1

CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE FOR BEGINNERS BY
ARTHUR ROSE-INNES

GRADUATED EXERCISES
IN

CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE,

KELLY & WALSH,

LTD,
and

YOKOHAMA, SHANGHAI, HONGKONG
(All rights reserved.)

SINGAPORE.

THE Box OF CURIOS

PRESS, YOKOHAMA.

CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE FOR BEGINNERS.
INTRODUCTION.
This book consists of three parts Part I, Graduated Exercises in ConversaJapanese Part II, Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language Part III, Vocabulary of Common Japanese Words.* The learning of a language is a complicated process. In general it may be said to consist of two parts, theory and practice. Theory refers to the knowledge of words, their peculiarities, special uses, inflexions, how they depend on each other and how they are combined in a sentence. Elementary notions on these subjects as regards Colloquial Japanese will be found in Parts II and III of this work. Practice consists in learning to express oneself without difficulty or hesitation, in acquiring a correct pronunciation and in training the ear to understand the language as spoken by the natives. Practice, of course, cannot be learned from books however, the Exercises in Part I, supply models and materials for a great number of sentences which can be used in real life. The student is strongly advised to speak Japanese or try to speak Japanese on every possible occasion to servants, rikisha-men, tramway-conductors, shop-attendants, etc.; and to continue speaking Japanese even when the other person answers in quite good English. Get as much practice in Japanese as you can, and don't go about giving free lessons in English. The author suggests that the student should begin with the Exercises, studying only such parts of the Grammar as are indicated at the beginning of each Exercise and consulting the Vocabulary when necessary. No particular method of study is recommended in detail but the author believes that the pupil should repeat each sentence after his teacher several times until he can say it with a fairly good pronounciation and a reasonable degree of fluency he should also have a knowledge of what the sentence means while he is saying it the lesson should not be considered as known until he can do all the above with
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the time the student has finished the Exercises, he will have gone all through the Grammar, and he should then, if he has the courage, read the Voand cabulary, which contains many useful phrases not found in the Exercises, a source are which of common the use hints words, frequently many regarding of trouble to the beginner. The Japanese Exercises were made in Japanese by a Japanese under the on the author's direction they are in no sense a translation of the English It should be clearly the of translation is a the Japanese. English contrary, understood that the version given is only one out of many equally good and be given. This will be readily understood correct translations which

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might in Japanese nouns have neither gender, number

For the convenience of those who wish to read the Japanese Characters from the I has been printed apart in very beginning of their studies, the Japanese text of Part Japanese Characters with kana alongside this is called Part IV.
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nor case, and verbs have often no subject expressed nor have they any inflexions corresponding to person or number in real life, the meaning is determined by context and circumstances. In the Vocabulary at the end of this book the etymology of words is given when it is considered helpful to the student. The average educated Japanese has no notion of what etymology means and when asked the origin of a word will immediately start explaining the characters or symbols with which it is written. .In this matter the author's chief guide has been Otsuki's Genkai. Besides the present book, the student who wishes, not only to go through these Exercises, but to express his own ideas, must have an English-Japanese Dictionary the best one no doubt is, Hobart-Hampden and Parlett's EnglishJapanese Dictionary of the Spoken Language ; if a pocket dictionary is desired,
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the author's English- Japanese Conversation Dictionary may prove useful. Japanese-English dictionaries are very numerous but mostly unsatisfactory as they are generally made for the use of the Japanese the best one is perhaps Brinkley 's. The author begs also to recommend the following Lange 's A Text-book of Colloquial Japanese, for exercises of a more advanced type Chamberlain 's Handbook of Colloquial Japanese, for further studies of the grammar Imbrie 's Handbook of English- Japanese Etymology, for the translation of those words in English which are of special difficulty. These books the author has consulted throughout and used freely. The author's Examples of Conversational Japanese, Parts I and II may be useful to the student who has made some progress in the present book. Part II uses no word not contained in this work, Part I has a somewhat more extensive vocabulary but an English translation is given along with the Japanese text. Part III of this work is the Japanese text of Parts I and II in Japanese characters with kana alongside. Those who wish to obtain some knowledge of the written characters cannot do better than study Chamberlain's The Study of Japanese Writing ; a cheap extract on the same subject is the author's Three Thousand Chinese- J apanese
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The letter A, B, C or D found after each sentence gives an idea of the A sentences should be used to inferiors only B are degree of politeness familiar C are polite in an ordinary way and D are somewhat formally
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polite.

Black-face numbers refer to the paragraphs of Part II,

This pencil is black. nai is familiar and must be replaced by arimasen in polite speech. 16. dear 7. : : yasui okii 1. before the noun. 6. ano : that (far). desu (C). This pencil is cheap. Ano uchi wa takai desu ka ? (C). . takai : dear high. empitsu : a pencil. mise : a shop an office. 10. GRADUATED EXERCISES CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE. Small shops are not cheap. 14. 5. nai (familiar) : is not. Sono empitsu wa takaku nai (B). . Is this small shop 6. 7. Ano uchi wa takaku arimasen (C). (B). Sono empitsu wayasui no desu ka ? (C). Ano uchi wa okii desu (C). no gender. cheap . Is that pencil cheap ? 17. 3. Particles or postpositions are placed after the word to which they refer. 11. Kono empitsu wa takai desu ka ? (C). arimasen . as a rule. Sono empitsu wa kuroi no desu ka? 9. 17. Kono uchi wa okii ka ? 10. are. 1. a particle with many varied uses. That house is big. That house is not high. 4. This house 8. Ano okii mise wa yasui no desti. That ? pencil pencil 12. (C). 13. Is that 11. have no gender or number. Adjectives in Japanese. Is that pencil black ? house small ? 13. wa no ka : a particle used for emphasis or contrast. (C). often placed after the subject of a sentence. as in English. sono : that (not far). uchi : a house. Kono empitsu wa kuroi (B). ii. Kono uchi wa okiku nai (B). oi or ui. 12. Kono chiisai mise u'a yasui no desu ka ? (C). : : cheap. Japanese verbs have no person or number. The negative construction of adjectives is shown in 195. 2. Chiisai mise wa yasuku arimasen (C). Kono empitsu wa yasui (B). 8. Is this house big ? is not dear.PART IN I. is . Ano uchi wa chiisai ka ? (B). ? 4. . 9. EXERCISE 1. as in English. Is this 5. This small shop is dear. big. desu : am . Is that house high ? 15. That small shop is dear. 2. Sono chiisai mise wa takai no 3. 14. 16. Japanese nouns have no number and. an interrogative particle. 15. Used attributively the adjective is placed. kono : this. True adjectives in Japanese end in ai. When used as predicates of affirmative sentences in familiar speech there is no need of any verb in Japanese in less familiar speech no desu or simply desu is added. That big shop is cheap. kuroi : black. chiisai : small. Kono chiisai mise wa takai (B). is not big.

This pencil is not black . Is this black dog dirty ? 13. Ano uchi wa kitanaku arimasen (C). 14. gozaru change their terminations The negative construction of these sentences is shown in 196. This paper is not white this paper is red. kami : paper. This book is not dear. 19. nai akaku Ano uchi 17. 18. 23. 9. Is that desk dear ? 3. (D). Is this book dear ? 15. Kono tokei wa tako gozaimasen (D). boy . 28. 33. 24. 5. girl. 22. is I. 10. Ano kodomo wa chiiso gozaimasen (D). Sono akai hon wa tako gozaimasu ka ? (D). 2.EXERCISE 2. That shop is not cheap. Is this clock dear ? 23. Ano mise wa yasu gozai19. That big room is dirty. Sono kuroi inu wa kitanaku arimasen (C). This red book is not dear. 2. 7. : . a book. 6. 33. This room is big. True adjectives when used as predicates in connection with the polite verb as shown in 1 92. Ano kodomo wa chiiso gozai8. 6. Ano okii inu wa Itiffutai (B). masu ka?(D). you. I am not big. Ano uchi wa ako gozaimasu ka? 15. Watashi wa okiku arimasen 9. 31. a dog. Sono tsukue wa tako gozaimasu ka? (D). Ano mise (D). 11. 26. That black dog is not dirty. 27. 32. This desk is cheap. 4. wa (B). That house is not red. Kono akai hon wa takaku nai (B). Ano okii mise wa yasu gozaimasu ka? (D). Kono kodomo wa kitano gozaimasu ka ? (D). (D). Anata wa okiu gozaimasu (D). gozaimasu masen^). Ano hana wa ako gozaimasu (D). Kono empitsu wa kuro gozaimasen . Kono heya wa chiiso gozai29. Is that high house dirty ? white ? 38. masu (D). Ano uchi wa kitanai (B). not. Sono empitsu wa kuro gozaimasu ka ? (D). Ano okii heya wa 34. Is that big shop cheap ? 20. kono empitsu wa ako gozaimasu (D). You are that paper white ? 5. 12. Kono heya wa okiu gozaimasu (D). Ano inu wa kitanai (B). Is that red pencil black ? book dear ? 27. 37. Kono tokei wa yasu gozaimasu (D). is . 22. Kono tsukue wa yam gozai1. This watch is 21. big. this pencil is red. This child is dirty. I am small. . 37. Kono hon wa takaku nai (B). Is that house red ? 17. 24. Is that 25. kono kami wa ako gozaimasu (D). kodomo : a child tokei : a watch . That dog is dirty. 14. . That flower is red. are. Kono kuroi inu wa chiiso gozaimasu (D). That house is not dirty. 16. desuka? (C). : clock. That black dog is small. 36. hana heya : hon inu : : a flower. akai : red. 35. 10. 7. shop is dirty. Ano takai uchi wa kitano gozaimasu ka ? 30. : white. Is that big dog 35. gozaimasu (polite) gozaimasen (polite) watakushi . 25. chiiso gozaimasA (D). That house is not white. This clock is not dear. Is 1. Is that high house dirty ? 29. tsukue : a desk. Kono kami wa shiro gozaimasen . watashi anata : am : . 11. masu ka?(D). 38. : kitanai shiroi : dirty. 30. Is this room small ? 31. Ano takai uchi wa shiroi desu ka ? (C). Is that child small ? 8. 12. Watakushi wa 13. Sono kami wa shiro gozaimasu ka? (D). That child is not small. 28. shiroku nai (B). Kono tokei wa takai wa kitano 21. 26. 3. Kono hon wa tako gozaimasu ka ? 16. That cheap. Kono heya wa kitano gozaimasu (D). 34. This room is dirty. 18. 20. Kono kuroi inu wa kitano gozaimasu ka ? (D). a room. (C). 4. 32. 36. (D).

14. 24. Ano kodomo wa baka na kodomo de gozaimasu ka ? (D). Anata no empitsu wa murasaki de gozaimasu ka ? (D). Ano oki na kodomo wa baka desu ka ? (C). 21. Kono oki na tsukue wa benri de gozaimasu ka ? (D). : a particle used for forming quasiadjectives . 9. : a particle. . The 20. also means possession . Note that de aru is generally abbreviated to da. In the negative na (or no) is changed to de wa (often abbreviated to true adjectives may be used attributively as quasi-adjectives in na after supressing the final i of the adjective. chiisai mise or chiisa na mise a small shop. 16. 29. Anata no empitsu wa murasaki desu ka ? (C). Thus okii uchi or oki na uchi a big house . 25. 6. watashi no wa akai (B). . . 12. That child is not silly. 7. Gold is pretty. 5. Is this violet dog's kennel is small. 8. 15. Is that big house 24. 13. That house is not mine. Anata no heya wa kirei de gozaimasu ka ? (D). My pencil is not violet it is black. Sono kirei na hon wa Taro no hon desu (C). is. That pretty book is Taro's. Watashi no uchi uchi' desu ka ? (C). 13. . Is that big boy silly ? pencil is convenient. 3. and de arimasu to desu. Is yours a pretty room ? yours ? 16. 22. Kin no tokei wa kirei desu (C). riko na : convenient. 11. Is yours a violet pencil ? 18. Gold watches are pretty. watashi no wa kuroi desu (C). 27. of. Ano inu wa baka de gozaimasu 3. : gold. That book is not mine. Watakushi no heya wa kirei de wa gozaimasen (D). Ano kodomo wa riko da (B). Is this big desk convenient ? . This watch is not gold. Is your watch gold ? (is yours a gold watch ?) 7. waashi no ja nai .EXERCISE Certain nouns followed 3. 1. 6. clever. This small dog is not convenient. When used predicatively de takes the place of na (or no) and is followed by aru. That boy is clever. de oki na : big. Kono murasaki no empitsu wa benri desu (C). na : clever. . anata no : your yours. 28. Is this pretty book 14. 15. Ano oki na uchi wa anata no 27. That dog is stupid. Sono hon wa watashi no ja nai (B). 1. Kin zva kirei da (B). Kono tsukue wa benri de wa nai (B). Anata no tokei wa kin de gozaima#ii ka ? (D). 25. Kono tokei wa kin ja nai (B). Is that yours ? 26. Inu no uchi ifa chiisai (B). Watakushi no empitsu wa murasaki de gozaimasu (D). Is that pretty dog clever ? 5. 10. 8. Kono kirei na hon wa anata no hon desu ka ? (C). mine is red. This desk is 4. silly. 19. Ano kodomo wa balcaja nai (B). na : pretty clean. a silly child ? 29. Sono empitsu wa 23. arimasu or gozaimasu according to the degree of politeness. My room is not pretty. 23. 2. 17. Kono murasaki no empitsu wa anata no desu ka ? (C). My 21. wa chiisa na uchi desu (C). murasaki no : violet (colour). force of adjectives. 18. adjectives. 19. Mine is a small house. 22. 11. na no : a particle used for forming quasi- baka na benri kirei : foolish . wata(ku)shi no : my mine. Kono chiisa na inu wa riko de gozaimasu (D). . 17. 2. kin (noun) kin no (adj. by the particle na or no have the and are called quasi-adjectives. 20. Is yours a violet pencil ? 9. 26. da (=de aru) : ja =de wa. This violet 12. Watashi no empitsu wa murasaki j a arimasen . Some ja).) baka : a fool. Ano uchi wa watashi no ja nai(B). Ano kirei na inu wa riko desu ka ? (C). 10. That pencil is not mine pencil yours ? 28. (D). chiisa na : small. 4. pencil is violet.

19. 8. Kono ginko wa okiu gozaimasen (D). Kore wa shimbun de gozaimasu (D}. 2. Have you a postcard and a stamp ? 12. fie aritiiaxn or (k <h' masen or ' as a predicate.m ka ? (C). wa arithe gnzahnanu Remember the contractions noted HY/ gozahnasen in the negative. kiishi no kitte de wa gozaimasen (D). 21. This is not mine. Ano lakai uchi wa ginko ka ? (B). : are to : . Sore wa anata no kitte de gozaimasu ka ? (D). arimasu or gozaimasu (got) in the affirmative. and takes the postposition ga. 25. Anata wa shimbun ga arimasu ka? (C). 30. de.fiiku-e de. Is this Taro's cat ? Taro's cat. 13. Is this a big bank ? 29.fhhnbun : a newspaper. Watashi wa hagaki wa arimasu . the noun is followed by affirmative. This is a newspaper. hagaki : a postcard. kore 1. verb . 24. 15. I have a cat. Watashi wa chiisai inu ga aru (B). I have a little dog. Mine is a small desk. Have you got a violet 15.'to be' lias a noun in meaning possess is translated by aru. I have a newspaper. Is that a clever cat ? 31. kitte wa arimasen (C). 9. the 4. That is my house. uri waxen or gozaimaseH in the negative. 32. That building is not a bank. no neko da (B). 9. Kono oki na uchi wa nan de gozaimasu ka ? (D). Are wa nan desu ka ? (C). ka ? (D). Ano uchi wa ginko 7. Watashi wa murasaki no empitsu ga nai (B). sore : that (noun). (D). ga : postposition often used after the subject of a sentence. what have you got ? pencil ? paper. 19. the English in the previous lesson. Is that a newspaper ? 27. What is that? 35. 5. Kore wa mise da (B). and. I have got a postcard. 1. 6. 33. Anata wa murasaki no empitsu ga aru ka ? (B).wa baka na neko da (B). ' Have ' ' subject takes the postposition wa. masu That that your house ? 2. That is a stupid cat. ka ? (C). Kono ginko wa okjiu gozaimasu ka ? 29. :u. Watashi wa shimbun ga aru (B). Is that your stamp ? 8. 18. Have you got some paper and a pencil? 14. Sore wa anata no l. Watashi no neko wa shiro gozaimasu (D). 28. Sore wa Taro 3. 7. Sore wa shimbun desu ka ? (C). 32. 17. 25. Have you a newspaper? 10. kitte : a postage stamp. 30. I haven't got a violet pencil. Watashi wa neko ga arimasu . Anata wa kami to empitsu ga arimasu ka ? (C). 23. This is not a big bank. That is not a bank. I have not got any 17. My cat is white. and dc tea nai. 4. 26. 3. 16. Are n7/ nan de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 31. Is is . 12. Are wa riko na neko desu (D). . What is that ? 20. Are wa watakushi no uchi de gozai4. 26. 13. Is that tall building a bank ? 6. 16. 11. Are wa ginko desu (C). Kore wa watashi no de wa arimasen (C). 35. 14. 11. Is that your desk ? 24. 22. and the object becomes the Japanese subject ginko : a bank. Are wa anata no uchi desu ka ? (C).EXERCISE When de ani. Are. What is this big house ? 22. 27. This is a shop. nani ? nan ? what ? this (noun). 18. and by nai. Anata no neko wa kuro gozaimasu ka ? (D). 34. That is a cat. This stamp is not mine. 5. Wnlashi wa kami ga gozaimasen (D). 23. anata wa nani ga arimasu ka? (C). Kore wa Taro no neko de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 21. 28. Kore wa wataja nai (B). Are wa neko de gozaimasu (D). 20. Is your cat black ? 33. I haven't got a stamp. neko : a cat. Wntashi no tsukue wa chiiso gozaimasu (D). Anata wa hagaki to kitte ga gozaimasu 10.

letter is not there. Koko ni wa uma ga i-nai 22. Shiroi neko wa asuko ni orimasu (C). Where are the potatoes ? 25. Soko ni uma 3. Watakushi no uchi ni uma ga orimasen (C). . ano hako ni ariinasu ka (C). : a letter. 11. (in a place)' 'there is' use the verb ant. doko ? where ? ni : in . That is ? your white cat ? 33. Where is Master Taro's letter ? to pretty box. 29. koko : here this place. 34. 3. 19. 26. (C). 28. Taro is not at home. 25. 27. Does that big horse belong not Mr Yamada 's horse . : Mr Mrs Master Miss. There are none in 10. 29. Jiro no uma da (B). Kore wa Taro San no tegami desu ka ? (C). 35. Ano oki na uma wa Yamada San no desu ka ? (C). potato. Is Master Taro at home ? 16. Anata no hako wa kirei de gozaimasu (D). 34. Taro San wa uchi ni imasu ka? (C). Anata no uchi ni uma ga imasu ka ? (C). Are there any cows at Mr Yamada 's place ? Yamada 's place there are both cows and horses. The potatoes are in this box. am masen 18. 21. Koko ni oki na ginko ga ariinasu (D). The negative forms of these latter verbs are i-nai. Kami wa doko ni ariinasu ka? Koko ni ginkoga gozaimasu ka ? 5. 17. (B). There is no clock there. 7. At Mr in my house. ? (C). it is Jiro's. Is this Master Taro's letter? pretty. Are wa Yamada Son no uma ja nai. There is no horse this box. Taro San no tegami wa ano 28. Taro tea uchi ni orimasen (C). 12. Asuko ni wa tokei wa nai (B). gozaimasu orimasen. 15. Yamada San no uchi ni ushi ga iru ka? (B). . 14. imasen. Yamada San no uchi ni ushi to uma ga iru (B). Master Taro's letter is in that letter. 32. ox. The 35. 20. Is there a horse there ? 23. Is the newspaper there here. 6. (B). Is there a cat in your house ? 18. Imo wa k&no halao ni am 21. 33. 4. The newspaper is not . a bull cow . Koko ni wa shimbun ga nai (B). asuko . Anata no shiroi neko wa doko ni imasu ka ? (C). Yamada San no tegami wa asuko ni wa ariga orimasu ka ? (C). Kono hako ni wa imo ga gozaimasen (D). That is not Master Taro's 26. etc. San . Jiro San wa doko ni orimasti ka? (C). Kami wa ano oki na hako ni (B). Taro San no tegami wa doko ni aru ka? (B). 5. : : . . 32. Jiro is at Mr Yamada 's house. Asftko ni tokei ga gozaimasu ka Sono hako ni imo ga am ka ? (B). Imo wa doko ni gozaimasu ka? (D). 30. (C). 17. uchi ni orimasu (C). 7. ar imasu or speaking of things without life. 19. 13. Your box is is Master Jiro? 24. Is Mr Yamada 's letter in that box ? 20. 13. Mr Yamada is ? 81. Jiro wa Yamada San no 23. 15. a horse. The paper is in that big box. Is there a clock there ? 6.In the sense of 'to if 5. soko : there that place. kirei na hako ni gozaimasu (D). There is no 14.. There is no horse here. and int.EXERCISE . Yamada San no tegami wa 2. imosu or orimasu if speaking of living things. 24. imo : tegami uma ushi 1. There is a big bank here. Where is the paper ? 2. at to . . Sore wa Taro San no tegami ja nai (B). Anata no uchi ni neko ga imasu ka? (C). here ? 4. Shimbun wa soko ni arimasu ka? (C). 27. 9. Is there (have you) a horse at your house ? 12. ? (D). 31. Where 22. he hako : a box. 16. Watashi no uchi ni wa neko ga imasen (C). 11. 9. . Where white cat is there. 30. Mr Yamada 's cat in our house. Are there any potatoes in that box ? 8. 8. Is there a bank 1. 10.

Watashi wa asa shimbun wo yomu (B). 34. 22. 35. 12. asa ': : the morning. 10. Yamada San wa ashlta Tokyo e ikimasu . Watashi no shimbun wa asa kimasu (C). e : to. Mr Yamada buys a Tokyo newspaper. Hana-ko San wa nani wo yonde imasu ka ? (C). Nani wo kaite ima#& ka ? (C). 29. masti (C). 10. 27. Hagaki to kitte wo motte iru ka ? (B). 24. I read the newspaper in the morning. 13. 21. What is Miss Hana-ko reading ? 25. postposition used after the ob- yomu : to read. Where do you buy your paper ? 12. Hon to empitsu wo kau (B). I am. I have a postcard but I haven't got a stamp. 3. Mr Yamada is . Tegami wo yonde iru (B). 31. kau : to buy. Ano kodomo wa nani wo motte imasu ka ? (C). 13. 9. I am not going tomorrow. 2. 20. What has that boy got in his hand ? 19. 26. 24. Watashi mo kimasu (C). hana wo motte iru (B). That going not going. Ano oki na mise de kau (B). Kimasu (C). 11. Ashita Tokyo de nani wo kaimasu ka? (C). Anata wa ashlta koko e kimasu ka ? (C). 18. Yamada San wa ashlta watashi no uchi e kuru (B). 25. Mr Yamada is coming to my house tomorrow. Ano inu wo yonde wa imasen (C). 23. Hagaki wa arimasu . Ashita mo ginko e ikimasu ka ? (C). mo wo also. Akai empitsu wo kau ka ? (B).) to come. yobu : to call. 28. etc. 14. iku (irreg. Form the present tense of the verbs given below from tables 28 and 29. kodomo wa kirei na hako wo motte iru (B). 30. 20. in . He has a pretty white flower. Are you calling that dog ? 8. 14. Taro wa tegami wo kaite imasu (C). Tomorrow morning I shall write a letter to Mr Tanaka. What are you going to buy in Tokyo tomorrow ? 33. Anata 6. Altai empitsu wa kaimasen (C). Kono mise j a kaimasen (C). Mise e iki33. 4. Are you going to the bank again tomorrow ? 21. I don't buy it at this shop. Have you got a postcard and a stamp ? 28. Doko e ikimasu ka ? (C). ni tegami wo kaite imasu (C). 17. 19. Taro is writing a letter. 4. Ano 1. Taro San 29. What are you buying ? 2. motsu : to have hold. I also am coming. 27. I am writing a letter to Master Taro.EXERCISE 6. 26. : ashlta : tomorrow.) : to go. 15. jective case. watashi wa ikimasen 16. 32. kuru (irreg. 17. Are you buying a red 6. I am buying a book and some paper. Where are you going ? 34. child has a pretty box. Anata wa nani wo kaimasu ka ? (C). 11. I am not calling that dog. See 35 and 36 . : : . 5. kitte zca motte imasen (C). 5. 7. I to Tokyo tomorrow. Hon to kami wo kau (B). Do you buy your newspaper at this shop ? 23. Doko de kami wo kaimasu ka ? (C). 31. The subject is often not expressed in Japanese. wa ano inu wo yonde imasu ka ? (C). She is reading a letter. Anata wa kono mise de shimbun wo kaimasu ka ? (C). Ashita wa ikimasen (C). 7. 35. I am going to the office. I 'm buy it at that big shop. 9. I am going to buy a book and a pencil. 3. kaku : to write. I am not pencil ? buying a red pencil. de at . also 38. 1. newspaper comes My in the morning. Yamada San wa Tokyo no shimbun wo kaimasu (C). What are you writing ? 30. (C). Are you coming here tomorrow ? 15. 16. 32. Ashita no asa Tanaka San ni tegami wo kakimasti 18. Kirei na shiroi (C). 8.

Nippon : Japan. 21. 2. it looks a very convenient desk. . Do you think Miss sell fruit at that shop ? 12. 8. Dekimasho (C). 24. I don't think it will. 7. matsu : to wait. 20. kyo : today. Kyo wa iku daro (B). 8. he will . Hana-ko wa ashita uchi e tegami wo kaku daro ka ? (B). 9. Nihon-go : Japanese (language). I expect there is. Do you think Mr Yamada will buy that big desk ? 1. how ame : rain. The principal idea of this tense is uncertainty. Kuruma de kaero (B). speak (The English object often becomes . Ashita wa furumai (B). 11. Sore wa Tokyo no shimbun ja nai desho (C). 13. Asuko ni wa arimasumai (C). 19. Yamada San wa ano oki na tsukue wo kau daro ka ? (B). 1. 9. She will probably come by 17. train. Ano mise de kudamono wo utte iru daro ka? (B). 27. Ano mise ni kono kami ga gozaimasho ka? (D). 10. I am thinking of going back by rikisha. Do you 24. Do you think Mr Smith will come to Japan ? 10. Ame wafura-nai daro (B). Will you return by tram-car ? 4. can be made. Do you think they've got paper like this at that shop ? 23. kaeru : to return come back. 5. Taro San wa kyo Tokyo e iku desho ka ? (C). I think it 20. 19. ready. Smith San wa Nihon e kuru desho ka? (C). I . 16. Kisha de kuru desho (C). I think she will write tomorrow 30. 29. Kore wa Tokyo no shimbun daro ka ? (B). Tsukue wa ashita no asa dekimasho ka ? (C). Hana-ko will come tomorrow by tram-car ? 14. 30. 28. . ano tsukue wa benri desho (C). 17. I wonder whether Hana-ko is going to write home tomorrow ? 28. 4. 12. 5. Ashita ame ga furu desho ka? (C). : to fall (as rain. Can Mr Silva speak English? 6. 26. Jiro San wa mise de watashi wo matte iru daro ka ? (B). 11. finished. 27. furu the subject in Japanese). 14. in tables the different forms of the probable present or future tense are formed 28 and 29. kuruma : a rikisha. : to be able can can do . I don't think it will. Nihon . Hana-ko San wa ashita densha de kuru desho ka ? (C).EXERCISE See 7. Asuko ni wa aru daro (B). 6. 15. . a train. densha Ei-go kisha : : an English (language). 29. I don't think they do. I wonder whether they 13. ? house 's Mr Terada at English newspaper think it will rain today ? 26. Kuru desho (C). 7. 3. I expect morning. I think he will. Do you think it will rain tomorrow ? I wonder whether my desk will be ready tomorrow morning ? 18. I think he will go today. Kyo wa ame ga furu desho ka? (C). 25. wonder whether Master Taro will go to Tokyo today ? 2. . I don't think they've got any there. snow). 22. Kau desho . I wonder whether this is a Tokyo newspaper ? 8. Anata wa densha de kaerimasu ka ? (C). Silva San wa Ei-go ga dekimasu ka ? (C). 23. Ashita no asa kaku desho (C). uru : to sell. kudamono : fruit. : deki'ru electric car. Utte i-nai desho (C). Matte i-nai desho (C). Nihon-go wa dekimasu (C). Ei-go wa dekimastimai . 16. see 93 and 94. I don't think that's a Tokyo newspaper. For the probable present of aru and de aru. I will. I wonder whether Master Jiro is waiting for me at the office ? don 't expect he is. 25. I don't think he can speak English he can speak Japanese. 18. I wonder whether there is an 22. 15. Terada San no uchi ni Ei-go no shimbun ga arimasho ka ? (C). 21.

