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Electrical Instruments & Measurements(EE-211)

Experiment # 4
Frequency and Phase Measurement with Lissajous Patterns

To perform amplitude, frequency, and phase measurements using a calibrated cathode ray oscilloscope and to make use of Lissajous figures for phase and frequency measurements.

Oscilloscope Signal Generator Resistors (1K x 1) Capacitors(22µF,44µF) Inductors(150µH)

Theory : 1.1 Measurement of Voltage Using CRO: A voltage can be measured by noting the Y deflection produced by the voltage; using this deflection in conjunction with the Y-gain setting, the voltage can be calculated as follows : V = ( no. of boxes in cm. ) x ( selected Volts/cm scale ) 1.2 Measurement of Current and Resistance Using a CRO : Using the general method, a correctly calibrated CRO can be used in conjunction with a known value of resistance R to determine the current I flowing through the resistor. 1.3 Measurement of Frequency Using a CRO: A simple method of determining the frequency of a signal is to estimate its periodic time from the trace on the screen of a CRT. However this method has limited accuracy, and should only be used where other methods are not available. To calculate the frequency of the observed signal, one has to measure the period, i.e. the time taken for 1 complete cycle, using the calibrated sweep scale. The period could be calculated by T = ( no. of squares in cm) x ( selected Time/cm scale ) Once the period T is known, the frequency is given by f (Hz)= 1/T(sec)

x 360 One period in cm. Noting that the vertical signal amplitude at instant 1 is   180o . the phase shift can be calculated by the formula .sin-1 ( N / M ) N= ASin(). between the two signals. one period in cm.5 Use of Lissajous Patterns to Calculate Phase Shift : Lissajous patterns are obtained on the scope simultaneously by applying the two sinusoidal inputs to be compared at the vertical and horizontal channels. This.4. Another method for fast calculation is to multiply the scale factor by the phase difference ( in cm ) where the scale factor is degrees per box or degrees per cm. both of the signals will appear in proper time perspective and the amount of time difference between the waveforms can be measured. Figure. In fact. If a dual trace or beam CRO is available to display the two signals simultaneously ( one of the signals is used for synchronization). Measurement of Phase : The calibrated time scales can be used to calculate the phase shift between two sinusoidal signals of the same frequency.  phase shift in cm. This pattern on the CRT screen may be either a straight line or a circle or an ellipse depending on the amount of phase shift.  Phase shift in cm.  can be computed by .1. This pattern is an ellipse ( inclined at 135 if the two amplitudes are the same ). Figure.1 Phase shift between two signals Referring to figure. The angle of inclination at which the ellipse is generated is of no importance in the phase angle calculation. The phase shift is then determined using measured values taken from resulting Lissajous pattern. in turn can be utilized to calculate the phase angle . the observed waveforms can be varied using the horizontal amplifier venire adjustment to obtain as many boxes for one full scale as desired.2 shows the resulting closed curve if the phase shift is between 90o and 180o . Note that the calculation does not involve the actual calibrated timebase setting. 1.1.

the ellipse has a negative slope and the angle calculated by the above method must be subtracted from 180 to obtain the phase shift. if the phase shift is less or more than 180.V =ASin(wt+ v 1 M N 2  3 3 2 wt 1 4 4 1 2 3 4 V =BSin(wt) h wt Figure. then the angle is less than 180. Phase angles between 180270 result in Lissajous patterns similar to those for  : 90 -180. the angle is greater than 180. One technique for determining. is to add an extra slight phase shift to the signal V v. . For phase angles of 90180 . If it decreases. Hence try to get an ellipse of maximum possible size on the CRO for increased accuracy. and cannot be directly distinguished.2 Lissajous Pattern Phase angels between 0o  90o . If the phase angle measured increases. the ellipse has a positive slope and angle calculated by the following formula:   sin1 ( N / M ) The actual scale settings do not change the ratio (N/M). Figure 3 shows how to compute the required phase angle.

