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Problems 4.

4
1. Solve the following linear congruence:
(e) 34 x ≡ 60(mod 98)
(f) 140 x ≡ 133(mod 301) (Hint: gcd(140,301) = 7 )

2. Using congruence, solve the Diophantine equations below:


(c) 5 x − 53 y ≡ 17

4. Solve each of the following sets of simultaneous congruence:


(c) x ≡ 5(mod 6), x ≡ 4(mod11), x ≡ 3(mod17) .

11. Prove that the congruence: x ≡ a(mod n) and x ≡ b(mod m) admit a simultaneous
solution if and only if gcd(n, m) a − b ; If a solution exists, confirm that it is unique
modulo lcm(n, m) .

Problems 5.2
12 n + 6
3. From Fermat’s theorem deduce that, for any integer n ≥ 0, 1311 +1.

10. Assuming that a and b are integers not divisible by the prime p , establish the
following:
(a) If a p ≡ b p (mod p), then a ≡ b(mod p)
(b) If a p ≡ b p (mod p), then a p ≡ b p (mod p 2 )
(There’s a “Hint” in the textbook following the question.)

11. Employ Fermat’s theorem to prove that, if p is an odd prime, then


(a) 1 p −1 + 2 2− p +  ( p − 1) p −1 ≡ −1(mod p )
(b) 1 p + 2 2 +  ( p − 1) p ≡ 0(mod p)
(There’s a “Hint” in the textbook following the question)

15 Establish the statements below:


(a) If the number M p = 2 − 1 is composite, where p is a prime, then M p is a pseudo
p

prime.
(b) Every composite number Fn = 2 2 + 1 is a pseudo prime. (n = 0,1,2 )
n

n n +1
n +1 2
(Hint: By Question 21 of Section 2.3, 2 2 implies that 2
2
− 1 2 Fn −1 − 1; but
n +1
Fn 2 2 − 1;

Problems 5.3
5. (a) Prove that an integer n > 1 is prime if and only if (n − 2)!≡ 1(mod n) .
(b) If n is a composite integer, show that (n − 1)!≡ 0(mod n), except when n = 4 .