: in tables. 16. I have. I didn't go today I shall 5. 14. I was not at home yesterday the office writing letters. this morning. 21. Kyo ginkd e itta ka ? (B). 8. Did you understand what Mr Tanaka said ? 20. 17. I un- yesterday. Kind wa uchi ni tegami wo kakimashita (C). Ei-go no shimbun wo yonde imasen deshita (C). 5. No. 22. . ashita ikd (B). I bought. lie. Was that hat Mr Suzuki's? $. egg. Boshi wa arimashita ka ? (C). 31. 81. furimasen deshita (C). 29. : pen : pen. Did you find any thread at that shop ? 6. Shimbun wo yonde 4. 25. That man was not Mr Brown. lie. to understand. Tokyo de katta (B). . I did. Anata wa kind uchi ni ita ka ? (B). No. Study the formation of the past tense and 94. 24. 12. Was Mr Brown again reading a book yesterday ? 17. 33. 19. 2. that is so . : : hai tamago kesa kino 1. I did. it did not. Kesa niku to tamago wo kaimashita ka ? (C). lie. kotoba : words to do. it in Tokyo. 18. 12. 18. it was not Mr Suzuki's Mr Tanaka 's. 29. 27. 32. Kono empi21. Yes. newspapers. 10. Hai. Tanaka nakatta (B). (C). . San wa kind mo hon wo yonde ita ka ? (B). Was Mr Silva reading an English newspaper ? 34. 26. shimashita? (C). Tanaka San no datta (B). T . it was not mine.) : : niku : meat. mise de tegami wo kaite imashlta (C). ita (B). Yamada San wa kesa nani wo shite imashlta ? (C). 16. Was that pen yours ? 30. He was reading the Did you go to the bank today ? 4. 20. sometimes 'yes'.EXERCISE see 93 8. 33. katta (B). doing this morning ? 2. gozaimashita (D). Hai. No. 13. He : no. Was there an English newspaper atMaru/en's? there was not. E. I have heard derstand . Maruzen ni Ei-go no shimbun ga alia ka ? (B). Hana-ko San wa kind uchi e kimasen deshita (C). 11. Did you buy a pen yesterday ? 15. I wrote home yesterday. Kind wauchi ni imasen deshita . No. 28 and 29. . 7. katta . Lie. Yes. 11. No. Where did you buy this pencil ? 24. lie. What did you do yesterday ? 26. What was Mr Yamada 3. Did it rain in Tokyo yesterday ? 32. Ano pen wa anata no deshita ka ? (C). zvakaru ese). Silva San wa Ei-go no shimbun wo yonde imashlta ka ? 34. kino wa hon wo yonde i19. lie. Ano boshi wa Suzuki San no deshita ka ? (C). Yes. he was not. San no kotoba ga zvakarimashita ka ? (C). 3. 23. (The English object becomes the subject in Japan(irreg. 13. arimasen deshita (C). lie. No. lie. watashi no ja nakatta (B). 30. Miss 14. 28. 1. No. Brown 15. 23. Have you found your hat ? (was your hat anywhere ?) 22. 6. . e : man. sum something said. amko ni wa nakatta (B). 25. I did not. yes. Kind Tokyo wa ame ga futta ka? (B). Suzuki San no ja na- 9. kaimashita (C). ito : thread. interjection . he wasn't reading a book yesterday. Ano mise ni ito ga arimashita ka ? (C). Did you buy some meat and some eggs this morning ? 10. wakarimasen deshita (C). Kyd wa ika-nakatta . There was none it was there. 27. Ano hito wa Brown San j a arimasen deshita (C). go tomorrow. For am and de am boshi hito : hat. : interjection . Kind pen wo kaimashita ka ? (C). 7. W ere you at home yesterday ? I was at 28. Kind nani wo tsu wa doko de kaimashita ? (C). 9. Hana-ko did not come to my house yesterday.

somewhat are Since 4. in the morning. Mr Yes. 15. 19. Ano mise wa takaku uru (B). is constructed house 10. I won't buy it. Kono 27. 17. Ano hito wa tegami wo kirei ni kakimasu Kono uchi wa benri ni dekite iru (B). get up ebrly. 25. 27. fruit is stale. Ashita no asa wa sukoshi hayaku okiyo (B). I received a long letter morning I swept the (whole) house very carefully. My hat is old. I very 8. As this book is out of date now. No. Brown San wa 18. 9.EXERCISE 9. 11. sweeping. 29. Have you got a lot of I have a few. oki'ru : to get up. kara : because as since. atarashii desu (C). Uchi ni hana ga takusan arimasu (C). it's too dear. . 14. dear cheaper. takusan : a great deal. letters his writes man That 9. Where is today's newspaper? room. 17. naru : to become. room this morning ? yesterday from Mr Tanaka. I will' hurry up and sweep my room. hayaku okimasu (C). This in a very convenient way. 12. Is this an old bank ? not go to Kamakura. Sono kudamono wa furui kara kawa-nai (B). lie. now. sute'ru : to throw away . I haven't got many English books in your house ? 81. 16. 21. 1. Kami ga zuibun takaku natta (B). soji : cleaning : . 13. Kesa uchi wo kirei ni soji shimashita (C). 22. zuibun : very. Kyo no shimbun wa doko ni ariboshi wa zuibun kitanaku narimashita (C). That shop sells very dear. thing) at that shop. narimashlta (C). shimashita (C). masu ? (C). 31. sutemasho (C). nngai : long. Kino Tanaka San kara nagai tegami ga kimashlta (C). hayai : early quick. 2. I wrote a short letter to Mr Suzuki. 23. Watashi no heya ni aru (B). Atsui and atsuku natta (lit. 4. Hai. 10. Kamakura e ika-nai (B). atarashii new. 4. zuibun okiku 1. Suzuki San ni mijikai tegami wo kakimashtta (C). (C). takusan wa arimasen . 30. kesa Tokyo kara kaetta (B). Yes. I shall 20. Kore wa furui ginko desu ka? (C). I think I'll get up a little earlier tomorrow morning. 19. Did you sweep your 16. lie. 6. ? Yes. Yamada San no inu tea okiku narimashlta ka? (C). shiyo (B). Kyo wa ame ga furu kara. 12. See also 190. kara : after from. Kono hon wa furuku natta kara. 26. Ano mise zva takai kara kaumai (B). We have a lot of flowers in our place. quasi-adjectives change na (or no) into ni when used as adverbs. mijikai : short. 8. 28. kirei ni soji 13. yesterday potatoes very Paper 7. 22. suteyo (B). That man gets up 23. you get up early 11. I don't think I'll buy (any18. I swept it carefully. A no hlto wa zuibun asa hayaku okiru (B). it's new. 15. . 24. As it is raining today. 2. Do 6. very early hat has become quite soiled. he's grown very big. . is ' Has Mr Yamada 's dog grown big? . but when you say atsuku natta you imply that formerly it was not hot. that As 25. (C). 5. 3. The adverbial form of true adjectives is shown in 192. sukoshi : a little. 20. Kind kara imo ga sukoshi yasuku natta (B). furui : old. get rid of. Anata no uchi ni Ei-go no hon ga takusan gozaimasu ka ? (D). I'll throw it away. sukoshi arimasu (C). so I'll throw it away. has or did become hot) both mean 'is hot'. . 26. 29. 3. Brown returned from Tokyo this morning. 5. This neatly. Anata tea asa hayaku okimasu ka ? boshi wa furuku natta kara. No. Watashi no 7. 24. E. Anata wa kesa heya no soji wo shimashita ka ? (C). . Hayaku heya no soji wo 30. Hai. 21.

lie. wo kudasai kudamono wo katte o kure (A). 27. please come to my house tomorrow. 18. electric light ? 17. Don 't buy too many eggs. 10. 9. Omae no boshi wa kitanaku natta kara. kure (impolite) kudasai (polite) by themselves they mean give . (B). used ' ' honorific prefix. 1. Ashita no asa hayaku Tokyo e itte kudasai (C). 24. 11. Asa hayaku oki nasai (A). Please go to Tokyo early tomorrow morning. goran : generally takes the place of the 2nd base in the imperative of mi'ru also after : gerund ' nasai literally to see. 1. Eat this fruit. No. lie. shi-nai de ii (A). 12. 12. Look at that child. 11. Dozo watakushi no heya e o-ide kudasai (D). throw it away. so you mustn 't call it. my letters. Ano hon wa watashi noja nai kara yonde wa ikemasen (C). Look at that red book. asuko de kami wo kawa-nai de kudasai (C). Shall I sweep your room? 31. 25. Hagaki wo kudasai (C). 8. Omae. distasteful. takusan o kai kudasai (D). You needn't go to the bank today. 5. tsuke'ru : to apply. As this is very good paper. 2. 8. 16. ikemasen . 23. in tables 28 and 29. so don't call it. 6. 16. 19. sute nasai (A). Watashi no tegami wo yonde wa ikemasen (C). Kono tegami wo yonde o kure (A). 22. wa sono tegami wo mite wa ike-nai (A). 7. Ii no uchi e o-ide nasai (C). 21. 26. 15. o : : electric light. Kono kudamono wo o tabe nasai (C). Don't do so. Your hat is dirty. . You mustn't read that letter. : electricity . kesu : to put out. 7. Please give me a postcard. ike-nai (familiar) won 't do. Come to my room. Arc wa Yamada San no inu da kara. iya na : disagreeable ii . : it in imperative forms. 30. Please read this letter. Read this letter. 17. tabe'ru : to eat. 27. Sono akai hon wo goran nasai (C). used after the 2nd base in the imperative. No. mustn't read Buy some good fruit. 20. o-ide : generally takes the place of the 2nd base in the imperative of kuru to come and iku to go. 23. 2. yoi : good. Please give me Please call Mr Brown. yonde kudasai (D). Watashi no heya e kite o kure (A). 30. Kore wa ii kami desu kara. Dozo kono 14. 28. yonde wa ike-nai (A). 24. 9. wo soji shimasho ka ? (C). 6. You read that book. Ano kodomo wo goran nasai (C). Please write a letter to Mr Yamada. 32. today 's paper. dozo : please. 10. Yamada San ni tegami wo kaite kudasai (C). please don't do so. Please don't come to my room. That is Mr Yamada 's dog. 26. As that shop is expensive please don't buy the paper there. Denki wo keshimasho ka ? (C). it is not mine. 29. 28. 4. mi'ru : to look. Denki wo tsukemasho ka ? (C). Get up 15. Anata no o heya (C). Ano inu wa iya da kara yoba-nai de o kure (A). ashita watashi 3. . 13. tsiike-nai de kudasai (C). 14. 19. . A no mise wa takai desu kara. (C). Mr Yamada. de ii (B). Kyo wa ginko e ika-nai de ii 25. Kyo no shimbun Dozo Brown San wo Yamada San. 32. 18. Shall I turn off the early in the morning. Tamago wo takusan katte wa ikemasen 29. you needn't. 22. Please come to my room. 31. 5. omae (familiar) you. I don't like that dog. please buy a good deal. 21. Shall I turn on the electric light ? 13.EXERCISE Study the forms of the imperative denki : 10. You mustn't 3. 20. 4. deign '. Kesa-nai tegami wo goran kudasai (D). Watashi no heya e ko-nai de kudasai (C).

8. Take this box to Mr Tanaka 's house. ^1 mustn't bought some flowers yesterday and gave them to Kimi-ko. 20. 19. 22. 3. Yes. to kami wo katte Jiro ni yarimashlta (C). There was such a strong wind the boat didn 't leave. to be in excess. 17. 6. This morning 3. wind. 19. . Terada San ni atta (B). . Kane ga nakute ano kirei na tokei wo kaimasen deshlta (C). 9. Igirisu : England. Dozo Yoshi-ko ni atte. 15. Koko wa ka ga takusan ite iya desu (C). 27. 9. kane : metal money. 5. As I had no money I didn't buy that pretty clock. 2. 11. As this belongs to Haruko I will take it (and give it) to her. . E. You take that away. 25. to take out of . I don 't like this place. 10. Kasa wo motte ikimasho ka ? (C). Bring me this Yes. 11. 1. tsukue wo watashi no heya e motte kite o kure (A). I bought a pencil and morning's paper. Kono tokei wa Yamada San ga Igirisu kara motte kaerimashita (C). Empitsu de kudasai (C). 8. Yes. Mr him. 12. kore wo yatte kudasai 16. Kesa uchi ni tegami wo kaite dashimashlta (C). ka : mosquito. yoku dekimasu (C). Sore wo motte itte wa ike-nai (A). 13. 18. I went to the bank and I met Mr Terada. Taro wa kasa wo motte ikimashita ka? (C). 14. motte iku : to take. Kono hako wo Tanaka San no o uchi e motte o-ide nasai (B). Ginko e itte. 4. motte kuru : to bring take to my place. 25. 14. Bring me a postcard. there are so many mosquitos. 27. he did. 7. Don't buy one which is too expensive. 2. Bring a broom I wrote a letter home (and posted it). he speaks it very well. 26. take one. broom. guest. post this letter please. Kind no kane de nani wo kaimashlta ? (C). Study the formation of the gerund in tables 28. kono tegami wo dashlte kudasai (C). Take some paper out of that box and bring it here. kasa kaze : : umbrella. kyaku : visitor au : to meet. 6. motte kaeru : to bring or take back. fuku : to blow. Boshi wa Maruzen ni itte kaimasho (C). . 17. Hagaki wo motte kite o kure (A). Please go to Yoshi-ko 's house and give her this. Shall I take an umbrella ? 21. Did Taro take an umbrella with him ? Yamada brought this clock back from England with 6. Can that man speak English ? 24. 26. 4. Ano hako kara kami wo dashite motte kite o kure (A).EXERCISE 11. Sore wa Haru-ko no desu kara. 5. 21. Kesa no shimbun wo motte kite o kure (A). A visitor came yesterday so I didn't go to Tokyo. (C). 3. Take this desk to my room. 7. E. 12. post (of a letter). ammari : too . Kind wa kyaku ga kite Tokyo e ikimasen deshlta (C). Ammari takai boshi wo kawa-nai 28. 16. : dasu de'ru : . Kono 15. Buy a stamp and 1. 24. 20. some paper and gave them to Jiro. Hoki wo motte kite kono heya wo soji shite kure (A). fune hoki : : . and sweep this room. What did you buy with your money yesterday ? 28. Ammari kaze ga fuite fune ga de-nakatta (B). E. I '11 go to Maruzen 's and buy a hat. Kitte wo katte. 2. some of the uses ship. A no hlto wa Ei-go ga dekimasu ka ? (C). motte itte yarimasho (C). 29 and 93 of the gerund in 58. motte o-ide nasai (B). Kono hako wo motte Tanaka San no o uchi e o-ide nasai (B). motte ikimashlta (C). 23. 10. to come out of go out. 22. Kind hana wo katte Kimiko ni yarimashlta (C). 18. yarn : to give. 23. 13.

ashita o-ide nasai (A). haku : nomu oku : : mizu nashi : : water. E. motte itte ii (A). Kyo kden 13. 10. 24. Yamada San ga ko-nakute mo anata wa kimasu ka ? (C). 11.' Shall I please. Yes. . they sell rather this . mo yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). wo ? de kudasai mo ka 26. sakana wo ka 16. 10. ni itte mo ii desu ka ? (C). I am expecting a visitor. Yes. 81. gozaimasu (D). Ano inu wo yonde mo 25. 30. I'll give it to you. Asuko wa stikoshi takai kara. Shall I leave this in your room ? 16. (A). Sono nashi wo tdbete 5. You mustn't go today. 11. E. 25. Ashita anata no uchi ni itte mo yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). In spite of the wind I expect the boat will leave today. 21. . No. in 58. Sore wa kitanai kara. 14. 10. Kono mizu wo nonde mo ii desu ka ? (C). Don't throw this book away even after it gets old. 8. 2. Shall I buy some fish ? 17. Ano hlto wa kane ga takusan atte mo. yet. kyo kaite o kure (A). park. 18. No. No. today ? Needn't I come tomorrow? 34. yatte mo ii dard (B). You may. place. ano inu wa zuibun rikd da (B). E. You needn't buy the boots yet. 19. 33. May I drink this water ? 20. wa iya desH . 28. All right. . 4. Will you come even if Mr Yamada doesn't? 22. to put . : ima now. niku wo katte o kure (B). lie. 29. I don't want any fish (today) buy some meat. Shall I buy your boots tomorrow ? 5. May I read book ? 3. tegami yonde yd gozaimasu (D). E. May I go to your house tomorrow ? 28. Ashita wa ko-nakute ii no desu ka ? (C). 4. 36. Mite ii (B). dear there. 12. 34. ii (B). Please don 't come tomorrow. Tamago wa ano mise de katte yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). (C). 9. 21. Yes. 31. kyo wa haka-nakute mo ii (B). ? 17. : to sweep. Kono hon wo mite mo yd 1. Sono ii desu ka ? (C). 18. Sono kitte wo omae ni yaru 30. oite mo yd 14. 8. 27. Kutsu wa mada kawa-nai de mo ii desu (C). 32. kore wa lie. go tomorrow. You may take that stamp. you may that dog is very clever. Shall I sweep your room now ? 9. Terada San ni kyo tegami wo kaite yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 7. I think that will be "alL right. Yes.EXERCISE Study some of the uses of the gerund kden : public garden kutsu : boots. nonde wa ike-nai (A). 9. yoma-nai 27. gozaimasu ka ? (D). Shall I write to Mr Terada 33. kara. 6. Hai. May I go to the park today ? 13. lie. give this box to Saburo ? 12. May I call that dog? 24. Ima anata no heya wo haite yd gozaimasu ka? (D). 2. : sakana fish. 15. mada still .0. E. 12. it's dirty. Ashita anata no kutsu wo kaimashd ka ? 6. ko-naide kudasai (C). 29. 3. 23. kimasu (C). 23. Do you think it will matter if I 11. 15. 20. May I read that letter ? 26. 32. Sakana katte yd gozaimasu (D). ike-nai 1. buy the eggs at that shop? 36. Don't buy them there. pear. Ashita (C). 19. Come again tomorrow 35. Kaze gafuite mofune wa kyo deru desho (C). Don't drink that. Sono hon wafuruku natte mo sute-nai de o kure (A). kin no tokei wo motte imasen (C). I shall. you needn't sweep it today. Kore wo anata no heya ni'oite yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 22. Ddzo ashita mo kite kudasai (C). yonde mo ii . to drink. Although that man has a lot of money he hasn't got a gold watch. Kono hako wo Saburo ni yatte mo ii desho ka ? (C). wakyaku ga kimasu kara. please don't read it. Kyo itte wa ikenai . May I eat that pear ? 7. write today. 3. you may leave it there.

7. house? 6. Yamada San no uchi wa nan-banchi desu ka ? (C). . (C). I have written twice to Mr Terada. counting the ground floor) upstairs. Number 10. Kono boshi tea ikura ? (B). 2. twice upstairs. 3. banchi ni ini (B). 34. Take it to my house. Terada San wa nan-banchi ni imasu ka ? (C). 5. I have been three times. desu ? (C). number 240. How much is Eleven yen fifty sen. What is the number of 8. yen de kaimashita (C). Terada San ni ni-do tegami wo 30. sen : a sen. Nikai kara kyo no shimbun wo motte kite o kure (A). I expect it's about thirty sen. Ano mise wa nan-gai desu ka ? (C). 11. watashi no heya wa san-gai ni arimasu (C). harau : to pay. iku ? how many ? ikura ? how much ? kurai (very often gurai) : about. Kind go-ju-san-yen no. 31.EXERCISE Study the 1st set of numerals in 271 . 3. Kono kutsu wa ikura de kaimashita ? (C). 24. 1. 35. 27. Roku-ju-yen haratta (B). 9. And Mr Yamada 's pay Maruzen ? 4. 13. 1 How much is this hat ? 2. I bought a desk yesterday for this red pencil ? t much did this pretty book cost ? 27. No. nikai first floor ground floor. 25. lie. 18. 16. banchi : number (for houses in native part of the town). Nikko e iku-do ikimashita ? (C). I went to 10. Shi-kai de gozaimasu (D). lie. 26. 35. 1. Roku-yen hachi-jis-sen de gozaimasu (D). my room is on the second floor. . 6. ni-do ikimashita (C). 28. sen. Kono gozaimasu (D). Ano hako go-jis-sen de 17. Hachimotte itte kure 32. number is 's house Mr" Brown 27. Ju-ichi-yen tokei wa ikura desu ka ? (C). 81. 14. Terada 's house ? 30. 20. Kyo wa Tokyo e 7. 21. 29. 15. San-do ikimashita (C). see also 276. 29. Kono kudamono wo hachi-ju-ichi-ban no Smith Sane 33. How much did you How swept thousand How my room five twice today. Number 18. Do you think from the 9. Kyo wa heya no soji wo ni-do shlta uchi wa ni-sen go-hyaku-yen gurai de uru desho (C). 1. ni-hyaku yon-ju banchi 10. Kono kirei na hon wa ikura de gozaimasu ka? (D). 16. Ni-ju-sMchi banchi desu 8. 19. yen. 23. 14. (the one above the therefore the second . 31. Four storeys. How many storeys high is that house ? 20. no uchi wa hachi-ban desu (C). Anata no uchi wa sam-byaku yon-ju banchi desu ka ? (C). 12. 12. Take this fruit to Mr Smith at numbei much did these boots cost you ? 33. Brown San no uchi wa ju-ban de gozaimasu (D). Kono akai empitsu wa ikura de gozaimasu (D). How 24. No. 5. Eight yen. Sore wo uchi e motte kite kudasai. My house is number 8. iva takai daro ka ? (B). How often have you been to Nikko ? 13. (C). 23.tsukue wo kaimashita (C). 32. (1/100 yen). Sore n-a ni-yen san-jis-sen de gozaimasu (D). ban : number (for houses in European part of the town). 22. 13. (A). 21. Is the number o this watch ? your house 340 ? 15. that box will be dear? 11. Six sen/ 25. Maruzen ni ikura haraimashlta ? (C). : do : times. kai : storey . Six yen eighty sen. floor. Ju-hachi dashlta (B). Bring newspaper Tokyo today. It cost two yen 26. yen : a yen Japanese dollar. Watashi 18. 4. Roku-sen de gozaimasu (D). Anata no heya wa nikai desu ka ? (C). I paid sixty yen. Is your room on the first floor ? 22. San-jis-sen gurai de gozaimasho (D). I think they'd sell that house hundred yen. What is the number 28.

4 men). 6. ni wa uma San no uchi 6. San-nin orimasu (C). Bring me two needles. About thirty I should think. 25. bo : stick. 3. 24. That was a good horse. Two girls will be enough. 11. Kono sakana wo ni-hiki Tanaka San no uchi e motte itte o kure (A). 8. Buy ten three-sen stamps. by the aid of an auxiliary numeral see 276. by the word postcard a Japanese will understand a l sen postcard for use in Japan). shall I buy two ? 22. Ashita no asa hayaku kuruma wo ichi-dai yonde kudasai (C). 14. Do you keep a cat in your house ? 15. lie. San-ju25. nin gurai iru desho (C). and one boy. ikutari 2 am ? 5. Bo wo ip-pon motte kite o kure (A). takusan (B). one will be enough.EXERCISE Many nouns are counted 14. futari. otoko no ko ga httori gozaimasu (D). 2. de : sometimes used after what the jochu : servant (female). Hari wo ni-hon motte o-ide 7. How many people (employees) are there in that shop ? 26. 20. Three. 9. : futari ko : child. 19. 14. Yamada San wa kodomo ga yottari ant 15. Buy 8. Give me ten pencils and a hundred sheets of this paper. Jis-sen no kitte wo sam-mai to How many three of these violet pencils. -hiki. Take these two fishes to Mr Tanaka 's house. kitte wo hachi-mai katte o kure (A). Bring me a stick. otoko man. 17. 1. 12. ni-hon kaimasho ka ? (C). 28. 23. -nin. jis-sen no kitte wo shichi-mai kudasai (C). Yamada ni-hiki. No. Call a rikisha for me early tomorrow morning. Empitsu wo jip-pon to kono kami wo hyaku-mai kudasai (C). neko wa imasen ga. No. 2. Please give me two of these one sticks. 16. call a rikisha for me. Anata no uchi ni jochu ga ikutari imasu ka ? (C). subject in English. ikutari ? how many men however. Kono bo wo ni-hon kudasai (C). Mr Yamada keeps two horses and a dog. four men. inu ga ip-piki iru (B). Kono murasaki no empitsu 4. Please give me two postcards (When not otherwise qualified. 24. : : yottari two men. Shall I call two rikishas ? 17. Yon-sen no hagaki wo go-mai to. -mai. 18. Kuruma wo ni-dai yobimasho ka? (C). Mr Yamada has four children. 19. 10. 13. How many servant10. 7. Hagaki wo ni-mai kudasai (C). but as it was too dear I didn't buy it. 27. 28. lie. hltori : : one man. Ano mise ni hito ga ikutari gurai imasu ka ? (C). Give me 4. wo sam-bon kudasai (C). ni-dai yonde kure (A). . -dai. 18. girls are there in your house ? three ten-sen stamps and eight four-sen stamps. No. but we keep two dogs. Kuruma wo yon-sen no 12. As these pencils are cheap. Call two rikishas. we have no cat. -nin : auxiliary numeral for (except 1. Anata no uchi ni neko ga imam ka ? (C). Kodomo wa katte o kure (A). 26. 22. Kono empitsu wa yasui kara. 5. As I am going to Asakusa tomorrow morning. San-sen no kitte woju-mai 3. Ashita no asa Asakusa e ikimasu kara kuruma wo ichi-dai yonde kudasai (C). 11. 23. (B). Onna no ko ga (B). 13. ip-pon de 21. 20. See also 281. inu ga ni-hiki orimasu (C). Please give me five four-sen postcards and seven ten-sen stamps. lie. 16. hari : needle. 9. ammari takai desu kara kaimasen deshita (C). 1. Are wa ii uma deshita ga. 27. 21. ichi-dai de yd gozaimasu (D). . children have you ? 2. men ga : but . -hon. ? is onna woman. ga (A).

