 150 Mould Sticking, Fouling and Cleaning, D.E. Packham, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath. Report 151 Rigid Plastics Packaging - Materials, Processes and Applications, F. Hannay, Nampak Group Research & Development. Report 152 Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers, A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, University of Kassel. Report 153 Polymers in Telecommunication Devices, G.H. Cross, University of Durham. Report 154 Polymers in Building and Construction, S.M. Halliwell, BRE. Report 155 Styrenic Copolymers, Andreas Chrisochoou and Daniel Dufour, Bayer AG. Report 156 Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact of Polymeric Products, T.J. O’Neill, Polymeron Consultancy Network.

Volume 14
Report 157 Developments in Colorants for Plastics, Ian N. Christensen. Report 158 Geosynthetics, David I. Cook. Report 159 Biopolymers, R.M. Johnson, L.Y. Mwaikambo and N. Tucker, Warwick Manufacturing Group. Report 160 Emulsion Polymerisation and Applications of Latex, Christopher D. Anderson and Eric S. Daniels, Emulsion Polymers Institute. Report 161 Emissions from Plastics, C. Henneuse-Boxus and T. Pacary, Certech. Report 162 Analysis of Thermoset Materials, Precursors and Products, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 163 Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Masami Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute. Report 164 Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives, David R. Mulligan, NPL. Report 165 Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles, Roy W. Buckley. Report 166 Developments in Thermoplastic Elastomers, K.E. Kear Report 167 Polyolefin Foams, N.J. Mills, Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham. Report 168 Plastic Flame Retardants: Technology and Current Developments, J. Innes and A. Innes, Flame Retardants Associates Inc.

Volume 12
Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection Moulding, J. Mallon, Yushin Inc. Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers, J.L. Koenig, Case Western Reserve University. Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure, R.P. Brown. Report 136 Radiation Curing, R.S. Davidson, DavRad Services. Report 137 Silicone Elastomers, P. Jerschow, Wacker-Chemie GmbH. Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, N. Chaiear, Khon Kaen University. Report 139 Rubber Analysis - Polymers, Compounds and Products, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance, M.S. Evans, Kumho European Technical Centre. Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers, Professor R.N. Rothon, Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan University. Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams, S.N. Singh, Huntsman Polyurethanes. Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins, D.M. Brewis and I. Mathieson, Institute of Surface Science & Technology, Loughborough University. Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems, R.N. Datta, Flexsys BV.

Volume 15
Report 169 Engineering and Structural Adhesives, David J. Dunn, FLD Enterprises Inc. Report 170 Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture, Roger P. Brown.

PVC Compounds and Processing

Stuart Patrick (FLD Enterprises Inc.)

ISBN 1-85957-472-6


....................................2..........2 Homopolymers .....2 Introduction ............................................................................................................3 2 Polyvinyl Chloride ........................................3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols .. Formulations and Applications ........................4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) .........................4...................................................................................1 4..................................2 Adipates ...................................................................................4................................................................................................................11 3.......................................3 1 .....................1.................................. 10 Plasticisers ................................................... 14 4.2......................................3....3 Recycling ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 3.......2 Organotin Stabilisers .........................2 Particle Size ................................................................................................................................. 5 Copolymers and Terpolymers .............................................3 Bulk Powder Properties ...... 9 2.............7...........................................................................................................................................................4.......................................1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture ............................................4 2........................................................................................... 12 Waste Management .......7.. 12 3............................ 12 3...........2 2......................1 Molecular Weight ..............2 Liquid Stabilisers .................................4........................................................................ 3 PVC Compounds ...........................................2 1.............................4........11 3..................................... 4 2................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 4................................................................................................2 VCM and PVC Production ............................................3 Global Market by Application ..............................................................................................................................6 2................1 Solid Stabilisers ........................ 10 3...3 3............................................................................ 10 3................................................2 PVC Compounders .................................... 8 2........................1 Lead Based Stabilisers...... 7 PVC Resin Characterisation ...........................................................................................11 Heat Stabilisers ............. 4 2..............................................................3 2...................................................................................................... 8 2..................................................................................................................................................................................................................1.................... 7 2.................................................................................. 7 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) .................................................... 4 2.......1 Incineration ........................................................... 8 Industry Outline ........................ 3 History ............1 PVC Resin Producers ............................. 10 3............4 4 Additives.........................................................................................3................................................ 12 4............................................................................................. 7 Key Additives .........................................................................................1 Phthalates .....................3............................ 12 3............................................................................ 15 Plasticisers .........................3......................................... 7 2..........2 Landfill ...............................5 2...........................11 3....................................7 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC ..............................................................................4...........................1 1...PVC Compounds and Processing Contents 1 Introduction .......................1 PVC Resin .............2.........................2..................................................................... 12 3............................................................................. 3 PVC Industry ............................... 8 Processing Techniques .. 8 2............................................................................................................................................. 3 1..........11 3................. 12 Heat Stabilisers ............................................................................... 7 2....................................................... 16 4..............................................................7..........

.........3.................................2.......................................................5..................................................7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes .. 25 4........................7.................................................. 28 5....................................... 28 Processing .................2 Impact Modifiers ................................................................................................................ 34 2 ............................. 25 4...............6 Nanocomposites ...... 24 4...................................................................13............. 19 4................................................................ 26 4...................................... 20 4.... 27 5................................... 27 5.................................. 18 4..........13.......................14 Formulations ........... 25 4......................................5..............................................................................................13.................................................3 Liquid PVC Blending ............................................................ 16 4. 21 4......................................4 Bonding Agents ...........................8 4..................4 4...................................13........................................................................................... 20 4..........................11 Blowing Agents..................2.................................................. 23 4......................................................................................... 24 4.....2.............1 Phthalate Alternatives ..... 24 4..................................................2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites ........................................ 20 Fillers ................... 29 5.......7 4.2............................................. 21 4............7............................. 27 5...................................................... 19 Lubricants ................................... 33 5...............................14........................3 Medical and Food Contact Use ..........................................2 Polymeric Plasticisers.......6 Calendering......................................................................................3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre .................14..............2 Extrusion .................................................................................. 28 5......................................................................................................5 4...............................................................................................3 Antifogging Agents ........................................................................5 Other Fillers ...................................................................PVC Compounds and Processing 4................................. 18 4.......................3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification .........................................1 Antistatic Agents .................................................................................................... 25 4........................................................................................................................ 32 5................................................... 18 Multifunctional Additives ............................. 32 5...............................2 Melt Compounding ............................................7...............................................................1............................................................1 Compounding .....5 Orientation ......1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing .................... 21 4....................................2 Viscosity Modifiers ...4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers .......3 Injection Moulding ...14......................... 27 5........................ 26 5 Compounding and Processing Technology .........................1.......................................5.......................14..... 21 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) ..........................................................................................................................................10 Biocides ................ 22 Pigments .......................1......................................... 19 4..............................9 4............................................... 31 5.................................................................................................................................2 6 Fabrication and Treatment .........12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers .......................................... Extrusion Blow Moulding ............................................................. 25 4.....................................................................4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications ......................................................................................................................4 Membranes ............2.. 21 4.............1 Dry Blend Mixing .............................................................2................................................................1 Process Aids...................................................5.......... 23 4.............................................................................................2............................................................................2 Crosslinked PVC .................................. 25 4............................................................................1 Gelation ...........................................................................7.......3..................6 4....................................4....13 Other Additives for PVC-P ............................................................. 18 Property Modifiers .......7................................7........................................................................................................................... 31 5............................................................................. 24 4...............................1 Calcium Carbonate ..................................................................

PVC Compounds and Processing

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7

Thermoforming ............................................................................................................................. 34 Surface Modification Processes .................................................................................................... 34 Coatings ........................................................................................................................................ 34 Adhesion ....................................................................................................................................... 35

PVC and Sustainable Development ..................................................................................................... 35 7.1 Waste Management ....................................................................................................................... 36 7.1.1 PVC Rich Waste - Mechanical Recycling ........................................................................ 36 7.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling ................................................................................................ 38 7.1.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery .......................................................................................... 38


Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 38

Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................................... 39 Additional References ................................................................................................................................... 39 Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 41 Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database .......................................................................................... 43 Subject Index ............................................................................................................................................... 147 Company Index ............................................................................................................................................ 159


PVC Compounds and Processing

The views and opinions expressed by authors in Rapra Review Reports do not necessarily reflect those of Rapra Technology Limited or the editor. The series is published on the basis that no responsibility or liability of any nature shall attach to Rapra Technology Limited arising out of or in connection with any utilisation in any form of any material contained therein.


PVC Compounds and Processing

1 Introduction
1.1 Polyvinyl Chloride
In the excellent previous Rapra Review Report on this subject (464) the authors mentioned briefly the environmental assaults on polyvinyl chloride (known as PVC or vinyl), but correctly considered them to be outside the scope of that technical review. However, events have moved on considerably in the discussions on sustainability issues and this author believes that no review would be complete without including the substantial efforts made by the PVC industry in this area. PVC is a product based on two of the earth’s natural resources, salt and oil. Salt water electrolysis yields chlorine (in addition to caustic soda and hydrogen). Ethylene can be derived from naphtha when oil is refined. Chlorine and ethylene can be combined to form the monomer, vinyl chloride (VCM). PVC results from the polymerisation of vinyl chloride. PVC cannot be processed on its own due to its very low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to combine with the polymer a number of suitable additives to give a wide and varied range of properties to satisfy many different end-use applications. It is this scope for generating a wide range of properties through appropriate formulation that gives PVC a broad application coverage that is unmatched by any other commodity thermoplastic. Its durability (85% is used in medium- to long-term life span applications), linked to its cost effectiveness, has made it the second largest commodity plastic after polyethylene.

PVC compounds can be formulated, using plasticisers, into flexible materials, usually called PVC-P. Compounds without plasticiser for rigid applications are designated PVC-U.

1.3 History
The existence of the monomer, vinyl chloride, was reported by Regnault in 1835, but the ability of this monomer to polymerise was not fully known at that time. The effect of sunlight on vinyl chloride was later investigated by Baumann in 1872, when it was observed that a tough white substance formed as a result of exposure. Very little significant advance was then made until 1912-1916 when Fritz Klatte discovered the basis for the production of PVC. Patents were granted for the manufacture of vinyl chloride by reacting hydrogen chloride gas with acetylene at 180 °C in the presence of metal chlorides as the catalysts. They also referred to polymerisation by sunlight and suggested some uses for the polymer. Pilot plant production of PVC resins began in Germany in 1931 followed by the USA in 1933. The beginning of PVC as a technically useful product stemmed from the patent disclosures of Semon of the BF Goodrich Company and Reid of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals in 1933/34. It was discovered that PVC became a flexible material that resembled rubber or leather when it was heated in the presence of a high boiling liquid. This led to the use of phthalate esters as plasticisers for PVC giving a material that was processable at acceptable melt temperatures into products which were permanently soft and flexible. The industrial production of PVC using emulsion and suspension technology had occurred in Germany, the USA and the UK by the start of World War II. During World War II, the acute shortage of rubber accelerated developments in this area, including cable insulation and sheathing. During this period, heat stabilisers were first used in PVC formulations. In a further development during World War II, German engineers produced rigid sheet and pipe, although PVC-U was generally considered too brittle for practical use. Early PVC processing was carried out on machinery originally developed for rubber and celluloid, namely compounding, calendering, compression moulding and extrusion.

1.2 PVC Compounds
PVC compounds are based on the combination of the polymer and additives that give the formulation necessary for the end-use. The convention in recording the additive concentration is based on parts per hundred of the PVC resin (phr). The compound is generated by intimately mixing together the ingredients, which is subsequently converted into the gelled article under the influence of heat (and shear). Depending on the type of PVC and additives, the compound prior to gelation, can be a free-flowing powder (known as a dry blend) or a liquid in the form of a paste or solution.


A new technology based on ethane-to-VCM is also being developed (461).CH2Cl EDC thermal decomposition CH2 = CHCl + HCl vinyl chloride hydrogen chloride Figure 1 Hydrogen chloride recycle Ethylene Oxychlorination Oxygen EDC purification Ethylene Chlorine Direct chlorination By-products Water EDC cracking VCM Figure 2 The vinyl chloride monomer production process (after EVC International NV with permission) CH2 = CH2 + 2HCl + ½ O2 Figure 3 CH2Cl . The oxychlorination reaction is shown in Figure 3. in which recycled hydrogen chloride is reacted with further ethylene feedstock in the presence of catalyst and oxygen. Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the process.PVC Compounds and Processing 2 PVC Industry 2. CH2 = CH2 + Cl2 ethylene chlorine ClH2C . while excess hydrogen is oxidised to form water.1 PVC Resin 2. is also employed to generate further quantities of EDC.CH2Cl EDC CH2Cl . An oxychlorination unit.1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced from the chlorination of ethylene and pyrolysis of the resulting ethylene dichloride (EDC) in a cracking unit (see Figure 1).CH2Cl + H2O 4 .1.

Topics cover improved reactor economics. The suspended droplets of liquid monomer are progressively converted to solid or porous PVC particles. secondary stabilisers to impart higher grain porosity to assist in improving VCM removal and plasticiser uptake. The mechanism of action of antifouling agents has been studied (149). monomer droplets can agglomerate to a greater or lesser extent in the course of the polymerisation. Details are covered in Section 4. The glass transition temperature of PVC homopolymer lies in the range of 70-80 °C. 166. It forms explosive mixtures with air and is toxic (carcinogenic). initiators (organic peroxides) which are soluble in VCM and a protective colloid to stabilise the suspension. Recent investigations covering S-PVC polymerisation are to be found in (35. or high bulk density and good powder flow required for rigid extrusion. The chemical structure deviates from the theoretical chain with chain branching occurring during polymerisation. typically in fluidised bed drying equipment. S-PVC is the most common type of resin (around 85% of total PVC produced) used in both rigid and flexible applications and grades are formulated to meet an extensive range of requirements such as. The properties of PVC are influenced by its average molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution.1. The polymer is then dried. 345.4 °C and is normally stored as a liquid under pressure. Commercial PVC polymers are essentially amorphous but also have a crystalline phase amounting to approximately 10% and a two-dimensionally ordered nematic phase depending on processing history. The reaction can be chemically short-stopped when the desired conversion has been reached by the use of particular phenolics (148). the reactor is cleaned and coated with an antifouling agent.PVC Compounds and Processing VCM boils at -13. Depending on the dosage and nature of the protective colloid and the stirring conditions.1.2. 2. Other additives are pH regulators to counteract acidity and antifoaming agents (150). 2. The particles are complex and irregular in shape with a dense semipermeable skin. This corresponds to a theoretical molecular weight range of approximately 30. 429).1 The Suspension Polymerisation Process Suspension polymerised PVC (S-PVC) is manufactured (see Figure 4 ) when VCM is polymerised in large scale batch reactors (autoclaves) in the presence of water. Prior to start-up of the next polymerisation cycle. initiator stabilisers and an investigation on the effects of polymerisation conditions on PVC particles. Typical suspension polymerised PVC has a mean particle size of 100-150 μm with a range of 50-250 μm.000.2 Homopolymers The VCM repeat unit is linked in a head-to-tail fashion and the number of repeat units can range between 500 and 1. polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate. the VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Centrifuging Water Drying S-PVC Water Figure 4 The suspension polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 5 . high plasticiser absorption for flexible products.500. 318. Unreacted VCM is stripped from the polymer and water is separated by centrifuging.000 to 95.

2. is produced in an autoclave when VCM is polymerised in the presence of water.2 The Emulsion Polymerisation Process Emulsion polymerised PVC (E-PVC). In the first stage (prepolymerisation) vigorous agitation is necessary to obtain the desired particle size distribution. These components are circulated through a mixing pump (homogeniser) which causes the mixture to disperse into very fine droplets. They are used in a wide range of speciality applications such as coating.2.3 The Microsuspension Polymerisation Process Microsuspension PVC is produced when VCM is mixed in a vessel with water.PVC Compounds and Processing 2. Emulsion and microsuspension polymerised PVC account for around 10% of all PVC produced. see Figure 5. a paste (or plastisol) is produced. 2. Polymerisation continues to approximately 20% conversion at which time all of the liquid VCM is absorbed into the porous structure of the grains leaving only dry powder. The primary particles are solid. a water soluble initiator (persulfate. before being placed in the autoclave.2. A larger elementary particle size can be achieved by seeding the initial emulsion system. Polymerisation continues to 70-90% conversion and the unreacted monomer is recovered. the PVC is separated from the water by evaporation in spray drying equipment. Thereafter the subsequent operations for obtaining the final product are similar to the emulsion polymerisation process.4 The Mass Polymerisation Process The mass (or bulk) polymerisation of VCM is carried out by a two-stage process. A milling process follows to modify the agglomerate size before final size classification. special properties.1. smooth surfaced spheres which are clustered into irregular shaped aggregates with a typical mean particle size of 40-50 μm with a range of 0. At the end of the polymerisation stage. A continuous emulsion polymerisation process is also used.1-100 μm. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine particles of PVC in water. Microsuspension polymerised PVC is used for producing plastisols and paste in combination with E-PVC. are conferred on the polymer. The droplets are coated with surfactant which stabilises them during the reaction. etc. Monomer and initiator are charged and polymerisation proceeds to about 10% conversion at which time the formed particles are dispersed in the bulk of the VCM. A PVC polymer latex is introduced and the particles of the new polymer grow on the seed. an initiator soluble in Water VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Spray drying E-PVC Figure 5 The emulsion polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 6 . After polymerisation. with higher bulk density. From this milky emulsion (latex). such as improved thermal stability and greater ease of processing. Consequently these resins are called paste resins. As the resin retains most of the emulsifiers used during polymerisation. hydrogen peroxide. In the second stage (polymerisation) this material is slowly agitated and additional monomer and initiator are added. dipping or spreading. VCM and an emulsifier. Particle size and range are similar to suspension polymer but the particles have highly spherical shapes. Particular uses for this material are linked to its high transparency and good 2.1. Initiation and polymerisation occur within the droplets. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine PVC particles in water.) and an emulsifier (anionic surfactants).1. When E-PVC resins are mixed with a liquid plasticiser.

PVC Compounds and Processing

plasticising properties. Mass and suspension polymers have been compared on particle morphology and plasticiser absorption in the preparation of slush powders (111).

above its glass transition temperature. CPVC has a glass transition temperature approximately 50% higher than PVC but also has a higher melt viscosity in processing. The upper service temperature for CPVC is approximately 100 °C in comparison to PVC at 60 °C (463). Pipe (436), mouldings (376) and sheet are formulated for high temperature use based on CPVC or blends of CPVC and PVC.

2.2 Copolymers and Terpolymers
A number of commercial vinyl chloride copolymers are predominantly made up of VCM units with comonomer units randomly distributed in minor proportions. The suspension polymerisation process is normally used. Grafted copolymers obtained by VCM polymerisation and polyacrylic elastomer grafting, give high bulk density resins for products with high impact strength suitable for outdoor applications. The separate addition of acrylate impact modifiers to the PVC formulation is covered in Section 4.5.2. A vinyl chloride-ethylene-vinyl acetate terpolymer system gives products with superior impact strength suitable for an outdoor environment. The modifier component is a 45% vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer with PVC grafted on it. EVA modification depends on a network structure. Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers are produced containing 5-15% of vinyl acetate. These materials, having a lower glass transition temperature, can be processed at considerably lower temperatures and are particularly suited for thermoforming. Finished products are highly transparent. A block copolymer system of PVC and poly(ethyleneco-propylene) (EPM) resulting from ultrasonic irradiation, has been investigated (248).

2.4 PVC Resin Characterisation

2.4.1 Molecular Weight
PVC resins are polymerised to different molecular weights to suit the particular processing technique and end-use application requirements. The resin contains a random distribution of molecular weights and number average, weight average and molecular weight distribution can be measured. Normally, however, for production control, the dilute solution viscosity of the resin is used and the molecular weight can be calculated from the Mark-Houwink equation expressed in terms of K value or viscosity number. Commercially available PVC grades are supplied in K values ranging from 57-80.

2.4.2 Particle Size
Various techniques are utilised to measure particle size range. Sieving is the most common technique, particularly for suspension resins, and can be used to measure particles above 30 microns. For particle sizes below 100 microns, techniques such as sedimentation, optical and electrical sensing can be used.

2.3 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)
CPVC is manufactured by chlorination of PVC polymer thereby raising the chlorine content from 56% to around 66%. Chlorination takes place primarily at the -CH2groups along the polymer chain so that the resulting structure becomes virtually a copolymer of vinyl chloride with 1,2-dichloroethylene. Chlorination of PVC reduces the forces of attraction between the molecular chains. CPVC is also essentially amorphous. Both of these factors allow CPVC to be stretched more easily and to a greater extent than PVC

2.4.3 Bulk Powder Properties
Bulk density and packed bulk (or tapped) density are important properties. The bulk density determines the weight of resin that can be stored in a vessel and the amount a mixer can hold. It also has a major influence on extruder output rates. The bulk density of a resin depends upon its porosity, particle shape and particle size distribution. For suspension resin, bulk density is typically in the range of 450-650 kgm-3.


PVC Compounds and Processing

The packed density is based on the ability of the resin to occupy the smallest space without physical distortion and is usually 10-30% greater than the bulk density. Another important consideration is powder flow time as it governs the speed and ease of polymer discharge from a silo or from a mixer. This is influenced by the PVC particle shape, size distribution and compound formulation ingredients.

2.6 Processing Techniques
Prior to processing, it is necessary for the PVC and formulation additives to be combined intimately together in some form of mixer. The main converting processes are: • • extrusion calendering injection moulding extrusion/stretch blow moulding spreading/coating rotational moulding dip moulding slush moulding.

2.5 Key Additives
PVC formulations can include many different types of additives which assist in imparting a large range of physical and chemical characteristics. This versatility is the main reason why PVC has been so successful as a commodity thermoplastic, from medical applications such as tubing and blood bags to long life applications such as window frames and rainwater goods. The unique polar characteristics of PVC permit a wide range of appropriate additives to be incorporated within the polymer. The main groups of additives are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • heat stabiliser plasticiser impact modifier process aid lubricant filler flame retardant/smoke suppressant pigment blowing agent biocide viscosity modifier antistatic agent antioxidant UV absorber antifogging agent bonding agent.

• • • • • •

2.7 Industry Outline
The PVC industry consists of resin producers, compounders, additive suppliers and processors. Most processors specialise in processes linked to either PVC-U or PVC-P applications. In some cases, such as pipe and window frame manufacturing, the processed PVC is marketed directly by the processor. In other cases, the processor passes on the PVC in semi-finished form to another company.

2.7.1 PVC Resin Producers
There has been much rationalisation of resin producers in the last twenty years due to consolidation transactions. The major PVC industry participants, as described by EVC International NV, are shown in Table 1 for the year 2000 (166).

2.7.2 PVC Compounders
PVC compounds, formulated with all the necessary additives for the end-use, are supplied in gelled granule form, powder dry blend or liquid paste. Obviously the gelled form only requires to be heated and processed through the appropriate equipment, whereas the powder dry blend or liquid paste must include a gelation phase within the processing stage.


PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 1 Major PVC resin producers Western Europe by capacity EVC Solvin Atofina Vinnolit Norsk Hydro LVM Shin-Etsu Vestolit Cires Aiscondel Ktpa 1400 1300 880 570 545 435 390 350 180 160 Global market by capacity Shin-Etsu FPC-Formosa Occidental/Geon Solvay (including Solvin) EVC Georgia Gulf/Condea Vista Atofina Borden Vinnolit Norsk Hydro Ktp a 2450 2160 2090 1900 1400 1200 880 690 570 545

Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV (

In Western Europe, resin producers dominate the compounding market (161). The alternative to purchasing fully formulated material is to mix on site and the decision, as to whether to continue buying compound or to make in-house, depends on volume and other factors (173).

2.7.3 Global Market by Application
The PVC world market was around 25,400 kt in the year 2000 and Figure 6 shows the split by enduse application. This information has been summarised by EVC International NV (

Others 13% Coatings 2% Flooring 3% Flexible Profiles/Tubes 5% Wire & Cable 7%

Bottles 3%

Pipes/Fittings 36%

Flexible Film/Sheet 7% Rigid Film/Sheet 7%

Profiles 13%

Figure 6
Global PVC market by application (Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV,


for improved cost effectiveness. linked to a lack of understanding between hazard and risk (probability of intrinsic hazard causing an effect). EDC. ethylene. 272. the industry has agreed to work towards these limits from 1998 for VCM and S-PVC. More details follow in subsequent sections. 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC PVC has been under intense and hostile attack for a number of years. Much of the argument has been emotive rather than based on sound scientific studies. 165. orientation during processing gives improved impact resistance (195). dioxin-like components and copper. An important area for PVC is the water transportation market and there has been competition from polyolefins in this area. 377. indicated that substitution of PVC with other materials had/would occur. in Europe and the USA. The PVC producers have responded by introducing foam core pipe.1 VCM and PVC Production Members of the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM). 257. used in its formulations. Much of the growth is due to profile for windows and this increased to over 20% by 2002. The situation came to a head in 2000 with an EU Green Paper on PVC which included substitution options (271). 317). in attempts at ‘green’ marketing. Consequently. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP). Much of the data generated has been as a result of advances in trace analysis in different environments. endocrine modulating and reproductive effects. The main phthalates under investigation are butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP). 3. Subject to external audit. 10 . which found there was little to choose between PVC and alternative materials. These investigations include EU risk assessments based on sound science but the political positions on flexible PVC and phthalates cannot be ignored. The supply/demand balance is tightening for EDC/VCM due to capacity limitations caused by poor returns holding back investment. was being disregarded (210). who account for 98% of production in the EU. healthcare products and flooring has raised much debate and analysis at various levels concerning migration (11. The role of PVC in the healthcare industry is also significant (205). 97. The Western European market is maturing. The assumption that all phthalates detected in the body are sourced from vinyl products does not appear to be the case. 262). This section will focus on the environmental debate around PVC. HCl. 247. blood compatibility (58. primarily because of its chlorine content and specific additives. 310. 114. dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In addition to supplier consolidations. 200. have signed charters covering the production of VCM. 304. regarding the possible negative impact of phthalates on the environment and human health due to alleged carcinogenic. diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP). 378). 166). S-PVC and E-PVC. such as plasticisers. More details on PVC markets and prospects are available (110. the PVC industry has had to defend its existence and is now at the forefront of tackling sustainability issues. there have been customer based consolidations driving lower net prices. and 2003 for E-PVC. Even a UK Government Life Cycle Assessment. In another development. Some companies. but Eastern Europe is developing.PVC Compounds and Processing The global market is estimated to be growing at 3-4% with most growth in Asia (especially China) and some growth in North America. This covers environmental standards for limits on emissions to air and discharges to water of VCM. their use in toys.1 Phthalates Concerns have been raised at regular intervals. detergents.2. VCM concentration in PVC is also strictly controlled (particularly for food/medical applications) (126). Alternative sources appear to be cosmetics. 98.2 Plasticisers 3. 117. 228. 205) and differing NGO. In particular. 3. governmental and political positions (40. oils and solvents (253. Recycling and sustainability issues will be reviewed in Section 7.

There has been some academic work carried out to reduce DEHP migration from flexible PVC (33.3. 3. resulted in their agreed phase-out in Europe (see Section 7). fittings and profile. has been renewed on a regular basis since December 1999 until the date of compiling this report. 3.ecpi. must be related to the chance of that hazard having an effect (the risk) and this is not always appreciated.2 Organotin Stabilisers Organotin stabilisers have been caught up in the ‘elimination of heavy metal’ discussions. There has been some concern regarding possible health hazards and its use has been voluntarily stopped or restricted to levels that do not exceed the predicted no effect 11 . 247). plus good insulation resistance. provided that recommended migration limits have been adhered to (7. The most common plasticiser used in this application is di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA). Prior to these results some formulators had already begun to change from DEHP to DINP (119).2. The main source of information is the website of the European Stabiliser Producers Association (ESPA) (www. 183). has had a positive EU and USA (Consumer Product Safety Commission) risk assessment. some consumer organisations still raise concerns (391). refer to the regulatory update (331). pipe. of course. There are also improved analytical techniques now available to detect very low levels of organotin species in different environments (127. for DIDP.3 Heat Stabilisers For general background information. Their toxicity hazards have been well known and controlled. and their presence (heavy metal) causing issues in waste management strategies. dangerous for the environment and danger of cumulative effects. but measures could be taken to reduce risk of exposure in children’s toys (although DEHP is not used in toys intended to be put in the mouth) and medical devices (against the opinion of the EU’s Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices). The identification of a perceived hazard. the EU risk assessment shows no risk to humans (247). 3.1 Lead Based Stabilisers Primarily used extensively for PVC-U applications in Europe and the Far East viz. lead stabilisers have been very cost effective heat stabilisers. 3. For similar reasons. 219).stabilisers. Full information on organotin stabilisers and their safe use over many years is available (138).org).PVC Compounds and Processing Hundreds of studies have been carried out on phthalates and there are regular updates on the regulatory position (90.2 Adipates PVC food packaging film (cling film) has been used for a number of years for wrapping fresh meat.3.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols Bisphenol A has been used as an inhibitor at the PVC polymerisation stage and as an antioxidant. and for protecting food in the home. the most commonly used plasticiser in soft toys and items intended to be put into children’s mouths. A new UK standard reducing the lead level in drinking water by 2003 (264) was an additional factor. The current position is available on the website of the European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates (ECPI) (www. However an EU temporary ban on the use of phthalates. PVC cling film formulations comply with permitted migration limits (in fact well below) set at levels which are considered totally safe by various health and government organisations. 3. DINP. DEHP assessment (205) has shown no risk reduction measures are necessary for the general population. 100). DEHA is used in preference to phthalates due to improved flexibility at lower temperatures and also gives the necessary permeability to oxygen and water vapour to preserve the freshness of the food. However. for food storage. harmful. particularly in relation to worker exposure. on the regulatory situation up to in toys and babycare items intended to be put into the mouth by children under three years old. in combination with polymeric plasticisers and epoxidised soya bean oil.3. However the EU classification of lead stabilisers as reprotoxic. Similarly. lead stabilisers have also been used in PVC-P in wire and cable across the world. Plasticisers for toys have been reviewed (263).

A basic rigid PVC-U formulation will contain medium to low molecular weight resin plus lubricant and heat stabiliser. the EU automotive End-of-Life Directive (418) and EU waste management studies on mechanical and feedstock recycling (282). PVC formulation technology depends on the correct combination of several of these additives to suit the processing and end-use requirements. with plasticiser and heat stabiliser essential. Not all of these factors may be relevant for the application. the political pressure on PVC continued in the late 1990s viz. and its migration from PVC film. heavy metals and phthalates (282). 4. colour. etc. Other additives will be included for reasons of cost. Table 2 shows the main range of factors to be considered when formulating PVC for a particular enduse. improve cost performance.3 Recycling Despite the evidence that PVC recycling initiatives were increasing and approaching commercial viability. Nonylphenol can be generated from some liquid heat stabilisers (in addition to many other possible sources) and it has been identified as persistent and oestrogenic (160). In a recent study the PVC content of municipal solid waste for incineration was calculated at approximately 0.e.4. the resin usually has a medium to high molecular weight. The migration of ESBO from PVC-P used in gaskets for sealing baby food jars has been examined (395). 4 Additives. 12 . energy and HCl recovery options are attractive (115. give weathering resistance. 341). Other additives will be included to improve processability and physical properties. PVC recycling and sustainability issues.2 Landfill PVC has been under scrutiny in landfill immersion due to perceptions about the leaching of additives. The content of Bisphenol A in. 3. so a heat stabiliser system is essential.1 Introduction The main groups of additives have already been listed in Section 2.8%.4 Waste Management 3. PVC was also targeted in the EU incineration directive (297). due to some chain branching during polymerisation. in particular. particularly related to the dioxin and HCl emissions (66.4. The degradation process is shown in Figure 7. the Voluntary Commitment (275) are covered in Section 7. 3. A study has shown that no degradation of the PVC occurred (252).1 Incineration The incineration of waste containing PVC has been a source of much discussion and comment. It has food contact approval up to certain limits but there have been some environmental/political issues concerning the possible use of genetically modified soya bean oil in the manufacture of ESBO. 146). the viewpoint that PVC materials should be buried in landfill in preference to being recycled is not generally accepted (422). 3.2 Heat Stabilisers Commercially produced PVC is inherently thermally unstable.4.. Formulations and Applications 4. has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (14). However. electrical properties. In a basic flexible PVC-P formulation.PVC Compounds and Processing concentration in waste water etc. 282. 106.3. In a modern incinerator. i. A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC has been described (128).4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) ESBO is a heat stabiliser and secondary plasticiser used in PVC-P applications. 3. etc.

PVC Compounds and Processing Table 2 Formulation factors Cost efficiency Process characteristics/output Reprocessability/recycling Clarity level Density Surface finish – gloss to matt Light stability/weathering Softness/hardness Flexibility/stiffness Fire properties Electrical properties Post processing treatment Impact strength – ductile/brittle Chemical resistance Colour End-use legislative requirements Operating temperature environment H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H Ideal structure Non typical H C H H C H C H C Cl* H C H Heat H C Cl H C H Typical Labile Cl* atom H C H H C H C H H H C Cl H C H C C Cl.H+ Figure 7 Thermal degradation process for PVC 13 .H+ Heat Allyl chloride H C H H C H C H C H C H C H C + HCl Cl.

This increases the melt viscosity considerably. or tertiary chlorine structural defects. and function as HCl absorbers (236. The dehydrochlorination process is due to the existence of a long series of alternating -CHCl. primarily extrusion and injection moulding.2.2. 82. peroxide and hydroperoxide groups are also influential. 4. 137. in combination with lubricants (one-pack). Ca Zn formulations are a complex blend of calcium and zinc soaps together with acid acceptors and organic co-stabilisers. 295). This will be covered later in this chapter. free hydrogen chloride is evolved. e. Non dusting product forms have also been developed (322). which include the lead components in a safe handling state. These highly reactive conjugated polyenes further react to crosslink or cleave the polymer chains. e. Intermediates formed in the thermal degradation process are allylic chlorides with progressively increased numbers of conjugated double bonds. Initiation and chain reactions are catalysed by the hydrochloric acid generated. tablet and dosage packs. North America has never accepted lead compounds in PVC-U applications.1. 431). Under the Voluntary Commitment (Section 7) there is an agreement to phase out lead stabilisers (159) and suitable alternatives are being introduced.2 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Based One of the most successful developments in recent years has been the progress made in solid Ca Zn stabiliser formulations to replace lead on a cost effective basis. They are particularly suitable for wire and cable electrical insulation because of their complete nonconductivity and the inert nature of the chlorides formed with HCl. These one-packs are tailored to suit the processing technique. In addition. starting at a weak link and resulting in discolouration and deterioration in physical and chemical properties. 365. Efforts have been made to increase the acid absorption capability in these systems (46. granule. tribasic lead sulfate or dibasic lead phosphite. 323). Various Ca Zn systems are now available (141) for pipe. due to the light and fluffy nature of the Ca Zn soaps (stearates). 406. Heat stabilisers retard dehydrochlorination and autoxidation and reduce fragmentation.. have been available for many years in different product forms . The role of the co-stabiliser is also critical in maintaining initial colour and early colour hold on processing (47. preferring the use of organotins. Because the thermal dehydrochlorination of PVC is noticeably faster in the presence of oxygen.flake.1 Lead Compounds Lead compounds.g. The discolouration is caused by the formation of conjugated polyene sequences of 7-25 double bonds. fittings. 4. 62.and -CH2. and end-use specification. they also cure existing damage. Solid Ca Zn systems have also been developed for PVC-P applications as replacements for liquid Ba Zn stabilisers where volatility and emissions may be an issue.g.groups in the polymer backbone that enable a chain of multiple consecutive eliminations (zipper reaction). Non/low dusting products. and lead soaps.PVC Compounds and Processing During processing of PVC at high temperatures and shear stress. Some excellent review articles are available (48. dibasic or normal lead stearates.1 Solid Stabilisers 4. profile (153) and wire and cable (174. 14 . Alternative calcium carboxylates have also been evaluated (227). Apart from wire and cable. Their cumulative toxicity has been mainly a concern for worker exposure. from suppliers such as Baerlocher and Chemson. is a molecular concerted elimination.. have been very cost effective heat stabilisers for many years. usually based on a mixture of lead salts.1. 220. The thermal degradation process can be followed by analysis of the colour generated in a static or dynamic environment. The thermal initiation reaction from the normal monomer sequence of PVC chain fragments. 407). their use has been restricted to PVC-U applications in Europe and Asia. which may also be catalysed by hydrochloric acid. The use of capillary rheometry has also been highlighted (105).2. There are many different types of heat stabilisers based on different metal salts or soaps and these are covered below. 308. Technical limitations to their use have been opacity and sulfur staining. 438). Different quantitative analysis methods for the determination of the metal contents in PVC have been listed and compared (415).

Sulfur free maleate based tins impart excellent light stability to clear PVC used in outdoor applications.2.2.3 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Traditionally less effective as a heat stabiliser. floor and wall coverings. 4. suppliers include Crompton. butyl or octyl derivatives.2. 388). solvent. usually mixtures of di-alkyl and mono-alkyl. This is based on the ‘concerns’ about barium as a heavy metal although there is no evidence of health or environmental concerns. Analytical techniques are now available to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (151) and so influence stabiliser development.2 Liquid Stabilisers 4. etc. new Ca Zn intermediates (140) and new calcium technology (84) have all been promoted.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. One issue with liquid stabilisers is the emission of volatile components (phenol from the organophosphite.2. However.2.2. Suppliers include Akros. although initially there were also some mistaken perceptions about zinc being a ‘heavy metal’ (159).2. In addition to further formulation development (454)..2 Barium Zinc (Ba Zn) Ba Zn based systems now have the majority market share for stabilisation of PVC-P in Europe due to extensive formulation development based on increasing the barium content and the important role of new and existing organic co-stabilisers (414).2.2 Mixed Metal Compounds Liquid mixed metal heat stabilisers are a blend of the metal soaps or salts in combination with 4. organophosphites (237) and co-stabilisers in a liquid medium.2. complex polyphosphates (45). These materials are used almost exclusively in PVC-P applications (270).2. profile and sidings. in the European area.1 Barium Cadmium (Ba Cd) Barium cadmium based systems (may also include zinc) have been available for many years due to their cost effectiveness in combination with good initial colour and long-term stability. In North America. but are coming under increasing health and environmental scrutiny (291). mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabiliser (453). The most powerful compounds are the thioglycolate ester derivatives and these are the most common.2.2.2. The mechanism of organothiotin stabilisation has been studied extensively (221. 348.2.) during processing and from the end use application. 4. Limitations to their use include their relatively high cost and unpleasant odour (particularly for the sulfur tins) and their use is now almost exclusively in PVC-U applications. New organophosphite-zinc technology has also been introduced to improve this characteristic (75). 347. e. The performance of organotin mercaptides is not only based on the amount of tin metal content. 136. 143).2. but on the organotin species.3 Calcium-Organic Based Another major development has been the replacement of zinc with specific organic co-stabilisers. but require particular lubrication systems due to their anti-lubricating effect. and foam. much work has been carried out to develop more sophisticated and higher efficiency heat stabilisers based on Ca Zn.1. The main features of tin stabilisers are good initial and long-term colour hold coupled with excellent clarity. Organic based systems are being developed as lead replacement for rigid pipe. due to severe restrictions for environmental and toxicity reasons concerning cadmium. 4. 4. the use of lower cost. pipe fittings. profile and cable (135.1 Organotin Compounds Organotin compounds are primarily based on alkyl tin such as methyl.g. Rohm and Haas are one supplier. 4.2.2. Most costabilisers only function well in the presence of zinc. 387. They can be further classified as mercaptides or carboxylates based on different carboxylic acids. linked to their good compatibility (85). Cadmium based stabilisers are still used in the USA and Asia Pacific areas. The octyl versions are approved (up to a maximum level) for use in rigid food contact and medical applications.2.4 Potassium Zinc (K Zn) K Zn stabiliser/kickers are used primarily to activate the decomposition of blowing agents 15 . Zinc free stabilisers are claimed to have a better processing window than Ca Zn. reverse ester thiotins is common for PVC-U applications covering pipe. their use was voluntarily phased out by the PVC industry in 2001.

3. Analytical methods have been developed to identify monomeric plasticisers in flexible PVC (412). Based on organic esters. Most suggested alternatives already have a niche use in specific PVC-P applications. (An alternative approach has been the development of modified azodicarbonamides incorporating an activator system. A phenol alkyl sulfonate ester is claimed to replace DEHP (56). The plasticiser structure. Predictive equations have been developed (349). The main factors which influence plasticiser choice are determined by the specification requirement of the finished product and depend on: • • • • Formulation cost Migration/permanence (22. level. Plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters have also been proposed (342). The fundamentals of plasticiser selection have been listed (92). Di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1. primarily due to the considerable media. leading to hardening and cracking in arm and head rest applications. wear layer toughness and thermoplastic nature. phthalates. volatility and solubility all have an influence (389). The flexibility or softness is determined by the type of plasticiser and level used in relation to the PVC (phr). The effect on the thermal stability significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system (260)..PVC Compounds and Processing (azodicarbonamides) for PVC foam (372). are listed in Table 3. subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions. The thermodynamics of mixing PVC with phthalate esters have been studied (63). phosphates.) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blend mixing operation of S-PVC or the gelation stage of plastisols. 16 . For high temperature performance linked to low migration and volatility. Properties are lost as a result of diffusion controlled desorption of the plasticiser and a mathematical description of the ageing process has been formulated to predict lifetime (277). extraction resistance. although much more expensive. Plasticiser loss on ageing has also been identified in the spectroscopic investigation of roof membranes in service for a varying number of years (240). adipates. 222) Plasticisation effect (441) Solvating efficiency of the plasticiser for PVC predicted using Hansen solubility parameters (350) and the Hildebrand solubility parameter (442) Volatility Plastisol viscosity Extraction.1 Phthalate Alternatives Several alternatives to phthalate esters have been promoted. have been extensively tested. The relative amount of crystalline PVC in PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate has been identified on the basis of a combination of carbon-13 solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (361). Citrate based plasticisers. have particular use in medical and • • • The most commonly used plasticisers. together with their characteristics. 182.. etc. They also operate as an internal lubricant between the PVC molecules. The phenomenon of plasticiser migration into polyurethane foam. has been investigated and a mechanism proposed (215). addition levels can be as low as 20 phr for semi-rigid to 100 phr for very flexible applications.g. Benzoate esters have already been used for some time and new blends have been introduced for plastisols (71).3 Plasticisers Plasticisers are added to PVC to achieve flexibility and workability. Stain resistance of resilient sheet flooring has been related to the plasticiser.DBA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigmented films have been determined with CO2 being the main constituent (108). The volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised (dibutyl adipate .2-dicarboxylic ester (DINCH) has also been developed (86). trimellitates. legislative and scientific attention on phthalates. PVC-plasticiser interaction has been described using light transmission (186). trimellitates are used (91). 4. PVC-P materials. 4. e.

Good high temperature. Used in combination with polymeric plasticiser for food cling wrap Fast fusing. high volatility. conveyor belting etc. inferior extraction resistance 17 . lower plasticising efficiency Flooring Good fusion rate and viscosity (plastisols) General purpose Characteristics Typical use Slightly less efficient but lower volatility than C8 Good solvation Toys and general purpose with good low temperature performance Flooring/coating plastisols Cable High temperature cable insulation High gelation temperature. low plastisols viscosity Secondary plasticiser. good flexibility. higher volatility.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Plasticiser types and applications Plasticiser type Commodity phthalate esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)/Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) Di-isooctyl phthalate (DIOP) C9 – C10 Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) C7 Di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP) Dipropylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) C13 Di-isotridecyl phthalate (DTDP) Speciality phthalate esters <C8 Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) Di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) C10 Di-isoundecyl phthalate (DIUP) C8 – C11 L911P. good migration resistance Low volatility isophthalate Linear and semi-linear phthalates for low viscosity applications Low temperature Superior low temperature performance. but poorer low temperature performance. Improved low temperature performance. low extraction. Flame retardants with excellent permanence Electrical cable and general applications requiring flame retardancy – tents. High specification electrical cable insulation and sheathing. Automotive interior (low fogging). L810P Aliphatic esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA)/Dioctyl adipate (DOA) C9 Di-isononyl adipate (DINA) C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS) Di-2-ethylhexyl azelate (DOZ) C10 Di-isodecyl sebacate (DIDS) Phosphate esters Triaryl phosphates Isobutylated or isopropylated triaryl phosphate esters Trimellitate esters Tris-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate/Trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) Trimellitate ester of mixed semilinear C7 and C9 alcohols (L79TM) Trimellitate ester of mixed C8 and C10 linear alcohols (L810TM) Better extraction and migration resistance.

A comparison of tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) with DEHP has been carried out (367). end product properties and manufacturing efficiency has been reviewed (79).4 Multifunctional Additives There always has been an interest in additives that perform both a plasticising and heat stabilising effect. Co-stabilising process aids have also been developed (335). Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) also has a niche market (263). The heat stabilising action of polymeric plasticisers has also been investigated (181. Transparency can also be improved in clear formulations. with very high molecular weight. A review of phthalate alternatives. Polyphthalates Applications requiring excellent permanence and chemical resistance packaging films (FDA approved) and have also been proposed as an alternative to phthalates (267). 4. polymeric esters are used (88). Plasticiser type Secondary plasticisers Chlorinated paraffins Hydrocarbons chlorinated to a level of 40-50%.5 Property Modifiers For applications requiring high temperature and extraction resistance. which can be incorporated at 2-6 phr (particularly with mixed metal heat stabilisers). New polymeric plasticisers are in development (87) including adipate based for improved low temperature properties (103).. to improve heat stability by HCl absorption and also give a secondary plasticisation 18 . effect.1 Process Aids Process aids are added primarily to PVC-U (including foam) to improve fusion characteristics and melt flow during the processing stage. these products are high molecular weight methyl methacrylate and alkyl acrylate copolymers. Chlorine content improves flame retardancy General use Characteristics Typical use Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) Epoxidised linseed oil (ELO) Polymeric plasticisers Polymeric adipates of differing molecular weight.2 Polymeric Plasticisers 4. have also been discussed from a rheological point of view (290). has been presented (89). 4. The functions of acrylic process aids. Addition levels are typically from 1-6 phr with resultant improvements in output and surface finish. The role that acrylic processing aids play in compound processability. Have some compatibility constraints and can influence heat stability Primary use as a secondary heat stabiliser but also impart flexibility. 4. Used in conjunction with primary plasticisers to give volume cost savings. Compatible only at relatively low addition levels. Other products proposed to give a combination of heat stabilisation and plasticisation are plasticiser thiols (44) and chlorinated paraffin types (168.3. or epoxidised esters. 209). taking account of the history of phthalates and cost performance. Chemically.. More difficult to process/less compatible but excellent resistance to extraction. The most obvious of these is epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO).5. 223). Molecular modelling has been used to establish modifications of soya bean oil to identify suitable use as a primary plasticiser (194). Plastisols based on propyleneglycol adipate have been examined (198) and the thermal degradation has been determined using dynamic and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (188).PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Continued. High cost.

relationships between melt flow and mechanical properties (154) and achieving low gloss in sidings (364). The heat distortion temperature of the ABS modified compound can be higher in comparison to MBS modified.5. A disperse phase in the PVC matrix is formed. New and updated acrylic impact modifier grades are being introduced by companies such as Rohm and Haas to meet demands for higher output with a broad processing window (77). elongation and low temperature flexibility. Specific ABS terpolymer modifiers also process well in clear applications giving low crease whitening and excellent chemical resistance. With a similar melting point to PVC.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification A major disadvantage of PVC is its relatively low service temperature (60-70 °C) and the addition of high levels of some polymers can improve the heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point. Butadiene-styrene rubbers in powder form for PVC-U modification have also been proposed (95). 4. The incorporation of relatively small amounts has been shown to improve the strength and toughness of PVC pipes (171). They are not suitable for outdoor applications.4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications CPE modifiers are also suitable for flexible PVC applications where a high degree of flexibility combined with durability is required. the effect on impact strength of varying crosslinking level in the rubber component of the impact modifier (224). and below. Based on core shell technology. Their use in window profile and siding applications are well documented. Nitrile rubbers (NBR) are blended into PVC-P formulations giving vinyl based thermoplastic 19 . Having limited compatibility with PVC. CPE impact modifiers contain around 35% of chlorine and are thermoplastic in nature. the relationship with gelation level on impact strength and morphology (261).5. They also have good processability and excellent weathering performance. influence on weld strength in window frame manufacture (437). Acting as a permanent plasticiser. produced by emulsion polymerisation. ABS resins can be added to semi-rigid PVC formulations to improve hot melt strength. They are also not suitable for outdoor applications.2 Impact Modifiers Unmodified PVC-U has relatively poor impact strength at. as the refractive indices are similar between PVC and the modifier. particularly for clear packaging. Much work has been carried out covering various aspects of their processing and performance characteristics viz. Examples of the different generic types of impact modifier that can be added to PVC formulations are as follows: • methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (MBS) acrylate-polymethacrylate copolymer (acrylic) chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). they initially form a network structure which changes to a particulate structure on processing (134). Particular use is in deep draw forming applications. MBS impact modifiers are used in a wide range of applications. an elastic core of the modifier has a hard shell to keep the product free flowing and couple the modifier to the PVC matrix. Their impact behaviour has been studied in terms of the ductile/brittle transition (450).PVC Compounds and Processing 4. AMSAN-ABS polymer can be used as a combined heat and impact modifier.5. • • • Addition levels are typically from 5-12 phr and their incorporation can influence gelation and melt viscosity. The effect of residual 4. An example of such a polymer is alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile (AMSAN) copolymer. Polybutene has also been shown to improve impact resistance and dynamic thermal stability in impact modified PVC-U formulations (433). it is believed that the impact improvement is achieved via the interruption of the homogeneous morphology into a heterogeneous structure. Acrylic modifiers have good processing characteristics linked to reduced die swell and good outdoor weathering stability. which creates blockages to crack propagation and acts as an internal energy absorber. crystallinity on impact properties has been studied (133). consequently they are also used for window profiles (287). the liquid plasticiser component can be eliminated or substantially reduced. ambient temperatures and the inclusion of an impact modifier significantly improves its performance.

filled with precipitated and ground calcium carbonate.g. 420). and physical properties (459). and lubricants for Ca Zn stabilised profile extrusion have been investigated (139). Tensile strength properties of PVC-U. the effect of lubricants on processing has been determined (313). In PVC-P applications. Internal lubricants are more compatible and have high polarity. As extruder running speeds increase. by definition. printing or blooming on ageing. and stearic acid and its derivatives (403. Another important aspect is the influence on processing with respect to output. To ease dispersion.. high whiteness. However. footwear. 4. at higher filler levels.1 Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate (also known as chalk) is the most commonly used filler for PVC. 20 . Plasticiser loss is also reduced because of the affinity of NBR for plasticisers.PVC Compounds and Processing elastomers for use in glazing gaskets. It also acts as an acid scavenger. of course. The density of the final product will increase. better low temperature flexibility and improved abrasion resistance. It may also be precipitated from solution to give a fine particle size suitable for use in high performance areas. Both types are essential for processing of PVC-U formulations. Their use in impact modified PVC has improved mechanical properties (57). this puts increased pressure on the compatibility of lubricants and low plate-out lubricant systems are being developed (292). On the basis of a PVC melt flow test (ASTM D 3364). (1) externally to reduce friction between the polymer melt and hot metal surfaces during processing. Calcium stearate functions somewhere between internal and external. 4. depending on addition level. most lubricants have both external and internal characteristics. In practice. There is a balance between the cost benefits and any acceptable deterioration in physical properties that could result. Relatively easy to process. plate-out of incompatible materials in the die and calibration equipment. oxidised polyethylene wax and stearic acid.6) requires particular lubricant formulations and these have also been reviewed (132). tubing etc. formulations including NBR. plate-out and surface finish. Excessive levels or incorrect choice can cause problems with post treatment. have poor compatibility with PVC. on melt processing equipment. fillers are added primarily to reduce formulation cost. is not significant but increases with increasing levels (177). the correct balance and type of internal to external and addition level are crucial due to the influence on gelation level. e. the plasticiser acts as an internal lubricant and external lubricants can be added to increase output etc. The abrasive wear of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are commercially available and are claimed to give a cost effective way of increasing impact strength (113). lower the effective viscosity. Coated ultrafine and precipitated calcium carbonates are claimed also to have a positive effect on impact properties in impact modified formulations (52. for some applications requiring good weathering and impact performance (window profile). have been investigated (381.6 Lubricants Lubricants function classically in two ways. More detailed information on lubricants is available (74. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to study the compatibility of ester lubricants. the ultrafine milled. 404).2.7. Nitrile rubbers are copolymers of acrylonitrile and butadiene which are compatible with PVC and available in powder form for ease of mixing and dispersion. Typical strongly external lubricants are paraffin wax. This material is mined as calcite mineral and ground to a particular particle size range. Typical strongly internal lubricants are glycerol esters and fatty acids. natural version is normally used. the filler is usually coated with stearic acid. The rigid film calendering process (details in Section 5. 360). have good oil and chemical resistance. 462). Particle size is important and. Lead free stabiliser formulations obviously require the removal of lead stearate. 294. polyethylene wax. a very efficient lubricant. 4. but vary in the ratio of one to the other in the way they perform. and (2) internally to reduce frictional forces within the polymer matrix and. but some are also used to enhance properties and performance.7 Fillers For most PVC-U and PVC-P applications. in so doing. External lubricants.

muscovite and kaolinite. particularly in the USA. They have extensive use in wire and cable where they assist. specific carbon black pigment/filler is used. Higher addition levels can also be accommodated. 4.3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre Work undergone in this area has looked at tensile and impact properties of a PVC composite filled with hollow glass beads. which contains quartz.7. gelation and fusion behaviour. these materials can give a very large improvement in properties of the composite material. Cellulose fillers.4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers For specialised applications where electrical conductivity is required. ground marble fillers. The use of CPE as a compatibiliser. 4.7. has been carried out to establish the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact for PVC containing 60% wood fibre (51).7. This material.5 Other Fillers Depending on the geographical area. However. 4. 366). phyllite. A new technology. For magnetic applications. based on impregnating continuous glass fibres with an extruded low viscosity PVC melt and subsequent application via the extrusion die of a standard PVC extrudate. such as operating 21 . with and without silane coupling agent treatment. A review is available of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles (416). 4. was characterised on the basis of paste viscosity. have been investigated at various levels showing an increase in physical properties and viscosity (53). Ground dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) and limestone fillers are also used. Kaolin has a use in plastisol formulations giving good rheological control. The positive effects of modifiers on physical properties have been identified (232).6 Nanocomposites Nanocomposites are materials that contain nanometer sized fillers at a low level. on mechanical properties has also been investigated (116. and different volume fractions (96). Silane coupling agents have also been used for interfacial enhancement of PVC-P/silica composites (440). such as antistatic flooring or shielding of electromagnetic induction. for surface treatment of glass beads. Calcined calcium sulfate has been suggested to effectively replace calcium carbonate in cable insulation (283). of impact durability. Talc has been used in calendered PVC compounds to increase melt cohesion and modulus of the finished material. the use of strontium ferrite powder has been characterised (234).7. there was no deterioration in strength and stiffness properties (102). An alternative to calcium carbonate. Calcium silicate mineral filler has been proposed as a replacement for calcium carbonate in primary insulation cable compound (83). has given PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness (201). in combination with other additives to reduce HCl generation in a fire situation. Calcium carbonate is also used in this area. Finite element analysis. for composites containing 25% and 40% wood flour. Operating at molecular level. Accelerated UV weathering performance testing indicated that wood flours are effective chromophores as they accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. The use of barium ferrite has been optimised (362). Calcined kaolin clays can be used in footwear (improved abrasion resistance) and cable (improved insulation properties).PVC Compounds and Processing Chalk fillers also have extensive use in PVC-P applications where the particle size restriction is not so essential. In comparison with traditional products. has been evaluated. Data is also available on investigations of composites of PVC/leather fibre (380) and PVC/newsprint fibre (430) as a means of utilising these waste materials.7. 4. of three different sizes.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites The use of wood fillers has expanded considerably. some with surface treatment. are used for PVC-U and PVC-P applications. and mechanical properties (70). has been demonstrated with improved melt strength and improved surface finish (54). The influence of particle shape and silane coupling agents. wood filled PVC has superior weathering resistance and can be used as wood (197). Copper and nickel metal powders have also been studied (112).

antimony trioxide is a suspected carcinogen and work is ongoing to replace or reduce the levels used. stiffness and toughness etc. Solution blending was found to produce a mixed immiscible intercalated nanocomposite with the clay causing a change in the degradation path (94). The influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles has already been covered in Section 4. The most recent work has involved reducing smoke emissions. conveyer belting and roofing membrane formulations to give resistance to fire initiation and propagation. 22 . These additives are known as functional fillers and a correct balance is necessary to achieve all the end-use specification requirements. Improved dimensional stability and barrier properties were obtained (50. Aluminium trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) have been shown to create low smoke levels and much reduced toxic gas emission (245. particularly when used in combination (15). Calcium carbonate and lithium carbonate fillers also act as HCl absorbers and the effect on HCl generation during the combustion of PVC-P has been shown to be effective. PVC/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been prepared by blending organoclays of differing hydrophilicity with PVC and plasticiser. usually in combination with phosphate ester plasticisers.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. The use of zinc sulfide has been suggested (167). attributed to the quaternary amine used in the organoclay. However. The thermal stability problems.7. flame retardancy. The presence of clay has been noted to retard the chain stripping thermal degradation of PVC with enhanced char formation (65). The degree of clay intercalation was determined and the co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. Zinc borate is also an effective SS in combination with phosphate ester plasticiser (130). giving excellent fire performance and mechanical properties. 203). there have been relatively few details of investigations on PVC nanocomposites. The increasing demand for FR PVC-U applications has prompted work in this area.8 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) PVC-U formulations have low flammability due to the chlorine content. Ethylene copolymers (high molecular weight flexibilisers) have been proposed to replace liquid plasticiser for low smoke FR PVC cable formulations (238). The results of high energy mechanical milling of PVC with zinc borate or zinc borate/ATH mixtures have been 4. It has been shown that ATH and MDH functional fillers coated with zinc hydroxystannate give significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution (386). were overcome by pretreating the organoclay with the plasticiser.1. Epoxy resin has been suggested as a compatibiliser for these systems with improved transparency and processing stability (93). The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy. They are predominately used in cable. Copper oxides have also been investigated with positive results (60). It is also important to reduce dripping in a fire situation and that as little smoke as possible is generated. The addition of low levels of zinc borate and/or ATH was noted to improve flame retardancy and reduce smoke density in a PVC-U formulation (265). The melt blending and preparation of PVC/sodium montmorillonite have been extensively tested (121). A review of this area covering additives and testing is available (78). In comparison to other polymers. a previous weakness of FR PVC formulations. The activity of these materials is a function of the vaporisation of their water of hydration. In situ polymerisation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites has been investigated (36). Antimony trioxide has been used extensively. The combination of ammonium octamolybdate and zinc stannate is also beneficial (435). including halogen-antimony synergy have been reviewed (443). The addition of plasticiser in PVC-P formulations necessitates the use of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives. An evaluation has shown zinc hydroxystannate to give the best overall FR and SS characteristics without adversely influencing important physical properties (129). The use of functional fillers can cause a dramatic deterioration of physical properties at the addition levels necessary to achieve the requirements of flame retardancy and smoke emission. The best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading with 5-10% plasticiser content (180). 390). Copper (I) complexes have been suggested as smoke suppressants (241). The FR mechanism is activated by the formation of antimony oxychloride which acts as a radical scavenger and flame poison. Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC/clay nanocomposites have been produced by melt blending.

n -octylisothiazolin-3-one (OIT) and 4. the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) could influence future use of particular microbiocides. Paste storage stability is also important. 4. Inorganic pigments are the most common type. dust free.10 Biocides PVC-P materials. Based on their thermal stability. 23 . such as flooring and roofing material. Biocides function by becoming active on the surface of the material to destroy the fungi. The influence of free iron has also been examined (344). This is due to the fungi using the plasticiser at the surface of the article as a food source. have been investigated. 321). Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloro-organic compounds dropped sharply with irradiation time.PVC Compounds and Processing shown to give a marked increase in FR and physical properties as a result of chemical bonding and increased interfacial interaction (16). 334). Various laboratory test methods are available to determine the effectiveness of biocides in simulated performance situations (42. Lead chromate pigments. the most common microbiocides are 10. traditionally used for pipe and cable applications. 242. The effects of different surface treatments on TiO2 on these parameters have been studied. can be prone to microbiological attack in humid or damp conditions. This drop was attributed to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine deficient in TiO2 pigment (373). Plasticiser transfer to the surface is limited by the process of diffusion of the plasticiser within the material. This has been attributed to the formation of particular polyenic sequences. have good dispersibility and be compatible within the formulation. This has been explained by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation. Reversible discolouration effects linked to the photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC. Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a white pigmented PVC construction panel have been measured as a function of irradiation time. the fungus also acting as a leaching solvent (370). 4. Different infrared reflecting blacks have been evaluated in relation to heat build-up properties and actual weathering characteristics. compatibility.10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine (OBPA). Titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments are used to give ‘bright’ whiteness and opacity. colour concentrates (73) and dosing on line. Addition levels of the active ingredient are in the 400-2000 ppm level and the active biocide is normally supplied dispersed in a plasticiser or ESBO carrier. This can lead to partial discolouration (pink colour or black specks) which can further cause a tacky surface where dirt can accumulate. permanence and broad spectral performance against different fungi. Other predictive tests have also been suggested. Aluminosilicates. so permitting these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer (421). One predictive test has been designed and validated (13. In Europe.9 Pigments Pigments for PVC must be thermally and light stable. Such technology covers encapsulation (385) and the use of polymer carriers (39. with the conclusion that the amount and type of alumina treatment is significant (457). Specific titanium dioxide grades are used in PVC-U applications and contribute to outdoor weathering performance (384). Black pigment selection for outdoor use has to consider weathering performance. Pinking of PVC profiles. 279). Titanium dioxides for use in PVC plastisols must satisfy the need for good wettability and dispersion within the liquid medium. and on the kinetics of weathering (278) have been studied. after a period of storage of the aged material in the dark. The most recent developments in pigmenting technology relate to ease of handling. are linked with the phase out of lead based stabilisers.5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT). Their influence on photodegradation (286). have been shown. in mild climatic conditions. 2. Special pigment systems based on organic or organic/inorganic combinations are available (320). as pigment extenders to partially replace TiO2 in plastisols. Unpleasant odours may also be a consequence. with the screening effect of the pigment protecting these polyenes against photooxidation. has been observed in service. with whiteness retention and reduction in surface gloss (131).

The manufacture of cellular PVC/wood composites has been studied. The most relevant point is to use as reference a formulation known to have good outdoor weathering performance. Solid state microcellular foaming technology (based on carbon dioxide) has been used to investigate the influence of impact modifier on PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites. Phosphites and thiosynergists are also used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the primary antioxidant by reduction of oxidation intermediates. Light stabilisers also prevent photodegradation.13. Arizona) to test the weathering performance.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. Cyanoacrylates have been proposed as a new range of UV absorbers for PVC and other plastics (307). A study of the effects of several different plasticisers on the density. Moisture has also been proposed as a foaming agent in the manufacture of these composite foams (55). There are various accelerated light stability test methods available and/or exposure in harsher climates (Florida. The azo compounds can be specially formulated. The properties achieved. PVC-U foams incorporate sodium bicarbonate and the results are available of an investigation into controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition (281). Consequently. There has been a relationship established between the effects of residual emulsifier in the E-PVC resin grade and foaming behaviour (101). 24 . has been reported (120). but some attempts have been made for PVC-P (445). which are cured using microwave or infrared ovens. which is exothermic in nature and decomposes to give primarily nitrogen gas and (2) sodium bicarbonate. Various grades are available to suit particular applications and both have well controlled particle size distribution.13 Other Additives for PVC-P 4.11 Blowing Agents Solid blowing agents are materials which decompose to release gases at particular temperatures matching the appropriate melt viscosity necessary to retain the foam structure. such as hindered phenols. operate by absorbing and dissipating UV radiation prior to potential degradation of the polymer. produced from different PVC plastisols. 4. A three-dimensional and high resolution quantitative image technique has been proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. Dust build-up is also reduced. to include an activation agent which catalyses the decomposition and so increases the total gas evolved. as foam density was reduced. The mechanical foaming of PVC pastes has been carried out for some time on the basis of air or gas being whisked into specially formulated plastisols. The influence of an exothermic and endothermic blowing agent on PVC/wood flour composite extrusion has been examined showing that density is unaffected by foaming agent content. The prediction of photoageing stability based on accelerated laboratory testing is very difficult. were examined showing suitability for many wood replacement applications (196). The mechanical properties of foamed PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites have been characterised using different blowing agents. so activity is retained. These can be added at very low levels at the polymerisation stage and in combination with the stabilising package at the blending stage (76. but cell size was dependent on foaming agent type (192). which could lead to an electric shock or a spark causing a fire in a dusty or flammable area. No permanent chemical change occurs. to prevent the build-up of static electrical charges. 4.1 Antistatic Agents Antistatic agents are added to the PVC formulation. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams. Hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) are also used but their activity is not particularly well understood (80).12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers Primary antioxidants. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to the unmodified samples (208). The lightweight material is used for sound deadening or domestic applications. which is endothermic and so absorbs heat as it releases carbon dioxide gas. This provides a tool to study the relationships between foam structure and physical properties (18). A comparison has also been made with batch microcellular processing (23). There are two main types: (1) azodicarbonamide. The impact modifier accelerated the rate of gas loss which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. 81). operate as effective radical scavengers to protect the PVC material during processing and in use (preventing photodegradation). UV absorbers such as hydroxybenzophenone or hydroxyphenyl triazole types. Granular forms improve handling.

has improved the high temperature creep resistance of peroxide crosslinked plastisols (202). which by attraction of moisture and in combination with the antistatic agent itself. have been reviewed. The agent functions by the formation of an antistatic layer on the surface. The influence of zeolites and iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVC based composites have been established (426).13. Paste PVC resins (or blends of resins) are designed to satisfy a particular rheology profile. dispersed in a plasticiser. This is necessary for thinning under the appropriate shear conditions. Fumed silicas are typically used. this functions by reacting with the polar groups in the synthetic fibre to give strong chemical bonding at the interface of the fabric and PVC.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing New trends in PVC-U compound formulations. Based on polyisocyanurates. These materials are highly reactive and the plastisol formulation has to take this into account in relation to plastisol viscosity build-up. aminosilanes and 4. A study on the thermal decomposition behaviour showed the strong influence of an aminosilane in comparison to a mercaptosilane (337).14 Formulations 4. To ensure that PVC-U products do not exhibit unacceptable heat distortion in hot climates. triallyl cyanurate. 4. although not so permanent. appearance and performance (72). Chemical crosslinkable formulations need to generate a sufficiently crosslinked portion with satisfactory thermal stability (usually a conflict) and should not. Peroxide crosslinking of PVC foam formulations has shown the positive benefit of a trimethacrylate compound as coagent. The addition of antistatic agents can have a detrimental effect on processing.14. but sometimes the addition of viscosity modifiers is necessary. extruded wood flour composites and co-extruded capping applications. crosslink during processing. a methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance data has been proposed and a predictive model for different applications given (352). Crosslinking is achieved hydrolytically. and this needs to be taken into account. 4. 4. Formulations for construction products have been reviewed based on components and combinations. requires the addition of a chemical bonding agent to improve the interfacial adhesion. with good thermal stability and a very dense crosslink network (235). 25 . and the necessary testing to ensure suitability for the purpose (402). of course. covering extruded foam. For some PVC-P formulations. 4. the surface resistivity is reduced.13.13. Typical areas of use are truck tarpaulins. Generic formulations have been listed together with the influence of each additive on processing. 424).PVC Compounds and Processing By adding an antistatic agent (complex non-ionic or cationic materials). An alternative method of achieving antistatic performance.14.2 Viscosity Modifiers PVC plastisols or pastes should have a viscosity suitable for handling and storage.4 Bonding Agents PVC plastisol. Viscosity measurements of magnesium and barium mercaptide crosslinked formulations have shown that the magnesium salt is more effective in crosslinking and conclusions have been made on the suitability of different heat stabiliser systems (285). air supported coated fabric structures and protective clothing. as well as the manufacturing process. influence on the manufacturing and final products. spread on to industrial fabrics based on polyester or polyamide fibres.3 Antifogging Agents Antifogging additives are added to food packaging film used for meat and vegetables. Calcium sulfonate gels have also been promoted (458). is to apply a coating after fabrication. The crosslinking of PVC-U formulations has also been investigated using mercaptosilanes. The use of a reactive plasticiser. organosilanes appear to be more suitable than peroxides in achieving improved solvent and abrasion resistance (409. particularly at elevated temperatures and investigative work has been carried out on both PVC-U and PVC-P. conducts away charges.2 Crosslinked PVC Crosslinking of PVC results in the improvement of a number of properties. particularly on display in the supermarket (400). along with a reduction in static charge accumulation. particularly heat stability.

