'End Game in Afghanistan

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My CA notes in soft copy ...... 1.New silk road for betterment of economic ties with regional as well global powers. Boast-up of trade for the prosperity of region . Episode from History (Graveyard of Empires). 1.Alexander the Great conquered,Buddhism was the dominant religion in Afghanistan . 2. At the end of the seventh century, Islam spread in Afghanistan when Arab invaders from the Umayyad Dynasty defeated the Persian empire of the Sassanians 3.Complete conversion of Afghanistan to Islam occurred during the rule of the Gaznavids,and in 1504 it was conquered by Babur. 4.Afganistan become sandwich between Mughal empire and safvid dynasty ;former controlling kabul and east and later Herat and western Afganistan . 5.A former officer of persian ruler Nadir shah ,Ahmed shah Durani emerged and consolidated the empire after the assassination of Nadir Shah. 6.Dost Mohmme9d khan emerged in later period and followed by Anglo-Afghan wars. 1.First Anglo Aghan war (1838-1842). 2.Second Anglo-Afghan war (1878-1880). 3.3rd Anglo Afgan war (1919-1929) By King Amanullah .

20th Century and Rulers of Afganistan. Treaty of Rawalpinidi (August 8,1919) and 1.King Amanullah first independent ruler (1919-1929). 2.king Mohammad Nadir Shah (1929-1933). 3.King zahir shah(1933-1973). King zahir shah pursued communist ideology and built closer ties with USSR .USSR initiated multiple infrastructure projects during his reign .He was abroad for surgery when Military leader Daud over thrown the government . 4.king Daud 1978--Killed by peoples` democratic party of Afganistan. 5.Hafizullah Amin and Noor Mohammad Taraki Soviet invasion and occupation period .

seven major mujahideen parties and their alliances(peshawer -7) party leaders. . Western music..Gulbadeen hikmatyar 2. In 1986. including bans on television.september) 3.Russia withdrawl from Afganistan . and it publicly executed some women for adultery.1979 invaded to dominate Mujahideen occpation and installed barabarak kamal replacing Amin. Najibullah Ahmedzai (known by his first name).Reduced influenced after the collapse of USSR . after the reformist Mikhail Gorbachev became leader.Both powers cutoff military aid for Afganistan in 1991.1.CIA and ISI SOviet occupation = Supported by Afghan militia.Piyr Gillani U. The Mujahidden Government and Rise of Taliban.tribal belts and democratic party . and dancing.Burhan ud din Rabbani (Killed in USA drone attacks 2011.moderate one but turned against USA.sibghatullah Mujajdidi 4.Mullah Umer was military person of Khalis`s party .(Died) 5. .A provided ''stingers ''(PORTABLE SHOULDER FIRED AIR CRAFT) to Mujahideen in order to combat Soviet air crafts . Geneva Accords (1988) and Soviet Withdrawal 1. the Soviets replaced Karmal with the director of Afghan intelligence. Mujahideen PROXY = USA .weakned government 2. 1. 3. except in health care.Muhammad Nabi Muhammad. fof Najibullah to rule .Abid e RAB Rasool e sayyaf 6. It prohibited women from attending school or working outside the home. Taliban Rule (September 1996-November 2001.but he was exiled by Hafiz and Ameen.younas khalis(died) 7. The Taliban authorized its “Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue and the Suppression of Vice” to use physical punishments to enforce strict Islamic practices.S.december 27. weakened government of Najibullah followed by Taliban rule and both Burhandin Rabani and hikmatyar pursued hot conflicts for the containment of Afhanistan(civil war 19921996).

U. 5. ⦁ Northern Allaince is being supported by Ruusai .S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.S. sanctions on Taliban-controlled Afghanistan and achieving adoption of some U.2nd presidential.Iran and India (having their own motives) loose its grounds and Taliban controlled the major part of region in 2001. Exit strategy in Afghanistan 1.Presidential election--one president and two vice president .N.electoral road map and hanfi based ideology is promulgated 3. After the August 7. june 2002 2. Policy Toward the Taliban During Its Rule/Bin Laden Presence The United Nations continued to seat representatives of the Rabbani government.minorities rights . instability in region could jeopardize governance process.Equal status of women .it help Northern and anti-taliban forces.First parliamentary election and first provincial and district elections. 6.president tenure should be of five years . ⦁ Taliban did not agree to hand over OBL to USA which lead to the military action in Afganistan despite being the fact UN did not authorize ''Operation enduring freedom''.S.constitution --presidential set up (Northern Alliance wanted prime minister ship and given powers to parliament also.3rd presidential election . the Clinton Administration began to strongly pressure the Taliban to extradite him. 1998. Karzai has no competitor for next term in 2014 but Abdullah tajik . Obama exit policy . The “Northern Alliance” Congeals • Uzbeks/General Dostam • Hazara Shiites • Pashtun Islamists/Sayyaf. 4. not the Taliban. sanctions as well. ⦁ Obama administration main objective is to dismantle safe heavens and established antitaliban government ..parliamentary and provincial election -1.Interim administration --bonn accords . Al Qaeda bombings of U. imposing U.2009 election no one can get more then 50 % majority and in 2010 result of election were disputed.