32. 31. Watashi no heya kara pen to inki wo motte o-ide (A). 15. shika (foil. 6. he has ate two eggs this morning. Twelve. moon month. Nashi wo ikutsu kaimathd ka ? (C). 19. muttsu shtka motte imasen (C). kanega 27. How old is Miss Hana-ko? a bottle of red ink. 18. Watashi wa Rondon ni yo16. lie. Ima arimasen sukoshi shika kara. tumbler ? months 17. Yon-jis-sen no koppu wo yottsu o kai nasai (B). used to express a person's age. Kono uchi ni heya ga'ikutsii gozaimasu ka ? (U). Kono koppu wa ikura deshita ka ? (C). motte imasu ka ? (C). . this fruit to my house. 21. okii bin wo motte o-ide (A). This ink is no use. Itsutsu da (B). This bottle is no use. How many days (lit. Buy four forty18. 11. Bring three only five. . Hana-ko San no toshi wa ikutsu de gozai10. 17. Kesa watashi zva tamago wo futatsu tabemashlta (C). Taro wa nashi wo to (A). 14. two months in England. I think fifty sen is too much for a box of this fruit. wa ashita kaimasho (C). 4. he returned home yesterday. Chiisai koppu wo mitt. dame : useless. 16. I in was four old are you ? am nine. Omae wa ikutsu ? (A). How many rooms are there in this house 33. hairu : to enter go in. 7. by neg. 32. how many? (in connection with the 2nd set of numerals). 13. year. Muttsu arimasu (C). No. Kono kudamono wofuta-hako uchi e motte kite kudasai (C). 2G. Ashita no ban wa Nagoya ni tomarimasu 25. ite. Mi-ban tomatta (B). koppu toshi : : : tumbler. 12. Kokonotsu de gozaimasu (D). There are eight. Mi-tsuki shika imasen deshita (C). Ju-ni-hon hairimasu (C). Yattsu arimasu 24. How much was this 34. (C). I London. 2. 28. Ei-go ga yoku dekimasen (C). 13. How many pears shall I buy ? small tumblers. 29. Sono hako ni bin ga iku-hon hairimasu ka ? (C). As I have Send two boxes of only a little money now I'll buy the clock tomorrow. I stopped three days. Akai inki wo hlto-bijt katte kudasai (C). kind uchi e kaerimashita (C). You mustn 't go into my room. Has Taro got ten pears ? 5. 33. 21. it's dirty. Kyoto ni iku-ban tomarimashita ? (C). bin : bottle. 9. 23. Okii na-shi ico nanatsu katte o kure 3. dame da . set of numerals in 271 See also 276. . 2. masu ka ? (D). tsuki 1. Kono inki wa kitanai kara dame da (B). How 19. 23. it 's too small bring a bigger one. sen tumblers. inki : ink. Buy 15. Buy seven big pears. S&no hako ni nashi ga ikutsu arimasu? (C). 5. . I did you stop at into that box? five. 20. Kono bin wa ammari chiisai kara. 14. 24. 27. 20. ikutsu ? . How many pears are there in that box ? 25.su motte kite kudasai (C). 3. 22.EXERCISE Study the 2nd numerals is . How many months were you at Nikko ? was only there three months. Mr Terada was 31. How many bottles go 12. 15. Kono kudamono wa hito-hako go-jis-sen ja ammari takai daro (B). 4. 9. tokei 26. 3. nights) Kyoto ? 8. 22. 6. She is 10. The 2nd set of ban : night. (C). 8.30. 28. There are sLx. Nikko ni ikutsiiki gurai imashlta? (C). but I cannot speak English well. . I don 't think Mr Yamada is fifty yet. 1. Watashi no heya e halite wa ikemasen (B). 7. 30. tsuki orimashita ga. 11.): only. to'tnaru : to stop pass the night at. Terada San wa Igirisu ni futa-tsuki 34. 4. Yamada San wa mada go-ju ni naranai desho (C). I intend to sleep tomorrow night at Nagoya. Bring me a pen and ink from my room.

tsukimasu ka ? (C). Yamada San kara suiyo-bi ni 14. Kyo wa kayo de gozaimasu (D). itsu 22. Shimbun no kane wa misoka ni haraimasu (C). Igirisu no no tsuitachi ni tsuku desho (C). 30. 16. 25. I 1. Tanaka San wa nichiyo ni mo ginko e ikimam ka ? (C). 15. etc. I am going to Mukojima early on the morning of the 6th. nichiyo ni wa uchi ni imasu (C). February. in Study the names of the months. 17. Sengetsu no itsuka wa nani4. Raigetsu no mikka 1. de ? 6. it came on Thursday.dasai (D). 7. 24. On Friday. Bring me the newspaper of the 30th of June. 19. Muika no asa hayaku Mukojima e ikimasu (C). the days of nichi day. I ant going to Kyoto on the 2nd of March. itsu ? yo-bi day of the week. As I have read this book. When will Mr Suzuki come back from England ? 2.EXERCISE the . 15. iku-nichi kakarimasu ka ? (C). Yamada San wa doyo-bi ni Kobe kara kaerimashlta (C). 26. 16. 12. last to cost . I think he will come on the 20th of this month. Kongetsu no hatsuka ni kuru daro (B). 10. 2. take time. lie. kongetsu : this month. What day of the week was the 5th of last month ? 6. 11. 25. No. lie. When is your servant coming back ? 20. 17. On the 1st of next month. Koko kara Rondon 8. 19. Watakushi no kutsu wa yo-bi 9. It will probably arrive on the 1st of next month. 13. : : 293 . KlsKa de ju-yokka gurai kakarimasu (C). Raigetsu about fourteen days. ni Kobe ni tsukimasu (C). Kongetsu no yokka ni Nikko no Takada San ni tegami wo dashita (B). month in 294 and the days of the week in 297. Doyo-bi ni ame (A). 23. 27. Did the letter from Mr Yamada come on Wednesday ? 16. Roku-gaisu no misoka no shimbun wo motte kite kure 30. January. By . Kinyo-bi ni dekimasu (C). How many days does it take from here to London ? 10. Today is Tuesday. to arrive. 7. 29. suiyo-bi ni wa kimasen deshita . 5. 31. month. I '11 (go and) give it to Taro. Suzuki San wa itsu Igirisu kara kaerimasu ka ? (C). Please come to my house early on Sunday morning. 9. Getsuyo-bi gozaimasu (D). gafutte Yamada San no uchi e ikimasen deshita (C). tegami ga kimashita ka ? (C). Monday. 27. Watashi wa sangatsu futsuka ni Kyoto e iff imasu (C). 21. Not on Wednesday. 18. When will my boots be ready ? 8. 28. (C). 28. He will arrive at Kobe on the 3rd of next month. fune wa Hatsuka gurai kakaru (B). 29. (C). About twenty days. When will the English boat arrive ? 24. 3. 26. 31. Raigetsu no tsuitachi ni kaerimasu (C). Rondon made tegami MI 20. Dozo nichiyo no asa hayaku uchi e o-ide ku. Terada San wa nan-nichi ni Tokyo e kimasu ka ? 5. itsu dekimasu ka ? (C). 11. Kono hon wa mimashita kara Taro ni motte itte yarimasu (C). Doyo-bi ni koen ni ikimasho (C). he stays at home on Sundays. made iku-nichi gurai kakarimasu ka ? (C). I am thinking of going to the park on Saturday. Does Mr Tanaka go to the bank also on Sundays ? 14. 23. Anata nojochii wa itsu kaerimasu ka? 21. deshita (C). made : until. pay for the newspaper on the last day of the month. I wrote to Mr Takada of Nikko on the 4th of this 'month. train 12. 3. Mr Yamada arrived from Kobe on Saturday. 13. How long does a letter take (from here) to London ? 22. mokuyo-bi ni kimashita (C). raigetsu sengetsu : : nantsuku ? when ? how many : : ? kakaru next month. 18. When will Mr Terada come to Tokyo ? 4. It rained on Saturday so I didn 't go to Mr Yamada 's house.

Koko kara ichi-jikan han gurai kakaru (B). 12. This boat will leave tomorrow at noon. 3. Ueno kara Nikko made nan-jikan kakarimasti. Omae wa asago-ji 29. 1. 23. I expect he will arrive at Yokohama about the 3rd of next month. Koko kara Shimbashi made densha de han-jikan kakaru (B). There is a big dog in front of the bank. ju-ichi-ji goro kit a (B). 14. By what train did you come back yesterday ? 2. 7. Igirisu no fune wa ashita no ban hachi-ji ni tstikimasu (C). 9. About five hours. sugi after. : half. 29. Kono tegami wa itsu kimashita? 4. Ima nan-ji de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 15. 24. 16. Go-jijip-pun sugi desu (C). The English boat will arrive tomorrow 19. The servant returned last night at a quarter past nine. Mokuyd no asa hachi-ji han ni Suzuki San no uchi ni iku (B). Ashlta no ban shichi-ji han ni o-ide nasai (C). 17. Kind nan-ji no kisha de kaerimashita ? 2. him : noon day-time. How many hours does it take from Ueno to Nikko ? 6. Yamada San wo. Kono fune waashita no him deru (B). kino yarn no ju-ji no kisha Watashi wa raigetxu no kokonoka goro Nikko e ikimasu (C). 298. 11. Rokuji mae ni watashi no heya e kite wa ike-nai (A). 301. Asakusa e kuruma de nan-jikan kakarimasu ka? (C). Ginkd no mae ni oki na inu ga imasu (C). Is Mr Kimura back already ? 20. Gozen (C). Go-jikan gurai kakaru (B). 15.20 P. About an hour and a half from here. Sono nashi ico hambun Jiro ni o yari nasai (B). jikan : hour (duration). not yet. How long does it take to go to Asakusa by rikisha ? 21. gozen : morning. 5. 299. Come tomorrow evening 13. Yamada San wa sengetsu no toka no ban ni kaetta (B). mae : before in front. When did this letter arrive ? 4. : yoru : evening night. It's already past six. Kimura San wa mo kaerimashita ka ? (C). 5. Give half of that pear to Jiro. 3/o roku-ji sugi desu (C). 12. 302. ka ? (C). gogo : afternoon. 18. this letter before nine o'clock.EXERCISE Numbers fun ji : 17. I shall go to 26. 27.of. . 11. 31. Mr Yamada returned last month on the evening of the 10th. already. hour. . 16. ni oki nasai (A). It takes half an hour by tram-car from here to Shimbashi. lie. Mr Yamada left for Kyoto last night by the 10 o'clock train. at half past seven. 3. Ashlta gozen ju-ji han ni niku wo motte kite kudasai (C).M. mo : more : . 1. 26. 10. ni-jip-pun no kisha de kaerimashita (C). Nikko about the 9th of next month. Ano hito wa raigetsu no mikka goro Yokohama e tsuku desho (C). 23. At what o'clock does this train leave ? 25. 18. 8. Kono kisha wa nan-ji ni demasu ka ? (C). studied. 21. At five minutes to three. train. No. 6. 19. 7. San-ji go-fun mae ni dema&ti (C). By the 6. You mustn't come to my room before 6 o'clock. 28. liambun (noun) han (adjective) . 20. 31. What time is it ? 10. It is ten minutes past five. 30. 32. 27. and 303 should be : minute. 28. mada desu (C). Ku-ji mae ni kono tegami wo dashite kudasai (C). 17. evening at eight o'clock. 14. Anofune wa kind san-ji go-fun maeni deta (B). 25. koro (generally pronounced goro): about. . Gogo no roku-ji (C). Get up at 5 o'clock. I am going to Mr Suzuki's house on Thursday morning at half past eight. 8. 24. 22. 30. de Kyoto e itta (B). That ship left yesterday at five minutes to three. Bring me the meat tomorrow morning at half past ten. It came at about eleven o'clock in the morning. Jochu wa kind yoru no ku-ji ju-go-fun sugi ni kaerimashita (C). 22. 13. 32. 9. Post.

Watashi wa roku-ji mae ni kaera-nakereba narimasen (C). Jibiki ga nakereba Terada San ni kari na^ai (B). As soon as you arrive at Kobe. If you haven 't brought an umbrella with you. 5. eat it. Doyo-bi ni Suzuki ga ko-nakattara tegami wo dashite kure (A). When you finish what you are doing. If you like this pear. * . Kobe ni tsuitara Yamada San ni tegami wo dashite kudasai (C). If you dictionary. 18. Omae wa hayaku oki-nakereba ike-nai (A). 12. 22. 11. 4. 9. When they are ready send them to my house.EXERCISE also 93 18. As soon as he'd gone out Mr Tanaka arrived.* suki : fondness for anything. please call her. don't eat it. 17. 14. 15. 19. If Suzuki doesn 't come on Saturday. go no tegami deshltara ano hito wa wakarimasu (C). moshi : if supposing that. that is not (busy) sweeping. 23. (69). If the servant man will The object of the dislike or fondness generally takes the postposition ga before kirai or suki. Ju-yen motte ireba takusan desho (C). that will be plenty I think. 12. 21. 10. You must get up early. 6. come to an end. 2. mada de gozaimasu (D). Moshi sono tsukuega benrinara kaima^ho 20. The past conditional is sometimes translated by 'when' or 'after'. If you haven't got a 5. ga futte i-ndkereba kono tegami wo dashite kudasai (C). Moshi kasa wo motte kimaaen deshitara watashi no wo 10. If that desk is convenient. : kimono dress. 3. If it isn't raining too hard. I 9. 7. If you have yesterday 's paper. 23. kirai : dislike of something. and adverbs) : if. I shall be obliged to go to the bank. dekake'ru 1. 13. Supposing I receive no money from home today. borrow one from Mr Terada. nara (used after verbs. 11. Ammari ame. 6. Kutsuwamo dekimashita ka? (C). 2. 8. I'll lend you mine. If you don't come to my house. write him a upstairs. adjectives. 18. Ano hito ga dekaketara Tanaka San ga kita (B). shigoto : work. Sono shigoto ga sundara kono kimono wo aratte kure (A). lie. kari'ru : to borrow. call her. sumu : to finish . See the formation of the conditional present and past in tables 28 and 29. Dekitara watashi no uchi e motte kite kudasai (C). I shall buy it. Hana-ko San ga nikai ni imunhitara yonde kudasai (C). nouns kasu . (go and) post this letter. Are my boots ready yet ? 21. not yet. No. : to leave . 16. If Miss Hana-ko is 7. If the letter is in English. please lend it to me. understand it. (C). 4. 16. please write to Mr Yamada. Kirai nara tabe-nai de ii (A). 3. I'll go to yours. Moshi kyo uchi kara kane ga ko-nai nara. 14. Ashita ame ga fureba Nikko e ika-nai (B). letter. 20. wash this dress. and 94. 17. . have ten yen with you. Kind no shimbun ga attara dozo kashite kudasai (C). 1. jibiki : dictionary. won't go to Nikko. ginko e ika-nakereba nara-nai (B). Eikafthimasho (C). Jochu ga soji wo shite i-nakereba yonde o kure (A). If it rains tomorrow. 13. : to lend. set out. Kono nashi ga suki nara o tabe nasai (B). 22. If you don't like it. The negative present conditional followed by ike-nai or nara-nai may be translated by 'must' (72). I must go back before 6 o'clock. Anata ga uchi ni ko-nakereba watashi ga anata no uchi ni ikimasho (C).* arau : to wash. 19. 15. 8.

If that book is not difficult please lend it to me. lie. 28. 12. 2. Kono koppu wa yasukute shina ga yd gozaimasu (D). so long as they taste 22. 8. in that way . 10. 4. is too long. 25. If 3. Kyo wa atsukutte shiyo ga arimasen (C). No.) the way of doing. These hot today. shikata (or shiyo) ga nai : there is no umai : nice (of taste) well done. help for it. 27. Kono bin wa ammari okikutte mo umaku nai nara katte wa ike-nai (A). If those pencils cost less 26. toko gozaimasen deshUa (D). 17. 24. If that fruit doesn't taste nice I'll not buy any even if it's cheap. Kono ito wa furukute dame desu (C). 19. These tumblers are cheap and the quality is good. Shall I buy good buy some good ones. 18. 27. muzukashii : difficult. In Japanese true adjectives have a kind of conjugation see 198. Buy some. used in neg. ii no wo o kai nasai (B). 9. it was not dear. This thread is old. so ja arimasen . Vmakereba okiku nakute mo kamawa-nai (B). I suppose that hat is expensive. Kami wa hyaku-mai go-jis-sen yori takakereba kawa-nai de kudasai (C). 15. 18. wa no 26.fresh fish. it won't do. nice. Omae no tsfikue wa takakatta ka ? (A). akai no the red one. Kono nashi wa yasukutte Umai (B). Sono 25. 4 and 5. 16. Hana-ko no boshi wa akai no de gozaimasu (D). Sono hari ga moshi dame deshitara. Although this book is not old. Kono akai empitsu 22. 199. yasuku nakereba kaimasumai Ano hon wa ammari muzukashikattara kawa-nai (B). but if they are not cheap I don't think I'll buy them. 21. ? (D). jii-go-hon katte o kure (A). 7. yori : than. atarashii sakana wo o kai nasai (B). 9. Hana-ko 's hat is a red one. Those flowers are pretty. Takakute mo kamaimasen kara. 21. No. kamau : to matter (gen. 1. 5. Nashi wa 29. Don 't buy any eggs if they are not fresh. Sono hon ga moshi muzukashiku nakattara watashi ni kashtte kudasai (C). 1. 1. 5. If that book is too difficult I won't buy it. Is this red pencil yours ? 24.). shiyo : (lit. Was Mr Yamada 's a long letter ? 23. zuibun nagakatta (B). like that. 4. it was a very long one. shina atsui : : quality hot. 23. 15. Kono hon wa furuku nakute mo zuibun kitanai (B). Atarashii tamago ga nakattara kawa-nai de ii (A). empitsu ga go-sen yori yasukattara. 20. 13. 29. 28. watashi no wa kuroi (C). That stick 14. 16. mashUa ka desu (C). articles.) mine is a black one. lie. some big pears ? 20. If the pears are not nice. 3. E. 11. . 10. Ano hana wa kirei desu ga. 7. So ka? takaku nai nara watashi mo kao (B). 17. 12. don 't buy any even if they are big. If those needles are no 19. Did your desk cost dear ? they are not dear I will buy one also. . 11. Is that so ? 2. 8. . Yamada San no tegami wa nago gozai3. 6. It's awfully Our servant is very dirty. (that is not so . it doesn't matter even if it's dear. Uchi no jochu wa kitanakute shiyo ga nai (B). 14. pears are cheap and they taste Very nice. shikata . 6. Don 't buy any paper if it costs more than fifty sen the hundred sheets. buy fifteen. so : so . No after an adjective often has the meaning of 'one'. Oki na nashi wo kaimasho ka ? (C). okikutte shiyo ga nai (B). This bottle is very big. it's no use. Sono bo wa nagakute ikemasen (C). It doesn't matter if they are not big. Yes.EXERCISE 19. Sono kudamono wa yasukutte mo umaku nakereba kawa-nai (B). Ano boshi wa takakaro (B). it's very dirty. anata no desu ka? (C). Study the uses of adjectival gerund noted in 200. 13. than five sen each. .

Yoshi-ko San wa zuibun riko de shinsetsu na Into desu (C).willed. Uchi no Matsu wa (D). 20. There is not a bigger one (than this one). 9. hoka no wo kao (B). 1. Kono ko wa baka de shlkataga nai 10. 7. you although he is cjever. 16. shinsetsu shojiki yama : mountain. I'll take another. sore wa Jiro no da (B). hoka no wo karimasu (C). lie. Watashi wa yama ga suki de tabi-tabi ikimasu (C). 5. 24. Kono tsukue wa benri de mo ammari takai kara kawa-nai (B). Kuroi no wa Taro no inu de. 7. 10. hat. 2. or a violet one . Write the letter more carefully. Motto kirei 3. Our servant is honest and kindThis box is not pretty and it's dear. The black dog belongs to Taro and the white one to Jiro. 20. 6. Our servant Matsu is very self-willed. . wagamama na : self-willed. 4. shiroi no wa Jiro no inu desu (C). hoka no : another. As that man is not honest I don't think he'll suit do. I like this flower. na : kind kind-hearted. 12. 25. 17. That child is not ill. joto no (or na) : high-class quality. Is this Taro's hat? 19. byoki : illness.EXERCISE Qua si-adjectives ial . 18. 15. 15. another no is not pretty kirei na no a pretty one) needed to give the meaning of 'one' (murasaki no violet. 20. 18. Kono tsukue wa fuben de ike-nai kara. Hana-ko is very* self-willed. gozaimasu wagamama na jochu de shiyo ga arimasen (C). 11. Ano ko wa byoki de wa naku wagamama da (B). Ano kodomo wa baka de wagamama da (B). Motto kirei ni tegami wo kaki nasai (A). na : honest. Ordinary nouns followed by de are sometimes used in a way very similar to the gerundial constructions of quasi-adjectives. . 23. Uchi no jochu wa shojiki de 1. it is Jiro 's. motto . Kono kitte wa Suzuki San no de (C). 8. shinsetsu desu (C). 14. Sono hako wa kirei de mo yowai kara dame desu (C). Although this is a convenient desk I won't silly buy it as it is too dear. Kono uchi wa fuben de ikemasen kara. That child hearted. it's very pretty. : more. This stamp belongs to Mr Suzuki. 22. As this house is inconvenient and won 't 25. . hoka . he is self-willed. . Hanako wa wagamama de shiyo ga arimasen (C). : best tabi-tabi frequently. Mr Brown 's letter is in English so I don't understand it. 14. in na (or -wo) have constructions corresponding to the gerundconstructions of true adjectives 219. Kami wa joto no de nakute mo kamaimasen (C). . 11 Although that box is pretty it won't do as it is too weak. No with the meaning of 'one' is placed after quasi-adjectives in na (kirei na after quasi-adjectives in no. Kono liana wa kirei de suki da (B). Kono boshi wa Taro no desu ka? 19. Kore yori oki na no wa gozaimasen (D). No. 13. 3. Ano hlto wa riko de mo shojiki ja nai kara dame daro (B). 6. 21. or another one). I '11 buy another one. 8. This child is very 9. 22. As this desk is inconvenient and won 't do. 16. fuben na : inconvenient. I often go to the mountains as I'm fond of them. 4. Motto oki na hako ga nai ka? (B). Buy a prettier and better 5. 23. Miss Yoshi-ko is a very clever and kind-hearted girl. Kono hako wa kirei ja nakute takai (B). dejoto no boshi wao kai nasai (B). 24. 2. 12. Isn 't there a bigger box ? 17. 21. It doesn 't matter even if the paper is not of the best quality. (B). 13. no another. Brown San no tegami wa Ei-go de watashi wa wakarimasen (C). is silly and 'self.

kawaku : to become dry. Matsu wa uchi ni kaeritai daro (B). . Taro tea nashi ga tabetai desho kara. 3. The object of the desire often takes the postposition ga in Japanese. (C). thirsty I am that red book. 27. chichi ga nomiiaku narimashlta (C). 4. 23. (o) cka : : tea. I don't feel inclined to eat fish today. 13. Sampo ni ikitai desu ka? (C). I am hungry. Jiro San ni aitaku nakatta kara. 27. Moshi kono hon ga yomitaku natfara. Nodo ga / kawaita . 5. 13. 7. 25. 18. I suppose Matsu wishes to return home. o cha ga nomitakutte shiyo ga nai (B). 17. I no longer feel 21. : ni iku to go for a walk. 24. 19. itte mo kamaimasen (C). Onaka ga sukimashita ka ? (C). 10. ikimasen deshtta (C). omega futte dame datta (B). li-a ikitaku arimasen 18. 8. I am thirsty. o cha wa kirai desu . I would like to have my dinner. 22. but as it rained I couldn't do so. No. kakitaku arimasen deshita ga. I suppose Taro would like a pear to eat. Kyp tea sakana wa tabetaku arimasen (C). Ikitaku nattara. Did you write home ? I didn 't feel inclined. sampo sampo : a walk. 22. Ano hito no tegami wa yomitaku arimasen (C). 4. lie. I would like to buy that desk. 9. tsukue I wo kaitai ga. 2. . but later on. I feel inclined now to go to Mr Yamada 's house. lie. I . Did you go to Mr Yamada 's house on Sunday ? I didn 't go as I didn 't wish to meet Mr Jiro. nodo ga kawaku : to be thirsty. I am very thirsty. (C). 16. I don't care for tea. Nodo ga zuibun kawakimasMta (C). ga kawaite. dashite goran nasai (C). See the formation of the desiderative in tables 28 and 29. cha wo nomitai desu ka ? (C). hikidashi : a drawer. 12. onaka : belly. 20. Uchi ni tegami wo kakimashita ka ? (C). . No. 11. I am not hungry. would like to drink some water. suku : to become empty. Watashi wa nodo 1. Sono hon wa mo yomitaku naku narimashita (C). No. please give him one. onaka ga suku : to be hungry. kono hikidashi ni arimasu 16. mizu ga nomitai (B). The desiderative a real adjective and has all the inflexions of one. 1 9. 5. I would like a little milk. Onaka ga sukimashita . 12. 2. kakimashita 9. as it's in this drawer take it out and read it (lit. Are you hungry ? I would like some milk to drink (lit. . I don't wish to go today. chichi milk. 14. Watashi wa uchi ni kaeritaku narimashita (C). you may do so. 6. (lit. I did write. if you become desirous). lie.EXERCISE is 21. nodo : throat. Yes. I wanted to go for a walk yesterday. 10. chichi wo sukoshi nomitai (B). hitotsu yatte kudasai (C). kyo kara. 11. have become non-desirous). 15. Ano akai hon ga mitai (BJ. Yamada San no uchi ni ikitaku natta (B). lie. gohan : cooked rice a meal. If you feel inclined later on to read this book. (On account of something which has happened) I now feel inclined to return home desirous of returning home). Rondon e itte mitai (B). Would you like some to read that man 's letter. 7. 24. I do so wish to drink some tea. 14. Kino sampo ni ikitakatta ga. . 21. I would like to read would like to go and see London. Ano 1. Do you wish to go for a walk ? 17. 8. I don't wish inclined to read that book (lit. Nichiyo ni Yamada San no uchi ni ikimashfta ka ? (C). 26. I have become 15. Should you feel inclined to go 20. gohan ga tabeto gozaimasu (D). but however. onaka IK a sukimasen ga. 3. 23. I have become desirous of drinking milk). No. but it's too dear. E. tea to drink ? 26. ammari takai (B). 6. 25.

nasaru : to do (honorific). itadaku itasii : : to give (humble).). 24. I will eat a little. Raigetsu no muika ni mairimasu Dozo kono kudamono wo meshi-agalte kudasai (D). 10. 19. Mr Terada didn't eat his breakfast this yesterday and gave me this. I received this flower from. and humble words when referring to the 1st person. 21. 5. 18. He is in Hakone 3. 18. not yet she is going by the 6 P. Has Miss etc. Hana-ko already left for Kyoto ? 11. 13. irasxhani: to be. kudasaru : to give (honorific). Yes. eat drink . Kono kudamono wo Yoshi-ko San ni agemasho (D). 23. . Dozo ashita no ban hachi-ji ni uchi e irash'tte kudasai (D). 8. 6. 20.M. Please eat this fruit. train tomorrow. Itsu 3. 11. Kino Yamada San ga o-ide nas'tte kore wo watakushi ni kudasai mashUa (D). go (honorific). Anata wa nichiyo ni nani wo nasaimasu ka ? (D). Where is Mr Tanaka now ? 25. Amerika e irasshaimasu ka ? (D). Kesa nikai no soji wo shita ka? (A). Mr Yamada gave me this flower yesterday (lit. agemasho (D). 18. itashimashUa (D). Did you sweep the rooms upstairs this morning ? 20. 5. morning. 7. Mr Yamada reads the newspaper before breakfast. 12. I am going on the 6th of next month. Did you go to Tokyo yesterday ? . Kind Tokyo e o-ide nasaimashita ka ? (D). Mr Yamada came 14. I will give this fruit to Miss Yoshi-ko. I did. Sengetsu kara Hakone ni o-ide nasaimasu (D). Don't give fruit to the cat. 21. (humble). 4.ru. Saburo 22. Suzuki San ga Taro ni kirei na hon wo kudasaimashita (D). 17. May I offer you some tea? 17. 15. mada de gozaimasu . Where is Mr Yamada? 23. 24. o cha wa itadakimasen (D). 16. piki kureta (B). . kudasa. I will sweep this room. 15. . 12. When are you going to America ? 2. but not polite). kure'ru : to give (used only of the 2nd or 3rd person. 7. to receive . irassharu. Notice the irregularities of the verbs goza. . ashita gogo no roku-ji no klsha de mairimasu (D). wo goran nasaimasu 1. . gave me a little dog. Nichiyo ni wa Tokyo e mairimasu (D). Nikai ni irasshaimasu (D). (D). 9. 16. Hai. Saburo wa watashi ni chiisa na inu wo ip1. What do you do on Sundays ? 6. 22. I go to Tokyo on Sundays. maim : . Yamada San wa asa no gohan no mae ni shimbun soji wo itashimasho (D). Honorific and humble words to ascertain extent take the place of personal and possessive pronouns honorific words are generally used when speaking of the 2nd (sometimes the 3rd) person. 9. come. (D). 19. Please come to my house tomorrow evening at eight o'clock. lie. 26. since last month. 25. He is upstairs. 27. Kono hon wo mada goran nasaimasen deshitara. No thanks. 4.ru and nasaru mentioned age'ru : in 96. No. 2. cha wo agemasho ka ? (D). 8.EXERCISE : 22. to do (humble). Tanaka San wa ima doko ni irasshaimasu ka? (D). Hana-ko San wa mo Kyoto e o-idf nasaimashita ka ? (D). 26. Sukoshi itadakimasho (D). Neko ni kudamono wo kurete wa ike-nai (A). Yamada San wa doko ni irasshaimasu ka ? (D). I don't take tea. lie. Mr Suzuki gave Taro a pretty book. 10. 28. If you haven't yet read this book I will give it to you. Watakushi ga kono hcya no 27. Kino Yamada San ni kono hana wo itadakimashita (D). 14. 28. goran nasaru : to look (honorific). Terada San wa kesa gohan zoo meshi-agarimasen deshlla (D). o-ide nasaru : to be come go (honorific). to corne go (humble). meshi-agaru : to eat drink (honorific).