The results of corona discharge treatment of PVC-P with different plasticiser contents have shown no effect on the electrolytic equilibrium in relation to biological adsorption tests. This has been reviewed in Section 3.4 Membranes PVC-P membranes are highly plasticised materials. with minimal thermal degradation (216). 393. The interaction of blood with PVC-P based on a phthalate and trimellitate plasticiser has shown that there is a higher reactivity for the trimellitate. The microstructure of ionselective membranes has been studied during the process of soaking in heavy water with plasticiser type and content. significantly influencing water uptake (305). The effect of UV irradiation on formulations. Peroxide crosslinking in the presence of a trimethacrylate has shown gel contents of 30-40% with improved mechanical properties using appropriate curing agent levels (268). This relates to the ‘more severe test’ criteria to satisfy the EC Directive. The use of polycaprolactone-polycarbonate as a plasticiser for medical grade PVC-P shows very few changes in material or surface composition when aged in water at different temperatures (17). PVC-P material. into the contents and so into the body. Flame retardancy has also been improved with the incorporation of appropriate flame retardants (118). excessive shifts in pH and extractables can occur in inappropriately stabilised PVC-P (301). Silane modified PVC films have been proposed for selective absorption of chloro-organics in the 26 . has reduced plasticiser diffusion in the evaluation of mass transfers between the material and liquid food or food simulants. Details are available of improving the gamma irradiation stability of PVC-P in order to retain colour (447).14. A rapid extraction test for overall migration limit compliance testing has been established. Packaging in direct contact with food must comply with migration limits set by government bodies.PVC Compounds and Processing peroxides with slower crosslinking attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane. Details are also available of the design of an autoclavable PVC-P medical device which was injection moulded (178). Electron beam irradiation has also been investigated on a PVC-P wire coating formulation in the presence of different reactive monomers (185). PVC membranes have also been suggested for controlled release of agrochemicals (354).1 showing the ongoing debate. has also been studied (67). Another important aspect is for the medical packaging to be suitable for sterilisation of the contents. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content (199). which has undergone specific treatment. used for ion-selective electrodes and biosensors. This has been tested extensively and DEHP is specified by the European Pharmacopoeia for use in blood bags. The effects of different plasticisers 4. An important issue for PVC-P is the migration of the DEHP plasticiser. oxygen face masks. Most of the recent work in this area is connected with extraction testing with food simulants. the main phthalate used in medical devices. usually solvent cast. Different heat stabilisers were also investigated (319). A mathematical model has been proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient (351). based on materials approved for medical use. For medical use. during sterilisation and ageing have shown the large stabilising influence of DEHP and ESBO. and is based on extraction with methanol or methanol/water (411). Other plasticisers have a much less stabilising influence (41). has been developed to give low extractables and low blush with good colour and processability (239). carried out using electron beam. which correlated with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface (316). 432).3 Medical and Food Contact Use PVC has a unique role in medical devices and in protecting and preserving food on its journey from supplier to consumer (446). In addition to unacceptable colour formation. Irradiation crosslinking of PVC-U. 4. incorporating iron chloride or cobalt chloride. has shown a marked increase in glass transition temperature in the presence of a triacrylate. PVC is supplied in a range of specially formulated hardnesses covering PVC-U through PVC-P for use in pharmaceutical blister packs. The influence of plasticisers on mechanical properties and dielectric characteristics has been examined (379. blood and plasma bags.14. A mathematical simulation of DEHP transfer between PVC-P samples submerged in olive oil has been produced (392). An additive system. Machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products have been examined (218). infusion kits etc.2. together with the addition of a lipophilic salt.

Pipe (191) and profile (325) of acceptable quality are claimed.1. cooled. For some processes or smaller scale operations. This may be necessary for the type of processing equipment used for shaping the material.1. which obviously includes the melt compounding stage. Centrifugal forces are sufficient to throw material particles into free space where they collide with other particles. The process can be automated in relation to weighing of ingredients and spraying of liquid components into the mixture. The barrel is in segments and the length is determined by the process needs.1. followed by a cooling stage. low speed mixers offer gentler product handling with a uniform distribution of all ingredients.1 High Intensity Batch high speed mixing. In addition to the formulation ingredients necessary for the particular application. Continuous melt compounding extruders (9) are now the favoured option either based on: (1) Co-rotating twin screws with kneading elements. is the most favoured process to produce PVC-U and relevant PVC-P dry blends at high outputs.g..1 Dry Blend Mixing 5.. with the screws designed to include mixing. By grafting acrylamide monomer on to PVC films using gamma radiation. plasticising and homogenising. Further mixing ensures that the nonmelting components are efficiently dispersed (in some cases fillers and certain pigments are added prior to reaching the final mixing temperature).1. but heating may be necessary to aid plasticiser absorption. The hot mix (now around 110-130 °C) is transferred to a much larger. Modifying PVC with pyridine groups has given stable and constant gas transport diffusion coefficients. the double batching technique has been suggested whereby double the quantity of additives are added to the PVC in the hot mixer with the balance of PVC added in the cooler mixer. Normally. free-flow ability. this technique is used for cold mixing. ease of handling and storage. calendering. with no change in particle identity. e.1. Under the effect of transmitted and frictional heat. 5. 5. homogeneity. There are several types of mixers: helical ribbon. the dry blend is fed directly into the processing equipment. or where a high degree of homogenisation is required to achieve the performance requirements of the final product. usually into a pellet or dice form. based on a single helical screw blade which in addition to its rotary 27 . other important criteria have also to be considered for the dry blend mixing stage and subsequent transportation to the processing equipment viz. To increase output. bulk density.g. The walls of the mixer carry the bulk material by friction producing continuous dividing and reuniting of the material. This breaks up agglomerates.2 Low Intensity 5 Compounding and Processing Technology 5.2 Melt Compounding For certain operations or scale of operations. This results in reduced agglomeration and improved free-flowing properties (by reducing electrostatic charges). e.PVC Compounds and Processing pervaporation separation of these compounds from water (274). the temperature rises. ribbon bar or paddle mixers.1. a high performance functional membrane for treatment of radioactive waste has been obtained (172). pipe and profile extrusion. low intensity mixer and cooled to ~50 °C. in comparison to the unmodified material where no stability was observed over time (217). Virtually shear free. the dry blend (PVC-U or PVC-P) must be gelled/melt compounded. (2) Oscillating kneader extruder. allowing the absorption of the liquid and low melting solid components. High intensity mixers are heated cylindrical tanks with the mixing tool (propellers or knives) mounted on a mixing shaft. 5. conveying.1 Compounding The intimate mixing of the PVC resin with its associated additives is necessary prior to converting into a thermoplastic melt.

www. A high level of mechanical heat is generated due to heat input and shear generation and it is now generally accepted that the gelation mechanism involves compaction. 5. relating to the PVC and plasticiser components. are interpreted as a consequence of their interactions (434). Gelation occurred in several steps depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles and temperature increase is necessary with higher plasticiser concentrations (394). a. A mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone has been proposed as an improvement on this technique (107).2. capillary rheometry.PVC Compounds and Processing motion also makes a reciprocating axial movement. fusion and elongation followed by melting.1. densification. particularly necessary for transparent top coat and foam formulations.3 Liquid PVC Blending Plastisol or paste PVC mixtures are dispersions of emulsion or emulsion/microsuspension PVC resins in plasticisers.1 Gelation In the case of PVC plastisols. gelation occurs on the basis of heat imparted to the material during the processing stage. The types of mixers used are: (1) High speed dispersion vertical mixers which are fitted with a variable speed drive and a toothed disc at the end of the vertical shaft. cut by rotating knives and cooled. There may be a two stage mixing procedure used where all the solids are dispersed in part of the plasticiser. Several different gelation measurement methods have been described in the literature. This type suits the lower viscosity plastisols used in wall and floor coverings. The behaviour of PVC plastisols has been studied during gelation and fusion using an in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique and differences in certain bands. Kneading teeth or pins are mounted on the barrel.1). Another technique is based on solvent absorption.2 Processing An excellent review of the different processing techniques can be found on the Hydro Polymers website. All mixers are usually enclosed and fitted with a vacuum deaeration facility. The gelation or fusion level is associated with the degree of destruction of the inherent particulate boundaries of the PVC grains and the subsequent merging of the primary particles and 28 . 5. Alternatively organosols are based on the use of a lower boiling point liquid. In addition. Details are available of a range of extruders developed for PVC compounds (34). This degree of fusion and the extent of crystallinity that exists within the polymer network are essential to achieve the finished product quality and properties (425). The remaining plasticiser is added at the second stage. (2) Low speed planetary mixers fitted with vertical trellis type paddles which rotate around the drive access in a circular motion around the mixing bowl. In one complete turn of the screw there is one forward and backward motion.hydropolymers. which is hinged. A discharge screw feeds the melt into a pelletiser unit. and visualising swelling and solution effects. This technique is reputed to give maximum mixing performance with relatively low energy consumption. The gelation level is characterised either by crystallinity related aspects or factors that relate to the development of the threedimensional network and the corresponding disappearance of the particulate structure (465. 5. usually involving methylene chloride. particularly differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). thereby improving plastisol mixing. which is a multi-hole die plate through which the melt is forced into strands. and the material is sheared in the shear gap between these teeth and the screw flights. A twin screw feeder unit is used to dose dry blend into the compounder. The influence of the plasticiser concentration on the gelation and fusion process has been studied rheologically. It seems that there is an optimum level of gelation for a particular product and/or process method. melt compounding is required to give the thermomechanical energy necessary to achieve interdispersion down to microscopic and possibly intermolecular level. This type of mixer requires longer mixing times but is suitable for high viscosity pastes with very little friction being developed in the process. the crystallites acting as crosslinks in a three-dimensional network. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). there is an extensive network of interconnecting crystalline regions which develop with increased processing temperature. For dry blend.

1 Twin Screw Almost exclusively used for extrusion of PVC-U into pipe profile and sheet. Venting is incorporated to remove entrapped air and volatiles. profile. which means the volume occupied between two fights at the start of the screw is twice that occupied between two consecutive flights at the end of the screw. gelation and metering. glazing strip.2. such as wire and cable. The relationship 29 . using sequential simplex techniques. can be used to determine if the process is under control. along the length..2. Statistical analysis has been used to establish the optimum screw design for PVC extrusion with the capability of reducing extrusion temperature and decreasing slip velocity to reduce abrasion (254). Barrels are internally lined with various high alloy nitrided steels. Archimedean screws. New 36D extruders have been introduced for higher output in combination with less wear (144).. sheared and finally gelled by rotation of the screws and the heat of the barrel.g. intermeshed. hose etc. Two main types of screw design are used. The processing window for PVC-U compounds should not be too restricting to allow for batch to batch variations in formulation ingredients and minor temperature fluctuations. The influence of processing variables on profile gloss has shown a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness (233). in PVC degradation. A capillary rheometer has been used for numerical simulations to reproduce the elastic properties of the large pressure drop on entrance and small extrudate swell during PVC extrusion (299). The role of shear stress. e. A processing window contour mapping programme. as a monitoring tool. are fed by gelled compound. This has been positively identified in relation to the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load (398). PVC dry blend is fed in via a hopper at the start of the screws and is conveyed forward. The concept of twin screw extrusion is short residence time in order to minimise thermal degradation. Further information is available (356). Screws are typically chromium plated and/or nitrided to protect against acid corrosion and abrasion.2 Extrusion 5.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. but enables melt temperature (which can be in the region of 190-200 °C) to be controlled more accurately. This is combined with the formulation cost to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise (312). the optimisation of the flow. cools and pulls off the product which is also cut to desired lengths. The melt behaviour of various PVC compounds has been studied in single screw extruders and conclusions made in relation to the dominant driving force conveying the melt and melting mechanisms (455). Thereafter the downstream equipment sizes or calibrates. The positive influence of PVC grain morphology on the extrusion performance has been studied (460). with the screw flights designed accordingly. tubing. Screws are categorised by the ratio of their length to depth (L/D ratio) and have been 22/1 (22D) and 26/1 (26D). 5.e. usually in different zones.. The characterisation of apparent viscosity for PVC wood fibre extrusion has been carried out and quadratic models used to establish tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were achieved (69). run on single screw extruders. The resulting homogeneous viscous melt is forced through a heated die fitted to the exit end of the barrel. Screw design involves higher compression ratios. softened.2. extrusion equipment consists of a cylindrical barrel containing two close fitting. PVC-P applications. The effects of formulation variables on PVC-U processing and physical properties have been modelled. Statistics. The use of conical twin screw extruders for the extrusion of wood filled PVC has also been presented (156). i. linked to high output. By modelling the rheological properties. parallel and conical and these have been compared (427). Screw design is complex. An optimum processing window can also be defined by the use of statistical experimental design (328). extruder conditions and physical properties were achieved (338). has been examined during extrusion and suggestions made in modification of the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation (190).2 Single Screw Single screw extruders develop more frictional heat and rely more on back pressure from the die to improve homogeneity. 2:1. The barrel is temperature controlled.2. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties. has been used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes on PVC-U compounds. The heated screws rotate in opposite directions (counter rotating) to each other and perform three basic functions which are feeding.2.

Sheet and film extrusion lines include cooling and polishing rolls. material is sized and subsequently cooled with water by total immersion or spray. As a consequence. which cool the material through contact with the metallic walls of the calibrators. normally pipe or profile. For flat die extrusion of sheet. have been identified as a multi-axial parameter with the magnitude shown to be a complex function of a number of interrelated variables. or reactions resulting from. Coextrusion permits the simultaneous capping of a specially formulated layer or layers of PVC onto the bulk material. Once ascertained on a trial and error basis. has been correlated with the long time relaxation ascribed to generation and growth of PVC crystallites (189). associated with different cooling rates. A non isothermal network flow model has been developed (this includes flow balancing. using a differential equation for heat transfer. mounted on a twin screw extruder. are possible by allowing for die swell (451). 5. in PVC-U profiles. cost effective tooling. Two processes are possible: (1) Free foaming where the blowing gas freely expands in the melt extrudate as it leaves the die going into the calibrator and (2) Inward expansion (Celuka process) where the extrudate is fed on to the calibrator walls via a die mandrel. 176). it is now coming under more scientific investigation. Vacuum holes or slots are used with the water cooled walls to improve and maintain final product dimensions.3 Downstream Equipment Die design is critical to the extrusion process. The simulation of profile dies. showing an optimum level of temperature to achieve satisfactory physical properties and surface gloss (12). Details of the process have been described (158). screws.PVC Compounds and Processing between the physical properties of PVC-P profile extrusions and extrusion melt temperature has been investigated.2. there was volatilisation of DEHP and changes in the polymer molecular structure which enhanced the electrical properties (213). a particular colour and surface finish with possibly good weathering performance (298).2. Plate-out is usually caused by incompatibility within. Computer aided engineering software has been used to investigate modifications to the design of a PVC sewer pipe extrusion die resulting in improved output and product quality with modest changes (170). using finite element methods. The influence of different cooling environments. Recent developments have been presented (175. is produced using thin wall extrudate feeding into corrugator equipment (www. Flow instability of PVC-P. the 5. Higher line speeds. Corrugated pipe. The die and calibrator are 30 . which gave good results (206). the torpedo creating a space into which the extrudate expands. Profile forming is achieved by passing the extrudate through a series of calibration dies. Plate-out is a particular problem for PVC extrusion and is the formation of undesired deposits within the extrusion process. primarily used in land drainage. temperatures and material properties (326). flow and cooling simulation and melt homogenisation (157). calibrator etc. without increasing reversion levels. An overall review of extrusion tooling has been made covering twin strand extrusion. in a capillary extrusion. Additional benefits to those associated with solid PVC are weight and cost savings.4 Foam Extrusion PVC-U foam extrusion has been well known since the 1960s. Several analytical techniques have been used in a study of plateout using a specially developed die and calibrator unit and mechanisms described for plate-out formation (155). An instrumented dual slit die rheometer. but recently. material rheology and flow through the die.corma. for pipe extrudate. die.2. Alternatively. The shear rate in passing through a copper wire coating die has been determined as higher than one million reciprocal seconds when studied using capillary rheometry. has shown a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation (251).com). more rapid development has taken place due to improved specialist machinery and techniques. sidewall effects and dimensional changes that occur after die exit).2. critical variables are temperature control. has been developed to determine shear viscosity and slip velocity covering PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviour (142). Heat reversion effects. The bowing of PVC-U extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage. has been demonstrated showing advantages in reduced sensitivity to output rates. has been modelled (250). The specially formulated layer is normally virgin PVC to cap lower cost virgin or regrind or foam to give good gloss. residence time and flow channel streamlining. the formulation ingredients in combination with processing conditions.

processing aids and fillers in PVC-U foam formulations. The formulation and performance criteria have been evaluated for vinyl moulding compounds (419). and then stretched and blown to its final shape in a second mould. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures attained during injection has been determined (314).3 Injection Moulding Injection moulding is a discontinuous process that produces articles in the final shape. Extrusion is mainly by a single screw horizontal machine which changes to vertical flow via a ‘swan neck’ arrangement.PVC Compounds and Processing the same size and this process creates its own skin on the extrudate surface. Technical details of PVC-U foam sheet extrusion lines. Air is fed to the centre of the parison. ABS and polycarbonate). has been researched (401). The machinery. A mobile reciprocating screw gels. A mathematical model has been developed to provide the basis for interpretation of shrinkage data. Polypropylene was the only polymer not to exhibit good adhesion. sheet and profile have been listed and the market reviewed (124.2. The use of processing aids facilitates foaming and cell retention in the melt phase. A fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density. Optimum extrusion conditions for good quality material have also been determined for a single screw extruder (413). Screw and mould designs have made big advances. rigidity and clarity. which is the most common. including dies and calibrators. tools and processes for the production of foam core pipe. PVC-P applications include footwear. allowing optimisation of the processing conditions (230). screw speed or injection rate. This produces biaxial molecular orientation of the container walls. 359). The mechanical properties of the other samples were intermediate between those of the constituent polymers (104). have been given (258). The degree of fusion during the foaming process has been studied using DSC (324). with the aim of predicting an optimum formulation (339). and their function has been reviewed (346. An alternative process for the production of PVC foam using microcellular foam technology. prefoamed in a batch solid state microcellular process (109). However. However. the use of PVC in this area has greatly decreased due to the changeover to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for cost reasons. cover the construction and telecommunication areas. polypropylene. Using timeresolved fluorescence has enabled the estimation of residual stresses on the skin layer of PVC mouldings (169). was investigated using the mono-sandwich process and the properties determined. 5. not requiring impact modifier. Proof of concept experiments confirm the satisfactory solid state extrusion of PVC pellets. usually based on lower molecular weight polymer. The most important stages of the process are melt preparation and mould filling to minimise shear heating caused by excessive back pressure. A model has been developed to predict degradation during moulding based on a spiral mould and the use of mathematical equations (249). for thin wall profile (280) has been reported. 5. Statistical experimental design has been used to study the effects of blowing agents. In the stretch blow moulding process. 333). The problem of part failure in service has been addressed using diagnostic analytical tools (353). automotive. To reduce the number of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings. permeability is reduced. PVC-U gives a combination of high clarity. transports and forces material through a nozzle and into a mould. PVC-U applications. 31 . The relatively high melt viscosity and thermal stability of PVC require close attention in relation to temperature and shear conditions.4 Extrusion Blow Moulding For thin walled containers. which improves impact resistance.2. medical and electrical. Strains imposed on the material during injection can result in undesirable shrinkage and are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. The co-injection moulding of PVC-U with other thermoplastics (glass fibre reinforced PVC. the influence of injection moulding conditions was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. inherent rigidity and good barrier properties. The extrusion of foamed products with twin screw extruders has been reviewed (375). the extruded parison is initially blown undersized.

in such a way that they can be rotated. at temperatures above the glass transition temperature.. The chemical structure of coatings. Mini calenders or Calandrette® lines (from Battenfeld) are available for the production of rigid and semi-rigid PVC films with lower investment costs. Hot melt is generated through a continuous extruder-compounder. The passage of hot melt between the rolls creates a pressure forcing them apart and the calculation of tolerances using a statistical model has been described (417).5 millimetres in thickness and up to and over 2. 358).g.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. Calendering processes and machinery for rubber and PVC products have been examined (408). In-line embossing can be carried out by feeding the hot sheet between a heated embosser and rubber backup roll. is produced continuously in film or sheet up to approximately 1. Much of the work investigating orientation has been carried out at the Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering. In-line processes for PVC pressure pipes are now used (332. A calender is essentially a set of four giant steel rollers mounted in a cast iron frame. The molecular orientation in conventional extruded pipe. ranging from rigid to semi-rigid to flexible. produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel. The final calender nip controls film thickness. based on a batch process. ranging from highly polished to heavy matt. particularly with reference to the use of calcium organic stabiliser systems (145). There is a rolling bank of feed material created in the gap or ‘nip’ set between the first pair and also the second pair of rolls. Passage of the material is controlled by roll temperature.2.5 Orientation The mechanical properties of PVC-U can be improved substantially by stretching the polymer. and the distance between each pair of rollers adjusted. 5. Loughborough University. The surfaces of the rolls need to be contoured to an accuracy of a few microns to ensure even film thickness in both lengthwise and crosswise directions. The surfaces of the final two rolls can also be textured. Calendering is much more capital intensive than the extrusion process. The degree of order or crystallinity has also been studied (164). Plate-out can also be a problem in this area due to the formation of coatings which adversely influence sheet quality. UK and published work includes: • the dimensional stability of oriented PVC-U and PVC-P (357). the development of a machine for stretching PVC-P with enhancement of mechanical properties (303) and the structure-property relationships for oriented samples of PVC-U and PVC-P (255).6 Calendering Early PVC calenders were modified from those used in the rubber industry. (374) feeding into the intake nip of the calender. Extrusion manufacture of oriented PVC (and modified PVC) pipe has been presented. Consecutive rolls squeeze the material resulting finally in a continuous sheet of the desired thickness. depending on the sheet finish required. The hot sheet is drawn from the final roll by stripper rollers which can be temperature controlled to permit gradual cooling. 32 . Final cooling is achieved using water cooled drums. Cooling also greatly improved quality and integrity (315). e. 90 °C is normally used. The mechanical properties of PVC pipe. were found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio. and regulated rotationally to allow stretching to the required dimensions. surface finish and the ratio of the roll speeds at the nip. uniaxially oriented and biaxially oriented systems has been studied using polarised infrared spectroscopy. but higher production rates and more accurate product thickness are obtained. The calender rolls have to transmit heat evenly across the face and need to be independently variable in speed so that friction between two adjacent rolls can be applied. One alternative is an intensive internal mixer consisting of two heavy duty teardrop shaped counterrotating rotors in a heated chamber.2. usually in an inverted L-shape. usually in both directions. Monitoring of molecular orientation has also been suggested using micro-Raman spectroscopy (163). feeding onto a two-roll holding mill. The biorientation process is also used in the manufacture of PVC-U sheet (64). resulting • • The effect of the drawing and filler orientation in PVC-P extrudates has been studied with improvements noted in mechanical properties (383).0 metres in width. PVC.

The main techniques are spreading.4 Rotational. and depends on preheating the object to be coated (100-120 °C) and dipping it into the plastisol where the PVC gels around the object. or metal. Cold dip and spray coating is used on fabrics. Layer thickness is controlled by the rheology of the paste.2. 5.2. coatings. The rotation ensures that the paste is evenly coated over the mould interior.2. decorative surface coatings and stationery. dipping. The final process involves pregelling and gelation in a continuous oven. is carried out using a roller with concentric grooves. Calendered PVC-U sheet is used for thermoforming of packs and containers.1 Rheology An understanding of the rheological behaviour is necessary as PVC pastes are classified as nonNewtonian liquids and can be dilatent (shear thickening).7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes PVC plastisol compounds can be manipulated into shapes. The mechanism of viscosity ageing. relies on plastisol being pumped into a cylindrical metal screen with fine perforations. This process is used to manufacture balls. which is designed to split open. such as lined gloves. pseudoplastic (shear thinning) or thixotropic (viscosity reduces with time under constant shear). Each process requires specific rheological characteristics and this is achieved by formulation of appropriate PVC grades and knowledge of the influence of shear rate and time under constant shear. toys and skins (which are subsequently filled with foam for automotive use). The use of an infrared system to cure PVC sealant compound has also been introduced (343). after feeding in a fixed quantity of paste. The influence of plasticiser content and type. and different PVC K-values on the rheological behaviour of plastisol..2 Spreading or Coating For the coating of continuous substrates. 5. Typical applications for PVC-P materials include floor and wall coverings. Almost Newtonian flow behaviour was possible (327).7. or indirectly via reverse roll coating. also permitting a reduction in plasticiser level. which resulted in viscosity ageing (19). On cooling. used for coated fabrics. including foam. Model systems of paste PVC resins have shown the effects of particle size and particle size distribution on improved plastisol flow. direct or transfer coating is used. With the non-friable agglomerate resin a small proportion of ultrafine particles dissolved in the plasticiser. These are subsequently gelled in an oven. the amount deposited being controlled by the screen mesh size and rubber blade pressure and angle. or applied to fabrics in the ungelled state by either simple flow techniques or by very low pressure processes. usually on metal.2. such as flooring. and embossed finishes to be carried out in-line.7. the article is peeled from the mould. This process permits multilayer 33 .PVC Compounds and Processing from calendering of different feedstocks. timing and 5. spraying and rotational and slush moulding. has been determined (266). where viscosity increases with time.3 Dip and Spray Coating The hot dip process is used to coat wire baskets. Screen coating. Deagglomeration. Coil coating. 5. film packaging. wall covering and tarpaulins. 5. has been analysed and attempts made to establish the causes and mechanisms of coating formation (423).7. The paste can be applied directly using knife on roller or belt. Slush moulding utilises heated open moulds which are inverted to remove excess plastisol. The moulds are fed through an oven where the paste is gelled and fused. of the friable agglomerates. The substrate can be a carrier material which is removed later. Powder coating techniques are also used. has been investigated using resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates. The paste is forced through the perforations via a rubber blade onto the substrate. such as underbody sealant. typically used for wallcoverings. including fluidised bed and electrostatic spraying. caused viscosity ageing. Slush and Dip Moulding Rotational moulding is carried out using closed moulds which undergo rotation through 360 ° in three dimensions.7. brackets etc. the depth of the grooves determining the coating weight.2.

has provided flexibility and scratch resistance (59). 34 .3 Coatings Surface treatments are often necessary for aesthetic and performance reasons. based on an unsaturated polyester resin and used in a UV curable powder coating. Disposable gloves are manufactured by this process. This can involve printing or lacquering. particularly heat stabilisers and lubricants. inkjet or lasers. Spectroscopic analysis of PVC-P films has identified the formation of a barium zinc stearate complex which formed in the PVC matrix and migrated to the surface (207). The process parameters on wall thickness distribution in thermoformed food containers have been optimised and the process discussed (300). thermoforming offers economical advantages due to low equipment costs and ease of changing mould designs. on print adhesion. and an EVA-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement. A typical product made from this technique is PVC coated flexible foam for automotive trim. in the presence of phase transfer catalysts. Nucleophilic substitution by sulfide ions in aqueous media has also given benefits (37). or photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate (410) with subsequent UV irradiation to crosslink the surface. silk screen. giving improved weathering performance and scratching and abrasion resistance (179). using atmospheric pressure plasma glow (APG). UV cured acrylic clearcoats are also used. and then cooling. by azide (448). Argon plasma immersion ion implantation has resulted in increased wettability (32). However. pads. Activities to reduce plasticiser migration include: nucleophilic substitution of the surface chlorine.1 Thermoforming Calendered or extruded sheet can be thermoformed to shape by applying heat.2 Surface Modification Processes The surface modification of PVC has been investigated to improve some key factors such as coatability or to reduce migration. on the basis of spectroscopic studies (368). which are applied to the surface using rollers. In comparison to injection moulding. using vacuum or pressure forming over a preform or mould. The reaction of PVC film with sodium azide and amino thiophenol has also been investigated in solvent/non solvent mixtures with sodium azide occurring homogeneously through the film. and so improve print adhesion. Dip moulding utilises a preheated former which is dipped into the paste and withdrawn at a constant rate. A closed system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces with the claim that the resulting PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. in comparison to acid etching (399). indicated that surface selectivity and degree of modification (related to level of DEHP leached out) were dependent on reaction time (38). while the amino thiophenol modified the surface (284). Surface modification. has been evaluated to enhance biocompatibility and suppress plasticiser migration (273). Waterborne coatings are environmentally more desirable and silicone surfactants are claimed to give the best performance to improve substrate wetting (456). 6. the article is peeled off the former. Printing on vinyl surfaces can be problematic due to the influence of the formulation ingredients. 6 Fabrication and Treatment 6. A clear topcoat for flooring. Chemical embossing of flooring and wall coverings involves the incorporation of a blowing agent inhibitor (which prevents the decomposition of the blowing agent) into the appropriate print area. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide/water mixtures. The effect of plasma treatment on the migration of DOA. Polymeric plasticisers have been developed to increase the surface energy. the process is limited by the fact that the forming must be capable of being demoulded from the tool. The incorporation of stearic acid had a surface energy reducing effect when used with the polymeric plasticiser (193). The fluorination of the inner surface of intravenous tubing. using both solvent and non-solvent based inks. An ultrasonic etching technique has been shown to be effective for the pretreatment of PVC for copper plating.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. 6. After heating in an oven and cooled. into isooctane solution has given positive results (231). Consecutive layers can be built up and a double slush technique has been reported permitting recycling of production waste (289).

Friction welding has been assessed in relation to spin friction pressure and time (269). 6. This is in addition to Directives covering motor vehicle Endof-Life (ELV). electrofusion socket welding and socket jointing (309).hydropolymers. based on hot tool and vibration welding have also been assessed with good results (256). Bonding techniques. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was proposed to remove surface contaminants which. The target is to have an additional 200. for the foil laminated material. very much focused on the environmental aspect. when combined with flame treatment and Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) etc. The manufacture of PVC-U windows utilises a hot plate welding technique and finite element analysis has been used to assess the stress in the welded corner (452). the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in Europe (275) which followed the EC ‘horizontal study’. and the raising of awareness about sustainable development within the industry and participation in its achievement (125). economic and social needs. However. no build-up of persistent organic compounds.000 tonnes of post consumer PVC recycled by 2010. No other industry has yet had to face questions about sustainable development to the same degree. Accordingly. and was introduced to pre-empt any further legislative action (at the time of writing. and will surely come through as a stronger enterprise. usually with a wood grain effect. An in-depth study of PVC adhesion is available. Impact strength retention after ageing. five studies covering a comprehensive investigation on all PVC issues relating to waste management. has been the use of The Natural Step (TNS) framework which applies a systems model based on scientific principles governing the Earth’s ecosystem. but ensuring that future generations can also have the same possibilities. For the PVC industry. The study of bond strength testing for solvent joints in piping systems has noted extreme sensitivity to minor variations in sample preparation (259). PVC has been evaluated by this process and five long-term challenges set covering carbon neutrality. The impact performance and the effect of artificial weathering and abrasion have been compared with uncoated and wood grain effect obtained by transfer foil. risk assessments to be carried out on phthalate plasticisers and lead stabilisers. All welding techniques involve the application or generation of heat to soften the material whilst pressure is applied simultaneously. Welding techniques. involving adhesives. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). permitting the development of new stationery items (246). include butt fusion. standards were set in place covering PVC production. reduction in the use of lead stabilisers by 50% (100% by 2015) and investigation of new technologies regarding end-of-life treatment. the earth’s resources and life support systems should not be overloaded or impaired. High frequency dielectric jointing of PVC-P to PVC-U was investigated. closed loop waste management. A concentrated solar beam radiation technique has also been assessed (162). Sustainable development is not only about being able to advance and improve the standard of living today. together with the recommendation for a solvent borne pressure sensitive adhesive (229). In addition to setting targets on recycling of PVC rich waste (20). the end of cadmium based stabiliser sales in the EU. gave good adhesion results (244). are also common.vinyl2010. the PVC industry has confronted all the issues head on. A report is also available on solvent based pressure sensitive adhesives suitable for PVC surfaces (226). used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines. sustainability of all additives with phase out of persistent compounds and those having toxic effects. Hot melt adhesives can be used. Techniques. Solvent cement jointing relies on softening/swelling of the material. A major European resin producer has taken on board this concept and has integrated the TNS framework into its business strategy (166). this has resulted in Vinyl 2010 ( unfortunate but timely that all the issues around modern society have been placed first at its door. 7 PVC and Sustainable Development PVC has been at the centre of a continued environmental campaign against its use and it is 35 . an EC Communication on PVC is still awaited).PVC Compounds and Processing Foil coatings can be laminated in-line on to PVC-U profile used for windows. was decreased (329).4 Adhesion Different joining techniques are used to fabricate PVC into the finished article. Hydro Polymers has also announced the commissioning of a new operation dedicated to the processing of recycled PVC-U compounds (www. One approach to sustainability. but balanced between satisfying environmental. Wood veneers have been surface modified chemically to improve adhesion (396).

com). ESPA and European Plastics Converters (EuPC)) have contributed in the region of € 4. Triboelectrostatic separation. at end-of-life. including PVC (30). by 2005. covering post industrial and post consumer vinyl reclaim in North America.PVC Compounds and Processing The largest European resin supplier is also taking account of sustainability issues. were initially focused on the packaging area involving separation from PET (243). The mixed polymers are subject to shear and compression that result in changes to their structure via mechanochemistry. has been compiled with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system (123). The influence of small amounts of PVC degrading in PET scrap during reprocessing has been studied (371). for separation by sieving or hydrocyclones (405) million in 2002. economic and social legs (www.1. cleaning and separating. for removal of trace PVC. Selective grinding has been proposed to induce differences in size and shape The target in Europe for window frames is also to recycle at least 50% of the collectable available quantity.1 PVC Rich Waste .evc-int. has also separated five commonly used plastics. A study of the influence of restabilisation on rheological and mechanical properties has been carried out (276).recyclepvc.Mechanical Recycling 7. In the UK. 7. between polymers with different compositions. 7. has also been described (204). focusing on the environmental. by 2005. 36 .1. for Italy. A market survey. was conducted in 1998 and results compared with other plastics (296) (www. to waste management projects which were funded to a total of €16. 7. 7. grinding and re-use was examined (449).com). based on has been proposed (311).1. looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive industries. The homogeneous material is melt processable (25).1. at end-of-life. A major German producer has set up a facility for recycling all components from window frames and this has been operational for some time.4 Profile 7. The particle size distribution of a hammer mill ground PVC has been interpreted and a model developed to describe the distribution. based on the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures (61). A SolidState Shear Pulverisation technology is being developed based on a non-melting process involving a co-rotating twin screw extruder. A consortium called Recovinyl SA is being set up to facilitate the collection dispatching and recycling of post-consumer PVC waste (including pipe and profile) across Europe (www. utilising pH level and surfactants. As far back as 1996. An elastic-deformation dispersion method has been developed to obtain fine particle recycled material.1.1 Waste Management Vinyl 2010 members (ECVM. for the removal of PVC from other waste plastics. A continuous thermal separation system.1. Conflicting issues have been low prices for virgin material and inconsistent recyclate supply (184). fluidised beds or rotating tubes. outlets for recycled materials and PVC recyclers (122). a Government funded initiative is in place. along with the associated economic and environmental impacts (68) (www.1 General A research report.1. relevant to separation (428). The practicalities of recycling PVC in Brazil have been considered taking account of the need to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product (288).3 Pipes The target for pipes and fittings is to recycle at least 50% of the collected available quantity. pipe recycling was already under investigation and collection. The quality of recovered materials and their use in high value products will be assessed.1. Separation techniques. ECPI. A major UK producer has become the first UK company to recycle used window frames into high-end applications (68).5 million.2 Grinding/Pulverisation/Separation An important feature of processing plastic waste is the grinding down to an appropriate particle size to suit the next processing stage.recyclepvc.1. Spanish initiatives have been examined detailing waste sources. A review of recycling methods being used in Europe. An aqueous column flotation technique. and examples of recyclate uses has been published.

which results in bodies becoming opposite electrically charged was the most effective (330). after service life.vinyl2010. In the UK. have been developed.1.8 VinyLoop® Process This patented process involves the selective dissolution of the PVC compound.1. Another outlet is moulding of rainwater fittings. 147).uk). if necessary) (211). remain one possibility for mechanical recycling but this depends on a system to identify the polymer.6 Packaging Collation trays. This can then be processed into the same application as the original material (26. has always been a driver. Solvent based technology (see below) is considered to be the best option in this area. 7.7 Wire and Cable In this application the desire to recycle the 37 . from wire and cable.1.10 Roofing Membranes 7. At present.1. have been investigated in relation to the influence on mechanical recycling and energy recovery options (43). Texyloop® has been developed for coated fabrics and involves specific treatment for recycling fibres and compounds. this depends on post industrial waste. Colour deterioration was the main issue (indicating a need for a virgin cap material to retain colour. has been Changes in flooring properties. The recycling of automotive cables was discussed in 1995 with reference A target of 25% recycling for 2003. start-up of new collection schemes and optimisation of existing schemes are taking place across Europe. A UK government funded project is investigating increasing glass recycling. This is based on a mechanical cryogenic unit which will require additional capacity or be augmented via a solvent based process (www. separation of non-soluble materials and precipitation of the pure PVC compound.vinyl2010.bpf.1. A recycling project.1. aiming for 50% by 2005. It was shown that product quality was suitable for re-use in cable insulation (225) has been assessed using hydrocyclone. Based on the VinyLoop® technology. 7. 7. The recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols. One outlet for this material is a foam layer in coextruded cladding (439).1. to separation techniques and costs. Fence posts based on a core of recycled PVC. The separation of PVC cable waste. An outlet for cable waste in garden hose and reinforced washing machine hose has been described (336). Applications for recycled material and cooperation in the collection and future processing of post consumer waste are ongoing. Tribocharging. enclosed in a virgin cap skin.5 Wallcoverings A project is underway in the UK looking at recycling of post industrial use material. A major PVC flooring manufacturer in Europe has also been recycling waste material (369). melt filtration and triboelectric techniques.1. 7. PVC water bottle scrap has also been incorporated into the foam core of coextruded pipe. such as off-cuts and off specification profile materials as the source (99). for vinyl sidings in the USA. has been shown to be possible using ceramic membrane separation technology (152).1. Pilot collection initiatives. linked to a suitable collection system. primarily based on material generated via the VinyLoop ® process (www. as used in supermarkets to transport and display products.9 Flooring A vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme (nonsolvent based) for end-of-life material was set up by one floorcovering company in the USA in 1998 (363). has also been conducted (397) (www. from other polymers. BPF members will look at PVC-U frames (www. created in the manufacturing process during screen changeovers.1. the British Plastics Federation (BPF) is leading a synergistic project (funded by Vinyl 2010 through the European Profile Producers Association) aimed at finding the most appropriate ‘best practice’ solutions to collect and manage PVC construction and demolition waste.PVC Compounds and Processing Profile material has been successfully subjected to repeated extrusion to investigate the effect of loss of properties and durability when PVC waste is reprocessed. In its second phase. The first target in Europe is to recycle at least 25% of the collectable available quantity of PVC flooring waste by 2006.vinylinfo.

A project involving 8 Conclusions Despite being a so called mature product. are: (1) Combustion in a rotary kiln which delivers recovered chlorine with energy recovery for new VCM/PVC production (2) Hydrolysis and pyrolysis to dechlorinate and separate into hydrocarbon and inorganic fractions (fillers and metals) followed by gas recovery and recycling of the inorganic material and (3) Dechlorination of mixed plastics from household waste. A progress report. A technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric has been for treatment of mixed plastic waste prior to pyrolysis to oil. economic and technological aspects showing that incineration is the most sustainable solution for certain types of waste (146). carbon monoxide and dioxide etc.vinyl2010. 214). A catalytic dehalogenation process.1. has been carried out (31). and co-injection with coal into a blast furnace for pig iron production. on potential technologies for high PVC content mixed plastic waste streams. for the reduction and detoxification of neutralisation salts from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). (187). This is linked to energy recovery and chlorine generation for VCM production (444). including PVC.8% PVC and a paper has been presented on energy and hydrochloric acid recovery with respect to environmental. in comparison to peroxide polymerised material (27). using oxygen oxidation in caustic soda solutions at high temperatures. Solvent based recycling is seen as the most promising solution.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery A survey of state-of-the-art technologies. has been described to convert PVC into hydrogen chloride. The coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions using catalysts. MSW contains an average of 0. A phase separation technique.1. 7. for liquid fuel generation. PVC is adapting to the demands of the 21st Century. The aim is to replace pulverised coal in this process (www. VCM polymerised with butyllithium was dechlorinated completely under high pressure in hot water. Test collection projects have been initiated. However. after separation from municipal solid waste. is in place (www.11 Coated Fabrics An investigation into collectable waste has indicated that truck tarpaulins and advertising posters could be the highest contributor. The calcium carbonate filler content within the PVC was also observed to give an in situ neutralisation (293). hydrogen. Alternatively feedstock recycling could be possible (www. Promising developments. using solvent and subsequent swelling. primarily to recycle the fabric (340. Vacuum pyrolysis of mixed plastics. The elimination of chlorine during incineration has also been achieved using calcium hydroxide and calcium and sodium carbonate salts (306).2 PVC Feedstock Recycling Feedstock or chemical recycling is seen as complimentary to mechanical recycling and seems appropriate for cost effective treatment of mixed and contaminated plastic waste streams (115). has been described to separate PVC from polyester fabric.1. The market is developing at 3-4% per year with most growth in the construction area. The possibility of converting waste PVC into carboxylic acids. particularly Asia. and retains its position as a cost effective and flexible material. A steam gasification technique. A process for the recovery of hydrochloric acid from thermal processing of PVC waste has been with addition of an acid absorber (hydrotalcite) (49). has been described (24). operating in a difficult economic climate.1. There has been much rationalisation and consolidation within the supply chain and there is no reason to believe that this will not continue. is available (21). chlorine content was lower than expected (212. feedstock recycling of mixed plastics. with oxygen addition. has been investigated (29).org). based on compression or injection moulding.vinyl2010. 355). Dechlorination using calcium based sorbent has also been examined (28). has been proposed (302. in coking plants. based on market volume. 7. showed some interaction with altered decomposition rates. which look technically and economically viable.PVC Compounds and Processing 7. 382). Much needed closer integration and cooperation within the industry has 38 . It is still the second largest thermoplastic material.

recycling techniques and waste management possibilities. All of these issues have been.PVC Compounds and Processing occurred as it has taken on the issues surrounding sustainability. Ind. The focus has been on more cost effective polymerisation plants with an improved environmental profile. 104. Thanks are also due to the author’s friends and colleagues within the industry who have given their support and permission for use of their material. Additional References a. Génie chimique. Chim. and are being. 1971. a greater understanding of and an increasing role for impact modifiers. As the reader has observed in this review. leading to the Voluntary Commitment in Europe. 39 . of course. Gonze. the innovation process is thriving within this new environment. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank the authors of the previous review report for the content and style which have been the basis of this review. It is. accomplished at a cost and the industry is aware of the need to balance the ongoing requirement for profitability within this environment. essential that the targets set out in this agreement are achieved within the specified timescale. the replacement of lead stabilisers. scientific studies and support for phthalates. 422-427.1 A.

PVC Compounds and Processing 40 .

PVC Compounds and Processing Abbreviations and Acronyms ABS AFM AMSAN APG ATH BBP BPD BPF CPE CPVC DBA DBP DCOIT DEHA DEHP DIDP DINCH DINP DSC ECPI ECVM EDC EPM E-PVC ESBO ESPA EuPC EVA FDA FR FTIR HALS HPLC MBS MDH MSW acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer atomic force microscopy alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile atmospheric pressure plasma glow aluminium trihydrate butyl benzyl phthalate Biocidal Products Directive British Plastics Federation chlorinated polyethylene chlorinated PVC dibutyl adipate dibutyl phthalate 4.2-dicarboxylic ester diisononyl phthalate differential scanning calorimetry European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers ethylene dichloride poly(ethylene-co-polypropylene) emulsion polymerised PVC epoxidised soya bean oil European Stabiliser Producers Association European Plastics Converters ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer Food and Drug Administration (US) flame retardant Fourier transform infrared hindered amine light stabilisers high performance liquid chromatography methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer magnesium hydroxide municipal solid waste 41 .5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one di-2-ethylhexyl adipate di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate diisodecyl phthalate di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1.

PVC Compounds and Processing NBR NMR OBPA OIT PET phr PVC PVC-P PVC-U RoHS S-PVC SS TEM TNS UV VCM nitrile rubber nuclear magnetic resonance 10. 10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine 2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one polyethylene terephthalate parts per hundred polyvinyl chloride plasticised PVC unplasticised PVC Restriction of Hazardous Substances suspension polymerised PVC smoke suppressant transmission electron microscopy The Natural Step ultraviolet vinyl chloride monomer 42 .

108-15 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A. COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Safronov A. The fibrinogen adsorption mechanism was also examined using Freundlich adsorption modelling. dynamic mechanical analysis and dielectric relaxation. No. Details are given of the addition of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives to PVC to meet specifications such as oxygen index. 31 refs. Suvorova A. low molec. Somova T.900443 Item 4 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. 11 refs. 14th Nov. Data are presented for synergistic combinations of additives in PVC formulations.2003.467-76 INFLUENCE OF POLYMER ADDITIVES ON THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE EMISSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Li B Harbin. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICIZER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICIZER LEVEL Zhao X B. Results are discussed in terms of the superposition of glassy state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of the glassy polymer with liquid additives.2003. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests.References and Abstracts Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database Item 1 Journal of Materials Science. Polymeric additives Accession no. p. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 43 . Sept. including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. Crompton Corp. p. 12 refs.7.10.901205 Item 2 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. Talc is more efficient than calcium carbonates. Stewen U. triethylhexyl trimellitate or butyltrihexyl citrate as plasticisers were assessed for blood contacting applications. MoO3 aand FeOOH. 2003. p1808-24 EFFECT OF GELATION ON THE FLOW PROCESSABILITY OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Fujiyama M.4-6 MINERAL FILLERS FOR PVC REINFORCEMENT Uprating PVC compounds often involves the careful specification and addition of mineral fillers. The compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin thioglycolate stabilisers was studied by thermal methods. WESTERN EUROPE employed were an acrylic resin..899602 Item 5 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9.& Associates Inc. taking into account their size and their shape factor. Dooley T Urals.2003. UK. 16 refs. Courtney J M Strathclyde. No. DSC. chlorinated PE.W. heat release. The influence of the stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films was studied by DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. Fisch M H. PVC and polyethylene wax.3. The impact performance is very sensitive to the particle size. SOLVAY BENVIC WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Kondou M Tokuyama Corp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.wt. Materials in Medicine 14. Oct. Rigidity is sensitive to the shape factor of the filler as is the dimensional stability. EUROPEAN UNION. Sept. USA Accession no. p.m.3.2003.127-37 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. Correlations between plasticiser and fibrinogen adsorption behaviour are discussed. This article discusses calcium carbonate. CHINA Accession no.901038 Item 3 Polymer Degradation and Stability 82.University Three types of plasticised PVC containing either diethylhexyl phthalate. USA Accession no. talc and glass fibre.State University.Northeast Forestry University The results are reported of a study of the effect of various polymeric additives and metal oxides on the thermal degradation. RUSSIA. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the only filler to act as an impact modifier. VI. No. Metal oxides used included CuO. Bacaloglu R. This study shows that glass fibre is the most efficient filler.2003. No.3.899600 Item 6 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 90. which served as smoke suppressants. The enthalpy of mixing was measured. flame retardancy and smoke suppression of rigid PVC carried out using a cone calorimeter at an incident heat flux of 25 kW sq.905-12 BLOOD RESPONSE TO PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. No. p. 18 refs. p.

and for morphology as removed from the mill by scanning electron microscopy of a fractured surface. The wide processing window for rigid and plasticised PVC makes the quantec a versatile and productive PVC compounding system. The Kneader superimposes a radial mixing effect with the screw rotation and a lengthwise mixing effect caused by the oscillating motion of the screw. No. Cusack P A. AKCROS CHEMICALS LTD.4. p. Gelation levels of the samples were controlled by adjusting milling time and temperature. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.647. UK. Cross M. is showing 2. p.2003. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. A pot life of 20 hours is now possible with Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2.2003. using polyolefin elastomers to yield flexibility.30 NEW KNEADING CONCEPT FOR PVC COMPOUNDING Coperion has introduced a new concept for the Coperion Buss Kneader. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. extrusion and injection moulding of clear and pigmented plasticised PVC. and increased die swell at higher extrusion temperatures or greater melt fracture at lower extrusion temperatures. The company has also introduced Akcrostab LZB6104. a selflubricating barium/zinc liquid stabiliser that is suitable for use in calendering. USA Accession no. This principle of the Coperion Buss Kneader has been retained in the quantec. 16 refs. which is designed for processes where more free volume is required in the screw channel. which was at 4.4. Budapest.. Sept. July-Aug.40 PHTHALATES STILL FIGHTING UPHILL BATTLE TO CONVINCE PUBLIC Colvin R Global plasticiser demand. 29 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. creating a high mixing efficiency.897659 Item 8 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. Tin Technology Ltd. Zelei B.13. UK.1% annual growth for 2003.894310 Item 9 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. an increase in flow activation energy. this stagnation could have pointed to the enduring argument over phthalates’ use in vinyl. EUROPEAN UNION. Marosi G Brunel University. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission said there is no demonstrated health risk from vinyl toys containing DINP. and measuring the rheological properties using a capillary flow rheometer. Samples were characterised for gel level by differential scanning calorimetry. The European Council of Plasticisers and Intermediates says the latest research studies have taken the wind out of many critics’ sails. No.000 tonnes in 2000. EASTERN EUROPE. p. COPERION CORP. HUNGARY. Measurements were made of the limiting oxygen index. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy were used to study the filler-coating interaction. low volatility. peak rate of heat release and smoke parameter and the data for unfilled and filled formulations compared.9.University of Technology & Economics An investigation was carried out into the fire retardant behaviour of zinc hydroxystannate-coated fillers (alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide) in PVC and EVA cable formulations. Also from Coperion is the ZSK Megavolume twin-screw compounder. WORLD Accession no. July-Aug. At this year’s NPE show a number of products intended as alternatives to existing plasticisers were introduced.894085 44 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .894297 Item 10 Journal of Materials Science 38. No. No. Earlier this year. In the past. This new range of base and top-coat stabilisers is suitable for all plastisol applications.2893-9 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED METAL HYDROXIDE FIRE RETARDANTS: FIRE PERFORMANCE AND SUBSTRATE-COATING INTERACTIONS Hornsby P R. 1st July 2003.898857 Item 7 Modern Plastics International 33.2003. Comparative effects on the different parameters were reviewed and differences in flow behaviour were attributed to transition from particle flow to uniform molecular chain flow. Teknor Apex debuted its plasticiser-free FreeFlex PVC compounds. low plastisol viscosity and good adhesion results.44-6 NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES STEP CHANGE IN PVC STABILIZATION Holmes M Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2 has been introduced by Akcros Chemicals as the first of a new generation of PVC stabilisers for PVC-coated fabrics. The new stabiliser offers Accession no. and it was found that higher gelation levels resulted in a slight increase in viscosity. EUROPEAN UNION. Toth A. JAPAN good anti-fogging performance.References and Abstracts A study was made of the effects of gelation during the fusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) on the subsequent flow properties by preparing samples of the polymer with different levels of gelation.

April 2003. An increase Accession no. Siampiringue N. An increase in melt temperature resulted in a smoother surface. Detection limits are -. Ishimitsu S. The absorptions of these compounds were not. Saito I.891710 Item 14 Food Additives and Contaminants 20.Prefectural Institute of Public Health. 12. The relationship between the physical properties of profiles extruded from flexible PVC compounds and the extrusion melt temperature was studied. di(2ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA). The mean intake of plasticisers estimated from all samples is 160 mu g DEHP day-1. 100% modulus.1-15. Delprat P. Migration of bisphenol A from these materials was determined by HPLC using both fluorescence and UV detection. Aichi. Tonogai Y Japan. The unsaturated compounds formed through photolysis of PVC could not be fully bleached under the photochemical protection of titanium dioxide and under conditions of oxygen starvation.National Institute of Health Sciences. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan are analysed as individual meals. p. Atofina. such as surface roughness and gloss. FRANCE. 17 refs. No.7 mu g DINP day-1 and 3. butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP). 4.2. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. USA Accession no.4 mu g BBP day-1. No. Levels of DINA are relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals. June 2003. p. No.2. diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC).4. The properties included tear resistance. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). brittleness temperature and compression set. diisononyl phthalate (DINP). JAPAN in extrusion melt temperature was shown to result in increased tensile elongation. SPAIN. Tsuchida Y. June 2003. The plasticisers quantified were: dibutyl phthalate.891711 Item 13 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. EUROPEAN UNION.5 mu g DEHA day-1. therefore. June 2003. 33 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.61-4 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION MELT TEMPERATURE ON PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE PVC Rabinovitch E B PolyOne Corp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. but further temperature increase could cause agglomeration and surface roughness. Paseiro-Losada P Santiago de Compostela. The greying lead derivatives formed through the UV-induced photoreduction of lead stabilisers assisted by titanium dioxide could not be converted into pinking and were readily thermooxidised in environmental conditions into colourless compounds. reduced brittleness temperature and very slight improvement in compression set.6. p.596-606 DETERMINATION OF BISPHENOL A IN. and the relationship of the latter with the processing morphology were also examined. p. Sakai H. EUROPEAN UNION. Niigata Prefectural Research Laboratory for Health & Environment Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over one week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticisers and the results are compared with those obtained in 1999. dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. observed after the accelerated tests or after weathering. DEHP is detected at 6-675 ng g-1 in 62 of 63 meals.891698 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 45 . Girod N.54-60 CONFIRMING THE PINKING MECHANISM OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J.6 ng g-1 for each plasticiser. Dipropyl. PVC STRETCH FILM USED FOR FOOD PACKAGING Lopez-Cervantes J. Extrudate gloss increased with an increase of the extrusion melt temperature. Lower levels of DEHA and DINP also decrease. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Spriet C CNEP. The effect of thermal history on surface characteristics of the extrudate. the average daily intake is 1338 mu g day-1. No. Major components were identified by FTIR and horizontal attenuated total reflectance.References and Abstracts Item 11 Food Additives and Contaminants 20. Parmeland G.892690 Item 12 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. Huntsman Tioxide The pinking observed after four years of weathering in the mild oceanic conditions of West France or after accelerated testing was definitively assigned to the formation of alpha-chloropolyenes in the transconfiguration in the bulk layers of titanium dioxidepigmented PVC profiles. AND ITS MIGRATION FROM. 9 refs. The analytical procedure for this followup study is essentially the same as in the previous one. significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Those of ATBC are also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake is 1228 mu g day-1. dipentyl. Macdonald N.317-24 ESTIMATED DAILY INTAKE OF PLASTICIZERS IN 1-WEEK DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLES FOLLOWING REGULATION OF DEPH-CONTAINING PVC GLOVES IN JAPAN Tsumura Y.Universidad The bisphenol A contents of PVC stretch films for food packaging were investigated. 21 refs. tensile properties. The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling film or sausage packaging. tear strength.

3D X-ray computed microtomography (muCT) enables the non-destructive imaging of multiple slices of a sample. 3D imageprocessing tools to extract structural parameters quantifying the internal structure of foams are described. Bergounhon P. 2003.3. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Zhang C Shanghai. The synergistic effect of the fillers on HCl uptake was also investigated as was the influence of the fillers on the mechanical properties and oxygen index of the plasticised PVC.10A. No.3. only a minor increase in the amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was observed and the weight loss after 98 days was under 1%. A plasticised PVC was compounded with several fillers (lithium carbonate and various calcium carbonates). A marked increase in the hydrolysis rate of PCL-PC and almost complete depletion of PCL-PC from the blend was observed when the ageing temp.451-8 NEW PVC MATERIALS FOR MEDICAL Accession no. No. Shanghai Chloralkali Chemical Co. Mechanochemical modification thus provided an effective route for the improvement of the flame retardant and mechanical properties of flame retardant-filled PVC.890229 46 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . the final hydrolysis product of PCL-PC. which resulted in a marked increase in the limiting oxygen index.891296 Item 17 Polymer Degradation and Stability 80. The application of 3D synchrotron radiation for the characterisation of foam samples is presented. p. was raised to 100C. and the EB of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. No. Microscopy. Yong Ning Sichuan. images only the surface of samples. p. Even when the ageing temp. CHINA Accession no.5. The milling was shown to result in chemical bonding between PVC and ZB or ZB-AH. impact and yield strengths. was increased to 70C. was detected in the GC-MS chromatograms and the weight loss was negligible. UV spectroscopic and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy results showed that mechanochemical modification of ZB and ZB-ATH effectively suppressed the release of aromatic compounds in PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends during burning. Atofina A three-dimensional and high-resolution quantitative image technique is proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. CHINA APPLICATIONS . SCANDINAVIA. Very few changes in the material or its surface composition were observed for 98 days at 37C in water or phosphate buffer. while only a trace amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid. Peres R.A37-43 THREE-DIMENSIONAL QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYMER FOAMS FROM SYNCHROTRON RADIATION X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY Elmoutaounakkil A. The fillers were found to be effective as HCl absorbers.Royal Institute of Technology A medical-grade PVC plasticised with polycaprolactonepolycarbonate(PCL-PC) was subjected to aqueous environments at different temps. Changes in the surface composition were followed by FTIR. though. and the effects of these fillers on the generation of HCl during the combustion of PVC investigated.References and Abstracts Item 15 Polymer Testing 22. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. SWEDEN. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. particularly when used in combination. increasing the interfacial interaction of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends.891587 Item 16 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 89.University The effect of the high-energy mechanical milling of a mixture of PVC with zinc borate(ZB) or ZB-aluminium trihydrate(ATH) on the flame retardant and mechanical properties of ZB. 2003. 21st May 2003.539-43 EFFECT OF CACO3/LICO3 ON THE HCL GENERATION OF PVC DURING COMBUSTION Zhu S.753-62 MECHANOCHEMICAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE FLAME-RETARDANT AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ZINC BORATE-ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Hong Pi. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy(GC-MS) were used to determine the release profile during ageing. 27 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. which is the conventional method of investigation of foams. p. After a brief description of the imaging system.RELEASE PROFILE OF PVC/ POLYCAPROLACTONE-POLYCARBONATE AGED IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS Hakkarainen M Sweden. 9 refs. No. Peyrin F ESRF.Ltd. This approach provides a tool to study the relationships between the foam microstructures and their physical properties. EUROPEAN UNION. Shaoyun Guo. FRANCE. Results of this 3D quantitative image analysis on various types of plasticised PVC foams are presented. 31 refs. which acted as HCl absorbers. Fuchs G.Jiao Tong University. 18th July 2003. It is a powerful technique for the examination of porous and multiphase materials. p.and ZB-ATH-filled PVC was studied. Zhang Y. 19 refs.891234 Item 18 Journal of Physics D 36.

X. This would require the recycling of an additional 350. while development work continues.1. No. USA BELGIUM. 2003.263-7 PROGRESS IN PVC FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING Buhl R EVC Belgium SA/NV The PVC industry is actively involved in the development of recycling solutions for contaminated mixed plastics waste streams with a high PVC content. (ACS. the phenomenon of viscosity increase with time. 14 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.Spring 2003. VISCOSITY AGING. March 2003.26-31 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUSIONFOAMED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F. Polymer Diagnostics Inc. Harrell E R Akron.1. the mechanism involves de-agglomeration.State University The mechanical properties of extrusion-foamed neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood-flour composites using endothermic and exothermic chemical foaming agents (CFAs) are characterised. This paper provides an overview of the projects under investigation and the results obtained so far. May 2003. Akron. rate and mechanisms of deterioration of model and naturally aged PVC containing diethylhexyl phthalate were examined during thermal ageing in various environments.. Weight loss was used to quantify loss of diethylhexyl phthalate. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. A comparison between batch microcellular processing and extrusion foam processing is made. EUROPEAN UNION. 19 refs. using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate as plasticizer. pp. Matuana L M Michigan.Rubber Div. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.890019 Item 20 ENDS Report No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.20-1 PVC INDUSTRY RAISES THE BAR ON RECYCLING According to the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. USA Accession no. No. p. regardless of the chemical foaming agent type. p. 2003. Michigan. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Ca.References and Abstracts Item 19 163rd ACS Rubber Division Meeting . the PVC industry in Europe is hoping to achieve a recycling rate of 10 to 15% for post-consumer waste by 2010. No. by particle size distribution analysis and by scanning electron microscopy. FTIR to quantify concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate at surfaces and optical densitometry to examine darkening of samples. p.889640 Item 22 Polymer Degradation and Stability 81.) Mechanisms of viscosity-ageing.National Museum The extent. In addition. Potential technologies for achieving this goal are tested at present at pilot scale. 10 refs. while in a resin containing non-friable agglomerates. which demonstrates that foams with very fine cells (microcellular processed) exhibit better impact strength than foams with larger cells (extrusion processed with CFAs). WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held San Francisco. DENMARK. 28cm.27. MECHANISMS AND RESIN TYPES Nakajima N. Correlations were made between the rate and extent of deterioration of plasticised PVC and the migration and loss of diethylhexyl phthalate. p. but that this reduction is not statistically significant for the composites. Paper 77.000 tonnes of PVC. 2003.University.4.889784 Item 21 Polimery 48. SCANDINAVIA. 28th-30th April 2003. Accession no. a small proportion of ultra fine particles dissolved in the plasticizer. Oh.Technological University. A run-down of recycling technologies in the latest report of Vinyl 2010 indicates that the industry has much to do to meet this target.340.000 to 600. 9 refs. The specific elongation at break (ductility) of the samples is improved by foaming while the opposite trend is observed for the tensile strength and modulus of the samples. ACS Rubber Division. experimental results indicate that foaming reduces Izod impact resistance of both neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood/flour composites.889245 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 47 . O12 RHEOLOGY OF PVC PLASTISOL .. of PVC resins for plastisol applications was investigated for resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates. It was found that in a resin containing friable agglomerates.29-36 EFFECT OF INDOOR CLIMATE ON THE RATE AND DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Shashoua Y R Denmark.889469 Item 23 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9.

into value Accession no. CD-ROM. light colour that is dependent on the dominant colour in the recycled feedstock. TURKEY added materials without the use of pre-made compatibilisers. Elk Grove Village. Ege. pp. 012 VINYLOOP(R). 8th-11th Sept. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. But it is especially efficient in the recovery of PVC from products in which the compound is intimately linked with other materials. Japan. Belgium. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Trials at the PTC are available as part of commercialisation from the primary licensee. The Vinyloop(r) process is valid for all types of PVC composites. wire and cable. USA Accession no.2002. 3 refs.4. polymers are subjected to shear and compression that cause changes in their structure via mechanochemistry. we aimed to investigate the processing of municipal waste plastics (MWP) in presence of conventional and non-conventional catalysts in a refinery stream.000 tons/year) was done in February 2002 in Ferrara (Italy). Karayildirim T. Vrije University. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. CD-ROM. Brussels. 012 A NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY: SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION (S3P) Khait K.Research Assn. showed the S3P made materials to have good processability and improved physical properties over conventionally recycled mixtures. PP.2002. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H.Free University. If pellets are required. Belgium. Mixed-colour.4. Future research will demonstrate that this technology is suitable for the recycling of waste streams other than the above-mentioned streams. Material Sciences Corporation. 0 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Paper A47 pp. 2 refs. Yanik J. the powder can be pelletised without the loss of physical properties. modified with intensive cooling and special elements. 2002.) and directly fit for the target applications (thanks to the possibility to complete the formulation within the process). by Berstorff.Free University. precipitation of a pure PVC compound with unique characteristics (homogeneity. Brussels. Japan. DHC-8) was carried out to obtain liquid fuel. The PTC has two complete lines on both laboratory and production scales for demonstrating this environmentally friendly technology.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) A new recycling technology called Solid-State Shear Pulverisation (S3P) is under continuing development at the Polymer Technology Centre (PTC) at Northwestern University. The pulveriser is based on a co-rotating twinscrew extruder. 012 CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTICS TO FUELS Karagoz S.889105 48 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .. This non-melting process takes place in a pulveriser. Crucifix P. the materials were injection moulded into ASTM test bars.and pre-consumer plastics (HDPE.889126 Item 25 ISFR 2002. PVC. such as carpets. The resultant powder is a homogeneous. directly from powder. grain size distribution. Belgium. 2002. Since Solvay patented Vinyloop(r) in 1998. Japan. The three main steps of the process are: selective dissolution of the PVC compound in a mixture of solvents completely recycled within the process.Research Assn. Vrije University.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions have considerable interest in feedstock recycling. 2002. Ozkan A R Dokuz Eylul University. CD-ROM. PS. separation of the non soluble materials.References and Abstracts Item 24 ISFR 2002. Riddick E G Northwestern University (Brussels. the hydrocracking of MWP in vacuum gas oil (VGO) over metal loaded active carbon and conventional acidic catalysts (HSZM-5. and their blends. EUROPEAN UNION. NETHERLANDS.2002.889116 Item 26 ISFR 2002. Vrije University. Belgium. 8th-11th Sept. according to ASTM methods. Testing. Brussels. During pulverisation.. For this purpose. Illinois. 8th-11th Sept. Canada and Japan will be presented during the conference. commingled plastic feedstock in the form of flakes or chips is continuously converted to a powder of different particle size and particle size distribution. USA. LDPE.Research Assn. Paper A35.. The S3P-made powders are meltprocessable by all conventional plastic fabrication techniques. a pilot Plant has been operated in Brussels. After pulverisation. and the start-up of the first industrial facility (10. Belgium. Yernaux J M SOLVAY SA (Brussels. PET). The quality of the regenerated PVC compound is such that it can be reused in most of the applications of the virgin one. Germany.Free University. In this study. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Results of this industrial operation and the other projects in Europe.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Vinyloop(r) is an original recycling process for regenerating PVC waste materials into a new precipitated PVC compound. Belgium. Paper A58 pp.University (Brussels. The goal of this work was to demonstrate that S3P can recycle a wide range of post.4. and automotive waste.