⦁ Economic development region.Support Afghanistan for recapturing it and target against USA . 2010. President Obama and other senior U. pullout but mark a transition to Afghan leadership. summary of USA strategy and Implementation. U.TTP. efforts to find Al Qaeda leaders now reportedly focus on his close ally Ayman al-Zawahiri. 2. officials have consistently sought to reassure the Afghans by saying that the end of 2014 will not produce a complete U. ⦁ Encourage partners to remain in Afghanistan for security.S. was killed by an armed drone in Pakistan in early June 2012.S. Iv)Haqqani faction.S.LET . ⦁ prevention from terrorist attacks ⦁ Establishment of strong government ⦁ Pakistan cooperation for the elimination of haqqani network .laskr e tyyaba ⦁ Bombing is due to infiltration or disgruntled Afghan force due to burning of Holy Quran bu USA forces .1. officials said the key goal of the designation is to help convince other countries to shut down Haqqani-run businesses and other funding sources.. 1. that Al Qaeda fighters in Afghanistan itself might number 50-100—a range since reiterated by other officials.S.U. (khost province ---working against Indian targets)and sanctuary in North Waziristan. Pakistani groups. who is also presumed to be on the Pakistani side of the border and who was named new leader of Al Qaeda in June 2011. The top operational leader of Al Qaeda. dismantle taliban i) Quetta shurra Taliban based on Mullah Umer network ii)Al Qaeda/Bin Laden Leon Panetta said on June 27. III)Hikmatyar faction. . ⦁ Ammonium Nitrate exported from Multan is used in making explosive bombs ⦁ opium harvest and trade is used for purchase of arms and ammunition. Abu Yahya al-Libi.

Still. • Denmark said it will withdraw 120 troops by the end of 2012. British officials and commanders assert that their mission in Helmand is winding down and they reportedly are considering removing several thousand more during 2013—and possibly even ending their combat operations prior to the end of 2014. but will increase development aid and ANSF training contributions. As noted. as of September 2012. • Poland said in March 2012 that it would not withdraw forces before the end of 2014. However. inaugurated in May 2012. as part of this process. • President Francois Hollande. it began to hand off its mission in Uruzgan Province to Afghan forces. In April 2012. • Australia plans to end its mission in Afghanistan before the 2014 completion of the transition. • Britain announced in early 2012 that it would withdraw about 500 of its force by the end of 2012. • Belgium said it will remove 300 personnel from Kabul International Airport by the end of 2012. . 2012. • Turkey is to redeploy 200-300 personnel from Kabul by the end of 2013. Britain has signed a partnership agreement with Afghanistan and it is likely to keep some trainers in Afghanistan after 2014. • New Zealand said in May 2012 it will withdraw its troops in Bamiyan Province in early 2013. • Italy and Germany have also indicated an intent to try to wind down their involvement in Afghanistan before the end of 2014.The Afghan National Army Afghan National Police (ANP) Afghan Air Force Supplements to the National Police: Afghan Local Police (ALP) and Other Local Forces • Afghan Public Protection Force Rule of Law/Criminal Justice Sector . France turned over Kapisa Province to Afghan control on July 4. and the remainder of the contingent would remain until the end of 2014. a year earlier than the time frame of former President Sarkozy. reiterated in the context of the May 20-21 NATO summit in Chicago that he would fulfill his pledge to pull French combat troops out by the end of 2012.

Roads.Iranian Quds Revolutionary guards are providing training to Afghna militants.Amu Darya Basin and Other Oil Field Projects 15. 9. 1.Railways 8. Russia want to contain USA and control of NATO supply routes .Bridges 7.Solar power 10. RECONSTRUCTION 1.Economy 5. India has diametrically opposed goals as compared to Pakistan but USA now given India privilege to train security forces which India has denied but cooperating in energy and economical related issues .women 4.• South Korea said in July 2012 that it might pull at least some of its 400 forces out of Parwan Province in early 2013.Trade Promotion/Reconstruction Opportunity Zones .Airlines 14.Telecommunications 12.Health 3. 11.Electricity.Agriculture. Iran’s economic aid to Afghanistan supports international efforts to develop Afghanistan.Minings 13.Iran provide linkages from port chahbhar but there is divergence on the issue of terrorism. with the remainder to stay until the end of 2014.and responded to NATO request to provide helicopters and want to contain new silk road . 6.Education 2. China the accommodated SCO and main interests in the region is for energy and mining of copper and coal.

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