Introduction

Electrical power generated in power stations reaches the end users through a large & complex networks. The power system networks comprise tranformers, overhead lines,cables & other equipments to facilitate the transfer of electricity to consumers. Hard fact about the supply of electric energy is that the units generated do not match with the units distributed to the consumers. Some percentage of the units is always lost in the network. This difference in the generated & distributed units is known as energy loss. Losses can be divided: A. Permanent technical losses: • corona, • leakage, • dielectric losses, • open-circuit losses, • losses caused by continuous load of measuring elements, • losses caused by continuous load of control elements. B. Variable technical losses • joule losses in lines in each voltage level, • impedance losses, • losses caused by contact resistance, • joule losses in protection components. Energy losses minimization There are two directions, how to minimise losses. • Investments o Higher voltage 110 V -> 230 V, 6 kV – 22 kV, … o PF correction (compensation) o Replace lines (higher diameter) o Replace old lines with new lines o To use better materials in machines o Power quality improvement

• Without investments

it is possible to decrease logistical expenses. mainly service and illegal consumption. replacement o Network configuration o Decrease peak power o Balance network o Voltage control o Service But these days can be seen different approaches in energy losses minimisation: . it consists of a tightly integrated set of components that together provide the infrastructure to deliver networked energy services to your utility. powerful IP-connected data concentrators. Intelligent. Recloser usage . realize multiple utility services at minimal costs (at even no cost). and scalable system software form its elegant system architecture.o Advisable distribution of reactive power o Advisable load of lines o Transformer group control to lower losses. It is possible to upgrade system online without any personal. Usually.on-line energy measurement . It offers advanced metering functionality.5 On-line measurement This direction do not directly minimise technical losses. this means. communicating digital electricity meters.recloser usage 2. but offers possibilities of costs and losses minimisation.

Therefore.Distribution networks. 2. closed network And. the losses minimisation. there can be used reclosers. New network. mainly in villages and towns are usually radial. it is necessary to maintain reliability. there is another factor we have to consider. Therefore it is necessary to investigate energy losses change for this type of reconfiguration. The main function is to switch. But. Fig. In this case currents will change. because a new network is protected by this recloser and in a case of fault in line. but also to switch off fault. only part of the supplying line will be disconnected. Reliability is maintained. Recloser 22 kV . if this radial network is transformed to ring type of network.

8%. It has been suggested that the optimal average utilizations rate of distribution network cables should be as low as 30% if the cost of losses is taken into account.). For a certain load level. affected by the flow of the current in the ES equipment. However. the lower the losses.7% of the energy is lost in the network The world average loss in the electric network system is 8. (Transformers. this figure includes countries like India and Brazil.System 17% Mains LV 29% . Our own analysis indicates the following sources of losses: Non-technical 8% Other Engineering Transformers . The higher the load on a power line. where the losses are high due to so-called “non-technical losses” – electricity which could not be invoiced and is mainly lost via illegal network connections. transmission lines. 2. A similar reasoning accounts for the crosssection of lines and cables: the higher the cross-section. The second basic rule is to reduce the number of transformation steps.HV/LV 15% 3% Mains HV 16% Mains EHV 12% Transformers . the higher its variable losses. circuit breakers etc. the higher the line voltage the lower the line losses.Corona and core transformer losses. How can network losses be reduced? A few basic rules exist to minimise network losses. No-load losses . For the same reason. Technical Losses Defined as the "physical" losses corresponding to "Joule effect" or heat losses. Not all losses are controllable and not every loss reduction is justifiable. high efficiency distribution transformers can make a large difference. The first rule is to design the network system in such a way that power lines to large consumers are as direct as possible. An optimum balance between investment cost and network losses should be aimed for. Energy Losses Balance The EEL are classified as two types. these are mainly a function of the line operating voltage. since transformers account for almost half of network losses.