Hana-ko brought it from England with her. Hai. I took it (to his house) yesterday. de gozaimasu (D). 9. Ku-ji no klsha de Anata wa taihen jozu ni Ei-go wo o hanashi nasaimasu (D). 15. ano kata wa Ei-go wa o deki nasaimasen 25. 3. 9. E. Yes. If you happen to have a red pencil about you. 18. 11. lie. Yamada San wa Ei-go no tegami wo jozu ni o kaki nasaimasu (D). 16. o wakari ni naru desho (D). 31. kuremashita (C). I still speak it very incorrectly. dozo o kashi kudasai (D). I am out of practice now in Japanese (lit. Ano kata wa Ei-go mo yoku o wakari de gozaimasu (D). Hana-ko San wa Ei-go ga o wakari ni narimasu ka? (D). nichiyo ni kakimasho (C). Mitsu-ko San no tegami wo goran desu ka? (C). lie. Kono o yomi desu ka? (C). 20. did you buy yesterday ? you already read today 's paper ? 16. Watashi wa Nihon-go ga yoku wakarimasen kara. expert. 28. Yes. ? which : taihen very. Does Miss Hana-ko understand (speak) 26. No. 8. 33. By the nine o'clock train. jozu na yasashii : a good hand at : . narimashita 7. 24. 14. E. 26. Can you speak English ? 2. As I don't understand Japanese well. 29. please lend it to me. Watashi wa Nihon-go ga heta ni natta (B). By what train tomorrow are you going to Matsushima ? 10. easy. taihen jozu ni o hanashi ni narimasu (D). please use simple words. (D). 25. 32. Yasashii 5. kind motte ikimashUa (C). na : incompetent 3. lie. No. yasashii kotoba de o hanashi kudasai (D). 17. Which book did you give ? 4. o dashi nasaimashita ka ? (D). 23. Kono hon wa yasashii desu kara. 29. I expect you'll understand this book as it's easy. No. 30. Anata wa Ei-go wo (C). Have you already 6. lie. I've already read it. 12. Yoshi-ko ga (D). Have 14. Hai. 30. 13. ? dono . 12. Yes. 18. Did you give the fruit to Mr Terada ? 22. Kono kirei na sara wa doko de o kai ni Hana-ko ga Igirisu kara motte kimashita (C). hanashi : a tale. 4. hanasu : to speak. Akai empitsu wo o mochi desMtara. not yet I '11 write on Sunday. Terada San ni kudamono wo o age nasaimashita ka ? (D). 17. mo yomimashita (C). Have you seen Miss Mitsu-ko 's letter ? 33. You speak Which desk . No. heta 1. Taro . Mo kyo no shimbun wo chiisaj. cheap. Mr Yamada writes letters in English very well. Mo Suzuki San ? (D). 21. Kono liana wa o kai ni narimashita ka ? (D). o hanashi masu Dono hon wo Taro hanashi no hon wo yarimashita (C). 6. a bad hand at. Yes. No. 360. 31. 23. These plates are pretty and they were very 82. 19. not yet. 28.R c Ordinary verbs i s E 23. I have become" unskilful). lie. mada heta ka? (C). 13. mada nasaimasu ka? no kisha de Matsumairimasu (D). English very well. He also understands English very well. 21. 27. I bought this small one. 5. plfjtte ? written to Mr Suzuki ? 8. may be made honorific as explained in 359. yasu gozaimashita (D). no wo kaimashita (C). Kono sara wa kirei de taihen 1. she does not. kata : person. 20. I gave him an easy story-book. Can Mr Silva 11. he can speak it very well. 22. English ? 24.E x E. Kino dono tsukue wo o kai deshita 15. Silva San wa Nihon-go wo o hanashi nasaimasu ka ? (D). mada mi-nai (B). 10. sukoshi hanashiui o yari nasaimashita? (D). sara : plate. 27. Did you buy this flower ? Yoshi-ko gave it to me. Ashita nan-ji shima e o-ide de gozaimasu ka? (D). 2. Sore wa ni tegami wo dashimasen . speak Japanese ? 19. Where did you buy this pretty 7. a little.

. 24. ani (humble) nii-san (honorific) . Sengetsu no hatsuka ni kaerimashita (C). to Yokohama e irasshaimashita ? (D). 22. What is your sister doing now ? 25. Mr Yamada has three sons one of them is in America. 24. Musume wa arimasu ga. 26. Yamada no kanai wa watoshi no imoto desu (C). No. Can your daughter speak English? 11. Suzuki San no oku-sama wa taihen shinsetsu na o kata de gozaimasu (D). No. 13. Kore wa ne-san no tokei de gozaimasu ka? (D). 2J Ani wa kinyo no ban Kobe kara kaette. by adding sama or o to-san (honorific) . 23. When did your brother return from America ? 14. She is writing letters . Mr Silva knows Japanese very well. Who is that person ? 2. lie. . 10. Have you got any children ? 9. Nikai de tegami wo kaite imasu (C). wa o uchi ni irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 26. 16. : san). 21. 3. O-jo-san wa Ei-go ga o deki nasaimasu ka? (D). Mrs Suzuki is a very kind lady. Niisan wa itsu Amerika kara o kaeri ni narimashita ? (D). Is your husband at home 6. Is this your sister's watch ? 16. o-jo-san (honorific) daughter. 12. 17. . 7. 8. chichi (humble) father. yado (humble) danna sama husband. 18. 7. my sister hasn't got a watch. 15. My father went but my mother did not. 5. sama : Mr. musuko wa arimasen (C). Many nouns which are not honorific. Yamada San no ototo 1. 8. but his wife hardly knows any. : : younger brother. musume : daughter girl. . 6. Yado wa kyo wa uchi ni orimasu (C). He went with my little sister. 24. if a person.EXERCISE san. ane (humble) elder sister. 15. 3. Mrs Yamada is my (younger) sister. Yamada San wa musuko ga san-nin atte. doyo-bi ni Igirisu e ikimasu (C). : elder brother. 19. 18. Anata wa o ko san ga arimasu ka ? (C). dekimasen (C). upstairs. Chichi wa itta keredomo haha wa ika-nakatta (B). 10. ne-san (honorific) donata ? (polite) dare ? who ? keredomo : although however. Danna sama wa kyo 4. 9. she cannot. Mrs. 2. Silva San wa taihen Nihon-go ga o jozu desu ga. to-san to o ka-san wa kino Tokyo e o-ide nasaimashita If a? (D). My mother went with Mrs Terada to Nikko. A few nouns are in themselves honorific or humble. Whom did your father go to Yokohama with ? 20. I have a daughter but no son. (more polite than . younger sister. etc. My brother will return from Kobe on Friday and leave for England on Saturday. boshi wa koko ni gozaimasu (D). (honorific) : . to-san wa dare . 13. lie. . 1. so ja arimasen . hltori wa Amerika ni imasu (C). (honorific) : wife. 23. My husband today ? is at home today. Imoto san wa ima nani wo nas'tte irasshaimasu ka? (D). 5. 11. Your hat is here. My brother speaks English very well. 20. 22. Did your father and mother go to Tokyo yesterday ? 4. girl. 17. Haha wa Terada San no oku-san to Nikko e mairimashlta (D). Ani wa Ei-go ga taihen jozu da (B). ane wa tokei wo motte imasen (C). On the 20th of last month. 19. 12. : haha (humble) o ka-san (honorific) mother. oku-san wa heta desu (C). may be made so by prefixing o or. He is Mr Yamada 's (younger) brother. . 14. mustiko : son boy. kanai (humble) oku-sama ototo : imoto : . Ano o kata wa donata de irasshaimasu ka ? (D). desu (C). 25. Imoto to ikimashita (C).

nan de mo : everything anything. Hana-ko desu (C). I am afraid you will find me a very poor teacher but I will do what I can for you. yoku wa dekimasumai 2. Mizuno San ga tokei wo katte yesterday Matsu. kami wa Yamada San ga katte kudasaimashita 24. 22.Tokijo de katte kuremashita (}. 13. 25. 9. 14. 17. to teach. agemasho (C). oshiete (C). naosu : to mend translate. itsu de mo : always . Ano hito wa itsu de mo shinsetsti ni oshiete kuremasu Kono hon wa dare de mo mite ii desu (C). 15. (brought and) gave you those flowers ? 13. E. kawakashite agemashita (D). Watashi wa kino kyaku ga atte. 3. Kono jibiki zva 23. 23. cheap. so Mr Yamada bought the paper for me. . thanks. 15. to drive away. 7. Mr Brown taught my son English. nure'ru oi-dasu oshie'ru 1. arigato . If that nasty dog comes again. Brown San wa musuko ni Ei-go wo oshiete kudasaimashita (C). (C). watashi no kimono wo aratte kuremasu ka ? (C). 6. I bought several pencils yesterday and gave them to Taro. Dozo (C). There are always a lot of customers in that shop. O to-san no ga. 6. it and a watch Mr Mizuno 21. that. Terada San ga watakushi no tokei wo naoshite kudasaimashita 4. E. aratte agemasu (C). Very well. Anybody may read this book. . ni iro-iro no empitsu wo katte yatta (B). 18. 7. 9.) to dry. Kono kimono ga kawaitara anata no o hey a ni motte itte agemasho (C). Yamada San wa itsu de mo jibiki wo kashite kudasaimasti. Wouldn't you kindly teach me a little Japanese? 5. watashi ga soji wo shite yarn (A). Mr Yamada has already mended it. 12. anybody. 22. Kino Taro 20. 11. Tanaka San ga Suzuki San no tegami wo Ei-go ni naoshite kudasaim.ashita (C). (C). any time. 21. have after gerunds. they sell (everything) so 20. I 19. 3. iro-iro no : various . kawakasu (trans. sukoshi Nihon-go wo oshiete kudasaimasen ka? (D). . Hana-ko. Who this dress is dry I'll take it to your room. Father. as your clothes' were wet I dried them for you. Omae ga byoki nara. (C). 4. Anata no tokei wo naoshite agemasho ka ? (C). in 109. If you are ill I'll do the rooms for you. kure'ru and kudasaru sometimes ice. Matsu San. Mr Terada mended my watch for me. chichi ga. I didn't go to Tokyo 24 as a visitor came. (b) Mr Mizuno bought a watch for My father bought this dictionary for me in Tokyo. 8. 11. : : : to get wet. 8. Tokyo e ikimasen deshita kara. knows gave bought (a) suppose everybody me (as I could not go myself). Ano kitanai inu ga kitara oi-dashite yari nasai (A). mo Yamada San ga naoshite kudasaimashita (C). will you wash 2. to me. translated Mr Suzuki 's letter into English for me. kori : 25. Dare ga omae ni sono hana wo motte kite kureta ? (A). 16. Shall I put some ice into your water? 18. Shall I mend your watch for you ? 16. dare de mo : everybody . That man is always willing to teach one. Mizu ni kori wo irete agemasho ka? (C). 10. 1-1. 17. 5. my dress for me ? 25. 19. 12. several. Mr Yamada always lends me his dictionary. Thanks. kimono ga nureie imashita kara. Arigato. When drive it away. ire'ru to put into. (so you needn't bother). age'ru. : shim : : to : know. Sore wa dare de mo shitte iru desho kudasaimashita (C). Mr Tanaka 1.EXERCISE Study the uses that the verbs yarn. 10. Ano mise wa nan de mo yasui kara itsu de mo kyaku ga takusan am (B).

sk my brother will come my sister to buy me an me two it back by rikisha from the easy story-book and plates.) to wake up. okosu (trans. 20. request). 18. 18. Shujin wo yonde itadakitai (B). he was too busy yesterday to write it for me. Raigetsu kara 1. Beginning next month Mr Brown I is going to teach me English. immediately.) : : : aruku 1 . Go and call a rikisha immediately. give back. : to walk. (A). Hana-ko ni oishii nashi wo katte moraimashita (C). I will go to the bank (and come back) early tomorrow morning. mise e kasa wo motte kite moraimasho (C). I went and bought five four-sen postcards and six ten-sen stamps (lit. shujin : master. I wish you would help me today as I am very busy. I wish you would take these flowers to Miss Teru-ko 's house. 14. I am going give it to Jiro. No. O to-san ni tokei wo katte itadaita 19. wish you would bring 25. I wish you would kindly translate this letter into English for me. that letter. lie. Kesa watashi ga Asakusa kara koko made aruite San ni moraimasu (C). Did your brother write the letter for you yesterday? 14. yuki : morau isogashii : busy. Suzuki San ni naoshlte itadakimashita (C). Ashita roku-ji no kisha de Yokohama e ikimasu kara go-ji ni okoshite (B). ototo wa mise kara kuruma de 23. It began to snow as soon as I left this morning. Dare ni tokei wo naoshlte moraimashita ? (C). kuruma de kimashlta (C). (C). 7. . irassharu and mairu sometimes have after gerunds. 19. Did you walk all the way from Asakusa here ? 5. lie. Dozo kono tegami wo Ei-go ni naoshlte itadakito gozaimasu (D). I came by rikisha. 2. 5. Sugu ni kuruma wo yonde ki nasai (A). 24. (B). kuru. Dare ga Tanaka San ni shimbun wo kaeshimashita ? 13. Hana-ko bought these nice pears for me. Sara wo ni-mai motte kite moraitai (B). bought and came). Kino nii-san ni tegami wo 12. Who returned the'newspaper to Mr Tanaka ? 12. 25. Jiro ni yard (B). in 108. jochu ni dashite morai nasai (B). (C). to return . oishii : nice (of taste). Kono hana wo Teru-ko San no o uchi ni motte itte moraitai (B). 7. no shita (C). Moshi ame ga futte kitara. Tell the servant to go and post 10. If it starts raining take my umbrella to the office. Taro returned it (at my 13. 11. Ame ga futte 21. Yon-sen no hagaki wo go-mai 2. kaesu (trans. itadaku. 6. Taro ni kaeshlte moraimashita (C). 10. No. wo roku-mai katte kima3. snow.EXERCISE 26. As I am going to Yokohama by the six o'clock train tomorrow I wish to be called at five o'clock. 8. kind wa ani ga isogashikutte kaite kurekaite moraimashita ka ? (C). 15. kaette kuru deshd Brown San ni Ei-go wo oshiete kimashlta kara. o dashi nasai 22. 3. Terada San ni Ei-go de tegami wo kaite itadaite. 26. dekaketara sugu ni yuki ga futte kita (B). 17. Brown 4. Please call your master. I Mr Suzuki mended your watch for you ? for me. Kyo wa isogashii kara tetsiidatte moraitai 9. 16. tetsudau : to help. As I'll it expect :i to 26. Ask Mr Terada to translate this letter into English for you. masen deshlta (C). and send it to Mr Brown. sugu ni to jis-sen : soon kitte . 16. 103. Sono tegami wo 8. 24. Ashita no asa hayaku ginko e itte mairimasho (D). 22. 21. Ne-san ni yasashii hanashi no hon wo katte itadaite. 6. 15. Who mended has started raining 23. 17. My father (bought and) gave me a watch. 11.- Study the uses that the verbs morau. irasshaimashita ka ? (D). 4. moraitai desu (C). office. 9. to receive. 20.

23. wasure'ru : to forget. Nichiyo ni Mitsu-ko ga uchi e kuru desho kara. 21. 6. Open that box and see what 's in it. in 104 106. Watashi no inu wa shinde (B). shimau and oku sometimes have after gerunds. Kono tegami wa zuibun muzukashii . Sono hon wo yonde shimattara Taro San ni kaeshite kudasai (C). 5. 15. 9. If you open it and look. 17. Ei-go de hanashite miyo (B). jama : obstruction. 4. time. 16. mado wo shimete oite kudasai (C). nikai e motte itte oki nasai (A). Suzuki San no banchi wo wasuretara taihen desu kara. As I have write it down. 16. Kono shigoto wo shi13. 15. take it upstairs (and leave it there). sono mado wo akete mimasho (C). Kono hon wa mo yonde shimaimashita kara. sugu ni ginko e itte kite o kure (A). (C). 13. Ammari kurai kara. 8. Shut the window as walk. Uchi nojochu wa bydki de uchi e kaette shimaimashita (C). Why didn 't you bring your dog ? 8. I '11 keep this letter and show it to Mr Yamada when he comes. 3. hikidashi ni irete okimasho (C). 9. Ano hako ni nani ga arimasii ka? (C). you come also (and see whether you are lucky enough to meet her). shinu : to die. 19. I wrote down the number of Mr Tanaka 's house on a piece of paper. This letter is very difficult see if you can read it. As it would be very inconvenient if we were to forget Mr Suzuki's address. tsure'ru : to take (person or animal) along with. shimau : to finish toki : kurai shime'ru : to close shut. Akete goran nasareba wakarimasu 24. 12. it 's windy. 1. When I go to Mr 1. When you finish that book please return it to Master Taro. 22. 5. naze ? why ? . 18. What is there in that box ? 24. I'll try and speak English (to him). 20. 19. 18. fi. When you've finished doing the way. 11. 3. Sono hako ni nani ga am ka akete goran 7. 14. Smith's house tomorrow. anata mo kite goran nasai (C). Shimbun wa ano hako ni shimai nasai (A). I keep Mr Yamada 's letters in this box. goran nasaru. ammari oishiku arimasen (C). Study the uses that the verbs mi'ru. . Kaze ga fukimasu kara. 22. As this paper is very cheap I'll 23. Kono kami wa taihen yasui kara. takusan katte okimasho (C). Kono tsukue IK a jama da kara. Soji tco shite shimattara. Yamada San no tegami wa kono hako ni irete okimasu (C). you'll know. buy a lot and put it away (for future use). 12. My servant fell ill and returned home (for good). Kono tegami wa shimatte oite. finished reading this book I '11 put it away in this drawer. 10. the rooms go to the bank (and come back). Naze inu wo tsurete kimasen ka ? (C). I've forgotten the number of Miss Hana-ko 's house.EXERCISE 27. 20. My dog died. Kono nashi wo tabete mimashita ga. Yamada San ga kita toki misemasho (C). 11. Tanaka San no banchi wo kami ni kaite okimashUa (C). anata yonde goran nasal (C). When I finish this work I '11 go for a 14. mattara. . Put the newspaper away in that box. 4. shimaimashita (C). mado : window. I tried these pears but they are not very hice. kaite oki nasai (B). 10. Perhaps Mitsu-ko will come on Sunday. ake'ru : to open. 2. put away. 17. Ashita Smith San no uchi e ittara. As it's so dark I '11 open the window (and we will see whether that improves things). 7. Watashi wa Hana-ko San no banchi wo wasurete shimatta (B). : dark. 2. mise'ru : to show. . As this desk is in 21. sampo ni iko (B).

jobu na katai : : dore ? which (of several) ? dotchi ? dochira ? which (of two) ? ichiban : number one . 1. this is cheap '. 10. 11. bring me a stronger piece. 18. Dono to Jiro to Haruo no san-nin no uchi de Jiro ga ichiban tsuyoi (B). tsuyoi strong. a hard one or a soft one ? 10. Jiro and Haruo. ammari jobu de wa gozaimasen (D). 5. 6. to to : or. 23. Yawarakai 9. This string won't do. Yamada San no o uchi wa watashi no uchi yori okiku nai (B). Kono bin wa chiisai 6. This 25.EXERCISE ' 28. ho wo katte moraitai (A). Niku ka sakana ka katte o kure (A). (D). Kono nashi wa dore ga oishii desu ka ? (C). himo ho : 'this is the cheapest'. 'this is cheaper' or translated according to circumstances by and yori 'than' make the comparison more explicit word ichiban 'number one' serves the same purpose in the superlative. Kore ga yasu gozaimasu ga.fish. 7. 9. After having seen several I bought a soft one (and came). it's too weak . Kono himo wa yowakutte ike-nai kara. 22. 21. 8. : strong. yowai : weak. I will bring a longer one. A train is faster. 15. kara. This bottle is too small. 19. Mr Yamada 's house is not bigger Which is the best of these three sheets of paper ? 24. 16. The Japanese adjective in its ordinary inflexions may mean not only the Rare wa yasui may be positive but the comparative or superlative degree. 24. 13. 4. Mr Brown's house 17. Kono sam-mai no kami no uchi de dore gajoto desu ka ? (C). Go and buy a pencil. That pencil is softer than this one. Which are the nicest of these pears ? 7. the strongest. 2. but they are not very strong. kutsu ga ichiban yasui desu ka ? (C). 22. This is the hardest of these three pencils. Kono sam-bon no empitsu no uchi de. 20. 14. 17. Sono chiisai no ga oishiu gozaimasu (D). Kono kami wa are yori yasu gozaimasu (D). is the best. ka Ifa . As fish is cheaper I will buy some. hard. used to give a superlative effect. 4. Sono bo ga mijikakereba nagai no wo motte kite agemasho (D). 14. the : string. please give me a bigger one. If 2. masu kara. jobu nano wo motte o-ide (A). What kind shall I buy. Kisha to densha to dotchi ga hayai ka ? (B). If is higher than Mr Yamada 's. Buy some meat or some fish. 20. Kono empitsA yori sore no ho ga yawarakai (B). Those small ones are the nicest. no uchi : among. Kore ga ii no de gozaimasu (D). 1. Hana-ko yori Sum. Iro-iro mite yawarakai no wo katte mairimashita 13. kore ga ichiban kato gozaimasu (D). 21. Empitsu wo katte kite o kure (A). These are the cheapest This paper than mine. 25. 11. 23.i-ko no ho ga okii (B). The words ho 'side' . Akai empitsu yori murasaki no ho ga tako gozaimasu 3. Sumi-ko is taller than Hana-ko. Katai no to yawarakai no to dotchi wo katte mairimasho? (D). Kisha ga hayai desu (C). 15. Taro toko gozaimasu (D). 18. we compare Taro. side. we find that Jird is Which boots are the cheapest ? 19. Buy me a soft one. Sakana no ho ga yasu gozai12. sakana wo katte mairimasho (D). 5. yawarakai : soft. A violet pencil is dearer than a red one. a train. is . (D). cheaper than that. or a tram-car ? 3. Which is the faster. 8. that stick is too short. Brown San no o uchi wa Yamada San no o uchi yori 16. oki na no wo kudasai (C). 12.

All right . 12. When do you think Mr Yamada will come ? ly inconvenienced. When my brother returns from America. Nichiyo ni Hana-ko San ga irasshara-nai to komarimasii 4. 3. I shall leave for England. : 29. I don't think this paper is very dear if it only costs twenty-five sen the sheets. month. a fire . Anata ga uchi e kaette shimau to watashi ga zuibun komarimasii (C). I 7. I didn't think it would rain today. I wish you would teach me a little have English (lit. last night. sukoshi Ei-go wo oshiete itadakitai to omoimasu (D). To omou is used to express somebody 's thoughts. I think I would like you to teach). Ashita mata ame omottaga. 15. hima torn : to take. (C). Watashi wa raigetsu Nikko e iko to omou (B). conflagration. ga 5. Ani ga Amerika kara kaeru to watashi kara. desho ga okotte iru to (wa) omowa-nakatta (B). I will teach you then. Hana-ko San wa anata to wo taihen yowai kata da to omotte imasu (C). but it has started again. 23. sono hon wa mi-nai de kudasai Yamada San wa isogashii hito desu kara. not very. Do you think it will tomorrow ? 18. If you pick those flowers. Doyo-bi no ban ni irassharu to omoimasu (C). 22. 2. I will write her a letter. ashtta Ano wa fura-nai 20. 13. 5. 2. I don't think it will. ku-gatsu deshitara. I think Taro will be angry. Sono hana wo torn to Taro Igirisu e iku (B). I 10. Miss Hana-ko thinks you are very weak. 23. 16. kyo mo uchi ni i-nai desho to (C). omoimasu (C). opinion or intention.EXERCISE spare time. 24. 20. 11. As this book is difficult. 19. I intend come go expect Saturday evening. ni naru to hima ga dekimasu kara.matafuttekita(B). Watashi wa ano otoko wa shojiki na hito to omoimasen (C). I didn't think that man would have been angry. 17. would be much inconvenienced were it to rain tomorrow. Ashita ame gafuru to komarimasu (C). I think it is no use to give it to Taro. 22. 7. As I would be inconvenienced if Miss Hana-ko were not to come on Sunday. When you return home. 15. oshiete agemasho (C). but he didn't. so evening. I will find myself serious8. 3. ga okoru daro (B). If you eat too much fruit. : be yube : so (followed by negative) to : thus . At what o 'clock was the fire last night ? 14. It wouldn't do to make that man angry again don't look at that book. I shall hundred time in September. 12. Kono kami wa hyaku-mai 11. Mata ano hito ga okoru to ike-nai kara. 21. tegami wo dashimasho (C). Mr Yamada is a busy person. 14. I believe. Yamada San wa itsu kuru desho ka ? (C). 6. lie. ko-nakatta (B). 10. okoru : to get angry. 13. 4. Yube Taro ga kuru ka to omottaga. If you are not very busy. E. you'll get ill. Ammari kudamono wo taberu to bydki ni naru (B). Asa no mo da 19. omoimasu 1. 8. 6. I don't think that man is honest. To after the present tense may sometimes be translated by 'if or 'when'. No. 9. Yube no kaji wa nan-ji goro deshlta? (C). 17. 18. : kaji : mata . I thought taro might come last 21. that. Moshi o isogashiii gozaimasen 16. Taro ni yatte mo dame daro to omou (B). Kono hon wa muzukashii ni-ju-go-sen nara so takaku nai to omoimasu (C). I expect he will be absent from home again today. ni-ji goro deshlta to omoimasu (C). to omoimasu ka hito ? (C). omou 1. komaru : to be in a difficulty inconvenienced. : to think. next to he'll to Nikko 9. please. again. Kyo wa ame gafurumai to kara. 24. At about two o 'clock in the morning. some free rain again .

Kono ji wa do kakimasu ka ? (C). No. 25. . I do not. 22. W hat kind of dogs' are you fond of ? 13. 30. Anata no shiroi inu wa do narimashUa ? 29. Are wa byoki de shinde shimaimashlta (C). 20. Tanaka San wa ashita uchi ni 13. 1 have no paper like that at present. 24. Please go and tell Matsu to turn on the electric lights upstairs. lie. 23. 24. What's this fruit called? 27. Hai. Hana-ko ga Yamada San no oku-san_ ni 11. Taro came this morning and said he wasn't going to Tokyo today. 20. hon wo yonde wa ike-nai (A). 21. Yamada San wa doyo-bi ni Kamakura e iku' to iimashUa ka? (C). Watashi wa chiisa na inu ga suki da (B). Ko iu empitsu wo ni-hon katte o-ide (A). Tell the servant that I shall be inconvenienced if she doesn't get up earlier. 16. 31. so iimasen deshUa (C). ji : letter . (C). Ano akai hana wa o suki de gozaima-su ka? (D). Nan to iimashUa ? yoku wakarimasen deshlta kara. As I didn 't 19. mo ichi-do itte kudasai (C). 3. 5. Kind o rusu ni Suzuki 15. Did Mr Tanaka say he would be at home tomorrow ? 15. he said so. iru' to iimashUa ka ? (C). 6. . 31. tokoro : place. 19. 30. a iu . character . Nashi to iimasu. 17. so iimashUa (C). 3. however. to iu : called . to iu kata ga kimashUa (C). please say it again. . 21. Do you like that red flower ? 18. Go and tell the rikisha-man to come at five o'clock. Anata wa do iu inu ga o suki desu ka ? (C). Kore wa nan to iu kudamono de gozaimasu ka ? (D). a iu hana wa kirai de gozaimasu (D). 18. How do you write this character ? 8. . shimbun wa do shimashUa ? (C). 2. So iu kami wa ima gozaimasen (A). 17. Hana-ko says she sent it to Mrs Yamada. 1. Ko iu kami ga arimasu ka ? (C). What's happened to your white dog ? 29. 10. Suzuki to iimasu (C). 14. 28. the corresponding English. Kesa Taro ga kite l kyo wa Tokyo e ika-nai' to itta (B). He fell ill and died. What did you do with Sunday 's newspaper ? 9. 8. 28. word. 16. I suppose Haruo will say he wants to go back home today. do ? how ? what ? do iu ? what kind of ? ko iu : this kind of such as this. A iu 10. so iu : that kind of such as that. Matsu ni 'nikai ni (C). rusu : absence. (C). I don't like that kind of flower. okutta' to iimasu (C).20. okuni no namae wa nan to iimasu ka ? 5. Go and buy two pencils like this. . 4. 12. 27. he didn't say so. It's called a pear. iu is 30. denki wo tsukete kure' to itte kudasai (C). kuruma-ya : a rikisha-man. 11. Should a man called Kimura come while I am out please tell him to wait. Do you know a place called Hakone ? 6. often not translated. A no Kuruma-ya ni htto ' ' ' ' 1. 14. namae : name. No. 7. 9.EXERCISE used in direct quotations frequently an indirect quotation. A gentleman called Suzuki came yesterday while you were out. Did Mr Yamada say he was going to Kamakura on Saturday? 25. What did you say ? T quite understand you. 26. is To . 2. What is that man's name? 4. He is called Suzuki. 12. I am fond of small dogs. You mustn't read books like that. Moshi rusu ni Kimura to iu hito ga kitara 'matte ite kure' to itte kudasai (C). No. : to send. Haruo wa kyo uchi e kaeritai' to iu daro (B). Have you any paper like this ? 23. (D). 'go-ji ni kite kure' to itte o-ide (A). lie. Nichiyo-bi no 7. Yes. Jochu ni 'motto hayaku oki-nai to komaru' to itte o kure 22. shira-nai (B). lie. Hakone to iu tokoro wo shUte imasu ka ? (C). iu : to say.