4 refs.2002. pp.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dehalogenation process is an essential process in waste plastic recycling technology. which also revealed very high activity for the dehydrohalogenation of the organic halogenated compounds. Dechlorination was induced completely and polyene product was formed from PVC under high pressure and high temperature. We developed the catalytic process for the dehalogenation of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds formed after the pyrolysis of PVC and brominated flame retardant plastic (HIPS). Complete dechlorination of PVC could be achieved in hot water under the conditions of 19. Based on the laboratory scale study. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC WITH CONTROLLED STRUCTURE UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN HOT WATER Endo K. The first approach is to develop dehalogenation catalysts for the catalytic dehydrochlorination of organic chlorine compounds from PVC-containing mixed plastic-derived oil in a fixed bed flow type reactor. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. and HCl concentration decreased to only 1 ppm. two different approaches have been made to clarify the effectiveness of our proposed catalytic dehalogenation process using various iron oxides and calcium carbonate as catalyst/sorbent. The developed Ca-C sorbent was successfully used for the removal of organic and inorganic chlorine content from the mixed model plastic and municipal waste plastic degradation.Free University.4. Paper A18. This is a twostage process. Emori N Osaka. Belgium.3 MPa and 300 deg.Free University.2002. Paper A26. Murata K Okayama. 3 refs. pp. Belgium.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dechlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) prepared by polymerisation of vinyl chloride (VC) with butyllithium (BuLi) was investigated under the conditions of high pressure and high temperature water. Muto A. 2002.University (Brussels. During dehydrohalogenation.888798 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 49 . Vrije University. The second approach is to apply the catalysts in the first approach to the degradation of chlorinated (PVC) and brominated (brominated flame retardant containing PS) mixed plastics directly in order to produce halogen free oil. Vrije University. the iron and calcium based catalysts were transformed into their corresponding halides. CD-ROM.Research Assn. However. 8th-11th Sept. Paper A15. Kusaba T. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. 2002. 3 refs. Kusaba T. the degradation of 3P/PVC with Ca-C completely removed all organic chlorine and HCl. the thermal degradation of municipal waste plastic (MWP) showed the presence of 1200 ppm chlorine in liquid products and 40 ppm in water trap.2.4. 8th-11th Sept. Muto A.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Novel carbon composite of calcium carbonate sorbent (Ca-C) was developed and utilized in a dechlorination process during the degradation of municipal and mixed model waste plastics (PE/PP/PS(3P)/PVC). Belgium. 153 kg) and MWP (50 kg) was carried out using Ca-C in a large-scale pilot plant (250 kg/batch/12 h). pp. CD-ROM. Belgium. Brussels. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC CONTAINING WASTE PLASTIC DERIVED OIL USING CALCIUM BASED SORBENT Bhaskar T. the degradation of both model waste plastics (3P (150)/PVC (3). Kaneko J.University (Brussels. Belgium. Uddin Md A.Research Assn. Vrije University. Sakata Y Okayama. The polymers obtained from polymerisation of VC with the BuLi revealed different decomposition behaviour from that obtained with radical initiator such as lauryl peroxide.C.2002. When Ca-C (8g) was Accession no. The results of the above studies confirmed that the halogenated hydrocarbons were dehydrohalogenated to their corresponding alkenes and hydrogen halides over iron oxide and calcium carbonate catalysts/sorbents. Japan. 2002. The thermal degradation liquid products from the 3P/PVC mixture contained 380 ppm of chlorine (organic) and water trap contains about 6100 ppm of HCl. 8th-11th Sept.City University (Brussels. Brussels. Brussels. Japan.Free University.889096 Item 28 ISFR 2002. This was attributed to the different chemical structure of the sample PVC.References and Abstracts Item 27 ISFR 2002. organic chlorine content decreased to 290 ppm.Research Assn. CD-ROM. JAPAN Accession no. consisting of plastic degradation at 430 C and dechlorination by Ca-C at 350 C. JAPAN used during MWP pyrolysis. In this study.888801 Item 29 ISFR 2002. 012 DEHALOGENATION OF PLASTIC DERIVED OIL: A KEY TECHNOLOGY FOR FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING OF WASTE PLASTICS BY PYROLYSIS Sakata Y. Belgium. Uddin Md A. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Kaneko J. Bhaskar T. Japan. On the other hand. JAPAN Accession no.

888791 Item 32 Plasmas and Polymers 8. No.4. analysis of DEHP in solution was carried out by GC using an internal standard. polypropylene (PP). Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Various tribocharging devices (cyclones. a new process for the utilization of plastics wastes in coking plants) as well as recycling of Accession no.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The paper analyzes the role of electrostatic separation in the processing of plastics wastes. 8th-11th Sept.References and Abstracts Item 30 ISFR 2002. as well as the surrounding ambient conditions during separation.2002. Belgium.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The state of plastics recycling in Poland is presented and the results of research projects developed in this Institute concerning feedstock recycling of mixed plastics (KARBOTERM. Machowska Z. Rangel E C UNESP. Polaczek J. 0 refs. Paper A08. Corona-electrostatic separation is effectively used for the removal of nonferrous contaminants (copper. emphasizing the need of controlling the state of particle surface prior to processing. p. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Kayama M E. Parana. 2002. with less than 3-5% losses. pp. Vrije University. BRAZIL Accession no. Belgium. Gauvrit J-Y. March 2003. and polystyrene (PS).888416 Item 34 Materie Plastiche ed Elastomeri 67. Taverdet J-L. The factors that influence the efficiency of contact and/or frictional charging are examined. Samples exposed for the longest time remained highly hydrophilic.Research Assn. Kowalska E. Researches are in progress for the development of new applications and the optimization of existing technologies. Jeziorska R. Paper A07. Extensively discussed in the main section of the paper. Brussels. The treatment involved soaking the PVC film in n-heptane followed by drying.Free University. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. as demonstrated by the laboratory experiments cited in the paper. pp. No. used to simulate contact with food.Research Assn.Free University. 21 refs. An experimental design was developed in order to optimise the process parameters of time and temperature of soaking.4.4. CD-ROM. 8th-11th Sept.224-5 Italian OPTIMISED COMPOUNDING Details are given of the Quantec range of extruders developed by Coperion Buss for use in PVC compounding.5. Japan. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Industrial Chemistry Research Institute (Brussels. No. Wielgosz Z Warsaw.University. Cruz N C. EASTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Pelka J. Brussels. p. polyethylene (PE).800 s) and the effect of exposure time on the composition. A REVIEW Dascalescu L Institut Universitaire de Technologie (Brussels. roughness and wettability of the PVC sheets investigated. Honda R Y. can be obtained with commercial electrostatic separators. Belgium. triboelectrostatic separation can then be employed for the recovery of the various sorts of plastics contained in multi-resin wastes. WESTERN EUROPE polyolefins. The physical significance of the results is discussed. aluminum) from the granulated plastics scraps.1-11 HYDROPHILIZATION OF PVC SURFACES BY ARGON PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION Bento W C A. Japan. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. PVC and PETP (some of which have been successfully evaluated under industrial conditions). FRANCE.670-5 TREATMENT OF PLASTICIZED PVC TO REDUCE PLASTICIZER/SOLVENT MIGRATION: OPTIMIZATION WITH AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fugit J-L. rotating tubes) can be employed for the electrostatic separation of plastics. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002. Vrije University. CD-ROM.Universidade Federal Sheets of PVC were subjected to argon plasma immersion ion implantation over various exposure times (from 900 to 10. Lanteri P Saint Etienne. Abramowicz A.888640 Item 33 Polymer International 52. May 2003. and time and temperature of drying.University A treatment to reduce mass transfer between PVC film plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and a liquid. fluidize beds. Belgium. 24 refs. FRANCE. 012 PLASTICS RECYCLING IN POLAND Obloj-Muzaj M. The reviewed industry applications mainly concern the five most commonly used plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET).2002.888792 Item 31 ISFR 2002. April 2002.1. Villeurbanne. POLAND Accession no. was investigated. 012 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF PLASTICS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES. Schreiner W H. 21 refs. 50 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION. Extract contents in excess of 99%. It was found that the wettability of samples increased with surface treatment and that the hydrophobic character of samples treated for shorter periods recovered either partially or completely.

Sci. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Washington. GERMANY.. ACS.885901 Item 38 Polymer 44.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite in the presence of free-radical initiators.1. such as AIBN. No.1312-3. Mechanical properties were examined. The presence of calcium carbonate in VC suspension polymerisation system was found to influence the pressure/temp.2002. Weng Zhi-xue Zhejiang. 10 refs. Volume 43. p2263-9 WETCHEMICAL SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICIZED PVC.887783 Item 35 European Polymer Journal 39.4. April 2003. The absorption of VC on calcium carbonate was shown to increase with increase of the partial pressure of VC up to the saturation absorption and the absorption of VC on nanoscale calcium carbonate was greater than that of light-grade calcium carbonate at the same temp.1001-6 ABSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF VINYL CHLORIDE/CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE/CONVERSION RELATIONSHIP FOR VINYL CHLORIDE SUSPENSION POLYMERIZATION IN THE PRESENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE Bao Yong-zhong. 2003.K.& Technology Plasticised PVC was surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of PVC by sulphide ions in aqueous media in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst. p. USA Accession no. p. Aguilar-Solis C. 18th-22nd Aug.50 U. SPAIN. water and polymer phases. No. EUROPEAN UNION.8. Ma. Reinecke H CSIC Surface modification of polyvinyl chloride films. Fall 2002.of Polymer Chemistry) Polyvinyl chloride-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared either by in-situ suspension polymerisation using initiator. 31 refs. Mijangos C. Herrero M.Div.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide and water mixtures.of Polymer Chemistry. Exfoliated nanocomposites Accession no. 5 refs. was examined using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 2002. Based on the absorption of VC on calcium carbonate and VC distribution in vapour. haemolysis assay and whole-blood clotting time measurements.204-10 PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF SULFIDE-SUBSTITUTED PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AS A BIOMATERIAL Lakshmi S.886428 Item 37 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 65B.887470 Item 36 Polymer Preprints. It was found that monomer conversion was low when the nanocomposites were prepared using initiatormodified montmorillonite.for Med.University (ACS. CHINA Accession no. No. Zhang Li-feng. Tiemblo P. No. p. 19 refs.University The absorption of vinyl chloride(VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nanoscale calcium carbonate was shown to obey the Langmuir isothermal equation in VC/calcium carbonate/water system. a modified model to represent the PTC relationship of VC suspension polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate was proposed. Huang X.References and Abstracts COPERION BUSS AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Brittain W J Akron. The modified PVC was sterilised by steam autoclaving and gamma irradiation and subjected to plasticiser extraction. both plasticised and unplasticised. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. 012 POLYMER-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES BY SUSPENSION AND EMULSION POLYMERIZATIONS: PVC-MMT NANOCOMPOSITES Xu Y. Number 2. CHARACTERIZATION BY FTIR-ATR AND RAMAN MICROSCOPY Reyes-Labarta J.5. and partial pressure of VC. May 2003. 28cm./ conversion(PTC) relationship of the reaction system. Surface selectivity and degree of modification was found to depend on reaction time. and compared.885767 Item 39 Modern Plastics International 33. Malaba D. INDIA Accession no. Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 2003. Papers presented at the ACS Meeting held Boston. DC. WESTERN EUROPE were obtained in the presence of both the initiator. SEM. and the amount of dioctyl phthalate plasticiser leached out during the reaction were determined. Reaction kinetics. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Surfaces were evaluated by contact angle measurements. FIRM DEVELOPS POLYMER-SPECIFIC COLOR MASTERBATCH FOR RIGID PVC Colvin R © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 51 . Huang Zhi-ming.Div. cell culture studies. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

such as mechanical recycling and energy recovery. No. the most common PVC plasticiser. Colour Tone Masterbatch claims universal and polymer-specific masterbatches for adding colour to flexible PVC have never worked reliably in rigid PVC.Div. A REMARKABLE NEW CLASS OF NONMETALLIC ADDITIVES FOR PVC Starnes W H. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. dubbed Vynacol.881-2. Div. EUROPEAN UNION. 2 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. International Biodeterioration Research Group A report is presented of studies undertaken by the Plastics Protection Working Group of the International Biodeterioration Research Group to evaluate the nutrient salts agar method as a technique for determining the effectiveness of fungicides in PVC films. EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. UK. Proceedings of a conference held Dublin. April 2002. ACS.National Testing & Research Institute The results are reported of an investigation into changes in the properties of PVC flooring during their service life as a result of ageing and the influence of these changes on methods of recycling. Based on a study by Poon. 2003. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.883616 Item 44 Polymer Preprints. 012 PVC STABILIZATION DURING STERILIZATION WITH ELECTRON BEAM Brunella V.of Polymer Chemistry.884068 Item 43 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79.419-20 Spanish PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE PLASTICS AGAINST FUNGAL ATTACK Bessems E Akzo Nobel Chemicals. Paper 18. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.3. A case in point is the ongoing risk assessment into DEHP. NETHERLANDS.. p. A new study carried out in the US by Wolfe suggests that rats are only affected at much higher dosages of 360mg per kg of body weight. Washington. COLOURTONE MASTERBATCH LTD. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2nd-3rd April 2003. and the large stabilising effect of bis(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidised soya bean (ESBO) is shown. 29 cm. but with poor stabilising effect. GERMANY. which makes it possible to have materials stable during sterilisation by mixing PVC with HP and ESBO. Colour Tone has patented the masterbatch technology. Bonomi S. ITALY.College of William & Mary (ACS. 10 refs. Rapra Technology Ltd. 19 refs. plasticiser depletion. No. April 2003. Other plasticisers have been employed. Shawbury. DC.3. Il.. Number 2. EUROPEAN UNION. No.18 SOFT LANDING Reade L The pressure on plasticisers may be waning. EUROPEAN UNION. 2003. secondary emission products and energy recovery. DEHP is thought to cause reproductive effects in rats at exposure levels of 3. Volume 42.885222 Item 40 European Plastics News 30. The plasticiser is based on sorbitol. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.885155 Item 41 Medical Polymers 2003.550. Researchers at the Dutch agricultural research institute Ato are close to commercialising a plasticiser derived from natural products. Not all the additives used for PVC biomaterials have the same stabilising effect on them during sterilisation.2001. p. p. Jakubowicz I. 2001. Moves to restrict its use in Europe may soon be relaxed.) The effects of different plasticisers during sterilisation and ageing of PVC medical devices are reported. Zaikov V G Williamsburg.159-66. Bernardi F.. a relatively cheap raw material that is used in the food industry. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The results are discussed in terms of stabiliser consumption. SCANDINAVIA. Martinsson L Sweden. 012 HEAT STABILIZATION AND PLASTICIZATION BY ‘PLASTICIZER THIOLS’. p.7mg per kg of body weight. It is targeted at processors who colour in-line or add colour to rigid-PVC compounds. EUROPEAN UNION. Costa L Turin. Bioster SpA (Rapra Technology Ltd.439-48 PVC FLOORINGS AS POST-CONSUMER PRODUCTS FOR MECHANICAL RECYCLING AND ENERGY RECOVERY Yarahmadi N.884474 Item 42 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 83.University. Fall 2001.of Polymer Chemistry) Preliminary results are presented of studies of the use in PVC of materials in which a stabilising sulphhydryl 52 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p. European Vinyls Corp. 26th-30th Aug. 28cm.References and Abstracts A technology said to produce the world’s first polymerspecific colour masterbatch for rigid PVC uses processing aids and lubricants to overcome processability and homogenisation problems related to the resin. Du B. SWEDEN.

References and Abstracts function has been bonded to a plasticiser to form a ‘plasticiser thiol’. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2001. Fall 2001. DC.of Polymer Chemistry) A comparison was made between the mechanisms of action of the PVC costabiliser N-phenyl-3acetylpyrrolidin-2. Volume 42. Fender M Dover Chemical Corp. p. (ACS.4-dione and existing costabilisers. Synergistic performances were observed with combinations of several phosphite esters. It was found that the zinc level was critical for optimisation of the performance of the phosphite blends. Comparison is made with conventional additives.. p. also improved markedly when heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers were replaced with polyphosphites. Washington.Metropolitan University (ACS.2001. 28cm. light stability and plate-out resistance.Div. 28cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. ACS. Allen N S Manchester. Jennings T. UK.883243 Item 45 Polymer Preprints.of Polymer Chemistry) Systematic degradation experiments conducted previously by the author and coworkers with dilute PVC solutions in the presence of a series of stabilisers led to unexpected results which resulted in the conclusion that the main role of PVC stabilisers was blocking the fast hydrogen chloride zip-elimination reaction. The results obtained demonstrated that the performance of short-term costabilisers in calcium/zinc formulations was linked to their ability to complex zinc stearate prior to the initiation of degradation and that this prevented the early formation of prodegradant zinc chloride.of Polymer Chemistry) Highly basic calcium stearates were shown to be superior to neutral or slightly basic grades of calcium stearate for use as secondary heat stabilisers for PVC and to allow for lower use levels of organotin-based heat stabilisers. 2001.Div.of Polymer Chemistry. Div. Chaudhry H. Fall 2001. ACS. Volume 42. such as clarity. The rapid degradation of PVC at the end of the induction period (‘blackening’) could be explained by the reversible blocking mechanism only. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. 2 refs.Div. Fall 2001. 012 PHOSPHITE ESTER COMPOSITIONS FOR PVC COMPOUNDS Stevenson D R. ACS. DC. Number 2.876-7.Div.883240 Item 47 Polymer Preprints.874-5. Volume 42. Il. efficient PVC stabilisers should react rapidly with propagating species of the unzipping process. ACS. In other words. 4 refs. Minsker or Michell mechanisms were Accession no. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. They offered overall improved economics and weathering performance while retaining processing characteristics and physical properties of the rigid PVC compounds. Washington.. p.of Polymer Chemistry. Hood W. p. USA Accession no. Div. 26th-30th Aug. probably by an ionic mechanism. 28cm.878-9.. USA Accession no. Number 2. EUROPEAN UNION. 2001. Other properties of PVC compounds.872-3. 26th-30th Aug. Volume 42. 26th-30th Aug. whereas this and other observed phenomena of PVC degradation in the presence of stabilisers could not be obtained if the processes claimed by the Frye-Horst. Number 2. The stabilisation and plasticisation of PVC compounds by several plasticiser thiols is discussed. 012 NEW LOOK AT THE MECHANISTIC ACTION OF COSTABILIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Edge M.of Polymer Chemistry. Washington. with the additional benefit of cost effectiveness.883241 Item 46 Polymer Preprints. USA stabilisers with the more environmentally-acceptable organotin primary stabilisers. Harr M E. DC. Il. 012 HIGHLY BASIC CALCIUM STEARATE COMPOSITIONS FOR RIGID PVC Kodali S. 2001. Div. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. 6 refs.of Polymer Chemistry) Complex polyphosphites such as DP12 and DP675 were shown to outperform simple phosphite esters as replacements for heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers for PVC. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago.883239 Item 48 Polymer Preprints. 012 CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF PVC STABILIZATION MECHANISMS IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Ivan B Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ACS. Il. 26th-30th Aug. 2001. Number 2.. 28cm. Jakupca M R Dover Chemical Corp.of Polymer Chemistry.2001. together with the mechanism of stabilisation by these compounds. Washington. The improved synergistic effects of highly basic calcium stearates with low levels of organotin stabilisers should allow for the cost effective replacement of lead-based © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 53 . Div.2001. (ACS. Il. 9 refs. DC. Fall 2001.

Brookfield. Wiebking H E Specialty Minerals Inc. Hage R T Aspen Research Corp. 012 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF IMPACT DURABILITY ON EXTRUDED PLASTIC-WOOD FIBER COMPOSITE LINEALS Arney M S.. Hrncirik J.883238 Item 49 Progress in Rubber. particularly when good exfoliation was achieved. The flexural modulus increased with increasing filler and decreasing impact modifier contents. CD-ROM. 2002. CD-ROM. 012 MODIFIED CLAY IN POLYVINYLCHLORIDE (PVC) Kalendova A.0 mm. Brookfield. FEA was also used to simulate Rosenheim impact (dropped sphere) testing and impact testing of decking.. (SPE) Two commercial plastic-wood composites. Nanocomposites I. pp.93-116 RECYCLING OF GLASS FABRIC COATED BY POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Takahashi T. 4 refs. p. 15 refs. Ct. In the absence of bonding. using an instrumented tester to establish the drop height which gave comparable damage to that sustained by wood sash lineals. The addition of hydrotalcite and zinc stearate to the composites was also examined in an attempt to inhibit the generation of hydrogen chloride gas generated during moulding. pp. Simonik J Zlin. Ca. Session W12Composites. 5th-9th May 2002.882324 Item 52 ANTEC 2002. Kovarova L. It was concluded that the mechanical properties could be enhanced and the cost Accession no. Malac J.5. Joint with Engineering Properties and Structure. the abrasion resistance of the in nanocomposite was not adversely affected. EASTERN EUROPE. Paper 596. USA Accession no.882331 54 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 5th-9th May 2002.Tomas Bata University (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites were prepared by blending PVC with two different montmorillonites and plasticisers of different molecular weights. Paper 571. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. using a reciprocating screw blender. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. The impact properties were improved by increasing the concentrations of the impact modifier and the sub-micron calcium carbonate. Brookfield. HUNGARY Accession no.. 12 refs. and of viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis. low temperature impact and flexural modulus). The experimental measured force-time relationships were used with finite element analysis (FEA) to establish that the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact was approximately 2. The effects of kneading history of the composites and of UV irradiation on hydrogen chloride gas generation was also examined and the addition of hydrotalcite established as an effective means of recycling the composites. Ct. CD-ROM. pp.883035 Item 50 ANTEC 2002. Vinyl Composites. Session W13Composites. SPE. Malac Z. one consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) containing 60% fibre and the other of polyolefin with 70% fibre. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.5.. Extrusions for building applications were subjected to Gardner drop dart impact testing. Paper 589. Vaculik J. Plastics and Recycling Technology 19. SPE.Institute of Technology The results are reported of an investigation carried out to establish a technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric by means of a safe and facile procedure. 5th-9th May 2002. The composite specimens were obtained by compression moulding and injection moulding and their mechanical properties determined by tensile and flexural testing.2. Bai R. were characterised by measurements of tensile and compressive properties.07-3 micrometre) and 0-8 phr acrylic impact modifier was characterised by measurement of mechanical properties (notched Izod and falling weight impact.References and Abstracts the major reactions in the course of stabilisation of PVC. JAPAN Item 51 ANTEC 2002.. 2002. 2003. Kyoto. (SPE) Rigid poly(vinyl chloride) containing 0-20 phr of calcium carbonate (size range 0. Ca.. Other Reinforcements in Composites II. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced heat resistance compared with PVC. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. Ct. Ca.5. the abrasion resistance was decreased. 012 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SIZE AND LOADING LEVEL ON THE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF RIGID PVC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING VARYING AMOUNTS OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER Bryant W S. Kimura T Shimane. When significant bonding occurred between the matrix and the clay. An increase in Young’s modulus was obtained. No. 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.University. SPE. 6 refs.

012 PVC/WOOD FLOUR COMPOSITES COMPATIBILIZED WITH CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE Guffey V O. the tensile strength.. 2002. USA Accession no. The compositions also contained lubricants. Coahuila.Technological University (SPE) Blends of poly(vinyl chloride) with wood flour. The performance advantages resulting from this switch are considered with particular attention to the greater saponification resistance of these plasticisers and their much reduced tendency to migrate. The addition of chlorinated polyethylene significantly enhanced the processability of Accession no. CD-ROM. with and without prior treatment of the fillers by 1-3% N-(-2aminoethyl)-3 aminopropyl trimethoxy silane coupling agent. Ca. No. USA Accession no.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. March-April 2003. elastic modulus and viscosity increased. Reductions in shear stress and viscosity were also obtained. pp. 5th-9th May 2002. BAYER CHEMICALS CORP. SPE. 14 refs.4. 25 refs. SPE. Vinyl Composites. 5th-9th May 2002.. Vinyl Composites. 13 refs. CD-ROM. Ct.Universidad Autonoma (SPE) Composites were prepared using plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) and 20-40 wt% cellulosic fillers. MEXICO the composites. EUROPEAN UNION. Mengeloglu F Michigan. 8 refs. pp.882304 Item 55 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (SPE) Chlorinated polyethylene was evaluated as a compatibiliser for poly(vinyl chloride) composites containing 25% or 40% wood flour. Ct. p. Following blending. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. and acrylic foam modifier were extruded using a single screw extruder.. Brookfield.4 kg/cu m were successfully produced with no CFA addition. 012 AMINOSILANE SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC FILLERS: COMPOSITE PREPARATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. The tensile modulus increased with reducing filler particle size.48-9 PVC PLASTICIZER ADDS VALUE TO WATERBEDS The replacement of the diethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP)plasticised PVC film in Akva Waterbeds’ water mattresses with PVC plasticised with Bayer Chemicals’ Mesamoll phenol alkyl sulphonate is discussed. 2002. Jimenez-Valdes L L Coahuila. particularly at low filler concentrations. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. with reduced melt fracture and improved surface quality of extruded samples.References and Abstracts decreased by reducing the content of expensive impact modifiers and by using ultrafine fillers.882303 Item 56 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5.. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. 2002. pp. 5th-9th May 2002. A quadratic response model was used to evaluate the influences of wood moisture content (3-12%).882306 Item 53 ANTEC 2002. Brookfield.5.2. Paper 570. particularly when using low chlorine polymers. a stabiliser and a processing aid. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Filler dispersion was assessed by electron and optical microscopy. SPE.882305 Item 54 ANTEC 2002. chemical foaming agent (CFA). Ca. Paper 568. and measurements of mechanical and rheological properties. whilst the impact resistance decreased. Foaming was strongly dependent upon the presence of the acrylic foam modifier and the die temperature. the composites were characterised by rheology studies and measurements of melt strength. The fillers were wood flour.6. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. giving improvements in melt strength and elongation at break. Paper 569.. The composites were characterised by dynamic mechanical analysis. Brookfield. The lowest densities were achieved using 7-10 phr modifier and die temperatures at low as 170 C. Accession no. palm and lecheguilla. With increasing filler concentration.. and foams with densities as low as 0. 012 MOISTURE AS A FOAMING AGENT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITE FOAMS Matuana L M.and DEHP-plasticised PVC films. Vinyl Composites. additive additions and die temperature (170-210 C) on the density of the resulting foam. GERMANY.882253 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 55 . Session W7Vinyl Plastics. Ca. No synergism was observed between the CFA and the wood moisture content. Treatment of the filler with aminosilane increased the toughness. Ct. and also the impact resistance. Data are given on the stability of Mesamoll and phthalate plasticisers in terms of saponification and hydrolysis and on the change in EB with time of Mesamoll. CD-ROM.. AKVA WATERBEDS APS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

Cu2O. Elasticdeformation dispersion of roughly ground materials with particle diameter of 1-3 cms. They reduce the mass loss rate and mass loss of the PVC backbone. an unsaturated polyester resin for use in UV-curable powder coatings. Cone calorimetry was carried out at an incident heat flux of 50 kWm-2. It was possible that nano-calcium carbonate was encapsulated by Blendex 338 in the composite. which proves the method of elastic-deformation dispersion as a technique in making possible the effective processing of waste from various PVC materials to obtain fine-particle recycled product with wide possibilities of practical use. was carried out in a single- Accession no. 012 PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.881957 Item 60 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78.2000. TS and EB were also studied. Qiao Xiuying. 21cm. abrasion and scuff resistance. as a coating. UK. The resin has been specially developed for use as a clear topcoat for PVC based resilient flooring. when the material is subjected to the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures. L’Etang A J. The transition metal oxides can change the thermal decomposition behaviour of the PVC.References and Abstracts Item 57 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 26. T/38-40 RECYCLING OF PVC WASTE USING ELASTICDEFORMATION DISPERSION METHOD Akhmetkhanov R M. Courtney J M Strathclyde. Minsker K S Trials are carried out and described. MoO3 and Fe2O3 were investigated. EUROPEAN UNION.349-56 A STUDY OF THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) TREATED WITH METAL OXIDES USING A CONE CALORIMETER AT A HIGH INCIDENT HEAT FLUX Bin Li Harbia. Resin properties.Jiao Tong University The use of nano-calcium carbonate and Blendex 338 impact modifier (a modified ABS with a high rubber content from GE Specialty Chemicals) to improve the mechanical properties of PVC was investigated. CuO. held Krems. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Polymers in Medicine and Surgery.881550 Item 61 International Polymer Science and Technology 30. 2003. and promote char residue formation at the end of flaming. Zhang Yong. 23 refs. peak smoke production rate and total smoke production. The results showed that the four transition metal oxides imparted good flame retardancy and smoke suppression by effectively reducing peak and average heat release rate.882222 Item 58 PIMS 2000.1. is based on the idea of multiple breakdown. 14 refs. It was shown that both the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 could increase the impact strength of PVC and that there was a synergistic toughening effect of the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 on PVC.2. The elastic-deformation dispersion method.177-85. No. 56 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No.2. application parameters and a standard clear formulation are presented. forming a core-shell structure that could account for this synergistic toughening effect.. Austria. 2 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. 2000. Film properties listed include details of chemical. 2002. No. The flexural modulus. 11th-13th Sept. Zhang Yinxi Shanghai. Kadyrov R G. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. triethylhexyl trimellitate and butyltrihexyl citrate. CHINA Accession no. GE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS CHINA where. 30 cm. 18/10/02 UVECOAT 3003 UCB SA Provisional technical information is given for Uvecoat 3003. EUROPEAN UNION.881981 Item 59 Drogenbos. flexural strength.Northeast Forestry University The thermal decomposition. p.3. Plasticisers used were diethylhexyl phthalate. London. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICISER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICISER LEVEL Zhao X B. 2003. and flexibility. The copper oxides were found to be more effective than MoO3 and Fe2O3 in reducing smoke emission in the PVC. pp. IOM Communications Ltd. BELGIUM. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.44 EFFECTS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE NANOPARTICLES AND BLENDEX 338 ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC Chen Ning. it provides flexibility and resistance to chemicals and scratches. FTIR was used to monitor surface chemistry. p. the flame retardancy and the smoke emission behaviour of PVC formulations containing transition metal oxides.University (Institute of Materials) Three types of plasticised PVC sheet were investigated for blood compatibility using fibrinogen adsorption. Paper 19.

pp. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 24 refs. Marquette. p. No. and the influence of these on the particle fineness and specific surface of the recycled properties is examined. FRANCE. thereby confirming the barrier properties as a mechanism by which these materials functioned. Hashimoto K Kanagawa. 2003. and the properties and applications of these sheets are examined.879921 Item 65 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. The influence of additives (calcium stearate. No. No. dioctyl phthalate and clay were studied by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and examination of the carbon(C1s).2. 2003. No. In this initial period.Technische Universitat Raman spectroscopy was used to study the thermal degradation of PVC.879813 Item 66 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. 2003. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Academy of Science & Technology.880395 Item 63 Polymer Science Series A 44. p. Dongyan Wang.881460 Item 62 Polymers and Polymer Composites 11.880107 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 57 . rate of loading of the initial raw material and the screw speed. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. ONDEX. Wilhelm P Schiller M Graz. It was Accession no. 4 refs. Nakajima A. It was found that most of the plasticised PVC systems were homogeneous in the temperature interval ranging from the melting point of the plasticiser to 420K and that dissolution of the plasticised systems was accompanied by an exothermic effect at high PVC concentrations and an endothermic effect in the case of dilute PVC solutions.253-6 SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE DIOXINS EMISSION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) INCINERATION Ren-De Sun. pressure. Irie H. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM.3. Comparison was made with the results of previous studies of PS-clay and PMMA-clay nanocomposites in which the clay was shown to migrate to the surface as the temperature increased and the polymer degraded.References and Abstracts screw rotary disperser designed at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. AUSTRIA. chlorine(C12p) and oxygen(O1s) spectra. Watanabe T. The presence of the clay did retard the chain-stripping degradation of the PVC and the enhanced char formation accounted for the observation of enrichment of carbon. EUROPEAN UNION. For PVC-clay nanocomposites. Nov. including cloud point and thermomechanical measurements.123-132 DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH DIFFERENT ADDITIVES STUDIES BY MICRO RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Gupper A. 2002. p.4. p.2. Jianqi Wang Beijing. CHINA.25 French BIORIENTED PVC SHEETS FOR IMPROVED PROPERTIES Gouin F Extrusion and biaxial orientation processes used by Solvay subsidiary Ondex in the manufacture of PVC sheets are described.University The effect of addition of calcium carbonate on the emission of dioxins from PVC incineration was investigated. Nishikawa T. No. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy.2002.45).2. Somova T V Ural. No. Intensity enhancements of vibrations belonging to conjugated double bond sequences in the corresponding spectra allowed for the detection at the very first stage. RUSSIA Item 64 Plastiques et Elastomeres Magazine 54. the surface at high temperatures was dominated by carbon and not the oxygen of the clay. Wilkie C A.University The thermal degradation and charring of nanocomposites of PVC. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd. the kinetics of degradation showed a linear increase in conjugated sequences.11. and predicted reaction mechanisms for single components were confirmed. and results are compared with those for unstabilised PVC.Institute of Technology. USA Accession no. Tokyo. A positive development in thermal behaviour was observed upon stabilisation.319-24 XPS INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL DEGRADATION AND CHARRING ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Jianxin Du. 23 refs..State University The phase behaviour and enthalpies of interaction of PVC plasticised with various phthalates at 298K over the entire concentration range were investigated using various techniques. April 2002. p. zinc stearate and zinc chloride) on the resistance of PVC to thermal stress was investigated by the same method. RUSSIA Accession no. 9 refs. Variable parameters were the zone temperatures of the apparatus.1208-15 THERMODYNAMICS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MIXING WITH PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS Safronov A P.

6. 2002. CD-ROM. A possible mechanism for the suppressing effect of calcium carbonate additive is discussed. The study will assess the quality of recovered materials and their use in high-value products.231-40 INFLUENCE OF UV-IRRADIATION ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MODIFIED BY IRON AND COBALT CHLORIDES Kaczmarek H. Meanwhile.879347 Item 69 ANTEC 2002. shrinkage. 5th-9th May 2002. They are then stripped down 58 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Feb.32 ANGLIAN OPENS WINDOW ON PVC RECYCLING Double-glazing giant Anglian Windows has become the first UK company to recycle used PVC window frames into high-end applications. is looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive sectors. UK.. bow. which was simultaneously incorporated in the PVC with calcium carbonate. muscovite and kaolinite) was compared with calcium carbonate as a filler for poly(vinyl Accession no. Ct. EUROPEAN UNION. Oldak D Torun. profile bow. USA Accession no. Ormanji W. Extrusion General. Photodehydrochlorination was retarded in doped PVC (with the exception of PVC with 1% cobalt chloride). 2002. Degradation and Stabilisation. Ca. June/July 2002) EASTERN EUROPE. Brookfield. Session W1Extrusion. Fourteen critical dimensions. It will also consider the economic and environmental impacts of PVC recycling. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 17 refs. and used to establish the tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were simultaneously achieved. Ferric chloride and cobalt chloride were found to hinder main chain scission in PVC in the initial stage of irradiation but to accelerate this reaction during prolonged exposure (10-30 h). pp. Interactive Presentations. UK. Polymer Modifiers & Additives.WASTE & RESOURCES ACTION PROGRAMME EUROPEAN COMMUNITY..879145 Item 70 ANTEC 2002. 012 CHARACTERIZATION OF APPARENT VISCOSITY WITH RESPECT TO A PVC-WOOD FIBRE EXTRUSION PROCESS Bender T M Aspen Research Corp.. The photocrosslinking yield was estimated by separation of insoluble gel. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.. 2003. The photoinduced degradation. SPE. (SPE) Design of experiments methodology was used to determine the maximum variability in viscosity which a poly(vinyl chloride)/wood fibre profile extrusion process was able to tolerate. Toffoli S M Sao Paulo. Quadratic models were created from the dimensional measurements. The PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash were not expected to become environmental contaminants because they were decomposed by the titanium dioxide photocatalyst. oxidation and dehydrochlorination were studied by GPC.337. 012 EFFECT OF PHYLLITE AS A FILLER FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Valera T S. ANGLIAN WINDOWS LTD. Valenzuela-Diaz F R. viscometry. UV visible and FTIR absorption spectroscopies. Session T52Injection Moulding. Kowalonek J. WRAP.5. Ca. Odebrecht (SPE) Phyllite (containing quartz. MODEST 2002.References and Abstracts found that the incorporation of calcium carbonate greatly reduced the generation of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins(PCDDs) and dibenzofurans(PCDFs) in the exhaust gas.University. PVC photocrosslinking was less efficient in the presence of additives after a longer period of degradation. maximum tensile stress. Ferric chloride slightly decelerated while cobalt chloride accelerated the formation of carbonyl groups in PVC.879806 Item 67 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. Brookfield. 5th-9th May 2002. SPE. Young’s modulus. Budapest. 30 refs. Paper 520. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. pressure in the die adaptor and the current drawn by the screw drive. Hungary.Nicholaus Copernicus University The effect of UV radiation on thin PVC films modified by addition of 1 to 5 wt % iron(III) chloride or cobalt(II) chloride was studied. (2nd International Conference on Polymer Modification. JAPAN and sent for processing together with off-cuts from the manufacturing process.. the Government’s recycling markets development body. and stress and strain under maximum load were measured. Yoshiga A.2. p. the total amount (in the gas and ash) decreased significantly after calcium carbonate addition. POLAND Accession no. Paper 540. Although the amount of PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash decreased.879804 Item 68 ENDS Report No. Old window frames are being brought back to its manufacturing site in Norwich using the company’s own fleet. No. pp. Ct. p.2003. CD-ROM. Ribeiro A P.

avoiding messy pigment dusts.. Session 4. appearance and performance of the final product are discussed. For each application a generic formulation is examined and the effects of each formulation additive on processibility. Compositions suitable for the manufacture of lower and superior grade balls. the same processing temperatures and heat stability. Majewski T. Il. Session 4. Il. Ct. tensile strength and viscoelastic properties. Also examined are potential modifications to each formulation.2002. 27 cm.) Colour concentrate technology for vinyl applications is reviewed. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 012 NEW BENZOATE PLASTICIZER BLENDS FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING PLASTISOLS Arendt W D. new benzoate plasticiser blends have been introduced as improvements for established benzoate esters and certain phthalate ester plasticisers for flexible vinyl applications. Ct.Vinyl Div.51730. processing and performance characteristics versus older benzoates and phthalates such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP). This is a science of distribution and dispersion that involves energy transfer through compatibility. USA Accession no. Data on formulating phthalate free plastisols for rotational moulding are presented.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Brookfield. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.) Although many areas of rigid PVC formulation have not seen dramatic changes in formulation technology over the past 10 or 15 years. Recently.46372. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 59 . Jarus D PolyOne Corp. Paper 4. SPE.References and Abstracts chloride) (PVC) plastisols. SPE. SPE. triethylene glycol dibenzoate and dioctyl adipate. Brookfield. Plastisols for rotational moulding products such as toys are often compounded with DINP.Vinyl Div. SPE. 012 ADDITIVES AND COMPOUNDING Lindner R A Accession no. 30th-2nd Oct. and higher plastisol viscosity. The phyllite-containing compositions exhibited superior mechanical properties.2002. p. 30th-2nd Oct. 30th-2nd Oct.879125 Item 71 Vinyltec 2002..877709 Item 72 Vinyltec 2002. and have been commercially available and used in vinyl applications for many years.Vinyl Div.Chicago Section. SPE.. and phyllite was considered to be a suitable filler for PVC plastisols. SPE.Chicago Section. there are areas where the technology is developing rapidly.. SPE. Many of the recent developments in formulation technology for each area are described. 2002. 7 refs. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Session 48 Paper 5. 30th-2nd Oct. functions very effectively as an offset to DINP.) Benzoate ester plasticisers are high solvating plasticisers.. One of the new benzoate blends (Blend 2860). 16 refs. Information on processing Blend 2860 based plastisols in a Composite Mould Technology moulding machine are discussed. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. extruded PVC/wood flour composites and PVC coextruded capstock applications.877703 Item 74 Vinyltec 2002.Chicago Section. SPE. rheology. a blend of diethylene glycol dibenzoate.41334. Paper 2. p.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. The new blends offer improved efficiency. Il. Session 4. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. gelation and fusion temperatures. p. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Also involved are other requirements such as making hard-todisperse pigments more dispersible. Ct. PolyOne offers solutions for colour needs in many different polymers and applications. Paper 1. insuring weatherability and thermal stability performance. Il. surface chemistry and equipment design. 27 cm. 8 refs. Brookfield. 2002.877705 Item 73 Vinyltec 2002.. 012 COLOR CONCENTRATE TECHNOLOGY FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Summers J. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 27 cm. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. (SPE. BRAZIL NEW TRENDS IN RIGID PVC COMPOUND FORMULATION Kroushl P Ferro Corp. Three areas of rigid PVC formulation which are presently generating much interest are extruded PVC foam.. 8 refs. SPE. USA Accession no. SPE. heat stability. which will lead to improvements in certain key properties. Lang J.2002. 27 cm.43748. (SPE. Blend 2860 is a high solvating plasticiser and was designed for rotational moulding applications. compared with those containing calcium carbonate. Blend 2860 plastisols process faster at lower temperatures than plastisols based on DINP... Ct.. USA Accession no.. (SPE. p. Brookfield. 2002. 2002. Rabinovich. and artificial leather were prepared and characterised by measurements of viscosity.2002.

30th-2nd Oct.. SPE.) Lubricants have been classified as either internal or external.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.877698 60 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The volatile nature of three commercial barium-zinc stabilisers is examined in comparison with an organophosphite-zinc based stabiliser. but is said to be growing at a rate of only 2%/year. Ct. internal lubricants have meant materials that are compatible with PVC that promote flow. Paper 7. Session 3.Vinyl Div. 27 cm. Jennings T Dover Chemical Corp. 012 ADAPTATION OF NEW ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER TECHNOLOGY TO PVC EXTRUSION INDUSTRY TRENDS Martin R. as they are effective radical scavengers..) Flexible PVC compounds are extremely versatile. 30th-2nd Oct. USA Accession no.877700 Item 77 Vinyltec 2002. are said to be incompatible and come to the surface and create metal release.Chicago Section. (SPE. Brookfield. USA Accession no. 5 refs. 2002.Chicago Section. USA Item 76 Vinyltec 2002. Paper 8. It is reported that there are two distinct types of external lubricants. SPE. SPE. The benefits and needs for the industry are examined from resin manufacture to final use. Papazoglou E.References and Abstracts L & L Consulting LLC (SPE. Emphasis is placed on methods for the further improvement of flexible PVC heat stabilisers by reducing the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Internal lubricant efficiency can be readily predicted by simple mathematical formula and that partial substitution of esters for paraffin allows the reduction of modifier or increased filler levels to achieve savings without loss of any physical properties. SPE. by reduction of oxidation intermediates. The volatile emissions from flexible PVC formulations containing these stabilisers are measured and the sources of the emissions are identified. p. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. SPE. are used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the former. SPE. Light stabilisers like hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) and UV absorbers (UVAs) provide durability when there is an exposure to light. Typically.2002. The slow growth rate of flexible PVC may be partially attributed to perceived environmental concerns related to the polymer and its numerous additives.2002. Chou C S Rohm & Haas Co. The difference between internal lubricants and plasticiser is that the internal lubricant is only soluble at high temperature whereas the plasticiser is soluble and functional at room temperature. SPE. Paper 5. (SPE. 5 refs.Chicago Section. Brookfield.40310. High throughput processing with acceptable melt rheology such as melt pressure.) The new generation of acrylic impact modifiers is designed to address the relationship between polymer structure. 2002. Better impact resistance can be achieved with optimal design of core shell acrylic modifier. Harr M E. p. Session 3. A broad processing window with lower levels of acrylic impact modifiers will become the future trend in PVC impact modification.. Emphasis is placed on phenolic antioxidants used during the polymerisation step and during initial compounding.Vinyl Div. processing and physical properties of extruded vinyl materials. The worldwide flexible PVC market has been estimated at 15 billion lb in 2002. Primary antioxidants like hindered phenols are ubiquitously used for this purpose.877701 Accession no. Pearson K Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 2002.Chicago Section. p. Brookfield.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.. Stevenson D R. Il. A brief look is taken at phenolic antioxidant use in PVC systems. 012 STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AGAINST OXIDATION Lee R E. Phosphites. Ct. (SPE. 012 EXAMINATION AND REDUCTION OF VOC’S FROM FLEXIBLE PVC FORMULATIONS Jakupca M R. cost effective and additive intensive. DPB. Dover PhosBooster. External lubricants on the other hand. and to a lesser extent thiosynergists. Il.Vinyl Div..) Traditionally. SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.. Ct. 27 cm.. 27 cm. SPE.Vinyl Div. SPE. USA Accession no. In recent years the industry has focused upon the reduction of flexible PVC heat stabilisers based on heavy metals such as lead and cadmium as a mechanism for improving the environmental profile of PVC compounds. stabilisation is required for all polymer applications to provide acceptable processing.2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. temperature and motor load can also be achieved through polymer design and modifications. storage and use lifetimes. Session 3. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.877702 Item 75 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century..Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. only half of the growth rate of all thermoplastic resins as a whole.. Il..391400. 30th-2nd Oct.36774.

SPE... 2002.. needs highly efficient protection against oxidative degradation Accession no. Brookfield. SPE. 5 refs. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 61 . 012 ACRYLIC PROCESSING AIDS: KEY TO THE FUTURE Azimipour B. the plasticisers which contribute flexibility. NOR hindered amine light stabilisers are introduced as a new photostabiliser class for PVC. Paper 4. USA Brookfield. Session 3. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Methyl methacrylate butadiene-styrene (MBS).Vinyl Div. although these other additives can have a substantial influence on UV stability. Il. In the case of flexible PVC.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. The important parameters of the transformation process and the role that process aids play in the optimisation and enhancement of compound processability. To meet specifications such as oxygen index. .) UV absorbers such as those from the hydroxyphenyl benzotriazole and hydroxy benzophenone class of compounds have a long history of use as UV stabilisers in PVC.2002. SPE. SPE.295317. are widely used throughout the PVC industry . Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 27 cm. p. Ct.34763. NOR HALS were also compared to and found to be far more effective than traditional NH HALS.. (SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Chicago Section. 30th-2nd Oct.. What is not so familiar is the use of NOR hindered amines as UV stabilisers for PVC.Chicago Section. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. p. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. as chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation.Vinyl Div.) The development of new applications for PVC. 2002. Schipper P Atofina Chemicals Inc. 30 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.. (SPE.W. nor well known. to terminate the reaction and prevent degradation of the virgin resin in the stripper and dryer.33543. USA Accession no. Session 3.2002. Voigt W Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc. 30th-2nd Oct. Session 3. Paper 1. products such as patio furniture. in most instances. however. etc. Oertli A G. SPE. Il. Ct.References and Abstracts Item 78 Vinyltec 2002.877696 Item 80 Vinyltec 2002.) The flammability performance of PVC plays a significant role in its selection for many applications. 30th-2nd Oct.. Ct.Vinyl Div. their activity in PVC is neither well understood.) Phenolic products. 27 cm. Other effect additives .for instance. Its relatively high chlorine content (58. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests. Synergistic combinations of FR and SS additives to PVC formulations facilitate passing many stringent FR specifications cost effectively.. greenhouse films. Brookfield. SPE. SPE.2002. 2002. fencing. Unlike UV absorbers. Ct.. especially sterically hindered phenols. A proposed explanation for their superior activity is presented. Paper 3. In several laboratory studies. such as foam and wood composites as well as the demand for higher productivity in these and other existing commercial applications. Il. 27 cm. SPE. a frequently used impact modifier for rigid PVC.& Associates Inc. etc. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. p. antistats. 8 refs. has dramatically highlighted the importance of processing aids as an integral part of most new and existing high productivity PVC formulations. window and door trim. heat release. 27 cm.6%) makes it more resistant to ignition and burning than most organic polymers. Paper 2. optical brighteners.2002. SPE. p. Il..Chicago Section. 012 NEW ADDITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PVC INDUSTRY Wegmann A. 012 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A...Vinyl Div. (SPE. 2002. SPE. (SPE. USA Accession no. 30th-2nd Oct. Their effectiveness as light stabilisers for polyolefins is well-documented. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. NOR HALS were found to substantially increase the weatherability of flexible PVC. SPE. flame retardant (FR) and smoke suppressant (SS) additives are often incorporated.Chicago Section. Brookfield. antifog agents.877697 Item 79 Vinyltec 2002.that are often present in a fully formulated PVC compound are not examined. pond liners.32131. detract from its resistance to fire. They are especially well known for protecting products made from flexible PVC.877695 Item 81 Vinyltec 2002. end product properties and manufacturing efficiency are reviewed.additives such as antimicrobials. hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) do not absorb UV light. 012 NOR HINDERED AMINES: A NEW UV STABILIZER CLASS FOR PVC Capocci G Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp. Session 3. antioxidants.

Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Plasticisers for flexible PVC in thermally demanding applications are also stabilised with phenolic antioxidants. as published. Il. The wollastonites are compared to calcium carbonates with similar particle size distributions for effects on compound tensile properties. with vinyl floor tile. and case of emulsification.877691 Item 84 Vinyltec 2002. Wollastonite is selected as a non-traditional filler for PVC. SPE.M. Il. 2002.T. SPE. Using calcium carbonates as filler. Selected wollastonite grades in flexible PVC. SPE.24766..Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Unique in its needle-like (acicular) shape. or to further boost the thermal stability of PVC. Ct. the mineral has a long successful history as a very effective reinforcing filler in thermosets and thermoplastics. Electrical properties as measured by volume resistivity show to be comparable between hydrotalcite-stabilised compounds and leadstabilised counterparts. in accelerated heat and in exposure in a weatherometer for 1350 hours. WESTERN EUROPE desirable rheological performance and reduced agglomeration during PVC compounding. which give additional invaluable advantages in handling. This new hydrotalcite is very low in Fe and Zn contaminants. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. SPE. The data. Ashton H C Huber J. Similar mechanical properties are seen with the hydrotalcite-stabilised PVC compounds vs. Paper 6. Newly developed high performance light stabilisers and other effect additives (biocides. Ct. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.References and Abstracts of its rubber phase by a synergistic blend of a phenolic antioxidant with a thiosynergist. it has found utility in products like those used in the wire and cable industry. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 2002. are evaluated.26971. As an effective acid scavenger. selected wollastonite grades were compared to calcium carbonate in a heat ageing test to observe heat and colour stability performance. thereby further strengthening the position of PVC applications in the marketplace. higher aspect ratio) morphological structure providing Accession no.877692 Item 83 Vinyltec 2002. making it desirable for PVC applications where excellent electrical performance is needed.. As performance demands of plastics increase. SPE. can impart effective thermal stability to the PVC compounds as compared to heavy metal stabilisers. Alternatively to stabilising plasticisers. when used with other metal stabilisers such as calcium or zinc stearate. SPE. showed that wollastonite demonstrated a modest change in colour stability in contrast to the calcium carbonate.. lead-stabilised compounds. 012 ADVANCED HYDROTALCITE FOR ENHANCED PVC STABILIZATION Chen T. p. Such synergistic stabilisation improvements are shown to be beneficial to PVC formulations for various applications including wire and cable. In the above mentioned applications.e. as represented by a 75 deg.Chicago Section..877694 Item 82 Vinyltec 2002. especially with requirements related to strength. Because this same mineral has desirable chemical properties. (SPE. this new hydrotalcite. Ciullo P Vanderbilt R.) enhance the quality of finished PVC articles. filler profiles change to keep pace. Session 2.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Brookfield. In another test. The hydrotalcite also has characteristically platey (i.Vinyl Div. and fluorescent whitening agents. It has been shown that selected grades improve low temperature processing and cure cycles while contributing to mechanical strength.2002. Brookfield. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Session 2. 30th-2nd Oct. the data indicated that wollastonite incorporated with titanium dioxide had better colour after ageing. USA Accession no.) The characteristics of a new synthetic hydrotalcite product designed for use in PVC stabilisation are discussed.Chicago Section.. 62 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 30th-2nd Oct. antistats.C rated PVC primary insulation compound typically filled with calcium carbonate and calcined clay.. Paper 7. enabling broad registration and food approval status. Some years ago. 2 refs. 012 WOLLASTONITE: A NON-TRADITIONAL FILLER FOR PVC: WHAT DOES IT OFFER? Robinson S. This naturally occurring white calcium silicate mineral filler may be an alternative to conventional fillers in improving properties of PVC.Co. USA Accession no. solid hindered phenol antioxidants can be added to heat stabilisers.2002. SWITZERLAND. Il..2002. dosing. very important for introduction into aqueous processes. or directly to the compound. 30th-2nd Oct. p. traditionally used solid antioxidants are increasingly replaced by more efficient liquid products. 1 ref. thereby enhancing PVC’s environmental acceptance. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Vinyl Div. 27 cm.) Filler technology has been undergoing a renaissance in the last several years. 27 cm.Corp. The rigid PVC compounds containing the hydrotalcite show enhanced thermal stability as demonstrated by the slower compound colour development over time. as well as a good toxicological profile. De Massa J. (SPE... etc. wollastonite is compared to the calcined clay for effect on volume resistivity.

no peroxisome proliferation. Paper 1.) The global market for liquid mixed metal stabilisers is migrating toward conservational or ‘green’ alternatives. Ct. which act like additional clips in the entanglement network of polymer chains. no sensitising properties.. Safronov A.. The influence of organotin stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films is studied by means of DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum..Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. The enthalpy of mixing of PVC with the series of alkyltin alkyl thioglycolates is measured over the entire concentration range at ambient conditions.2002. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. 2002.. 2002. DMA and dielectric relaxation. SPE. SPE.2002. no genotoxicity. 27 cm. 012 COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Fisch M H. DSC.193202. no reprotoxicity and biodegradability.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. this technology permits stabiliser formulations extremely low in volatile organic content (VOC). 27 cm. Brookfield. Paper 2... physical properties and a comparison of three homologue cyclohexane-1. SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. High efficiency calcium-zinc and calcium-barium-zinc stabilisers have the potential to replace existing high volatile mixed metal products.Chicago Section. USA thioglycolates enhancement of the glassy structure of PVC is interpreted as the result of strong multi-site molecular complexes between organotin molecules and PVC chains. 2002.Vinyl Div. Bacaloglu R.. Il. p. The driving forces behind the development of a new plasticiser.2002. especially phthalates. 11 refs.) For some time now plasticisers. p.18190. The intrinsic value of non-phenolic lubricating calcium intermediates and unique Trimetal stabilisers are discussed.877687 Item 87 Vinyltec 2002. Session 2. SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. It is found that all compounds are compatible with PVC in a broad concentration range and form homogeneous mixtures. SPE. 012 NEW POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER DEVELOPMENT Lang J M.Chicago Section.2-dicarboxylic acid esters is presented. 30th-2nd Oct. The alkyltin alkyl Accession no..877690 Item 85 Vinyltec 2002. designated Hexamoll DINCH. p. 30th-2nd Oct.23153. 2002. Ford J I OMG Inc. Somova T Crompton Corp. Streeter B E. Gans G BASF Corp.State University (SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Urals. The Trimetal and Ca/Zn technology are found to be viable alternatives to Ba/Zn and Cd/Ba/Zn stabilisers. Ct.References and Abstracts Brookfield.Vinyl Div. Dooley T. This new calcium technology can produce effective heat stabilisers for most applications under rigorous testing conditions. Session 2. Stewen U. Il. Ct. Il. The novel calcium intermediates make performance and cost competitive stabilisers and reduced heavy metal and phenolic derivative containing stabilisers a reality. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Taking this into account. Brookfield. Paper 5. RUSSIA.) Polymeric plasticisers are an important part of the total plasticiser market and are used primarily in speciality © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 63 . SPE. USA Accession no. SPE.20517. Paper 3. (SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.) Compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin alkylthioglycolates stabilisers is studied by thermal methods including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. 27 cm.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Session 2.. di-isononylcyclohexane-1.Chicago Section. SPE. (SPE. (SPE.Chicago Section. The toxicology of Hexamoll DINCH is reviewed. as well as customer demand for alternative plasticisers.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. SPE. Brookfield. have been under pressure from environmentalists and regulatory bodies. p. 012 TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN LIQUID MIXED METAL STABILIZERS Reddy J E. USA Accession no. 30th-2nd Oct. The results are discussed in terms of superposition of glassy-state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of glassy polymer with liquid additives. Proposition 65 in California and the EU labelling requirements of chemicals. Ct. 27 cm. 16 refs. Hackett J A.877688 Item 86 Vinyltec 2002. In the regulatory arena there is the RCRA and CERCLA requirements of the EPA. SPE.Vinyl Div. Furthermore. BASF has undertaken a project to develop a plasticiser suitable in a wide range of applications and which would meet the following predefined requirements: low acute toxicity. Historically. 012 NEW PLASTICIZER FOR FLEXIBLE PVC Wadey B.. SPE. SPE. The manufacturing process..Vinyl Div.2-dicarboxylic acid ester. Session 2. these systems have not been performance and cost competitive. are discussed. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.

and comparisons to the traditional ‘General Purpose’ (GP) phthalate plasticisers are provided. Il. Paper 6. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.. Ct. Plasticisers commonly used for PVC are extractable.. it has been asserted that these phthalates are persistent in the environment and may increase in concentration. 2002. 012 HOW ABOUT ALTERNATIVES TO PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS? Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. SPE. Ct.877686 Item 88 Vinyltec 2002. the properties of polymeric plasticisers can be tailored by varying the chemical structure. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). SPE. Il.) Phthalate esters or phthalates are molecules used predominantly in commerce to make plastic flexible. migrating or too volatile. SPE. which are discussed in detail. (SPE. It has also been claimed that these phthalates may cause harm to humans. although some specialised uses in medical devices require further studies. Potential alternatives do not have the historical record of acceptable performance found with phthalate plasticisers. so they are not persistent. USA Accession no. 2002. SPE. SPE. 012 FUNCTION AND SELECTION OF POLYMERIC ESTER PLASTICIZERS O’Rourke S Hall C..Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.11350. extraction by organic fluids and low-temperature as moulded after ageing. Some information is provided on plasticisers that are designed for high performance applications. Nevertheless. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.Vinyl Div. Two case studies are given to illustrate the chemical structure-property approach for developing new polymeric plasticisers in order to meet the performance requirements of speciality applications. With the increasing high temperature and extraction resistance demands required. They provide a desirable balance of cost and performance properties.Chicago Section. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.. 4 refs.) Phthalate plasticisers have historically served as the preferred plasticisers to impart flexibility to PVC and several other polar polymers. and it is concluded that these phthalates can be used without risk to human health or the environment in nearly all of the current applications. Session 1. low temperature flexibility and plasticiser viscosity.877684 Item 90 Vinyltec 2002. The substances produced in highest quantity. (SPE.Chicago Section.P. 27 cm. Known ‘non-phthalate’ plasticisers are reviewed.References and Abstracts applications where high permanence. 2002.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. USA Accession no. 27 cm. Session 1.. food processing and packaging applications.15375. 27 cm. The performance requirements covered are printability. Laboratory studies show that these phthalates rapidly degrade in the environment. Paper 7. SPE.Chicago Section. Brookfield. However.. SPE. Among these. low migration and weatherability are required. A brief comparison of the performance difference between polymeric and monomeric is discussed. These compounds also efficiently undergo biotransformation by organisms and do not biomagnify. 30th-2nd Oct. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.1019. as well as many other end uses. Il. 64 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 6 refs. For special needs. di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) are used almost exclusively as plasticisers in flexible PVC.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.Vinyl Div. Paper 5. ‘General Purpose’ plasticisers are those that impart optimum overall performance properties in PVC at lowest cost..2002. 30th-2nd Oct. Session 1. polymeric esters provide a unique set of properties to insure longevity of flexible PVC.2002. longevity requirements for flexible PVC articles have created a need for higher performance ester plasticisers. p. focusing specifically on the scientific evidence. resistance to extraction. Brookfield. In recent years these phthalates have been the focus of regulatory attention around the world. Although they produce effects of various kinds in rats and mice when given for long periods of time at high Accession no. 012 PHTHALATE ESTER REGULATORY UPDATE Keller L H ExxonMobil Chemical Co. It is shown that permanence of the plasticiser after these various ageing is the key to retention of physical properties. p. The test data include heat ageing. SPE.. Their acceptable and safe use is unmatched in medical appliances. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. the ‘Precautionary Principle’ has caused certain segments of society to clamour for alternatives to phthalate plasticisers. 30th-2nd Oct.Co. Brookfield.Inc. This attention has been triggered by a number of allegations. p.Vinyl Div. USA (SPE.) Traditional PVC applications have for years used moderate to low performance ester plasticisers. Ct.877685 Item 89 Vinyltec 2002. Several of these issues are addressed.2002.. molecular weight and manufacturing process.

Trimellitates fill this gap in performance for the flexible vinyl industry. are difficult to process. p. questionable.876688 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 65 . Chemistry. Emphasis is placed on a rather small range of low molecular weight esters that are compounded into PVC to effect a desired combination of stiffness.. Ct..8998. SPE. p.. and by some definitions. Paper 3. Finally. process aids and modifiers. Unfortunately. A basic model from which a technician can build an understanding from which plasticiser choices can be screened is presented. recent investigations reveal that. Session 1. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Kozlowski R Sunoco Chemicals (SPE.6986. It was found that the transparency of the nanocomposites improved with increasing content of montmorillonite.. impart good low temperature properties..Chicago Section. SPE. The polymerics. phthalates can be volatile and lack the permanence needed for high temperature applications.877682 Item 92 Vinyltec 2002. are perhaps the only plasticisers for PVC.) Since the introduction of trimellitic anhydride by Amoco Chemicals in the late 1960s. have poor low temperature properties. Yinxi Z Shanghai. Yong Z. Ct. and are expensive.2002.) ASTM D-883-98 defines a plasticiser as ‘a substance incorporated in a material to increase its workability.877683 Item 91 Vinyltec 2002. Session 1. Many of these products are esters. long the workhorse of the industry.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 2002. Brookfield. permanence and chemical resistance to produce a cost effective.381 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/ MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH EPOXY RESIN AS COMPATIBILIZER Chaoying W. and are well suited for general use. CHINA Accession no. which have the permanence for high temperature applications.Vinyl Div. SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. USA early 20th century. 30th-2nd Oct. The start of commercialisation of technology in PVC is much shorter. useable engineering polymer system suitable for its intended application. Brookfield. WORLD Accession no. at best. the relevance of these effects to humans is. SPE. During this time period PVC compounding progressed from an art to a science. 3 refs. 17 refs.877681 Item 93 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Trimellitate plasticisers offer today’s vinyl compounder a unique combination of properties not attainable with polymeric or other monomeric plasticisers. 2002. The good transparency of the nanocomposites also indicated that the epoxy resin improved the processing stability of the nanocomposites.Chicago Section. 2002. USA.. levels of human exposure are far below those that cause effects in laboratory animals. as compatibiliser. which was pretreated with the epoxy resin. process easily. SPE. Paper 4. USA Accession no. Il. are often inefficient.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. except in some very rare situations.Jiao Tong University Polyvinyl chloride/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared using an epoxy resin. starting around 1935. and the goal is to develop polymer compounds that have a flexibility necessary to be useful in product design. Phthalate plasticisers. 012 TRIMELLITATES-VERSATILE PLASTICIZERS FOR THE VINYL COMPOUNDER Adams R BP Chemicals (SPE. When examining world usage of plasticisers it is easy to conclude that esters are the most effective plasticisers. 27 cm. This is a definition that incorporates the two technical industrial drivers of the Accession no. p. In a period of less than 75 years the industry went from a handful of plasticising compounds to a few hundred in 30 years and back to a handful of commercially significant materials today. and the effect of this compatibiliser on the optical properties of the nanocomposites investigated. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. The history of plasticisers is long and colourful. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Most of these materials meet the early definition and do plasticise polymers. The ability is still required to process high molecular weight polymers. 27 cm. trimellitates have found their place in applications requiring greater permanence than existing commercial phthalate plasticisers. The chemistry of esters and the interaction with PVC on the molecular level is the heart of effort for those of us who develop new plasticisers. are efficient.Vinyl Div. Xiuying Q. No. SPE. flexibility or distensibility’.References and Abstracts levels. engineering and raw materials supply have evolved into the current commercial landscape. 30th-2nd Oct. The portion of the definition of plasticisers relating to workability for PVC is now studied within the disciplines and concepts of the materials more often called lubricants.6. 5 refs. Il.2002.

p.875427 Item 98 Medical Device Technology 13. No. AND BROADER LESSONS Williams D Liverpool. EUROPEAN UNION. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN CANCER. UK. and then reduced only Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMISSION.335-7 Chinese DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF POWDERED BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER FOR MODIFICATION OF RIGID PVC Feng S.8/12 EVEN MORE OPINIONS ON PVC. condition of the powder and rate of rotation on particle size were investigated and the modification of PVC by powdered SBR studied. EU.DEPT. washing. A powdered SBR slurry was prepared by crosslinking and graft modification and powdered SBR having a particle size less than 0. as solvent.2002. UK. Dec. p.9. p. Nov. HEALTH CANADA.SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON MEDICINAL PRODUCTS & MEDICAL DEVICES. 11 refs.University of Technology Tensile and impact properties of a composite of polyvinyl chloride filled with hollow glass beads to different volume fractions.University Nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending PVC with sodium montmorillonite and an organically modified clay using THF.238-45 PREPARATION OF PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOLUTION BLENDING Wang D. The EU Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products & Medical Devices has made no recommendation that hospitals should take any precautionary measures to reduce exposures of groups of patients considered to be at risk although Health Canada and the FDA have issued precautionary assessments. independent of bead size. Wilkie C A Marquette.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION. It has reached conclusions which differ from those reached by some other organisations.10 PVC POST WITH THE MOST Smith C 66 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . US. and using three different sizes of bead. 11th Oct. It was found that solution blending produced a mixed immiscible-intercalated nanocomposite and that the presence of clay caused a change in the degradation path of the polymer. p. No. No. 28 refs.588-91 TENSILE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW GLASS BEAD FILLED PVC COMPOSITES Ji-Zhao Liang South China. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. p. HEALTH CANADA EU. Liqiang C.OF HEALTH. EUROPEAN UNION. 7 refs.2002. Dec. UK.876644 Item 96 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 287.875470 Item 97 ENDS Report No.6. p.335. CHINA Accession no.2002. The thermal degradation of the composites was investigated by TGA and mechanical properties determined by tensile testing. 2002. No. Xiao L. USA slowly. Impact strength reduced rapidly to a filler level of 5 percent. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2002. The effects of crosslinking. and the layered structure of these nanocomposites characterised by TEM and X-ray diffraction. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. CHINA Accession no.35 DOH JOINS QUEST FOR NON-PVC MEDICAL DEVICES The Department of Health is reported to be searching for diethylhexyl phthalate-free products for the National Health Service following international concern over possible health effects from exposure to the plasticiser.9 mm obtained by filtering.4.References and Abstracts Item 94 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8.NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE. UK.2002.FEDERAL DRUGS ADMINISTRATION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.875070 Item 99 Plastics and Rubber Weekly 29th Nov. It was reported that yield strength reduced only gradually and Young’s modulus increased slightly with increasing filler content. WESTERN EUROPE. A mathematical formula was developed which related yield strength to filler level. 6 refs.9. US. This article discusses the basis for these opinions in detail. Yuanzhang Y Qilu Petrochemical Corp. Xuecheng P. grafting.University We are told that a Scientific Committee of the European Commission has addressed toxicity concerns about PVC plasticised with diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) when used in certain medical applications.876667 Item 95 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. sifting and drying. but was not significantly affected by bead size.

p. and the particular advantages of certain alternatives. No. particularly. 28 refs.. Michigan. The experimental results indicated that wood flours were effective chromophore materials as their incorporation into a rigid PVC matrix accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. POLYFENCE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.) Plasticisers.State University The UV weathering performance of PVC filled with different concentrations of wood flour was studied. greater durability and a higher quality appearance. Ca.Technical University The presence of surfactants make possible the mechanical foaming of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pastes. The criterion of the viscosity difference makes it possible to assess the pastes of different types of PVC. HUNGARY. Although composite samples exhibited greater discolouration than unfilled PVC samples. 22nd-23rd. Hungary. The core of the product. 6 refs.2002. AST 66. EASTERN EUROPE. they retained all their original strength and stiffness properties even after 2600 hours of cyclic UV irradiation/condensation exposures. are presented. Paper 285. phthalates. p.1657-66 ACCELERATED ULTRAVIOLET WEATHERING OF PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M.874602 Item 100 Addcon World 2002. which Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Budapest.873388 Item 102 Polymer Engineering and Science 42. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Each assessment consisted of DRIFT-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. which makes up around 92% of the total weight of each post. The value of this criterion has been proven by a correlation with the rate of degradation of the foam structure and is based on the hypothesis of the formation of a spatial network of molecular and supermolecular clusters of the soap surfactants. The legislative and environmental pressures on plasticisers. a hollow coextruded rigid PVC fence post that it claims will meet the performance criteria of existing wooden and concrete alternatives.. The coextruded products comprise a core of recycled PVC enclosed in a skin of high-quality virgin PVC. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 67 . This paper examines the reasons for the continued widespread use of phthalates. colour measurement and tensile property testing. and Slovinyl K 72. including changes in the classification and labelling of phthalates.000 pounds sterling in two coextrusion lines to manufacture the fence posts. Extruded PVC/wood-flour composite samples were subjected to cyclic UV lamps/condensation exposures and assessed over a total of 400 and 2600 hours. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 PLASTICISERS FOR PVC: HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Cadogan D F European Council for Plasticisers & Intermediates (Rapra Technology Ltd.4.8.874502 Item 101 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering Vol. 2002. such as Vestolit B 7021. together with the response from industry.3343. Photodegradation converted unfilled PVC samples to a coloured material of lower extensibility. 29 cm. The Sheffieldbased company has invested more than 400. 2002. Ct.41. Properties and Stabilization.997-06 THE RELATION BETWEEN THE FOAMABILITY OF PVC PASTES AND THE QUALITY OF A PVC POLYMER Simonik J Zlin. An evaluation of the efficiency of the surfactants that are utilised in this technology can be carried out on the basis of the viscosity difference between the descending and rising component of the viscosity curve for the PVC pastes in the region of low shear rates. Aug.5. 5th-9th May 2002. with concerns raised regarding their possible negative impact on the environment and human health. Rapra Technology Ltd.873203 Item 103 ANTEC 2002. and their impact is considered on the risk assessments being conducted on five phthalates in line with the requirements of Council Regulation 793/ 93. CDROM. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no.. EUROPEAN UNION. Pevikon D 61. Session T7Vinyl Plastics. No. pp.Oct. 2002. SPE. Kamdem D P Michigan. UK. it is the effect of a residual emulsifier and the character of particles in terms of their average size and distribution which is important. contact angle measurement. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.References and Abstracts Polyfence has developed Supalite. The results of the latest studies are summaries. USA Accession no.2002. WESTERN EUROPE secure the formation of a PVC foam and its stability at the next processing. Associated with the foamability of PVC pastes. while providing a big weight saving. legislative and scientific attention. BELGIUM. is manufactured from PVC recovered from the window profile extrusion and window fabrication industry. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Shawbury. have long been the focus of considerable media. p. Brookfield. 53 refs.Technological University. Paper 3. which is insoluble in the non-aqueous medium of the PVC paste.