This number represents the part of the ratio corresponding to the central unknown input signal. the unknown frequency can be calculated.6 Use of Lissajous Patterns For Frequency Measurements : If a well calibrated CRO timebase is not available. position the resulting Lissajous pattern so that its upper edge is tangent to the top horizontal graticule line and its left edge is tangent to the left most vertical graticule line. This number represents the part of the ratio corresponding to the horizontal (known) input signal.  The ratio of the number of horizontal to vertical loops(NH/NV) is the ratio of the ( unknown) vertical input frequency to the known (horizontal input) frequency so that  NH/NV=fv[unknown]/fH[known]. a signal generator can be used to measure the frequency of an unknown sinusoidal signal.2 Phase measurement:  Disable the oscilloscope internal sweep  With no signals applied to either the vertical or horizontal amplifiers center the resulting spot on the screen .7 Procedure: 1.  Count the number of loops touching the top horizontal graticule line (NH). of tangencies (horizontal) From which fv. fh  fv No.The frequency of the signal generator is adjusted so that a steady Lissajous pattern is obtained. 1.7. It is connected to the vertical channel ( or horizontal ) and the calibrated signal source is fed to the horizontal channel ( or vertical ). The Lissajous pattern can be very involved to analyze. for the frequency measurement. However.  Adjust the oscilloscope gain and generator amplitude control so that the resulting pattern covers as much of the graticule area as possible.  Slowly and carefully adjust the oscilloscope frequency to establish a stationary pattern on the screen.  Count the number of loops touching the left most vertical graticule line (NV). of tangencies (vertical) No.3 Phase angle calculation in 4 quadrants 1.  Using the oscilloscope horizontal and vertical position control. all that is needed is the number of tangencies ( points at the edge of arcs ) along the vertical and horizontal lines. =180-sin(N/M) -1  =sin(N/M) -1 II III -1  =180+sin(N/M) I IV  =360-sin(N/M) -1 Figure. The frequency relationship between the horizontal and vertical inputs is given by.1 Frequency measurement:  Connect the known signal to the horizontal input and unknown signal to the vertical input. 1.7.

) 2 4 Figure. the phase shift in degrees is determined from 2.) 4 2 x (c m .. Adjust the horizontal gain so the resulting horizontal line equal in length to the vertical line of Step3 (i. An ellipse with equal horizontal and vertical deflections should appear  As in figure 4. Figure 5 shows a Lissajous pattern observed on the CRT screen.2. y x Figure. Determine the frequency relationship between the signals applied to the X and Y inputs of the scope. PRELIMINARY WORK : 2.5 .1 The Lissajous pattern shown in figure. y (c m . Find the phase shift between the signals applied to the X and Y inputs of the scope.  Reconnect the vertical input signal . eight divisions).e.4 is observed on the CRT screen. Connect one signal to the vertical input and adjust the vertical gain so the resulting vertical line spans the full height of the display (usually eight divisions high).4 2.  Disconnect the vertical input and apply the other signal to the horizontal input .

Sketch the Lissajous pattern and calculate the phase difference between the two signals. 2. EXPERIMENTAL WORK: Frequency Measurement: .4 The signals given V1 and V2 are applied to the X and Y inputs of the scope. for Ty  4Tx . V1  10Cos( wt ) V2  15Sin ( wt  180) 3. Draw the Lissajous pattern which will be observed on the CRT. are applied to the X and Y inputs of the CRO.3 Two sinusoidal inputs having the same amplitudes but different period.2.

Phase Shift Measurement: a) RC Circuit: b) RLC Circuit: Simulation Patterns: Frequency: 1:1 1:5 2:1 5:3 10:1 .2.

calculated %age error Phase Shift by Lissajous Mathod: Calculat ed Measur ed Softw are F(H z) 1 2 3 C(u F) L(m H) R(k Ω) Volts/ div Y1( V) Ymax( V) Ø( ) Ø( ) Volts/ div Y1( V) Ymax( V) Ø( ) Error w. calculat ed %age error .Phase Shift: =0’ Calculations: Frequency Measurement: =315’ Fknown=_____________________________ Measured Nh/Nv 1 2 3 4 5 Funknown Calculated Funknown Software Funknown Error w.r.r.t.t.

r.Phase Shift by Sweep Method: Measured F(Hz) 1 2 3 C(uF) L(mH) R(kΩ) t(ms) T(ms) Ø( ) t(ms) T(ms) software Error w. 2. CONCLUSION: . Compare the measured and calculated values at same scales. The circuit elements should be of suitable range. 4. software Ø( ) %age error Precautions: 1. Connect the oscilloscopes terminals properly.t. 3. Find the frequency and phase measurements after properly calibrating the channels.