Which was the chair you bought yesterday ? 13. 23. 6. Sono kago ni ireta kudamono wo Tanaka San no o uchi ni motte itte o kure (A). 16. . Toka ni o dashi nas'tta o tegami ga kesa mairimashita (D). 1. letter of the yesterday was no longer there. 18. He is in China. 8. Kino katta no wa nikai ni gozaimaxu (D). 7. kago : basket. michi : road way.EXERCISE translated 31. tonari : next-door. immediate neighbour. It is three months now since Mr Su/Aiki went to 'Kyoto. Donata da ka shirimasen (C). I don't know who he was. 22. 19. Please tell me which is the way to Asakusa. It goes to the park. 27. 12. Kimura to iu hito de gozai3. My next-door neighbour is a policeman (lit. Kind mita kirei na boshi wa mo arimasen deshlta (C). The pretty hat I saw 25. Who was the man sitting next to you? 15. Kino kita dempd tt'o motte kite kure (A). 12. 2. mo Asuko ni masu mi-tsuki ni naru (B). Ototo no de gozaimasu (D). He is (a 5. 5. 27. 28. 9. 28. 8. Todana kara sato ga haitte iru tsubo wo motte o-ide (A). bring me brother's. 13. 20. At 22. It leaves at a quarter past six in the morning. Kore wa doko e iku michi de gozaimasu ka ? (D). Shimbun wo yonde kara. 4. Verbs and verbal phrases are often used attributively they are sometimes by relative clauses. cupboard. fruit which has been put into that basket). ori'ru : to get off. Sono tegami wa o to-san ga o kaeri ni natte kara o dashi nasai (B). Taro ni okutte yatta (B). 18. 20. After I've read the newspaper I'll write my letters. Where does this road go to ? 7. Who is is that man that letter after your father returns. standing over there ? 2. Kono hon wo kaita hito wa ima doko ni imasu ? 11. Post 3. Whose this pencil in this box ? 4. Kisha ni noru hito wa koko de densha wo orimasu 21. I sent it to Taro. said : sugar. Sendai e iku kisha zca nan-ji ni demasu ka? (C). Where is the author of this book living now ? (lit. 26. 9. chair. junsa : policeman. koshi-kake'ru : to sit. 11. (C). 10. Asa no roku-ji ju-gofun ni deru (B). 6. 25.) to stand. Watashi 15. Those who take the train get off the tram-car here. Where is the book you bought yesterday ? 24. the man living next-door). The one I bought yesterday is upstairs. no tonari ni iru hito wa junsa da (B). 24. in the cupboard (lit. 17. . tegami wo kako (D). 16. man called) Kimura. tatsu (intr. gozaimasu ka ? (D). 10. Ko-no hako ni aru empitsu tea donata no d* (D). what time does the Sendai train leave ? (lit. Bring me the telegram that came yesterday. the train which goes to Sendai). dempo isu : : telegram. 19. . Kind kaita isu wa dare desu? (C). 23. noru : : tatte iru hito wa dare desu ? (C). kara after gerund after. 14. 21. Are wa (C). 26. : todana 1. Tanaka San ni karita kasa \ca mo kaeshimashita ka? (C). : to get on. I received this morning your 10th (HL the letter you posted on the 10th came this morning). tsubo : jar. 14-. Shina ni imasu (C). Take that basket of fruit to Mr Tanaka 's house (lit. 17. the man who wrote this book). Kden ni iku michi da (B). Kino o kai ni natta hon wa doko ni gozaimasu ka ? (D). Have you from him ? already returned to Mr Tanaka the umbrella you borrowed Bring me the sugarMy from the cupboard the jar which has jar which is sugar in it). Anata no tonari ni koshi-kakete ita hito wa donata deshlta ? (C). Dozo Asakusa e iku michi wo oshiete kudasai (D). Suzuki San ga Kyoto e o-ide nas'tte kara.

5. 21. O isogashii toki wa tetsudai ni mairimasho (D). Sono tegami wa dare kara kita no desu ka ? (C). Ane kara kita no desu (C). I must give it to be mended. 24. Doko e itte kimashlta ? (C). Tegami wo dashi ni itta no desu (C). konaida . naoshi ni yara-nakereba nara-nai 10. Tokei ga waruku natta kara. 4. 14. I will come and help you when you are busy. 21. Maeda went. Where have you been ? (lit. Whom is that letter from ? 28. 15. My watch is out of order. I intend to go to Mr Tanaka 's house tomorrow to return the umbrella I borrowed from him the other day. There's no more sugar. where did you go to and come). I must go to Mr Yamada 's house and borrow his big dictionary. 16. 3. (B). 8. together (with). Jochu wa doko e ikimashita ? (C). Anata wa mo Mits&ya San no e wo goran lie. request . : to ask for aid : kutsu-ya pan : bread. 9. Have you 17. Where has the servant gone to ? 22. is generally a mere rounding off . Does Mr Brown come to teach you English ? 13. kono aida : the other day . No. 10. 13. 19. 16. lie. from my sister. tabako : tobacco. 7. 12. Omae wa ikitaku nakereba ika-nakutte mo it no da (A). to look for. however. Are you going to Hakone again this year with your brother? 15. Kutsu-ya ni konaida tanonda kutsu wo tori ni itte o kure (A). ga itta no desu ? (C). recently. : doctor.EXERCISE Ni 32. : narau sagasu : : tanomu issho ni to learn. Hana-ko ga nani wo shite iru ka. 17. No. 29. 25. to omoimasu (C). 6. 23. 5. mi ni ikimasho (C). Ashita Taro wo ginko ni kane wo tori ni o yari nasai (B). Yamada San no tokoro e oki na jibiki wo kari ni ika-nakereba nara-nai (B). Ima shimbun wo kai ni kita hito wa Brown San da (B). it sometimes. Who has gone to call the doctor ? 11. The man who came just now to buy a newspaper was Mr Brown. 3. I'll go tomorrow and buy some. Brown San wa Ei-go wo oshie ni irassharu no desti ka ? (C). No : e isha picture. Kotoshi mo nii-san to Hakone e irassharu no desu ka? (C). 29. kotoshi wauchi ni imasu (C). 11. O isha wo yobi ni dare 9. Is Matsu morrow to get . . Ashita Tanaka San e konaida karita kasa wo kaeshi ni iko 26. No. Those who take (already) seen Mr Mitsuya's picture ? the train must get off here. mada mi-nai no desu (C). I shall remain at home this year. Go to the bootmaker's to fetch the boots I ordered the other day. I'll go and see what Hana-ko is doing. after the stem (2nd base) of a verb means 'in order to'. She has gone to buy some bread. he comes to learn Japanese. lie. order. 12. 23. bootmaker. Send the servant to buy some tobacco. 7. 20. Nihon-go wo narai ni o-ide nasaru no desu (C). 28. Watashi mo ashita o to-san to issho ni Tokyo e iku no desu ka ? (C). Maeda ga itta no da (B). 22. ashita kai ni ikimasho (C). 19. 14. Inu wo sagashi ni itte kita no desu (C). 18. 18. She went to post a letter. You needn't go if you don't want to. I went to look for the dog. desu frequently added after a verb at the end of a sentence. 8. 26. htto wa koko de oriru no desu (C). 2. not yet. warui : bad. Sato ga mo arimasen kara. 1. has a distinct force of its own. 6. 27. Tabako wo kai ni jochu wo yatte kure (A). 25. 27. 1. 4. Am I also to go to Tokyo tomorrow with my father ? 20. Ima pan wo kai ni ikimashita (C). Send Taro tosome money from the bank. Kisha ni noru nas'tta no desu ka ? (C). 24. Matsu wa imasu ka? (C). in ? 2. kotoshi : this year.

20. ne : interjection . 10. 5. come in. 17. Sayonara (D). . may I come in ? 8. haitte mo yd gozaimasu ka ? (D).EXERCISE go : 33. Oku-san wa ikaga de irasshaimasu ka ? (D). anata mo irasshaimasen ka? 14. minna mina-san : samui : cold. jobu desu (C). Kino ^wa kirei na hon wo kudasaimashite. 11. Arigato gozaimasu. 16. isn't it? thinking of going to see you this afternoon. at the end of sentence it has often -an interrogative force. It is very hot today. Dozo kono tegami wo ne-san ni agete kudasai (D). Mr Tanaka asked me to give you his kind regards. Please eat one of these pears. will take a 17. cha wa itadakimasen (D). Kyo tea ii o tenki de gozaimasu ne. 23. Is everybody well at home ? 24. Yoku inushaimaskUa ne. everybody. quite again 25. 25. . 18. O cha wo agemasho ka ? (C). Hai. Thank you. 26. ? (lit. 11. Arigato gozaimasu. Good-bye. Excuse me. domo Good day. haha (no bydki] ica mo yoku narimashlta (D). now. 22. domo : has a vague superlative yoroshiku : used for sending or giving salutations. Veda San wa irasshaimasu ka? 2. sayonura : good-bye. (D). 27. The weather is very fine today. are you busy ? 1 offer you a cup of tea little. Good morning. 21. Kono nashi wo o agari nasai (C). 13. isn't it? Where are you going ? 13. 8. 10. agani : to go up . you are welcome. 15. Please to some tea ?). 24. Komban ic a. inina . pardon. Arigato gozaimasu. Dozo o agari kudasai (D). 4. 28. Kyo gogo ni o uchi ni agaro to omoimasu ga. as I have some spare time. I was thinking of going for a walk. 4. 6. Watashi no uchi de wa minna jobu desu (C). 3. 7. de gozaimasu kara. Kyo wa domo atsui desu ne (C). : your permission. 26. drink (honorific). Are you already going ? Please come again. May 1. May I offer you some tea ? 21. Yes. Please give this letter to your sister. konnichi : today. masu. isn't it ? 9. all . Arigato gozaimasu. komban : this evening. Doko e o dekake de gozaimasu ka ? (D). Thank you. Please remember me to all at home. Dozo sono mado wo akete kudasaimasen ka ? 28. meaning. Gomen kudasai. ikaga ? how ? (polite). Thanks for your letter the other day my mother is well 23. thank you. I was 27. 15. Thanks. 16. O-hayo. to eat. Don't mention it. sukoshi itadakimasho (C). Konnieki wa . gonien an honorific prefix. I don't drink tea. Thanks. won't you come with me ? 14. Do itashimashite (C). 20. . to enter a house (the mats are on a higher level than the ground) to visit (humble) . tenki : weather. o isogashiu gozaimasu ka ? (D). 12. 19. cha vca ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D). Thank you very much for the pretty book you gave me yesterday. 1. Idma (D). I will go with you. Please open that window. he is. 3. Mina-san ni dozo yoroshiku (D). : o-hayo : good morning. 12. Q. It is very cold this morning. I will come again. 5. every one. It is very hot. I She is quite well. arigato gozaimashita (D). Mina-san o jobu de irasshaimasu ka? (D). Sampo ni iko to omoimasu . kesa wa zuibun samui desu ne? (C). Konaida wa o tegami wo arigato gozaimashita . go issho ni mairimasho (D). Tanaka San ga anata ni yoroshiku itte kure to iimashita (C). Good evening. 9. 7. o-ide nasai(D). Everybody at home is quite well. Is Mr Ueda at home? 2. How what do you say your wife ? is 18. 22. mata agarimasho. Mo o kaeri de gozaimasu ka ? Mata dozo o-ide nas'tte kudasai (D). 19. o atsu gozaimasu (D). Arigato.

1. 19. I can't tell you here give yourself twenty minutes you can walk there. In the case of verbs ending in e'ru The subject of the passive in or i'ru add rare'ru . I got the coming of a visitor). what Mr Yamada said. 2. yosii : to cease . 8. You must find it very inconvenient to (///. 21. 18. 18. it 's gone bad. taberare-nai (B). : thief itazura : mischief. robber. 17. 4. . How long does it take to Nihom-bashi ? 15. 5. robber). 12. 20. it is not ripe yet. That servant was discharged because she was (caught) stealing. 13. Kino wa Asakusa e itte. wear. 20. Watashi wa hito ni tegami jochil wa dorobo wo shite oi-dasareta no dtsu (C). : to decay . to get the falling ill of your servant). Yamada San no o hanashi wa koko de wa iivaremasen 17. Nihom-bashi made nam-pun kakarimasu ka ? (C). so I was much inconvenienced I got the falling of the 10. o yoshi nasai (B). ni warawareru kara. see 124. My watch and my ring were stolen last night (by a 6. 1. korare'ru : irregular passive of kuru to come. in all other cases add re'ru. totemo : an emphatic negative word. Kono sakana wa kusatte iru Ano ko wa wo sum to hito 13. A policeman today brought me the ring which had been stolen the other day (by a robber). to put on . Konaida dorobo ni torareta yubi-wa wo kyo junsa ga motte kite kuremashita (C). Mr Yamada 's wife is ill. Kono hey a wa kara. Ano hito wa minna ni 4. 9. dorobo . kara. 16. Ano 7. Kyo wa asa hayaku kyaku ni korarete shojiki da to omozvarete imasu (C). (B). shikaru : to scold. 8. wo miraretaku nai (B). atetikutte totemo irare-nai (B). You can 't eat this fish. lie. he's thought honest by everybody). No. If you 16. I went to Asakusa yesterday and was caught in the rain. Ano akai hon wo mita kara. yubi-wa : finger-ring. 7. 3. become rotten. Kono nashi wa mo taberaremasu ka ? (C). leave off. Taro got angry with me because I looked at that red book. kara. komatta (B). mada taberaremasen (C).EXERCISE 34. . Aruite ni-jip-pun kakareba ikaremasho (C). have your servant ill (precisely now) when you are so busy (lit. 5. The wind is blowing (hard) today so I can't open the window. 21. isogashii toki nijochu ni byoki ni nararete taihen o komari deshd (C). Kyo wa kaze ga fuite mado wo akeraremasen (C). Everybody considers that man to be honest (lit. I don 't like people to look at my letters (lit. so I don't think he will be able to come today. see 126. 12. 11. ame ni furarete zuibun komarirnashita (C). This room is so warm I cannot possibly remain here. ki'ru : kusaru 2. 6. As that child had been up to mischief he was scolded by his father. If you do things like that people will laugh at you. Japanese often used in a potential sense. 3. I will go to your house this evening and tell you. Taro ni okorareta no da 10. The passive is formed from the 4th base. I do not wish my letters to be seen). warau : to laugh. Kono kimono wa mofurukutte kirare-nai (B). A visitor came early this morning and I was much inconvenienced (lit. Is this pear fit to eat y> t ? 19. so leave off. komban anata no o uchi ni itte hanashimasho (C). 11. 9. So iu koto itazura wo shite o to-san ni shikararemashita (C). Yamada San wa oku-san ga go byoki desu kyo wa korare-nai desho (C). Yube dorobo ni tokei to yubi-wa wo toraremashita (C). 14. 15.* This dress is so old 1 cannot wear it. koto : thing. The passive is is the person affected by the act of the verb. rain).14.

EXERCISE

35.

By changing the final u of a verb into e'ru we obtain intransitive verbs which often do duty for potential verbs. When the original verb ends in e'ru or i'ni this cannot be done.
nimotsu : package oto : sound.
ri
:
;

luggage.

kikoe'ru : irregular to hear.

potential

of kiku

2*4 miles.
:

mi e'ru

:
;

yubin

the post. omoshiroi : amusing. meddle with. ijiru : to touch kiku : to hear ask.
;

to see

irregular potential of mi'ru to be able to see ; be visible ;
fall
;

come.
otosu
:

to let

drop.

;

ka? (C). 2. Hanasemasu ga, yomemasen (C). 3. yama wa nan de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 4. Fuji-san de gozaimasu 5. Yamada San no banchi wo wanuremashita, Taro San ni kiite kirnasho (D). 6. Kind Hana-ko San kara kiita o hanashi wa taihen omoshiro (C). gozaimashita 7. Kikoemasen deshlta kara, dozo mo ichi-do itte kudasai (C). 8. Kyo (D). wa kane wo otoshite densha ni noremasen deshita (C). 9. Ei-go ga deki-nai to fuben de gozaimasu kara, narao to ornoimasu (D). 10. Yamada San ga mie1.

Ei-go ga yomemasu
ni inieru

Asuko

mashita (C). 11. Densha no oto ga koko m.ade kikoemasu ka ? (C). 12. Hai, yoku kikoemasu (C). 13. Ano mise no shujin wa Ei-go ga yoku hanasemasu (C). 14. Kono nimotsu wa yubin de okuremasu ka? (C). 15. Ammariokii kara, okuremasen (C). 16. Ichi-nichi ni go-ri arukemasu ka ? (C). 17. E, sono gurai wa arukemasu (C). 18. Watashi wa uma ni nore-nai (B). 19. Ei-go ga fianaseru 20. Sono bin wa kodomo ga ijiru to ike-nai kara, hito wo yonde kudasai (C). mie-nai tokoro e shimatte oki nasai (A). 21. Ima nan-ji desu ka, nii-san ni kiite kudasai (C). 22. Ano hito ga nani wo itte iru ka, itte kiite o-ide nasai (B). 23. Ko iu yasashii hon nara Taro mo yomemasho (C). 24. Ano kata no o hanashi ga kikoemasu ka ? (C). 25. lie, yoku kikoemasen (C). 26. Sore de wa mae e
irasshai (C).

Can you read English ? 2. I can speak it but I cannot read it. 3. What that mountain you can see over there ? 4. It is Mount Fuji. 5. I have forgotten the number of Mr Yamada 's house, I'll go and ask Mr Taro. 6. The tale Miss Hana-ko told me yesterday was very amusing (lit. the tale that I heard from Miss Hana-ko). 7. As I didn't hear (what y6u said) please say it again (If kikimasen had been used instead of kikoemasen the meaning would have been, as I wasn't listening). 8. As I lost my purse (lit. money) today I couldn't take the tram-car. 9. It is inconvenient not knowing English, so I intend to study it. 10. Mr Yamada has come. 11. Can you hear the noise of the tram13. The owner of that shop speaks cars from here ? 12. Yes, quite well. English very well. 14. Can I send this parcel by post ? 15. You can't send 16. Can you walk five ri (twelve miles) a day ? 17. Yes, I can it, it is too big. walk about that much. 18. I cannot ride on horseback. 19. Please call somebody who can speak English. 20. It wouldn 't do for the children to meddle with this bottle so put it away somewhere where they can't find it (lit. in an invisible 21. Please (go and) ask your brother what time it is
1.
is

now. 22. Go and see what that man is saying (lit. go, listen and come). 23. If 24. Can you hear what it's such an easy book, even Taro can probably read it. that man is saying ? 25. No, I can 't hear properly. 26. Well then, go a little nearer (lit. in front i.e. a few paces forward).

place).

,

EXERCISE

36.

K oto and mono (sometimes abbreviated to won' or no) both mean 'thing'. Koto nearly always refers to an abstract tiling mono generally to a concrete These words and the abbreviations man' and no when used after verbs, thing. Observe serve to substantivize the verb and form many important idioms.
;

the following

:

koto ga deki'ru after verb (present) has the force of a potential. koto ga aru after verb (generally

past) once sometimes. koto ga aru ka ? after verb (generally
:

;

past): ever ?

ga nai after verb (generally past) never. won' desu ka ? after verb (present) is a an denial of, or protest against, absurd statement or supposition. no desu after a verb has already been noticed in Exercise 32.
koto
:

1 Watakushi wa haha ga byoki desu kara, ashUa Kamakura e iku koto ga dekimasen (C). 2. Anata wa Ei-go de tegami wo kaku koto ga dekimasu ka ? (C). 3. Mdda dekimasen (C). 4. Nichiyo-bi no asa koraremam ka ? (C). 5. Nichiyo no asa wa tegami wo kakimasu kara, kuru koto ga dekimasen (C). 6. Kyoto e o-ide 8. Nara e wa 7. E, itta koto ga aru (B). nas'tta koto ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). mada itta koto ga nai (B). 9. Suzuki San ni atta koto ga arimasu ka ? (C). 10. E, atta koto ga arimasu ; oku-san ni wa mada atta koto ga arimasen (C). 11. Kore wa anata no mono de gozaimasu ka? (D). 12. lie, watakushi no mono de wa gozahnasen (D). 13. Tanaka San no mono wo minna nikai e motte itte o kure (A). 15. Kaku koto ga 14. Taro wa Ei-go wo kaku koto ga dekiru desho ka ? (C). 16. Anata wa dekiru mon* desu ka? mada yomu koto mo dekimasumai (C). Yamada San to issho ni Asakusa e iku desho ? (C). 17. lie, iku mon' desti ka ? Watashi wa Yamada San wa kirai desu (C). 18. Dare ga omae ni tetmdatte kureru mon' ka ? (A). 19. Ano uma ni noru nowa o yoshi nasai (B). 20. Watafihi tea Hana-ko San no okotta no wo mita koto ga nai (B). 21. Asa hayaku 22. Taihen na ame da kara, kyo Hakone e iku no okiru no wa ii koto desu (C). wo yoso (B). 23. Tanaka San ni so iu koto wo iu no wa ike-nai (A). 24. Sono mixu wo nomu no wa o yoshi nasai (B). 25. Natsume San no kaita mono wo o yomi ni natta koto ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). Ano hlto no hon 26. E, yoku yomimasu.
.

wa

suki desu (C).

1. As my mother is ill I cannot go to Kamakura tomorrow. 2. Can you write letters in English ? 3. Not yet. 4. Can you come on Sunday morning ? 5. As I write my letters on Sunday mornings, I cannot come. 6. Have you ever been to Kyoto ? 7. Yes, I have been there. 8. I have never been to Nara (yet). 9. Have you ever met Mr Suzuki ? 10. Yes, I have met him but

I have never met his wife. 11. Is this yours ? (lit. your thing). 12. No, it's not mine. 13. Take all Mr Tanaka 's things upstairs. 14. I wonder if Taro can write English ? 15. Of course he can't he can't probably even read it yet. 16. I suppose you'll go with Mr Yamada to Asakusa ? 17. Most decidedly not why, I hate Mr Yamada. 18. Whoever is going to help you ? (you are too lazy, too ill-natured). 19. Don't ride that horse. 20. I have never yet seen Miss Hana-ko angry. 21. It is a good thing to get up early in the morning. 22. As it is raining so hard I'll give up the idea of going to Hakone today. 23. You mustn't say things like that to Mr Tanaka. 24. Don't drink that water. 25. Have you ever read anything that Mr Natsume has written ? 26. Yes, often I like his books.
;

;

;

EXERCISE
The postposition
is

37.

tco, corresponding to the immediate object of the verb suru, often suppressed, the noun and su-ru forming a sort of verbal unit. The Japanese future has often the meaning of the 1st person plural imperative. Iko or ikimasho let us go.

Ja nai (or arimasen) ka ? is frequently added at the end of a sentence means 'isn't it ?' It need not always be translated.
benkyo : study diligence. ryoko : travel. sentaku : washing. jikusuru ; jikusu : to be ripe.
;

;

it

yakusuru
osoi
:

;

yakusu

:

to translate.
well, but.

late.

de

mo :

a conjunctival phrase

;

San
3.

1. Nii-san tea 2. Ei-go wo Igirisu de nani wo benkyo shite imasu ka? (C). benkyo shite imasu (C). 3. Kyo wa ii tenki da kara, kden wo sampo shiyo (B). 4. Chichi wa ima Shina wo ryoko itashite orimasu (D). 5. Kano kimono wo sentaku shite o kure (A). 6. Yoku benkyo shi-nakereba Ei-go wo oshiete yara-nai 7. Raigetsu wa hima ni narimasu kara, (A). Kyoto ni ryoko shimasti (C). 8. Brown San wa Nihon-go wo benkyo shi ni Nihoti e kita no desu (C). 9. Sono kimono wa mada sentaku shi-nai de ii (A). 10. Tenki ga yokereba doyo-bi no him 11. Hakone yori Nikko ga ii ja arimasen ka ? kara, Hakone e iko (B). 12. (C). Ano nashi tea jikushite imasu ka? (C). 13. Mada jikushimasen (C). 14. hima deshitara, dozo kono tegarni we Ei-go ni yakushite kudasai (C). 15. Mada ika-nai no desu ka? Hana-ko San ga matte iruja arimasen ka ? 16. De mo, (C). mada roku-ji ni nara-nai ja arimasen ka? (C). 17. Osoi kara, mo kaero (B). 18. Osoku naru to ike-nai, densha de ikimasho 19. Sono hon wo yakushite (C). 20. Sukoshi ryoko shitai to omou no desu (C). kara, nani wonasaimasu ka ? (D). 21. Kyo wa tenki ga warui kara, sentaku suru no wa yoso (B). 22. Kono tegami wa muzukashikutte watashi wa totemo yakusu koto ga dekimasen (C). 23. Sono nashi wa yoku jikushite i-nai kara, tabete wa ike-nai (A). 24. Sukoshi Ei-go wo benkyo shite Amerika e ikimasho (C). 25. Taro ni Brown San no tegami wo yakushite moraimasho ka ? (C). 26. Taro wa mada dame j a arimasen ka? Suzuki

ni tanomimasho (C).

2. He is studying English. in England ? today, so let's go for a walk in the park. 4. My father is travelling now in China. 6. I won 't teach you English 5. Wash this dress. unless you study hard. 7. As I shall have spare time next month, I'll make a 9. You 8. Mr Brown came to Japan to study Japanese. trip to Kyoto. needn't wash that dress yet. 10. If the weather is fine, let's go to Hakone on Saturday afternoon. 11. Don't you think Nikko would be nicer than Hakone ? 12. Are those pears ripe ? 13. Not yet. 14. If you have time please translate this letter into English for me. 15. Haven't you gone yet ? Miss Hana-ko is 17. As it 16. for isn't she ? Well, but it's not yet six o'clock. waiting you, is late, let's return home. 18. As it wouldn't do to be late, let's go by tram-car. 19. What are you going to do after you've finished translating that book ? 20. I think I'll travel a little. 21. As the weather is bad today I think I'll give up the idea of doing my washing. 22. This letter is so difficult I can 't possibly 24. I'll study a little translate it. 23. Don't eat that pear, it is not ripe. to translate Mr Brown 's Taro I ask Shall 25. and then America. to English go letter ? 26. Taro doesn't know enough yet, let's ask Mr Suzuki (lit. Taro is
1.

What

is

your brother studying
is fine

The weather

.

still

of no use).

EXERCISE

38.
:

Derivative and compound words arc extremely numerous in Japanese the stem (2nd base) of verbs, and the stern (what remains after suppressing the final /) of true adjectives, are constantly used in this connection.

shimai (from shimau to finish]
end.

:

the

kaki-naosu

kangae'ru : to think. kangae : a thought. mono kai-mono [from kau to buy a thing] a thing bought a pur;
: ;

chase.

kai-mono ni iku : to go shopping. : something to drink. mono-oki : store-room ; pantry. -ya added to nouns means a shop or the person who keeps the shop or trades in an article.

nomi-mono

[kaku to write; naom to to write over again so as to correct the mistakes. nori-kae'ru [noru to ride kae'ru to change] to change cars. nani to nakunaru [nai non-existent become] to be lost die. nakusuru ; nakusu [nai non-existent sum to make] to lose. mgi'ni : to exceed used frequently in

mend]

:

;

:

;

:

;

;

:

;

compounds. nani ka : something or other,

2. Yokosuka e iku (no) ni 1. Kono hon tea shimai ga taihen muzukashii (B). wa doko de nori-kaeru no dew ka ? (C). 3. Ofnna de nori-kaeru no desu (C). 4. Kono tegami wa kitanai kara, kaki-naoshite kudasai (C). 5. Sentaku shite kara, kai-mono ni itte o-ide (A). 6. Yamada San ni nani ka nomi-mono wo o age nasai

(A).
ico

7.