Brookfield. No.. as a model compound. No. continuous layer adjacent to the gate. CDROM. CDROM.. and polycarbonate (PC). 012 STUDY OF PVC STABILIZATION USING CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY Bacaloglu R. It was found that this treatment did improve the adsorption capability of TiO2. Lukaszewicz E Bydgoszcz. 22 refs. Watanabe T. 12 refs. flexural modulus and strength.Technical & Agricultural University The variation the PVC gelation level in extruded products. and heat distortion temperature.5. The core always formed a single..872897 Item 104 ANTEC 2002.EFFECT OF HF-TREATED TI02 Sun R-D.University The effect of hydrofluoric acid treatment on the ability of titanium dioxide to adsorb toxic aromatic compounds. Properties and Stabilization. Session T7Vinyl Plastics. and by measurements of tensile modulus and strength. Blends containing 50 phr plasticiser were prepared. ABS and PC. with no delamination and mechanical properties intermediate between those of the constituent polymers. Ct.Academy of Science & Technology. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). core flow ceased.References and Abstracts ADIPATE BASED POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER WITH IMPROVED LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES Streeter B E. Stewen U. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd. Sterzynski T. The dry blend time was reduced by 10%. Ca.872896 Item 105 ANTEC 2002. Bacaloglu I..3. Dropped dart impact was largely determined by the skin layer. and good adhesion to GFR-PVC. Lang J Velsicol Chemical Corp. whilst further from the gate. p. to optimise the stabiliser composition and content. usually related to the instability of the extrusion process. 2002.. was compared with that of a conventional adipate plasticiser of the same molecular weight. as evidenced by an increased amount of dioxins trapped in ash generated during the incineration of PVC samples containing the treated titanium dioxide. 1 ref. USA Accession no. (SPE) The behaviour of an adipic acid-based polymeric plasticiser for poly(vinyl chloride)s. This improved adsorption capability is attributed to an increase in the amount of surface acid sites on the TiO2 surface. Fisch M H. Hashimoto K Kanagawa. Paper 284. PVC exhibited poor adhesion to PP. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. (SPE) Plaques were produced using the Mono-sandwich coinjection moulding process.115-9 VISUALISATION OF GELATION INHOMOGENEITY OF PVC Piszczek K. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. 2002. Krainer E Crompton Corp. resulting in a skin-only region. 5th-9th May 2002. Accession no. Ct. with rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) being co-injected with glass fibrereinforced PVC (GFR-PVC). and rigid PVC stabilised using a dialkyltin bis (alkyl thioglycolate) was studied. Degradation of flexible PVC containing solid mixed metal stabilisers (Ba-Zn and Ca-Zn). dart impact energy. 2003. Accession no. Tokyo. Paper 282. Brookfield. generated during the combustion of PVC was investigated using dibenzofuran.1. 2002. Nakajima A. developed to give improved low temperature flexibility.479-84 TIO2/POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH REDUCED GENERATION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING AND AFTER COMBUSTION . More uniform distribution of skin and core layers was obtained at slower injection speeds. The samples were characterised by optical microscopy. SPE.872763 Item 107 Polymer Testing 22.872894 Item 106 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78. Nishikawa T. resulting in enhanced interaction between the surface acid sites and pi electrons of the aromatic compounds. PROPERTIES. The new plasticiser exhibited a similar softening efficiency and permanence whilst improving the glass transition and brittle temperatures (3-4 C lower). pp. Toyoda P PolyOne Corp. such as dioxin. 10 refs. 68 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 5th-9th May 2002. (SPE) Degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied using capillary rheometry to separately evaluate the static thermal degradation at very low shear rates and the dynamic degradation due to orientation of macromolecules. polypropylene (PP). Session T7Vinyl Plastics. 012 CO-INJECTION MOLDING OF PVC WITH OTHER THERMOPLASTICS: PROCESSING. JAPAN Accession no. Properties and Stabilization.5. pp. AND APPLICATIONS Parsons M. The viscosity of the new plasticiser was 25% lower than that of comparable conventional adipates. p. impact strength. Ca. SPE.

the parent of which is the plasticiser.. 22nd-23rd Oct. Now extrusion of solid-state foams has been accomplished in two different resin systems. No.25-46.. However. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. DSC and rheological investigations confirm the results of the visualisation measurements.872008 Item 108 Plastics. the softer. POLAND suggesting that the major breakdown pathway is via complete oxidation with the majority of retained molecular fragments within the irradiated polymer film being subsequently oxidised. suggesting that the mode fragmentation is via random scission. Session II. In each case the major product is CO2 with only small quantities of other VOCs being produced. 23 refs. p. Extrusion of solid-state foams has been elusive because they are foamed at the Tg of the polymer. It is found that the applied visualisation technique allows identification of the regions with a different resistance to attack of a mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone. pre-foamed in a batch solid-state microcellular process. The unique feature in both examples is that the polymer to be solid-state foamed is not melted inside the extruder barrel. All the fragments are produced at similar levels. Consequently. The rate of CO2 production from irradiated films increases linearly by up to a factor of 21 as the concentration of DBA is raised from 0 to 88 phr. using different mechanisms. Each resin system uses a different approach to the extrusion process to demonstrate that there are a variety of ways to approach extruding materials in the solid state. The main task is to develop a simple visualisation method based on swelling and solution effects.. These hollow pellets are made using PS as the core material and encapsulating it with polyethylene and ethylene methacrylate copolymer (EMA) that has a degree of adhesion to PS and PE. Proceedings of a conference held Houston. These foams have a distinct structure and properties compared to the common meltextruded foams due to the increased molecular orientation in the cell walls. corresponding to the initial rapid photo-oxidation of plasticiser moieties bound to the TiO2 surface. near the Tg of the polymer. These specially prepared pellets are extruded into a rod and chopped into pellets of lowered bulk density. EASTERN EUROPE. The production of volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) peaks after 1h irradiation. The presence of the plasticiser dibutyl adipate (DBA). are extruded in a way that preserves the microcellular structure of the individual pellet. UK. increasing plasticisation increases the amount of volatile by-products emitted under intense UVA illumination as a result of TiO2 catalysed photodegradation. and thus with various degree of gelation. Ct. small quantities of organic molecular fragments are released into the gas phase above the films and are trapped using adsorption tubes. Worsley D Swansea. at levels of 0-88 phr. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. accompanied by a decreased yellowing rate of the polymer backbone. Brookfield. Washington. that is.8. Tx. 2002.University of Wales A closed system incorporating FTIR continuous monitoring and GC-MS sampling is developed to study the generation under UVA illumination of volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised and TiO2 pigmented films. This increase in the rate of CO2 production suggests increasing photoactivity within the film and this.2002. 17 refs. each with one fewer carbon atoms. During extrusion. p. SPE. Rubber and Composites 31. The molecular structures of the emitted species form an homologous series. PVC pellets. 012 NOVEL REDUCED DENSITY MATERIALS BY SOLID-STATE EXTRUSION: PROOF-OFCONCEPT EXPERIMENTS Schirmer H G. it is ascertained that an etching procedure may be used in parallel and/or instead of rheological or DSC measurements for the determination of the homogeneity of the PVC gelation in extruded products. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.329-35 TITANIUM DIOXIDE PHOTOCATALYSED OXIDATION OF PLASTICISERS IN THIN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILMS Searle J.871796 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 69 . implies that the plasticiser is photo-oxidised in preference to the polymer matrix. In the second system. lower melting polyolefins carry the PS through the extruder in the solid-state either unfoamed or as microcellular foam. Accession no. 27cm. is shown to slow the onset of yellowing of PVC caused by the formation of polyene sequences through photodegradation of the polymer matrix. 9 refs. In addition. solid state extrusion of foam has been accomplished with the special preparation of coextruded hollow pellets.871933 Item 109 Foams 2002. The first is based on rigid PVC pellets coated with a plasticiser and dusted with flexible PVC powder. USA Accession no.South Texas Section) Solid-state foam refers to polymer foam in which bubble nucleation and growth occurs in the solid-state.University (SPE. The efficiency of such oxidation is similar for each fragment as determined by separate complete oxidation studies over irradiated pure TiO2 films.References and Abstracts leads to inhomogeneity of the local end-use properties. allowing determination of the gelation homogeneity in extruded PVC-U products..Thermoplastic Materials & Foams Div. Kumar V BBS Corp. The VOC emissions account for only ~3% of the total carbon emission with ~97% accounted for by CO2.

The key to using nano-calcium carbonate to increase the toughness of plastics lies in the dispersion of the nano-calcium carbonate particles in the polymer matrix. Davydenko V V.References and Abstracts Item 110 Shawbury.3331-5 EFFECT OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) RESIN TYPE IN THE PREPARATION PROCESS OF SLUSH POWDER Luo Y. 2002 PLASTICS WASTE .196.9. price. Dai G East China.University of Science & Technology Slush powders were prepared from mass polymerised and suspension polymerised vinyl chloride polymers and the absorption of plasticisers into the polymers was investigated using the Haake rheomix procedure. 30cm.1/20 AGENCY MAY ALTER OPINION ON PVC TOYS Toloken S Four years after pushing the toy industry to remove a controversial phthalate from PVC toys.. No. compounding and processing.FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The agency’s report concludes that children are exposed to much less diisononyl phthalate than previously thought. 70 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p. 2002. Rapra Technology Ltd.2002. wire and cable and packaging. pp. No. No. additives. The properties of the two different powders are compared. The fusion behaviour of the powders was also investigated and the morphology of the particles analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Research has shown that nanoparticles can be employed as a cost-effective means of increasing the toughness (impact strength) of PVC and PP copolymer without compromising rigidity. Applications are dealt by sector including building and construction. CHINA Accession no. pp. Pissis P. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.82-3 NANOPARTICLES OFFER PERFORMANCE BOOST IN COMMODITY MATERIALS Jianfeng C. EUROPEAN UNION. Current issues have been highlighted including new technology and market forces. This report provides an overview of the PVC industry looking at supply and demand.1887-97 ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYMERS FILLED WITH METAL POWDERS Mamunya Y P. Descriptions of individual companies in the PVC industry are cited within the report with details of capacity and prospects provided. US.National Technical University The electrical and thermal conductivity of systems based on epoxy resin and PVC filled with metal powders were Accession no. 39 refs. 6 refs. 20th Dec. The report focuses on global trends indicating where markets are mature and where they are likely to expand. A model is proposed to describe the shell structure electrical 40-nm-dia particles to enable compounding of masterbatches. WORLD studied. The report addresses both raw materials and synthesis. UKRAINE. WESTERN EUROPE.2002.CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION USA Accession no. 29 cm. No.868339 Item 113 Modern Plastics International 32. The economics of the process allow nano-calcium carbonate to be employed to commodity resins.4. Proprietary surface modification techniques are applied to the 15.871469 Item 112 European Polymer Journal 38. Lebedev E V Ukranian Academy of Sciences. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are already commercially available from NanoMaterials Technology. medical. 13. Sept. environmental issues and the future prospects of the industry. vol.10.868174 Item 114 Plastics News(USA) 14. SINGAPORE Accession no.2002. Rapra Technology Ltd.31. No. legislation and end-of-life are discussed here.122.871566 Item 111 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 86. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission could be reversing course and saying there is no risk to children from the chemical. Yun J. p.868089 Item 115 Shawbury. 2002. Copper and nickel powders having different particle shapes were used as fillers. UK. Environmental concerns in the use of PVC including recycling. Rapra Review Report 148.13. Guoquan W NanoMaterials Technology Pte Ltd.. GREECE. Oct. 42C382 PVC-WORLD MARKETS AND PROSPECTS Pritchard P Rapra Technology Ltd. markets and applications. p. 30th Sept. Athens. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. p. A CPSC report released in September concludes the agency should not ban PVC toys or issue an advisory on health risks from soft vinyl toys. as some environmental groups had urged. safety.

on the mechanical properties and flammability was investigated. (8th European Conference on Fire Retardant Polymers. No influence of plasticiser type or flame-retardant filler on the thermal properties was observed. Takeo Iida Osaka.2.e.148 This report discusses the options for feedstock recycling of plastics waste. UK. 2002.863631 Item 118 Polymer Degradation and Stability 77.602-10 MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PVC TOYS INTO SALIVA SIMULANT BY DYNAMIC Accession no. The crack propagation behaviour became more brittle with the increase in interfacial adhesion.References and Abstracts CHEMICAL RECYCLING AND INCINERATION Tukker A TNO Edited by: Humphreys S (Rapra Technology Ltd. The highest LOI was 39% for PVC formulations containing DOP as a plasticiser and trimethylpropane triacrylate at absorbed doses of 90 and 120 kGy. June 2002. Both differential TGA peak maxima and temp.Institute of Technology. p. Substitutes found for phthalate plasticisers were acetyltributyl citrate.) Rapra Review Report No. 16 refs. the diisononyl phthalate(DINP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) release was determined in saliva simulant using the ‘Head over Heels’ agitation method.523-42 SURFACE STRUCTURE OF SILANE-TREATED GLASS BEADS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED COMPOSITES Yoshinobu Nakamura.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. Naoki Yokouchi. In the PVC-containing toys.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. WESTERN EUROPE. The silanes used have an aminopropyl or a methacryloxypropyl group as an organofunctional group with di. such as dioctyl phthalate(DOP). i.221-6 FLAME RETARDANCY OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) USED AS AN INSULATING MATERIAL FOR WIRE AND CABLE Basfar A A Saudi Arabia. EUROPEAN UNION. 28 refs.Institute of Atomic Energy Research Attempts were made to improve the flame retardancy of formulations of radiation-crosslinked PVC for wire and cable insulation applications. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL EXTRACTION Bouma K. Schakel D J Netherlands. Okayama Prefecture Industrial Technology Center Four different silane coupling agents were used for the surface treatment of glass beads. Alessandria. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The amount of silane detected on the bead surface was 4 to 6 times that required for a monolayer coverage.Inspectorate for Health Protection & Veterinary Public Health The plastics materials and plasticisers currently being used in soft toys were studied. No. The DINP and DEHP contents of the samples were also measured. Italy.5.863581 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 71 . based on a number of life cycle assessments. p. Particular reference is made to the experience of the TNO-CML Centre of Chain Analysis. EU. Ecotoxicity and the Environment(SCTEE) guidance release value of 6. The topography of deposited silane layer was strongly affected by the silane solution composition and the number of alkoxy groups. The yield stress was higher for a silane with a dialkoxy structure that for a silane with a trialkoxy structure for both aminopropyl and methacryloxypropyl silanes.or tri-alkoxy structure. The DEHP migration of six toys exceeded the SCTEE guidance release value of 1. EUROPEAN UNION. diisodecyl phthalate and tri2-ethylhexyl trimellitate. Kazuya Nagata. JAPAN Accession no. NETHERLANDS. 13 refs. p. tributyl citrate and diisononyl adipate. The topography of the silane layer was studied using atomic force microscopy. The effect of plasticisers. zinc borate. Limiting oxygen index(LOI) was used to characterise the flammability of the formulations developed. All the toys complied with the Scientific Committee on Toxicity.6. No.867304 Item 116 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 16. and after thermal ageing for 168 hours at 136C. 2002.864572 Item 117 Food Additives and Contaminants 19. Other plasticisers and additives found in minor amounts should also be regulated. June 2001) SAUDI ARABIA Accession no. for loss of 50% mass decreased with increasing irradiation dose. aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. chosen as a model filler. antimony oxide. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The influence of radiation dose on the mechanical properties was minimal both at room temp.485 refs. Hideyuki Nigo. The mechanical properties of silane-treated glass bead-filled PVC was also investigated. No. and different flame retardant fillers. including aspects of the environmental and economic pros and cons relating to feedstock recycling in comparison with incineration or mechanical recycling of municipal solid waste. NETHERLANDS. The elongation-at-break decreased by the surface treatment in the opposite order to the yield stress. Yoshiyuki Tobita. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

Tarkett Sommer. Cvorkov L Belgrade. Stojkov D. Investigative properties employed included X-ray diffraction. DOP. With the alarm bells sounding in 2000. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.30 VINYL FLOORING FIRMS SHUN DEHP. and developments in chemical recycling techniques are also reviewed. annealing. June 2002. TARKETT SOMMER. which they say have at least comparable properties.27 RECYCLING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS The Italian association for plastics processors. No.. UNIONPLAST EUROPE-GENERAL. Containers of DEHP must now be labelled as such and carry a skull and crossbones symbol. EUROPEAN UNION. dynamic mechanical properties.130/4 Spanish RECYCLING OF PVC Spanish initiatives in PVC recycling are examined with particular reference to mechanical recycling.References and Abstracts Item 119 ENDS Report No.859206 Item 122 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 82. The trigger for several flooring producers to stop using DEHP was an EU decision in 2001 to upgrade its classification from a category 3 to a category 2 reproductive toxicant for fertility and developmental effects. Sintelon AD.858829 Item 123 Macplas International Feb. DMA and cone calorimetry. has been collecting figures for many years with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system for end-of-life plastic products.wt. WESTERN EUROPE Wang D. LOOK TO NON-PVC FUTURE Producers of PVC floor coverings are reported to have begun to substitute the controversial phthalate plasticiser DEHP even before the outcome of an EU risk assessment of the chemical. p. Unionplast.2002.University. dodecyl benzene or combinations thereof. flammability and smoke properties of melt blended PVC-sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites. AISCONDEL SA. Aug. blending time and molec. EUROPEAN UNION. Statistics are presented for sources of PVC waste and forms and applications of the recycled materials.159-65 THE EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FOAMS Velickovic S J. FRANCE. UK. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS EU. DOP concentration. ATOFINA ESPANA.. ECOEMBALAJES ESPANA SA. Growing numbers are also developing non-PVC floorings.University The results are reported of a study of the effects of several plasticisers on the density.& CO. p. 27th-28th May 2002. TEM. WESTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 9 refs. Popovic I G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Parlow D. TGA.I. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams produced from different PVC plastisols containing either 44 parts of chalk and 52 parts of plasticiser or 60 parts of chalk and 66 parts of plasticiser. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. and a map shows the geographical distribution of PVC recyclers in Spain. Europe’s largest supplier of vinyl flooring to the commercial sector.2.860448 Item 120 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. says that even though the new label does not have to be applied to finished products. The effects of clay loading. June 2002. AMTICO CO. USA Accession no. Novi Sad. REVINIL. it became the first flooring company to make a wholesale switch from DEHP to another phthalate DINP. on the formation of the composites are discussed and fire properties of PVCorganically modified clay and PVC-sodium clay nanocomposites are presented and discussed. butyl benzyl phthalate. and has carried out a market survey specifically regarding PVC pipes and pipe-fittings. EASTERN EUROPE. dioctyl adipate. Yao Q. No. ITALY. DU PONT DE NEMOURS E. Plasticisers employed were di-iso-heptyl phthalate. 15 refs. June 2002. Brooklyn. YUGOSLAVIA Accession no.542. CICLOPLAST SA. No.139-50 MELT BLENDING PREPARATION OF PVCSODIUM CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Accession no. Details are given. p.859208 Item 121 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8.Polytechnic University The results are reported of an in depth study of the structure. SPAIN. p.2001. Brankov K. Proceedings of a conference held Heidelberg. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.329. A full EU risk assessment of the chemical is still under way. its own environmental policy led it to stop using DEHP. thermal properties. This article provides details of the association’s findings. Wilkie C A Marquette.University.2. p.INC. HISPAVIC INDUSTRIAL SA. 72 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .855895 Item 124 Blowing Agents and Foaming Processes 2002.

Paper 60. 7 refs. Ouahmed S Accession no. pp. 30cm. The Natural Step framework evaluates the challenges needed to make PVC truly sustainable across its entire life cycle. Principles and actions covering the period 2000-2010 apply to the following: PVC manufacture. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts Shawbury. Rimini. The influence of various parameters such as temp. UK. p. Paper 11. 2002. 012 FEEDBLOCK TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOAM CORE PRODUCTS Dobrowsky J Cincinnati Milacron Austria (Rapra Technology Ltd. were first characterised and kinetic studies of their specific migrations were then carried out using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography. 2001. The method proposed refers to the analysis of the relationship structure vs.853889 Item 126 Brussels. The key questions explored in this study are whether the PVC industry is currently sustainable or is it moving towards increased sustainability and what steps are needed to make PVC sustainable? EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Polymer Processing and Structure Relationships Symposium. waste management. on the basis of which. ESPA) This report sets out the future objectives of the Vinyl 2010 . Additives-plasticisers and stabilisers.Voluntary Commitment of the PVC Industry. 2001.Ecole Nationale Polytechnique The interactions between plasticised PVC packaging and food were studied. stirring. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. the basis of which is that organic compounds showing a particular activity in a polymer composite. 2000. EUROPEAN UNION.) This paper is a replication of a PowerPoint presentation and shows slides on new feedblock technology for foamed PVC products. 5 refs. 29cm. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and internal and external lubricants. management.. catalogues were devised of statistics of descriptors according to the classes of compounds.. form more or less compact clusters in some n-dimensional space.590-601.22.191-201 STUDY OF THE MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES FROM PLASTICIZED PVC Belhaneche-Bensemra N. length descriptors. 17 PVC:AN EVALUATION USING THE NATURAL STEP FRAMEWORK Everard M (Natural Step. 2002.64. including coextruded foam core pipe and sheet. social progress and dialogue. 21cm. 30cm. a method of prognosis was developed. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Within such a framework. The study uses the idea of the virtual space of chemical compounds. including di-2ethylhexyl phthalate plasticiser. ECPI. Rapra Technology Ltd. ECVM.180.36). June 2001) ALGERIA Accession no.113-121. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. AUSTRIA.Environment Agency) This is the full report of the Natural Step in the UK research project which was initiated by the PVC Co-ordination Group. pp. 2002. The coordinate axes of such a space can represent the physicochemical.7. 23rd-25th April 2002. conjugation descriptors which are used in the design process. EUPC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 EVALUATION OF FLAME RETARDANTS AND © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 73 . nature of food simulant and initial concentration of plasticiser was investigated. 17 VINYL 2010: THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT OF THE PVC INDUSTRY (European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. monitoring and financial scheme. No.853302 Item 128 International Polymer Science and Technology 29.T/78-81 COMPUTER DESIGN OF ACTIVE ADDITIVES FOR PVC Germashev A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC is described. FTIR spectroscopy. p. processing aid.853888 Item 127 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.. atomic absorption spectrometry and DSC analysis. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. pp. WESTERN EUROPE Algiers. property of organic substances used as additives for polymer compositions based on PVC. London.853075 Item 129 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. tin-based heat stabiliser.854595 Item 125 Cheltenham. (EUROMAT 2001. Zeddam C.4. UK. IOM Communications Ltd. The current research uses descriptors contained in existing catalogues of the following types: structural descriptors. 2002. p. Fuzzy methods of classification are employed for the classification which then uses a statistical sample of the appropriate organic compound from the total number available. Italy. EUROPEAN UNION. The additives. RUSSIA Accession no. UK. The Natural Step UK. mechanical and other parameters in respect of the known ideas or the fundamental values of he properties of the molecule. UK. p.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 58. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. fusion delay by external lubricants. Howick C. LEADFREE FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Ferm D J. EUROPEAN UNION. The preparation of PVC insulation and sheathing compounds having oxygen index values greater than 30% using a combination of Firebrake ZB zinc borate and a phosphate ester plasticiser is also demonstrated. that the original crystal structure of these long blocks was destroyed by melting of the chlorinated PE and that the impact properties of the PVC were improved when a chlorinated PE having from 2 to 3% crystallinity was employed as impact modifier. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p. release effect. The data obtained show that partial replacement of titanium dioxide makes whiteness retention possible and gives rise to a reduction in surface gloss.852792 74 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. p. colour and impact strength. Paper 57. Shen K K Rio Tinto Borax (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of studies on PVC formulations. Attention is paid to the different internal/external behaviour of lubricants. p. Toft A European Vinyls Corp.. PVC foam and clear film containing.WAXES FOR PVC FILMS Richter E Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of lubricants. Harvey R J EVC (UK) Ltd. was also evaluated. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. UK. fillers and other additives. p. 012 LOW-SMOKE. 23rd-25th April 2002.852794 Item 132 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 11 refs. London. are reported. including heat stability. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 SELECTION. 2002. DSC and X-ray scattering. Ineos Silicas Ltd. Leeuwendal R.. as an aluminosilicate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002. Zeocros E100. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.References and Abstracts SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR RIGID PVC Thomas N L.. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.569-78. heat stable. viscosity reduction by internal lubricants. zinc borate. flexible PVC compounds can be prepared through the proper selection of calcium/zinc stabilisers combined with selected costabilisers. EASTERN EUROPE. 2002. London. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 7 refs. 012 USE OF ALUMINOSILICATES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL WHITE PIGMENTS IN PVC PLASTISOLS Eastup P. EUROPEAN UNION. The influence of the flame retardants on properties of the PVC. which show that lead-free. THERMALLY STABLE. 2002.555-8.852795 Item 131 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Zinc hydroxystannate was found to exhibit the best overall fire retardant and smoke suppressant characteristics and to have no detrimental effects on important physicomechanical properties. their effects during plastics processing and their influence in the calendering process are discussed in depth. IOM Communications Ltd. IOM Communications Ltd. (Institute of Materials) The fire performance of several inorganic flame retardants in rigid PVC formulations was investigated using cone calorimetry and limited oxygen index testing.559-68. IOM Communications Ltd. UK. Paper 56.852796 Item 130 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. London.579-89. 23rd-25th April 2002. 6 refs. shear liquefaction by lubricants and the suitability of various lubricants for the manufacture of calendered PVC films in relation to melt elasticity. Flame retardants evaluated were antimony trioxide. Paper 59. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm. GERMANY. London. flow and plate-out. WESTERN EUROPE carried out on PVC wall coverings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.852793 Item 133 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.. zinc hydroxystannate and ammonium octamolybdate. 012 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL CRYSTALLINITY OF CPE IMPACT MODIFIER ON THE IMPACT PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC Marossy K BorsodChem RT (Institute of Materials) The influence of residual crystallinity of chlorinated PE on the impact properties of rigid PVC containing various amounts of the impact modifier was investigated by means of impact and tensile testing. EUROPEAN UNION. It was found that the residual crystallinity of the chlorinated PE originated from long blocks. (Institute of Materials) The potential use of aluminosilicates as pigment extenders in PVC plastisols is considered and the results of tests Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002. USE AND IMPACT OF LUBRICANTS . The optimum level of zinc hydroxystannate was found to be from 3 to 4 phr. HUNGARY.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and Advera 401S. EUROPEAN UNION. London.504-14. in PVC processing technology. food-contact applications and potable water pipes. a general-purpose. IOM Communications Ltd.529-39. 21cm. 2002. A HISTORY OF SAFE USE Atofina Chemicals Inc. environmental and regulation aspects and outlook for these organic based stabilisers are also discussed. The results of an investigation into the mechanical properties of OBS stabilised pressure pipes are also reported. Paper 53. UK. such as toys. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. Paper 52.515-28. product development over the years and life cycle and landfill studies on PVC containing tin stabilisers. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. IOM Communications Ltd. UK.852787 Item 138 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMOPLASTIC IMPACT MODIFIERS FOR RIGID PVC Berard M T. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. 2002. a zeolite costabiliser for rigid PVC where high impact performance at high loadings of costabiliser is required. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 23 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. 21cm. UK. London. 8 refs. 23rd-25th April 2002. 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. worker exposure to tin-based heat stabilisers. p. p. (Institute of Materials) A discussion is presented on the safe use of tin compounds. The recycling. 012 NEW ORGANIC PVC STABILISERS Norcini G. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. regulations relating to the use of tin stabilisers in PVC products. 23rd-25th April 2002.References and Abstracts Item 134 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 23rd-25th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE pyrimidindiones. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (Institute of Materials) The concept that friction between filler particles and breakdown of filler network is heat generating is applied to an understanding of the fusion behaviour of PVC. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISER SYSTEM Hopfmann Th Crompton Vinyl Additives GmbH (Institute of Materials) A report is presented on the development of OBS systems.496-503. 21cm.. p. as heat stabilisers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm. is reported and the results are reported of investigations into the heat stability. p. for use in PVC applications is reported. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. (Institute of Materials) Tailoring of the properties of zeolites is discussed and the development of zeolite costabilisers. p. IOM Communications Ltd. Paper 55. 2002. Marcus B PQ Corp. which are based on Crompton Vinyl Additives’ Accession no. 012 TIN STABILISERS.. less expensive zeolite costabiliser. Allieri G Lamberti SpA.852791 Item 135 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. ITALY. Lagor SpA (Institute of Materials) The development of oligomeric and/or polymeric aminouracil stabilisers. which are organic based stabilisers particularly suitable for rigid PVC pipe applications. Various aspects are addressed. USA. 17 refs.852786 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 75 . in flexible and rigid PVC systems is demonstrated. staining and blistering of plasticised PVC formulations containing these stabilisers. 4 refs. stabilisation mechanism and absorption spectra of these stabilisers are described and the results of studies on the influence of different PVCs and two different polymer K-values on a sewage pipe formulation stabilised with these OBS systems are reported. EUROPEAN UNION. Paper 50. including handling of tin stabilisers.548-54. It is shown that the treatment of a PVC melt as a fillercontaining polymer provides information on the anomalous effects observed in the rheological properties of PVC and that differences in the fusion behaviour of PVC compounds containing different impact modifiers and lubricants can be explained with the aid of this approach. London.. which are suitable as heat stabilisers for rigid and flexible PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. called Advera 401.. EUROPEAN UNION. USA. food packaging.852789 Item 136 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. A comparison is also made of the performance of PVC formulations containing these stabilisers with those containing conventional stabilisers. 16 refs. 23rd-25th April 2002. The performance of Advera 401P. London.. 012 ZEOLITE CO-STABILISERS FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Wypart R W. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.852788 Item 137 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Paper 51. IOM Communications Ltd. which are crystalline sodium aluminosilicates. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The chemistry. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 012 OVERVIEW ON CURRENT STABILISER SYSTEMS AND OUTLOOK ON FUTURE SYSTEMS Reith W Baerlocher GmbH 76 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISERS FOR INJECTION MOULDING Cockett S. Bacaloglu I Crompton Technical Center (Institute of Materials) The mechanism of stabilisation of PVC by calcium/zinc stabilisers is briefly discussed and the development of highly efficient.852784 Item 141 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. foamed sheets and profiles. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. USA. GERMANY. London. for measuring the flow properties of a material. (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of organic based heat stabilisers used in PVC are outlined and a comparison is made of the performance of an organic based stabiliser one-pack with a traditional lead stabiliser one-pack in the injection moulding of an unplasticised PVC pipe compound. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p.852785 Item 140 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Fisch M H. Paper 48. 2002.. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. UK.852783 Item 142 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Shah M. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Krainer E. Stabiliser systems based on calcium and zinc are considered to be the stabiliser systems of the future.. SCANDINAVIA. Kellett R W. 23rd-25th April 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Paper 46. These new stabilisers are capable of providing PVC compounds having equivalent or improved static heat stability when compared with commercial barium-zinc stabilisers even without the addition of high cost costabilisers.. Hinrichsen E L. UK. GERMANY. 23rd-25th April 2002. like tin. EUROPEAN UNION. London. Paper 49. is reported. Fakinlede J. p. 11 refs.461-70. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. 012 LUBRICANTS FOR CA/ZN STABILISED PVCPROFILES Kling R Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) Lubricants used in PVC formulations are briefly described. The results of trials carried out on calcium/ zinc stabilised PVC formulations with and without lubricants run on laboratory and production twin-screw extruders aimed at optimising the formulations are also presented and discussed. 2002. 2002. MacDonald S.471-85. Paper 45. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 NEW INTERMEDIATES FOR CALCIUM-ZINC STABILISERS Bacaloglu R. which is mounted on a twin-screw extruder. The use of the rheometer and the way in which the data should be analysed are demonstrated utilising PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviours. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. PVC pipes and fittings and profiles. 33 refs. Schiller M Chemson Ltd. Data in graph form on PVC compounds containing these stabilisers are included. which has undergone a thermomechanical history comparable to a material in a profile die. 21cm. London. London. zinc. This rheometer permits the determination simultaneously of the shear viscosity and slip velocity according to the Mooney technique and the planar elongational using Cogswell equations.486-95. WESTERN EUROPE (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented on current stabilisers for cables. Paper 47. NORWAY. 012 DUAL SLIT IN-LINE DIE MEASURING THE FLOW PROPERTIES OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS Thorsteinsen P. solid and liquid calcium/zinc stabilisers based on novel types of calcium. 23rd-25th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. IOM Communications Ltd. Stewen U. Spiral flow and colour development during injection moulding are discussed and the results of customer trials on a large Accession no. Glomsaker T Hydro Polymers AS (Institute of Materials) The development of an instrumented dual slit die rheometer. UK. p. 23rd-25th April 2002. London. 21cm.437-44.445-57. EUROPEAN UNION.. is under pressure in some European countries. IOM Communications Ltd.References and Abstracts Item 139 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. calcium-zinc or calcium-zinc-phosphite intermediates for PVC is reported.852782 Item 143 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. p. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. which shows that lead is the most used stabiliser but. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm. 2002.

3 refs. UK.. p. 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. Xanthopoulos P Ciba Specialty Chemicals (Institute of Materials) Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. output rates and configuration of these extruders are briefly described and a policy for dealing with wear problems in extruders is outlined. UK.852777 Item 147 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Aylett G J Vinidex Pty. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. The characteristics and target applications of the precipitated PVC compound are indicated as are the best suited raw materials for the process. which help to further improve the economic performance of oriented PVC and modified PVC pipes containing calcium zinc and organic stabilisers.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. AUSTRALIA.852776 Item 148 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts four impression pipe fitting tool equipped with tab gates are briefly reported. 15 refs. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002. BELGIUM. EUROPEAN UNION. London..322-9. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.382-7. 2002. 21cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 77 . The implications of this extrusion process window concept on the whole manufacturing process and the need for a concurrent approach for developing and commercialising new technologies are briefly discussed. 012 EXTRUSION MANUFACTURE OF PVC-O AND PVC-M PIPES WITH ORGANIC STABILISERS THE PACIFIC PERSPECTIVE Crema J. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.. WESTERN EUROPE London.852780 Item 145 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 012 VINYLOOP. UK. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.416-36. Sandberg P Norsk Hydro (Institute of Materials) The reasons why incineration is viewed as an attractive recovery option are outlined and environmental challenges facing the incineration industry are considered. The impact of a facility for the Vinyloop process on the environment and the profitability of the process are discussed and the future for the Vinyloop process is briefly considered. EUROPEAN UNION. are described. SCANDINAVIA. is reported. London. IOM Communications Ltd. a mechanical recycling process using an organic solvent to separate PVC compounds from other materials and provide a precipitated PVC compound with a formula similar to that of the original material.410-5. p. GERMANY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. London. The overall European situation with regard to residue generation and processing costs is discussed and the progress being made towards the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in relation to municipal solid waste incineration and other recovery processes. 21cm. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 21cm. which are less prone to wear.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H Solvay SA (Institute of Materials) The basic principles of the Vinyloop process. 012 ENERGY AND HCL RECOVERY FROM PVC IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION Musdalslien U I. IOM Communications Ltd. 7 refs. 012 STERICALLY HINDERED PHENOLS IN PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF PVC Wegmann A. Paper 43. p. Paper 44. 012 HIGHER OUTPUT AND LESS WEAR Schneider H-P Krauss-Maffei Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An in-depth analysis is made of the wear behaviour of Krauss-Maffei’s twin-screw extruders for manufacturing PVC pipes. NORWAY.852779 Item 146 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Paper 32. Paper 41.852781 Item 144 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002. The energy balance. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 40. 23rd-25th April 2002. (Institute of Materials) Improved techniques for stabilising formulations and identifying and targeting the extrusion process window. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.388-98. Wear mechanisms and factors for minimising wear and influencing wear behaviour are discussed and the development of a new series of 36D double degassing extruders. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. are outlined.Ltd. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. (Institute of Materials) A study was carried out into the potential recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols using a ceramic multi-bore crossflow tube filter. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.852756 Item 153 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 10 refs. The procedure employed to perform the test sequence involved clean water flux measurement. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 MECHANISM OF ANTI-FOULING AGENTS IN S-PVC POLYMERISATIONS Visentini A (Institute of Materials) The formation of polymer build-up in polymerisation reactors and the routes towards minimising polymer buildup are described. London. 21cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. Fischer W. 012 MAGIC INGREDIENTS FOR PVC Bechthold N Degussa (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of antifoam chemistry from Degussa and its application to the production and formulation of organo-modified siloxane anti-foaming agents for polyvinyl chloride. UK. partially hindered phenols.. UK. London. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. IOM Communications Ltd.852763 Item 152 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. 23rd-25th April 2002. optimisation trial.. UK.852766 Item 151 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. Properties evaluated included rheological properties. Permeate samples were analysed using gas chromatography and compared with standards of diisononylphthalate(DINP)/white spirit mixtures. UK. Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. 21cm. p. 21cm. a naphthol/formaldehyde condensate. London. 21cm. London. Paper 31. 2002. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. 012 THE POTENTIAL RECOVERY OF PLASTICISER AND SOLVENT FROM WASTE PVC PLASTISOLS USING MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY Bushell T. media acclimatisation. GERMANY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The antifouling action of Evicas 90. p. p. as effective chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation and as heat stabilisers for MBS (impact modifiers for PVC) and PVC plasticisers are demonstrated. EVC ITALIA SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The ceramic membrane successfully recovered a clear mixture of DINP and white spirit. IOM Communications Ltd. Cockett S Chemson Group (Institute of Materials) Polyvinyl chloride window profile formulations containing organic-based and calcium-zinc stabilisers were produced and the performance of the stabilised PVC compounds compared. 23rd-25th April 2002.273-81. 23rd-25th April 2002. heat stability. 012 NEW GENERATION OF STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PVC PROFILES Schiller M. ITALY. is demonstrated and the main factors influencing the formation of polymer build-up and the effectiveness of antifouling agents are outlined. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. 2002. such as Irganox 1141. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. gloss. 23rd-25th April 2002. London.221-7.852767 Item 150 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE Akros Chemicals (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of the analytical methods employed to detect volatile organic compounds associated with solid and liquid stabilisers in PVC used in such applications as floor coverings and wall coverings and a description is given of the ways in which these methods are being utilised to improve stabiliser performance in flexible polyvinyl chloride. 2002.311-6. p. Paper 17. Howick C Pall Corp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 27.. 012 DETECTION AND REDUCTION OF VOLATILE EMISSIONS FROM FLEXIBLE PVC Mellor M T J. Paper 20..317-21. Malcomson S P 78 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . colour.References and Abstracts The use and benefits of liquid. cleaning trial and final water flux measurement. SWITZERLAND. EUROPEAN UNION.852768 Item 149 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. 7 refs. European Vinyls Corp. UK.186-91. Paper 30. 2002. concentration run.

wood-filled and wood profiles based upon wood fibres and PVC is discussed and the extruders employed are described. Paper 8. p. EUROPEAN UNION.852749 Item 157 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.852744 Item 158 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. AUSTRIA. BELGIUM. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. UK. UK. Paper 16. Machinery for coextrusion is also described and details are provided on a specially designed coextruder (BEX 254CC/1) equipped with negative conical screws. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.852753 Item 154 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.852743 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 79 .852750 Accession no. IOM Communications Ltd. GERMANY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED PVC PROFILES FOR WINDOW APPLICATIONS Cora B Rohm & Haas European Laboratories (Institute of Materials) The effect of the type of impact modifier on the melt flow of a PVC window profile formulation as a function of shear rates encountered during extrusion was investigated and the relationship between the melt flow and mechanical properties of the profiles evaluated. 012 EXTRUSION TOOLS . Honeywell. London. bypass rheometry. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Item 156 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. recyclability. EUROPEAN UNION. Van Soom K. UK.References and Abstracts mechanical properties. such as alumina and silica. dual extrusion. 6 refs. melt homogenisation. UK. The characteristics and benefits of the products are also considered. Trends in high speed extrusion. Schiller M Loughborough. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The effects of water content and anti-plate-out additives.. 21cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. 6 refs. p. 2 refs. inexpensive tooling. 23rd-25th April 2002. London. FRANCE.179-85. 21cm. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. process documentation and customer education. sidings.. on plate-out are discussed and mechanisms explaining the formation of plate-out are proposed. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. flow simulation. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. A special die and calibrator unit developed to investigate plate-out are illustrated and the reproducibility of the method evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy and laser ionisation mass spectrometry. 23rd-25th April 2002. 21cm. 11 refs. London. IOM Communications Ltd. 012 PLATE-OUT IN PVC EXTRUSION Gilbert M.THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECT Seifert S Battenfeld Extrusionstechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) The aim of coextrusion is outlined and the tooling available for different types of profiles. plate-out and artificial weathering.WHERE TO GO IN TOOLING Dorninger F Technoplast Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An examination is made of past and future trends in extrusion tooling. fences and foam profiles. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Paper 7. IOM Communications Ltd. A Rheoplast Capillary Rheometer with a pre-shearing device was employed to investigate the melt viscoelastic properties of the formulations and the performance of the formulations in terms of post-extrusion shrinkage. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. UK. including window profiles. Paper 13.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002. SEM-EDX. including DSC. p. 012 COEXTRUSION OF PVC PROFILES . AUSTRIA. p. is described.. Paper 14. 21cm. AUSTRIA..157-65. 012 EXTRUSION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE MATERIALS Sehnal E Cincinnati Extrusion (Institute of Materials) The extrusion of woodlike. Chemson (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of a study of plate-out in PVC extrusion carried out using several analytical techniques. 2002. 2002.105-15.95-104. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 23rd-25th April 2002.852752 Item 155 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. London. IOM Communications Ltd. surface gloss and enthalpy relaxation discussed.University. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 23rd-25th April 2002.151-6. flexible tooling. Varshney N.

Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Nonylphenol is a persistent. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 4. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd. PP. toxic and oestrogenic chemical used in PVC. Andrikopoulos K S HELLAS A new method is proposed for the estimation of the segmental orientation of vinyl or vinylidene polymers of moderate crystallinity by acquisition of only one Raman spectrum at a specific polarisation geometry. tin stabilisers for PVC and issues concerning zinc. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. Jan. April 2002. These include the structure and mission of the ESPA.4.528-35 FAST MONITORING OF THE MOLECULAR ORIENTATION IN DRAWN POLYMERS USING MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Voyiatzis G A. 21 refs. 53-62. but did consider potential exposures from migration from food packaging.852455 Item 161 European Chemical News 76.13 NONYL PHENOL “UBIQUITOUS IN FOOD”. key milestones of the PVC Industry Voluntary Commitment relating to stabilisers. A risk assessment conducted during a recent EU review was unable to estimate human NP exposure from pesticides in food. JULICH.327. p. a uniaxially oriented PVC pipe and a biaxially oriented PVC pipe was studied by IR dichroism. alternatives to lead. Stoynov L A. packaging and cleaning products are possible sources.References and Abstracts Item 159 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.12 PRODUCERS STILL DOMINATE MARKET Atofina continues to lead the European PVC compounding market.22.2000. scenario of lead replacement in Western Europe. No. 18 refs.1675-82 POLARISED INFRARED AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDIES ON ORIENTED VINYL PIPE MATERIALS Kwon J A. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. Truss R W Queensland. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University of Technology Details are given of the feasibility of using concentrated solar beam radiation for joining engineering thermoplastics such as HDPE. Yarlagadda P K D V Queensland. current EU legislative status of cadmium and lead. 21cm. 2002. London. APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. GREECE. However. Swinburne. UK. The Accession no. RESEARCHERS FIND German researchers have reported that the oestrogenic chemical nonylphenol is detectable in all kinds of foods./Feb. 23rd-25th April 2002. according to a recent study by Applied Market Information. the EC Green Paper on stabilisers published on 27th July 2000 and the resolution of the EU Parliament relating to lead and cadmium stabilisers adopted on 3rd April 2001. The advantages and limitations of the solar energy concentrator technique are assessed. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL volumes compounded by smaller independent producers since 1999 and this trend is set to continue. p. GERMANY.851725 Item 164 Journal of Materials Science 37.INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The effect of variation of parameters such as standoff distance. and PVDF. No. All the top five PVC compounders in Europe but one are major PVC producers. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the bond strength at the joint interface.. p. 8th-14th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE. isotactic PP.1. 012 THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT STABILISER CHANGES Rosenthal M ESPA (Institute of Materials) This presentation covers various aspects relating to stabilisers. p.851731 Item 163 Applied Spectroscopy 56.852740 Item 160 ENDS Report No. AUSTRALIA Accession no.8. No.1-25 THERMOPLASTIC JOINING USING SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATOR Siores E. 15th April 2002.852435 Item 162 Journal of Polymer Engineering Vol.University of Technology. PVC and PS. GERMANY. They suggest that pesticides. there has been a significant increase in the 80 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . weld time and idle processing temperature along with the analysis of the tensile strength of the resultant bond is discussed. April 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University The molecular orientation on a conventionally extruded PVC pipe. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Data are presented for PVC. plastics additives with approval for direct food contact. p. p.

XII. 2002. 26 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. Flexibles. Kunze R.1-2. pp. Jan. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.3.850351 Item 167 Polymer International 51.850492 Item 166 London.608.2600-3 MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN INJECTION-MOLDED POLYMER PARTS BY TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE Ikawa T. PIFA (Institute of Materials) The key theme of this three day international conference is the role the PVC industry can play in creating a sustainable future. mass loss. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology.References and Abstracts degree of order or crystallinity was also studied by DSC and FTIR. No. March 2002. whereas kaolin-filled compositions exhibited a more complex behaviour. respectively. Sustainability. An increase in the chalk content in a PVC composition led to a monotonic increase in D. antimony oxide and the corresponding mixtures on the thermal decomposition of plasticised PVC was demonstrated. 20 refs. BPF. PVC profiles. 2002. smoke production.B. Neubert D.846968 Item 169 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83. Nos. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD BRIGHTON. p. Synergism was observed for the combination of the two additives. Time-resolved fluorescence using 9-methylanthracene (9MAn) as a photoluminescent probe was used to detect residual stresses on polymer products. AUSTRALIA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002.213-22 ZNS AS FIRE RETARDANT IN PLASTICISED PVC Schartel B. Accession no. p. (Full translation of Vys. Addition of 5% ZnS had no significant influence on the fire retardant. 21cm. Klimov D S. The applicability of the method was demonstrated for filled PVC compositions plasticised with di-n-butyl phthalate. No.. The influence of ZnS. CO production) was monitored versus external heat fluxes between 30 and 75 kW/sq m with the cone calorimeter. heat release.32 Russian SINSTAD POLYFUNCTIONAL COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. p. The thermal degradation and the combustion behaviour were studied by TGA coupled with FTIR or with mass spectrometry(MS) and using a cone calorimeter. May 2001. No.vii. Knyazeva E A Data are given on the thermal stability of Sinstad composition employed for stabilising compositions based on PVC. Data on the decomposition and release of the pyrolysis products were obtained using both TGAMS and TGA-FTIR. The combustion behaviour (time to ignition. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.851679 Item 165 Polymer Science Series B 44. Synergism of ZnS and antimony oxide allowed the possibility of replacing half the antimony oxide with ZnS to reach equivalent fire retardancy. Papers are divided into nine sessions: Strategic direction. IOM Communications Ltd. 5% antimony oxide and 5% of mixtures based on antimony oxide and ZnS was studied. Okada A Toyota Central R & D Laboratories Inc. Lyutikova E A. Klimov S A. 44. Mel’nik A I. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. SYNERGISTIC ADDITIVES IN SINSTAD COMPOSITION No B I. Polymerisation. UK. The observed pattern of changes in D with varying filler content was correlated with the competing interaction of components in the system.2.Soed.2002. 10 refs. Shiga T.12.State University An IR spectroscopy technique was developed to study the plasticiser migration from polymer compositions to the air environment. Zotov Yu L. Stabilisers. Processing. Shatalin Yu V. Pyzh’yanova L G Urals.45-9 IR SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF PLASTICIZER MIGRATION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)BASED COMPOSITIONS Lirova B I. Tidjani A Germany. Shishkin E V. Values for the effective diffusion coefficient(D) of the plasticiser were calculated from the spectroscopic data.847565 Item 168 Plasticheskie Massy No. 012 PVC 2002:TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. Additives EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The test enabled the estimation of residual tensile stresses on Accession no. 60 papers. 29 refs. of the PVC samples containing carbon black and 9MAn.5. not the strains. Challenges and markets.363-8) RUSSIA Plasticised PVC containing different combinations of additives such as 5% ZnS. 23RD-25TH APRIL 2002 European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers./Feb.Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 81 . p. The fluorescence lifetimes of 9MAn in this nondestructive measurement were correlated with the stresses.

(SPE. furniture and automotive trim. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Iselin.2. GERMANY. Conference proceedings. 11th-12th Sept.103-11 MAKE/BUY PVC COMPOUNDING. High performance functional membranes useful for ion exchange were obtained by grafting acrylamide (Aam) monomer onto PVC films using gamma radiation. Sayed M S. LEDERER GMBH EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Zaragoza. Hegazu El-Sayed A Cairo.573-80 Spanish STUDY OF AN EXTRUSION DIE FOR PVC SEWER PIPES: POSSIBILITIES OF IMPROVING OUTPUT AND PRODUCT QUALITY USING THE DIEPLAST CAE SOFTWARE Monzon M D.4 FREUDENBERG ADDS R&D. Benitez A N. BUYS STAKE IN LEDERER White L This is actually two small articles. Pushing Profitability. Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico. EUROPEAN UNION..3. EGYPT Accession no.J. Examples include vinyl siding. SPE. using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Gomez R Gran Canaria. No. EUROPEAN UNION. A study of the selectivity of the membranes towards various radionuclides showed that the PVC-g-PAAm polymer obtained had a very marked tendency towards preferential removal of 60Co from a radioactive liquid containing both 60Co and 137Cs. automobiles and furniture. N. 18 refs.& Technol. Trends driving the use of these non-lead and HMF materials in Accession no. USA Accession no. Castany F J. vinyl windows. bulk truck or bulk rail car. and X-ray diffraction for determining changes in polymer morphology. p.539.846198 Item 171 European Rubber Journal 184.845460 Item 173 Vinyltec 2001. p.97-101 NON-LEAD AND HEAVY METAL-FREE TRENDS IN WIRE AND CABLE Grant J PolyOne Corp. JAPAN Maziad N A. developed by Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria de los Plasticos. Iselin. RECOMMENDATION FOR THE IN-HOUSE BLENDING OF PVC COMPOUNDS Mathews G C Coronado Engineering Inc.Universidad de Las Palmas.2001. Comparison of the results with experimental extrusion studies showed the feasibility of improving output and product quality through modest changes in die design. There are major companies prepared to supply the pre-mixed compound usually delivered in Gaylord boxes.150-5 USE OF RADIATION GRAFTED PVCACRYLAMIDE MEMBRANES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT 82 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited ..845037 Item 174 Vinyltec 2001.References and Abstracts the skin-layer of PVC injection-moulded test pieces. p. p. decking. Plastican SA. March 2002.Vinyl Div. An attempt is made identify and familiarise processors with the factors and costs for the make/buy decision. At some volume in a producer’s process the make/buy decision is imminent. Pushing Profitability. Conference proceedings. Lederer GmbH.. May 2001. both relating to the Freudenberg Group of Germany.e. (SPE.Palisades Section) The market for PVC based compounds continues to expand as a primary substitute for natural materials the most prolific being building products.Palisades Section) Non-lead and heavy-metal-free (HMF) stabilised PVC compounds present a viable material alternative to vinyl lead-based systems for wire and cable applications. Feb.2001. No. No. their thermal properties.2002. FREUDENBERG GROUP.. FREUDENBERG MECHATRONIC KG. SPE. fencing.. soffits. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. characterisation and some of the properties of the membranes were studied. FUEL CELL COMPONENTS CO. 13 refs. The second tells us that Freudenberg Group’s sealing operation has purchased an interest in the German liquid silicone specialist. SPAIN. 11th-12th Sept.845709 Item 172 Polymer International 51. 11 refs.University The Dieplast computer aided engineering software.National Center for Radiation Res. The first reports that the Group has recently set up two research companies: Freudenberg Mechatronic KG and Fuel Cell Components Co. and the preparation.J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. N. p. i. Brief details are given. trim.846594 Item 170 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81.Vinyl Div. was used to investigate modifications to the design of an extrusion die for PVC sewer pipe production.

J. Surface delamination was investigated. Pushing Profitability.J. Marcquenski D Baxter Healthcare Details are given of the design of an autoclavable medical device using flexible PVC. p. It is also shown that the larger the median of the psd.Vinyl Div. Ling M T K. Pushing Profitability. (SPE. suppliers of resin and additive formulations and processors have worked together to improve profitability of the production of extruded PVC sheet. USA Accession no.844617 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 83 . The regulations and factors influencing public perception driving the use of the materials. Conference proceedings. Boutelle T. machinery suppliers. p. it is shown that the degree of wear can be closely correlated with the level of impurities present in the natural mineral. are discussed. It is found that the abrasiveness of calcium carbonate is. are reviewed. less downtime. Experiments on residual stresses after moulding and statistical analysis of the moulding process were conducted.845035 Item 176 Vinyltec 2001. SPE. N. The economic impact on manufacturers switching to non-lead and HMF systems is discussed. Recent developments in flat die extrusion and coextrusion technology are presented. film and a variety of commercial applications. The device was injection moulded and exposed to steam autoclaving. 11th-12th Sept. N. the greater the abrasive wear on the screen. SPE. Booras J. 4 refs. die suppliers. p. SPE. CANADA applications.Vinyl Div. USA Accession no..845027 Item 178 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 5. Finally.. No. are enjoying many of these advances. as expected. The effects of particle size and mineral contamination level are explored. p.References and Abstracts applications where there is human contact. such as building and construction. 11th-12th Sept. Iselin. reduced maintenance and better overall and layer-to-layer uniformity are examined.2001. (SPE. Conference proceedings. Lead is a widely and safely used stabiliser in wire and cable systems where there is minimal human contact with out-of-reach materials. 11th-12th Sept. 16 refs.Palisades Section) recent advances that have enhanced profitability of PVC sheet and film production are discussed..Palisades Section) Calcium carbonate loaded systems are tested for abrasive wear on extruder parts through a test which measures the weight of a bronze alloy screen placed in a supporting screen pack before and after a 5500 g extrusion run. Autumn 2001.2001. PVC processors in all Accession no.Vinyl Div. Pushing Profitability.Palisades Section) The degradable nature of PVC makes its extrusion a challenging task. together with current developments in vinyl. much lower than that of titanium dioxide and increases with increased loading levels. appliance cable and others.55-8 SURFACE DELAMINATION OF AN INJECTION MOLDED MEDICAL DEVICE USING FLEXIBLE PVC Yang T. Calhoun A Imerys Pigments & Additives (SPE. The advances made in die design and functionality that have afforded longer production runs. Although PVC is one of the most difficult polymers to process. together with their use in different segments of the PVC extrusion industry.89-96 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN VINYL FLAT DIE EXTRUSION Rincon A Extrusion Dies Inc.J. through the 1990s. as well as the effect of mineral loading level.845036 Item 175 Vinyltec 2001. as well as thermoformed packaging.71-4 IMPROVING PROFITABILITY IN VINYL SHEET AND FILM PRODUCTION Darrow D J Cloeren Inc.845032 Item 177 Vinyltec 2001.. Shang S.2. non-lead wet-rated systems. However.. such as with telephone and extension cords. Iselin. N. Conference proceedings. residence time and the streamlining of the flow channel are critical variables to be examined during the design process of extrusion equipment. Woo L. Gatrrett S.2001.29-38 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE ABRASIVE WEAR OF MELT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT IN FILLED SYSTEMS Mobley G. regulations such as California’s Proposition 65 and public reaction to the issue of lead content in consumer products have put pressure on wire and cable manufacturers to reduce the lead content in cable applications where there may be human contact. Jin H-S. such as those used for fixed cable installations. Iselin. 8 refs. USA Accession no. Temperature control. as well as the chemistry of non-lead and HMF stabilisers. Joiner L. Blom H. USA Accession no..

12. 10 refs.235-43 PHOTOSTABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) BY PROTECTIVE COATINGS Decker C Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse A survey of work carried out to increase the light stability of PVC using UV-cured acrylic clearcoats is presented. Rinaldi G La Sapienza. Dec.References and Abstracts Item 179 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. Nov. The causes and extent of plasticiser loss from the surfaces of PVC objects stored in museums rather than in everyday use are examined. 18 refs. unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins in PVC was investigated using short-term tensile and long-term tensile creep testing and calculations of isochronous creep 84 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .wt.214-21 PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: PREPARATION. Hilton B A US. p.Environmental Protection Agency Details are given of the application of a micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry Accession no. It was found that the best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading and 5 to 10% DOP loading. The most likely cause is migration of plasticiser from the bulk phase to the surface layer.and long-term mechanical properties.% of these resins improved not only thermal. exudation of droplets which subsequently join to form films on the surface. EUROPEAN UNION. DENMARK. Wilkie C A Marquette.of Polymer Chemistry) Deterioration of plasticised PVC in the museum environment is most frequently manifested by a tacky feel to the plastic. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University. No. melt compounding time and annealing.Universita The thermal and UV stabilising action of linear. 2001. Dec. p. 2001. Parlow D.842921 Item 181 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. Number 2. chemicals. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. It was found that 20 to 30 wt. SCANDINAVIA. The effects of various factors. Yao Q. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Permanence of a plasticiser is determined by its compatibility with the resin and also by kinetic effects such as volatility and extraction. Conference proceedings.842924 Item 180 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. 20th-24th Aug. The successful use of this approach to recover highly photodegraded PVC and produce a material with even better weathering resistance is also demonstrated.National Museum (ACS. Dec. No. Volume 41. Varner K E. EUROPEAN UNION.933-8 SPECIFICATION AND DETECTION OF ORGANOTINS FROM PVC PIPE BY MICROLIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHYELECTROSPRAY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY Jones-Lepp T L. oxidative and UV stability but also provided PVC with good short.C.39-48 STABILISING ACTION OF POLYMERIC PLASTICISERS IN PVC Maura G. A sweet odour may also be detected. D. 2001.840047 Item 183 Applied Organometallic Chemistry 15.841755 Item 182 Polymer Preprints. plasticiser content. attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. although this period is highly dependent on its previous history and function. The behaviour of model formulations is compared with that of naturally aged objects using low vacuum scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that light stability of PVC can be considerably improved through the use of a clearcoat containing a UV absorber and a hindered amine radical scavenger. Washington. No. The results presented form the first stage of a continuing research project.4. embrittlement and discolouration of the bulk plastic results. 2001. p. Brooklyn.Div.. FRANCE. Shrinkage.2000.1796-7 PERMANENCE OF PLASTICISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE OBJECTS IN THE MUSEUM ENVIRONMENT Shashoua Y Denmark. p. transparency and gloss after being subjected to accelerated weathering tests and improved resistance to solvents. WESTERN EUROPE moduli.4. 9 refs.Polytechnic University Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC-clay nanocomposites were produced by melt blending in the presence and absence of DOP and characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. p. scratching and abrasion. 8 refs. low molec. and adhesion of the object to packaging materials. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Loss of permanence of phthalate plasticisers in museum objects has been observed within 15 years of collecting plasticised PVC objects. including volume fraction of clay. on nanocomposite structure and the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were also examined. THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Wang D. Photochemical grafting of the clearcoat onto the PVC substrate results in coated PVC exhibiting long-term adhesion. ITALY. 176.

1. Perugia. Also described is the TX-75 device used to test the light transmissivity of the mixture of PVC powder and plasticiser. The effect of irradiation dose and different polyfunctional monomers(PFMs) at a constant ratio of 10 phr on the physicochemical properties of a PVC formulation used as wire coating was investigated. BELGIUM. MIKRON INDUSTRIES. 2001. p.University The recycling of PVC by hydrothermal techniques is described. ITALY. hydrogen.2. and in addition. SOLVAY. Slapak M J P Eindhoven.University Thermal degradation and degradation kinetics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisols. NORTH AMERICA. NETHERLANDS. and help in the understanding of the process.834285 Item 188 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. This article looks at the methods being used. VINYL INSTITUTE. TECNOMETAL. 18 refs.T/10-14 STUDY OF PVC PLASTICISER INTERACTION Marossy K. USA Item 186 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. RECYCLATE USE Defosse M We are told in this article that PVC is in fact recyclable. EASTERN EUROPE. 23 refs. were examined using dynamic and Accession no. No. type of plasticiser and effect of the molecular weight of the PVC powder. The dissolution temperature obtained can be used to test plasticisers and to evaluate the morphology of the PVC powder. p. 7 refs.838767 Item 184 Modern Plastics International 31. partial combustion of PVC by the addition of small amounts of air. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate. EUROPEAN UNION.. Consideration is given to the effect of the rate of heating. EVC. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Zahran A H Egypt. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS. carbon dioxide. Torre L. Gaal H. The PFMs used were trimethylolpropane triacrylate. enables autothermic operation of the process to take place. EGYPT Accession no.1. VINNOLIT KUNSTSTOFF. 11 refs. 2001.11. USA. p.447-53 THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOWMIGRATION POLYMERIC PLASTICIZERS Jimenez A. PROGNOS. KOBE STEEL. EUROPE-GENERAL. carbon monoxide and some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. Data are presented for the detection of dibutyltin. WESTERN EUROPE. MARLEY FLOORS LTD. Viscosity measurements are used to supplement the results obtained by optical examination. Ali Z I.6-hexanediol diacrylate. diethylene glycol diacrylate. EUROPEAN UNION. ethylene glycol dimethacrylate.. This work deals with the effects of the addition of air on the gasification products. SOLVIN. PRINCIPIA PARTNERS. 2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. used as a heat stabiliser in the PVC. EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR PLASTICISERS & INTERMEDIATES.. p.43-8 INFLUENCE OF OXYGEN ON THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF PVC Van Kasteren J M N. Whilst gasification with only steam is an endothermic reaction. Dec. The properties studied included tensile properties at room and elevated temps. EUROPEAN PLASTICS CONVERTERS ASSN. EUROPEAN STABILISERS PRODUCERS ASSN. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. LINDE AG. 2001. (Article translated from Muanyag es Gumi. softening temp.3.12. swelling characteristics and volume resistivity. 2001. No.38-9 INDUSTRY ADVANCES EFFORTS IN RECYCLING.References and Abstracts method for the separation and detection of organotin compounds leached from potable-water PVC pipes. FRANCE. it is claimed.2001.& Technol. No.838578 Item 185 Polymer Degradation and Stability 74.National Centre for Radiation Res. HUNGARY Accession no. pentaerythritol tetraacrylate. No. p. Kenny J M Alicante. in which PVC is thermally converted in a steam atmosphere into hydrogen chloride.University.838053 Item 187 Polymer Recycling 6. No. DECEUNINCK. p. plasticised by polymeric plasticiser.838274 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 85 . the method can be used to determine the K value of PVC powders. GERMANY. We are also told that limitations to increase PVC recycling have largely been due to low prices for virgin material.213-8 ELECTRON BEAM STRUCTURE MODIFICATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)WIRE COATING Youssef H A. and inconsistent supply of recyclate. Magyar E The use is described of a method of investigating PVC plasticiser interaction by means of measuring light transmission. triallyl cyanurate and 1. VULCAFLEX. VEKA AG.12). and that it is already being recycled by some companies. and compares an endothermic operation with autothermic and exothermic operation. SWITZERLAND. and also cites examples of the use of the recyclate. EU. JAPAN.