changes to design policies for extensions to the network would take also decades to feed through as a noticeable reduction in average losses. bunding).e. Similarly. losses are considered in the investment appraisal of the type of plant we buy when weighed against the current incentives for loss reduction. etc). unmetered supplies. The factors contributing to the increase in the lines losses in the primary and secondary systems: 1. Thus the primary and secondary distribution lines in rural areas. as discussed above. rural loads are usually scattered and generally fed by radial feeders. The size of the conductors should be selected on the basis of KVA X KM capacity of standard conductor for a required voltage regulation. such an ambition would. Whilst our investment strategies include environmental drivers these generally relate to visual amenity. require a major replacement of distribution network assets. Lengthy Distribution lines: In practice. Bearing in mind that DNOs typically work on approximately 1% of their networks each year.This shows that approximately 92% of losses are technical (fixed and variable) and that approximately 8% are non-technical (measurement errors. Therefore the primary and secondary distribution systems must be properly planned to ensure within acceptable limits. 11 KV and 415 volts lines. it would take decades to achieve a significant impact on technical losses. Technical Losses – Reasons and Remedies The major amount of losses in a power system is in primary and secondary distribution lines. noise and oil spillage protection measures (i. while transmission and sub-transmission lines account for only about 30% of the total losses. 2. . The replacement of plant solely due to losses is not a key driver in our investment programmed and efficient investment decisions could actually put upward pressure on losses. This results in high line resistance and therefore high 2R losses in the line. Inadequate Size of Conductors: As stated above. in rural areas are hurriedly extended over long distances to feed loads scattered over large areas. usually extend over long distances. However. by and large radially laid. Whilst it appears that the greatest scope for reducing losses is to reduce technical losses. The conductor size of these feeders should be adequate.

3. line losses owing to the poor PF can be reduced by improving the PF. Lower Power Factor: In most LT distribution circuits. For a given load. (The reason for the line losses increasing as a result of decreased voltage at the consumers terminally are explained in para-5) Therefore in order to reduce the voltage drop in the line to the farthest consumers. the distribution transformer should be located at the load center to keep voltage drop within permissible limits. Line losses in LT distribution lines may also be considerably reduced by installing shunt capacitors of optimum rating at vantage points.75. The optimum rating of capacitor banks for a distribution system is 2/3rd of the average KVAR requirement of that distribution system. Distribution Transformers not located at Load center on the Secondary Distribution System: Often DTs are not located centrally with respect to consumers. Consequently. Consequently. 6. The extent of reduction of line losses in this manner depends mainly on the extent to which the PF of consumers is improved. the losses proportional to square of the current will be more. Shunt capacitors can be connected in the following ways: i) Shunt capacitors are connected on the secondary side (11 KV side) of the 33/11 KV power transformers. the capacitors being switched on and off together with the equipment itself. iii) A more appropriate manner of improving this PF of the distribution system and thereby reduce the line losses is to connect capacitors across the terminals of the consumers having inductive loads. This again leads to a higher line losses. if the PF is low. . A low PF contributes towards high distribution losses. In this case. Thus. it is found that the PF ranges from 0. This can be done by application of shunt capacitors. the capacitor is connected in parallel to the terminals. The vantage point is at 2/3rd the length of the main distributor from the transformer. the farthest consumers obtain an extremity low voltage even though a reasonably good voltage levels maintained at the transformers secondaries. the current drawn in high.65 to 0. ii).

i) ii) iii). and LT switch etc. we studied the various types of technical as well as non-technical losses in power system network and their effects on performance of system. 7. isolator. Therefore the number of joints should be kept to a minimum. we studied the remedies over it. drop out fuse.Also. Bad Workmanship Resulting in Poor Contacts at Joints and Connections: Bad Workmanship contributes significantly towards increasing distribution losses. Efforts should. should be periodically inspected and proper pressure maintained to avoid sparking and heating of contacts. therefore. the line loss is reduced from 49% depending upon the extent of PF improvement. By connecting the capacitors across individual loads. Connections to the transformer bushing-stem. be made to have the best possible workmanship.Many electricity supply authorities are modifying their tariff conditions to make it compulsory for the consumers to provide capacitors for all types of installations with connected loads of 5 HP and above. Proper jointing techniques should be used to ensure firm connections. In this context the following points should be borne in mind. . Joints are a source of power loss. Replacement of deteriorated wires and services should also be made timely to avoid any cause of leaking and loss of power. Conclusion: From above paper.