Mon,o-oki kara sara wo ju-mai dashlte o-ide (A).
9.

8.

Sato ga nakunatta

kara, kawa-nakereba nara-nai (B).

nakushimashita
11.

(C).

o-ide nasai (A). desho (C). 12.

Sono

Ototo ga Amerika kara okutie kureta kitte 10. Kono bin wa oki-sugiru, motto chiiaai no wo motte Ei-go no hon wa Hana-ko San ni wa muzukashi-sugiru

Yoku kangaete kara, mono wo o ii nasai (A). 13. Watashi no kangoe de wa Jiro wa mo kaette ko-nai daro to omou (B). 14. Hon-ya e itte, konaida katta jibiki no kane wo haratte kimasu (C). 15. Koppu wo misete kudasai 17. 16. Kore wa chiisa-sugimasu, mo sukoshi okii no ga arimasen ka? (C). (C). Kono akai hon wo shimai made o yomi na^aimaffhlta ka ? (D). 18. lie, mada hambun gurai shika yomimasen (C). 19. Ilaha zca' Mitsukoshi ni kai-mono ni
1

iku' to itte, kesa hayaku dekakemashita (C). 20. Ashlta Tokyo nani ka kai-mono ga arimashitara, katte kite agemasho (C).
1.

e

ikimasu kara,

This book

is

very

difficult

very difficult). at Ofuna. 4.

2.

Where must
is

towards the end (lit. as for this book the end is I change for Yokosuka ? 3. You must change
5.

This letter

dirty, so write it again.

When you

finish

the

,

washing go and do your shopping (lit. go and come). 6. Offer Mr Yamada something to drink. 7. Get ten plates out of the pantry. 8. There is no more sugar, so I must buy some. 9. I have lost the stamps which my brother sent me from America. 10. This bottle is too big, bring me a smaller one. 11. I expect that English book is too difficult for Miss Hana-ko. 12. Think before you speak (lit. after thinking well, say things). 13. In my opinion Jiro will not come back again. 14. I'll go to the bookseller's and pay for the dictionary I bought the other day. 15. Show me some tumblers. 16. This one is too small, haven't you got a slightly bigger one ? 17. Have you read this red book right to the end ? 18. No, I have only read about half 19. My mother went yet. out this morning early saying she was going to Mitsukoshi to make some purchases. 20. As I am going to Tokyo tomorrow, if there is anything you want bought, I can buy it for you.

EXERCISE
Ho is used after verbs when adjectives, see Exercise 28.
hoteru
:

30.

comparing

acts, in a

way which

is

like its use after

(foreign-style) hotel. corner. yado-ya : (native) inn.
If

massu.gu na

:

straight.

ado

:

magaru
yarn
:

to turn. to send.
:

ba e wa koko wo itte ii no desu ka? (C). 5. Ano kado wo magatte massugu iku ho ga yd gozaimasu (D). 6. Ko iu yowai hako nara, kazca-nai ho ga yokatta (B). 7. Kamakura yori Nikko e iku ho ga ii desu 8. Kutsu wo dashlte o kure (C). (A). 9. Dochira wo dashimasho ? (C). 10. Kind katta ho wo dashlte kure (A). 11. Go-sen no empitsti IKO ni-hon kau yori, jis-sen no ico ip-pon katta ho ga ii ja arimasen ka ? (C). 12. Sakana ga kusaru to komaru kara, tabete shimau ho ga it (B). 13. Koko e tsukue wo oku to jama da, nikai ni motte iku ho ga ii (B). 14. Sono tokei ga iya ni nattara uru ho ga yokaro (B).. 15. Nihon no yado-ya e tomarimasho ka ? hoteru e tomarimasho ka ? (C). 16. Nihon no yado-ya no ho ga yasui kara, yado-ya e tomaru ho ga ii (B). 17. Kono tegami wa junsa ni miseru ho ga ii (B). 18. Saito San wa irasshaimashita ka ? (C). 19. Mada desu, mo sukoshi matte mimasho (C). 20. So iu hon wa kodomo ni mise-nai ho ga ii desho (C). 21. Taro San no bydki wo Yamada San ni tegami de itte yarimasho ka ? (C). 22. Tegami wo o dashi nasaru yori, atte o hanashi nasaru ho ga yd gozaimasho (D). 23. Anata wa doko de kudamono wo o kai nasaimasu ka ? (D). 24. Watanabe de kaimasu (C). 25. Asuko wa takai desu kara, o kai ni nara-nai ho ga ii desho (C). 26. So dtsu ka ? de mo, ano mise no wa taihen atarashikutte ii to omoimasu (C). 27. Atsui kara, mado wo akete oku ho ga ii desho (C).
1. Shall I write to Mr Yamada, or shall I send Taro to call him ? 2. I think would be better to send Taro than to write a letter. 3. As we have so much luggage it would be better to go by train than by tram-car. 4. Does this road take me to the station ? 5. It would be better to turn at that corner and go 6. It would have been better not to have bought anything at; all straight on. rather than a weak box like this. 7. It would be better to go to Nikko instead 10. of Kamakura. 9. Which shall I get out ? 8. Get out a pair of boots. Get out the pair I bought yesterday. 11. Instead of buying two five-sen pencils would it not have been better to have bought one ten-sen one ? 12. You had 13. You better eat all the fish otherwise it will go bad, and I don't want that. had better take the desk upstairs, it's in the way here. 14. If you no longer care for that watch, you had better sell it. 15. Shall we stop at a Japanese inn 17. or at a hotel ? 16. We had better stop at a Japanese inn, it is cheaper. You had better show this letter to the police. 15. Has Mr Saito arrived ? 19. NT ot yet let's wait a little longer and see if he comes. 20. You had better not 21. Shall I inform Mr Yamada of Master show" a book like that to children. Taro's illness by letter ? 22. I think you had better go and see him yourself 24. I buy it 23. Where do you buy your fruit ? (instead of writing a letter). 26. at Watanabe 's. 25. You had better not buy it there, it is a dear shop. You may be right, but I find the fruit there very good and nice. 27. As it is hot I think we'd better open the window.

ni tegami rco dashimasho ka ? Taro wo yobi ni yarimasho ka ? 3. Niyori, Taro -wo yobi ni yarn ho ga ii desho (C). motsu ga takusan aru kara, densha yori kisha de iku ho ga yokaro (B). 4. Teisha1.

Yamada San
2.

(C).

Tegami wo dasu

it

;

EXERCISE
in e'ru or i'ru,
:

40.

Causative verbs are formed from the 4th base. In the case of verbs ending add sase'ru ; in all other cases add se'ru ; (137). They are transThe agent takes the postposition ni in lated by tell, get, make, let or have. the causative construction (145). Causative verbs all end in -se'ru ; their 3rd base is irregular, viz. shit ; but the regular form -set is also sometimes used (97).
;

;

akambo
daiku
ita
: :

:

baby.

carpenter. board.
:

kippu

ticket.
:

dare ka : somebody or other. koshirae'ru : to make. sase'ru : irregular passive of sum to do. kikase'ru : to cause to hear, i.e. to tell.
taitei
:

ko-zutsumi
suteishon
:

parcel (for the post).

generally.

station.

2. Kono 1. Yo-ji han ni kaeru kara, dare ka kitara, matashite oite kudasai (C). kimono wo Matsu ni arawashite o kure (A). 3. Watashi no heya wo jochu ni soji sashlte kure (A). 4. Ko-zutsumi wo imoto ni dasashite kudasai (C). 5. Shimbun wa do shita no daro ? (B). 6. Mada kimasen, jochu ni kawasemasho (C). 7. Kono 8. Taro wo yonde kono tegami ita de daiku ni hako wo koshiraesasemasho (C). wo Nihon-go ni yakusaseyo (B). 9. dekake de gozaimasu ka ? kuruma wo yobasemasho ka? (D). 10. lie, aruite ikimasu (C). 11. Kippu wa imoto ni kawasemashd (C). 12. Watashi wa tegami wa taitei musume ni kakasemasu (C). 13. Ashlta kono kimono wo jochu ni sentaku saseyo (B). 14. Kodomo ni sono nashi wo tabesashite wa ike-nai (A). 15. Sono hon wo kodomo ni ijirase-nai de kudasai 16. Hana-ko ni mizu wo nomase-nai de o kure (A). 17. Konaida daiku ni (C). koshiraesaseta hako wa kore desu (C). 18. Akambo ni chichi wo nomasMte o kure 20. 19. Mitsu-ko ni ko iu hon wo yomashite mo, wakara-nai desho (C). (A). Sono hanashi wa Hana-ko San ni kikase-nai de kudasaimasen ka? (C). 21. Ano tamago wo Chokichi ni motasete, Tanaka San no tokoro e yatte o kure (A). 22. Kono hon wo jochu ni yomaseyo (B). 23. Saburo wa ammari jobu ja nai no desu kara, so benkyo sase-nai de, sukoshi ryoko wo saseru ho ga ii to omoimasu (C).

24.
1.

Kono hagaki
I shall

to

ko-zutsumi wo jochu ni dasashite kudasai
four, if
3. Tell

(C).

anybody should come tell him to wait. the servant to do my room. 4. Tell my sister to post the parcel. 5. What about the newspaper? 6. It hasn't come yet, I '11 tell the servant to buy one. 7. I '11 get the carpenter to make a box out of this board. 8. I'll call Taro and get him to translate this letter into Japanese. 9. Are you going out now ? Shall I get (somebody) to call a rikisha ? 10. No, I shall walk. 11. I'll get my sister to buy the ticket. 12. I generally make my daughter write my letters for me. 13. I'll make the servant wash this dress tomorrow. 14. Don 't let the child eat those pears. 15. Don't let the child meddle with that book. 17. 16. Don't let Hana-ko drink water. This is the box that I had made the other day by the carpenter. 18. Give the baby his milk (lit. make baby drink the milk). 19. I don't think Mitsu-ko would understand a book like this even if you gave it to her to read. 20. Please don 't tell that to Miss Hana-ko. 21. Tell Chokichi to take those eggs to Mr Tanaka 's house (lit. make Chokichi carry those eggs and send him to Mr Tanaka 's place). 22. I '11 tell the servant to read this book. 23. Saburo is not very strong instead of studying so much I think it would be better to make him travel a little. 24. Tell the servant to post this postcard and the parcel.
2. Tell

be back at half past Matsu to wash this dress.

;

EXERCISE
yd na : like similar. yd ni : like in order to so that ; often not translated. ka mo shire-nai : added at the end
;
; ;

41.
:

yubin-kyoku
ko-ndo
: :

post
;

office.

this

time

next time.

of a sentence to express uncertainty.
1.

desirous of having. : rare strange. kowasu (trans.) to break. tsutsumu : to wrap up.

hoshii

mezurashii

;

:

Watashi mo Yamada San no yd na uma wo ip-piki kaimasti, (C). 2. Manna otoko ni wa kamawa-nai ho ga yokaro (B). 3. Teru-ko San no yo na yasashii mueume wa mezurashii (B). 4. Watashi mo Hana-ko San no 5. Bdshi wo o kai nasaimashita ka? yd na empitsu ga hoshii (B). (D). 6. lie, Hana-ko San no yd na no ga arimasen deshita kara, kaimasen deshita (C). 7. Kono bin rro kowam-nai yd ni aratte o kure (A). 8. Takeo ni isogaxhii kara, kondo no doyd-bi ni kaeru yd ni tegami ico kaite kudasai (C). 9. Kurumaya ni hachi-ji ni kuru yd ni itte o-ide (A). 10. Kono han wo ko-zutsumi de okuru yd ni tsutsunde o kure (A). 11. Ko-zutsumi ga kinyd no asa tsuku yd ni dashite kudasai (C). 12. Kd iu (yd na) kami ga arimasu ka? (C). 13. Mo stikoshi ii no ga hoshii no desu (C). 14. Kono ho ga sore yori ii ka mo shiremasen (C). 15. Kyd wa ame ga furu ka mo shiremasen kara, kasa wo mochi nasaru hd ga yd gozaimashd (D). 16. Watashi ni tegami ga kite iru ka mo shire-nai kara, yubin-kyoku e itte mite o kure (A). 17. Yamaguchi San no tonari ni iru hito wa Terada San deshd ka ? (C). 18. So ka mo shire-nai (B). 19. Brown San wa kondo wa itsu Nihon e o-ide nasaru no deshd ka? (C). 20. Konaida kiite mita ga, kotoshi wa korare-nai ka mo shire-nai to itte ita (B). 21. Tard wa ashlta no ban nii-san to issho ni kaeru no ka mo shire-nai (B). 22. Kono hako wa daiku ga koshiraeta no de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 23. lie. ani 24. O td-san no jama ico shi-nai ga koshiraeta no ka mo shire-nai (B). yd ni o shi nasai (A). 25. Ashita no asa roku-ji no kisha de iku yd ni hayaku okimashd (C).
kichi no yd
1. I also am going to buy a horse like Mr Yamada 's. 2. You had better take no notice of a man like Mankichi. 3. It's seldom you find such a sweettempered girl as Miss Teru-ko. 4. I also would like a pencil like Miss Hana-ko 's. 5. Did you buy a hat ? 6. No, I didn't buy one as I couldn't find one like Miss Hana-ko 's. 7. Wash this bottle and don't break it. (lit. wash this bottle in such a way that you do not break it). 8. Write to Takeo and tell him to come back on Saturday as I 've a lot of work to do. 9. Go and tell the rikisha-man to be here at eight o'clock. 10. Wrap up this parcel (in a way suitable) to send by 12. Have post. 11. Send the parcel so that it will arrive on Friday morning. you got any paper like this ? 13. I want some a little better. 14. I think this kind is better than that. 15. I think you had better take an umbrella as I believe it will rain today. 16. As I think there may be a letter for me, go to the post office and find out. 17. I wonder if the man next to Mr Yamaguchi is Mr Terada ? 18. I believe he is. 19. When do you think Mr Brown will come again to Japan ? 20. I asked a few days ago and he said that he didn't expect to be able to come this year. 21. I think Taro will return tomorrow with his brother. 22. Was this box made by a carpenter ? 23. No, 1 think my brother made it. 24. Don't disturb your father (///. behave so as not to disturb). 25. Let's get up early tomorrow morning so as to catch the

six o'clock train.

EXERCISE
tsumori
:

42.

intention.
;

hazu

:

obligation
;

fitness
;

able expectation ashi : leg foot.

reasonconviction.
;

kega : wound. natsu : summer.

atama

: head. inaka : country town). karada : body.

(as

opposed

to

naoru : to get well get mended. noboru : to ascend. isshokemmei : with all one 's might and main with concentrated attention. sukkari : completely.
;

;

2. Domo 1. Kotoshi no natsu wa do nasaru o tsumori de gozaimasu ka ? (D). karada ga warui desu kara, Yumoto e itte, futa-tsuki gurai lie kuru tsumori desu 3. Karada ga naottara isshokemmei (ni) Ei-go wo benkyo sum tsumori da (C). 5. Ashi no kega 4. Kyo wa Yamada San no uchi e iku tsumori desu (C). (B). ga naottara Fuji-san e noboru tsumori dem (C). 6. Omae wa shujin ni yobareta 7. Kyo uchi kara tegami ga kuru hazu desu toki wa sugu ni iku hazu da (A). kara, kitara sugu ni mise e motte kite kudasai (C). 8. Kono jibiki wa ano hon-ya ni aru hazu desu (C). 9. Ano mise ni ko iu hon ga aru hazu wa nai (B). 10. Ano hlto no yd ni isshokemmei ni benkyo sureba Ei-go ga jozu ni naru hazu desu (C). 12. 11. Taro ga Hana-ko San no banchi wo shitte iru hazu ga arimasen (C). Hlkidashi niju-yen aru hazu da kara, motte kite o kure (A). 13. Karita mono wa kaesu hazuja arimasen ka ? (B). 14. Atama ga warukutte shigoto ga dekimasen 15. kara, inaka e iku tsumori de gozaimasu (D). kega wa do nasaimashita ? 16. Arigato gozaimasu ; mo sukkari naorimashlta (D). 17. Sore wa yd (D). gozaimashita (D). 18. Ototo San wa Nikko kara o kaeri nasaimashita ka ? (D). 19. He, mada desu ; ku-gatsu ni natte kara, kaeru tsumori desho (C). 20. Yam,ada San no bydki wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka? (D). 21. Domo naora-nai de

komarimasu (C). 22. Kyo wa Ueno e iku tsumori datta ga, iya ni natta kara, yoso 23. Inaka wafuben desu kara, ammari sukija arimasen (C). (B).
intend to do this summer ? 2. As I am not feeling at all intend to go to Yumoto (and stay there) for a couple of months. 3. When I get well again. I intend to study English as hard as I can. 4. I intend to go to Mr Yamada 's house today. 5. When my foot gets well, I intend to go up
1.

What do you

well, I

Mount

am

Fuji.

6.

expecting a letter from

8. You ought to find this 9. They dictionary at that bookseller's. don 't keep books like this at that shop. 10. You would make great progress in English if you studied as hard as that man does. 11. There's no reason why Taro should know Miss Hana-ko 's address. 12. There ought to be ten yen in the drawer, bring them. 13. Don't you know yet that when you borrow things you must return them ? 14. I am feeling tired and 1 can't do my work properly, so I intend to go to the country (lit. my head is bad). 15. How is your wound 16. Thanks, I am completely well a.urain getting on ? now. 17. I am very pleased to hear it. 18. Is your brother back from Nikko yet ? 19. No, not yet he intends to come back in September (lit. after it becomes September). 20. How is Mr Yamada (who has been ill) getting on ? 21. I am feeling very anxious about him because he gets no better. 22. I intended to go to Ueno today but I no longer feel inclined to go, so I won't (///. it has become distasteful). 23. I am not very fond of the country, I find
office.
;

You must go to your master as soon as he calls you. home today as soon as it comes bring it to
;

7.

I

the

it

inconvenient.

15. Master Jiro says 16. That big desk looks inconvenient. As my brother is weak I hear he is going to leave the office and go to the country. yd da kara. Matsu says she has a headache and can't get up today. give up. kyo wa sentaku wo shi-nai ho ga ii (B). like a foreigner. kaban trunk . Ano hito wa seiyo-jin no yd da (B). Go and ask mother if an answer has come from Mr Yamada. 16. itai : kono-goro : a foreigner. o kd-san ni kiite kudasai (C). 17. Taro kono-goro yoku benkyd shite iru yd desu (C). They say Mr Yamada 's dog is very please don't buy anything there. Those spoons look like silver. gin : silver. They say Mr Suzuki has given up smoking. 22. : yame'ru : to be late. It seems to me that it 's hotter 5. That bag there looks like mine. or quasi-adjectives etc. it's not his. 3. asuko de kawa-nai de kudasai (C). seems to ache so badly I think I '11 call a doctor. Ano dki na tsukue wafuben na yd da (B). true adjectives. They say the doctor told him to give it up. seiyo no : foreign. O Matsu wa atama ga itakutte kyo wa okirare-nai so da (B). isha ni yameru yd ni iwareta no da so da (B). Kado no kudamono-ya wa takai so desu kara. empty. warui yd da kara. lately well again now.asu (D). It clever. Suzuki ? 11. to cease . leave off . seiyo-jin : penjiku : penholder. She says no answer has come yet. tana : shelf. Kore wa Jird San no penjiku no yd da. Europe. 18. : means semblance or appearance. Suzuki San wa tabako wo o yame nas'tta so desu kara. 6. How has your 24. motte kite goran (A). Danna sama wa kono-goro ikaga de gozaimasu ka? (D). : seiyo : the West . 6. now-a-days . Asuko ni am no ga watakushi no kaban no yd de gozaimasu (D). true adjectives. I hear that shelf is empty. 7. 2. Shall I send this tobacco to Mr foreign newspaper belongs to Mr Terada. behind time. okutte agete mo dame desho (C). Yamada San kara henji ga kita ka. 12. saji : spoon. 14. 5. Ano saji wa gin no yd desu (C). 8. 8. I believe that bottle on the 9. md sukkari naotta so desu (C). 13. : okure'ru painful. 10. lately. You had better not do your washing today. 9. o isha wo yobd (B). stop . Mada ko-nai so desu (C). Go-ji no kisha wa ju-go-fun okureru so da (B). I hear that. it looks like rain. kyonen : last year. bring it. 4. 23. or quasi-adjectives in na or no in na: it means they say. Jird San no de wa nai so de gozaim. so it will probably be 13. he says. used after verbs. 22. 17. 21. 14. Kotoshi wa kyonen yori atsui yd de gozaimasu (D). 2. Taihen 20. 15. This penholder looks like Jiro's take it and see if it is. Yamada San no inu wa taihen rikd na so da (B). motte itte kiite goran (B). Am 1. America. That man looks this year than last. Ano seiyo no shimbun wa Terada San no da so desu (C). 7. 12. : henji answer. 23. travelling bag. Ano tana ni aru bin wa kara no yd da ga. 20. wa karada ga yowai kara. Kind tegami ga kimashtta ga. Kono tabako wo Suzuki San ni okutte agemashd ka ? (C). Ame gafuru wa 21. 10. Taro appears to be studying very hard lately. mise wo yamefe inaka e iku so desu (C). 24. 4. kara no 1. So da is used after verbs. 3. They say the five o'clock train is fifteen minutes late. They say the fruit-shop at the corner is dear. useless to send it to him. 11.EXERCISE Yd da it is 43. so 19. 19. A letter came yesterday and he says he is quite husband been ? . . 18.

12. Jiro says he's got a stomach-ache. pale. You 3. Jiro are pale. 17. migi : the right-hand te : hand. lie. daiji no. I went to see Miss Hana-ko yesterday. Oh no. Omde wa am kao igo shite iru.EXERCISE In dart : the left-hand side. 20. I '11 5. Kusuri wo kai ni jochii wo yatte o kure (A). he goes to the doctor. Yamada San kara mada henji ga kimasen ga. me : eye. Thanks. 19. kusuri : medicine something good for the health. ddmo atama ga omoimasu (C). yasumu do ka : to rest. shizuka na ne'ru : quiet. ammari kudamono wo tabeta kara desho (C). I was ill last month and on that account I was absent from the office. ache. you'll damage your eyes/'#ht. 18. no hon wo yomu to me ga waruku narimasu (C). Well then. 22. 5. 3. 15. Matsu hasn't eaten anything today. Onakaga itai no O isha ni mite morau ho ga ii (B). You had better see a doctor. it's because he's been eating too much fruit. 18. 13. O yasumi nasai (C). if I it alone and take no notice of it. 22. 11. I must send for the doctor. 2. 4. Take get well again. (C). Jochu ga atama ga itai to itte nete iru (B). 24. o ne nasai (C). 17. as it's my right hand I find it very inconvenient. Karada no warui toki wa ko-nai de ii (A). kao : face. Kono kusuri wo nonde shizuka ni 7. do ka shUa no ka ? (A). Taihen na kega de wa gozaimasen ga. kamawa-nai de oite mo naoru desho (C). this medicine and lie down quietly. O MatsU wa kyo wa ichi-do mo gohan wo tabe-nai kara. Send the servant to buy the medicine. important : precious. What have you done to your hand ? 7. Kono ko wa kusuri wo nomu no ga kirai de domo komaru (B). 16. Taro wa hidari no me ga warukutte o 9. Tegami wo dashite kiite mimasho 20. itakutte 15. 9. how is he now ? 23. Arigato gozaimasu. 25. So iu chiisai ji (C). toka gurai kakaru daro to o isha ga iimashita (D). I've hurt myself. Ddzo o karada wo o daiji ni nas'tte kudasai (D). Sore de wa kono kusuri wo nomasete o yari nasai (B). 1. to : lie down . 6. I am thinking of going to some quiet place for a month or so. 11. 12. give him this medicine to take. somehow or other. . 8. I really says he will be well again in about ten days. he may be ill. Sore wa ike-nai. aimasen deshlta (C). bydki ka mo shiremasen (C). I have a stomachI am sorry to hear it. O te wo do nasaimashita ? (D). no doubt. it's nothing serious. he does so dislike taking medicine. Good night. 10. I've no doubt. 14. 8. 1. 14. 21. ikemasen kara hito-tsuki gurai shizuka na tokoro e ikd to wa onaka ga itai so desu . aoi : green : blue . naoru made (D). 4. I'll write and inquire. Taro's left eye is bad. If you read books with such small print. 25. Please take great care of yourself. she says she's got a headache. Kono-goro watashi wa desu (C). don't know what to do with this child. I've heard that your sou hurt himself. . 6. 13. 10. leave . 19. You needn't come when you are not feeling well. Mr Yamada hasn't answered (my letter) yet. is anything the matter with you ? 2. 21. As I have been greatly troubled lately with my headaches. Kind Hana-ko San no o uchi e ikimashita ga. Kega wo shita no desu . the doctor 24. The servant is lying down. . 44. zuibun fuben desu (C). sleep. side. Hana-ko San wa go bydki deshUa kara. migi desu kara. Musuko san ga o kega wo nas'tta so de gozaimasu ga ikaga de gozaimasu ka? 23. Watakushi wa sengetsu bydki de mise wo yasumimashita isha ni itte iru (B). 16. but as she was ill I didn't see her. o isha wo yonde mite morawa-nakereba nara-nai (B).