Conference proceedings. JAPAN Accession no. Flow instability in a capillary extrusion is studied for a high molecular weight. Material of acceptable quality and pipe to the required standards were produced by the double batching process. This reduces the overall energy requirements.. Proceedings of a conference held June 2001. IOM Communications Ltd. 4 refs. p. USA Accession no. 31st Oct. Rigid PVC for pipe manufacture was processed by both methods. Addition of the processing aid gave foams with densities comparable to those of neat rigid PVC. was compared with the double batching preparation process.. Chembur (SPE) Conventional poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) batch preparation in which the dry materials are blended in a heated mixer and then cooled in a cooler mixer. A method of modifying the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation is described. Texas.2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. plasticised PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the exothermic CFA giving smaller average cell sizes compared with the endothermic agent. Texas. Texas. The foaming agents were modified azodicarbonamide (exothermic) and sodium bicarbonate (endothermic). Paparao C.. No. whilst the cell size was dependent upon the CFA type.830041 Item 193 Antec 2001. 6th-10th May. Dallas. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.Technological University (SPE) The influence of chemical foaming agent (CFA) type and concentration. Dallas. Zlin. paper 611 OPTIMIZATION OF PVC DRY BLEND PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH DOUBLE BATCHING Kannan V.References and Abstracts isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under a nitrogen atmosphere.5. In this process. 19 refs. The results of TGA for different plasticiser levels and cure temperatures and times were used to optimise the formulation and processing methods suitable for industrial production. Results were compared to those obtained for traditional phthalate and adipate plasticised materials.Conference proceedings. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Item 191 Antec 2001. Interdisciplinary Research Centre) The degradation of rigid PVC occurring in a section of converging flow where material flow is squeezed after passing through a screen changer section was investigated. although the apparent shear stress remains constant irrespective of residence time. and assessed by studying the rheological and physical properties and extrudability.831294 Item 190 POLYMER PROCESSING ENGINEERING. The density was not influenced by the CFA content. Dallas. 6th-10th May. 01.831826 Item 189 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82. Simonik J Compuplast International Inc. paper 605 Accession no. 6th-10th May.Conference proceedings. 012 DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS DURING THE EXTRUSION PROCESS Vlcek J. Matuana L M Michigan. and were shown to be similar. CZECH REPUBLIC. paper 609 FOAMING OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES THROUGH A CONTINUOUS EXTRUSION PROCESS Mengeloglu F. Samsonkova P.81-7. The extrudate temperature and the species of the plasticiser also have a significant influence on the apparatus of the extruded products. EUROPEAN UNION. INDIA Accession no. Purav Marg V N Reliance Industries Ltd. on the density and cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/wood flour composites was investigated. ITALY. 25 refs. and offered the possibility of producing rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams without the use of CFA. The foamed materials were characterised by density and cell size measurement. EUROPEAN UNION. 28 refs. with enhanced productivity and cost savings on power and labour.Tomas Bata University (Institute of Materials.830362 86 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . and the use of an all-acrylic processing aid. The role of shear stress in polymer degradation is examined and the critical shear stress is calculated for the flow domain with degradation. The onset of melt fracture correlates with the long time relaxation ascribed to the generation and/or growth of PVC crystallites. 2001.830043 Item 192 Antec 2001. 2001. London. twice the required additives are added to the PVC. and the balance of the PVC then added to the mixed materials in the cooler mixer. Paper 9. 2001. An increase in residence time in the cylinder leads to this long time relaxation and results in melt fracture.1277-83 FLOW INSTABILITY IN CAPILLARY EXTRUSION OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Yamaguchi M Tosoh Corp. 2001. blended in the hot mixer. Vasudeo Y B. SPAIN.

Sookkho D. 6 refs. Texas. No. The composites also exhibited the aesthetics of wood and economics that were favourable compared with those of both rigid and cellular PVC. which includes PVC foam and PVC/wood flour composite. lower moisture absorption and ease of installation. demand for HDPE is rising by about 8%/year.134-7 PVC WOOD: A NEW LOOK IN CONSTRUCTION Chetanachan W.830037 Item 194 Antec 2001. Sutthitavil W.6 g/cc. paper 604 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PLASTICIZERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS Vijayendran B R. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (SPE) Molecular modelling was used establish modifications of soyabean oil which would render it suitable for use as a primary plasticiser in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). 5 refs. but reduced the surface energy when used with the proprietary plasticiser. even with densities as low as 0. Sept. USA from ductile iron and concrete. AND VINYL PARRIES. McGinniss V D. for example. potable water and sewage pipe. Sept. Sept. The performance of PVC containing these plasticisers was compared with that containing a commercial adipate polyester. Dallas. is one reason processors think oriented PVC pipe can hold its own in potable water markets. cut and bonded like wood by conventional tools without any special skills being required. Attention was focused on solubility and volatility parameters.2001. The soyabean oil-based plasticisers exhibited excellent plasticising efficiency with a significant reduction in migration and volatility.5 phr was also investigated. For sewage lines. as an alternative to wood and wood-like products is discussed. It is demonstrated that PVC wood can be nailed. Benecke H. volatilities. 3 refs. and dry blend times according to ASTM D-239694. p. USA Accession no.Conference proceedings. While PVC use in potable water pipe is stagnating at current levels.3. However.830036 Item 195 Modern Plastics International 31. sawed. The polymeric plasticisers gave surface energy increases of up to 4 dynes/cm. The influence of varying the stearic acid lubricant concentration over the range 0-0. No. provided by new processing procedures that orient the PVC’s molecular structure. Cincinnati Extrusion estimates demand growth at less than 1% for PVC versus 6% for PP. One growth area for PVC is foam core pipes. the PVC wood is shown to exhibit improved termite resistance and weathering resistance. 2001.2001. FOR WATER MARKET Defosse M Just as extruded PVC pipe has grabbed a majority share of the water transportation pipe market in the last 50 years © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 87 . Chantasatrasamy N. Sinsermsuksakul R Thai Plastic & Chemicals The use of PVC wood. WORLD Accession no. Stearic acid used in conjunction with the conventional plasticiser had little effect on surface energy. Accession no. Films were produced and the tensile modulus. No.829711 Item 196 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. has a specific gravity of about 1.3. the physical properties should be adequate for many wood replacement applications. Elhard J D.829656 Item 197 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. p. screwed. Compared with traditional products.2001. A major disadvantage of composites of wood with thermoplastics materials is a relatively high specific gravity compared with those of many natural wood products. Overall. but it can still be used for Accession no. improved impact resistance.9. p.53/5 POLYOLEFINS CHALLENGE.References and Abstracts INCREASED VINYL SURFACE ENERGY THROUGH PLASTICIZER CHOICE Streeter B (SPE) Proprietary polymeric plasticisers for poly(vinyl chloride) were developed which both plasticised and also increased the surface energy to facilitate printing. and functionalities. 6th-10th May. The manufacture of cellular PVC-based wood composites was studied and the properties that were achieved as the foam density was reduced were examined. now polyolefins such as HDPE and PP are taking market share from PVC in the two highest-volume applications. The prepared materials were assessed by measurement of surface energy according to ASTM D2578. Ferris K F Battelle Memorial Institute. The plasticisers were compared with dioctyl phthalate at high and low loadings in two PVCs. elongation and tensile strength were measured. A PVC-wood composite. and six grades were produced with a range of viscosities.3 g/cc. Volatile was was measured at 70 C for time periods of 24 and 120 h.138-41 NEW OPPORTUNITIES WITH WOOD-FLOURFOAMED PVC Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. The bending strength of PVC wood is lower.

ITALY. infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used to study the results of corona discharge treatment of polyvinyl chloride samples with different plasticiser contents.40 PULLING PLASTIC PROFILES Vink D At the Profiles 2000 conference.2001.1881-90 FORMULATION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOW-TOXICITY ADDITIVES Jimenez A. does not affect the electrolytic equilibrium.28.2419-25 CORONA DISCHARGE TREATMENTS OF PLASTIFIED PVC SAMPLES USED IN BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Dumitrascu N.1/23 FDA REPORT WON’T END PVC PRODUCT DEBATE Toloken S 88 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . RUMANIA Accession no.828929 Item 201 European Plastics News 28.I.Polytechnical University. They are then drawn into the extrusion forming die area. allowing use in biomedical applications. The company claims that its thermoplastic pultrusion is ten times faster at 10m/m for a 2-12mm thick profile than is typical with thermosetting resins. 5 refs. Perugia. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content.8. Pera discussed a research project which had led to the production of PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness. Popa G Jassy. together with the determination of the optimum processing conditions for the higher viscosity plastisols using the polymeric plasticiser.Cuza A. US. new formulations of PVC plastisols were proposed and characterised. while the Accession no. Mechanical and optical properties were examined. The system. THAILAND Accession no.2001. FibrePlas. p.I-Shou University Triallyl cyanurate(TAC) was used as a reactive plasticiser to promote the high-temp. No.10. SPAIN. According to the report. University Scanning electron microscopy. but an increase in porosity and cleaning of oligomers from the surface were noted. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Kenny J M Alicante. WORLD Accession no. The gel yield and crosslink density in the gel increased with increasing TAC concentration in the plastisol.8.828570 Item 202 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. In this technology. creep resistance of PVC plastisols. 22nd August 2001. No. p. 12 refs. with surface functionalisation which. 10th Sept.University Based on low-toxicity polymeric plasticisers. The effect on the network structure of using a free radical scavenger in the formulation was also studied.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION Accession no.998-1006 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-TRIALLYL CYANURATE PLASTISOLS Horng-Jer Tai Taiwan. Lopez J. Details are given. EASTERN EUROPE.829340 Item 200 Plastics News(USA) 13. has been used in a pultruded conservatory roof spar.6. Sept. EUROPEAN UNION. No. p. WESTERN EUROPE The Food and Drug Administration is reported to have released a long-awaited report on the safety of diethylhexyl phthalate. from observation of biological adsorption tests. p. but the conclusion will not end the debate on the safety of PVC health-care products.References and Abstracts decorative applications. where a larger extruder applies a conventional extrusion grade of PVC.2001.e. Valencia. Borcia G. The report also says that a small number of adults undergoing some types of blood transfusion and patients who receive enteral nutrition treatments could be at risk.829655 Item 198 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. i. continuous glass fibres are impregnated with low viscosity PVC melt from a small extruder. Dow Plastics introduced Fulcrum technology hardware and resin system for continous fibre pultrusion of thermoplastic PU in 1999. June 2001. doors and siding.University. The crosslinking reaction was initiated using peroxide. The resultant crosslinked structure was characterised using gel content and swell ratio measurements as well as FTIR spectroscopy. The report says that infants exposed to repeated treatments can receive between five and 20 times the safe levels. Surface energy increased. 21 refs. p. some young children undergoing medical procedures may be exposed to harmful levels of DEHP. Iannoni A. No.829456 Item 199 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. The study used propyleneglycol adipate as the polymeric plasticiser and compared its properties with two conventional phthalates DEHP and DINP. 6th Sept. cornices. one of the most widely used plasticisers in PVC health-care products.

The book concludes that while PVC replacement is an achievable objective a number of major obstacles have to be successfully overcome. paper 415 PVC/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Trlica J. Brno.Conference proceedings. Simonik J. Toxicology. drum speed. The degree of clay intercalation was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 2001. Thibodeau Montreal. 23 refs. Kosior E Swinburne.827042 Item 204 Antec 2001.University of Technology. 2001. 6th-10th May. Key barriers to PVC replacement. The system consisted of a heated rotating drum. Texas. Dallas. UK. biocompatibility and regulatory status of PVC medical compounds. and multi-stage separation on the separation Accession no. The system effectively removed trace amounts of PVC. value and future trends. Texas. residence time on the plate. so creating a barrier between the polymer and the quaternary amine. Environmental issues . paper 384 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUOUS THERMAL SEPARATION SYSTEM FOR THE REMOVAL OF PVC CONTAMINATION IN POSTCONSUMER PET FLAKE Dvorak R. which included flowbalancing. which was heated to a temperature which softened the PVC causing it to stick. Sterilisation of PVC based medical devices. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was dependent upon the type of organoclay. using a kneader or a counterrotating twin-screw extruder. 11cm. and the log. and bibliography of useful document abstracts. This book reports upon the use of PVC in the healthcare industry. Dallas. The simultaneous co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. the flake material fell onto an inclined vibrating plate..Conference proceedings. the inside of which was tapered and carried lifting bars. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the plate temperature being the most significant parameter influencing separation efficiency. It discusses what key properties it has which make it the most widely used polymer within the global healthcare market despite recent media speculation as to the associated environmental damage and risk to human health. 6th-10th May. plate angle. Pospisil L Aliachem jc. As the drum rotated. Lafleur P G. plate temperature. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no.825424 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 89 . AUSTRALIA Accession no. pp. Visy Plastics (SPE) A thermal system was evaluated for the separation of traces of PVC from flake post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP). Dallas. Texas.Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) A non-isothermal network flow model was developed to facilitate extrusion die design. Main headings include: Global market size. EUROPEAN UNION. 42C382 THE ROLE OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN HEALTHCARE Blass C R Rapra Technology Ltd.Polymer Institute (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by blending organoclays of varying levels of hydrophilicity with PVC and dioctylphthalate plasticiser.real and perceived. 7 refs. residence time and temperature. Recent advances in PVC medical compound technology. 6th-10th May. Brno. Kalendova A. Rapra Technology Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and thermal stability problems experienced during compounding were eliminated by pre-treating the organoclay with the plasticiser. TAIWAN efficiency were investigated. whilst the PETP was unaffected and fell from the plate for collection and processing. CANADA Accession no. Introduction of TAC into the plastisol promoted creep resistance at high temps.826523 Item 206 Antec 2001. The nanoclay additions enhanced dimensional stability and barrier properties. 6 refs.References and Abstracts grafted PVC fraction and the residual unsaturation of TAC behaved in the opposite way. PVC medical device application fields.826600 Item 205 Shawbury. creep rate was found to decrease linearly with increasing crosslink density. Processing and fabrication.827243 Item 203 Antec 2001. 2001. paper 28 STREAMLINE DIE DESIGN FOR COMPLEX GEOMETRIES Beaumier D. Malac Z. 45 refs.142.Technical University. The drum was fed with the flake by an auger. Poly(vinyl chloride) swelling measurements were made using capillary and slit dies to determine the swelling as a function of shear rate. sidewall effects and the dimensional changes which occur after the die exit. 4 refs. Benefits of PVC for healthcare. composition. Composition and property profile for flexible and rigid PVC compounds. The model was used to design several dies which gave satisfactory extrusion behaviour.Conference proceedings. The influences of drum temperature. 2001.

UK. p. DESPITE OFFICIAL LCA A discussion is presented on the switch by some councils and local housing associations from PVC to timber despite the Department for Environment. No. the previous study was expanded in an attempt to reproduce the effects observed on samples of commercially-produced films.Technological University Solid-state microcellular foaming technology was used to investigate the influence of impact modification on the foamability of neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood flour composite samples. p. and processing with partial replacement of the plasticiser and stabiliser and complete replacement of the lubricants.7. Klimov S A. Zotov Y L.824301 Item 210 ENDS Report No. 2001. p. to evaluate these changes using conventional processing. No. Using the techniques of FTIR and time of flight/ secondary ion mass spectroscopy. 7 refs. June 2001. independent of modifier type. The influence of impact modification on the sorption behaviour of carbon dioxide in the samples was also studied. The research reported consisted mainly of investigating the physical and mechanical properties of the plastic compound.1. June 2001.67-75 MICROCELLULAR FOAMING OF IMPACTMODIFIED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M.2. The issue of recycling of PVC window profiles is also considered. Mechanistic studies suggested that a revised hypothesis was appropriate and that the hydrolysed complex was actually formed in the PVC matrix and not at the surface. FTIR AND TOF-SIMS STUDIES Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Earlier surface analysis studies suggested that. 2000. 11. Kaustik AOOT. 26 refs. USE OF SINSTAD COMPOSITIONS IN LOWPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS No B I.T/67-9 SINSTAD MULTI-FUNCTIONAL 90 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . the print adhesion properties of barium/ zinc-stabilised.28-9 HOUSING SECTOR SEEKS ALTERNATIVES TO PVC.76-82 PRINTING ON VINYL. No. The effects of impact modifier types (crosslinked versus uncrosslinked) and concentrations on the void fraction of foamed samples were examined. which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. to explain the origin of the migrating species and to identify the variables that influenced the extent to which the phenomenon occurred. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to those achieved in unmodified samples.93-9 EFFECTS OF REPEATED EXTRUSION ON THE PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF RIGID PVC SCRAP Yarahmadi N.824039 Item 211 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. USA COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. As a result of this accelerated gas loss.43) RUSSIA Accession no. its ease of manufacture.State Technical University. It was observed that there was a significant increase in extrusion Accession no.National Testing & Research Institute When plastics waste is reprocessed. at least in some situations. No. USA Accession no. 2001. Gorokhovitskii G G Volgograd. Kubra Public Joint-Stock Co. Shatalin Y V. July 2001. The material was characterised after each extrusion run for changes in colour. Mengeloglu F Michigan. Food & Rural Affairs’ life cycle assessment of PVC. II. without adding any additives.318.2. and samples were also thermally aged at various temperatures. the loss of properties and durability are critical considerations.11. tensile properties and molecular level ageing. Jakubowicz I. stabilisers and processing conditions were studied.DEPT. Properties of PVC compositions for the production of pipe connectors and pipes with varying formulations are discussed. Gevert T Sweden. p. p. The effects of different lubricants. which found that there was little to chose between PVC and alternative materials. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 1 ref.825288 Item 209 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. No. The use is discussed of Sinstad multifunctional compositions for use in low-plasticised PVC pipe formulations as heat stabilisers and plasticisers. Rigid PVC profiles were re-extruded five times. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. p. stearic acid-lubricated PVC were influenced by the migration of a barium/zinc stearate complex. The experimental results indicated that impact modification accelerated the rate of gas loss during the foaming process.References and Abstracts Item 207 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. gelation. UK.825289 Item 208 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7.OF THE ENVIRONMENT EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.

Villa F. PART II. paper 207 RHEOLOGY BEYOND ONE MILLION RECIPROCAL SECONDS Riley D W Extrusion Engineers (SPE) It was determined that the shear rate in PVC passing through a copper wire coating die was in excess of 4000000 /s.818936 Item 215 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72. SCANDINAVIA.15 mm diameter. were identified by chromatography. LDPE. Despite the observed property changes. However. 5 refs.823706 Item 214 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72. the effects of temperature inside the train and the influence of the polyurethane foam inside the rests. Vasile C Quebec. the chlorine content was lower than expected indicating limited interaction during pyrolysis. The main gaseous and liquid products. Pyrovac Institute Inc. C as their individual decomposition rates were significantly altered. Petru Poni. 73 refs. Jin Yang. No. RUMANIA Accession no. PS and PVC. Petru Poni.Universite Laval.459-68 PLASTICISER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN AN AGED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) COATING Monney L. Pakdel H. This initial program studied the pyrolysis kinetics of the five individual polymers. No. Accession no. and that the high temperatures created by the high shear rates did not significantly degrade the polymer. PART I KINETIC STUDY Miranda R. WESTERN EUROPE molecular structure enhanced the electrical properties of the PVC.References and Abstracts pressure (gelation) during the second extrusion with an associated increase in tensile strength and elongation on tested samples followed by marginal decreases with subsequent re-extrusion. particularly yellow. The results suggested that the pyrolysis yields of the plastics mixtures were similar to those calculated from the pyrolysis of the individual polymers. Roy C. as it was cooled to room temperature within 10 ms of leaving the die. Samples were heated at varying heating rates both under a vacuum and in a nitrogen atmosphere. HDPE. Detailed experimental procedures and results are given. PS and PVC materials individually. and also on a mixed plastics sample containing the five polymers. were observed with repeated extrusion. Texas.47-67 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. Lallet P. 54 refs. Laboratoire de Vitry Samples of plasticised PVC coatings backed with a thin polyamide fibre cloth used for arm and head rests of trains were analysed after both normal use in service and artificial ageing at 100 C. and the yields and pyrolysis products were compared for the individual and mixed runs. LDPE..3. as determined by infrared spectroscopy. mixed polymers without PVC and mixed polymers including PVC.3. Renaud C Franche-Comte.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry The thermal decomposition behaviour of commingled plastics during incineration was evaluated with particular emphasis on the influence of chlorine released from PVC during pyrolysis. The results indicated that some interactions occurred between the plastics materials during pyrolysis mainly above 375 deg. EUROPEAN UNION. 12 refs. 2001. Plasticiser loss due to migration during ageing led to hardening of the Accession no. PP.Conference proceedings. p. comparing the decomposition curves for the mixed and individual polymers.Universite. including chlorinated hydrocarbons. This resulted in volatilisation of the dioctyl phthalate plasticiser and changes in the polymer molecular structure. Two parameters were studied. CANADA. and a comparison of the kinetic parameters for each material. PP. Jamois-Tasserie M. Thermogravimetric weight loss and weight loss derivative curves were recorded against time. CANADA. p. Roy C.823939 Item 213 Antec 2001. 2001. The activation energies of degradation were found to decrease after each extrusion.1. it was concluded that rigid PVC was suitable for reprocessing. The principal polymers found in municipal plastics waste were evaluated. 2001.Universite. EASTERN EUROPE. However the chlorine from the PVC was released almost completely below 375 deg. Dallas. Institut Pyrovac Inc. Deterioration in colour. 6th-10th May. Full details of the extrusion and testing are given with detailed results. Two experimental approaches were adopted. Vasile C Laval.469-91 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. It was concluded that the change in © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 91 . EASTERN EUROPE. C. Full details of the experimental procedures are given including a detailed tabulation of all the pyrolysis products. PRODUCT ANALYSIS Miranda R.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Vacuum pyrolysis was performed on HDPE. The flow was studied using capillary rheometry with a die of a 0.823944 Item 212 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. Dubois C. RUMANIA Accession no. SWEDEN. No. 2001. p..

The effects of trimethylolpropane triacrylate(TMPTA) and Irganox 1010 on the rate of crosslinking were also studied.818935 Item 216 Polymer Testing 20.University The diffusion of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticiser (DEHP) from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) packaging was studied using samples prepared in three different ways. Detailed experimental procedures. Guzman J. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The results obtained showed that.References and Abstracts PVC. at longer times the diffusion rate decrease levels off quickly.814824 Item 219 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80. Malaysia. Diffusion rates were dependent upon the time and temperature of storage of the samples prior to testing. nitrogen.Science University Electron beam-irradiated crosslinking of unplasticised PVC was carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 20 to 200 kGy. the PVC layer would tend to crack when flexed in service. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 35 refs.1841-7 DECREASING POLLUTION OF PLASTICIZED PVC PACKAGING: A COMPARISON OF THREE PLASTIC TREATMENTS Fugit J-L. 25 refs. Plasticised PVC discs were soaked in n-heptane.2000. the stabilised UPVC was crosslinked by the electron beam. 2001. followed by drying.148/52 Spanish INJECTION MOULDING OF PVC FOR MEDICAL USE Bertora M Sandretto Industrie SpA Technical difficulties associated with the injection moulding of PVC are discussed. carbon dioxide and methane in membranes prepared by solvent casting of PVC and pyridine modified PVC. SPAIN. Mass transfer was modelled in terms of diffusivity. CIBA SPECIALITY CHEMICALS MALAYSIA Accession no.530. samples were prepared by dipping plasticised PVC in solutions of PVC. and of plasticiser into the liquid. followed by drying. Structural changes also occurred inside the PVC layer due to the formation of non-filled PVC nodules. attaining constant values after 10 days. No. No.4817-23 EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AGEING ON THE GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF PVC AND PVC MODIFIED WITH PYRIDINE GROUPS Tiemblo P. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. under the irradiation conditions employed. resulting in DEHP-depleted surface layers. EUROPEAN UNION. 2001. Baharin A Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research. EUROPEAN UNION. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Further samples were prepared by pressing PVC containing 35% DEHP between sheets containing only 7% DEHP. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.11. There is a two-fold reduction for PVC of the diffusion coefficients during the first two days.814334 92 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 12 refs. sample photographs and results are given. p. WESTERN EUROPE and about one order of magnitude. Riande E. Accession no. The addition of 4 phr TMPTA was found to be effective in increasing the rate while Irganox 1010 inhibited crosslinking.485-90 IRRADIATION CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF ADDITIVES Ratnam C T. Mijangos C. Lastly. and no stabilisation of the trend was seen after a month. No. Reinecke H Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Gas transport coefficients of PVC and PVC modified with pyridine groups were studied. FRANCE. A marked increase in Tg upon irradiation of UPVC in the presence of TMPTA was observed. was measured as a function of time for discs immersed in n-heptane. hardness. EUROPEAN UNION. p. with frequent cracking. As a result of these changes. It was found that there is a strong time dependence of the permeability and diffusivity of oxygen.815920 Item 218 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 80. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Nasir M. p. and machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products are examined. TS and damping properties upon irradiation were investigated. Within the dose range studied. Membranes prepared from modified PVC show short-term diffusion rate reduction similar to that in PVC. a month after the membranes were prepared.5. the degradation caused by electron beam irradiation was found to be minimal. The plasticiser migration increased when the PVC was in contact with the polyurethane foam. 34 refs.817821 Item 217 Polymer 42. FRANCE.10. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. Changes in gel fraction. Aug. 31st May 2001. Diffusion of liquid into the discs. ITALY. EUROPEAN UNION. Taverdet J-L Saint Etienne.

Goto H.References and Abstracts Item 220 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79.University. Nakan0 K.University A kinetic model of the physical process of loss of plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate from plasticised PVC foil is developed. Narisawa I. An investigation was carried out to determine the synergetic effect of dimerised pentaerythritol esters. 28th Feb.2000. The linear dependence of the rate of evaporation on the residual concentration of plasticiser in the foil is demonstrated. The results obtained are presented and discussed with particular reference to evaluation results of Izod impact strength.11. Iida T Osaka.5 to 20.Institute of Technology. Philadelphia. used as novel costabilisers with metal soap. as plasticisers and stabilisers at the same time. CROATIA Accession no. Kuriyama T KANEKA Corp. No. a mixture of zinc and calcium stearates. 14 refs.. The thickness of the foil is 0.2029-37 SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF DIMERIZED PENTAERYTHRITOL ESTERS WITH SYNERGETIC METAL SOAP ON THE STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Ikeda H. JAPAN are estimated by the differential method of analysis..575-83 IZOD IMPACT STRENGTH OF A PRODUCT MOLDED OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ IMPACT MODIFIER CONTAINING VOIDS (VOID MOD) Takaki A. The rate of the process of weight loss of plasticiser from the foils can be described as the function of three variables.. (SPE.97-103 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) 5. The modified polyesters were applied as dual function polyesters.University The Izod impact strength of a PVC/impact modifier(MOD) moulded product was investigated by suitably reducing the amount of crosslinking agent in the rubber of MOD or by making rubber particles void when they were in the form of a latex. Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute Four different polyester plasticisers for PVC. and it is shown that the diffusion does not affect the process of plasticiser loss from plasticised polymer. Bacaloglu R.2001.811300 Item 222 Polimeri 21. p.810956 Item 223 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 286. 14th March 2001.e. i. Kovacic T Split. p. Conference proceedings. Pa.C. USA Accession no. Dooley T. Mrklic Z.1 mm and the amount of the plasticiser in the plasticised polymer is 10-40%. No.6. were synthesised. USA Accession no. 14 refs.2. p. The thermal stabilisation efficiency of the plasticised PVC films formed was tested photometrically and the data obtained were compared with that afforded by Irgastab BZ 556. mechanism of improvement in Izod impact strengths of low crosslinked MOD (0. It is claimed that their capability to form complexes with HCl and transport this degradation catalyst to HCl scavengers are essential for the marked synergism observed between these two types of stabilisers. Nissin Oil Mills Ltd. Yamagata. 2000.3.5 mg KOH/g resin). Higaki Y. Diaconescu C Crompton Corp. Sunami M. Experimental investigations are carried out using isothermal thermogravimetry in the temperature range of 120-150 deg.Vinyl Div.Philadelphia Section) The study of PVC stabilisation by stannic compounds in the presence of HCl scavengers shows that the essential stabilisation process is nucleophilic substitution of the allylic chlorine by the thioglycolate or mercaptopropionate groups.814089 Item 221 Vinyltec 2000.186-90 Croatian THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE KINETICS OF LOSS OF PLASTICISER FROM PLASTICISED PVC FOILS Rusic D. having moderate acid numbers (11. 11th-12th Oct.88-93 HEAT STABILIZATION EFFICIENCY OF POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) Farahat M S Alabama.810576 Item 224 Polymer Engineering and Science 41.5% of allyl methacrylate content) and void Accession no. p. Nakamura Y. 38 refs. as stabilisers for polyvinyl chloride to control undesirable discolouration when heated. The efficiencies of these modified polyesters as heat stabilisers for PVC were found to be comparable with those of Irgastab BZ 556. March 2001. These polyesters were modified by converting the terminal COOH group to Ba(II) and Cd(II) carboxylate salts in order to introduce the capability of heat stabilisation for PVC. p. MECHANISM OF PVC STABILIZATION BY STANNIC COMPOUNDS Fisch M H. SPE. 17 refs. The kinetic parameters © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 93 . CIBA-GEIGY CO. No. EGYPT. No.

5 refs. Conference proceedings.. processability. This work aims to produce mixed calcium carboxylate stabilisers for use in place of calcium stearate for the stabilisation of PVC. noted for their lower cost and adequate effectiveness. Abdrashitov Y M. 2001.807842 Item 229 Tech XXIII. Di Simone J. and Izod impact strength of void MOD having an optimised degree of crosslinking. Synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives based on acrylic polymers and containing 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA). and solvent balance and transfer agent kind and content on such important parameters of PSA as shrinkage. diverse crosslinkers. Morflex and BP Amoco. 25th-26th Oct. paper 1 FLEXIBLE VINYL MEDICAL PRODUCTS: DISCUSSION ABOUT THE EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS PLASTICISERS Adams R C BP Amoco Chemicals (Rapra Technology Ltd. amount of reactor charge. citrates and adipates. No. Smit E National Starch & Chemical Co. Sabapathy P A. alpha-branched carboxylic (C12-C16) acids. allegedly. Conference proceedings. The plasticiser under most scrutiny is di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. and stabilising action. A carrier assembly for supporting the mould centre section of a stack mould has a pair of mould supports to which the mould centre section can be attached. reviewing available information from Hatco. Kauchuk Closed Stock Co. methyl acrylate (MA). cause damage ranging from cancer to hormone disruption. National Starch & Chemical BV Accession no.808344 Item 228 Addcon World 2000.810421 Item 225 Patent Number: US 6155811 A1 20001205 STACK MOLD CARRIER MOUNTED ON LINEAR BEARINGS Looije P A. La. p.5. Minsker K S Bashkir. p. Potential selection criteria are discussed based on plasticiser permanence. This extracted plasticiser can then enter the human body and then. GERMANY. USA Accession no. New Orleans. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Test results are examined in detail for the performance of these stabilisers in terms of service properties. acrylic acid (AA) and VC are used for production of self-adhesives containing PVC carrier. on the migration and extraction characteristics of various plasticisers. EUROPEAN UNION. p. viscosity and molar mass of the synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA). including DEHP.) The use of plasticised PVC for toys and medical devices has been under attack from various environmental and health care activist groups. Their concerns are related to that under certain conditions small amounts of the plasticiser may leave the flexible PVC compound. p. commonly known as DEHP or DOP. USA Accession no. 2000. 9 refs. Each mould support also includes a linkage assembly for connecting the mould support to other platens to synchronise movement of each mould support with movement of at least one other platen.1. 3rd-5th May 2000.19) RUSSIA Accession no.T/69-73 NEW STABILISERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE .1. distribution of Nvinyl caprolactam (VC). DEHP is the largest volume plasticiser in use worldwide and the most widely used plasticiser for PVC medical devices. Each mould support is movable along a linear rail attached to the base of a moulding machine and has at least one block containing a linear bearing mounted thereto for engaging the linear rail. adhesion to steel and deformation are examined. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. JAPAN Nafikova R F. plasticity. TOTM. Spring 2001.72-85 SOLVENT-BASED PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR PVC SURFACES: A SPECIAL REPORT Czech Z The influence of parameters such as crosslinking agent aluminium acetylacetonate content. 4 refs.. (Translated from Plasticheskie Massy. The various mechanisms under which plasticisers leave flexible PVC medical devices are described. 2 refs.808585 Item 227 International Polymer Science and Technology 28.809872 Item 226 Advances in Polymer Technology 20. Basel. Keir W S Husky Injection Molding Systems Ltd. Naugumanova E I.115-21 NOVEL PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR VINYL FACESTOCKS Smith H. No.State University.References and Abstracts MOD. The new stabilisers are based on mixed salts of stearic acid with derivatives of phthalic or maleic acid and also with branched alpha. Switzerland.MIXED SALTS OF CALCIUM CARBOXYLATES 94 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . introduction time of monomers.2000.

SPAIN. Unfortunately. Orlando. EUROPEAN UNION. Fl. The composites were characterised by measurement of tensile and impact properties.University The influence of injection moulding conditions on the occurrence of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. Javierre C. Further temperature increases reduced the agglomerate flow.1384-93 COLD PLASMA SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CONVENTIONALLY AND NONCONVENTIONALLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BASED FLEXIBLE FILMS: GLOBAL AND SPECIFIC MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES INTO ISOOCTANE Audic J-L.805668 Item 233 Antec 2000.807113 Item 231 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79. No. 2000. and the die surface roughness.Conference proceedings. An in-depth look at PVC adhesion is provided and a solventborne adhesive with superior anchorage to PVC films as well as improved heat-resistance is described. The surface energy. No. King J A Michigan. Gloss was measured by gloss meter at an angle of 85 deg. and the surface was characterised by scanning electron microscopy. 22 refs. Reyx D. extruder temperature settings.PART II EFFECT OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON GLOSS OF RIGID PVC PROFILE Rabinovitch E. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.8. modified by the addition of crosslinked (acrylic and methacrylate butadiene styrene) and uncrosslinked (chlorinated polyethylene) impact modifiers. FRANCE. extrusion rate. Sanchez B.527. 7th-11th May. 3 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Brosse J-C Maine. Poncin-Epaillard F. (SPE) The influence of extrusion processing conditions on the gloss of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) profile was investigated. whilst the elongation at break was not affected. There was a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE acetate-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement of the adipate plasticiser. Zaragoza. Orlando. 4 refs.806711 Item 232 Antec 2000. paper 655 GLOSS CONTROL IN RIGID PVC . paper 660 EFFECTS OF IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FIBER COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. NETHERLANDS. Aisa J Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico. 2000.References and Abstracts (Pressure Sensitive Tape Council) The flexibility of PVC film makes it ideal for many industrial tape and label applications. 7th-11th May. The impact resistance was strongly dependent upon the type and content of impact modifier. This can lead to long-term debonding as well as reduced holding power and chemical resistance.Universite The effect of plasma treatment of flexible PVC food packaging films on the migration of plasticisers therefrom was investigated using supercritical fluid chromatography to monitor plasticiser migration into isooctane solution.Technological University (SPE) Composites consisting of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) and wood fibre. May 2000. were prepared by dry mixing followed by extrusion and compression moulding. Harshbarger D Geon Co. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN UNION. Matuana L M. to the normal. p. Llado J. 27 refs. Plasticisers employed were di-2-ethylhexyladipate and epoxidised soybean oil. Increasing the extrusion melt temperature from low to medium decreased the gloss due to agglomerate flow and a rougher surface.2001. weight loss and surface crosslinking of the films were examined and the influence of plasma treatment on plasticiser migration from films containing an elastomeric ethylene-vinyl © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 95 . The tensile strength and modulus were significantly decreased by the impact modified additions. PVC film can be difficult for many adhesives to bond to and transfer failure is common. Fl. Rough surfaces on the die Accession no. 22nd Feb. Comparison of the experimental results with theoretical predictions allowed optimisation of the processing conditions for the production of parts having the required surface quality.. so increasing the gloss.554-8 Spanish STUDY OF THE SURFACE QUALITY OF PVC FITTINGS ON THE BASIS OF INJECTION MOULDING PARAMETERS Castany F J. EUROPEAN UNION. The processing variables studied were: melt temperature (165-202 C). USA. p. Increasing extrusion rate decreased the gloss due to surface roughness increases associated with melt fracture. increasing significantly with modifier concentration.. The crosslinked modifiers were more effective than the chlorinated polyethylene.807804 Item 230 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 79.

USA Accession no. 12 refs. tribasic lead sulphate. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts and sizer resulted in rough surfaces on the extrudate and low gloss.805663 Item 234 Antec 2000.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. MEXICO. Orlando. It is generally thought that stabilisers that act only by scavenging HCl. USA Accession no...& Co. Enhanced failure time under high shear processing conditions are obtained for submicron lead stabilisers. Mexico.C. paper 651 CHEMICAL CROSSLINKING OF FLEXIBLE PVC FOAM FORMULATIONS Ibarra-Gomez R. The thermal stability was superior to that of a commercial foam.2000. Sifuentes P. 5 refs. Ramos de Valle L F. which function as hydrochloric acid absorbers. 7th-11th May. 14 refs. Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. A method has been developed for the synthesis of dibasic lead phthalate. Refs.Conference proceedings. (SPE) Accession no. and related compounds with a particle size in the 0. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The intrinsic coercivity decreased linearly with increasing strontium ferrite content. 17th-19th Sept. and the stabilisation of these polymers and non-polyolefin polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) using organophosphites is discussed in terms of the stability of colour. Orlando. which were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and by determination of gel content. containing 10-85 wt% strontium ferrite magnetic powder. and thermal stability.805659 96 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Fl.Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (SPE) Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride). 18 refs. 2000.Conference proceedings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. It is thought likely that the submicron versions are more mobile and can coordinate to potential degradation sites more efficiently.803854 Item 238 Antec 2000. Conference proceedings. D. The peroxide/TMPTMA system formed a very dense network. Viscosity increased with increasing strontium ferrite content.. 2000.Inc. Nelen T GE Specialty Chemicals Inc. Time to failure and to visible discoloration are noted for the various stabilisers. 2000. but poor retention of original colour.I. and characterised by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and measurements of magnetic and rheological properties. and compared with the use of a triazine/MgO system. dibasic lead phosphite. The prepared plastisols were heated in air at 195 C for different times to obtain the crosslinked foams. RETEC 2000. (SPE) Mechanisms of degradation in condensation polymers. Orlando. USA Accession no.1-0. and at lower peroxide:TMPTMA ratios it was comparable to that of samples crosslinked by the triazine/ MgO system. and which also provide good colour retention.805660 Item 235 Antec 2000.. and showed no residual unsaturation after the optimum curing time.Conference proceedings. Orlando. 7th-11th May. provide good process safety.University (SPE) The peroxide crosslinking of emulsion grade poly(vinyl chloride) using trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a co-agent was investigated. UK..804341 Item 237 Antec 2000. Yanez-Flores I G. paper 7 COLOR DEVELOPMENT IN PVC Grossman D Halstab (SPE) The use is examined of submicron particle size lead stabilisers in PVC formulations. Rios-Jara D Coahuila. thermal properties and molecular weight. MEXICO Item 236 Your Ticket to Outstanding Color and Additives.7 micron range. 7th-11th May. Ayala-Valenzuela O. attributed to the trifunctional nature of the co-agent. 2000. attributed to increasing particle interaction. Enlow W. paper 652 MAGNETIC MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS AND MAGNETIC FILLERS Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. paper 557 ROLE OF PHOSPHITES IN STABILIZATION OF NON-POLYOLEFIN POLYMERS Ashton H C.Conference proceedings. residual unsaturation. Gilbert M Coahuila.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. Fl. paper 650 HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT FLEXIBILIZERS IN LOW SMOKE FLAME RETARDANT PVC COMPOUNDS Griffin E R DuPont de Nemours E.. attributed to strong particle interactions. 7th-11th May. Matutes-Aquino J. Fl. basic lead carbonate. Stabilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polycarbonate by organophosphites was studied experimentally. was compression moulded at a pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 180 C. Fl. Washington. Loughborough. crosslink density.

USA Accession no.24-7 TESTING OF FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS FOR BIOSTABILITY Hamel R G.Div. 5 refs. complexes of Cu(I) have been the focus of recent studies. The three samples show very similar spectral features to each other. Starnes W H. and 14 years were obtained. paper 533 LOW EXTRACTABLE.2000. 20th-24th Aug. The additives include primary stabilisers (Ca-Zn stearate and Zn stearate). Vapour phase combustion of these aromatics greatly contributes to the formation of smoke and to the addition of heat to the pyrolysing solid. Spectra were obtained for an unreinforced PVC roof membrane in service for 6 years.. Maeyer J T. USA Accession no. a variety of new complexes of Cu(I) bearing nitrogen. Delgado A H Canada. LOW BLUSH. The ethylene copolymers gave similar peak heat release rates. As part of our ongoing search for potential smokesuppressant additives for PVC. Biocides tested © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 97 . to improve melt processing and heat stability. Fl.97 NEW COPPER(I) COMPLEXES AS POTENTIAL SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Pike R L. Graham P M... PLASTICISED PVC ROOF MEMBRANES IN SERVICE FOR UP TO 13 YEARS Paroli R M. and lower brittle point temperatures. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts Ethylene copolymers were compared with liquid plasticisers for use as additives to improve the flexibility of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for electrical cable insulation applications. The volatiles are largely aromatics formed through the cyclisation of the polyene segments.802840 Item 242 Plastics Additives and Compounding 2. The performance is compared of three different biocides in protecting PVC in outdoor applications. 7th-11th May. With the loss of plasticisers and/or stabilisers due to weathering. Volume 83. In contrast.10. 2000.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. plasticised polyvinyl chloride roofing membranes. The use of the stabilisers resulted in reduced equipment down-time. Orlando. p.69-70. 2000. because the exposed sample did not show any bands near the 1650 cm-1 typical of carbon-carbon double bonds. Doyal A S. Measurements of the bands for Accession no. FL. Oct.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. Orlando. It is most likely that degradation is attributable to loss of plasticisers rather than de-chlorination of PVC. (SPE) An additive system was developed for poly(vinyl chloride) for medical applications. The PVCs were assessed by determining smoke generation. No. aqueous extractables and particle generation. D. Washington.) The problem of smoke formation during pyrolysis of PVC represents a significant technological challenge. USA carbonyl. blush. They also gave similar or increased strength. A strategy of PVC smoke suppression is investigated based on the use of low-valent metal compounds. which are present as labile centres in virgin and pyrolysing PVC.C. tensile properties and the low temperature brittle point. Fall Meeting 2000. increased the level of recycled material which could be incorporated. with corresponding controls. Since copper(I) is readily reduced. 012 SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF UNREINFORCED.Conference proceedings. 10 years. including colour. as well as their thermal chemistry.Div.803847 Item 239 Antec 2000.) This paper evaluates how well photoacoustic Fourier transform spectroscopy can be used to study the shattering phenomenon of unreinforced.National Research Council (ACS.and sulphur-based ligands are reported. secondary stabilisers (epoxides) and lubricants (ethylene bisamide and high density polyethylene). the intensity of the CH2-Cl band appears higher. 1 ref. 4 refs. methylene and methyl groups were obtained.803054 Item 241 ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering. Fall 1996. Conference Proceedings. flammability. It is shown that zero-valent metal promotes reductive crosslinking of allylic chloride groups. p. Laurin D. Volume 75. similar elongation and flexural modulus. p. McEntee T C Rohm & Haas Co.College of William & Mary (ACS. clarity. Levy E R Williamsburg. 10 refs. The polyenes give rise to a combination of organic volatiles and solid char. but the peak smoke and the total smoke generation were lower. and enhanced the product characteristics.803380 Item 240 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering. LOW COLOR PVC WITH IMPROVED PROCESSABILITY FOR MEDICAL APPLICATION Buan-delos Santos L. the crosslinking of the polyenes tends to block the formation of volatile aromatics and increases the yield of solid char. Dehydrochlorination of the polymer produces polyene segments in the solid phase. Gomaa W A. Lynch D Baxter Healthcare Corp.

Massachusetts. the emulsifying activity of block copolymers has been widely used to solve the usual problem of large immiscibility associated with high interfacial tension. and carpet sorting technology. Orlando.10-oxybisphenoxarsine). enabled good results to be obtained under simulated production conditions.11. whilst those containing alumina trihydrate exhibited the best smoke suppression properties.Conference proceedings. paper 388 EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDES ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SEMIRIGID PVC USED IN WIRE COATING Torone J A. 11/1/01. or poly(X-b-Y) in which each block is chemically different but thermodynamically miscible with one of the blend component. Fl.46-51) LAMINATING PVC WINDOW PROFILES WITHOUT SOLVENTS Gehrke J.Div. 7th-11th May.Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (ACS. pp..5dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one). Girard-Reydet E Lyon. PVC containing magnesium hydroxide had the higher elongation. automotive waste. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. They were compared in laboratory and exterior testing and the results of tests demonstrate the superior performance of DCOIT in protecting flexible PVC films in outdoor applications. NALOAN SORTING OF WASTE PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING Pascoe R D Exeter. These contaminants prevented the build-up of bond forces at the interface between the adhesive and PVC profile. electrical cables. 6 refs. WESTERN EUROPE adhesive.799426 Item 244 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90. thermoset composites. poor adhesion and resulting in poor mechanical properties. Henkel Dorus Analytical studies of the PVC profile surface indicated that the reasons for failure of the adhesive bond between the PVC film and PVC profile in decorative film laminated structures. which also containing plasticiser.799815 Item 243 Shawbury. were compounded by twin screw extrusion. 2000. Conference proceedings. UK. 7 refs.4. Volume 40. La.. EUROPEAN UNION. OIT (2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one). EUROPEAN UNION. and cleaning and size reduction processes employed. p. Kleinert H.1092-3 USE OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS TO CONTROL THE MORPHOLOGIES AND PROPERTIES OF THERMOSET/THERMOPLASTIC BLENDS Pascault J-P. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The compositions. aluminium/plastic laminates.. 427 refs.University Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. Samples were prepared by injection moulding and used for the determination of tensile and smoke generation properties. Rapra Review Report. when the sample surface was removed. was finely dispersed lubricant and wax particles on the PVC profile.University (SPE) Four alternative magnesium hydroxides and alumina trihydrate were evaluated as smoke suppressants in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) wire coating compositions. Methods used to identify plastics including by colour and type are reviewed. August 1999.108. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was developed to remove the contaminants. froth flotation and separation based on differential softening temperature. poly(Ab-B) whose segments are chemically identical to the dissimilar homopolymers. p. FRANCE. Rapra Technology Ltd. 29 cms.799174 Item 246 Polymer Preprints. An immiscible thermoplastic blend A/B can actually be compatibilised by adding a diblock copolymer.of Polymer Chemistry) In the field of thermoplastic immiscible blends.Review Report No. Theoretical Accession no. 2000. Petrie S Millipore Corp.12.References and Abstracts and compared were OBPA (10. Hoffmann H Dresden. and DCOIT (4. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which. vol. Separation techniques described include those involving density.. Dec. 4 refs. A full-scale plant is reported to have now been commissioned that operates reliably using the process described.Technische universitat.16-8. GERMANY. (Translated from Kunststoffe 90 (2000). triboelectrification. USA Accession no. Examples are included of plastics separation relating to mixed plastic bottles. New Orleans. and the PVCs containing magnesium hydroxide gave the better results. calcium carbonate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2000. when combined with flame treatment and a solvent free polyurethane hot melt 98 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 2000. Test methods used include the Pink Stain Test.) Rapra. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. August 1999. followed by manual and automated sorting systems. However. Number 2. 12.124 The sorting of waste plastics prior to recycling is described with reference to separation and identification techniques. the smoke suppression rankings changed. lead stabiliser and antimony oxide. No. EUROPEAN UNION.799408 Item 245 Antec 2000.

Institute of Technology The mechanical degradation and mechanochemical reactions resulting from ultrasonic irradiation were studied in heterogeneous and homogeneous PVC and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (EPM) systems at 30 C.Conference proceedings. The kinetics of the epoxy-amine precursor. paper 86 PREDICTING THERMAL DEGRADATION OF PVC COMPOUNDS DURING INJECTION MOLDING Garcia J L.2000. which are used extensively in PVC products.State University. Fl. 7th-11th May. 10 refs. An attempt is made to transfer the concept of compatibilisation by poly(X-b-Y) and if possible poly(X-b-E-b-Y) triblock copolymers with an elastomer central block E to TS/TP blends generated via the reaction-induced phase separation procedure. whilst degradation in the radial mould occurred in the sprue and was transported into the mould.10 EU IS READY TO CLEAR PHTHALATES The European Union is poised to announce that phthalate plasticisers pose no risk to either human health or to the environment. PS is known to be miscible with PPE and it has been demonstrated that PMMA is miscible with the chosen TS precursor up to the end of the epoxyamine reaction. p. The number-average molecular weights of PVC and EPM decreased with increasing irradiation times. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Nov. the initial solubility of the chosen thermoplastic. Geon Co. Minamoto Y Osaka. attributed to the fact that the degradation was more gradual. EUROPEAN UNION. polyphenylene ether (PPE) and the reaction-induced phase separation process have been already studied. 7th-11th May. is nearing an end. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. No. The surfaces of the polymers were studied by SEM both before and after the mechanochemical reaction.2000. indicating that chain scissions of both polymers occurred in each of the three reaction systems studied. 2000. Koelling K W. paper 67 PREDICTING HOW THE COOLING AND RESULTING SHRINKAGE OF PLASTICS AFFECT THE SHAPE AND STRAIGHTNESS OF EXTRUDED PROFILES Brown R J Formtech Enterprises Inc.2. employing low viscosity and high viscosity polymers over a range of injection speeds. 2000. and shot sizes.795132 Item 248 Polymer Bulletin 45. It was concluded that the degradation of PVC during injection moulding could be predicted.References and Abstracts models have been developed to describe the molecular mechanism of emulsification and compatibilisation by block copolymers.. EU. In September. and a graphical solution for the differential equations for © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 99 . A model was developed to predict degradation during moulding using finite difference method in conjunction with an algorithm to calculate the velocity and temperature profiles during injection. 28 refs. JAPAN Accession no. USA Accession no.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 7 refs. The extrusion was considered to consist of a number of rectangular sections. an EU Technical Meeting completed its assessments of DINP and DIDP and decided that the two needed no classification or labelling for environmental or health effects. FRANCE. The degradation kinetics were different to those reported for static systems. The rates of decrease in the number-average molecular weights of the degraded Accession no.137-44 MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BLOCK-POLY(ETHYLENE-COPROPYLENE) COPOLYMERS BY ULTRASONIC IRRADIATION Fujiwara H. EUROPEAN UNION.793817 Item 250 Antec 2000. The activation energy was approximately 65 kcal/mol. The end radicals of PVC and EPM resulting from mechanical degradation formed PVC-block-EPM copolymers by mechanochemical synthesis. but the model gave better agreement with results from the spiral mould. Orlando. DINP is the phthalate most often used in soft PVC toys and items intended to be put into childrens’ mouths.Conference proceedings. No. Orlando. on which most of the recent anti-PVC furore has been focused.794367 Item 249 Antec 2000.11. (SPE) The thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride during injection moulding was studied using a spiral mould to simulate a rectangular channel. slower in the swelled PVC-EPM solution system and slowest in the homogeneous PVC-EPM system. p. melt temperatures. WESTERN EUROPE polymers were fastest in the solid PVC:EPM solution system. and a centre gated plate to study radial flow. Fl.798453 Item 247 European Plastics News 27. (SPE) The bowing of polyvinyl chloride extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage associated with different cooling rates was modelled. Summers J W Ohio. Sept. A five-year risk assessment into six phthalates.

References and Abstracts

unsteady state heat transfer develop by Schmidt was adapted for solution using a computer spreadsheet. 8 refs.

Accession no.793798 Item 251 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 66 COOLING OF EXTRUDED PLASTIC PROFILES Placek L; Svabik J; Vlcek J VUT; Compuplast International Inc. (SPE) The influence of cooling on an extruded polyvinyl chloride profile was studied using a differential equation for heat transfer which was solved using commercial software. The solution required the definition of the boundary conditions. The initial condition specified temperature distribution in the profile as it left the die, which was assumed to be a constant. The boundary conditions for the contact of the profile with the cooling medium were determined by assuming that the medium had a specified temperature and defined heat transfer coefficient (Fourier condition). Three cooling environments were modelled: for slow extrusion rates; for normal production extrusion rates, with imperfect top cooling; and with good cooling using water sprays. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation, and that it was possible to predict the deformation using the model. 5 refs.

Item 253 ENDS Report No.308, Sept.2000, p.12-3 PHTHALATE EXPOSURE STUDY POINTS TO COSMETIC SOURCES US health scientists are to publish a study which shows that people are exposed to much higher levels of phthalates than anticipated. Phthalates are used widely in PVC and other diverse applications and many have oestrogenic properties which, at high doses, can damage reproductive tissue and cause deformities in developing embryos. The study has found strong indications that cosmetics may be an important source of this hazardous material. US,NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH; CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY

Accession no.792005 Item 254 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 45 COMPUTER DESIGN AND SCREW OPTIMIZATION Thibodeau C A; Lafleur P G Montreal,Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) Statistical analysis was used to establish the optimum screw design for the extrusion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), by evaluating the results of a series of simulations from a mathematical extrusion model which considered 5 screw parameters: angle, constant depth of feeding zone, constant depth of metering zone, length of feeding zone, and length of metering zone. The performance of the optimised screw was compared with that of a conventional PVC screw. The extrusion temperature was decreased by 7 C, the slip velocity of the solid bed was decreased by 65%, so reducing abrasion, whilst the mixing capabilities were similar. 8 refs.

Accession no.793797 Item 252 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.7, 1999, p 321-6. LONG TERM BEHAVIOUR OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PRODUCTS UNDER SOIL BURIED AND LANDFILL CONDITIONS Mersiowsky I; Stegmann R; Ejlertsson J Hamburg,Technical University; Linkoping,University The behaviour of poly(vinyl chloride) products in landfill sites longterm and their leachate products and gas evolution have been monitored. Over the period of the study no degradation of the poly(vinyl chloride) was observed. The leachate analysis determined that there was no significant contribution to the level of heavy metals in landfills, and that the presence of phthalates and organotin compounds presented no risk to the aquatic environment.14 refs.

Accession no.791357 Item 255 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 29, No.3, 2000, p.149-60 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE COMPOUNDS. II. STRUCTUREPROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS AND THEIR TIME DEPENDENCY Hitt D J; Gilbert M Loughborough,University X-ray diffraction and thermomechanical analysis are used, respectively, to examine structural order and shrinkage behaviour for oriented samples of rigid and flexible PVC. Results are compared with previously measured tensile

Accession no.793729


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References and Abstracts

properties and structure-property relationships explored. X-ray diffraction shows that drawing produces planar crystallite orientation in PVC sheets. If drawing and subsequent annealing conditions are held constant, but draw ratio is varied, there is good correlation between structural order measured by X-ray diffraction and tensile strength. Increased annealing time and temperature improve crystallite order and dimensional stability, while tensile strength is unchanged. The greatest enhancement in tensile strength is achieved by stretching PVC towards its maximum draw ratio at 90 deg.C but optimum thermal stability of the oriented structure is achieved when higher annealing temperatures are used. Room temperaturerecovery is observed for flexible PVC when the material has a glass transition temperature below ambient. This can be delayed by increased annealing time and temperature, and by increased draw ratio. 15 refs.


Accession no.787852 Item 258 Marnate, 2000, pp.6. 30 cms. 10/10/2000 Italian; English RIGID PVC FOAM SHEET EXTRUSION LINES Bausano Group SpA Technical data are given for the PVC foam line from the Bausano Group. Illustrations are included of the die and calibrators, door panel die heads, turbomixer, and extruder.

Accession no.789922 Item 256 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6, No.3, Sept.2000, p.158-65 HOT-TOOL AND VIBRATION WELDING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Stokes V K GE Corporate R & D The weldability of PVC (Geon 87416 and Geon 85885) was assessed through studies of hot-tool and 120-Hz vibration welding. Equivalent strengths were demonstrated for welds made by these two welding techniques. For these two grades of PVC, relative weld strengths of 85 and 97%, with corresponding failure strains of about 2.5 and 3.3%, respectively, were demonstrated. 52 refs.

Accession no.787654 Item 259 Limitations of Test Methods for Plastics. STP 1369. Conference proceedings. Norfolk, Va., 1st Nov.1998, p.93-106 STUDY OF BOND STRENGTH TESTING FOR SOLVENT JOINTS IN PVC PIPING SYSTEMS Paschal J R NSF International Edited by: Peraro J S (American Society for Testing & Materials) To evaluate the strength of the bond area formed by solventcementing of thermoplastic pipe and fittings, tests are conducted at 2, 16 and 72 hours. Because the data is statistical in nature, more than a single specimen must be tested to provide a representative strength at each cure time. Considering that three tests are run, each consisting of multiple specimens, a method is developed for testing joined plaques rather than pipe and fitting. This method, known as lap-shear, is much less time intensive than actual pipe joint preparation, and in theory, provides a good approximation of the anticipated strength of a pipe/fitting joint. A study of this test method is conducted to investigate variables in preparation technique and their effect on strength. The results indicate an extreme sensitivity to minor variations in preparation. The interpretation of this data with respect to joint strength is also discussed. An explanation of these significant deviations encountered due to the changes in preparation is provided, based on thermodynamic considerations of the mixing dissolution process and work input to sample/solvent system. An analysis of the sample preparation technique is presented in both a theoretical and qualitative context of solution thermodynamics, together with an evaluation of the minor changes in methodology that can cause major differences

Accession no.788892 Item 257 Chemical and Engineering News 78, No.32, 7th Aug.2000, p.52-4 ALERT ON PHTHALATES Hileman B In July 2000, a US Government panel finished a twoyear study at a meeting in which it expressed serious concern that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices may harm the reproductive organs of critically ill and premature male infants exposed during medical treatment. This article reports fully on the panel’s findings. US,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY; US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES; AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL; US,SCIENCE & ENVIRONMENTAL

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References and Abstracts

in test results. Notable results include changesin shear strength on the order of 12-100% based solely on sample handling within the first 30 seconds, and a lack of sensitivity to the composition of the cement within normal ranges. Solution thermodynamics analysis provides some insight as to the relative significance of the variables in the preparation method. 3 refs.

Accession no.787033 Item 260 Polymer Science Series B 42, Nos.5-6, May-June 2000, p.124-6 EFFECT OF AN ESTER PLASTICISER ON THE THERMAL STABILITY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Kulish E I; Kolesov S V; Minsker K S Bashkir,State University The influence of dicarboxylic acid ester plasticisers on the thermal degradation of PVC significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system. If PVC retains the structure formed in the stage of suspension polymerisation, the additive produces inhibition of the process of thermal dehydrochlorination. In the case of true diluted PVC solutions in ester plasticisers, the polymer exhibits accelerated degradation, in accordance with a high value of the solvent basicity. 7 refs.

A groundbreaking study by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that people are exposed to higher levels of potentially toxic phthalates than previously thought. However, the report notes that the phthalates used in vinyl products are found less often than those used in detergents, oils and solvents. The study marks the first time researchers have been able to measure the presence of phthalates processed by the body, rather than measuring phthalates in the environment. US,CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL

Accession no.785063 Item 263 Plastics Network No.10, 2000, p.25-7 PLASTICISERS FOR TOYS Cheng H C Lyte Industries Co.Ltd. For many years, the plasticiser DINP has been the primary plasticiser used in PVC toys. However, it is claimed by some pressure groups that the phthalate plasticiser leaches from PVC and poses a potential health hazard to children. Toxicity is the major concern when seeking a replacement for DINP. Others are compatibility, processability, physical properties and cost. With respect to the processability and cost ratio, a table is presented for different plasticisers used in PVC toys. The use of acetyl tributyl citrate as a plasticiser in PVC is discussed.

Accession no.786833 Item 261 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.4, 1999, p.165-9 IMPACT STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE WINDOW PROFILES. RELATIONSHIP WITH GELATION LEVEL Cora B; Daumas B; Zegers A Rohm & Haas France SA Details are given of the effect of processing on mechanical properties of PVC window profiles by altering the temperature profile set on the extruder and by varying the shear heating phenomena using different lubrication balances. The effect of filler level and type of impact modifier on the impact properties of extruded profiles with various levels of free volume are presented. 7 refs.

Accession no.785046 Item 264 ENDS Report No.307, Aug.2000, p.6 PVC PIPES BREACH NEW LEAD STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER Tests conducted for the Drinking Water Inspectorate show that some PVC pipes cause breaches of a new standard for lead due to be introduced in 2003. The failures are due to the use of lead salts to stabilise the plastic, and the DWI has warned pipe manufacturers that they must reformulate their products. UK,DRINKING WATER INSPECTORATE

Accession no.785019 Item 265 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77, No.14, 29th Sept.2000, p.3119-27 FLAME-RETARDANT AND SMOKESUPPRESSANT PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED RIGID PVC

Accession no.786464 Item 262 Plastics News(USA) 12, No.27, 4th Sept.2000, p.31 CDC: PHTHALATE LEVELS HIGHER THAN THOUGHT Toloken S


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p. No. Aug.3.784890 Item 266 Journal of Industrial Textiles 30. p.141-5 ROLE OF HEAT STABILIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC Skladany M E Ferro (TAPPI) The paper consists of a series of slides illustrating the mechanisms responsible for degradation in polyvinyl chloride (PVC).50-62 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER CONTENT AND TYPE ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PLASTISOL USED IN COATED FABRICS Zadhoush A. softening temperature. developed by Asahi Denka Kogyo KK for the domestic market. PMMA AND PVC Lin C B. July 2000.University Rigid PVC was crosslinked with 1. Gel contents of 30 to to 40% were obtained. CHINA company estimates that 10-15% of the global flexible PVC market is potentially open to non-phthalates. 19th Sept. The influence of the concentration of both reagents on the properties of the cured PVC was also examined. 22nd-26th Aug.12.8. Alsharif M A Isfahan. 14 refs. UK. CHINA Accession no. 19 refs. 19 refs. a group of phthalate alternatives are polyester plasticisers. No. the roughly 300-400% higher costs of citrate plasticisers as compared to phthalates will be offset by countervailing market forces in which the safety factor surrounding the use of phthalate plasticisers is providing an opportunity for materials substitution. According to citrate manufacturer Morflex.2000.784346 Item 269 Polymer Engineering and Science 40. July 2000.782996 Item 270 Polymers. Data are presented for the the three heat-affected zones and the three sections of tensile fracture morphology. The amount of aromatic products released during combustion was decreased and the amount of aliphatic products was increased as a result of a series of crosslinking reactions of PVC after the evolution of hydrogen chloride during combustion.784673 Item 268 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77.1999. 22 refs. ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK JAPAN. POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FIND OPPORTUNITIES IN FLEXIBLE PVC Leaversuch R D The substitution of phthalates as plasticisers for flexible PVC by citrates and polyesters is discussed. p. Consistency index and power law index values for the various formulations were determined and the results obtained analysed statistically using shear stress as the variable for each paste. Shaoyun Guo Sichuan.784843 Item 267 Modern Plastics International 30.Volume 1. 2000. No.5-trimethyl cyclohexane peroxide in the presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and the effect of crosslinking on the tensile properties at 130C.2657-66 PEROXIDE CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Garcia-Quesada J C.University The effects of spin friction pressure and time on the friction welding between PMMA-PMMA. The Accession no.7.References and Abstracts Yong Ning.University of Technology The rheological properties of pastes of emulsion PVC having k-values of 69. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the limiting oxygen index of rigid PVC and it reduced the smoke density of PVC during combustion.University. In Japan. Ga. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. and the compositions of heat stabilisers © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 103 . 70 and 75 for coating fabrics were investigated using a coaxial viscometer and the influence of the content and type of plasticiser (dioctyl phthalate and dioctyl adipate) on these properties evaluated. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. The mixture of zinc borate and aluminium trihydrate showed a good synergistic effect on the flame retardance and smoke suppression of PVC. Atlanta. PVC-PVC and PMMA-PVC are discussed.Conference proceedings. Wu L C Tamkang. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the char formation of PVC. Laminations & Coatings Conference. SPAIN. Gilbert M Alicante. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No.1. such as PX-811. Tg and heat stability of the cured PVC investigated. premature crosslinking during processing was avoided and improved mechanical properties attained using appropriate curing agent concentrations. p.1-di-t-butylperoxy3. Loughborough. Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate.31-2 CITRATE. MORFLEX.University Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate.1931-41 FRICTION WELDING OF SIMILAR AND DISSIMILAR MATERIALS.. IRAN Accession no.