Ginko wa doko de gozaimasu ka ? (D). Yo-ji mae ni tsukitai no da. Dare ka ni michi wo kiki nasai (A). 28. 22. o takaku wa gozaimasen (D). : yatou : to engage employ. Ginko wa nani machi ni gozaimasu ka ? 21. Keredomo. Amegafutte taihen michi ga warn gozaimasu kara. it is 16. Wait here. 29. Call a push-man. machi saka : : town street. Go-jis-sen itadakitd gozaimasu (D).EXERCISE ato-oshi : 45. 4. ue : above on the top of. Toi tokoro e o-ide nasaimasu ka? (D). serve the (up or down). Ato-oshi wo o yobi nasai (A). 31. can 't you give me five sen more how much an 10. 16. 13. Turn to the right at that corner and you'll soon come^ 3. . a as I have go too quickly. Ask somebody How long Don't 27. 8. I will do so. 34. Tokei-ya no mae de tomete o kure (A). I wish to get there before four o'clock. so hurry up. 6. Isoide saka wo orite wa ike-nai. Hurry up a little so as to catch the hill. It's just on the top of that is the bank ? street what 18. but it's only a short distance. Stop at that watchmaker's. 6. 21. Ammari isoga-nai de o kure (A). Don't go too fast down the hills. 2. Jikan de yatoitai. Ichiban ichi-jikan ikura ? (A). How much do you charge to go I have often been there to Ueno ? 5. 1. 10. 15. toi : purpose. Call a rikisha. Ano hon-ya de kai-mono wo suru kara. rikisha push-man. 14. Hayaku ika-nai to ma ni awa-nai (B). That is too little. 7. 9. 20. 30. San-jip-pun de mairimasu (D). 7. 4. seller's as I I'll get down and walk. Hayaku ikeba mo 23. 8. 11. Well. Sono kado wo migi e magaru to sugu ginko no mae ni deru (B). Wakai kuruma-ya no ho ga ii (B). 17. Are you going far ? 13. hayaku itte o kure (A). 30. 2. Sono saka no sugu ue da (B). As it has rained and the roads are very bad. In dangerous. Fifty sen. I dangerous. Ueno made 5. I can go in thirty minutes. hoka no wo yonde kure (A). 20. 18. Where is the bank ? 81. The farthest place I am going to is Aoyama. shizuka ni itte moraitai (A). 33. If you go quickly I'll give you ten sen more. 25. 26. 34. young rikisha-man would be better. go slowly does it take to go to the station ? 29. far. tai (A). orite aruite iko (B). wakai young. mo go-sen kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 24. If you don't go quickly I won't be there in time. Kono kuruma wa furukutte ike-nai. I want you to post office. 22. Fifty sen is too dear. A . have some purchases to make. 19. 28. 26. Go to the the road. toi tokoro wa Aoyama da (B). an inclined road ma hill isogu : to hurry. . I really don't think it's too much. abunai kara (A). tomete moraitai (A). 27. takai. Go-ji no klsha ni ma ni au yd ni sukoshi isoide o kure (A). 25. 3. abunai : dangerous. 15.) . headache. Kuruma wo yonde kure (A). Go to the bank. Suteishon made dono gurai kakaru ka ? (A). Sore de wa komarimasu. o'clock train. ikura ? (B). it's too old . 14. 12. tome'ru (trans. . 17. ni au : to be in time : . Ja so shiyo (B). taitei shitte iru (B). Koko ni matte lie moraijis-sen yard (B). and I know the proper price. Kono saka wa abunai kara. (D). 23. This rikisha won't do. will ? you go for forty sen ? 9. want to stop at that book- . Atama ga itai no da kara. 1. 24. Go-jis-sen ja ammari Tabi-tabi notta koto ga aru kara. Well. call another one. hill is 32. 11. Yubin-kyoku e itte kure (A). I want to engage you by the hour hour ? 12. sugu soko ja nai ka ? yon-jis-sen de ii daro? (A). to stop. 32. the bank. 19. Ginko e itte o kure (A).

kitara oshiete kudasai (C). Moshi ame ga futtara. 10. At eight o'clock. How many days is this ticket available ? 7. 20. At what time does the train for Kyoto leave? 3. Supposing it starts raining. kuruma de iko (B). Ame ga furu yd (C). please tell me when we get there. No. I want to check these two 12. 30. 11. it's faster. How much is a return ticket ? 27. Kippu tco uru tokoro zva doko desho ? (C). All right. Hachi-ji ni demasu 4. At what big trunks to Kobe. 6. 6. Akabo wo yonde kure (A). torn : first class. let's go back by tram-car. Nimotsu wa kimashUa ka ? (C). 10. Suteishon no mae de orimasu kara. 15. kuruma de iku ho ga ii daro (B). Let 's go by tram-car. 9. Hai. 7. E. densha wo orite kara. . densha de kaeroja arimasen ka? (C). 2. 16. As I don 't know where Suda-chd is. 14. Can I go to Shimbashi without changing cars ? 18. Koko de tabako wo nonde mo kamaimasen ka ? (C). or 3rd class). : ni-to second : class. Kono kisha wa Kyoto e nan-ji ni tsukimasu? (C). Kono kippu wa iku-nichi ts-ukae5. May I break the journey at Kyoto ? 8. class (as 1st. to pass. 25. in front of that bookseller's. 31. If you take the following car you needn't change. tsukau : to use. masu ka ? (C). Jis-sen desu (C). Tokyo ofuku ni-to sam-mai kudasai (C). 29. yuki (from yuku. 19. Suda-cho wo shirimasen kara. 2. Ofuku ikura desu ? (C). Densha no ho ga hayai kara densha de iko (B). 18. nose'ru : to put on to. Does this tram-car pass near Shimbashi station ? 17. desu kara. Tsugi no suteishon wa nan to iimasu ? (C). 23. Kobe it-to ichi-mai (B). Kono kaban wo kisha no naka e motte itte ii desu ka? (C). tomete kudasai 26. Kono tsugi no ni noreba nori-kae-nai de ikareru (B). Hongo e iku no ni wa doko de nori-kaeru no de gozaimasho? (D). As I want to get off at the station. 22. . azuke'ru : to give in deposit. If you have too many parcels. 24. san-to 1. As it looks like rain. Kyoto-yuki no kisha wa nan-ji ni demasu ka? (C). 21. May I take this bag into the carriage with me ? 11. let 's do so. Yes. time does this train arrive at Kyoto ? 14. let's take rikishas. 25. Nimotsu ga takusan aru nara. 28.EXERCISE akabo -to : 46. 23. Is this the place where one takes 21. The next stop is Suda-cho. 19. ikaremasu ka? (C). 8. (C). Kyoto de orite mo ii no desu ka ? (C). Shinagawa-yuki wa koko de noru no desu ka? (C). 20. 29. 1. there and back return. Kono oki na nimotsu wofutatsu Kobe made azuketai (B). 31. 26. Suda-cho de o nori-kae nasareba yd gozaimasu (D). 24. the correct form of the verb to go) used after destination of : trains. soba : beside near. Shimbashi e nori-kae-nai de bashi suteishon no soba wo torimasu ka? (C). please stop. 30. I have already put it on a rikisha. Is smoking allowed here ? 9. Kono densha wa Shim17. 3. third class. (the tram-car) for Shinagawa ? Where must I change for Hongo ? 22. ano hon-ya no mae kara noru no desu (C). 32. One first Kobe. when we get off the tram-car. Change at Suda-cho. 13. Call a porter. Kono tsugi wa Suda-cho de gozaimasu (D). etc. 16. 12. ships. wonder where the booking-office is ? 4. mo kuruma ni nosemashlta (C). 28. ofuku it-id : railway porter. densha de ika-nai de. tsugi no : next. 32. 27. lie. : : . Has my luggage arrived ? 15. What's the name of the next station ? 13. 5. Three second I returns Tokyo. instead of taking the tram-car you had better take a rikisha. 2nd. so shimasho (C). Ten sen.

Go-fun gurai de ikaremasu (D). There's a bookseller in front of the sure and have them ready by then. gozaimasu ka? (D). Ko-zutsumi wa watakushi no ho de da&himashd ka? 29. 28. Show me some children's hats. How much is it altogether ? please. 23. please. so send the receipt at the same time. ni dare ka ni motasete agemasho (D). Teishaba e wa dore ga ichiban chikai michi desu ka ? (C). If I go this way will it take me to Ueno station ? 6. 22. Ko-zutsumi de okuru yd ni tsutsunde kuremasen ka ? Uke-tori wo naka e irete kudasai (C). on delivery. soko de ko iu jibiki rco katte kite kure (A). 12. Ano kado wo hidari e magatte massugu ni o-ide nasai (C). I will take this one. mukai : the opposite side. "As it's for everyday use I don't want a very good one. 26. fudan no : usual to need. bank. go there and buy a dictionary like this. 24. Kutsu wo koshiraete moraitai desu ga.sore made ni kitto koshiraete oite kure (A). to send to destination. Please show me that cloth. allow me to send somebody to carry it for you to the post office. Kono empitsu wa ikura? (B). I don't want anything soiled. 15. . 3. 24. It's about If you go to the right (on leaving the shop) you'll come to it. 5. 1 9. I'll pay do. No. Isogimasu kara. Shall I send the parcel? 29. Kden e iku michi wa dochira de chikai (B). 14. There's a stain 15. Sore de wa yubin-kyoku made go issho (D). 14. Go-sen de gozaimasu (D). Would you kindly pack them up so as to send by post Enclose the receipted bill. A cheap one will Please send it to my house today. 20. 10. uke-tori wo motte kite kudasai (C). Fudan no desu kara. 23. Koko ni shimi ga arimasu . 30. Sono kire wo misete kudasaimasen ka ? (C). receipt. 6. 17. Where is the post office 25. Kyo uchi e todokete kuremasen ka ? (C). 1. 17. . that 's not the way the station is over there. Five sen. Doyo-bi no gogo ni tori ni yokosu kara. 11. How much is this pencil 1 21. I'll send for them on Saturday afternoon. Ginko no mukai ni hon-ya ga aru.. Yubin-kyoku wa doko ni arimasu ka ? (C). I want some boots made. Give me five of these pencils and a hundred sheets of blue paper. masho (C). 4. lie. everyday. 25. No. 2. 11. This is the nearest way. 1 Which is the nearest way Which is the Avay to the park. 7. Kore wo kaimasho. . 10. I won't take it. Kore wo go-h&n to ano aoi kami wo hyaku-mai kudasai (C). Kodomo no boshi wo misete kudasai 13. 20. koko wo itte wa dame desu . to send (towards the speaker). hayaku shite moraitai desu (C). ? 2. I will send Well then. be quick about it. . 28. 13. 8. 18. todoke'ru yokosu : . Turn to the left at that corner and go straight on. 5. Yasui no de ii no desu (C). These are too dear have you no other cheaper ones ? 9. Minna de ikura ni narimasu ? (C). 12. As I'm in a hurry. \ j I 1 . kitto : positively surely. 22. itsu dekiru desho? (C). muko : beyond . Kore ga ichiban 3. ga arimasen ka ? (C). 7. so ii no wa irimasen (C). 26. yoshi(C). lie. 19. to the station please ? 4. teishaba wa muko desu 8. Kore wo ikeba Ueno suteishon e demasii ka ? (C). : : teishaba uke-tori iru : station. so be you have them ready"? 18. Tokei wo misete kudasai (C). Takai kara. 27. watashi ga da-so (B). motto yasui no (C). dear. 9. over there. shimi ga aru no wa iya desu (C). Koko kara migi no ho e o-ide nasaimasu to gozaimasu.EXERCISE kire : 47. Kane wa motte kita toki haraimasu kara. It's too 16. when can here. 16. Please show me some watches. : cloth. Kore wa taka-sugimasu. : shimi stain. 21. minutes' walk.

omoimasu (C). it will arrive sooner. e o todoke nasai (A). used of the telephone. 2. What's Mr Brown's number? 14. Send it by train. 23. 8. kara o kaeri ni natta ka. It's overweight. I wonder if a letter has come for What's the postage on this letter? 5. Suzuki San wa ashlta no asa o-ide kudasaru so de gozaimasu (D). Mr America ? 19. Yesterday evening a telegram came from his mother and he immediately set out for the country. 9. 7. 23. 18. 1. it will need six sen. 24. When will it arrive ? 20. tori ni iku ho ga ii (B). Ei-go no dempo wa ichi-go ikura ? Yamada San. Koko de wa Ei-go no dempo wa kakeraremasen (C). 21. . Danna sama ni motte ko-nai ka mo shire-nai kara. 15. 20. If Mr Tanaka is at home. Klsha no ho ga hayaku tsukimasu kara. 28. You can't send a telegram in English from here. letter 4. Will this letter go for three sen ? 32. Kesa ku-ji goro ni kono kaki-tome ga mairimashUa (D). 11. mi'ari : to reach arrive. (B). todoku chotto : : : end. Kono tegami wo kaki-tome desho ? (C). How much does each word in me? English cost ? 10. Six sen. Itsu todokima^u ka ? Hana-ko San ga Kobe (C). 2. Ei-go no dempo mairimasen (D). dozo denwa wo chotto kashlte kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 22. Mr Suzuki says that he'll come tomorrow morning. 18.ono wa yubin de okurima^ho ka ? (C). 7. so ja 29. ktsha de o yari nasai (B). 29. used of telegrams and . O rusu ni Suzuki San kara denwa ga kakarimashita (D). Watashi ni tegami ga kita. 21.EXERCISE denwa : : 48. Shall I call up (the butcher) on the phone and ask him to send the meat ? 26. Brown San wa nam-ban desho ? (C). 1. Donata ka go bydki de gozaimasu ka? (D). 26. wa irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 19. take me to the post office. 11. 16. Can I send a telegram in English ? 9. would you allow me the use of the telephone for a moment ? 12. No. If you telephone for it they may not send it immediately. 10. Find out by telephone if Miss Hana-ko has returned from Kobe. Ano tsutsumi wo Tanaka San 8. Tanaka San ga irasshaimashitara. 14. Perhaps at the end of month. this parcel to Yamada. o tsukai nasai (C). Is your husband at home ? 28. Kono tegami wa ikura de iki6. word. go language kaki-tome : writing tion. dozo denwa e o yobi kudasai (D). by registered post. so you had better send for it. 25. E. What's the fee for sending this . Omoi kara roku-sen kakarimasu Send this 3. de gozaimasu (D). masu ka ? (C). Naniiva no sam-byaku-ju-ichi-ban 13. 25. wo kakeraremasu ka? (C). Tabun kongetsu no owari ni tsukimasu (C). While you were out Mr Suzuki called you up on the telephone. Yube haha kara dempo ga kite. This registered (letter) came this morning at about nine o 'clock. a short time. to 30. 12. 5. Kono kuda. Jeakam kake'ru . and eleven. Dempo wo kaketai kara. Rokii-aen de ikimasu (C). yubin-kyoJcu e itte kure (A). 16. No. tsutsumi : parcel. Kono tegami wa san-sen de iku desho ka ? (C). Denwa de wa sugu 27. 17. please ask him to come to the telephone. : : telephone. denwa de kiite o kure (A). Denwa de niku wo motte kuru yd ni iimasho ka ? (C). sugu ni inaka e ikimashUa nai desho 32.rn. 31. 22. (C). Shall I send this fruit by post ? 24. (C). 31. tabun perhaps. Naniwa three hundred Certainly. 4. 27. 13. Kono ko-zutsumi wa Amerika e ikura de ikimasu ka ? (C). 3. ni shite dashlte o kure (A). I want to send a telegram. lie. 15. Is anybody ill ? 30. I don't think so. 17. tele- down registra- phone. lie. 6. Send that parcel to Mr Tanaka.

keiko : exercise . 8. : semei . 3. ' ' go to school ? 2. Kokuban e 'keen' to kaite goran nasai (C). write the word 'konnichi'. : teacher.EXERCISE gakko : : 49. Anata no irassharu gakko wa nan to iimasu ka ? (D). hakuboku : chalk (for the black- board). Take some paper and write down what I'm going to dictate. 24. 16. kden no &6 wa nagaku hatsuon suru no desu. o tsukai nasai deshita. please read that. pupil. That is not right the ko of kden is pronounced long. gentleman your Japanese teacher ? 27. that's right. Please say it again. o kaeri ni natte kara. 22. 11. 14. 7. machigae-nai yo ni yoku oboete kudasai (C). machigae . many 26. Kondo wa yd gozaimasu. today's lesson begin? 7. 10. lie. machigae'ru : to (make a) mistake. Write the word 'kden' on the black-board. 9. Pronounce that word. 2. Moshi shira-nai ji ga attara. peiji 1. Watakushi ga ichi-do yomimasu kara. read it over several times. 23. Yes. 18. 'Konnichi' has two n's. That is right now. iku mo : any number of several. Sore wo hatsuon shite kudasai 12. 15. seito gomu rubber gum. 11. Smith San. Machigai wa ikutsu gozaimasu ka ? (D). That is wrong. 4. lam going to read it once all of you pay great attention. ivatashi no yomu koto wo kaite kudasai (C). . 4. Nanatsu gozaimasu (D). you write it. 17. Do you It is called the How many . gurai orimasu (C). understand. he is my teacher's . dozo anata no wo kashite kudasaimascn ka? (D). lesson. 9. 23. 15. Gomu wo wasurete motte kimasen 21. Mr Jones. mistakes have you made ? india-rubber. yoku oboete ite kudasai (C). gozaimasu kara. will you please lend me yours? 21. Kono tsugi no tokoro wo o uchi de ichi-do yonde o-ide nasai (C). ' ' . Where does . Gakko e o-ide ' ' ' ' ' 1. Seven. when you go back home. If there are any words that you don 't know. (C). 19. Ju-ni peiji kara de gozaimasu (D). E. mina-san yoku kiite irasshai (C). 25. Nihon-go Gakko to iimasu . anata o kaki nasai (C). remember it well so as not to make the mistake again. sensei wa Tanabe to iu hito de 5. San-ju-nin gozaimasu (D). Mo ichi-do itte goran nasai (C). 18. 13. : scholar . No. 14. learn . Kami wo dashite. ano kata wa sensei no o to-san de gozaimasu (D). 26. Smith San. 17. Sore de wa chigaimasu. oboe'ru : to remember . Kyo wa ju-shi peiji made ni shimasho (C). Ano kata wa anata no Nihon-go no sensei de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 22. Seito ga iku-nin imasu ka? (C). 25. 24. How 20. It begins at page twelve. school. 'konnichi* to kaite goran nasai. There is some chalk in that box. Pronounce it over and over again so as not to forget it. hatsuon : pronunciation. Chigaimasu. 6. Read over the next lesson once at home. jibiki wo goran nasai (C). As this part is difficult. nasaimasu ka ? (D). Japanese Language School the teacher is called Tanabe. iku-do mo o yomi ni natte kudasai (D). pupils are there ? 5. I forgot to bring my 19. Brown San. . page. Koko wa muzukashiu (C). Konnichi' wa 'w' gafutatsu aru no desu. 16. look them up in your dictionary. Mr Smith. 20. Certainly. Mr Smith. Jones San. So desu. 12. What is the name of the school you go to ? 3. 10. There are about thirty. Kyo no keiko wa doko kara desu ka ? (C). Mr Brown. 6. iku-do mo hatsuon shite. We'll do today as far as page fourteen. Hakuboku wa ano hako ni arimasu (C). chigau : to be different be mistaken. 8. anata yonde goran nasai (C). Is that father. 13. 27. machigai : mistake. kokuban : black-board.

kanari rather. 7. orimasu (B). 1 here's a I've heard that Miss Hana-ko is 1<>. de o uchi e o kaeri nasaimashlta (D). hon wo ko-zutsumi de Taro ni okutte yarimasho (C). hen : region. 21. shio : salt. 13. 20. Goto Jiro 's house and ya's. It's such lovely weather. 2. a lot of money is needed) so you had better stop at a Japanese inn. Go going to America. Hana-ko San wa kino uchi e yofuku wo kite kita 7. 15. ni-ji ni kuru yd ni itte o kure (A). Yamada San wa shigoto ga takusan atte. 22. tell tell I hate in this tram-car. Torn hito ga kudamono wo torn ka mo shire-nai kara. My morning by the live o'clock train. Please give me this jar. 20. looks like rain.EXERCISE 50. 11. sugu ni itte o-ide (A). rest even on Sundays. Mr Tanaka 's mother is ill. . I met Mr Yamada at the office. Kyo wa atama ga itai kara. Taro wo yonde sono tegami wo yonde kikase nasai (A). 9. 21. 4. 13. 2. kane ga iru kara. 22. Very well. wo tsuke'ru : : to take care . yofuku : foreign clothes. Tonari no kodomo wa uchi no mae wo torn to kitto hana wo torn . The object of this Exercise is to draw attention to the fact. kyo-nen no natsu ano hen wo ryokd shite. 5. him that I found the dictionary at Xakahim that he needn't corne today as it . 1. that there are many words in Japanese pronounced alike or nearly alike. If you stop at a hotel it is very expensive (lit. Akai empitsu wo go-hon to kono ni iru to itte tegami wo yokoshimashtta (C). so daro ka ? Hana-ko San (C). han-jikan gurai hanashUa . Whenever the child from next door happens to pass in front of our house. uchi ni itai (B). ko-nai de ii to o ii nasai 19. Hana-ko San ga Amerika e iku to kiita ga. totnodachi : friend. so I know it fairly well. kanari yoku shitte imasu (C). I wonder if that is so ? and ask her mother. so I'll get off. I need it as I use it for putting salt in. no o kd-san ni kiite kite kudasai (B). (B). irimasu (C). I've gdt a headache today. nichiyo ni mo yasume-nai to itte ita (B). Hoteru ni iru to 1. Sore ni wa shio wo iremasu kara. Yes. Kono densha ni wa watashi no kirai na hito ga orimasu kara. Nii-san wa ni-san-nichi Hakone 9. so I want to stay at home. Tanaka San iva o kd-san ga go bydki de kesa go-ji no kisha. sampo ni ikoja arimasen ka ? (C). Kuruma-ya ni itte. Mise de Yamada San ni atte. E. let's go for a walk. 14. kyo wa ame gafuru yd da kara. Miss Hana-ko put on foreign clothes yesterday and came to see me. 19. 6. 15. I'll send five red pencils and this book to Taro by parcel post. and we had about Mr Yamada has so much to do that he says he does not half an hour's talk. Anata wa Kyoto wo shitte imasu ka ? (C). kite kure . 17. Kono tsubo wo kudasaimasen ka ? (D). domo iya na ko da (B). pay atten- tion. he is sure to pick some flowers he's a most objectionable boy. 6. noticed no doubt already by the student. brother wrote saying that he was going to stay two or three days at Hakone. 3. 8. 12. E. yado-ya ni iru ho ga ii (B). and verbs which are alike in some inflexions but not in others. he went home this . 5. Jis-sen no kitte wo katte 11. Jiro no tokoro e itte. ki wo tsukete o-ide (A). 16. and be quick about it. Ammari ii o tenki desu kara. I was travelling about there last (year in the) summer. Passers-by may pick the fruit. 8. ki ki : spirit. 17. 10. Do you know Kyoto ? 12. man Call Taro and read that letter to him. Tomodachi ni attara. 10. Go and buy a ten-sen stamp. Go and tell the rikisha-man to come here at two o'clock. kiite kite agemasho (C). 4. 3. so take care. If you meet your friend please 18. jibiki wa Naka-ya ni alia to itte kudasai (C). 18. 14. I'll go and ask her.

26. number. Kono kire wa shaku de go-jis-sen de gozaimasu (D). 26. 27. . oba 1. Sore wo san-jaku kudasai (C). Anata wa geta to iu mono wo shltte imasii ka ? (C). tsuki ni ichi-do wa kitto o tegami wo kudasai (D). gozaimasen deshita (D). Did )'ou find 23. 2. Shina to iu kuni wa zuibun oki na kuni de gozaimasu (D). To go to Kamakura 14. I've looked for the children everywhere but I can't find them. 21. Kono kire ica ikura desu ka? (C). I am very busy as the maid-servant is ill in bed. 12. Sono akai himo wa shaku de ikura ? (B). o-ushi ica i-nai (B). Amerika e o-ide 17. uncle. 20. 28. II ai. Oba no tokoro ni wa ondori ga sam-ba. 18. 15. 7. China is a very big country. 4. Kind katta isu wo motte o-ide nasai (B). the dictionary ? 25.EXERCISE Article. taitei nen ni son-do gurai ga gozaimasu (D). num. 14. 51. My neighbour has two cows. 25. my younger brother is living there. kago ni tori 3. 5. Hakodate to iu tokoro e o-ide ni natta koto ka ? 9. Study 174180. 22. Bring the chair I bought yesterday. but he hasn't 13. got a bull. : ondori . 24. ikimasu (C). What is the price a foot of that red cord ? 28. 23. 20. for counting birds. 24. ototo ga imasu kara. 13. mendori : hen. cock. Do you know what geta are ? 8. clogs. Gejo ga bydki de nete imasii kara. What is the price of this cloth ? 19. I go once a week. 6. Kyonen oji to oba to watashi to san-nin de Fuji-son ni noborimashita (C). 10. together). Sore zvo roku-shaku kaimasho (C). 11. The bull is a strong animal. Watakushi wa tsuki ni ni-do haha ni ai ni kuni e kaerimasu (C). one 's shaku tori : : : native place. you must change at a place called Ofuna. Have you ever been to (a place called) Hakodate ? 9. At my aunt's house there are three cocks and seventeen hens. Kamakura e iku ni wa Ofuna to iu tokoro de nori-kaeru no desu (C). aux. I go home twice a month to see my mother. mendori ga ju-shichi-wa imasii kara. Yes. 8. (C). bird. . Thirty-eight sen a foot. nen : year. Shakn de san-ju-has-sen de gozaimasu (D). I'll take six feet. 7. 3. Do you go frequently to Yokohama ? 17. UsJii to iu mono wa tsuyoi mono da (B). Saburo ni yatte kudasai (C). Please give Saburo an egg. 15. 19. Kodomo-tachi wa hobo sagashimashUa ga. Last year I went up Mount Fuji with my uncle and aunt (three of us al11. : wa aunt. This cloth is fifty sen a foot. so there are always fresh eggs. My English teacher is an Englishman called Thompson. 4. 21. 10. imasen (C). kuni country province . ga iru (B). 16. Ano uchi no kodomo-tachi wa minna riko na so desu (C). Nouns : gender. There is a bird in that cage. 6. Please give me three feet. I inquired at all the booksellers but I couldn't find it. hobo : on all sides everywhere. itsu de mo atarashii tamago ga arimasii. 18. Ano Tamago zco hitotsu Nanuka ni ichi-do iku (B). They say that all the children of that house are very clever. 22. Jibiki ga arimashita ka ? (C). Tonari ni wa meushi ga ni-hiki iru. watakushi wa zuibun isogashiu gozaimasu (D). 27. Yokohama e tabi-tabi o-ide nasaimasu ka ? (D). Hobo no hon-ya de kiite mimashita ga. oji : gejo geta : : : maid-servant. so I generally go there three times a year. foot (measure). Watnkushi no Ei-go no sensei zca Thompson to iu Igirisu no Into de gozaimasu (D). 16. While you are away in America be sure to write to me at least once a month. 5. 12. nasaimashitara. 1. 2.

kake'ru : to hang. Hana-ko San no tokoro de 25. asobu Study 181. I amused myself a great story. 5. 12. This morning at six o'clock Sankichi passed by here really very pretty. 3. Anata nani shichi-ji ni o-ide kudasai (D). 26. These curtains are old. Mr Yamada came and said that he had something he wanted to tell you. 1. mawasu (trans. itte mo yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). we played several games. opening. pulling a rikisha. sentaku sashite o kure (A). All right.) to turn round. shite. 22. 3. ichi-jikan mae Taro and Jiro are playing. asobi : game. . . The exit is over there. visit. Omae wa uchi ni iru to jama da kara. 15. 24. 9. sentaku wo shimashita ka ? (C). Hana-ko San no ka mo shire-nai (B). Hana-ko wa doko e ikimashlta ? (C). 7. Kesa roku-ji goro Sankichi ga kuruma wo hiite kirei de gozaimasu (D). they will soon be dry. Taro Jiro ga to wa wo mawashite asonde imasu asobi wo shiyo omoimasu kara. yogoreta kara. 11. kden ni itte asonde o-ide JO. 16. ]4. I'll buy some new ones. Yamada San ga anata ni o hanashi ga aru to itte o-ide nasaimashita (D). Mado-kake ga 12. ': : 2. atarashii no wo kao (B). Get out my gloves. lead. I '11 clean out the drawers of my desk and throw away all the things I don't want. De-guchi wa dochira de gozaimasu ka? (D). Kore wa donata no teOji san ni kono yubi-wa wo itadakimashUa (D). 13. 4. Where is the exit? 16. 18. 1 5. oki nasai (A). rolling their hoops. Have you washed the curtains ? 27. te-bukuro : gloves. fiikuro : bag. She hurt her finger and went to the doctor an hour 9. : : . wo wo dashite o kure (A). kuchi : mouth : . so go and play in the park. . Kimono wo ano kugi ni kakete oko (B). 5. E. peg. 18. may we go (to her house) ? deal at Miss Hana-ko 's house. 6.When you go to Kamakura tomorrow take some fruit in this bag. itte o-ide nasai (A). : to play. 21. 13. We are going to play an amusing game this evening. 22. 4. 26. Oba san ga omoshiroi hanashi wo kikashlte kudasaru so desu kara. bukuro de gozaimasho ? (D). J7. Komhan omoshiroi (C). asobi ni iku : to go (somewhere) for de-guchi exit. 20. 8. My uncle gave me this ring. dirty. 27. Open your mouth please. yogore'ru : to get soiled. Kuchi wo akete goran nasai (C). 23. I'll hang my dress on that nail. Anata no yubi-zva wa taihen 10. The curtains are dirty. arimasu (C). draw . have "them washed. mo sugu ni kawakimasho (C). 14.EXERCISE Derivative and 52. compound concrete nouns. (A). My aunt says that she is going to tell us an amusing 23. ira-nai mono wa minna sutete shimaimasho (C). De-guchi wa muko ni 35. kugi : nail mado-kake wa : wheel yubi 1. zuibun omoshirokatta (B). 17. 24. Put the receipt for the hat in the left-hand drawer of my desk. I believe they are Miss Hana-ko 's. 19. Kono mado-kake zva furuku natta kara. so please come at seven o 'clock. hiku to pull . 2. Boshi no uke-tori wa tsukue no hidari no hikidashi ni irete torimashita (C). ka ii o kangae ga gozaimashltara. to pleasure . 10. 20. Mado-kake no soji shite. Yubi ni kega ni o isha e ikimashlta (C). Tsukue no hikidashi wo iro-iro no asobi zco shite. 11. If you have a good idea please tell it to me. 7. linger. Your ring is ago. dozo o hanashi kudasai (D). Whose gloves are these ? 21. Where did Hana-ko go to ? 8. Yes. curtain. Hai. Te-bukuro e asobi ni iku toki kono fukuro e kudamono wo irete irasshai (C). hoop. (If you are) at home you are in the way. Ashita Kamakura 6. 25.

ki : tree . kono tsugi kara hoka no mise de kai nasai (A). 21. large. S3. Nihon-go ga taihen jdzu da (B). vegetables. (D). Yubin-kyoku ga chikaku ni gozaimasu ka ? 15. Sono kata wa taihen Nihan-go ga 9. wood. 16. 13. sara to koppu wo San ni aimashtta wa aka-gane de gozaimasu (D). That foreigner always wears a Japanese kimono. buy grocer expensive This road is wide and is in good condition. abunai kara (C). 10. I went 8. 5. Kono michi tea hirokute ii 22. inaka-mono peasant. hiroi : wide . Yokohama no suteishon e wasure-mono wo shite (C). (A). 16. some other 21. niwa Study from 181. I lost something at Yokohama station. 12. 5. Ano seiyo-jin wa itsu de mo Nihon no kimono wo kite imasu (C). nichiyd no asa ku-ji ni kuru yd ni lianashimashita (C). ^ forgotten. nabe 1. The washer-man has come for the money. Ano mise no shujin wa doko no hito de gozaimashd ? (D). if there are no fresh ones. Fuji-kawa wo kudarimashita ga. there are . Watashi no gakkd no (D). is large. Nabe nifuta wo shite o kure Yamada San no niwa wa hirokutte ki ga takusan arimasu (C). hataraku : to work. don't buy any at all. Kono^nabe 3. 7. kawa : river. 2. Asa hayaku kara. 17. Wasure-mono wo shi-nai yd ni ki wo tsuke nasal (A). 13. however. Uchi nojochu iva inaka-mono desu (C). 20. I met Taro at the bookseller's and I asked him to come on Sunday morning at nine o'clock. Go and buy some eggs. He could speak Japanese very well. (A). at in future seems be to rather shop. 3. Watashi wa aka-gane no nabe wa kirai desu. 11. hiro-buta : tray. 11. Put the lid on the saucepan. Take care and don't lose anything. 4. atarashii noga nakereba kawa-nai de ii (A). I think it may rain so don't go (to play) far. 4. hiro-buta ni nosete nikai e motte o-ide (A). What is the nationality of the owner of that shop ? 23. 14. 6 to the end of aka-gane : aomono fata : : copper. Our servant is a country girl. . : saucepan. 1. Shina(B). Tamago wo katte kite o kure . Hon-ya de Taro kara. tdku e asobi ni itte wa ike-nai (D). Put this plate and this tumbler on a tray and take them upstairs. : : garden. 15. 20. 2. I don't like copper saucepans. 6. 9. ii keshiki deshita 10. yoru osoku made isshdkemmei ni hatarakimasu (C). Kyonen no natsu jdzu de gozaimashita (D). 23. kudaru : to descend. compound concrete nouns. They say he is a Chinaman. the scenery was very fine. a lot of trees in it. Vegetables seem to be dear round about here. down the river Fuji last (year in the) summer. Kono kimashita (C). She works very hard from 14. 1 7. they are dangerous. Sentaku-ya ga o kane wo tori ni mairimashUa 7. 18. jin da so da ga. : wasure-mono a thing left behind lid. Ame gafuru ka mo shire-nai kara. keredomo. That green19. 8. Ano aomono-ya wa takai yd da kara. 18. The teacher of English at our school was an American. 6. is Mr Yamada 's garden This saucepan made of copper. Ei-go no sensei wa Amerika-jin deshita (C). Kono hen wa aomono ga takai yd de gozaimasu 12. but he speaks Japanese very well. keshiki : view. 19.EXERCISE Derivative and the paragraph. 22. Is there a post office near here ? early in the morning till late at night.