780833 Item 275 European Chemical News 73. neutralise the HCl which is formed. ECVM decided to pre-empt any future command and Accession no. 17 refs. Volume 81. lead-based. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.18-9 INDUSTRY TAKES THE INITIATIVE ON PVC Johnston S The European Commission’s “horizontal study” on PVC was welcomed by the PVC industry when it was announced three years ago.781444 Item 274 ACS. Kodama M Japan. scavenging free radicals. 2000. However.1919. 6 refs.1999. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999. The paper highlights the use of heavy metal stabilisers and phthalate plasticisers. ISRAEL Accession no. Industry saw it as a chance to consolidate information on PVC in a conclusive form.University A report is presented on the fluorination of the inner surface of blood circulating tubes made from PVC using APG discharge treatment in order to enhance biocompatibility and suppress the bleeding of plasticisers from the PVC. Babukutty Y.7355-60 POLYMER DEPOSITION USING ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA GLOW 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . La. July 2000. p. The guidelines for choosing a membrane include selective absorption of chloro-organics.References and Abstracts used for various PVC applications.40-1 GREEN PAPER ON PVC INCLUDES OPTION OF SUBSTITUTION Substituting PVC in certain applications is included among a range of mandatory and voluntary measures outlined in a Green Paper on PVC issued by the European Commission in July.20. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Okazaki S. p.) Pervaporation is a separation technique used to separate liquid mixtures using selective vaporisation of permeates moving through a non-porous permselective membrane. chemical resistance and resistance to swelling. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Stabilisers are classified into three types: tinbased.Div.306. A hydrophobic surface was produced on the inner surface of the tube by polymerising hexafluoropropylene or tetrafluoroethylene and the treated surfaces analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Kogoma M. The stabilisers interrupt the degradation. for wire and cable applications.. 22nd-26th Aug.National Inst. Membranes prepared from industrial PVC films which are modified using a vinyl silane are characterised and then evaluated for chloro-organic/water pervaporative separation. No. JAPAN Accession no. and decompose peroxides. p.39-40 COMMISSION BROADENS INQUIRY INTO PHTHALATES BEYOND TOYS The European Commission has accepted proposed European Parliament amendments to the draft Directive on phthalates which ask it to explore the potential health risks of phthalates in products other than PVC toys. Narkis M Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (ACS. 24th-30th July 2000. the ECVM says it was surprised to discover these were all waste management studies.782546 Item 273 Polymer 41. for rigid applications. No. Sluszny A. USA (APG) DISCHARGE Prat R. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. particularly from floor coverings and food packaging of soft PVC.for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research. The Commission identified areas which it felt required further study and commissioned consultants to carry out five studies.782547 Item 272 ENDS Report No.782688 Item 271 ENDS Report No. The Directive would make permanent the temporary ban on the marketing of PVC toys and childcare articles intended for the mouth in children under three and containing six phthalates. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. especially PVC articles used in healthcare. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. and mixed metal. with variable composition according to the PVC end use. New Orleans. Another amendment would require the Commission to review other applications of PVC articles which may expose people to risks. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Sophia. Pervaporation has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for the separation of chloro-organic compounds from water.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. Conference proceedings. the low level of recycling and the generation of hazardous waste from incineration as the main problems and promises a draft PVC strategy early next year.306. July 2000.542-3 SILANE-MODIFIED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES Silverstein M S. Koh Y J.

p. it is shown that the service and functional properties of plasticised PVC are lost as a result of diffusion-controlled desorption of a plasticiser or other additives. When Ca/Zn stabilisers in PVC are exchanged for Pb stabilisers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. ITALY. March 2000.C). Elf Atochem SA. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. reprocessing conditions. 134 refs. tensile strength and strain).References and Abstracts control action by the Commission by implementing a voluntary approach to improve the environmental performance of PVC. FRANCE.778023 Item 279 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6.69-79 TOWARDS THE PREDICTION OF PINKING OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J. UV and IR spectroscopic techniques.778697 Item 277 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 39.80-7 TIO2 PIGMENT STRUCTURE AND KINETICS OF PVC WEATHERING Gesenhues U. chromatographic. No.778055 Item 278 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6.3. Pokholok T V.152. fittings and window frames by 2003 and 50% by 2005. The voluntary commitment includes a commitment to mechanically recycle 25% of all PVC pipes. 38 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY.University The results are reported of a study of the influence of stabilisers and antioxidants (Irganox B900 and Sandostab P-EPQ) on the rheological and mechanical properties of recycled PP and PVC. The effects of the number of reprocessing operations. EUROPEAN UNION. Using thermogravimetric. Spriet C CNEP. Parmeland G. No indications for specific interactions between pigment and stabiliser are found. EUROPEAN COMMISSION WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL systems and to predict the lifetime of such materials in use. These experimental data are used to formulate a mathematical description of the ageing process in these Accession no. and a scheme of two consecutive reactions is fitted to the intermediate losses of brightness observed for the most photoactive pigments.g. Gumargalieva K Z.567-650 KINETIC ASPECTS OF AGEING OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE-BASED POLYMER MATERIALS Zaikov G E. Information about the ageing conditions can be derived from the experimental time histories of the weight loss or additive depletion in the course of functioning of PVC samples or their exposure to different impacts. Zaikov V G Russian Academy of Sciences The results of the complex study of samples of plasticised PVC subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions or being in use for a long time (from 15 to 30 years at 253-301 K) studied by various techniques and the mechanism of their ageing are presented. Huntsman Tioxide Pinking of TiO2-pigmented PVC can be observed for profiles exposed to the mild environmental conditions of North European countries. a predictive test is designed and validated by comparison with results obtained under natural exposure conditions. Dabin P. modified polyene sequences which explain the pinking. mercury porosimetry and techniques for measuring mechanical strength properties of the materials (e. Siampiringue N. June 2000. gloss degradation rate doubles. 2000. p. Photoreduction of TiO2 to give Ti(III) species accounts for greying which cannot be converted into pinking under mild thermooxidative conditions (65 deg. 8 refs. 15 refs. No. molecular parameters of the polymers and the type and content of stabilisers on the properties of the recycled polymers are discussed. The polyenic sequences which account for an initial greying after brief exposure in the SEPAP 12. The kinetics of loss of gloss are transformed into photooxidation rates by using Weibull statistics of failure. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2. p. June 2000. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Moiseev Y V. RUSSIA Accession no. Chaigneau R. From the basic understanding gained. and the energetic spread of irradiation defects broadens.780190 Item 276 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. Hocken J Sachtleben Chemie GmbH The influences of doping the core of TiO2 pigments with Al2O3 and of various inorganic surface modifications on the rate of PVC weathering are investigated.201-10 RE-STABILISATION OF RECYCLED POLYMERS La Mantia F P Palermo. Delprat R. The pinking phenomenon is accounted for at the molecular level by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation.24 apparatus can be converted into shorter.778022 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 105 . EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. gel permeation chromatography. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2.

The importance of proper gelation prior to supercritical fluid injection and proper cell nucleation and growth control is highlighted and the roles of screw design and process conditions in achieving microcellular structure are indicated.29-31 WASTE PROBLEMS LOOM LARGER FOR PVC This article presents details of the gloomy picture of the environmental impacts associated with PVC waste which has been painted by four PVC waste management studies carried out for the European Commission. Wu Q Qingdao. flammability and heat ageing characteristics and chemical resistance for calcium sulphate filled compounds. p.5577-82 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVC FILMS IN SOLVENT-NON-SOLVENT MIXTURES Sacristan J. 19-20 Oct.777317 Item 283 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 78. Studies of rheological properties showed improved processability in mixing and extrusion trials. and the influence of PVC on incinerator flue gas cleaning residues. and of the solvent/ non-solvent ratio used in the reaction. CHINA Accession no. Reinecke H. Chen L. Performing the reaction in mixtures of a good and a nonsolvent for PVC modification. UK. Zhen H Y.776778 Item 284 Polymer 41.BALANCED BLOWING AGENT Zhou Q. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Wu J. The reaction with sodium azide appeared to occur homogeneously through the film.. March/April 2000. SPAIN. p. Improvements were observed in tensile.777388 Item 281 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36. p. The decomposition features of NaHCO3/citric acid and the mechanism of strong exothermic H2N-CON=NOCNH2 are discussed as are the properties of endo-exothermic and exo-endothermic blowing agents and the density and tensile strength of rigid PVC foams produced in a Brabender extruder. No. WESTERN EUROPE EU. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. March/April 2000. The degree of modification could be varied as a function of time. Parsippany. while the use of amino thiophenol led to a polymer film which was preferentially modified at the surface. No. feedstock recycling. The determination of the overall degree of modification of films of different thickness allowed conclusions to be drawn about the surface selectivity of the reaction. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. April 2000. 6 refs. of temp. URALITA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The studies cover mechanical recycling. on the other hand. Sanchez M Yesos Ibericos Oparex 15 calcined calcium sulphate (Yesos Ibericos) was evaluated as a filler in plasticised PVC cable insulation compounds in comparison with two grades of calcium carbonate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the morphology of the film was changed by the reaction. While the use of a phase transfer agent made it possible for the nucleophilic substitution reaction to occur.References and Abstracts Item 280 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36. Burnham T Dumaplast Extrusion. Deweerdt M. Accession no.Institute of Chemical Technology The results are reported of an investigation into the formulation of endo-exothermic blowing agents aimed at controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition during the extrusion of PVC foams. EUROPEAN UNION.15.522.303. (SPE Foams ’99 Conference.1999.699-708 Spanish NEW MINERAL FILLERS FOR COMPOUNDS USED IN THE INSULATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES Hidalgo M. WESTERN EUROPE. 16 refs. BELGIUM. EUROPEAN COMMISSION 106 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 6 refs. leading to a loss in both surface smoothness and transparency of the film. Wang J.2. Dec. took place in a controlled manner and the film remained both smooth and transparent. Wei Ping G. Trexel Inc. Mijangos C Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Suitable reaction conditions for the selective surface modification of PVC films with sodium azide and amino thiophenol were investigated.777387 Item 282 ENDS Report No. electrical and low temperature properties. New Jersey). USA. behaviour in landfill. while no significant differences in water absorption and hydrolysis were noted. Perugini C. EUROPEAN UNION.148-57 MICROCELLULAR PVC FOAM FOR THIN WALL PROFILE Vanvuchelen J. EUROPEAN UNION.2. The production of PVC foam having excellent toughness without the addition of impact modifier using microcellular foam technology is described. 2000.126-47 COMPOUND MECHANISM OF THE ENDOEXOTHERMIC + OR . p. p.

Last but not least. Katowice. No. by the Weibull statistical model of failure the rates of PVC photooxidation are calculated. it has shortcomings in impact strength. and the possibilities for chlorinated PE (CPE). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.4. The crosslinking reaction. a product growing strongly in the profile industry. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Wiebeck H. In dry irradiation.Escola Politecnico. No. It is pointed out that Brazilian recycling technology is slightly © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 107 . UK. By UVvis spectroscopy. Conference proceedings.Metropolitan University The chemical crosslinking of PVC induced by metallic mercaptides (Ba and Mg salts of 2-dibutylamino-4. are expanded upon.6-dithio1. MEXICO.1999.185-96 INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS ON THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gesenhues U Sachtleben Chemie GmbH A nanocrystalline rutile powder. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. an anatase white pigment and a photoactive as well as a photostable rutile pigment are examined for their influence on the photodegradation of PVC. Gerlach D DuPont Dow Elastomers SA (Poland.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 27 refs. GERMANY.3. Impact modifiers provide consistently ductile behaviour over a broad temperature range.6dithio-1. Gloss losses are correlated with surface roughness measurements and electron microscopic images to elucidate the underlying morphological changes.5-triazine is more effective than the barium salt in crosslinking the PVC. and impact strength over extended periods. No. SPAIN. particular the maintenance of colour. and notched (fast) impact tests for window profiles. The data are discussed with a view to the development of appropriate stabiliser/ sensitiser packages for PVC with a window that allows effective process stabilisation coupled with postcrosslinking. Oct. The extent of crosslinking is determined by measuring the solvent (tetrahydrofuran) insoluble gel content.e. such as pipes or profiles. as measured by torque and parallel plate rheometry. WESTERN EUROPE the individual balance of UV-protective and photocatalytic properties can be quantified. 5 refs.Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) PVC is an outstanding material for the production of rigid extruded goods.1999.776031 Item 286 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. SWITZERLAND. the photooxidation of PVC comes to a standstill when the irradiation intensity is reduced by only 50%./Dec. the processor seeks products with sufficient processing latitude . Neto M B Sao Paulo.there are weight drop or slow fracture toughness tests for pipes. Rodriguez O S. 11 refs. Additional needs for outdoor use are weathering and ageing stability .775955 Item 288 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 9.253-9 VISCOSITY CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHEMICALLY INDUCED CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE MEASURED BY PARALLEL PLATE TORQUE RHEOMETRY: INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM AND BARIUM MERCAPTIDES Rosales-Jasso A. The different products used are discussed and positioned. paper 9 NEW GENERATION CPE MODIFIER FOR PVC WINDOW PROFILES Kim A. From the gloss losses during dry irradiation and full weathering. shows that the magnesium salt of the 2-dibutylamino-4. the intermediate transfer of oxygen from the TiO2 surface to the polymer is proved. p. i. 2000. EUROPEAN UNION. Manchester. Thus the space of UV-protective influence around a rutile pigment particle is much larger than its ideal UV extinction sphere calculated from electromagnetic theory.776024 Item 287 Advances in Plastics Technology. the stabilisers are less effective in inhibiting crosslinking. compared to blanc fixe as an inert filler.776307 Item 285 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. However due. Instituto do PVC The practicalities of recycling PVC are considered. The requirements for impact strength depend on the end use . to its high glass transition temperature. the Ca/Zn stearates give shorter induction times than their Ba/Zn analogues. EUROPEAN UNION. It has therefore to be modified to provide impact strength at ambient and low temperature.products which are easy to formulate and run reliably on a wide range of extruders and tools. So for each TiO2 pigment Accession no.195-200 Portuguese RECYCLING OF PVC IN BRAZIL Piva A M.5-triazine) combined with various thermal stabiliser combinations (calcium/zinc and barium/zinc stearates) is examined by parallel plate and torque rheometry and gel formation.3. A short overview is given of principles and mechanisms of impact modification. Arias G. EUROPEAN UNION. In combination with metal stearates. 16th-18th Nov. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2.2. p. 2000. Allen N S Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. gloss. Poland. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

p. Conference proceedings.National Research Council (SPE.771750 Item 290 Vinyltec ’99.769502 Item 291 Vinyltec ’99. 3 refs. there are now signs that the USA marketplace is changing in order to conform with these environmental trends. Ontario.) 108 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . In Accession no. Conference proceedings. (SPE. Ontario.Vinyl Div.83-7 HIGH PERFORMANCE ACRYLIC PROCESS AID FOR PVC Nishimura R. alternative procedures for recycling are required in order to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product. However. BRAZIL Accession no. No.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the fundamental requirement of a stabiliser and lubricant system to facilitate processing still exists. (SPE. p.) Advancements in processing equipment have forced changes in PVC compounds. p.1999. Sheehan S E. March 2000.31-4 English. Western Europe has led these initiatives. Wolfgramm P Limburgse Vinyl Maatschappij NV/SA. 1 ref.Vinyl Div. Translated form Kunstoffe Vol. While these compounds run the gamut of complexity in terms of additives. processing emissions and finished product acceptability continue to drive new product development in this area. long polymer chain of process aid plays an important role in forming and maintaining polymer chain entanglement structure and contributes to improve several process performances. Unique test methods are adopted to estimate the effect of chain entanglement to the molten state of PVC. While hydrochloric acid is the major chlorinated product produced by PVC pyrolysis. Technological aspects of the replacement of cadmium in liquid stabilisers and the reduction of volatile constituents and phenol in these materials is reviewed. USA Accession no. and the result is compared to observed process behaviours. Current challenges are related to output rate and achieving longer run times by reducing plate out. Conference proceedings. provide a more efficient lubricating effect.52-8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LIQUID MIXED-METAL PVC STABILISER DEVELOPMENT Burley J W Akzo Nobel Resins BV (SPE. such as ageing resistance.) Functions of acrylic process aid with extremely high molecular weight are discussed from a rheological point of view.769496 Item 293 Vinyltec ’99. USA Accession no. p. 12th-14th Oct. 15 refs. Besides conventional ideas of fusion promotion and melt viscosity/elasticity enhancement. other chlorinated hydrocarbons are produced.3.1999. Klein B. A new lubricant system is developed with improved compatibility to reduce the tendency to plate-out. 12th-14th Oct. p.114-7. Cooney J D Canada. Silbermann J.References and Abstracts different from traditional recycling and. USA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Concerns over worker safety.) The pyrolysis products obtained from a variety of mixed plastics containing PVC are investigated. Falter J A Henkel Corp. 7 refs. Today’s processor is challenged to use these additives to maximise the investment in equipment while producing a high quality product. p.42-7 ROLE OF PVC IN THE RESOURCE RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBONS FROM MIXED PLASTIC WASTES BY PYROLYSIS Day M. and allow faster extrusion speeds compared to conventional lubricant systems. JAPAN. weight savings and the recycling of production waste in the same application.Vinyl Div.Vinyl Div.3.90 No. GERMANY. the composition and yield of these compounds are very much dependent upon the other polymers present in the plastic mixture. BELGIUM. however. The Audi A2 now marks the first production car to have come onto the market with an instrument panel surface developed according to this technology.769497 Item 292 Vinyltec ’99. Conference proceedings. Touchette-Barrette C. 5 refs. 2000.774214 Item 289 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90. German DOUBLE SLUSH Bouwman B. Peguform GmbH The double slush technique offers added service value. EUROPEAN UNION. as a result. Kaneka Corp. 12th-14th Oct. 12th-14th Oct. Ontario. passive safety. Ontario. Shabnavard L. Nakanishi Y Kaneka Texas Corp.1999.48-51 NEW LOW PLATE OUT RIGID PVC LUBRICANT SYSTEM TO MEET THE PROCESSING CHALLENGES OF TODAY’S HIGH-OUTPUT EXTRUSION PROCESS Decker R W.1999.

44 PARLIAMENT TARGETS PVC IN VOTE ON INCINERATION DIRECTIVE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 109 . 9 refs. essentially instantaneously. Ontario. In 1998.) It is well known that acid acceptors such as hydrotalcite and zeolite have stabiliser value in PVC and other halogenated polymers. 12th-14th Oct.) Much has been reported over the last several years about the declining state of plastics recycling. process stability is long.302. conducted from February to April 1998. ‘PostIndustrial and Post-consumer Vinyl Reclaim: Material Flow and Uses in North America’. The goals were to confirm the amount of vinyl actually being recycled. Bradshaw R W. That is.1999. the use of calcium carbonate in PVC applications has been driven by a desire to cut formulation costs. the leaders in the mineral industry have shifted their focus from supplying standard products as fillers to supplying functional additives engineered to meet customer needs. The results of the first phase of research. p. It is discovered that two application properties are integrally dependent on the form of the calcium carbonate: impact strength and fusion time/torque. the HCl produced by the PVC can be neutralised in situ.References and Abstracts the case of a polymeric waste stream containing inorganic fillers. p. e. these materials react with aqueous HCl at about the same rate as CaCO3 or Mg(OH)2. Prince J ECC International Inc.g.769493 Item 295 Vinyltec ’99. Conference proceedings. cove base extrusion. Processors’ difficulties in recycling vinyl bottles and other post-consumer packaging have led some to allege that vinyl is ‘unrecyclable’ without further investigating the obstacles.1999. 7 refs. This initial research focused on post-industrial vinyl recycling. alleviating many of the concerns associated with HCl formation. Ontario. however. barium stearate. additives such as hydrotalcite Accession no. That is. This more complete analysis compared vinyl to the other plastic resins in application areas commonly evaluated by traditional recycling rate studies . conducted in September and November 1998. USA and zeolite (and certain others) provide stability comparable to. but colour hold poor. USA Accession no. Mobley G. were presented at Vinyltec ’98.13-7 ACID ABSORBERS AS PVC COSTABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group. in particular. The second phase of research. at least to a far greater extent than common. (SPE. highly mobile HCl before elimination of further HCl can occur.) Historically. The effect has been to treat the acid absorber as if it were a barium or calcium component of a mixed metal stabiliser. (SPE. p. March 2000.769490 Item 296 Vinyltec ’99. such as calcium carbonate. tending to deactivate such sites and to capture catalytic. Acid absorbers coated with zinc carboxylates are useful in flexible PVC compounds where the application has rather modest stabiliser demand. Ontario. It has been suggested that acid absorbers that are effective as stabilisers form addition complexes at degrading sites. 12th-14th Oct.Inc. that is. expanded the study’s focus to post-use and postconsumer recycling.769495 Item 294 Vinyltec ’99.Vinyl Div.bottles and other post-consumer packaging.32-7 USE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TO ENHANCE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID VINYL PRODUCTS Callhoun A. In ‘test tube’ reactions. for example. They are also widely available costabilisers for organotin mercaptides in rigid PVC. (SPE. leading to the production of inorganic chlorides.1-7 VINYL RECYCLING: THE (UNTIL NOW) UNTOLD STORY Wisner D Geon Co. Conference proceedings. Vinyl. However. The concept of calcium carbonate as a filler is still strongly held by many purchasers of carbonate. was issued by the consulting firm Principia Partners. has been singled out as lagging behind other plastics in recycling rates.Vinyl Div. that stabilisers have coordinating properties that enable their being at the right place at the right time.Vinyl Div. probe allegations of low vinyl recycling rates.Halstab Div. In polymeric matrices.1999. Conference proceedings. This has been corrected in practice by combination with zinc carboxylates. CANADA Accession no.769488 Item 297 ENDS Report No. the Vinyl Institute and the Chlorine Chemistry Council commissioned a comprehensive study of the state of vinyl recycling. the fatter additives have very little stabilising effect and are at best secondary stabilisers. USA Accession no. In working to meet this goal a great deal of energy has been exerted to identify what effects calcium carbonate has on the final properties of rigid vinyl products. 12th-14th Oct. acid-reactive fillers. p. When used as a primary stabiliser. That research report. and identify obstacles to and opportunities for increased vinyl recycling.

These would have to be upgraded by January 2007 rather than January 2008 as previously agreed. p. In addition to unacceptable colour formation. Feb. excessive pH shifts and high extractables are often observed.80-96 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTRUSION OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS IN A CAPILLARY RHEOMETER Glomsaker T.State University The effects of process parameters such as forming temperature. Other amendments relating to the combustion of fibrous waste are indicated. USA Accession no. These examples and methods to ensure radiation compatibility and shelf life stability are presented. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. LDPE. For most polyolefins.1. No. p.768077 Item 298 Modern Plastics International 30.764996 Item 302 Polymer Degradation and Stability 67. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The approach involves coextruding a UV-resistant coloured PVC skin on a base profile of low-cost PVC containing no UV stabilisers. No.2. forming air pressure and heating time on wall thickness distribution in plug-assisted thermoformed food containers were investigated. Hinrichsen E L. Thorsteinsen P Norwegian University of Science & Technology. gamma radiation often leads to discolouration. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Techniques used include thermal analysis. The European Parliament voted to tighten emission levels for new cement kilns coincinerating waste. Also agreed was an amendment which would require incinerator operators to take steps to remove large PVC items from the waste stream.1-10 WALL THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION IN THERMOFORMED FOOD CONTAINERS PRODUCED BY A BENCO ASEPTIC PACKAGING MACHINE Ayhan Z. p.766482 Item 300 Polymer Engineering and Science 40.References and Abstracts Amendments to the draft EC Directive on the incineration of PVC are outlined. Hydro Polymers Nordic A study was made of the ability of viscoelastic models to describe the measured material functions of unplasticised PVC during extrusion and to determine whether it was possible to reproduce the elastic properties of the large entrance pressure drop and small extrudate swell during the extrusion of PVC using a capillary rheometer.44-9 RADIATION STERILISATION COMPATIBILITY OF MEDICAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Shang S.2000. Westphal S P. and reduced by one year the proposed exemptions for existing cement kilns burning less than three tonnes of waste per hour. No. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. 49 refs. Jan. Ling M T K.2. Woo L Baxter Healthcare Corp. Winter 1999. No. Jan. 2000. SCANDINAVIA.766399 Item 301 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 3. USA Accession no. Irgens F.766820 Item 299 Rheologica Acta 39.1.2000. The all-PVC compounds are cost competitive and maintain colour and mechanical properties for years regardless of weather conditions. Zhang Q H Ohio.2000. Data are presented for high impact PS. radiation is found to deplete the antioxidant package leading to discolouration and/or mechanical failures. Feb. 17 refs. NORWAY.285-90 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF RIGID PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS 110 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 4 refs. The optimum operating conditions of the packaging machine for the thermoforming process are discussed. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL function. Tests were carried out on two PVC formulations having different morphologies and gelatinisation. SINTEF Materials Technology. optical property evaluations and failure analysis. EUROPEAN UNION. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM. For PPs. the degradation can lead to the well-publicised catastrophic failures during post radiation shelf life storage. This results from conjugated poly-ene sequences formed through dehydrohalogenation degradation during ionising radiation. For a variety of PVC formulations. p.93 COLOURED PVC COMPOUNDS HOLD STRONG PROMISE IN EXTERIOR PROFILE APPLICATIONS Rainbow compounds from Solvay are said to overcome problems associated with compounds used to date for coloured PVC profiles. and PVC. The low IR absorption rate of the skin reduces thermal deformation of the profile by hindering heat accumulation on the profile. Models used were the Phan-Thien and Tanner model and the KBKZ-Wagner model with a single exponential damping Accession no. The gamma sterilisation compatibility for three medical packaging materials is examined. physical testing.2.

inhomogeneities are found. plasticiser content and addition of a lipophilic salt are found to significantly influence water uptake. The mean diameter of the dispersed spherical inhomogeneities is ~6 nm. probably in the crystalline state.128-9 French TREATMENT OF WASTES: ELIMINATION OF CHLORINE IN WASTE THERMOLYSIS Fontana A.1999. p. by chemical recycling is considered. BELGIUM. weight loss kinetics and product yield and distribution were investigated. Water uptake does not change the microstructure due to the original (i. Beckmann M Universite Libre de Bruxelles. 2000. No.1999. Prague.Technical University. Avon Technical Products The stretching mechanism of an equal biaxial stretching machine was modified.760936 Item 304 Plastics Additives and Compounding 1.760988 Item 303 Polymer Testing 19.758765 Item 307 Addcon World ’99. Oct. The possibility of converting PVC into raw materials. Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH Results are presented of studies of the thermolysis of PVC-containing wastes in which calcium carbonate.University Rigid PVC pellets were subjected to oxidative degradation with oxygen in 1 to 25 mol/kg-H2O sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 to 260C in order to establish the fundamental conditions necessary for recycling waste PVC using a novel method. 1st Oct. similar enhancements of mechanical properties occurred. 2 refs. If plasticised PVC was biaxially oriented to the same draw ratios by different stretching modes. EASTERN EUROPE.411. HUNGARY Accession no.Research Institute for Solid State Physics & Optics The microstructure of plasticised PVC membranes in the dry state and during the process of soaking in heavy water is studied by small-angle neutron scattering.) Accession no.5 TOY INDUSTRY COMMITTED TO TEST SOFT PVC TOYS This article briefly describes new Dutch and UK test methods for measuring the migration of phthalate plasticisers in PVC toys. p. Horvai G Budapest.5.1999. Marfell M Loughborough. TOY INDUSTRIES OF EUROPE. The membrane structure is well described by a polydisperse hardsphere model. Budapest. Conference proceedings. Borbely S.759006 Item 306 Info Chimie Magazine No. and hopes that their use will spread to other member states.19. sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate were used for the capture of chlorine. In the dry membrane. 12 refs.4313-20 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ION-SELECTIVE PLASTICISED PVC MEMBRANES STUDIED BY SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING Ye Q. 32 refs. HASBRO. UK. GERMANY. Krockenberger J BASF AG (RAPRA Technology Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Furukawa K. 29 refs. No. The Toy Industries of Europe organisation hopes that the new test methods will eventually lead to a common method within the EU to ensure the safety of toys and child care items to reassure consumers. Jung C G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.27-41 DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE FOR THE STRETCHING OF POLYMERS Hitt D J. 27th-19th Oct.1999. The effects of reaction conditions on weight loss. The values of the best-fit parameters and their change with membrane composition suggest that the particles consist of unplasticised PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. such as carboxylic acids. p. pp. calcium hydroxide.759093 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 111 . Laurent P. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. Gehrmann J. simultaneous (equal and unequal) biaxial and sequential. Gilbert M. Tests with plasticised PVC showed that the machine could produce oriented sheets under different stretching modes . p.5 CYANOACRYLATES AS UV ABSORBERS FOR SPECIALITY PLASTICS Trauth H. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. smaller than the estimated dimension of a single statistically curled PVC polymer chain in the membrane. MATTEL EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Okuwaki A Tohoku.1. No.e. Companies Hasbro and Mattel have already adopted these methods.University.References and Abstracts AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. Sept. dry state) inhomogeneities in the membranes. JAPAN Item 305 Analytical Chemistry 71.uniaxial (constant width). Major decomposition products were identified as oxalic acid. paper 20. Type of plasticiser.

27th-19th Oct. e. UK. The main jointing methods for PE. p. EUROPEAN UNION. p. using Response Surface Methods. paper 19. The measure was only adopted following disagreement between the European Commission and its scientific advisers about where the boundary lies between risk assessment and risk management. dibenzoylmethane. It is pointed out that techniques used at installation are not always suitable for repairing pipes. No. including co-stabilisers is explained briefly and results are given for stabilisation systems that contain stearoyl benzoylmethane.4-diones (P24D organic costabilisers from Akcros Chemicals). ABS. thermal degradation behaviour and light absorption spectra are shown for ethyl-2-cyano-3. The mechanism of stabilisation by P24D. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 16th-17th March 1999. is given particular attention.3'-diphenylacryloyl)oxy)2. rigid PVC. EUROPEAN UNION.3-dimethyluracil. Hurst S J Manchester.6 INCREASING ROLE OF ORGANIC COSTABILISERS IN PVC STABILISATION Mellor M T J. Lees G C.References and Abstracts Chemical structures. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.3. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Schmets G H F Akcros Chemicals BV (RAPRA Technology Ltd. Molecular structures are shown for a range of stabilisers.2-bis-(2-cyano-3’3diphenylacryloyl)oxyl)methyl)propane (Uvinol 3030) UV stabilisers from BASF.137-42 RIGID PVC FORMULATION OPTIMISATION USING SEQUENTIAL SIMPLEX Berard M T DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC 112 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. The aqueous separation medium pH and surfactant concentration were optimised with respect to separation efficiency. EUROPEAN UNION. whiteness index and yellowness index) are given for both oven ageing (95C) and mill ageing (180C). 4 refs. pigmented polyamide and PETP fibres containing various stabilisation systems including the above cyanoacrylates. UK.Metropolitan University A mixed granulate produced from PETP and PVC postconsumer bottles has been separated using the technology of column flotation. GERMANY.299. No.758478 Item 308 Addcon World ’99. London. EUROPEAN UNION. pp.756659 Item 312 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. p. Patents are cited on the use of uracil compounds. Conference proceedings. Details are given of the discussions involved. 6-amino1. WESTERN EUROPE Listed too are the main techniques for welding and mechanical joints. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Results (colour generation.47-8 EC SCIENTIFIC ADVISERS FAIL TO STOP BAN ON PHTHALATES IN PVC TOYS An immediate ban on phthalates used in soft PVC toys intended to be chewed or sucked by children under three has been agreed by EC Member State representatives on 1 December. as compounds that do not need zinc salts to catalyse their stabilisation mechanism. DECIE and retained TS) are shown graphically for the ageing up to 6000 hours of polycarbonate sheets.758477 Item 309 Joining and Repair of Plastics and Composites.185-92 PLASTICS PIPELINE JOINTING METHODS IN THE UTILITIES Hill D J Durapipe Ltd. 1999. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.3-dipropyluracil and 6-amino-1. plasticised PVC. Detailed descriptions and evaluations are given of butt fusion. 2-ethylhexyl-2-cyano3. (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) Techniques used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines are discussed.1-11 SEPARATION OF PETP FROM PVC USING COLUMN FLOTATION Read S J. electrofusion socket welding. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. polycarbonate films. Prague. dehydroacetic acid and the pyrrolidine-2. 16 refs.1. 15 refs. PP. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 6-amino-1. ABS and GRP are listed.758456 Item 310 ENDS Report No.g.757682 Item 311 Polymer Recycling 4. Dec.3-dibutyluracil. The study has shown that column flotation could be used to give close to 100% separation of PVC from PETP in a single operation.) The stabilisation process by heavy metal-free systems.1999.1999. EUROPEAN UNION. Conference Proceedings.3diphenylacrylate (Uvinul 3035).1999.3-diphenylacrylate (Uvinol 3039) and 3-bis((2-cyano3. including the grafting of the co-stabiliser to the backbone. p. rigid PVC. spigot and socket jointing (with elastomeric O-rings or lip seals as sealing means) and flange adaptors. Results (yellowness index. Sept. Harvey H B. NETHERLANDS.

CSMA Ltd. The basic mechanics of sequential simplex and desirability functions are described along with the results of the optimisation. This optimisation is performed on seven of the ten ingredients from a ‘standard’ siding compound with a relatively limited number of experiments. DETECTION BY PVC MELT FLOW Riley D W Extrusion Engineers It has been known for decades molecular structural changes in the processing of PVC can be detected by using ASTM D 3364 (PVC Melt Flow Test).University.3. Sept.755489 Item 313 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. McFarland C A. Hydro Polymers Ltd. Courtney J M.116-24 CONTRIBUTION OF FLOW DEFORMATION TO THE SHRINKAGE OF INJECTION MOULDED PVC Harrell E R. 6 refs. there is a higher reactivity Accession no.9. the ASTM D 3364 techniques are modified to include new higher pressures on the ram as well as other revisions. Blass C R.527-31 BLOOD INTERACTIONS WITH PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): RELEVANCE OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Yin H Q.1999. The effects of extrusion on extruded pellets are also studied as part of this design. Elleithy R H.1710-6 DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF A POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) TUBE BY MANDREL DRAWING Ulas I Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. Biaxial mechanical properties of products produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel are found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio. and it is shown that bath cooling greatly improves the quality and integrity of the product. antithrombotic agent. Sept. blood condition and the nature of the application is represented when considering the blood response in the clinical utilisation of the plasticised PVC. No. Zhao X B. USA Accession no. West R H. p. Sept. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for surface characterisation of the polymers and the data obtained indicated that in comparison with DEHP-PVC. It is shown how the various lubricants at differing concentrations and types can alter the PVC melt flow test results and imply differences in processing. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 113 . No. The processing window contour mapping technique is used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes. No. To detect the changes in lubricity.. JAPAN Accession no. No.755488 Item 314 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5.1999. Through a special design of experiment.755486 Item 315 Polymer Engineering and Science 39.755465 Item 316 Journal of Materials Science. spring-back and thickness distribution is investigated. Glasgow. USA Accession no. 9 refs.1999. p. I. 20 refs. An attempt is made to further understanding of the deformation behaviour and related mechanical improvements in a processed PVC tube and it is shown that behaviour is controlled by the polymer network structure. It has been realised that this test can detect small changes in the ingredients as well.References and Abstracts A rigid PVC formulation is optimised for processing window and cost using sequential simplex techniques in combination with desirability functions.1999.132-6 EFFECT OF LUBRICANTS ON PROCESSING. The blood response was measured in terms of the measurement of fibrinogen adsorption capacity.3. The viscoelastic nature of PVC cannot be ignored during the injection moulding process. employing ‘approximate’ time-temperature modulus relationships. the effect of three lubricants on extrusion of dry blends of PVC (with and without calcium stearate) is investigated.. The PVC was plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tri-(2ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TEHTM)and in-vitro and ex-vivo procedures used to study the biomaterial with respect to the selection of the plasticiser. USA attained within the part during injection is determined.. p. Lowe G D O Strathclyde.9. p. A mathematical model. 6 refs. Strains imposed on the compound during the injection stage display recovery dynamics that are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. Summers J W Polymer Diagnostics Inc. Sept. The influence of different factors such as the biomaterial. provide the basis for interpreting the shrinkage data. thrombin-antithrombin III complex and the complement component C3a. This is combined with the formulation cost by using desirability functions to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise. Geon Co. Materials in Medicine 10.Royal Infirmary A study has been carried out on the interactions of blood with plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) biomaterials in a tubular form. The effect of post-mandrel bath cooling on product straightness.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which correlates with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface. typically at 55% hydrolysis. BPF) One of the continuing trends in the development of superior quality suspension PVC (S-PVC) resin has been the need to impart higher grain porosity. UK.University. typically in methanol. low molecular weight PVOHs.451-8 WATER DILUTABLE SECONDARY STABILISERS IN THE SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION OF PVC Prince K D Harlow Chemical Co. fully dilutable grade. The use of methanol presents safety and environmental hazards relating to its particular toxicity and flammability. Brighton. These PVOHs remained for a long time the optimum hydrolysis at which a stable. typically with hydrolysis levels below 50%. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The recent development of a lower hydrolysis. p. where achieving the above requirements is considerably more difficult. 8 refs.. Even so. whilst imparting good PVC grain porosity. Everett Koop misrepresents scientific evidence. 14 refs. Conference proceedings.References and Abstracts for TEHTM-PVC. HCWH contends that Koop’s panel selectively used data about the health effects of phthalates leaching from PVC and questions the intellectual honesty of Koop’s report. Conference proceedings. plasticiser uptake. No. despite the fact that reduced thermal stability was implied. 17 refs. It was shown that high levels of crosslinking could be achieved in the presence of basic lead salts.Ltd. Brighton.398-409 COLOURING CA/ZN STABILISED PVC Dittes M BASF AG 114 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . facilitating improved VCM removal and faster. 20th-22nd April 1999. These concerns led to the development.5% hydrolysed PVOH as primary. has provided the Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. although no comment was made on the thermal stability of the compounds produced. Two methods. EUROPEAN UNION.University (IOM Communications Ltd. To achieve this. Alicante. 20th-22nd April 1999.747918 Item 320 PVC ’99. the possibility of using aminosilanes and peroxides to crosslink rigid PVC is investigated. with an acceptable grain size. peroxides. HEALTH CARE WITHOUT HARM USA ideal solution. The most significant work is that of Kelnar and Schatz who reported the crosslinking of rigid PVC using mercaptosilanes. Work has shown that both systems can produce successful crosslinkable formulations. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. HCWH is leading the charge to get rid of PVC in medical devices.33. The requirements of these. an effect attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane in the rigid material. 20th-22nd April 1999. more uniform. modified secondary. water soluble. p. during the 1980s. (IOM Communications Ltd. SPAIN. of 45-50% hydrolysis. In the 1990s there has been renewed interest in the chemical crosslinking of PVC. BPF) Crosslinking of PVC can result in the improvement of a number of properties.1999. In this work.. PVC producers have adopted the use of specific secondary suspending agents. adequate thermal stability and the avoidance of premature crosslinking during processing. Less attention has been devoted to the chemical crosslinking of rigid PVC. with a low methanol content. in certain S-PVC formulations. Crosslinking of rigid PVC was shown to be slower than for plasticised PVC.441-50 CROSSLINKING OF RIGID PVC Gilbert M. which have been studied in some detail. It is demonstrated. which are to some extent conflicting.747919 Item 319 PVC ’99. Brighton. p. with most work focusing on plasticised compounds. are adequate gel content (i.e. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and as such have to be supplied as alcohol or alcohol-rich solutions. that such a water-based.3/59 HEALTHCARE GROUP ARGUES AGAINST PVC SAFETY FINDINGS Toloken S Health Care Without Harm claims that a report by former Surgeon General C. EUROPEAN UNION. giving all the advantages of both secondary systems. traditionally in the form of low-hydrolysis. aqueous product could be supplied. UK. Conference proceedings. particularly at elevated temperatures. % crosslinked polymer). aqueous-based 55% hydrolysed secondaries were failing to achieve the same high porosity levels as the solvent-based systems. Low-hydrolysis PVOHs are insoluble in water.749320 Item 318 PVC ’99. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.751990 Item 317 Plastics News(USA) 11. 4th Oct. in conjunction with a 72. are the use of silanes and to a lesser extent. named Alcotex WD30. Garcia-Quesada J c Loughborough. using experimental design software. The effects of different thermal stabilisers are also studied. of water-based secondary suspending agents. UK. is the optimum product for producing high porosity PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

The polymeric-based dispersions studied differ from waxbased dispersions by their inherently elastic nature. Matthey J Johnson Matthey Pigments & Dispersions (IOM Communications Ltd. p.747913 Item 321 PVC ’99. Emphasis is placed on advantages of meltable product forms and experience of these products in the market. Brighton. The main findings from a comparison of the weathering resistance of Pb.370-6 NEW GENERATION OF LEAD-FREE STABILISERS . excellent dispersion in the resin. PVC stabilisers can stop the degradation process by reacting with allylic chlorine atoms (primary stabilisers) or by scavenging hydrochloric acid (secondary stabilisers). no risk of cross contamination due to incompatibility. new delivery forms and new technologies are in demand. p. This is followed by important findings about colouring PVCs that use different stabiliser systems. 20th-22nd April 1999. Results demonstrate that it is possible to use trends found in the laboratory to scale up to production plant. Conference proceedings. Consequently. 20th-22nd April 1999. EUROPEAN UNION. (IOM Communications Ltd. Brighton. BPF) PVC thermal degradation is the result of a ‘zipper dehydrochlorination’ process that involves allylic chlorides as intermediates and is catalysed by hydrochloric acid. Videler C Chemson Polymer Additive GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd. it can be stopped by nucleophilic substitution Accession no. Pigment dispersions of this type have traditionally been based on low melting point waxes or on PVC masterbatches. Work carried out at Loughborough University has demonstrated that impact strength is a function of fusion level..and Ba/Cd-stabilised PVC with Ca/Zn-stabilised PVC are outlined. but recent developments have led to novel PVC free polymeric dispersions. An overview of organic and inorganic pigments is given. Egger A. colour. The natural choice for the new range of environmentally-friendly stabilisers was therefore based on calcium and zinc. Wa. Subsequent impact data is gathered on the samples produced and used to quantify the effects of the dispersion systems with respect to impact testing used within the PVC industry. Practical examples of lead substitution are explained. The propagation step in chain dehydrochlorination is a very fast process. The new polymeric dispersions minimise this effect.. delivery and storage in big bags or silos. Some alternatives are described and their costs compared. Scavenging HO cannot stop the degradation process completely as it is diffusion controlled. BPF) An objective view of the issues concerning lead chromate pigments and their replacements is presented. wax dispersions and polymeric dispersions to colour rigid PVC. BPF) During the last decade. free flowing and dustfree product forms.. lead-free PVC stabilisers have assumed a higher significance through increasing ecological awareness. As a consequence.350-9 MECHANISM OF PVC STABILISATION Fisch M H. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.NON-DUSTING MELT PRODUCTS Schiller M. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. Zuschnig G. particularly for window profile. BPF) The effects of using dry pigments. Brighton.based dispersions have been shown to have lubricating properties that can have adverse effects on fusion level. patents have been applied for covering the manufacture and use of these new polymer based dispersions. no health risk for the manufacturer. thus proving the validity of the laboratory scale trials. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 20th-22nd April 1999. GERMANY. Work carried out on a small-scale twin-screw extrusion line coupled to a torque rheometer for rheological data collection and process control is described. However. water immersion. especially in tablet form.388-97 PERFORMANCE OF POLYMERIC CARRIER BASED COLOURANT SYSTEMS IN RIGID PVC EXTRUSION Smith N. advanced products. Compounds that substitute the allylic chlorine atoms can stop the degradation in its early stages and do maintain good early colour.747910 Item 323 PVC ’99. 3 refs. Stabilisers that scavenge HCl improve long term stability but do not give very good early colour. A comparison of different product forms of calcium-zinc stabilisers is shown with reference to heat stability. Conference proceedings. dispersibility. EUROPEAN UNION. This knowledge is important in order to be able to substitute heavy metal pigments with economic and technically suitable alternatives. rheology. This in turn has an effect on the melt rheology and degree of gelation of the PVC. AUSTRIA.747912 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 115 . WESTERN EUROPE Item 322 PVC ’99. The new generation of these stabilisers is characterised by solid. They have to be able to associate with PVC at the surface of primary particles where the mobility of PVC chains allows dehydrochlorination to occur.References and Abstracts (IOM Communications Ltd. pipe and rainwater applications are reviewed. p. HG scavenging considerably reduces the rate of degradation and avoids the very fast process that eventually causes PVC blackening (catastrophic degradation). mechanical and electrical properties. Conference proceedings.

EUROPEAN UNION. The steps in the simulation and design are detailed. Conference proceedings. 20th-22nd April 1999. GERMANY. migration and film hardness properties are all found to be improved when reducing the level of plasticiser in the formulations. WESTERN EUROPE philosophy called ‘Avoid Cross-channel Flow’. BPF) In PVC compounding. Model systems of paste-PVC resins are prepared by blending a fine particle resin (0.747897 Item 328 PVC ’99. 20th-22nd April 1999. The morphology transformations associated with the process have been widely studied but the particularities of the application have not often been taken into account . The separation of the compound can be compensated by homogenisation effects during processing. p. Wall slip and cooling of PVC profiles can now be simulated. 20th-22nd April 1999. Brighton. 2 refs. it is found to be possible to reduce plasticiser levels in the formulation from 50 to 30 phr and still have a satisfactory low viscosity and an almost Newtonian flow behaviour. p. Brighton. Conference proceedings. temperatures and material properties. this could be compensated for by the reduction of plasticiser level made possible by the more optimised packing. Brighton. Fire. including a proposed design Accession no. p.281-93 SIMULATION OF PVC PROCESSING Busby W J Symbolic Systems Ltd. 9 refs. Pedersen S. with simultaneous energy saving. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 20th-22nd April 1999. Conference proceedings.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Brighton.747901 Item 327 PVC ’99. including less sensitivity to output rates. FRANCE.747908 Item 324 PVC ’99. This has several advantages. 41 refs. 5 refs.747903 Item 326 PVC ’99. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.302-10 DOUBLE BATCHING IN WINDOW-PROFILE MANUFACTURE Grosse-Aschhoff M IKA GmbH & Co. BPF) Simulation of PVC dies for profiles using finite element methods is presented. However. Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Different types of stabilisers are discussed concerning their mechanism of PVC stabilisation.747906 Item 325 PVC ’99.249-57 IMPROVED PLASTISOL FLOW AND REDUCED LEVEL OF PLASTICISER IN PASTE POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FORMULATIONS Saethre B. Jacobsen H. As a consequence there is a lot of work in progress to find more environmentally friendly systems and/or systems that can reduce the consumption of organic liquids in the plastisol industry.2-2 mu) and a resin of 15 mu monodisperse PVC particles in different ratios. still providing a high-quality extruded profile. BPF) The use of the Brabender Plasticorder is widespread in the development and quality control of formulations destined to be used in uPVC foam extrusion applications.low K-value and high concentration of high molecular weight process aid. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference proceedings. Additional effects of the well defined and very fine particle size of the studied resins are the freedom from sedimentation in the plastisols and the possibility to make very thin films. Daumas B Rohm & Haas SA (IOM Communications Ltd. Satisfactory mechanical and physical properties for fused films and coated steel plates are maintained even at the lowest plasticiser level. Film tensile strengths are found to be reduced on increasing the relative amount of the larger particle resin. p. Thorjussen T.References and Abstracts only if the stabiliser is already associated with the chlorine atom that becomes allylic when HCl is eliminated. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Accession no. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to observe the degree of fusion. Conference proceedings. The effects of particle size and particle size distribution on particle packing and plastisol rheology are assessed in plastisols prepared from these resin blends. By optimising the blending ratio.331-40 FUSION OF PVC FOAM Armstrong D. BPF) Adverse effects from the usage of plasticisers and diluents in the manufacture of flexible PVC products have lately received increased environmental concern. double batching permits a significant increase in throughput in the heating and cooling mixer. enabling these critical elements to be fully visualised and optimised. 20th-22nd April 1999. UK. NORWAY.KG (IOM Communications Ltd.219-31 USE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO 116 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . SCANDINAVIA. 11 refs.. Leth-Olsen K-A Hydro Polymers AS (IOM Communications Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. (IOM Communications Ltd.. This work uses a commercially viable formulation to examine the fusion aspect of the transformation process.

Currently the cables are shredded.. EUROPEAN UNION. BPF) Foil coatings are now widely used on PVC-U windows to give wood-grain finishes. About 50% of the cables consist of polymers. van den Ende C A M KEMA Nederland BV (IOM Communications Ltd. It is updated to 16th March 1999 and is useful © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 117 . some of which have matching faces without foil coatings.747892 Item 330 PVC ’99. including the effect of weathering and scratching. UK.(UK) Ltd. Often both the density and the shape of the mixed polymers are identical and no methods are available to separate the polymers in large quantities. humidity and pretreatment used. BPF) Approximately 40. UK. Although in production situations it may be impractical or too expensive to vary large numbers of variables over a wide processing range. and political views on stabilisers and their effects on customer choice. are outlined. 20th-22nd April 1999. BS 7722. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. which are put to landfill. or those with transfer foils. NETHERLANDS. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The quantities and distribution of the charging depend on temperature. AND THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING AND ABRASION Newman C J. The hydrocyclonage. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. (IOM Communications Ltd. Conference proceedings. 12 refs. Conference proceedings. and thus scratches or a brittle surface layer can affect its impact resistance. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. production waste. It is Accession no. Harvey R J European Vinyls Corp. An evaluation shows that the process is economically feasible and steps are taken to implement the process. p.000 tons of polymer-insulated wires are recycled every year in the Netherlands alone. This indicates that PVC-U windows with laminated foil coatings may be more susceptible to impact damage in service than uncoated windows. separated and finally reused. melt filtration and the tribo-electric separation method to separate the PVC from other polymers are described. but scratching or artificially weathering causes a substantial drop in impact resistance. Specimens are taken from a broad range of foil coated window profiles.747887 Item 331 PVC ’99.747894 Item 329 PVC ’99. BPF) Statistical experimental design is used on a laboratoryscale twin-screw extruder (Krauss-Maffei KMD 2-25 KKL) to investigate how processing conditions and polymer K-value affect both the extrusion process and important extrudate properties: viz Charpy impact strength. Material recycling of mixed polymers is usually impossible when these polymers are not separated. EUROPEAN UNION. 20th-22nd April 1999. Brighton..References and Abstracts INVESTIGATE PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND K-VALUE EFFECTS IN PVC WINDOW PROFILE EXTRUSION Thomas N L. Gardiner D UK. Impact resistance is evaluated using a multi-axial failing weight test.150-9 REGULATORY AND MARKETING UPDATE ON STABILISERS USED IN PVC Donnelly P J Akcros Chemicals Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE concluded that the relevant British Standard. the metals liberated. In these tests. should be enhanced to incorporate a test for impact strength retention for surface coated profiles following weathering.Building Research Establishment (IOM Communications Ltd. no equivalent reduction in impact resistance is produced in uncoated specimens. surplus during installation and repair. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The effects of these treatments on impact resistance are then analysed. Both laboratory experiments and pilot scale tests show that the different polymers can be separated and the PVC used again. This is illustrated with reference to trials carried out on a Krauss-Maffei 50KK extrusion line. Tribocharging is the process in which two bodies are contacted and separated again with the result that each body becomes opposite electrically charged. Some of the specimens are artificially weathered prior to impact testing using a Xenon arc weathering machine.200-9 IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF WOOD-GRAIN FOIL COATED PVC-U WINDOW PROFILES.160-4 SEPARATION OF CABLE-PVC USING TRIBOELECTRIC CHARGING Bosma T J. colour. 20th-22nd April 1999. gloss and degree of gelation. Specimens with laminated foil coatings show a satisfactory performance when new. PVC-U is notch-sensitive. It is demonstrated how this approach can be used to define the optimum processing window. Other specimens are abraded in a controlled manner. p. BPF) Developments in the current legislation. The impact resistance of foil coated profile material is compared with that of uncoated material. Charging is essential for good separation. Brighton.. including the high quality PVC fraction. 13 refs. Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION. it is possible to use the experimental design approach without initiating unwieldy experimental programmes by using Evolutionary Operation. (IOM Communications Ltd. These cables originate from (economic) end of life.

p.747374 Item 336 Macplas International No.10'-oxybisphenoxyarsine(OBPA). 10 refs. do not contribute to fogging.10. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. while the other products showed a clear loss of activity. TOOLS AND PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOAM CORE PIPE.5-Dichloro-2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one did not. 2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one and 3-iodo-2propynylbutylcarbamate.7. Pipe design is discussed and it is shown how the relevant property improvements are utilised. both industrial waste and post-use. EUROPEAN UNION.wt. AUSTRIA. processing aids in one product and which. The functional copolymers are particularly suitable for applications necessitating good dimensional stability. is on p.747878 118 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION. a multitude of patents and patent applications were registered in the field of coextrusion of multi-layer pipes. unlike normal costabilisers. Clariant GmbH. p. Conference proceedings. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. GERMANY. July 1999. Aug. other European countries are following. 20th-22nd April 1999. Further tests showed OBPA to be highly resistant to water leaching. Clear fungistatic activity was observed for 10. France has played the role of a pacesetter in this development.References and Abstracts in conjunction with a detailed lifecycle paper presented at the OSPARCOM workshop in May 1997. SHEET AND PROFILE Polz K Cincinnati Milacron Austria GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd.68/74) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. This product has developed into an important and very competitive alternative for non-pressure applications such as drain pipes.17-20 ACTIVITY OF FUNGISTATIC AGENTS IN PVC-P Borgmann-Strahsen R. BPF) A continuous extrusion process that introduces molecular orientation to an unplasticised PVC pipe is described. which includes tables. Today.. Brighton. is on p. Brighton. a number of pipe products representing a composite of several layers are established products on the market. July 1999. electrical and magnetic behaviour of the materials to be separated. The separation and purification process operates without the use of chemicals. The foam core type of PVC plastic pipe today takes the largest volume share of all coextruded foam core products.1999.15-7 CO-STABILIZING PROCESSING AIDS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D. Conference proceedings. show any measurable fungistatic activity.747375 Item 335 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89. No. MACHINERY.84-91 PVC FOAM CORE EXTRUSION.62/6) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The additives are prepared by copolymerising two different methyl acrylates (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2. including garden hoses and reinforced pipes for washing machines.92-7 BIAXIAL ORIENTED PVC PIPE MADE BY A CONTINUOUS PROCESS Holloway L R Wavin Industrial Products Ltd. UK. BPF) In the early 1980s. EUROPE-GENERAL. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.3epoxypropyl methacrylate) with methyl methacrylate. Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Richter E. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.7. (German version of this paper. WESTERN EUROPE Item 334 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89. (German version of this paper. UK. Mellor M T J Akzo Nobel Chemicals. (IOM Communications Ltd.. PVC and PE thus obtained can be reused in a range of products. Materials costs are reduced while short and long term performance is enhanced offering an outstanding opportunity for PVC pressure piping. GERMANY. Meanwhile. Belik P Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut. 4. The technology of the coextruded foam core pipe builds on these developments. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. but uses the differential gravitational. UK. over 80% of all pipes for non-pressure applications are produced in the form of foam core pipes in that country.44-5 FROM WIRES TO PIPES Fitt recycles the plastic which covers electrical and phone wires. Akcros Chemicals Four fungicide products commonly used in plasticised PVC were investigated with regard to their activity against five different test fungi. which includes graphs and tables. p.747879 Item 333 PVC ’99. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 12 refs. however. Degussa-Huls New additives for PVC are described which combine the properties of co-stabilisers and high molec.747886 Item 332 PVC ’99. sewer pipes and cable ducts. 20th-22nd April 1999. Since the common market realised within the EU is connected with a strong market equalisation tendency.

p.28. ITALY.65-73 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF CROSSLINKED PLASTICIZED PVC Beltran M I.e. MSi crosslinked films showed a certain delay in the decomposition process as compared with plasticised PVC. ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS SEPARATED FROM PVC COATED PETP FABRICS Adanur S. it was possible to optimise simultaneously the flow. The results may lay the groundwork for a commercial recovery process of this very important group of individual fabrics. Initial recovery PETP fabrics (scraps) are further treated with removal of glue from the fabric surface in a dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2. UK. showing the strong influence of this compound on the thermal behaviour of plasticised PVC. Mijangos C Alicante. acoustics emission. EUROPEAN UNION. much lower than those obtained in the other PVC films studied. solubility properties of coated fabrics in swelling bath. Harvey R European Vinyls Corp.University The analysis of the swelling process.1. the recovered PETP staple is opened and combed on a special machine.References and Abstracts FITT SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. It provided information about interactions between variables and could be used to help to predict an optimum formulation. USA Accession no. the recovered PETP scraps are directly used to reinforce the epoxy resin composites to demonstrate an application of the recovered product. EUROPEAN UNION. probably involving the plasticiser and different fractions produced in the crosslinking reactions. Vol. By modelling the rheological properties. (Part I. The structure and performance of recovered PETP fibre are examined by several testing techniques. No. 24 refs. Broughton R M Auburn. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 28. such as DSC. processing aids and fillers in rigid PVC foam formulations. Garcia J C. II. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros The thermal stability and the thermal decomposition behaviour of plasticised PVC and crosslinked plasticised PVC films were studied. Statistical experimental design was used to study the effects of blowing agents. Clear differences were observed in the TGA behaviour of the different samples. then needle punched to form a non-woven fabric as another application example. July 1999. and swelling extent of each component in coated fabrics. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. A variety of analytical methods is used to characterise the separation solvent. WAXD. ibid. impact modifier (chlorinated PE) and processing aid on the processing and physical properties of a rigid PVC compound were modelled using a central composite designed experiment.63-70 STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE FORMULATIONS FOR FOAM VINYL APPLICATIONS Thomas N L. June 1999. The final product is the recycled PETP fibre (staple). is described. This technique provided an alternative approach to the classical experimental method of changing one variable at a time. the sodium salt of gammamercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane(MSi) and gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane(ASi). WESTERN EUROPE Item 339 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Marcilla A. July 1998). and tensile testing.743279 Item 340 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol.1998. the changes in the chemical and physical properties of the PVC and PETP polymers during the processes. and the extent of recovery of the plasticiser.(UK) Ltd. 5 refs.145-68 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. EUROPEAN UNION. the amount and removability of the glue.745355 Item 337 Polymer Degradation and Stability 65.744063 Item 338 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. phase separation of swelling bath. p. Hidalgo M.743280 Accession no. In the case of the films prepared with ASi.Universidad. p. USA Accession no. 14 refs. Two effective crosslinking agents were used. June 1999. Experimental results are evaluated and analysed to draw optimal parameters that will make mass production feasible. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties of the various formulations studied. Oct. 12 refs. as well as three clear decomposition processes. No. No. a single decomposition stage was observed at temps. Hou Z. oxidised PE and co-stabilising ester lubricant). p. As an example. In another application.71-5 EFFECTS OF FORMULATION VARIABLES ON RHEOLOGY OF RIGID PVC Hayes V O DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC The effects of lubricants (paraffin wax.741972 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 119 . extruder conditions and final part properties. i.2. birefringence. SPAIN.

13-4 INCINERATOR EMISSIONS BREACHES FOCUS ATTENTION ON PVC This article discusses the incineration of PVC wastes. The infrared system is installed in Land Rover’s state-of-the-art Paintshop 21. and the esters with a mixed structure are shown to have adequate plasticising properties for PVC technology. Details are given. USA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. They were evaluated both as individual pigments and when formulated in typical vinyl siding shades.734767 Item 344 Antec ’99. The two alcohols studied were a special aromatic alcohol with a complex structure. RUMANIA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. A new weathering study is initiated to examine variations in both the pigments and the R-PVC compounds to more fully understand the interaction of all factors. Unlike other models in Land Rover’s range. the spray system applying the PVC compound is activated and. (SPE) An update is presented of a paper written for the 1996 CAD RETEC. which it reports is facing renewed scrutiny in the UK in the light of numerous breaches of emission limits for hydrogen chloride. The new system has also proved more energy efficient than competitive techniques and provides a better working environment. HERAEUS NOBLELIGHT. and characteristics are presented of PVC plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters with a symmetrical and mixed structure respectively. 012 UPDATE ON THE EFFECT OF BLACK PIGMENT SELECTION ON WEATHERABLE R-PVC Burkhart G Cerdec Corp. p. the tracking system connects with a plc for the infrared curing equipment.C.740727 Item 343 Pigment and Resin Technology 28. Pettijohn E Witco Corp. All showed good thermal resistance. May 1999. The issue is likely to attract further attention as operators grapple with tighter hydrogen chloride controls proposed in the draft EC Directive on incineration. to ensure that the required precuring will take place. Conference proceedings. they require very low temperature year in South Florida. When the line tracking system identifies an approaching Freelander. The effects measured included: % IR reflection.734261 Item 345 Antec ’99.3621-4. New York City.740784 Item 342 Materiale Plastice 35. Volume III. 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . versatile viscosity. New York City. from the new Freelander to the wellestablished Defender. Emphasis is placed on the three year South Florida weathering results and the possible effect free iron has on the weathering performance is examined. EUROPEAN UNION.4. p. p. (SPE) Liquid dialkylperoxydicarbonates are used as initiators in the PVC industry. 2nd-6th May 1999.E.2885-9. The original paper considered the effects three different IR reflecting black pigments have on weatherable R-PVC.ENVIRONMENT AGENCY EU. LAND ROVER EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Due to the thermal reactivity of these initiators. Volume III. within the time constraints dictated by the assembly line speed. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Land Rover vehicles. II. at the same time. UK. heat build-up properties and weathering characteristics .3.292. p.239-46 Rumanian PLASTICIZERS FOR PVC OF THE PYROMELLITIC CLASS. At temperatures above 10 deg. medium wave infrared emitters from Heraeus Noblelight. Land Rover has been able to achieve the required cure of a PVC sealant and anti-chip coating applied to Freelander vehicles at its Solihull plant. 2nd-6th May 1999. This precuring is essential. which reflects the latest drying and curing technology and handles all Accession no. 1998. No. as any softness in the anti-chip coating could lead to it being damaged during further production operations carried out before the vehicle is painted with primer. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. physicochemical properties. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts Item 341 ENDS Report No. 3 refs. shipment and handling. UK. No. such as 2-phenoxy-ethanol and a long branched aliphatic alcohol such as isotridecanol. the Freelander’s anti-chip protection in the sill area is in the form of a sprayed-on PVC sealant compound. p.167-8 CARBON INFRA-RED EMITTERS PROVIDE CURE FOR LAND ROVER ANTI-CHIP PROTECTION Due to the use of carbon. 1999. Terescu-Boran S. 21 refs.. Conference proceedings. EASTERN EUROPE. Istratuca G The synthesis. 012 STABILISERS FOR PEROXYDICARBONATE INITIATOR SOLUTIONS Frenkel P. HIGHER MIXED ESTERS Mirci L.

New York City. 012 STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLULAR PVC AND A SUITABLE PROCESSING AID Miki Y.Inc. p. New additives have been discovered which increase the SADT of the initiators.733970 Item 346 Antec ’99. New York City. 2nd-6th May 1999. Takaki A.733965 Item 347 Antec ’99. Nakanishi Y. Compatibility with PVC is determined using DMA analysis of glass transition temperatures. USA III. but PVC can retain foamability even after the cells are partly broken. Conference proceedings. USA Accession no. predictive equations are developed for the following processing parameters of dialkyl phthalates in PVC: relative dryblend rates in suspension PVC as a function of plasticiser viscosity. New York City. relative initial gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser molecular weight and solvating strength.733961 Item 348 Antec ’99. Conference proceedings. their self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) is exceeded. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. 19 refs. p. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Bacaloglu R. store and ship. PVC STABILISATION BY ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES Fisch M H. This characteristic is enhanced by its high melt elasticity. p. 10 refs. 6 refs. Using commercial grade plasticisers.3592-6. 012 PLASTICISER FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKEUP BY PVC RESINS Krauskopf L G. and relative final gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser solvating strength. USA Accession no. Volume III. From this aspect. p. Volume III. Volume III. Fisch M H Witco Technical Center (SPE) A series of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl thioglycolates and alkyltin chlorides studied by IR and 119Sn NMR. Hansen’s three-dimensional solubility parameters provide a quantitative measure of these Accession no. Conference proceedings.3526-36. (SPE) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC resin is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blending of suspension PVC.References and Abstracts most undergo auto-accelerated self-induced decomposition. a suitable processing aid is designed and its remarkable foamability is confirmed. IV. Bacaloglu R. 012 PREDICTION OF PLASTICISER SOLVENCY USING HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation are discussed. 2nd-6th May 1999. Jakubowski J.. (SPE) The morphology of cellular PVC and the results of model experiments compared with PS suggested that cellular PVC products contain a high ratio of open cells.733758 Item 350 Antec ’99. 5 refs. Dooley T. USA Accession no. JAPAN Accession no. 11 refs. Volume III. These additives effectively stabilise the product. Volume III. 2nd-6th May 1999. Also included is a section concerning the implications these products have for future initiator formulation.3512-25. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. Godwin A D Vinyl Consulting Co. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 121 . New York City. Hegranes B.Inc. Conference proceedings. New York City. Exxon Chemical Co.3564-8. Conference proceedings. Yamazaki K Kaneka Corp. (SPE) The solvating strength of a plasticiser for PVC is a measure of the interactive forces between these two materials. This information allows the prediction of the relative processing characteristics of any dialkyl phthalate plasticiser for PVC on the basis of its chemical and physical properties. and the gelation of plastisols. Dooley T Witco Technical Center (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is studied by the measurement of colour change on heating a PVC formulation. 2nd-6th May 1999.733960 Item 349 Antec ’99. The proprietary additives and a mechanism of stabilisation are discussed. making them safer to handle.3569-73. 2nd-6th May 1999. p. which is strongly related to the molecular chain entanglement between PVC and processing aid dispersion. In other words.

Full details of the problem and the solution are presented. The treatment reduces the diffusion of the plasticiser and the influence of some factors of this processing were investigated. No. 1999. together with plasticisers and adhesive/glue. USA Item 353 Injection Molding 7. p. The relative positions of various plasticiser structures are in the expected order. p. the swelling method was a simple procedure with minimal environmental impact. March 1999. FRANCE. field measurement data and a predictive model for a variety of vinyl systems are shown. New York.733757 Item 351 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 72.References and Abstracts interactive forces. Applications in the controlled release of agrochemicals are mentioned.28.5967. Vinyl products may show unacceptable heat distortion when installed in Western environments even after demonstrating a long tradition of acceptable heat build performance in Eastern US environments. This is part 19 of a series of articles designed to help injection moulders understand how a few analytical tools can help diagnose a part failure problem. Plastics Design Library. The selection of the swelling agent of MEK was made after an analysis of the physical and chemical properties of several chemicals. A mathematical model. Compared with other recycling techniques. plasticisers are found to lie near the edge of the solvency ‘sphere’ of PVC. is proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient. p. This study concerns mass transfers between plasticised PVC. No.732200 122 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . having been subjected to a treatment. No.University The polyester(PETP) in the base fabrics and the PVC coating.4.733517 Item 352 Coloring Technology for Plastics. were separated from a commercial coated fabric by a scheme of chopping. and liquid food or food simulants. Yaseen M Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Details are given of the preparation of PVC membranes containing dialkylphthalate. able to simulate these mass transfers and to quantify treatment parameters. 19 refs. 2 refs. This methodology may be used in addition to ASTM D-4803 and is not limited to vinyl materials.37-55 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. INDIA Accession no.Y. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.399-405 CONTROLLED RELEASE PVC MEMBRANES: INFLUENCE OF PHTHALATE PLASTICISERS ON THEIR TENSILE PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE Donempudi S. MEASUREMENTS OF VINYL Hardcastle H K Dayton Technologies Edited by: Harris R M Vinyl products continue penetrating Western US markets. July 1998. A swelling method was introduced to separate and reuse waste PVC-coated PETP fabrics. their size and ageing period were performed. p. Using CO-ACT service. p. A methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance measurements is presented.MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 19 Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. N. a computer program designed for solvent systems with various resins. grinding and extracting with a selected preferred aqueous MEK solution. while known solvents show strong association and lubricating additives fall outside the solvency sphere of PVC. 52 PREDICTING MAXIMUM FIELD SERVICE TEMPERATURES FROM SOLAR REFLECTANCE. The tensile strength and percent elongation of these membranes as a function of concentration of the phthalate plasticisers. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Accession no.3. Phase separation Accession no.. Fugit J L.729119 Item 355 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES AND SEPARATION OF FABRIC COMPONENTS Adanur S. It deals with the particular case of exterior parts moulded from flexible PVC that developed black stains after a relatively short period of time exposed to the elements. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.58/64 DESIGN . 4th April 1999. 16 refs. Taverdet J L Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement PVC is often used in food packaging and blood bags.49-58 MODELLING OF MASS TRANSFERS BETWEEN FOOD SIMULANTS AND TREATED PLASTICISED PVC Bichara A. I.729317 Item 354 Polymer Engineering and Science 39. USA Accession no.1. Broughton R M Auburn. Solar reflectance data (ASTM E-903 and E-892). April 1999. 8 refs. Hou Z.

The disadvantage of this process is its high cost. p. USA A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR IN-LINE MANUFACTURING OF BIAXIALLY-ORIENTED PVC PIPES Chapman P G. Sweden. To achieve circumferential orientation for pressure pipes. an extruded feedstock is stretched under carefully controlled temperature conditions. The two phases existed over a wide concentration range.727086 Item 356 Popular Plastics and Packaging 44. Boucherville. Conference proceedings. (Institute of Materials) Foamed PVC has been commercially available for at least 20 years.80-2 HIGH PERFORMANCE RPVC PROFILE LINES Khan G A Kabra Extrusiontechnik Ltd. Rigid PVC reverted almost to its original size in the vicinity of Tg. It has becomes one of the fastest growing markets in the vinyl industry. and most importantly. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Tabtiang A Loughborough. where the major application is signage. An A-Z reference. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. 23rd-25th Sept. 1999. Agren L Vinidex Tubemakers Pty. These markets have grown worldwide at an annual rate of greater than 12% over the last three years. in many ways. and confers improved resistance to crack initiation and propagation. which is mainly used for trim and moulding.724350 Item 358 Plastics Pipes X.. 5 PROCESSING AIDS FOR VINYL FOAM Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co.718897 Item 359 Plastics Additives.526-34. KOLSITE BATTENFELD INDIA Accession no. The benefits that vinyl foam offers include: low cost per unit volume. 20 refs.565-72. Irradiation crosslinking modified the recovery behaviour of plasticised samples. 7 refs. For flexible PVC. calibration block. The production of rigid PVC profiles is described with reference to state-of-the-art twin screw profile extruders and downstream equipment from Battenfeld. the ease and versatility of being able to work with it. improved thermal insulation.Ltd. a process has been developed to execute the orientation process ‘in-line’ with the extrusion. SWEDEN. and particular details are given of the profile dies. requires little energy input and much lower capital cost. calibration table. where its water resistance and high stiffness per unit weight are important attributes. p. The process operates at normal extrusion speeds. the crystallinity is the major factor controlling reversion.2. Feb. Uponor Innovation AB (Institute of Materials) Oriented PVC pipes have been produced since 1974. particularly in many wood replacement applications. The development work and extensive evaluation testing of the product are described. Impressive growth rates are forecast for vinyl foam. 6H21 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 123 .University (SPE. Molecular orientation enhances tensile strength in the orientation direction. The behaviour of the swelling system and the swelling properties of recovered components were investigated in terms of parameters such as refractive index. At 60C shrinkage was quite small in rigid PVC. allows higher design stress ratings and material savings. Previously this has been performed as a secondary ‘off-line’ process in an external mould.References and Abstracts was found in the MEK/water system that served as swelling bath. particularly in wood replacement applications in the building and construction industries.165-74. waste and vent applications. sparking enthusiasm among processors over new opportunities for vinyl foam. No. Qc. Annealing is essential. NRC/IMI) Rigid and flexible PVC samples with Tg range -41C to +80C were studied. There are currently three major existing markets for PVC foam: sheet. Retec proceedings. haul off and profile saw. In a joint development programme between Uponor and Vinidex Tubemakers. Aspects covered Accession no.1998. p. Kluwer. Goteborg. AUSTRALIA. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1998. profile. high rigidity. p.726350 Item 357 International Symposium on Orientation of Polymers: Application to Films and Fibres. Increased annealing time and temperature delayed recovery. 1998. and foam core pipe for drain. 15 refs. degree of swelling and the average particle size of recovered PVC. high water resistance. UK. just like wood.. 8(11)32 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF ORIENTED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gilbert M. Shrinkage data for up to 800 days are shown for plasticised samples. Features of the machinery are described. but is now becoming increasingly important because of recent improvements in technology and a broadening of applications. Rigid vinyl foam is. Hitt D J. and have demonstrated performance characteristics superior to standard PVC. SCANDINAVIA. Biaxial stretching equipment was used to produce biaxial orientation. 14th-17th Sept. London.

713534 Item 364 Vinyltec ’98.165-74. Souren F. p. Retec proceedings. Gondard C. 1998. are heat stabilisers.167-80 CRYSTALLINITY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLASTICISED PVC.1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Trends clearly indicate that the number of landfills nationally is declining while the cost of disposal is rising. Falter J A. (Institute of Materials) PVC polymer has an unusual property in that its thermal decomposition temperature is lower than its melting point. They are recycled into new. USA Accession no.) Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings is one of the largest suppliers of specialty floor coverings designed for the commercial floor covering market.1998. East Brunswick. USA thermoplastic magnets. Chicago. p.J.1-2. The Infinity Initiative programme is a production-scale. while those that lower the melting point and Tg are plasticisers. An estimated 4 billion lbs of carpet are landfilled annually. The effect of the composition on the impact strength. and the ferromagnetic filler is barium ferrite. An A-Z reference. Kluwer. most recycling research in the carpet industry involved separation of components . hardness.718868 Item 360 Plastics Additives. Customers are provided a written warranty certifying that carpet returned to the facility will be 100 % recycled and not landfilled or incinerated. Its vision in the early 1990s was to ‘close the loop’ by recycling carpet into carpet. N. Details are given USA Accession no.450-8. recycled content ER3 floor coverings and other products.Plastics Recycling Div. Litvinov V M. 30 refs. Nos. p. The thermoplastic matrix is poly(vinyl chloride). Powerbond products are engineered for maximum performance and designed to be environmentally friendly. during processing additives must be incorporated to retard the thermal decomposition mechanism and to lower its melting point.96-100. 4 refs. the function and classification of lubricants. No. They are available in modular carpet tile and six-foot width roll goods. EUROPEAN UNION.718858 Item 361 Macromolecules 32. chemical classes of lubricants and testing of lubricants are presented. 42C382 ACHIEVING LOW GLOSS IN VINYL SIDING WITH ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFICATION Szamborski G 124 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Geick K S Lonza Inc. London. An introduction to rigid PVC. The vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme was the first of its kind. closed-loop recycling programme where customers return their vinyl-backed carpet at the end of its useful life for recycling.714353 Item 362 Polimeri 18. These products are constructed with a dense.References and Abstracts include vinyl foam processes and formulations. with the aid of specially developed computer programs. Zagrebplast Techniques are described for the preparation of ferromagnetic mixtures to be used in the manufacture of Accession no. low pile nylon 6. function/ benefits of processing aids in rigid vinyl foam and guidelines for the use of processing aids. 13th-14th Oct. 12th Jan. Il.1998. The company decided several years ago to recycle rather than landfill vinyl carpet waste.59-70 Croatian OPTIMISATION OF THE COMPOSITION OF FERROMAGNETIC BLENDS USING A FLOW CHART FOR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND DATA MANAGEMENT Orlic R Polimeri. 1997. Therefore. Those retarding thermal decomposition. 7 refs.. Retec proceedings.6 face and a vinyl composite backing system. CROATIA Accession no. (SPE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.a costly step that often leaves no recycling options for the components separated. Vicat softening point and melt flow index were studied. Scherrenberg R L. p.714178 Item 363 ARC ’98. p. Colemonts C DSM.. A CARBON 13 AND PROTON SOLID STATE NMR STUDY Barendswaard W. Limburgse Vinyl Mij A combination of carbon 13 solution and solid state NMR was used to reveal the relative amount of crystalline PVC in two PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate samples.1999. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. BELGIUM. NETHERLANDS. The relative amount of different triad sequences in the crystallites of PVC were obtained. 38 refs. Prior to the development of ER3. 8(13) PROCESS FOR RECYCLING VINYL BACKED CARPET Preston L Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings Inc. 5 LUBRICATING SYSTEMS FOR RIGID PVC Williams J B. 11th-13th Nov.

The homeowner desires the look of wood in a PVC siding. and tensile tests were carried out. These approaches generally show a downside in cost and/or performance. the metal may participate in crosslink formation. composites. have elevated PVC siding to an annual volume of nearly 1. relative ease of installation. and impact resistance. immiscible polymeric additives. No. Such a feature is not given for PVC because it typically tends to be glossy as a result of the relatively high melt temperatures developed during extrusion. p. 5 refs. including wood.75/82 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DI-2-ETHYL HEXYL PHTHALATE AND TRI-N-BUTYL CITRATE AS PLASTICISER IN PVC COMPOSITIONS Jain K K. chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM).7 billion lb. In hydrocarbon polymers. or instead. An additional feature for siding is to have house siding appear ‘natural’ and not ‘plastic’. once mixed into a polymer. 1998. and even high molecular grades of PVC resin have been used to attain some level of gloss reduction. Due to their low solubility. To clarify the effect of particle shape. Among additives used in the formulation..) Lead stabilisers have been used in a variety of PVC as well as other polymers for many years. p. USA crosslinking. particularly in comparison to salts of light metals. 13th-14th Oct. dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead phosphite are used to scavenge HCl arising from crosslinking as well as from degradation. is very low. Features such as low maintenance. The production of lead-containing additives involves sophisticated engineering and design to prevent worker exposure. such as chlorinated PE (CPE). Iida T Osaka. such as EPM or EPDM. It was confirmed by SEM that the agglomerates. However. p. were used instead. the result is typically a product with greater water and chemical resistance than if a light metal. In some halogenated polymers.Vinyl Div. such as in medium voltage electrical insulation. Nevertheless. lead stabilisers are used to scavenge chloride. there is one type of additive that can impart gloss reduction without the acrylic impact modifier specifically designed to produce a low gloss extruded surface finish. tooling wear and plateout. The decrease in the yield stress was smaller in the agglomerate-filled resin than in the original beadfilled resin.83-8. Nov. in cases where high water resistance is required. including mechanical means and by the formulation additive approach.) PVC siding has grown rapidly during the last decade to reach a prominent position in the North American housing market both in remodeling and in new construction. etc. Saroop M Shiram Institute for Industrial Research © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 125 . with more soluble halide salts. 9 refs. agglomerates of the glass beads were prepared by treating them with PVAl.713516 Item 366 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6.713518 Item 365 Vinyltec ’98.1998. derived from residual catalyst. In some of these cases.711020 Item 367 Popular Plastics and Packaging 43. were dispersed in the matrix. Okabe S. size and shape on the yield stress of a particle-filled ductile polymer were investigated. PVC has captured the majority share of the cladding market and has virtually eliminated aluminum siding and is significantly challenging other construction materials used for house siding. as in reduced impact strength. but only decreased slightly with an increase in particle size. N. certain types of lubricants. extraction or migration of lead-based additives. With lead-based stabilisers. or contamination of the environment. Ten to 15 parts of glass beads ranging in size from about 50 to 200 micrometres were mixed with 100 parts of PVC as a ductile matrix using a mixing roll. Fatma K. entirely as an HX scavenger. as in PVC and certain fluoropolymer compositions. polychloroprene (CR) and epichlorohydrin (ECO). embossing is commonly used for obtaining a wide variety of wood grain textures designed to disrupt the panel surface to effect light scattering. In other cases. (SPE. The shape of the particles appeared to be important in moderating the decrease in the yield stress of particle-filled ductile polymers.Vinyl Div.J. JAPAN Accession no. consisting of a few beads on average. The surface gloss of the extrusion can be reduced in several ways. East Brunswick. which had poor compatibility with the PVC matrix.Institute of Technology The effects of particle volume fraction.1998.407-14 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SHAPE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEFILLED PVC Nakamura Y. The yield stress decreased significantly with an increase in filler content. 12 refs. concern over the toxicity of lead stabilisers is real and has given rise to development of modified stabilisers having even lower extractability. weatherability. mineral fillers. Mechanically. 42C382 LOW EXTRACTABLE LEAD STABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group (SPE. Retec proceedings.6. lead stabilisers may be used solely for function in metal oxide Accession no. No.11. Yoshimoto N.References and Abstracts Rohm & Haas Co. USA Accession no.

presumably because it effectively removed plasticiser from the surface of the material by biodegradation. is examined. Palermo. No. La Mantia F P Pisa.709419 Item 368 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 71. The results obtained indicated that competition between degradation and regradation occurred under these processing conditions and.111-2 INFLUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION ON THE LOSS OF A PLASTICISER FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gumargalieva K Z.708138 Item 371 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. recently presented a process for treating and using recycled post-use plastics from cables in the manufacture of pipe and moulded products. Zaikov G E. 11th Dec.1. p.1.) This paper describes experimentation carried out on an exothermic blowing agent to understand the chemistry Accession no. 10 refs.4 tonnes of waste material a month. p.1. Ga. The PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. Furthermore. 42C382 BLOWING AGENTS IN PVC FOAM APPLICATIONS: NOVELTY IN ACTIVATION CHEMISTRY Girois S. INDIA Semenov N. TARKETT AB EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The fungus thus acted as a leaching solvent. volatility. No.1766. USA Accession no. Heung Kim. 1999. Semenov S A.1998.wt.000 t/y of PVC at seven plants in Europe and is recycling about 8. 3rd Jan.709309 Item 369 Plastics and Rubber Weekly No. measurement of the torque during processing and the good reproducibility of these tests permitted detection of the amount of PVC in recycled PETP samples. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. It was shown that the loss of DAP accelerated with bioovergrowth on the PVC. Loss of plasticiser was limited by its diffusion in the material volume in the case of bioovergrowth. 1999. 12 refs. 14th-15th Oct.References and Abstracts For many years.N. PVCcontaminated PETP was processed under nitrogen flow.708810 Item 370 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. was observed but some increase was measured that increased on decreasing the PVC content..Vinyl Div. low temperature flexibility and mechanical properties. Urban M W North Dakota State University A closed-system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces. FITT SPA.107-26. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics The effect of biodegradation by the microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger on the diffusion desorption of a dialkyl phthalate(DAP) plasticiser from PVC was studied. Tarkett Sommer. not only no macroscopic change of the molec.11-4 INFLUENCE OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE ON THE RECYCLING OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE Paci M. No.1-6 MICROWAVE PLASMA REACTIONS OF IMIDAZOLE ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) SURFACES: A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY Schmitt B R. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. The potential of a lesser used plasticiser. one of the world’s largest PVC flooring manufacturers. The properties of plasticised vinyl compositions were compared. Surface reactions on PVC were heavily dependent on a prior thermal history of the PVC substrate. In this study.6 PVC PROCESSORS LEADING BY EXAMPLE Fitt. 8 refs. if the PVC content was lower than 2000 ppm. Retec proceedings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. whereas loss from the same polymer in the absence of bio-overgrowth was evaporation-limited. A mechanism for the PVC-imidazole reactions was also presented.University The presence of PVC in recycled PETP is generally a problem because of the chain scission induced by the hydrogen chloride evolved from the macromolecules during degradation of PVC. 12 refs. ITALY. ITALY. SWEDEN. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate has been the primary plasticiser for medical devices made of PVC. tributyl citrate.University. Atlanta. RUSSIA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Newly created surfaces were analysed using ATR FTIR spectroscopy. processes almost 100.1999. p.708123 Item 372 Vinyl Retec ’97: Plastic Systems for the Building Industry. Zhdanova O A 126 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Bertelo C A Elf Atochem (SPE. including extraction. but there are concerns regarding its toxicity. SCANDINAVIA.1997. p. p. thermal stability.Institute of Chemical Physics. Italy’s largest producer of PVC extruded and injection moulded products.

p. Foam products are well established in their specific areas of application and indispensable on the market. 82 EXTRUSION OF FOAMED SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS WITH TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS Schneider H P Krauss-Maffei AG Edited by: Hensen F Foam extrusion of PVC has been well known since the beginning of the early 1960s.704011 Item 376 Brecksville.. 18 refs. these were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. This type of machine has a planetary roller extruder connected to a melt extruder via a vacuum channel. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloroorganic compounds were measured directly during accelerated exposure conditions and dropped sharply with irradiation time. good acoustic damping properties.413-9 VOLATILES RELEASE FROM PHOTODEGRADING.812-7 MIGRATION OF DI(2ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE(DEHP) FROM PVC CHILD ARTICLES INTO SALIVA AND SALIVA SIMULANT Steiner I. Interesting results were obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of exothermic blowing agent activation by a new family of chemicals. Scharf L.706761 Item 373 Polymer Degradation and Stability 62.703064 Item 377 Food Additives and Contaminants 15.National Research Council Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a rigid PVC construction panel were established as a function of irradiation time. Krzymien M. TEMPRITE CPVC INDUSTRIAL MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Goodrich B. GERMANY. No. 1998.. p.3. plant for foamed intermediate products and selection criteria. ease of fabrication by mechanical means. high flame resistance. Pleizier G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and troubleshooting. c. is designed for throughputs from 300 to 700kg/hr. good chemical resistance. 1998. BATTENFELD AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.8. mould design. a blowing agent activation approach was developed. The new Battenfeld 2-90-22V 90mm PVC pelletising extruder. 1997.Specialty Polymers & Chemicals Detailed guidelines are presented for the correct moulding of TempRite chlorinated PVC industrial moulding compounds. extrusion foaming methods.000kg/hr for uPVC and approximately 4. 2nd edition.33 NEW BATTENFELD DUO FOR PVC Battenfeld has developed the ZSE 355/320 two stage extruder to feed large calenders. p. startup. Hanser Publications.Co. USA Accession no.706571 Item 374 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. In contrast.7. Washuettl J Vienna. Worsfold D J. PIGMENTED PVC: KINETIC CHANGES Carlsson D J. Similar species were also directly released during irradiation. It has an output of 4.References and Abstracts of decomposition and gas formation. p. the smallest model in the EMS series.1998. excellent weatherability and low material costs due to low density. 26 refs.705216 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 127 . Munich. Aspects covered include structure of formulations.435-54. EUROPEAN UNION.500kg/hr for plasticised. and includes details of melt preparation. pp. There are numerous reasons for using PVC as a foamed semi-finished product. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The static migration test of a film containing about 30% DEHP with saliva simulant gave the lowest values of Accession no. GERMANY. 11 ins. Day M Canada. USA Accession no. Information is included for the correct selection of equipment and operating conditions. processing. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. based on organometallic chemistry.1998.. pressures. 9 refs. CANADA Item 375 Plastics Extrusion Technology.University of Technology A simple migration test and a more complex simulation of children’s sucking and biting were used to establish migration of DEHP from PVC child-use articles into saliva and the results were compared with a mimic test. 1/12/98. This drop could be attributable to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine-deficient and rich in titanium dioxide pigment (rutile). 1st Oct. Residual organic and chloroorganic compounds were detected in the polymer surface after irradiation. process upsets. samples exposed to sunlight did not undergo surface crosslinking but did thermally desorb volatiles in a similar way to laboratoryexposed samples. In both cases. the most significant of these being low thermal conductivity. theory. Fiala F. Oh. with mass spectrometry detection. No.F. From this mechanism. EUROPEAN UNION.

33-4 MIXED NEWS FOR PVC IN TOYS The Dutch Consensus Group has published its report regarding a reproducible testing method for the migration of phthalate plasticisers from soft PVC toys and other childcare articles.2. Ductilities increased up to ratios of about 2. Strength.431-9 EXTRUSION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC-LEATHER FIBER COMPOSITES Madera-Santana T J. The citraterelated compounds all gave similar mechanical properties. dibutyl sebacate and dioctyl azelate plasticised membranes. A tensile test was carried out using a dumbbell specimen.University Ion-selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes were plasticised using three citrate-related and six sebacaterelated compounds.References and Abstracts DEHP. The process produced a leather-like sheet that could be used in several applications.Centro de Investigacion Cientifica.Institute of Technology The fracture behaviour of PVC filled with ground calcium carbonate particles. Kusy R P North Carolina. during a tensile test was investigated. but the use of DMS.697784 Item 380 Polymer Composites 19. defined as the actual concentration of plasticiser to PVC divided by the minimum concentration of plasticiser required to isolate all the PVC polar groups. the tests showed that this composite could be formulated and processed at high productivity levels and at a low cost. p. Mexico. AUSTRIA. diethyl sebacate (DES) and dioctyl adipate (DOA) plasticised membranes were in general stronger and stiffer than the dioctyl sebacate. p. Migration can approximate or exceed this for children of 3-12 months. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 28 refs. However. but too rarely to be statistically measurable.1998. but there was no significant influence of particle size. and then monotonically decreased with further increases of plasticiser. In order to evaluate the technique. Greenpeace claims that no acceptable limits for intake from toys can be set and Mattel has announced it is phasing out phthalates from its teething toys. WESTERN EUROPE in reduced ductility. DES and DOA resulted Accession no.1998. Marquez Lucero A Yucatan. EUROPEAN UNION. Finally. When comparing the in-vitro migration tests with the mimic test. The report concludes that exposure levels to phthalates would never exceed the tolerable daily intake for children over 12 months. prepared by crushing natural raw crystalline limestone. 10th Oct. The tests revealed that the sheets were flexible and exhibited suitable water absorption levels for several applications in the footwear and clothing industry.Escuela Militar de Ingenieros A method is proposed for using chrome tanned leather wastes produced by the footwear and clothing industry as fillers in polymer matrices. 19 refs. p. The yield stress was found to decrease with increase in particle content.6755-65 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S. No. Campos Torres A. and toughness increased at low PHR ratios.0 and decreased above ratios of about 4.26. Simple shaking increased the amounts of DEHP from 25 + or -8 to 499 + or -153 micro g/g film. A nomogram is given to predict the strength. USA Accession no. SEM observations of the specimen’s surfaces during the tensile test showed that the particle/matrix interfaces were delaminated and formed voids around the 128 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .0.10.700962 Item 378 European Plastics News 25. the factors were 25 and 29 for the static tests (3 and 6 hours) and 1. NETHERLANDS. No. No. Iida T Osaka. The more complex arrangements to simulate sucking and biting were not so suitable for standard applications. stiffness. Ten to 15 parts of the particles having two different mean sizes (2 and 8 micrometres) without further surface treatment were mixed with 100 parts of PVC and 3 parts of lead stearate as a stabiliser using a mixing roll. The mechanical properties of the membranes were evaluated as a function of the PHR ratio. DUTCH CONSENSUS GROUP EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1998. MEXICO Accession no. Fukuoka Y. Aug. p. The influence of the filler content on the processability and final properties of the composite sheets was evaluated. A technique for processing the composite obtained by continuous extrusion is also demonstrated.4 for the shaking test. Nov. based on the plasticiser selection and the PHR ratio. a series of PVC-leather fibre composites was prepared and extruded through a flat die to produce sheets. Dimethyl sebacate (DMS).700556 Item 379 Polymer 39.4. 1998.311-6 TENSILE TEST OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FILLED WITH GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLES Nakamura Y.697137 Item 381 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. 19 refs.

Above this temperature.e.696848 Item 383 Polymer 39. Audouin L.129-35 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF FLEXIBLE PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. Michel A CNRS. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FRANCE.1. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide.Universite Claude Bernard X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the orientation of talc and lead carboxylate fillers in plasticised PVC extrudates. p. Katowice. The colour hold guidelines. 8 COLOURING OF VINYL SIDING AND OTHER WEATHERABLE RIGID PVC PROFILES WITH HOLCOBATH ENCAPSULATED PIGMENTS Groot R Holland Colors Americas Inc. No. it was suggested that the observed penetration of photoageing could be due to a radiation wavelength of about 390 nm.4773-83 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PF PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): EFFECT OF DRAWING AND FILLER ORIENTATION Fras I. at 150-260C and an oxygen partial pressure of 1-10 MPa. FRANCE. p. In the presence of titanium dioxide. The main products were oxalic acid. JAPAN Item 384 Polymer Degradation and Stability 61. Cassagnau P. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 9th-11th December 1997. Lyon. These parameters are the basis on which colour concentrate producers determine suitable pigment choices in relation to items like weathering and heat build up. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. were explained. 24 refs. whereas the screen effect was multiplied by five. Furukawa close co-operation with manufacturers of basic pigments. they have taken the lead with regard to developing the industry with colour pigment formulations . The presence of fillers enhanced Young’s modulus and this was predicted well by the model developed by Halpin and Tsai. with the change from full siding to coextrusion. close to the absorption cut-off of titanium dioxide. the PVC could be stretched more and the tensile results indicated that the crystallites which were surrounded by more flexible chains were more oriented. p. the thickness of the degraded layer was divided by about two. 15 refs. 19 refs. the development of filler particle orientation and the tensile properties of the plasticised PVC were studied. Paper 4. Dehydrochlorination of flexible PVC occurred first. Okuwaki A Tohoku. ENSAM The photoageing of unpigmented and 5% titanium dioxide pigmented rigid PVC samples was studied in reactors equipped with different types of fluorescent lamps.2. One kg of flexible PVC yielded 320g of oxalic acid and 130g of benzenecarboxylic acids (as phthalic acid) under conditions of a 15m sodium hydroxide solution at 250C and an oxygen partial pressure of 5 MPa for 5 h.20. Sato T. 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1998. the particles acted as voids and the matrix around the voids was plastically deformed effectively. The changes in thickness distribution of carbonyl and conjugated polyene concentrations were followed by IR and UV spectrophotometry on microtomed slices and discussed on the basis of kinetic results obtained on thin films under the same conditions. The extrudates were stretched above and below the “gel-liquid” transition temperature of PVC (about 205C).695466 Item 385 Advances in Plastics Technology. it also generates and publishes studies on the weathering performance of all basic inorganic and organic pigments for vinyl Accession no. From a comparison of photooxidation rates with sources of distinct spectra. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts particles when the applied stress approached the yield stress. the weathering parameters in which vinyl siding colours should maintain their shade. Mur G. Achieved originally with pigments in the hot/cool mixer it changed to colouring on-line with free flowing concentrates like Holcobath. Correlations between the extrusion conditions (draw ratio and temperature). JAPAN Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.University The oxidative degradation of a flexible PVC pellet with oxygen was carried out in 1-25 mol/kg(m)-water sodium hydroxide solutions. Conference proceedings. Poland. No. Gay M. Colouring methods have changed slowly. No. 1998. As colour concentrate suppliers are now the direct suppliers to the industry.696863 Item 382 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. Verdu J Rhone-Poulenc. EFFECTS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE Anton-Prinet C. These observations appeared to be the reason for the decrease of yield stress by the incorporation of particles. i. Holland Colours (HCA) services the industry not only from a colourmatch stand point. 3rd Oct.211-6 PHOTOAGEING OF RIGID PVC. These colour hold guidelines have lead to the creation of new special pigments such as IR-Blacks. IV. Boudeulle M. 19 refs.696562 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 129 . followed by oxidation. (Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) The North American vinyl siding industry has developed into the second largest rigid PVC segment after PVC pipe.

26th-30th April 1998. p. Biesiada K. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to determine their compatibility with PVC. Amberg M U Martinswerk GmbH (SPE) An attempt is made to contribute to the objective analysis of the role of PVC cabling in major fires such as that at Dusseldorf airport. or more accurately appearance retention. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN UNION. Conference proceedings. 012 SMOKE GETS IN YOUR EYES Schmidt R... It is shown that magnesium and aluminium hydroxides specially coated with ZHS. USA Accession no. SIGNIFICANCE FOR PVC STABILISATION OF STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES/CHLORIDES Fisch M H.3296-300. I. Ga.. The latest research developments are illustrated using Accession no. Volume III.692780 Item 389 Antec ’98.3291-5. 012 NOVEL ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED FILLERS AS FIRE RETARDANT AND SMOKE SUPPRESSANT ADDITIVES FOR HALOGENATED POLYMERS Hornsby P R. Volume III. Atlanta.692777 Item 390 Antec ’98. is a complex phenomenon in resilient sheet flooring applications.693676 Item 387 Antec ’98. 012 130 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 26th-30th April 1998. functional fillers such as aluminium hydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) are available to optimise PVC formulations. p. Atlanta. Today. 19 refs. USA Accession no.3310-2. 012 MECHANISMS OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Fisch M H. creating extremely low smoke and much less toxic gases. concentration. Volume III. without sacrificing flame retardant or smoke suppressant performance. The results are interpreted considering the structure of these compounds. Data are presented to illustrate relationships between stain resistance and plasticiser structure. Biesiada K.. including new stabiliser systems that can be used for darker colours. Atlanta. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 26th-30th April 1998. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation is discussed. The plasticiser-related portions of the stain resistance phenomenon are explored. Atlanta.3272-7. Schaefer R E Solutia Inc. Ga. Brecker L R Witco Corp. p.692781 Item 388 Antec ’98.. WESTERN EUROPE MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. Information is given on an industry not too well known outside North America. Ga. Volume III. Questions regarding smoke and toxic combustion gas evolved by PVC cable materials have repeatedly been posed. extraction resistance. This permits large reductions to additive loading relative to unmodified filler.3234-9. Ga. a few new trends are highlighted. confer significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution to these polymers. 26th-30th April 1998. volatility and solubility parameter. Conference proceedings. Volume III. II. 9 refs. on the fire properties of plasticised PVC and polychloroprene. The process can be complex involving the plasticiser. (SPE) Stain resistance. USA Accession no. Herbiet R. p. Atlanta. Conference proceedings. Bacaloglu R. Bacaloglu R. the overall toughness (or abrasion resistance) of the wear layer and the thermoplastic nature of plasticised PVC. (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin thioglycolates is determined by the measurement of discoloration in a PVC formulation. their equilibration with alkyltin chlorides and the postulated association with chlorine atoms at the PVC primary particle surfaces. Conference proceedings. (SPE) A series of alkyltin thioglycolates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin chlorides is studied by IR analysis. UK.References and Abstracts weatherable profiles. p.694482 Item 386 Antec ’98. 10 refs. International Tin Research Institute (SPE) Consideration is given to the influence of combinations of zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) with hydrated fillers. 10 refs. 012 STAIN RESISTANCE IN RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING APPLICATIONS: ROLE OF THE PLASTICISER Colletti T A. 26th-30th April 1998. Renshaw J T. Ga. Cusack P A Brunel University. USA Accession no. Brecker L R Witco Corp.

686631 Item 394 Polymer 39. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. USA Accession no.686435 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 131 . The Consumers Union. The material is used in PVC food packaging to make it flexible. 5 refs. These obervations were discussed. adjusted by neglecting the (small) amounts of oil which diffused into the polymer. the ionic conductivity of the PVC membrane increased with increasing amount of plasticiser. p. May/June 1998. The plasticiser concentration distributions were reproduced to a good approximation using a known model. Increases in elastic and viscous moduli corresponded to the dissolution of the PVC particles whose size and number decreased progressively with temperature.University Six sebacate-related and three citrate-related plasticisers were used to study the effects of configurational changes in plasticiser on the dielectric properties of ion-selective PVC membranes. NBS smoke chamber data demonstrate that the amount of generated smoke is considerably reduced when PVC is filled with ATH and/ or MDH. p. di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. US. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Details are given.Universite Mokhtar Badji A peeling method.815-8 French MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSFER OF DIOCTYL PHTHALATE(DOP) BETWEEN SAMPLES OF PLASTICISED PVC SUBMERGED IN OLIVE OIL: COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES Messadi D. the ionic conductivity and tan delta of the plasticised PVC membranes were measured between -100C and +100C and at seven log frequencies.15. 1998. SPAIN. EUROPEAN UNION. Nos.687797 Accession no. 13 refs. No. said in a letter to FDA that it tested mainly cheddar cheese wrapped in PVC films and found levels of DEHA that it said were too high. The magazine published a story on packaging and endocrine disrupters in its June issue.690438 Item 392 European Polymer Journal 34. p.References and Abstracts smoke density results. decreasing its concentration and a decrease in the size of the PVC particles or its molecular weight caused noticeable changes in the behaviour of both moduli. Gelation occurred in several steps.18. depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles. No. the ionic conductivity could be predicted at a given phr ratio. was used to obtain actual profiles of DOP concentration developed through the matrix of a PVC disc dipped into a limited volume of olive oil. Above the melting point of a given plasticiser. ALGERIA Accession no.14. Progressively higher concentrations of plasticiser resulted in an increase in the temperature at which the gelation process was completed. Marcilla A Alicante. in conjunction with a radioactive tracer technique. 29th July 1998.5/6. No. Kusy R P North Carolina. temperature and frequency. 15 refs.000 lb of the cheese a day to approach danger levels seen in animal testing. EUROPEAN UNION. Configurational changes of the plasticisers had no effect above the melting point of each plasticiser. Increasing the amount of plasticiser in the membrane generally improved the ionic conductivity and lowered the temperature of the tan delta peak.692770 Item 391 Plastics News(USA) 10. Using parallel plate sensors. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Using the appropriate nomogram for a given plasticiser.Universidad SEM and viscoelastic measurements were used to study the gelation and fusion of different plastisols from different commercial PVC resins and with different concentrations of several plasticisers with different solvent powers.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION USA Item 393 Polymer 39. the publisher of Consumer Reports magazine. p. Increasing the solvent power of the plasticiser. 1998. Djilani S E Annaba.3507-14 RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLASTICIZER CONCENTRATION IN THE GELATION AND FUSION PROCESSES OF PVC PLASTISOLS Garcia J C. and said that the Food & Drug Administration permits unlimited use of the plasticiser. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. GERMANY. 17 refs.3167-78 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE DIELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S. But an industry organisation says that an adult would have to eat 1.5 FILM PLASTICISER FOR CHEESE GETS BAD RAP Toloken S A new study by Consumer Reports magazine contends that some plastic cheese wraps leach a plasticiser at levels that could pose health problems.

9. A means for evaluating the effectiveness of surface treatment on the wood fibres in the PVC/wood fibre composites is presented that investigated the adhesion between PVC and laminated wood veneers. sheet. The identification and understanding of the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load are critical to determine if the process is under control. image analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. and maleated PP for surface modification. The chemical modification made on the wood surfaces was then characterised by different complementary surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. emphasis is placed on melt rheology principles and identifying how statistics can play an important role for root cause analysis for profile extrusion. No.University. p.References and Abstracts Item 395 Food Additives and Contaminants 15.National Food Administration. fish. Park C B Toronto. USA Accession no. UK. Nanjing. surface roughness. USA Accession no. CANADA Accession no.87-9 RECYCLING DURABLE VINYL PRODUCTS Wisner D Geon Co. Volume I. poultry. Svensson K. Atlanta. p. May 1998. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 SIGNIFICANCE AND USE OF STATISTICS IN THE PROFILE EXTRUSION PROCESS Cykana D.2. dichlorodiethylsilane. 2 refs. p. 26th-30th April 1998.203-8 MIGRATION OF EPOXIDISED SOYA BEAN OIL FROM PLASTICISED PVC GASKETS INTO BABY FOOD Hammarling L. Accession no.University An ultrasonic etching method was shown to be effective for pretreatment of PVC for electroless plating with copper without chemical pollution. Michigan by the National Association of Home Builders. compared with that of chromic-sulphuric acid etching. Mason T J Yunnan.2. Although all extrusion processes can benefit from the use of statistics. WESTERN EUROPE Brief details are given of a recycling project for vinyl siding conducted in Grand Rapids. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The level of ESBO in baby food was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with a detection limit of 1.686117 Item 396 Polymer Engineering and Science 38.5 mg/ kg. including purees of beef. Ciguang Bao. pipe and profile) require a process that is in control to produce products to the proper defined specifications. (SPE) The advantages of statistics as a monitoring tool for products are beneficial. Ga.5. phthalic anhydride.680858 132 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 63 refs.Royal Institute of Technology. CHINA. pork. No. Schick S Bemis Manufacturing Co.685246 Item 397 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. Rue Feng. coating..University of Agricultural Sciences Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser in PVC gaskets in lids for glass jars used for packaging of ready-cooked baby food. 18 refs. p.University. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Balatinecz J J.247-55. Wood veneers were first treated with gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane. Gustavson H. widely documented and frequently used in many of the plastic processes. Sweden. SWEDEN. 7 refs. All the extrusion processes (film. It was determined that the presented levels of ESBO in the baby food were only due to migration from the lids and not of natural origin. Oskarsson A Sweden.684907 Item 398 Antec ’98. The mechanism of adhesion improvement was studied by examination of weight loss. Coventry. June 1998. SEM. Uppsala. p. The migration of ESBO from the lids was determined in 81 samples of different dishes of baby food.683326 Item 399 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. No. 31st May 1998. No. After being etched for 60 min by 28 kHz ultrasound. Replicating the same viscosity and output rate are necessary to ensure a balanced flow velocity in a profile extrusion die.University The interface between plastic and wood fibres strongly influences the mechanical properties of a plastic/wood fibre composite.765-73 EFFECT OF SURFACE PROPERTIES ON THE ADHESION BETWEEN PVC AND WOOD VENEER LAMINATES Matuana L M. SCANDINAVIA. Karlsson S. berries and vegetables. 1998. Conference proceedings.1411-6 NEW ETCHING METHOD OF PVC PLASTIC FOR PLATING BY ULTRASOUND Yiyun Zhao. the adhesion strength of Cu-PVC could increase by 13%. The profile extrusion process defers to a higher degree of complexity to maintain multiple dimensions and aesthetics.

DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF PVC LUBRICATION BY STEARIC ACID AND ITS DERIVATIVES Fisch M. along with looking at ways to improve them. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations than saturation concentration leads to formation of lubricant pools between PVC primary particles. aluminium and sodium internal/external. p. and foam core pipe. Laminations and Coatings Conference. USA Accession no. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp.5 to 1. Toronto. Conference Proceedings. typical forms now in use include interior moulding profiles and foam core pipe. Ontario. No. and various accessory items Accession no. Typical are house siding. 012 ANTI-FOG ADDITIVES FOR EXTRUDED FILM Falter J A. p. USA generally used for installation.679003 Item 401 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. Many PVC foam manufacturers are interested in reducing the density of their products to reduce costs and achieve lighter weights. however. Under these testing conditions the complex esters gave better anti-fogging properties than some commercial additives with which they were compared. At a normal usage of 0. No. barium and calcium stearates may be considered internal. 28 refs. No. Rigid PVC extruded construction products take many forms. No. p. are very dependent on the density of the foam product.1. The antistatic properties of PVC films were also improved. 1998.5 phr (approximately 1. sheet.676574 Item 402 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. The technology of extruding rigid vinyl foam has grown substantially over the last ten years.1. The anti-fogging properties were measured under refrigerated conditions.676571 Item 404 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. lithium.7-13 TENSILE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILLED WITH PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 133 . 24th-28th Aug.676572 Item 403 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4.1. or allowing PVC to capture other maintenance free applications. and the optical and static decay properties of the films were measured. and how they can be tested to determine fit to the application requirements. Book 2. In addition to these solid products. methyl. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. the anti-fogging properties of PVC films containing these additives were tested at room temperature. Increased temperature or longer time ensures the release of lubricants from these pools at the surface of the polymer giving the lubricants an external character. In addition.1. tooling and processing expertise have made possible a variety of applications such as profile. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. Formulation additives.12-21 MATERIALS AND TESTING FOR EXTRUSION OF RPVC CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS Rapacki S R Rohm & Haas Co. Geick K S. (TAPPI) Complex esters were evaluated as anti-fogging agents in linear LDPE and flexible PVC films. how they are put together and influence the manufacturing process and final product. 9 refs. window profiles.1997. 3 refs. p. storm doors. The properties. pipe. and a study was made of the effects of the additives on the colour and consistency of mushrooms. CANADA. foam or cellular rigid PVC materials are entering the marketplace as substitutes for the traditional solid materials.417-22.26-9 VINYL FOAM: EFFECT OF DENSITY ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. March 1998. March 1998. March 1998.4-11 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. magnesium stearates and stearic acid itself external lubricants.6-5 meq stearate) to 100 g PVC. II.References and Abstracts Item 400 TAPPI 1997 Polymers. USA Accession no. p. fencing. Emphasis is placed on the formulation ingredients constituting the articles above. An attempt is made to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density. Williams J B Lonza Inc. The glass transition temperatures of PVC containing stearic acid derivatives as lubricants have been used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. zinc. USA Accession no. The saturation concentration represents the maximum amount of lubricant compatible with PVC in a specific formulation. The lubricant molecules are associated with the surface molecules of the PVC primary particles or are in the interstitial space between them.

670797 Item 409 Advances in Polymer Technology 17. UK.Institute of Technology Tensile properties of PVC filled with precipitated calcium carbonate particles having two different mean sizes were studied. 4th April 1998. Grulke E A Michigan. Allen N S. During normal stabilisation conditions. The development of failure mechanism diagrams and their comparison with impact failure tests for PVC and PETP are reported.1-10 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PRETREATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. Edge V. e. Tellez M M Mexico. Details are also given of the roller head process.1996. COMERIO R. FRANCE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. a cross between calendering and extrusion coating. a ‘short-term’ costabiliser. BERSTORFF H.1.674719 Item 407 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. zinc stearate. Recycled PVC and PETP often are cross-contaminated with each other since they have overlapping density ranges and are very difficult to separate using. USA Accession no. flotation.University Details are given of the use of three different types of aminosilanes for crosslinking plasticised PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and types of rubber and PVC products manufactured by this technology are examined.676447 Item 405 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. calcium soap. 20 refs. Azuma F. 4th April 1998. Gilbert M Loughborough. as heat stabilisers for PVC was evaluated using dibenzoyl methane (Rhodastab-83).1998.University. carbonyl formation. Manchester.194-203 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRAIN RATE. 19 refs. USE OF A POLYOL Benavides R. The same effect was seen with the Accession no. MCNEIL AKRON REPIQUET. Jan. Coahuila. EUROPEAN UNION.. 10-50 parts of the particles were mixed with 100 parts PVC and 3 parts lead stearate using a mixing roll. GERMANY.Universidad Autonoma Pentaerythritol was chosen as long-term costabiliser.References and Abstracts Nakamura Y. Evaluation of induction times to degradation. p. p. Data are given for milling.Metropolitan University.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. Manchester. followed by press moulding and 134 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .1.752. and UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy supported these findings..Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. No.g. MEXICO. EUROPEAN UNION. temperature and impact rate on the model coefficients were determined.SAS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. visible reflectance. p.MASCHINENBAU GMBH. MEXICO. Tellez M M Mexico. UK. 28 refs. No. Edge V. Sept. Allen N S. II.1. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Iida T Osaka. ITALY.37-51 SILANE CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED PVC Fiaz M. Coahuila. Spring 1998. The particles were porous agglomerates of spherical primary particles. Gillis P P. the polyol enhanced the induction time to degradation but produced large amounts of polyenes. in that case the results seem to be the sum of both separated effects. These mixtures can then be separated using one of several technologies including conventional sieving or hydrocyclones.41-5 French CALENDERING: AN OUT OF BREATH TECHNOLOGY? Forest J P Calendering processes and machinery are described. Kentucky.Metropolitan University. The effects of processing conditions.. COMERIO ERCOLE SPA.g. EUROPEAN UNION.11-27 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PREHEATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. p. No. The use of the preheated mixture of metal soaps and preheated zinc stearate enhanced even more such times. Petty C A.1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University One approach to purification of recycled thermoplastic mixtures is selective grinding to induce differences in sizes and shapes between polymers with different compositions. 18 refs.674718 Item 408 Revue Generale des Caoutchoucs et Plastiques No. JAPAN beta-diketone. p. TEMPERATURE. I. while preheated calcium stearate reduced them. Tensile tests were carried out using dumbbell test specimens.. e. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.675012 Item 406 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68.Universidad Autonoma The influence of a beta-diketone on the already observed anomalous behaviour of preheated metal stearates. USE OF A BETA-DIKETONE Benavides R. AND IMPACT FAILURE MECHANISM FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Green J L. and then were used to engineer a selective grinding process.

on process morphology of rigid PVC foams and the properties of the extruded profile. overall migration tests are usually performed on finished food packaging with food stimulants. 15 refs. screw speed and draw-down. EUROPEAN UNION.661986 Item 414 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Accession no. cell structure and surface appearance. 26 refs. p. such as melt temp.. EUROPEAN UNION. May-June 1997. However. p.3. Tice P A PIRA International In order to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit given in amended EC Directive 901128/ EEC. This procedure is optimised so that it is simple and rapid to perform and gives slightly higher results for the extruded sheet compared to overall migration tests conducted with fatty and aqueous food simulants. accurate and fast method of plasticiser identification could. time of reaction and irradiation dose on the extent of plasticiser migration was examined. 22 refs.3. who thermoform a wide range of containers from an extruded sheet. The © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 135 . Sept. Sept.169-75 PVC THERMOFORMED CONTAINERS FOR FOOD PACKAGING: ESTABLISHMENT OF RAPID EXTRACTION TEST FOR OVERALL MIGRATION LIMIT COMPLIANCE TESTING Cooper I. liquid chromatography and physical observations to confirm identity. 4 refs. the Directive also allows compliance to be demonstrated by use of a ‘more severe test’.151-7 PHOTO-CROSSLINKING OF DITHIOCARBAMATE-SUBSTITUTED PVC REDUCES PLASTICISER MIGRATION Lakshmi S.5 mm single screw. USA Accession no. The effect of concentration of phase transfer catalyst and diethyl dithiocarbamate. UK. No. Isner J D. with particular attention to a new class of polyketones (pyrrolidine-2. be an effective quality control and benchmark performance test in new product development studies. Results are presented of an investigation of the effect of extrusion conditions. Gallagher T K Aristech Chemical The performance of a flexible PVC compound is often defined by its plasticiser content and composition and a simple.1997. A ‘more severe test’ is developed for PVC and VC/VA copolymer materials involving extraction with methanol or a methanol/water mixture and evaporation to dryness.205-9 NEW ORGANIC COSTABILIZERS FOR THE STABILIZATION OF PVC Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Recent developments in the use of organic costabilisers for stabilisation of PVC are reviewed. Sidor J A. INDIA Accession no.for Med. including density.3. Tensile properties and thermal stabilities are discussed. No. UK.1997.& Technology Medical grade PVC sheets and tubes were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atoms by photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate in the presence of a suitable phase transfer catalyst. and no greater than 20 rpm screw speed on a 63. No. No.Sci. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Results are presented demonstrating the rapid extraction test to be a ‘more severe test’ and that it can be used by converters in conjunction with good manufacturing practice (GMP) to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit in a cost-effective way. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Goodson A. USA Accession no. Wiedl D J Geon Co. p.249-55 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF MONOMERIC PLASTICIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Kozlowski R R.669483 Item 410 Polymer 39.1997.1. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. p. p.662337 Item 412 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. The modified surface was crosslinked by UV light to create a barrier for the diffusion of plasticiser. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 9 refs. in particular. The optimum conditions for the best quality profile found in this study were 190 to 196C melt temp. For packaging converters.210-5 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION CONDITIONS ON RIGID PVC FOAM Rabinovitch E B.3. the cost of testing for compliance can be prohibitive. No. Sept.4diones) recently patented by Akcros Chemicals.663337 Item 411 Packaging Technology and Science 10. Gas chromatography was shown to provide the most effective identification method and it was demonstrated that it could be complemented by IR spectroscopy.661993 Item 413 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. therefore.References and Abstracts extrusion. 1998.

performance characteristics and mechanism of action of this type of material are described. In particular. processability. Oct. USA Item 417 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. June 1997. 8 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Good performance can be obtained at low addition levels. Following a theoretical description of a general effective media equation. p. Different methods (complexometric titration. Fazey A C Rohm & Haas Co. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.661985 Item 415 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50.696-703 German QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEAT STABILISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D. The classic titration gives rather good results of the metal content in the samples without large apparative equipment. Among these. It represents a logical expansion of known methods for the use of such models and might be relevant for quality control and for cost efficient running of equipment.1997. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. and epoxy resin. Accession no. No. and electrical enclosures. One of the major reasons why vinyl materials are so versatile is that the PVC resins on which they are based can be easily modified with a variety of additives to tailor the particular performance features of the compounds to their intended applications.117-24 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF FILLED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITES Yi X-S.118-25 VINYL MOULDING COMPOUNDS: FORMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Stevenson J C.656330 Item 416 Polymer International 44.2. For all investigated methods the metals must be separated from the polymer and transferred into an aqueous phase.1997. appearance. p. 13 refs. experimental conductivityvolume fraction data for thermoplastic filled with vanadium oxide particles as well as thermosetting polymer composites. CHINA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Sept.1997. 12 refs.650397 Item 419 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy) can be used to analyse the content of heavy metals in PVC. were fitted to the equation. No.645-7 CALCULATIONS OF TOLERANCES WITH STATISTICAL MODEL FOR CALENDER TO PRODUCE PVC Oelschlaegel F The application of interval mathematics for tolerance calculations using a statistical model to describe calendering is described.University A review is presented of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles.2. The Commission’s words are hardly a vote of confidence in the face of growing evidence that the quality of PVC recyclate is improving and recycling initiatives are approaching commercial viability in some European countries. in the past mainly heavy metals.656159 136 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .1782. 29th Sept. LLDPE. Determination of an appropriate combination of PVC resin and additives to produce an effective and cost-competitive compound. PVC is the second most widely used plastic in the world. This article examines the reasons why. The pyrrolidine-2. p. For the recycling of PVC along with the identification. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Pan Y Zhejiang.39-40 IS THERE LIFE AFTER DEATH? Johnston S The European Commission has stated that in view of the problems caused by PVC recycling. p. The calculated property-related parameters in the equation are discussed. quantitative analysis of metals currently used is of interest. Wu G. yet only between 1 and 4% is recycled. p.653542 Item 418 European Chemical News 68.9.4-diones are shown to be effective as organic costabilisers with a variety of different metal soap stabilisers and in a range of PVC formulations. it would further analyse the scientific evidence in order to propose appropriate measures for controlling future use of PVC in new cars. No.-5th Oct. HDPE. LDPE. Richter E PVC is usually processed with various different additives. whereas capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy have several advantages compared with chemical methods.10. GERMANY.References and Abstracts regulatory status.1997. No. Oct. heat-stabilisers for PVC contain metals. Data are given for PVC. Today’s vinyl moulding compounds are successfully meeting the combined challenges of physical properties. and cost requirements in a variety of specialty injection moulding applications such as appliance parts. No. 17 refs. business equipment. the compounds exhibit superior colour control in comparison with established beta-diketones. GERMANY.

Nokhrina N N. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. Lyutikova E A. USA Item 422 Reuse/Recycle 27. p. most available studies are concerned with identification of gas liberation products. but has since sold its program to Bayshore Vinyl.649292 Item 423 International Polymer Science and Technology 24.650267 Accession no. This behaviour can be attributed to the formation of polyenic sequences with a short conjugation length. Fisch M Witco Technical Center Glass transition temperatures of impact modified PVC with different amounts of lubricants were used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. giving them an external character. OxyChem is now exploring the use of PVC bottles in construction. p. EUROPEAN UNION. cause deterioration of the properties both of the compositions themselves and of the materials in contact with them. June 1997. p. 1997. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS (DMA) OF IMPACT MODIFIED RIGID PVC CONTAINING ESTER LUBRICANTS Bacaloglu R. Undesirable migration processes can have a harmful effect on the human body. despite the urgent need to solve the problem of the release of lowmolecular weight substances from PVC compositions. Currently. RUSSIA Accession no.2. p. The screen effect of the pigment protects these polyenes against photooxidation.34-5 PVC BOTTLES ARE BEING LANDFILLED The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers. There are no data on the qualitative composition of coatings formed on calendars during the production of PVC materials.647875 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 137 . June 1997. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations ensures their release at the surface of the polymer. Hegranes B.107-11 REVERSIBLE DISCOLORATION EFFECTS IN THE PHOTOAGEING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gardette J L. there is a lack of viable markets for these products and members of APR are disposing of them in landfills. which permits these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer. OXYCHEM. An attempt is made to determine the chemical structure of coatings formed on calenders during the production of PVC film at the Urals Stroiplastpolimer Production Association.112-7 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE). No. and photobleaching can be provoked by a new irradiation of the polymer. I. which have a considerable adverse effect on the quality of the finished product. 13 refs. However.2. the release of various substances is possible during the production and service of PVC compositions. Analysis is made of specimens of coatings removed at different times from calenders during the manufacture of PVC film based on different feedstock batches. Potapov V A Under physical. OxyChem is said to be the only virgin resin producer to financially support a PVC bottle recovery program in the last five years.650268 Item 421 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. May 1997. and to establish the causes and mechanism of coating formation. is asking the Vinyl Institute and its members for their support in re-establishing domestic markets for post-consumer PVC bottles. chemical and mechanical effects. No. P & R ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES. The described procedure can be applied to any polymer and all the additives that can migrate in the polymeric phase as long as their glass transition temperatures can be measured. (APR). and lead to the formation of a coating (plating) on the processing surfaces of equipment. This effect is reversible. Due attention has not been paid to the study of processes of migration of low molecular weight components of PVC compositions and the mechanism of migration under the action of liquid media. US.3. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. 12 refs.Universite Photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC leads to a latent discolouration that is revealed only during a further period of storage of the aged material in the dark. 5 refs. but believes higher quality post-consumer PVC will be needed for this market. US.T/68-72 ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION OF COATINGS FORMED ON CALENDERS DURING PRODUCTION OF PVC FILM Lirova B I. USA Accession no. Important considerations in formulating a vinyl moulding compound and evaluating its performance are discussed. it is reported. 5. is not a simple process. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.650269 Item 420 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.References and Abstracts however. FRANCE. No. Lemaire J Blaise Pascal. BAYSHORE VINYL USA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.VINYL INSTITUTE. 9 refs. which present an absorption below 400 nm.ASSOCIATION OF POSTCONSUMER PLASTIC RECYCLERS. No.

2. 14 refs. This method makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory degree of crosslinking of the composition with simultaneous retention of satisfactory thermal stability. Cincinnati Milacron Austria introduced its Argos parallel twin screw extruders last year. polyfunctional amines and. No. crystallites are formed under conversion conditions of less than 2%. p. The presence of crystallites between the microdomains forming the domains may explain the relatively high durability of the domains during processing.Technical University The simultaneous influences of aluminium silicate and yellow iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVCbased composites were analysed. crosslinking processes using polymerisable plasticisers. 14 refs. Two optimal antistatic composites were established using the second order programme method. profiles and sheet because they treat material more gently than single screws. Szablowska B Plasticised compositions of PVC fulfil many different kinds of requirements.4-6 CINCINNATI’S DEVELOPMENTS IN PVC PIPE Counter-rotating twin screw extruders are used almost exclusively for the production of uPVC pipes. Jassy. 1997. The level of syndiotacticity rises with fall in the temperature of polymerisation. In PVC. For this reason. Antistatic properties were estimated in terms of electrostatic potential values. Daranga M. Among more recent methods for crosslinking PVC. reduction of deformation and improvement of the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. and in the case of commercial types of PVC-S reaches 54-56%.T/92-8 ORGANOSILOXANES AS CROSSLINKING AGENTS FOR PLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS Pelka J. During processing under appropriately selected conditions.642968 Item 427 British Plastics and Rubber July/Aug. but a restricting factor for many applications is their relatively low permissible long-term operating temperature. 16 refs. No. since crosslinking polymers makes it possible to obtain materials with improved service properties. EUROPEAN UNION. An attempt is made to determine the structural changes in PVC caused by processing. the subtle structure of PVC is altered to a more uniform. p.or aminoalkoxysilanes are presented. whereas their crystallinity is only about 10%. The presence of crystalline forms in PVC has been established by studies using e.References and Abstracts Item 424 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS). 1997.g. UK. which is regarded as optimal from the point of view of the physical and mechanical properties of the products. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. increase in the resistance to solvent action and increase in abrasion resistance. These Accession no. These machines are intended to complement the company’s Titan conical screw range. WESTERN EUROPE are present in structures of microdomains and between them. No. depending on the formulation used. Parallel screw and conical twin screw extruders are compared.642797 138 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . derivatives of dimercaptotriazines. domain structure. Despite the relatively low level of ordering of structure (crystallinity) of PVC. of some commercial importance.647859 Item 425 International Polymer Science and Technology 24.1.T/88-91 EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS OF UNPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS ON POLYMER STRUCTURE Bortel K. EASTERN EUROPE. p. studies are continually being carried out on the development of effective methods of crosslinking PVC. as was also confirmed in polymer specimens after processing. CINCINNATI MILACRON AUSTRIA GMBH AUSTRIA. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Investigative studies of the hydrolytic crosslinking of plasticised PVC compositions grafted with the use of mercapto. 1997. p. In addition the effects of temperature and the rate of extrusion on the degree of gelling of the selected PVC composition are examined. Coextrusion of foamed core pipes is also described. Szewczyk P PVC has a complex particle morphology and a low degree of crystallinity. small-angle x-ray scattering. Dumitrescu S Jassy. RUMANIA Accession no. the most interesting seems to be the method of hydrolytic crosslinking of PVC compositions with grafted mercaptosilanes and aminosilanes by the method of nucleophilic substitution during processing.1997.22-9 Rumanian VINYL CHLORIDE ANTISTATIC PROPERTIES OPTIMISATION WITH ZEOLITES AND IRON OXIDE Diaconu I.2. POLAND Accession no. Studies have been carried out on the chemical crosslinking of PVC with the use of peroxides.647858 Item 426 Materiale Plastice 34. EASTERN EUROPE. its halving time and surface electrical resistivity. The most important benefits accruing from crosslinking are the increase in the long-term operating temperature. The crystallinity of PVC increases with increase in syndiotacticity. this ordering has a significant effect both on the processing and on the properties of the products.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry.

In this region.888-95 IMPACT GRINDING OF THERMOPLASTICS: A SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION MODEL Green J L. Volume III. USA mixer. The effects of the added small quantities of plasticiser on the rheological and mechanical properties of PVC/newsprintfibre composites. is required when recycling consumer products such as bottles. However.p. Patel H M.5. No. tensile strength and modulus increase significantly. Park C B Toronto. modulus.University In order to find the amount of plasticiser which ensured proper ion-selective electrode function and optimised mechanical properties. puncture tests were used to evaluate the effects of changes in plasticiser levels and © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 139 . Results from multiple and single particle breakage in a hammer mi1l are used. p. Newsprint fibres are dispersed into the PVC matrix in a high shear turbine Accession no.State University. elongation at break. 5th July 1997. 012 RECENTLY-DEVELOPED NON-LEAD PVC STABILISERS FOR WIRE AND CABLE Tsuboi T. The formulation of PVC/newsprint-fibre composites are modified by incorporating various concentrations as a plasticiser. Blends are compression moulded and tested for the following properties: melt flow index. The different stages of vinyl chloride suspension polymerisation were investigated by using an on-line sample withdrawal technique during reaction.639984 Item 430 Antec 97. p.641415 Item 429 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 65. The presence of the antiplasticisation region is observed in PVC/newsprint fibre composites. Grulke E A Michigan. Conference proceedings. Petty C A. 3 refs. Mitsudera T Asahi Denka Kogyo KK (SPE) Risk reduction is a world wide problem and of course a concern to the field of PVC stabilisers.University Product particle size distributions of impact ground thermoplastics (specifically PETP and PVC) are interpreted and models describing these distributions developed.27th April-2nd May 1997. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The overall processability is shown with experimental and actual results. tensile strength at yield.27th April-2nd May 1997.University The effects of some polymerisation conditions on PVC particles produced by suspension polymerisation were studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and morphology is discussed. p. Analysis of data using SAS procedures of ANOVA are also conducted to discern the effects of concentration of plasticiser on these properties. 10 refs. May 1997. Brooks B W Loughborough. The gradual increase in use of ADKs and other non-lead stabilisers in the USA and Japan demonstrates industry’s concern for the public demand in saving the environment without direct laws banning the use of lead. toughness and notched izod impact strength.639912 Item 432 Polymer 38. EUROPEAN UNION. as for example.p.11.2633-42 EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MEMBRANES FOR ELECTRODES AND BIOSENSORS Gibbons W S. The effect of change of stabiliser on particle size. whereas the opposite trend is observed beyond this region. UK.3496-502. JAPAN Accession no. Kentucky. May 1997. 012 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER ON MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC/NEWSPRINT-FIBRE COMPOSITES Matuana L M.University (SPE) A plasticiser plays an important role in the formulation of PVC and in determining its processability. Conference proceedings.127-34 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE DROP BEHAVIOUR DURING SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION Zerfa M. Balatinecz J J. porosity. The results indicate that the plasticiser has a significant effect on melt flow properties. elongation at break and the toughness of PVC/newsprintfibre composites are not affected by the presence of plasticiser whereas the impact strengths of the composites are strongly affected by the plasticiser. No. Results are relevant to the separation of thermoplastics. CANADA Accession no. and thereby influences the processability of PVC/newsprint fibre composites.639926 Item 431 Antec 97.References and Abstracts Item 428 Polymer Engineering and Science 37. Toronto. 41 refs. Kusy R P North Carolina. Newly developed non-lead stabilisers (RUP-series) are shown to offer excellent heat stability. No.1. Volume III.3580-5. The values of the model coefficients are related to the brittle-ductile transition grinding conditions and breakage mechanisms. electrical and mechanical properties compared with traditional wire and cable formulations. Toronto. The replacement of lead stabilisers in wire and cable applications is demonstrated.

Seven different plasticisers were each tested at a minimum of eight levels of plasticisation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The molecular structures of the plasticisers influenced the mechanical properties. Strength. Major determinants of weld strength were found to include the PVC formulation.33-40 EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE IN COMBINATION WITH AMMONIUM OCTAMOLYBDATE OR ZINC STANNATE ON SMOKE SUPPRESSION IN FLEXIBLE PVC 140 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . It is shown that extrusion of small-diameter CPVC pipe requires specially-designed equipment and that use of a Y-block should be considered. March 1997. 4 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Ferm D J.4. March 1997. 19 refs. Some examples of successful applications are described. These studies were carried out using both a conventional dioctyl phthalate(DOP) plasticiser and a mixed plasticiser consisting of a 1:1 combination of DOP and an alkyl aryl phosphate ester. which were slightly higher than those made with DOP as the plasticiser. The effect of combinations of zinc borate with ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate on smoke suppression upon combustion of flexible PVC was studied. Differences in the behaviour of certain bands corresponding to the plasticiser and the resin as a consequence of the interactions among them are discussed.1.1. No. 5 refs. p. USA Accession no. No. No indications of interactions to explain this effect were obtained by TGA of PVC containing these additives. Garcia J C. TGA analyses indicated that PVC samples made with the mixed plasticiser had final decomposition temps.638534 Item 433 Antec 97. Impact modifiers enhanced weld strength due to their well-known effects on PVC mechanical properties.637924 Item 435 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.Universidad The behaviour of PVC and PVC plastisols were studied during their thermal treatment using an in situ FTIR technique. p. Polybutene added at levels up to 10% of the total impact modifier gives a significant increase in the Izod impact and increase in dynamic thermal stability by as much as 25%. No. (SPE) The addition of polybutene to impact modified PVC formulations reveals improved impact resistance and increased dynamic thermal stability in the PVC formulation.634632 Item 437 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. The effects on oxygen index and on residual char after ten minutes at 560C were also evaluated. 012 ENHANCED PROPERTIES OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC WITH POLYBUTENE Enlow W P. For modifiers having similar impact efficiency. March 1997. SPAIN. p. The authors concluded that in electrodes and biosensors. No.1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The weld strength of a PVC window profile is a function of complex interactions among many contributing variables. stiffness and toughness increased as ionic resistivity increased. USA Accession no. 27th April-2nd May 1997. p.1902-6. Shen K K US Borax Inc. USA Accession no. Holloway S Cincinnati Milacron Some of the basic factors involved in screw and pipe head design for chlorinated PVC extrusion are discussed. the contribution to improved Accession no. 28 refs.634633 Item 436 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. For both plasticiser systems. profile processing conditions and welding parameters. 6 refs. Volume II. Ductility decreased as ionic resistivity increased. April 1997. Ludwig P GE Specialty Chemicals Inc.28-32 SUCCESSFUL EXTRUSION OF SMALL DIAMETER CPVC PIPE Grohman M. Conference proceedings.638310 Item 434 European Polymer Journal 33.References and Abstracts species on the mechanical properties of PVC membranes. Toronto.453-62 IR SPECTRAL CHANGES IN PVC AND PLASTICISED PVC DURING GELATION AND FUSION Beltran M. phr (per hundred resin) ratios should be reduced to a minimum of one. p. Marcilla A Alicante.21-7 INFLUENCE OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE WELD STRENGTH OF EXTRUDED RIGID PVC Weier J E Rohm & Haas Co. results showed that combinations of the zinc borate with either ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate showed improvements with regard to smoke reduction upon combustion.

12 refs. The glass transition temperature for the plasticised samples was markedly lowered and this decrease was more important for the externally plasticised ones.e. e.Polytechnical University Results are presented of the calculations of the fundamental parameters used in defining essential plasticiser properties. Cretney H European Vinyls Corp. 6 refs.(UK) Ltd.4. EUROPEAN UNION.253-9 Rumanian ESTER-TYPE PLASTICISERS FOR PVC. indicated that these salts were not complexes. SPAIN. tribasic lead maleate.632126 Item 441 Polymer 38. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA Accession no.Universidad del Pais Vasco. Impact properties were better than those of the control made from virgin PVC: this is attributed to the high levels of impact modifier used in tray formulations. Verdu J San Sebastian. These trials demonstrated that PVC straight-on trays can be recycled into foamed extrusions for wood replacement products. HALSTAB USA Enhancement of a flexible PVC-silica composite interface was studied by the application of gammaaminopropyltrimethoxysilane on silane. Quirk J P. ENSAM The volumetric. 8 refs. predicted the major Accession no. PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. I. respectively. Krausnick D Hammond Group IR and NMR spectra of basic lead carboxylates used as heat stabilisers for halogenated polymers. No.References and Abstracts weld strength was maximised by optimisation of the PVC viscosity and blend morphology at the weld line. 47 refs. the shape of the dielectric alpharelaxation function was altered only for the internally plasticised samples.56-76 RECYCLING OF PVC SUPERMARKET TRAYS INTO RIGID FOAM EXTRUSIONS Thomas N L. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.634628 Item 439 Progress in Rubber and Plastics Technology 13.6 phr and prepared by sol-gel technology were subjected to water and water vapour attacks similar to that in their daily use. No. The plasticisation effect was linked with a decrease in the intensity of the beta-relaxation process but no important changes in the activation energy of this process were observed. 1997. No. as suggested in most textbooks. Del Val J J.630833 Item 442 Materiale Plastice 33. Stabilisers studied included monobasic lead phthalate.0% and 11. FRANCE. IX. tetrabasic lead fumarate. 20 refs. 1997. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS IN DEFINING THE ESSENTIAL PLASTICISER PROPERTIES Mirci L E Timisoara. but unique compounds of interesting structure. UK. Recycled PVC supermarket trays have been used successfully in production-scale trials to make the foamed layer in coextruded cladding. Inhibition of dioctyl phthalate migration from composites by silane application was also determined as 24% using UV measurements. p. The results were discussed. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The extruded product had satisfactory foam density. or double compounds of lead oxide. p.223-37 INTERFACIAL ENHANCEMENT OF FLEXIBLE PVC-SILICA COMPOSITES BY SILANE COUPLING AGENTS Ulutan S. 1996. March 1997. Lead stabilisers probably functioned in these polymers by converting hydrogen chloride to water. i.1. Composites containing silica and silanised silica up to 25. Silane application resulted in diminishing liquid water and water vapour sorption by about 24.4. No. TURKEY Accession no.g. 1997. p. However.634631 Item 438 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. The predictor of compatibility.7-11 STRUCTURE OF LEAD STABILIZERS. EUROPEAN UNION. the Hildebrand solubility parameter. BASED ON SOME AROMATIC CONTENT ALCOHOLS. Bellenger V. BASIC LEAD CARBOXYLATES Grossman R F. 1647-57 STUDY OF PLASTICISATION EFFECTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Elicegui A. Balkose D Ege.University © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 141 . dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead stearate. The positions of the loss peaks from dielectric alpha-relaxation measurements confirmed the higher efficiency of the external plasticisation. interfering with acid catalysis of the elimination reaction.7.634092 Item 440 Composite Interfaces 4. foam structure and colour.9%.1. elastic and dynamic properties of internally and externally plasticised PVC were studied and compared with those of unplasticised PVC.

193-7 PVC IN MEDICAL DEVICE AND PACKAGING APPLICATIONS Hong K Z Baxter Healthcare Corp.51-8.615214 Item 446 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2. MEXICO. Nov/Dec. 13 refs.3. The effects of boron compounds are discussed. Convincing evidence is presented for bromine-phosphorus synergy in specific polymers. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Mat. 12 refs. The ageing of the samples was characterised using tensile measurements and their mean times to failure correlated using a Weibull Probability plot via a JUSE-QCAS software package. The variables of interest were resin molecular weight. and choice of antioxidant. 25 refs. Halogens act in the vapour phase and phosphorus can act in either the vapour or condensed phase depending on the specific phosphorus compound and the chemical composition of the polymer. For PVC. No. p. stabiliser type. this problem is even more pronounced than for other plastics.Testing & Res. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings. UK. The mode of decomposition of polycarbonate is shown and the effect of salts of organic acids in changing the mode of decomposition hence producing a more flame resistant polymer is shown. p. Inorganic metal hydrates used in large concentration cool by endothermically releasing a large concentration of water.1996. 1995. namely diesters and mixed esters.1. Santiago S L. p.426-42 MECHANSIMS FOR FLAME RETARDANCY AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION . USA Item 445 Polymer Degradation and Stability 54.. No. Manchester. 2 refs. A review is given of the fundamental chemistry and physical structure of PVC to provide an insight into property and performance versatility. Intumescence in polyolefins is discussed. No. but unfortunately it is not possible to make materials from the same quality as that of the virgin material.IV. but which can recover the most important component of it .References and Abstracts level of compatibility for both series involved. Volume IV: Chemical Processes.617495 Item 444 R’95 .629134 Item 443 Journal of Fire Sciences 14.614201 Item 447 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2. EUROPEAN UNION. 4 refs. Accession no. Mention is made of how specific mechanical and thermal properties can be tailored via compounding and fabrication processes to serve specific purposes in medical applications. p. 1996. Recycling. Halogen-antimony synergy is discussed. Linsky L A Teknor Apex Co. 1st-3rd Sept. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1996. Sept. Most of the energy contained in the PVC can be recovered as electrical power and steam. Allen N S Mexico. Notwithstanding the large variations in stabiliser formulations and their differences in performance the results indicate that accurate outdoor lifetime predictions can be established from accelerated ageing data. Edelmann X (EMPA. Re-Integration. Hospital Waste.1996. Methods of smoke suppression are presented as is the role of zinc borate. Geneva.6. 31 refs.3. p. plasticiser loading. Exposure times were related to total global solar radiation from which a linear plot of natural versus artificial ageing was obtained. Biological Processes.) The recycling of plastic materials becomes more and more important. Sept.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. RUMANIA Accession no. SWITZERLAND. The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy are reviewed.190-2 IMPROVING GAMMA RADIATION RESISTANCE: MEDICAL GRADE. The criterion for improvement was colour change after irradiation.chlorine .615223 142 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No. EASTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.REVIEW Green J FMC a raw product for VCM manufacture. A process is studied which is able to destroy the waste PVC. molybdenum and tin compounds acting as Lewis acids in PVC.Recovery. USA Accession no.49-55 PREDICTION OF PHOTOAGEING STABILITY OF PLASTICISED PVC FILMS CONTAINING UV STABILISERS Guillermo Martinez J. Details are given of ways of improving the gamma irradiation stability of flexible PVC.Metropolitan University A number of stabilised formulations of plasticised PVC were photoaged both naturally (in Northern Mexico) and artificially using a fluorescent lighting unit. FLEXIBLE CLEAR PVC COMPOUNDS Luther D W. Eduardo R V. 8(13) RECOVERY OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FROM THERMAL PROCESSING OF WASTE PVC Schaub M Sulzer Chemtech AG Edited by: Barrage A. with a very high yield. Oliverio S R F.

p. 42C382 RECYCLING OF PVC PIPES Sander M European Vinyls Corp. A model based on Eyring theory is proposed. the resultant costs. EUROPEAN UNION. separation of foreign materials and grinding. Elongational stress created by draw down effects is a primary determinant of the measured heat reversion. An example is given of how the material prepared can be reused in new pipes. INDIA Accession no. It is a multi-axial parameter. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Brighton. Beyond its theoretical interest. depending on the extent of azidation of the PVC surface and the irradiation dose. EUROPEAN UNION.5213-8 PHASE TRANSFER CATALYSED SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN AQUEOUS MEDIA TO RETARD PLASTICISER MIGRATION Jayakrishnan A. Disson J P. Many of these variables are interdependent. p.417-24. Brighton.University. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. occurring in all three principal axes of the profile. 23rd-25th April 1996. The stress calculations use a simple plane bending theory Accession no. GERMANY. These transitions show an Arrhenius dependence on temperature related to the beta motions of the PVC matrix. 23rd-25th April 1996. 23rd-25th April 1996.611175 Item 451 PVC ’96. yet shrinkage is also influenced by output. Marvalin C. cooling/sizing conditions and relaxation kinetics of the unplasticised PVC compound. Conference proceedings. Morel P Elf Atochem SA © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 143 . Conference proceedings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. FRANCE.(UK)Ltd. After surface modification.391-405.611177 Item 450 PVC ’96. Sunny M C Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. and analyse their dependence on process conditions in commercial twin-screw extrusion systems. 19 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts USA (Institute of Materials) The impact behaviour of pure and impact modified PVC is studied in terms of the ductile-brittle transition. p.for Med. Results are presented from studies which have attempted to quantify reversion effects. Emphasis is placed on the description of an effective collection system and the recycling process in terms of cleaning. Conference proceedings.(Deutschland)GmbH (Institute of Materials) The capability of recycling PVC pipes and the high standards which have already been achieved are discussed using examples of recycling initiatives in different countries. and the magnitude of the effect is shown to be a complex function of a number of inter-related variables.361-8. 42C382 HEAT REVERSION EFFECTS IN EXTRUDED PVC-U PROFILES Haworth B.379-90. Stephenson R C Loughborough. 1996. It was found that considerable reduction in the migration of the plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) could be achieved by this technique.& Technology Plasticised PVC sheets were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by azide in aqueous media under phase transfer conditions. the model predicts the impact performance of PVC at various temperature and impact modifier contents. No. In addition. Brighton. 42C382 FE ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN WELDED CORNERS OF PVC-U PROFILES Holownia B P Loughborough.611191 Item 449 PVC ’96. 11 refs. 42C382 TEMPERATURE AND IMPACT RATE DEPENDENCE OF THE DUCTILE/BRITTLE TRANSITION OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC Gervat L.614200 Item 448 Polymer 37. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. there was around 30% reduction in the stress-strain properties of the PVC sheets but these values were still well above the minimum prescribed for PVC used in biomedical applications. European Vinyls Corp.23. Conference proceedings.611174 Item 452 PVC ’96. UK. 23rd-25th April 1996. Brighton. (Institute of Materials) Heat reversion effects are observed when extruded unplasticised PVC profiles are subjected to elevated temperatures.Sci. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 10 refs.University (Institute of Materials) British Standard BS7413:1991 specifies the test method for PVC-U profiles based on the 900 welded section. Bianchi C. Allowing for die swell when dimensioning dies and calibrators offers a practical route to achieving higher line speeds without increasing reversion levels. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. actual take-back quantities and the perspectives of the pipe recycling are discussed. and attempts have been made to separate the respective contributions of these parameters. 6 refs. The azidated PVC surface was then irradiated by UV light to crosslink the surface.

‘Z’ and ‘L’ shape profiles were investigated and the maximum stresses in the welded corner obtained by simple formula as used in BS7413 and by FE method were compared. Here. 4 refs. The stabiliser chemistry is affected by the PVC process. Conference proceedings. Brighton.259-68. A close correlation was found between the actual failure load and those predicted using FE analysis. p. that is. the efficiency of these products can no longer be equated to the tin metal content alone.611170 Item 454 PVC ’96. These products follow the melting mechanism described by Menges. 42C382 IMPROVEMENT OF WETTING OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE COATINGS ON PVC Hajas J BYK-Chemie GmbH (Institute of Materials) Various ways for a good substrate wetting with environmentally acceptable coatings on PVC are investigated. EUROPEAN UNION.209-18.611172 Item 453 PVC ’96. For rigid PVC and CPVC compounds. Conference proceedings. WESTERN EUROPE calcium/zinc stabilisers has been necessary due to environmental demands and stricter legislation. Conroy G M Morton International Inc. drag flow is the dominant driving force in conveying the melt with some pressure force acting to retard the forward flow. The melting mechanism with these products is the one reported by Maddock and Tadmor. surface flow) are compared.345-53. but some surface active compounds have been found highly active in the improvement of the substrate wetting. Brighton. the performance of organotin mercaptide PVC heat stabilisers was predicated based on the amount of tin metal contained in the chosen stabiliser.175-83. Brighton. Conference proceedings. high temperature rigid compounds follow the conventional pumping mechanism.611153 144 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Several examples are shown to demonstrate the many performance benefits afforded by modem stabiliser products. UK. Modern organotin mercaptide stabilisers are fine tuned for the particular process and end-use. 7 refs. Brighton. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the term plasticised PVC (PVC-P) represents calendered film.. 16 refs. 5 refs. 42C382 DEVELOPMENTS IN CALCIUM/ZINC STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PLASTICISED PVC APPLICATIONS Minnis N Barlocher Italia SpA (Institute of Materials) Recent developments in calcium/zinc stabiliser systems used in plasticised PVC are discussed. GERMANY. Most flexible and high shear. Their properties and side effects (foam stabilisation. EUROPEAN UNION. In solvent-free UV-curable systems.611156 Item 456 PVC ’96. Conference proceedings. p. (Institute of Materials) The effects of pumping mechanisms of various PVC compounds on their melting behaviours in single-screw extruders are described. 23rd-25th April 1996. The best performance in waterborne coatings can be achieved by silicone surfactants. p. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabilisers. the pressure flow contributes significantly to the forward flow due to melt slippage at the barrel surface. Through the correct choices of organotin species. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. spread-coated flooring and the various plastisol product areas. 42C382 PUMPING AND MELTING MECHANISMS OF VARIOUS PVC COMPOUNDS IN SINGLESCREW EXTRUDERS Kim H T. 23rd-25th April 1996. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Emphasis is placed on the European Market as it is here that the need for new Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. polymeric polyester or polyether modified silicones will provide best results. Lee S H Geon Co. In particular. 42C382 ORGANOTIN PVC HEAT STABILISERS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND PERFORMANCE Mesch K A. calendered flooring. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Morton Plastics Additives Div. the desired end product performance requirements and all of the other ingredients in the formulation. ITALY. 23rd-25th April 1996.611161 Item 455 PVC ’96. (Institute of Materials) In their early days. p. A modification of the PVC formulation gives only a limited improvement of wettability. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA Accession no. different sizes of ‘T’. 23rd-25th April 1996.References and Abstracts which is rather simplistic for deep sections such as PVCU window and door profiles. The results show that for deep profiles the BS7413 formula underestimates the true corner stress in some profiles by nearly 30%. Many important innovations in organotin stabiliser technology are highlighted. USA Accession no.

23rd-25th April 1996. the porosity and shape distributions are investigated respectively by mercury intrusion and image analysis. It is also indicated how calcium sulphonate gels are used in different plastisol formulations. 42C382 UNIQUE RHEOLOGY CONTROL ADDITIVE FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Winzinger A Langer & Co. EUROPEAN UNION. BELGIUM. Differences in surface alumina content of amorphous versus pseudo-bohemite structure significantly affect properties such as wettability. 42C382 OPTIMISATION OF GELIFICATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC COMPOUNDS BY BALANCING EXTERNAL LUBRICANTS Van Soom K AlliedSignal Europe NV (Institute of Materials) LDPE and HDPE waxes have served as external lubricants for a number of plastics.References and Abstracts Item 457 PVC ’96. In addition to the standard PVC powder properties. 3 refs. The use of external lubricants can significantly influence the fusion characteristics of a PVC compound. Additives based on calcium sulphonate gels have been developed which are shear thinning. GERMANY. These days. 42C382 CORRELATION BETWEEN THE GELATION AND EXTRUSION PERFORMANCES AND THE MORPHOLOGY OF PVC VIRGIN POWDER Kaesmacher B Shell Research SA (Institute of Materials) The characterisation of PVC resin particles in terms of morphology is becoming more and more important for the optimisation of processing performance. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. storage and optics retention are studied. Brighton. Earlier experiments on single screw equipment and experience of PVC processors show that the specific chemical composition of the PE wax determines their performance with respect to lubrication and gelation. dispersion. Extrusion output and gelation speed are of primary importance for rigid extrusions like pipe and window profile production. p. This can result in an early external lubrication effect and therefore in a decrease of fusion speed and torque. Performance is found to be particularly sensitive to the amount and type of alumina treatment. PVC plastisols require attributes such as wettability. USA Item 459 PVC ’96.GmbH (Institute of Materials) PVC plastisols should have shear thinning rheology behaviour for optimum performance. while exhibiting this behaviour. The effects of inorganic and organic surface treatments on TiO2 performance in plastisol wettability.611151 Item 458 PVC ’96.145-51. have certain drawbacks. comparing them with standard formulations and those containing inexpensive fillers or fumed silica as rheology modifiers. The additives also offer advantages in ease of handling over other raw materials. The effects of calcium sulphonate gels in typical plastisol formulations are demonstrated. High density oxidised PEs tend to provide a medium to strong fusion promotion depending upon the specific product properties. Brighton. p. p. Homopolymers or non-oxidised PEs act as real external lubricants lowering the friction between PVC and the metal surface of the processing equipment. Conference proceedings. Grades used in plastics processing typically are produced at smaller particle size to optimise perceived blueness. and temperature stable. New software is developed which can Accession no. machines become bigger and faster. high density oxidised PE and an acrylic processing aid in a lead stabilised PVC compound are examined. Existing methods of rheology control.611150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 145 . Conference proceedings. The contribution of the PVC grain morphology to the extrusion performances is studied. Low density oxidised PEs seem to be more neutral external lubricants with a rather small influence on gelation.109-14. Additionally. Conference proceedings. nearly pseudoplastic. liquid dispersibility and liquid storage stability which are more commonly associated with TiO2 grades used in paint applications. EUROPEAN UNION. In addition their excellent anti-settling performance and viscosity stability are shown. The possible complementary behaviour and synergistic effects between low density homopolymer PE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.611148 Item 460 PVC ’96.153-61.115-31. the type of PVC formulation and the specific processing equipment. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Brighton. Conference proceedings. 42C382 TITANIUM DIOXIDE USE IN PVC PLASTISOLS Birmingham J N DuPont White Pigments & Mineral Products (Institute of Materials) Titanium dioxide pigments are used extensively in PVC applications to provide both brightness and high levels of opacity. and the extrusion conditions rather critical for PVC resins. p. 23rd-25th April 1996. 23rd-25th April 1996. Brighton. 23rd-25th April 1996. Their sag control and thermal stability are demonstrated in a car underbody sealer and a textile coating. and are known to provide an overall external lubrication and an excellent metal release.

p.343-51 ASSESSMENT OF FUSION IN PVC COMPOUNDS Gilbert M.Specialty Chemicals Post-chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) is a material which offers a combination of mechanical strength.47-8 WHY HOME GROWN CALCIUM CARBONATE BEATS THE NATURAL STUFF Cornwell D Zeneca Resins Ltd. PVC/PU. the hydrophobic surface coating assists wetting and aids dispersion.UNIVERSITY A number of techniques for assessing PVC fusion are reviewed. BELGIUM. Thermal analysis investigates molecular behaviour and is used to monitor compound processing temp. Process technology is examined with reference to extrusion.23 ETHANE-TO-VCM PLANT DUE ONSTREAM LATE NEXT YEAR It is briefly reported that EVC is expected to bring its demonstration plant for its single-stage ethane to VCM process onstream in Q4 1997. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. When compounded into plasticised PVC for cable sheathing. p. The primary particle size of Winnofil stearate coated precipitated calcium carbonate from Zeneca Resins is in the region of 0. EUROPEAN UNION. Rapra Review Report vol. Ryan J L Hydro Polymers Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 1994. and the use of additives and compounding technology are reviewed. calendering and liquid PVC compositions.075 micron.154.) Rapra Review Report No. Blending and alloying is described.Miadonye A LOUGHBOROUGH. the PCC allows for formulations with minimal potential for acid gas release in combustion conditions. EUROPEAN UNION. In rigid PVC. and has decided to develop the technology without seeking any partnerships.. blow moulding. EVC EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. fabrication and surface treatments. temperature and corrosion resistance and low installation costs.12.p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. pp. WESTERN EUROPE Brann S.No. using PVC/polyester. UK. PVC/ polyolefin. 11th-17th Nov. This comprehensive article describes cPVC’s key properties in detail and highlights the various industries and applications for the polymer.537711 Item 465 Plastics and Rubber Processing and Applications 3.7. 14 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK. PVC/chloroprene rubber and PVC/epoxidised NR blends as examples.610625 Item 463 Chemical Engineering Progress 90.245286 146 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . stearate coated PCC has been used in compounding as an alternative to conventional acrylic processing aids and as a means to reduce impact modifier levels. that meets a variety of process uses. the Netherlands.1740. EVC claims that the process can achieve over 90% conversion to VCM. technical grade ethane and chlorine or hydrogen chloride. p..1996.610640 Item 462 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. 4 refs. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. The new process operates at a temperature of around 450-470C and uses low purity.Hemsley D A. When compounded into natural and synthetic elastomers.References and Abstracts measure automatically the size and the contour of particles present on a digitalised picture. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. particularly pipes and fittings. No. Additional methods were developed for investigating different levels of structure. The company is building a 1. 23/11/94.1994.6.1983.1996. no.78 This comprehensive review of PVC starts with the early history of its discovery and an outline of the present day PVC industry. Optical methods are used for grains and primary particle fusion. A statistical approach shows that morphology parameters contribute to the extrusion performance. PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS Leadbitter J. Knight M Goodrich B.4. PVC/ polycaprolactone. PVC/nitrile rubber. 42C382 PVC COMPOUNDS. injection moulding. UK Accession no. No. USA Accession no. Day J A. Manufacturing methods and types of resin are discussed.542367 Item 464 Shawbury.000 t/y pilot plant at Wilhelmshaven. Rapra Technolgy Ltd. Dec. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.611147 Item 461 European Chemical News 66. EUROPEAN UNION. NETHERLANDS. 1994. EUROPEAN UNION.F. 12ins.36-41 CONSIDER CPVC FOR PROCESS APPLICATIONS Accession no.

337 396 440 AMINOSILANE. 2 51 64 108 110 119 122 123 151 153 154 158 175 184 196 197 210 271 282 287 325 328 329 364 372 373 385 389 397 402 408 418 437 439 452 454 BULK POLYMERISATION. 7 161 171 ACRYLIC POLYMER. 48 BLOOD. 91 122 171 243 271 289 343 418 454 462 AZIDE. 239 BONDING. 50 59 179 218 343 ABS. 38 182 273 368 AUTOCLAVE. 129 283 ANTIOXIDANT. 150 ANTIFOGGING. 4 6 186 188 211 214 249 277 405 441 450 ADHESION. 127 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. 10 51 65 107 111 121 128 133 142 151 152 154 155 157 165 170 180 207 222 230 233 266 273 299 301 306 316 324 326 345 347 352 368 395 396 400 412 415 423 426 439 445 452 465 ANIMAL TESTING. 12 103 238 283 405 428 BUILDING APPLICATION. 113 122 201 ALLOY. 131 426 ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE. 116 ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY. 149 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY. 302 382 BENZOATE. 155 ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 196 AGEING. 226 229 244 259 355 396 ADIPATE. 111 BUSINESS EQUIPMENT. 103 ADIPATE ESTER. 421 BLEND. 362 BARIUM STEARATE. 207 BATCH MIXING. 162 244 269 452 BOTTLE. 121 180 255 303 357 ANTIFOAMING AGENT. 1 37 58 205 273 BIODETERIORATION. 4 387 388 ALLIANCE. 218 376 ANALYSIS. 70 BAN. 115 BLEACHING. 75 84 174 303 320 BARIUM COMPOUND. 14 76 81 148 160 181 216 227 276 447 464 ANTISTATIC AGENT. 135 AMMONIUM MOLYBDATE. 8 116 179 207 218 229 396 399 ADHESION PROMOTION. 1 58 199 273 316 BLOOD BAG. 448 AZOBISFORMAMIDE. 257 BALL. 244 399 456 ADHESIVE. 419 BUTT WELD. 1 58 B BAG. 98 ADSORPTION. 15 35 111 421 423 462 464 ACCELERATED TEST. 191 C CABLE. 464 ALUMINIUM ACETYLACETONATE. 64 255 315 332 357 358 BIOACCUMULATION. 309 BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE. 42 81 242 334 BIOCOMPATIBILITY. 123 171 184 282 AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION. 347 348 ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 8 81 400 ANTIFOULING AGENT. 17 19 22 43 64 211 215 227 277 278 283 285 345 353 354 445 AGGLOMERATE. 175 218 243 408 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION. 71 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION. 310 BARIUM. 10 91 110 118 122 141 171 174 184 227 243 277 282 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 147 . 192 372 AZODICARBONAMIDE. 16 265 AMINOPROPYLTRIETHOXYSILANE. 27 BUTYLTRIHEXYL CITRATE. 64 354 ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATE. 98 257 ANNEALING. 3 77 79 179 226 290 335 364 437 ACTIVATION ENERGY. 135 BLOCKING. 13 102 153 179 345 445 ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 375 464 BLUSH RESISTANCE. 81 ANTIMONY OXIDE. 57 104 113 293 307 309 ABSORPTION. 178 AUTOMATION. 242 464 BISETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 140 207 223 BARIUM FERRITE. 284 AMINOURACIL. 86 100 244 247 252 370 BIOMATERIAL. 122 243 311 419 422 BRITTLE. 53 319 409 AMINOTHIOPHENOL. 226 ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE. 215 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY. 14 BLAST FURNACE. 1 37 41 58 178 316 368 BIOSTABILITY. 11 120 442 BUTYLLITHIUM. 118 167 ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE. 192 372 BENZENECARBOXYLIC ACID. 246 464 BLISTER PACKAGING. 1 28 58 106 199 306 316 AESTHETIC. 464 BLOWING AGENT. 11 117 263 ACID SCAVENGER. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 BISPHENOL A.Subject Index Subject Index A ABRASION RESISTANCE. 10 118 245 283 386 390 ALUMINIUM OXIDE. 100 247 BIOCIDE. 122 408 BLISTERING. 81 400 426 464 ARM REST. 98 351 BLOW MOULDING. 129 435 AMORPHOUS. 236 ACQUISITION. 19 366 404 AGREEMENT.

64 72 99 109 122 124 158 175 176 298 333 385 418 427 439 COINJECTION MOULDING. 39 298 COLOUR CONCENTRATE. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 CEMENT KILN. 83 CALCIUM STEARATE. 99 COLOUR STABILITY. 368 372 462 CHEMICAL RECYCLING. 98 100 228 257 CARPET. 64 110 113 122 166 171 184 201 205 COMPATIBILISER. 53 54 93 246 COMPATIBILITY. 458 CALENDERING. 3 60 CORNICE. 169 CARBON DIOXIDE. 120 165 CHAR. 9 15 23 41 72 110 161 173 180 184 312 325 339 372 374 400 402 419 446 460 464 COMPRESSION MOULDING. 55 192 CHEMICAL MODIFICATION. 6 154 170 299 338 CAPILLARY VISCOMETRY. 21 34 45 46 52 84 89 92 113 145 146 157 173 176 195 148 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 306 CALCIUM COMPOUND. 218 427 CONSUMPTION. 283 CHLORINATED. 230 308 347 COLOUR COMPOUND. 35 36 461 COOLING. 15 21 106 167 187 265 283 435 462 COMMERCIAL INFORMATION. 21 113 122 184 369 461 CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY. 4 73 85 88 263 348 366 367 388 394 403 420 442 COMPOSITE. 209 217 263 368 CATALYST.Subject Index 283 326 330 336 341 369 390 418 431 462 CADMIUM. 115 297 CHAIN SCISSION. 243 363 CASE HISTORY. 184 363 CLOTHING. 159 174 223 282 291 320 331 454 CAESIUM. 408 CONVERSION. 24 28 29 37 66 410 448 461 CAUSTIC SODA. 60 65 435 CHARACTERISATION. 8 80 211 236 298 387 431 COLOURANT. 302 382 CELLULAR MATERIAL. 220 344 400 COMBUSTION. 32 51 52 53 54 55 70 104 105 168 192 193 194 203 232 234 235 245 362 379 COMPOUND. 167 184 187 CARCINOGEN. 34 152 171 215 243 301 CLEANING AGENT. 46 62 227 239 285 406 409 CALCIUM SULFATE. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 CHINA CLAY. 112 241 399 COPPER OXIDE. 67 218 248 371 CHALK. 184 187 208 217 302 382 CARBON MONOXIDE. 172 CALCIUM. 263 281 CLADDING. 12 462 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN. 2 15 28 35 52 57 66 113 120 165 177 283 306 381 404 462 CALCIUM CARBOXYLATE. 84 394 CALCIUM CARBONATE. 37 102 182 199 244 273 396 CONTAINER. 283 CALCIUM SULFONATE. 237 CONDENSATION REACTION. 13 65 78 297 306 373 387 CHROMATOGRAPHY. 102 129 143 153 230 237 239 400 414 439 COLOUR CHANGE. 128 170 254 CONDENSATION POLYMER. 376 464 CHLORINATED PE. 59 64 179 283 320 462 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE. 122 123 275 282 461 CHEMICAL REACTION. 160 244 CLOSED LOOP. 34 72 166 283 COMPOUNDING. 436 463 CHLORINE. 197 CORRUGATED SHEET. 8 132 408 417 423 454 CALORIMETER. 400 CASTING. 122 253 COST. 31 115 122 184 302 382 418 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE. 2 8 59 108 179 185 215 253 257 329 343 408 423 456 462 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION. 6 53 70 94 103 104 127 180 194 198 203 211 213 232 233 234 235 238 245 248 316 319 352 379 380 396 445 460 CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENT. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CAPACITY. 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 227 407 CALCIUM SILICATE. 50 65 94 121 180 CLEANING. 63 318 COATED FABRIC. 170 218 250 251 315 325 374 408 COPPER. 149 CONE CALORIMETER. 352 353 CAST FILM. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 67 127 152 160 183 212 231 265 277 373 395 407 409 412 434 CITRATE. 98 411 CONTAMINATION. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CONICAL SCREW. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 COATING. 73 320 321 352 385 COLOURIMETRY. 8 45 131 239 CLAY. 21 27 38 67 218 241 243 260 265 273 277 299 306 323 382 386 396 407 440 448 CHEMICAL PLANT. 89 98 267 393 CITRIC ACID. 11 122 380 CLOUD POINT. 218 427 COEXTRUSION. 3 54 113 133 232 287 338 CHLORINATED PVC. 227 CALCIUM CHLORIDE. 104 COLOUR. 105 213 CARBON BLACK. 31 35 49 50 51 53 54 55 65 69 80 96 102 112 113 116 125 126 156 166 180 192 196 197 201 203 208 232 243 261 309 362 380 383 416 426 430 440 442 464 COMPOSITION. 64 439 CLARITY. 73 COLOUR FASTNESS. 40 89 91 99 110 123 184 282 367 369 418 427 464 CONTACT ANGLE. 66 160 253 371 405 CONTINUOUS MIXING. 49 76 367 COMPRESSION SET. 64 COSMETICS.

Subject Index 196 227 263 271 282 288 298 332 333 380 419 427 444 449 463 COSTABILISER. 42 242 334 DIE. 115 272 282 297 341 DISCOLOURATION. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 203 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIOCTYL SEBACATE. 7 8 92 110 123 171 195 DENSITY. 184 243 408 CYLINDER. 165 219 351 DIFFUSIVITY. 464 DIRECTIVE. 120 188 266 379 393 DIOCTYL AZELATE. 98 379 432 462 DURABILITY. 104 419 DEGRADABLE. 181 202 CROSSLINKING. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 46 47 130 137 220 308 406 407 414 COUNTER-ROTATING. 118 394 DIISOHEPTYL PHTHALATE. 4 85 393 441 DIETHYL SEBACATE. 2 23 55 120 192 196 243 281 367 401 404 405 413 425 439 DESIGN. 33 95 DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION. 33 128 170 175 176 218 254 313 318 324 326 328 332 338 362 375 376 436 459 DESORPTION. 217 219 351 440 DIISODECYL PHTHALATE. 237 270 DEHYDROCHLORINATION. 11 114 117 152 394 DIISOOCTYL PHTHALATE. 24 215 230 358 CRADLE TO GRAVE. 21 27 DECKING. 11 231 391 DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 50 96 283 383 394 441 ELASTIC PROPERTIES. 11 165 DIBUTYL SEBACATE. 170 176 189 218 374 427 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. 349 354 370 DIBENZODIOXIN. 138 183 195 264 449 DRUG PACKAGING. 66 106 DIBUTYL ADIPATE. 408 CREEP. 379 393 432 DIOXIN. 11 117 DIISONONYL PHTHALATE. 51 257 353 DAMPING. 43 106 302 DECORATIVE. 19 26 63 186 394 DOMESTIC EQUIPMENT. 64 109 124 142 155 170 175 176 201 206 233 356 380 408 DIE SWELL. 230 CYTOTOXICITY. 379 393 DIOCTYL ADIPATE. 51 53 121 292 383 403 441 462 E E-MODULUS. 133 137 189 CRYSTALLINITY. 120 DIISONONYL ADIPATE. 248 249 DEGRADATION RESISTANCE. 55 170 400 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES. 122 DRY BLENDING. 108 DIBUTYL PHTHALATE. 56 419 DOMESTIC REFUSE. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 159 161 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 288 296 367 369 372 418 422 427 464 ELASTIC MODULUS. 27 60 214 237 270 281 372 435 DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT. 419 CUTTING. 303 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY. 396 DICHLOROOCTYLISOTHIAZOLINONE. 86 260 DICHLORODIETHYLSILANE. 66 106 125 184 282 DIP MOULDING. 2 234 DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 2 315 335 DIMETHYL SEBACATE. 51 DECOMPOSITION. 64 244 DEFECT. 132 170 230 DEFORMATION. 379 393 DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIBENZOATE. 184 CREDIT CARD. 315 383 DRINKING WATER. 183 DIBUTYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE ESTER. 379 393 DIOCTYL PHTHALATE. 34 53 61 73 113 203 220 321 346 457 462 DISSOLUTION. 53 116 274 440 CRACKING. 238 450 DUCTILE FAILURE. 349 356 464 DRYING. 85 121 348 388 420 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 86 244 247 DEGRADATION. 13 17 19 22 27 28 29 41 43 45 47 48 61 62 64 65 67 94 101 102 134 175 182 187 190 211 212 213 220 227 237 240 249 252 265 270 277 278 279 283 285 286 302 308 345 352 353 354 370 373 382 384 406 421 445 DEGRADATION PRODUCT. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 410 DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 67 95 118 202 208 224 226 231 235 241 268 277 285 319 337 353 373 409 410 424 448 CRYSTALLINE. 306 DOOR. 379 393 432 DIBUTYLTIN COMPOUND. 333 DRAWING. 70 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 149 . 409 DICARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER. 102 221 236 400 421 DISPERSION. 66 DIBENZOFURAN. 171 216 299 DECHLORINATION. 50 96 383 441 ECONOMIC INFORMATION. 170 206 299 451 DIE TEMPERATURE. 68 197 452 DRAIN PIPE. 277 370 373 DETERGENT. 98 219 349 351 370 392 410 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT. 37 D DAMAGE. 4 85 107 127 133 155 164 172 188 214 235 324 354 409 465 DIFFUSION. 64 427 COUPLING AGENT. 88 133 163 164 340 346 361 405 446 CUSTOM COMPOUNDING. 160 253 262 462 DIALKYL PHTHALATE. 67 218 241 260 265 277 306 323 382 407 DEMAND. 99 463 DWELL TIME. 61 113 226 250 251 315 381 451 DEFORMATION TEMPERATURE. 71 DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE. 428 DUCTILITY. 17 167 212 237 265 270 382 DEGRADATION RATE.

18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 FOAM-CORE. 266 464 ENDOCRINE. 271 297 EMULSION POLYMERISATION. 39 206 313 FLUID BED. 10 257 464 ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 19 111 182 233 244 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION. 9 34 39 64 79 109 113 124 139 142 144 156 157 170 177 189 195 254 258 328 333 356 374 375 398 408 413 427 436 455 459 EXTRUSION. 3 5 10 15 16 64 78 118 121 129 130 167 238 263 265 283 327 386 390 435 FLAT DIE. 432 EPOXIDISED SOYBEAN OIL. 464 EXTRUSION COATING. 14 33 38 42 56 59 67 108 113 122 131 132 163 172 176 194 222 223 229 231 244 274 284 307 326 337 368 374 384 391 400 408 410 421 423 434 445 454 FLAME RETARDANT. 184 444 461 FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 43 59 119 151 272 282 322 341 369 389 418 454 FLOOR COVERING. 62 90 100 115 147 174 205 247 252 271 282 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION. 20 122 136 138 141 146 184 244 464 EPOXIDE RESIN. 213 408 EXTRUSION COMPOUNDING. 122 408 FLOW. 34 400 EXTRUSION MIXING. 82 83 112 130 172 174 184 185 277 283 322 393 400 416 426 431 432 ELECTRON MICROGRAPH. 461 FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY. 441 EXTRACTION. 233 439 EXTRUDER. 197 FEEDING. 283 EMISSION. 66 90 119 122 174 214 289 291 296 320 322 431 449 454 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD. 115 201 307 FIBRE GLASS. 30 336 ELONGATION. 43 115 184 306 444 ENVIRONMENT. 175 380 408 FLEXIBLE. 34 98 170 254 408 FEEDSTOCK. 248 265 394 448 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 100 160 253 ENERGY RECOVERY. 130 180 266 267 ETHOXYLATED ESTER. 33 ETHYLHEXYL THIOGLYCOLATE. 8 12 23 34 64 69 72 77 79 107 109 139 144 145 154 155 156 157 164 170 174 175 176 177 190 192 195 201 205 206 211 233 250 251 254 261 279 280 281 283 287 290 292 294 299 312 313 321 322 324 326 328 332 333 338 346 356 358 369 374 375 380 383 385 398 400 401 402 408 409 413 425 436 437 439 451 453 455 459 460 464 465 EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 ELECTRIC CABLE. 10 91 118 130 185 271 283 419 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES. 98 146 253 282 341 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. 441 EXFOLIATION. 100 110 115 122 282 297 341 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 33 313 318 324 328 338 362 459 EXPOSURE LEVEL. 226 ETHYLENE COPOLYMER. 2 113 283 366 404 FILM. 336 405 FLOOR. 98 375 FAILURE. 55 192 FOAMING. 231 238 248 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 400 ETHOXYLATED PHENOL. 91 110 174 243 277 283 326 330 336 369 390 431 ELECTRICAL APPLICATION. 99 158 FIBRE. 32 283 445 EXTERNAL PLASTICISER. 2 441 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. 55 101 120 192 208 FOAMING AGENT. 169 243 406 FOAM. 229 256 295 301 353 404 405 428 445 FASTENING. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 380 396 FILLER. 231 395 432 ESTER PLASTICISER. 2 52 57 104 113 238 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES. 116 194 238 354 367 459 462 ELONGATION AT BREAK. 40 98 114 160 253 262 272 EXPOSURE TIME. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 FABRICATION.Subject Index 154 189 283 290 299 314 383 394 441 ELASTOMER. 244 FLAMMABILITY. 43 108 151 184 212 214 252 282 306 341 EMISSION CONTROL. 21 31 115 271 275 282 FENCE. 89 93 112 181 416 EPOXIDISED LINSEED OIL. 34 132 142 157 170 176 189 190 206 218 230 249 283 327 338 420 430 439 455 FLOW PROPERTIES. 36 50 180 203 EXPANSION. 5 10 16 29 60 78 118 129 130 167 265 283 327 386 390 435 443 464 FLAME TREATMENT. 394 416 EXPANSION COEFFICIENT. 2 49 52 57 92 102 104 113 197 201 238 283 379 408 432 FLOATATION. 2 9 10 16 23 35 36 50 52 53 54 55 57 65 66 70 83 93 94 96 102 112 116 118 120 125 130 134 156 165 177 180 184 196 197 208 215 232 234 245 261 283 294 295 339 362 366 375 381 383 384 386 390 404 416 430 462 464 FILLER CONTENT. 195 427 FOAMABILITY. 17 117 198 355 365 367 389 EXTRUDATE. 16 54 56 57 172 232 245 283 303 430 EMBRITTLEMENT. 12 42 78 80 83 86 90 98 100 103 130 135 137 157 166 171 184 215 231 242 253 255 263 267 295 353 367 380 382 412 424 435 440 FLEXURAL MODULUS. 34 400 F FABRIC. 2 FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 400 ETHYL HEXYL ACRYLATE.

125 FURNITURE. 104 352 419 464 HEAT RESISTANCE. 122 311 GRANULATOR. 127 351 FOOTWEAR. 66 GAS EVOLUTION. 21 115 187 GASKET. 67 88 409 GEL CONTENT. 7 40 66 86 90 97 98 100 106 114 119 126 138 160 174 184 200 210 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 291 304 310 317 367 377 378 390 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION. 172 301 447 GAS ABSORPTION. 202 235 268 285 319 424 GEL FRACTION. 12 61 111 121 211 215 246 261 269 284 286 299 404 405 413 429 437 FRAME. 171 FUNGICIDE. 98 253 257 282 HAZARDOUS WASTE. 15 462 GAS BARRIER. 269 329 381 404 405 428 FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY. 32 42 273 283 311 462 HYDROTALCITE. 2 4 85 103 164 255 268 348 354 357 360 367 403 405 420 434 441 446 GLOSS. 14 33 127 138 160 272 300 351 367 391 395 400 411 418 FOOD SIMULANT. 252 271 297 HAZE. 256 HOUSEHOLD WASTE. 122 380 408 FORMULATION. 14 138 159 263 300 320 FOOD PACKAGING.Subject Index 375 FOGGING. 309 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 458 HEAT STABILISER. 122 FUSION. 67 407 409 434 GEL TEMPERATURE. 148 276 HOLLOW ARTICLE. 2 16 23 51 52 53 57 74 77 82 96 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 151 . 24 28 29 406 434 HEAVY METAL. 80 179 HINDERED PHENOL. 244 HOT TOOL WELD. 111 132 134 290 294 309 321 324 394 465 GASIFICATION. 42 334 FUNGUS. 243 311 FUEL CELL. 27 187 I IMMERSION. 56 HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 7 8 110 195 385 H HARDNESS. 6 70 71 79 107 134 170 186 198 211 241 261 280 283 328 349 394 434 460 GLASS BEAD. 44 45 46 47 48 75 82 84 105 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 168 174 181 207 209 218 223 227 236 270 285 291 308 322 323 335 345 347 348 383 387 388 414 415 438 439 453 HEAT STABILITY. 110 282 HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 222 329 FOOD-CONTACT APPLICATION. 8 70 105 129 130 135 140 153 168 181 203 221 235 249 268 322 431 HEAT TREATMENT. 42 370 FURAN. 17 21 56 172 283 318 HYDROPHILIC. 1 14 17 22 38 58 67 102 108 127 155 164 167 182 202 203 207 240 243 273 368 406 407 410 434 FRACTURE. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 127 152 160 212 265 373 395 412 GAS EMISSION. 96 116 366 GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 216 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 11 GRANULATION. 31 49 104 201 309 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE. 218 427 FRICTION WELD. 400 HEAD REST. 50 81 82 G GAMMA-IRRADIATION. 32 203 HYDROPHOBIC. 205 HEAT AGEING. 113 216 327 362 367 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. 15 48 49 76 146 184 187 214 236 277 282 293 306 341 371 406 407 438 444 HYDROCYCLONE. 64 HOSE. 49 295 HYDROTHERMAL DEGRADATION. 400 FOGGING RESISTANCE. 253 257 HORTICULTURE. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE. 122 243 336 355 405 428 GROWTH RATE. 122 336 369 HOT MELT ADHESIVE. 405 HYDROLYSIS. 269 FROTH FLOTATION. 70 GELATION. 306 HOUSEWARES. 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 GRINDING. 10 23 39 59 62 71 72 74 75 78 84 91 98 118 129 130 135 136 139 142 145 150 153 154 173 182 209 242 266 281 285 292 293 295 299 312 319 338 339 347 375 386 390 402 414 419 433 437 458 459 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 335 FOIL. 243 369 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 32 283 IMPACT MODIFIER. 283 HEAT DEGRADATION. 113 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 215 HEALTH HAZARD. 12 131 153 154 179 230 233 286 328 364 459 GLOVE. 162 195 212 214 239 301 416 459 HIGH TEMPERATURE. 15 49 281 GAS PIPE. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 FRICTION COEFFICIENT. 52 57 72 77 81 113 133 134 148 154 184 208 224 232 287 338 364 401 419 433 437 439 450 462 464 IMPACT PROPERTIES. 91 395 GEL. 99 HORMONE. 61 185 382 HINDERED AMINE.

7 40 44 45 46 56 89 97 98 99 114 119 131 140 159 167 174 196 197 200 209 210 227 231 263 264 271 272 283 291 317 320 322 331 378 418 431 439 456 458 MATERIALS SELECTION. 13 141 143 159 270 438 LEAD-FREE. 295 365 438 LEAD STEARATE. 81 86 90 100 110 115 119 122 159 205 271 282 297 331 341 454 LID. 64 186 LIME. 72 92 130 228 419 MATTRESS. 224 405 J JOINT. 282 LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX. 56 MECHANICAL DEGRADATION. 172 217 274 305 354 379 393 432 METERING. 115 122 184 271 275 282 418 MEDICAL APPLICATION. 39 72 74 127 132 134 139 171 193 207 239 244 292 303 313 338 350 360 375 403 420 447 459 464 M MACHINERY. 320 LEAD COMPOUND. 441 IR SPECTROSCOPY. 381 404 438 LEAD SUBSTITUTE. 64 67 80 181 445 LIGHT STABILITY. 113 122 201 K K VALUE. 1 17 37 41 58 64 91 97 98 110 171 178 200 205 218 228 239 257 262 272 301 317 351 367 368 446 447 MELT. 365 438 LEAD MALEATE. 54 359 MELT TEMPERATURE. 10 16 63 106 127 165 339 407 INTERCALATION. 236 282 331 365 LEAD CARBOXYLATE. 54 77 213 234 362 MELT STRENGTH. 230 234 290 376 MELT VISCOSITY INDEX. 3 60 426 IRRADIATION. 98 242 252 253 257 263 264 271 282 334 370 LEAD. 283 KILN. 110 205 MASS POLYMERISATION. 395 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS. 130 264 283 431 LEAD FUMARATE. 16 17 160 167 207 373 MASTERBATCH. 8 LUBRICANT. 15 LONG-TERM. 115 297 LATEX.Subject Index 113 129 133 137 195 209 224 232 261 294 303 315 328 329 362 364 405 419 428 430 433 439 450 462 INCINERATION. 98 166 INDUSTRIAL HAZARD. 149 172 INJECTION MOULD. 22 45 64 179 181 286 421 445 LIGHT STABILISER. 132 420 INTERNAL MIXING. 1 14 17 22 58 67 102 108 127 164 165 167 172 182 199 202 203 207 220 240 243 248 319 368 384 403 406 407 410 412 421 423 434 438 439 440 IRON CHLORIDE. 10 L LABELLING. 197 MECHANICAL RECYCLING. 248 286 421 447 448 IZOD. 8 49 79 113 143 178 209 218 230 249 263 314 322 353 369 376 419 453 464 INSULATION. 234 362 MARKET SHARE. 54 234 362 MELT RHEOLOGY. 432 LITHIUM CARBONATE. 102 179 181 252 406 LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 62 152 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 383 438 LEAD CHROMATE. 30 31 212 214 300 400 416 459 LOW FRICTION. 34 39 64 73 79 109 124 144 156 157 158 170 173 177 189 218 225 230 254 258 303 328 333 374 375 398 408 423 436 455 464 MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE. 6 18 73 74 96 107 142 172 186 188 118 245 386 390 MAGNETIC FILLER. 110 205 267 464 MARKET TREND. 225 230 INJECTION MOULDING. 52 87 103 238 263 283 367 462 LOW VISCOSITY. 115 125 138 210 331 LIGHT DEGRADATION. 67 IRON OXIDE. 6 54 189 MELT PROCESSING. 54 154 213 218 230 233 283 313 359 362 430 MELT FLOW INDEX. 438 LEAD PHTHALATE. 122 INTERACTION. 70 171 380 LEGISLATION. 115 125 138 252 271 275 282 296 331 LANGIVIN EQUATION. 254 427 464 MICRORAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 10 15 16 78 118 129 265 283 LINSEED OIL. 132 346 359 MELT FLOW. 209 227 362 MELT FRACTURE. 70 393 MEMBRANE. 66 106 115 146 184 214 271 275 282 297 306 341 418 444 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. 98 100 253 LANDFILL. 3 181 LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES. 45 179 181 LIGHT TRANSMISSION. 190 248 MECHANICAL FASTENING. 111 464 MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 39 113 MATERIAL REPLACEMENT. 12 170 213 230 233 249 254 413 451 MELT VISCOSITY. 40 46 LEATHER. 40 68 110 171 195 296 367 418 427 MARKET SIZE. 136 186 266 439 KAOLIN. 209 227 362 MELTING POINT. 8 201 LOW VOLATILITY. 309 JOINT VENTURE. 224 LEACHING. 90 119 INDUSTRIAL WASTE. 283 INTERNAL PLASTICISER. 118 201 283 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT. 121 134 180 420 464 MELT ELASTICITY. 50 94 180 203 INTERNAL LUBRICANT. 63 70 MELTING TEMPERATURE. 122 184 306 INHIBITOR. 177 239 364 MELT PROPERTIES. 218 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT.

89 110 115 122 127 219 231 262 271 300 301 391 400 408 411 419 439 PACKAGING WASTE. 174 OPTICAL PROPERTIES. 4 34 41 71 94 121 173 191 254 283 285 312 325 375 400 402 404 408 464 MODIFICATION. 311 369 461 PELLET. 34 419 MOULDING FAULT. 81 287 401 419 433 450 458 MOISTURE. 46 85 221 331 348 453 ORGANOTIN GROUP. 181 421 PHTHALATE. 45 140 276 PHOTOBLEACHING. 115 122 243 306 MIXER. 19 83 101 177 294 394 428 PASTE. 2 366 405 PARTICLE SIZE. 12 14 64 93 163 179 186 198 233 243 284 301 352 400 445 457 465 ORGANOTIN COMPOUND. 308 OXIDATION. 42 55 155 197 400 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. 116 134 383 404 PARTICLE SHAPE. 50 113 203 NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 374 PLASMA TREATMENT. 123 141 143 230 309 322 449 453 463 PLANETARY EXTRUDER. 69 380 NOZZLE. 392 OPACITY. 8 15 18 33 34 38 42 98 122 167 218 219 255 283 303 316 334 337 351 357 383 392 393 395 424 445 448 454 PLASTICISER. 218 427 PARTICLE. 38 243 396 419 448 MODIFIED. 42 242 334 P PACKAGING. 24 25 26 31 61 115 212 243 PLASTISOL. 108 170 218 441 PLASTICISED. 115 122 123 146 282 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE.Subject Index MICROSCOPY. 64 163 164 195 255 315 332 340 357 358 383 OUTDOOR APPLICATION. 45 132 153 155 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 153 . 408 PIPE. 104 MONTMORILLONITE. 12 50 61 111 121 186 211 215 233 246 248 261 265 269 284 286 299 346 394 404 405 413 429 437 460 464 465 MOULDING. 56 87 88 MINERAL FILLER. 13 22 67 102 108 179 277 279 286 352 373 384 421 PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 3 74 79 87 98 121 181 186 189 226 248 263 276 290 335 349 359 371 394 409 419 447 MOLYBDENUM OXIDE. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 465 MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 6 199 439 465 MICROSTRUCTURE. 36 50 65 93 94 121 180 203 NANOFILLER. 2 52 61 95 96 101 113 236 283 311 327 355 366 381 394 404 405 428 429 460 462 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. 421 PHOTODEGRADATION. 90 98 PHTHALIC ACID. 11 17 98 117 127 160 165 182 200 207 215 222 228 231 242 272 277 304 310 317 327 365 367 377 378 391 392 395 411 420 423 440 448 MIGRATION RESISTANCE. 36 145 150 303 MODIFIER. 3 60 MONOSANDWICH. 230 MULTILAYER. 462 OLIVE OIL. 101 327 PATENT. 218 230 273 316 396 399 PHOTOOXIDATION. 7 40 63 89 100 110 117 215 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 282 304 310 317 370 378 PHTHALATE ESTER. 18 94 277 305 453 MIGRATION. 122 282 PAINT. 113 122 123 124 136 138 141 143 144 145 164 170 183 184 195 209 259 264 275 282 296 309 322 326 332 333 336 341 358 369 372 375 401 402 418 427 436 449 463 PIPE FITTING. 38 361 438 O OCTYL ISOTHIAZOLINONE. 13 39 108 131 278 279 282 286 321 344 352 373 375 385 421 457 PIN EXTRUDER. 253 343 PARALLEL SCREW. 252 ORIENTATION. 36 50 93 203 MORPHOLOGY. 2 50 52 70 120 215 245 283 MIXED WASTE. 219 427 MUNICIPAL WASTE. 227 382 PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE. 109 302 382 PERFUME. 32 231 273 368 PLASTICISATION. 1 7 11 17 19 22 40 43 44 50 56 58 63 65 71 81 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 97 100 103 108 110 111 114 117 119 120 125 126 127 128 130 148 152 165 180 182 184 186 188 189 193 194 198 199 200 202 203 205 209 215 222 223 228 231 238 240 242 247 253 257 260 262 263 266 267 271 272 273 275 277 282 283 303 305 310 316 317 318 327 342 349 350 351 353 354 355 361 367 370 377 378 379 383 389 391 392 393 394 395 409 410 412 430 432 434 435 441 442 447 448 464 PLASTICS WASTE. 122 PERMEABILITY. 10 65 102 N NANOCOMPOSITE. 14 98 152 183 217 274 PEROXIDE. 49 69 71 76 205 285 367 409 MOULDING COMPOUND. 242 334 OIL RESISTANCE. 396 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 13 67 76 108 187 277 382 421 OXYBISPHENOXYARSINE. 202 235 268 319 PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANT. 242 298 OVEN AGEING. 408 PLANETARY ROLLER EXTRUDER. 8 19 70 71 120 131 152 188 198 202 235 327 349 389 394 434 454 457 458 462 PLATE-OUT. 12 18 46 63 70 87 89 196 327 338 412 419 446 PIGMENT. 173 191 325 408 MIXING. 148 PHOSPHITE.

138 183 195 264 449 POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE. 3 9 25 28 30 31 54 113 133 162 195 212 214 232 239 257 287 300 301 309 336 338 369 400 416 459 464 POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE. 57 POLYMERISATION. 6 19 37 111 113 155 178 180 182 199 233 154 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 369 REINFORCED PLASTIC. 103 POLYAMIDE. 211 276 RESIDENCE TIME. 95 111 122 170 186 289 439 460 464 POWDER COATING. 17 87 88 103 188 193 223 231 238 267 POLYMERIC PROCESSING AID. 110 147 205 302 372 427 461 REACTIVE PLASTICISER. 30 84 100 115 205 243 416 439 464 465 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. 68 271 275 282 357 418 REGULATION. 187 POLYETHYLENE. 149 POLYPROPYLENE. 280 318 429 460 POST-CONSUMER. 39 54 70 79 93 104 198 209 227 239 263 283 380 419 430 431 463 PROCESSING. 135 181 335 POLYMERIC TOUGHENING AGENT. 49 98 110 138 141 210 257 SALIVA. 57 133 148 POLYMERIC PLASTICISER. 47 414 Q QUALITY. 88 223 355 371 464 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 7 40 98 100 114 160 247 257 378 ROLL. 25 28 29 109 162 212 214 300 POLYURETHANE. 172 POWDER. 171 PROBLEM PREVENTION. 318 366 POROSITY. 12 16 33 46 110 123 132 138 166 171 174 205 207 216 233 239 256 268 284 287 292 300 308 326 338 339 347 351 355 371 372 376 380 382 387 405 408 413 419 425 436 437 464 PROCESSING AID. 64 201 240 ROTATIONAL CASTING. 12 13 69 122 141 153 154 156 158 166 184 201 244 250 251 279 280 287 298 322 325 326 329 356 372 385 398 427 437 451 452 PROFITABILITY. 99 184 427 RECYCLING. 170 176 189 218 427 RESIDUAL STRESS. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 S SAFETY.Subject Index POLLUTION. 3 34 39 46 72 122 129 133 135 136 137 143 184 190 208 218 255 258 265 268 281 302 319 338 339 356 359 360 373 384 402 413 420 437 439 RISK ASSESSMENT. 8 POTABLE WATER. 38 62 163 243 RAW MATERIAL. 122 204 293 296 330 340 344 363 415 444 449 RECYCLABILITY. 27 35 36 111 142 149 166 260 266 273 299 318 349 429 POLYMERISATION REACTOR. 11 81 86 90 98 115 119 136 138 205 331 378 414 418 454 REINFORCED HOSE. 408 ROOF. 31 49 51 53 69 104 112 116 125 126 166 169 192 201 232 261 309 362 380 383 416 430 440 442 464 REPROCESSING. 123 170 171 218 324 412 417 422 R RADIATION CROSSLINKING. 202 REACTOR. 123 147 171 173 176 PROPYLENE GLYCOL ADIPATE. 93 106 244 399 PRICE. 25 30 31 115 204 237 307 311 340 355 371 405 428 POLYMERIC IMPACT MODIFIER. 169 178 REVIEW. 263 ROTATIONAL MOULDING. 9 25 28 30 104 113 162 163 195 212 214 309 396 462 POLYSTYRENE. 17 104 237 307 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN. 20 43 122 184 204 282 311 418 422 POT LIFE. 341 463 POLYADIPIC ACID. 218 406 407 408 PRESSURE PIPE. 149 306 RECIPROCATING SCREW. 64 69 218 PROCESSABILITY. 95 437 POLYMERIC STABILISER. 110 153 184 298 RECYCLED CONTENT. 187 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN. 12 32 170 218 244 399 RUBBER. 39 72 79 127 192 195 209 221 227 290 324 335 338 339 346 359 459 462 464 PROFILE. 118 357 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 20 21 24 25 26 30 31 40 43 49 61 66 68 106 110 115 122 123 125 126 136 146 147 153 166 179 184 187 204 205 210 211 239 243 271 275 276 282 288 289 293 296 298 302 306 311 330 336 340 355 363 365 369 371 382 397 405 415 418 422 428 439 444 449 RECYCLING RATE. 71 ROUGHNESS. 59 PREHEATING. 188 198 PYROLYSIS. 353 376 PROBLEM SOLVING. 21 24 28 29 115 167 187 212 214 241 293 PYRROLIDINE. 79 335 POLYMERIC PROPERTY MODIFIER. 136 195 PRETREATMENT. 115 201 215 244 464 POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. 98 99 110 184 267 282 367 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD. 117 377 SATURATED POLYESTER. 144 PROCESS CONTROL. 100 214 POLLUTION CONTROL. 113 115 257 307 POLYCARBONATE. 376 RECLAIM. 6 19 34 51 53 54 69 70 71 73 87 101 103 105 107 132 134 142 153 154 170 186 191 198 213 218 226 230 234 266 276 283 285 287 290 292 321 322 327 338 342 362 367 394 398 420 437 441 455 458 462 464 465 RIGID.

43 64 418 SEWER PIPE. 218 SCREW SPEED. 10 32 37 38 41 106 113 116 149 176 199 207 231 273 274 278 283 284 301 329 340 368 396 399 408 410 440 448 456 457 SURGICAL TUBING. 37 41 98 178 205 301 446 STIFFNESS. 125 166 SWELLING. 243 SCRAP POLYMER. 135 353 STANDARD. 73 101 105 142 154 170 189 213 218 230 283 SHEAR STRESS. 1 12 32 37 54 58 65 73 178 199 230 233 248 273 396 413 420 426 SURFACE TREATMENT. 155 177 440 SILICATE. 15 57 167 220 265 SYNERGISTIC. 211 366 448 STRETCH FILM. 171 462 SYNTHETIC WOOD. 99 147 204 276 336 344 369 SCRATCH RESISTANCE. 329 SCREW. 45 46 113 221 227 265 462 SYNTHESIS. 2 82 184 SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER. 92 102 201 283 379 432 STRENGTH. 94 147 152 184 226 231 253 260 262 283 284 370 394 465 SOLVENT CASTING. 265 283 SMOKE EMISSION. 94 121 SOFTENING. 352 445 SOLE. 2 82 383 TEAR STRENGTH. 34 109 158 218 254 280 375 376 398 SCREW DIAMETER. 218 374 SCREW PLASTICISATION. 98 SOLAR RADIATION. 2 154 209 226 250 314 340 357 SIDING. 50 81 82 101 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 203 209 214 218 223 227 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 445 457 458 STACK MOULD. 136 140 145 168 237 239 270 406 407 445 STABILISER. 8 12 462 TEETHING RING. 72 77 158 175 184 197 312 364 385 397 SILICA. 377 TELEPHONE CABLE. 60 238 245 283 SMOKE PROPAGATION. 48 63 94 231 248 260 302 382 SOLVENT. 309 STABILISATION. 35 36 111 142 149 260 299 318 349 429 464 SUSTAINABILITY. 59 179 SCRATCHING. 14 SURFACE ANALYSIS. 185 268 SOFTNESS. 284 SODIUM BICARBONATE. 336 TEMPERATURE. 54 61 170 176 189 190 213 230 259 266 SHEAR RATE. 34 170 218 254 376 436 SCREW DESIGN. 196 197 329 T TALC. 136 170 195 333 SHEAR. 10 233 273 316 396 SURFACE DEFECT. 389 STAINING. 137 SODIUM AZIDE. 132 218 283 SHEAR PROPERTIES. 217 368 SOLVENT RESISTANCE. 72 326 375 389 427 SHRINKAGE. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 316 367 369 418 427 464 STEARIC ACID. 102 332 379 432 463 STRESS. 64 195 413 455 SLUSH MOULDING. 70 380 SYNTHETIC RUBBER. 121 238 245 SMOKE SUPPRESSANT. 193 207 303 403 STERILISATION. 32 99 170 230 233 244 364 459 SURFACE PROPERTIES. 55 85 215 219 233 249 250 251 361 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT. 103 SOFTENING TEMPERATURE. 194 SPECTROSCOPY. 225 STAIN RESISTANCE. 4 8 13 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 64 66 68 72 75 76 80 81 82 84 85 99 105 110 125 126 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 159 166 168 174 181 183 184 207 209 211 218 220 221 223 227 236 237 239 242 264 270 271 275 276 282 285 291 292 295 303 307 308 318 320 322 323 331 334 335 345 347 348 353 365 375 381 383 387 388 394 406 407 409 414 415 423 429 431 438 439 445 453 454 459 464 STABILITY. 170 230 SURFACE FINISH. 122 408 SOLUBILITY. 35 111 227 273 342 SYNTHETIC LEATHER. 192 282 306 SODIUM HYDROXIDE. 122 306 SCRAP CAR. 107 172 185 186 202 248 340 355 465 SYNERGISM. 54 170 176 189 190 230 266 SHEET. 26 30 147 204 274 311 330 336 340 355 405 428 SERVICE LIFE. 116 169 170 178 218 230 366 381 404 452 STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES. 273 SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION. 302 382 SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE.Subject Index 244 248 265 306 381 394 399 404 405 410 429 448 SCISSION. 33 126 264 313 341 352 363 452 STATISTICS. 3 5 78 129 245 283 390 435 SMOKE SUPPRESSION. 67 218 248 371 SCRAP. 10 16 17 38 65 67 102 127 155 160 163 167 182 199 207 211 220 240 243 273 353 368 373 396 406 415 SPIGOT. 34 218 374 427 SCREW LENGTH. 179 283 SOYABEAN OIL. 171 395 462 SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 111 289 SMOKE. 101 107 186 194 239 247 277 283 340 349 350 389 442 SOLUTION. 12 49 50 53 57 70 77 80 83 94 96 102 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 155 . 3 10 60 238 245 265 443 SODIUM ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 167 238 245 283 SMOKE DENSITY. 32 58 64 122 124 141 176 258 303 380 408 410 448 SHEETING. 2 17 63 64 127 170 198 218 230 250 251 254 283 284 303 337 353 367 372 383 393 394 400 405 408 448 461 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE. 207 SEPARATION. 9 170 218 413 427 SEAL. 230 250 251 TENSILE PROPERTIES.

27 35 125 126 226 461 464 VINYL CHLORIDE COPOLYMER. 117 367 TRIETHYLHEXYL TRIMELLITATE. 64 230 298 374 384 408 432 THIN FILM. 42 62 98 177 184 186 209 227 242 257 265 272 303 304 310 316 353 360 372 378 386 391 445 465 THERMAL AGEING. 170 183 195 309 U UNPLASTICISED. 38 107 216 244 299 329 332 411 425 451 452 UV DEGRADATION. 67 102 284 303 373 407 426 TIME DEPENDENCE. 227 283 305 380 440 WATER PIPE. 394 416 THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 458 464 VOID. 211 215 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION. 98 TUBING. 8 84 151 VOLATILITY. 16 67 406 407 440 UV STABILISER. 9 64 113 139 142 144 170 195 328 356 375 408 427 459 TWO-ROLL. 27 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 THERMAL HISTORY. 38 163 165 172 182 243 319 384 403 412 421 438 439 VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 46 85 127 138 141 159 221 252 270 331 348 383 453 TIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 122 131 151 WALL THICKNESS. 157 158 TOUGHNESS.Subject Index 104 113 133 162 181 185 194 211 216 232 238 245 255 268 269 281 283 290 303 307 315 319 327 354 366 367 381 383 404 405 409 430 440 445 462 465 TERATOGEN. 184 282 460 VISCOELASTIC. 90 TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER. 248 VIRGIN POLYMER. 123 243 311 336 369 WASTE TREATMENT. 75 108 151 VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTENT. 218 VIBRATION WELDING. 306 THERMOOXIDATIVE DEGRADATION. 61 115 122 125 126 271 275 282 296 330 341 363 397 463 WASTE SEPARATION. 70 154 189 299 314 383 394 VISCOSITY. 280 TIME. 27 75 76 94 118 121 167 172 188 214 222 241 265 337 406 407 435 THERMOLYSIS. 66 123 125 146 212 293 296 306 341 422 444 449 WASTE MANAGEMENT. 31 204 THERMOFORMING. 64 95 122 243 306 WASTE. 13 66 106 108 131 278 279 373 384 421 457 TOOLING. 18 51 170 300 427 WASHING. 6 19 51 53 69 70 71 87 101 103 105 132 142 170 186 198 218 226 230 234 283 342 367 398 420 437 458 VISCOSITY MODIFIER. 1 58 118 316 TRIMELLITATE. 93 179 284 TREND. 50 81 82 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 433 439 458 THERMAL TREATMENT. 4 16 60 103 104 118 121 164 168 170 172 180 218 230 237 241 268 315 352 383 393 394 405 420 435 446 THERMAL RESISTANCE. 27 60 270 281 THERMAL DEFORMATION. 237 270 THERMAL PROPERTIES. 231 VINYL CHLORIDE. 7 40 114 117 138 228 247 253 257 262 263 272 282 304 310 377 378 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 282 VEHICLE TRIM. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 THERMAL EXPANSION. 102 279 286 307 UV IRRADIATION. 22 286 156 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 374 V VEHICLE. 280 332 379 432 TOXICITY. 64 298 UV SPECTROSCOPY. 396 VENTILATOR. 77 157 174 291 296 TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 306 WASTE DISPOSAL. 67 108 384 421 THIN-WALLED. 250 THERMAL STABILITY. 49 67 108 373 448 UV RESISTANCE. 253 TESTING. 180 219 396 TIN COMPOUND. 218 224 381 404 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND. 113 257 273 316 410 TUMOUR. 13 181 277 302 THERMOSET. 89 91 TRIMELLITATE ESTER. 18 59 81 93 112 125 126 166 182 217 243 246 259 289 309 358 416 THICKNESS. 184 243 WASTE SORTING. 8 87 88 151 194 367 389 W WALL COVERING. 105 168 203 235 237 249 270 342 THERMAL SHRINKAGE. 98 TROUBLESHOOTING. 289 454 VENEER. 20 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 61 115 122 123 146 152 172 205 212 243 282 302 306 380 WASTE COLLECTION. 353 376 TUBE. 66 86 90 98 100 106 119 184 205 247 252 253 257 262 263 304 367 377 TOYS. 64 80 81 128 179 227 307 445 UV STABILITY. 408 TWO-STAGE EXTRUSION. 123 306 WATER ABSORPTION. 12 142 368 THERMAL INSTABILITY. 300 411 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 383 TITANIUM DIOXIDE. 19 94 111 113 121 180 182 233 244 383 TRANSPARENCY. 256 VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. 298 THERMAL DEGRADATION. 68 122 123 271 369 418 WASTE DERIVED FUEL.

243 311 462 WHITE PIGMENT. 3 132 244 321 459 WEAR. 50 96 283 383 394 441 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 157 . 75 84 174 303 320 331 394 454 ZINC BORATE. 435 ZINC STEARATE. 47 62 ZINC COMPOUND.Subject Index 449 WATER POLLUTION. 45 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 159 207 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE. 47 49 62 207 239 285 406 407 ZINC SULFIDE. 185 WIRE INSULATION. 307 400 YIELD STRESS. 131 WINDOW. 17 76 118 167 231 302 367 399 407 WEIGHT REDUCTION. 53 54 55 196 197 210 306 329 396 WOOD FIBRE. 56 WAX. 23 53 54 55 102 196 197 208 WOOD POWDER. 167 ZIP DEPOLYMERISATION. 10 129 386 ZINC STANNATE. 162 256 269 309 416 437 452 WETTABILITY. 100 WATERBED. 48 X X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 83 WOOD. 99 289 427 WELDING. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 396 WOOD FLOUR. 153 154 158 184 210 244 282 328 341 372 452 WINDOW FRAME. 16 118 129 130 265 435 ZINC CHLORIDE. 116 366 381 404 YOUNG’S MODULUS. 13 46 64 99 102 153 179 197 240 278 286 298 329 344 353 364 445 WEATHERABILITY. 94 121 133 172 180 255 383 441 Y YELLOWING. 144 177 WEAR RESISTANCE. 99 439 Z ZEOLITE. 32 37 456 457 WETTING. 137 295 426 ZINC. 10 65 102 273 316 396 399 X-RAY SCATTERING. 53 54 55 69 WOOD REPLACEMENT. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 364 418 437 WIRE COATING. 156 232 396 WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 118 WOLLASTONITE. 80 88 320 344 385 WEIGHT LOSS. 50 59 179 218 343 WEATHER RESISTANCE.

Subject Index 158 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .






Company Index 164 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .

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