Karada no yowai no ga ichiban koinaru koto da (B). is he better now ? did not get up this morning. It seems colder this year than last (lit. the weakness of the body). the cold of this year seems stronger). 20. itami taiso : : ana : hole. watashi wa ao ga kirai 1. 11. what is it called ? 9. Watashi no kuni wa samui koto wa gozaimasen ga. . but it's dark and therefore 1. Sono koppu ga sanonaji okisa no koppu wo yottsu katte kite kudasai (C). 17. Has-shaku arimasu 22. Sono himo no nagasa wa dono gurai aru ka. This lake is very deep. Atsui no ni boshi wo kabura-nai de aruite wa bydki ni naru (B). 20. I've heard 21. after verbs or adj. . Kore wa taiso nigai kusuri da (B). Kono kire no nagasa wa nan-jaku gozaimasu ka ? (D). mo. kesa wa okimasen (C). 19. sun : 1/10 foot inch. 23. 18. onnaji mono wo katte kaeseba ii desho (C). 15. Kono heya wa hiroi koto wa hiroi desu ga. Kono kudamono wa sukoshi nigami ga 7. it is too bitter. See how long that string is. densha wa tabi-tabi tomarimasu kara. 10. Ko iu kusuri nara. If this is the kind of medicine. Kono mizu-umi wa taiso fuko gozaimasu (D). Please show me some umbrellas. it doesn 't matter much whether you take it or not. Study 182. If you've lost the pencil you borrowed. : a) in aff. Densha de itte mo. very. 18. 6. That hole is two feet six inches deep (lit. How long is this piece of cloth ? 22. arimasu ne ? nan to iu mono desu ka ? (C). buy another just like it and that will be all right. 9. o kane wa onaji koto desu ga. sentences 'neither nor'. 19. Whether you go by train or by tram it costs the same. inconvenient. 5. you'll get ill. 8. noma-nakutte mo onnaji koto desu (C). 2. This one won 't do I don 't like green. Karita empitsu wo nakushltara. da (B). Kasawo misete kudasai (C). 7. To be weak is a very great trouble (lit. but it is very windy. mite o kure (A). 'whether or' 'either or'. 23. 24. A no ana no fukasa wa ni-shaku go-sun aru (B). 13. ilamu to pain. 183. 6. Taro ga yube ha ga itamu to itte ita ga. 24. shaku shika nai (B). Ano nashi no ki no takasa wa kujis-sen nara takai koto wa arimasen (C). 11. : onnaji : same. nondemo. 3. mizu-umi : lake. 16. kaburu pain. This is a very bitter medicine. 13. If you walk about in this heat without a hat. . 16. Kono mizu-umi no fukasa wa ni-hyaku go-jis-shaku aru to kiki(C). Go and buy four tumblers the same size as this one. 54. that this lake is two hundred and fifty feet deep. 14. This fruit is a little bitter. 12. Last night Taro said that he had a so he 12. kurakutte fuben desu (C). This room is large as far as that goes. sentences after nouns 'both and'. Mada itami ga tomara-nai to itte. Kore to 17. 8. I don't consider it dear. b) in neg. 4.-mo Jukai nigai onaji : deep. bitter. kisha de itte mo.EXERCISE Abstract nouns. : . Kore de wa ike-nai . 2. I can't eat this fruit. Kono kudamono wa nigakutte taberaremasen (C). but as the tram stops so frequently let us go by train. 5. 21. mashita (C). naorimashita ka ? (C'). My native place is not cold. 15. He says the pain has not ceased yet toothache. That pear-tree is only nine feet high. 3. ha : tooth. 14. Eight feet. tnihen kaze gafuku tokoro de gozaimasu (D). : to wear on the head. Kotoshi wa kyonen yon samusa ga tsuyoi yd de gozaimasu (D). . 10. the depth of that hole). 4. If that tumbler only costs thirty sen. kisJui de ikimasho (C).

they don 't do any mischief. Nichiyo nogogo wa taitei uchi ni imasu kara. Mr Yamada 's calf is a pretty little thing. and now I won 't be able to eat those pears I 'm so fond of. 13. The gale has blown down places I must tell the landlord to get it mended. dya : landlord. 6. kire'ru (intr. . Oba san ni itadaita hon wo daiji ni shite oki nasai (A). Even if a gale 1 am generally at home on Sunday afternoons. it 's dangerous. 3. kiru (trans. 20. If it were only rain it wouldn 't matter so much. Study 184 kawaii kezuru : chumon katana o-kaze : : : an order (for goods). kodomo ni katana wo motasete wa ike-nai (A). Yamada San no uchi no ko-ushi wa kawaii (B). O-kaze de nashi no ki (C). My penknife is does blow. 19. be able to cut. 2. Kind no o-kaze de taoreta no wa nashi no ki bakari desu ka ? (C). 7. 14. 13. 20. I had it made to order. itsu agarimashd ka ? (C). 16. . kogatana penknife. 14.EXERCISE Diminutives and augment atives. dya ni hanashile naoshite moraimasho 9. 5. Ame bakari nara ii no desu ga. 17. calling for to plane sharpen scrape. Was it only a pear-tree that was blown down yesterday by the gale ? 7. 6. Empitsu wo kezuru toki ni kogatana de hidari no ko-yubi wo kirimashita (C). moru : to leak. : : . I cut the little finger of my left hand (\vithmypenknife). kaze ga tsuyoi desu kara. ' 1 . Even if the kittens go next door. I haven't seen it for two or three days. 11. Did you buy it (ready-made) ? 15. come then. taore'ru : to fall over. 16. chumon shite koshiraesashita no desu (C). lie. . Go and buy a small bottle of red ink. toga-nakereba nara-nai (B). 4. Kono tsukue wa taihen benri de gozaimasu ne ? kai ni natta no de gozaimasu ka ? (D). safe . O hanashi shitai koto ga aru no desu ga. 12. sono toki ni o-ide nasai 18. no yane roof. 1. 10. Tonari no ko-inu wa kitanakutte dai-kirai (B). several other trees were also blown down. ni-san-nichi miemasen (C). but with this strong wind must sharpen it. When I was making a point to my pencil. 3. 15. 11. the pear-tree.. blunt. lovely. bakkari : only about. 8. Kogatana ga kire-naku natta. : . ga taorete shimatte. : charming . 19. 10. itazura wo shimasenkara (C). sword. Abunai kara. togu : to sharpen. On account of the gale yesterday. Akai inki no ko-bin wo hito-bin katte kite o kure (A). 8. yane ga moru no desu (C). [6 big : ya person]. I it's absurd to think "that this house can be blown over. 12. My neighbour's puppy is a dirty beast.) to cut. Kondo no o-ame de yane ga hobo moru yd ni narimashtta kara. Uchi no neko no ko wa tonari e itte mo daijobu desti. -186. bakari . When could I see you ? 17. 2. wonder where the kitten has gone.) to cut . Be very careful with the book your aunt gave you (and don't spoil it). . gale. There's something I want to speak to you about. dai-suki na nashi ga taberarenaku natta (B). hoka ni mo iro-iro taoreta ki ga am (B). 18. This is a very convenient desk. 55. lie. The heavy rain (we have just had) has caused the roof to leak in several 9. the roof is leaking. O-kaze ga fuite mo kono uchi nara taoreru mon desu ka? (C). Kind no o-kaze de Kdbeyuki no kisha gaju-go-fun bakari okureta so da (B). : daijobu na anxiety. Ko-neko ga doko e itta ka. Don 't I let the child handle the sword. I hate it. 5. No. it doesn't matter. 4. No. (C). they say that the train going to Kobe was about fifteen minutes late.

17. It is the child of that white one). kore wo yonde goran nasai. Ikura de mo o mochi nasai (C). 21. gojo na musiime ga kono-goro miemasen ga. ni iru shiroi no no ko desu (C). Mukai no o bd-san wa shojiki na. 21. 12. Miss Hana-ko is young and pretty. 24. She is so selfwilled that I hear they have sent her to live with her teacher. 24. That woman always wears a big. Hana-ko San wa wakai kirei na hito desu (C). Ammari takaijoto no boshi wo katte wa ike-nai (A). : jii-san : grandfather. go-roku-mai kudasaimasen ka ? (D). Tamago no atarashii oki na no wo itsutsu kudasai (C). and I enjoyed myself very much. 5. hashi : bridge. Asuko 3. Ammari wagamama de shiyo ga nai kara. 14. 12. 16. Well. I haven't seen my neighbour's self- wonder where she's gone to ? 10. doko 10. I find this novel is very interesting. Nashi no oishii no ga arimasu ka ? (C). and (the result is that) he's got a stomach-ache. kashite agemasho (C). Go and buy a pencil. Ko iu semai kurai heya wa iya desu. On Sunday I went with my brother to my uncle's house. 23.black hat. 3. 25. Yamada San no uchi ni wa iro-iro no seiyo no shosetsu ga arimasu (C). 11. : . try this one. under below. Jiro wa nashi no aoi no wo tabete onaka wo waruku shita no desu (C). I don 't like a small. willed. Empitsu no kaiai no wo katte 22. 19. kitto omoshiroi desho (C). 19. 20. Mr Yamada has a lot of 16. chiisai no wo katte ikimasho (C). Kono wa taihen omoshiroi 1. 2. pears that were not ripe. Would you please lend me an English novel ? I 'd like it to be easy and amusing. grand- gojo na : obstinate. Have you got any nice pears ? 6. hoka no wo sagashimasho (C). big man. 9. Which is the mother of this kitten ? (lit. to omoimasu. omoshirokatta (B). Study 187 191. shinsetsu na hito da (B). I 17. 56. mada o yomi ni nara-nakereba 4. if you haven 't read it yet I'll lend it to you. Ja. Kono-goro Hana-ko San kara o tegami ga kimashita ka ? (C). shita shosetsii narrow small. okii hito desu (C). (o) bd-san : old woman . kind person. Nichiyo ni nii-san to issho ni shosetsu oji 2. If you have any old newspapers. ano ko no e itta no desho ? (C). Nani ka yasashii omoshiroi Ei-go no shosetsu wo kashite kudasaio-ide (A). I'll look for another one. Tonari no wagamama na. 20. 18. honto no : true. : . 15. Sore de wa. Well. son no uchi e asobi ni itte. 5. ikura de mo : any amount whatever. 22. 13. it can 't be helped. 15. Of which is this kitten the child ?). Hashi no shita ni neko no shinda no ga ita (B). a hard one. Give me five large fresh eggs. The old lady across the way is an honest. 7. Kono ko-neko wa dore no ko desu ka ? (C). 25. 1. I 'm certain you '11 find it amusing. 9. 8. shlkata ga nai kara. Ima oki na no ga gozaimmen (D). I have no large ones now. 7. 23. 13.EXERCISE Adjectives. The old man (who lives) over there is a very healthy. Shimbun nofurui no ga gozaimashitara. There was a dead cat under the bridge. dark room like this. . 11. Don't buy a too expensive and high-class hat. 18. Ano otina no hito zva itsu de mo kuroi oki na boshi wo kabutte imasu (C). I '11 take some small ones. obstinate girl lately. 4. Have you had a letter from Miss Hana-ko lately ? . 6. mother. Asuko no o jii-san wa honto nijobu na. (o) semai old man a novel. masen ka ? (D). That white one over there (lit. sensei no uchi e azuketa so desu (C). Take as many as you want. could you let me have a few ? 8. 14. Jiro ate some foreign novels (in his house).

EXERCISE 57. I don't think they were as dear as that. would it . lonely. I I did feel suppose you felt very lonely While your mother was away. there are very few foreignwho can speak Japanese as well as he can. Kono nimotsu wa okii keredomo omoi koto wa nai (B). jibun : self oneself. yameta no desu (C). Ima wa gaikoku ni benkyo ni iku htto ga sukunaku nai (B). E. 21. 6. 2. I it so you. sukunai kawaru karui : light not heavy. 16. Ani ga Rondon e itta koro wa Igirisu ni iru Nihon-jin wa zutbun sukunakattaro (B). Ano inu wa kitano gozaimasu kara. Yes. Arigato gozaimasu. . tabi-tabi tonari no Sonoe San ni uchi e kite moraimashita (C). . : . 8. quite a lot). No. 12. that would be quite all right. gave 22. If I do this 1 . 17. 14. so omoku nakatta desho 11. There were probably very few Japanese in England at the time when my brother was in London. de ano kata gurai handseru kata wa sukuno gozaimasu (D). The room I had until yen ?. 15.e. aida : between while . : . 5. 3. The examples in this Exercise refer especially to those points not previously studied. to give birth to (of an egg) to lay. so desu . . Did Chokichi carry the bundle himself ? 10. mittomonai : offensive to the sight improper. : inside . but I walked here from the station. 3. I wonder if the clogs Mr Smith sent home the other day cost him about three 20. shite. 9. This parcel is big. . Go byd-nin (C). 8. 4. I often asked my neighbour Miss Sonoe to come and keep me comlonely. Yes. Thanks. 16. to change. Yes. 7. o kamai nasara-nai de kudasai (D). Kono tori no umu tamago wa akakattari. I can carry it myself. True adjectives. Karu gozaimasu kara. So takaku nakatta desho (C). E. 18. sabishii 1. Chokichi wa jibun de nimotsu wo motte ikimashita ka ? (C). was a sick person in the there but the end of last month was not a small one. patient. byd-nin : : gaikoku sick person . 7. lie. 't think it was I pany. Study 192199. 11. ask your brother heavy bag house. Nimotsu ga karukatta kara. 15. 9. Sengetsu made ita hey a wa semaku nakatta no desu ga. he's sometimes better and sometimes worse. 18. : umu naka : little (in quantity) few. foreign countries. 19. 17. 12. to carry it. sabishiu gozaimashita . 22. ers be considered improper ? 6. among. How patient^? 13. It's not heavy. This hen sometimes lays eggs white. 13. (on the whole) there's sometimes and brown not much change. shirokattari suru (B). 10. for too is If that 21. mittomonaku nai (B). . don is the very heavy. o jozu desu Brown San wa Nihon-go ga ka ? (C). jibun de motte ikaremasu (D). leave it alone. Smith San ga konaida kuni e okutta geta wa san-yen gurai desho ka? (C). 20. kuruma ni nora-nai de suteishon kara aruite kita (B). Does Mr Brown speak Japanese well ? 2. ammari kawarimasen (D). Those who go to study abroad are no longer a few (i. seiyo-jin no naka gozaimasu ka ? (D). 19. omoi : heavy. As the bag was not heavy I didn't take a rikisha. ano uchi ni byd-nin ga dekimashita kara. Suzuki no kuru no wa osokattari hayakattari shite komaru (B). but it is not heavy. during. up. wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D). That's a dirty dog. Ko shitara mittomono Hai. 4. yokattari warukattari 14. 5. Sono kaban ga omokereba nii-san ni motte itte morai nasai (A). O kd-san ga o rusu no aida wa sabishikatta desho ? (C). I am much inconvenienced by Suzuki's coming sometimes late and sometimes early.

waza-waza : purposely expressly. atama ga itaku nai no nara. (o) 58. This pencil is hard but it is very fragile. I can't 13. ni shikarareta no de gozaimasu ka? (D). 21. mazui : of insipid or (too) : many cold. Why did your father scold you ? 16. 9. 8. 4. much.): to break. hidoi oi : violent. I feel sure. 'Isogashii kara. merely because he didn't want to see me. Ann mise no mono wa chiisakutte kotoba 4. 14. 11. 10. I suppose I did wrong in not returning as soon as I received the letter. Tegami ga kita toki sugu kaette ko-nakatta no ga warukatta no desho (C). Do shite oto-san 1 Mo okite hataraku Taro ga yonde iru hon wa so muzukashii no ja nakaro (B). di 2. Sonna ni tokakutte wa totemo kae-nai (B). 18. 6. 20. 1. (C). 1. expresses certainty. If I had known that you wanted a desk like mine I would have given an order for two. wa ga (B). If your head no longer aches you ought to be up and working. The book Taro is reading is probably not very difficult. ni dku arimasen deshita (C). he won't be able to read it. issho ni chumon shite ageru ri* deshita (C). 13. 1 The things of that shop are cheap and of good quality. (C). 14. Kono jibiki mijikakutte 5. 3. ? Sonna ni ikura Ano wa ? (B). 2. Did you come expressly to return this book ? There was no need to be in such a hurry about it. 5. 6. 7. but as I couldn't find possibly buy it.) : to boil. and I did wrong in not coming back soon. 15. watashi ni aitaku nai kara. 12. 8. 16. 18. When I arrived in Japan there weren't as many English people in Yokohama as there are now. 17. Study 200 21 1 . is . Mizu de sentaku sum no wa tsumetai desho kara. ore'ru (intr. 19. yu : : hot water. The novels that man writes are short but they are interesting. 20. hazu da (A). mazuku narimasu (C). Those pears are not nice. of. let me heat some water for you. . he said that. sonna : that kind konna : this kind of. If you put in too much salt it won't taste nice. anna koto wo itta no desho (C). This dictionary small but it has a lot of words. 17.EXERCISE True adjectives. Konna wa totemofune ga demasumai Amman shio ga dkutcha 7. tsumetai : immediately soon. If it's as difficult as that. How much is that desk ? 12. ni chigai nai : at the end of a sentence . kita toki ni wa Yokohama ni iru Igirisu-jin wa ima no yd 9. (too) bad taste. My father wrote to me to comeback immediately as he was busy. 19. 21. 15. I wanted a hat like Mrs Suzuki's. bdshi ga hoshikatta ri desu ga. . sugu ni ko-nakatta no ga warui no deshita (C). wakasu jiki (ni) (trans. Sonna ni muzukashikutcha ano htto wa yome-nai (B). 10. I don't suppose Mr Tanaka really had a headache. yasukutte shina ga yd gozaimasu (D). ni kaze ga hidokvtte Kono empitsti Ano Into ga kaku shdsetsu wa wa katakutte jiki ni oreru (B). Tanaka San w a honto ni atama ga itai n ja nakatta desho ga. 8. omoshiroi desii (C). cruel . arimasen deshita kara. I think it's impossible that the boat should leave with this strong wind blowing. Anata mo watashi no yd na tsukue ga hoshii no deshitara. one I bought this one. anna . I think you'll find it cold doing your washing in cold water. sugu kaette ki nasai to itte tegami ga kita no desu ga. be able to break. Suzuki San no yd na konna no wo katta no desu isoide o kaeshi ni nara-nakutte mo ii no deshita (C). Kono hon wo kaeshi ni waza-waza o-ide o yu wo wakashite agemashd (C). If it's as dear as that. \Vatashi ga Sihon e no desu ka tsukue nas'tta 11. Anna nashi wa mazui ni chigai arimasen (C).

says even if she works very hard. 12. You'd better not give that person a thing which he does not like. so I '11 give it to my younger sister. 17. : warm. most obstinate child.EXERCISE Quasi-adjectives in fulfil : ' 59. I don't quality. If you don 't like that one buy I bought this especially to give to you.jotd no empitsu wo ni-hon kudasai (C). they 21. Shiro no kinu-ito to hari wo ip-pon motte kite kudasai 14. yawaraka na. Kimi-ko seems a very gentle girl. 2. Study 212 kosu : 226. The fruit-store near this stuff looks like silk.shins etsu na koto wo shite wa ike-nai (A). 13. 20. 9. 4. Sore ga suki de nakereba hoka no wo o kai nasai (B). Jama da kara. toki-doki bydki ni naru (B). daiji de nai tegami wa sutete shimau ho ga yokaro (B). This dress seems too showy for me. Ammarijoto de nai kami wo katte kinasai (A). 7. honto wa znilmngojd na ko desu (C). Kimi-ko wa yasashii yd na musume desu ga. 21. Uchi no mae no nashi ga kotoshi wa takusan narimashlta (C).) 1. to change one's abode. servant a dishonest like 17. I'm greatly troubled because my servant is dishonest. Na or No. 19. hade na suzushii bright cool. 20. I 'm in now is in a very quiet locality. Chichi wa karada ga yoicai desu kara. imdto ni yarimashd (D). Ano oku-san zva Ano kata ga suki uchi slidjiki de domo komarirnasu . Jochugafu- Kono house has a healthy appea ranee. Jcatte kita no desu (C). hire wa chotto mireba kinu no yd desu ga. 7. naru : to bear fruit. uchi e kaesd ka to omoimasu (C). You had better throw away all the unimportant letters. 15. toki-doki : now and then . Go and buy some paper. 10. 2. 5. but in are in the way. Bring me warm a and in summer place in winter. gay. 18. To look at her. 11. goes to a cool place some white silk thread and a needle.fuyu wa attaka na tokoro e itte kurashirnasu (C). attara kashlte kudasai (C). The If you have a pencil which is not violet. I'm thinking of discharThat child ging her. Rashi no soba no kudamono-ya wa kono-goro hajimeta mise da (B). hade de nai kimono wo kite imasu (C). 8. 10. Anata ni ageyo to omotte waza-waza ju-shojil'i na gejo de tea iya desu (C). "e. Ano ko wajdbu na yd na kao KO shite iru keredomo. it needn't be of the best he cannot speak it. 19. 6. occasionally. please lend it to me. Yarnada San zva so Ei-go ga heta ja nai hlto desu ga. 9. gay. jibun de wa hanase-nai to itte imasu 16. That lady is still young but she wears clothes which are not 1. winter. . : : kinu kurasti attakai attal:a na . The pear-tree in which the bridge is a shop 12. . Mr Yamada doesn't speak English so very badly. 18. I want two. de nai mono wa age-nai ho ga ii desho (C). Tonari no kodomo ni fu. but he gets ill every now and then. Don't behave unkindly to the children next door. At first sight But in reality it's not silk. 11. Kono kimono wa watashi ni wa sukoshi hade na yd de gozaimasu kara. to begin. very soft pencils of good 15. Murasaki de nai empitsu ga ii wa shizuka de 3. honto no kinu ja nai no desu (C). but it is a very inconvenient place for shopping. 16. but he himself quality. so he front of the house bore a lot of fruit this year. zi-akai no desu ga. live. silk. : to pass the time . Kondo koshlta tokoro desu ga. : goku : very. 14. 4. kai-mono ni wa benri de nai tokoro desu (C). My father is weak. Yoku hataraitemo (C). 13. hajime'ru (trans. Goku (C). 8. natsu wa suzushii tokoro e. 3. realitv she is a 5. another one. was opened quite recently.

zuibun kigen ga warukatta ga. works good-temperedly). 16. : kenka kigen : quarrel. 19. but it was inconvenient and I couldn't go. 15. The girl from next door is very well behaved. 10. Tomodachi ga kind Kamakura e iko' to itta ga. 14. Tanabe sensei wa issho ni ikareru to taihen tsugo ga ii to omoimasu (C). Grandit's convenient to you please be so kind as to take me. oya ga nakunatte kara. she has neither parents nor brothers nor sisters. Watashi no kuni wa Nihon 18. un no warui. sisters. kawaiso na ko desu (C). ima wa naka yoku kurashite iru (B). 14. he lost his parents when he was four. 3. ga. I'd like to see Yokohama once. 9. mother is a very good-tempered person. Ani wa imoto to native province is a rainy place. 2. 20. 17. mimi moto 1. they do nothing but quarrel. Formerly Taro and Jiro were always quarrelling now. but now they Ve lost their parents. Hana-ko and her sister Mitsu-ko are very fond of each other. tsugo ga warukutte ikare-nakatta (B). : : ear. 4. 13. Suzuki San wa Mizuno San to naka ga waril gozaimashltatsugo ga ii (A). Taro to Jiro wa moto wa yoku kenka wo shite ita ga. : parents. mo yoku natta ka mo shiremasen (D). 5. mo nakutte kawaiso desu (C). 11 My elder brother is very fond of my little sister. origin. 11. 9. Kai-mono ni benri no ii tokoro e koshito gozaimasu (D). Ano musume wa oya mo kyodai de ichiban ame no sukunai tokoro desu (C). My so when place for shopping. My friend invited me yesterday to go to Kamakura. It would be very convenient for me if you were to go to Tokyo tomorrow. it would be very convenient for me if I could go with him. but lately he has improved. naka : the relation between two persons. Yamada San ga raigetsu Kobe e o-ide nasaru so desu kara. They say going to Kobe next month. ototo ga kirai de gozaimasu (D). 5. Our servant is always working and always in a good temper (lit.EXERCISE Adjectival phrases. oya : behaviour. tsugo convenience. hen tea ju-ichi-gatsu wa kaze ga oi toki da (B). 0-bd-san wa kigen no ii hlto desu (C). My grandfather is now hard of hearing. kono-goro naotta (B). . however. 12. kawaiso na : exciting pity. Study 227232. Uchi no jochu wa kigen yoku shigoto wo shimasu (C). is . shita (C). 6. Ashita omae ga Tokyo e itte kureru to taihen 20. they are on good terms with each other. no ko wa yottsii no toshi ni taihen naka no ii kyodai de gozaimasu (D). 6. Those brothers used to live on very good terms with each other. but I beHeve they have made it up. gyogi : 60. That girl is to be pitied. 18. gozaimasu (D). ka go tsugo no ii toki ni 2. In this part of the country the windy season is in November. Our teacher Mr Tanabe was very bad-tempered. . My native province is the least rainy part of Japan. I want to change to a more convenient 1. temper : . feeling. oi tokoro de itsu Watakushi no kuni wa ame no e itte mitai to Yokohama kudasai omoimasu kara. ga. wqtashi mo (B). wakare'ru : to be separated from. Tonari no musume wa taiso gyogi ga ii 8. 13. kenka bakari ' shite orimasu wa naka ga yd gozaimasu ga. kyodai brothers and un : luck. 19. but he doesn 't like my younger brother. (C). 7. Mr Suzuki and Mr Mizuno used to be on bad terms with each other. 8. Kono 15. Ichi-do tsurete itte 4. 17. That child is very unlucky and worthy of pity. Hana-ko to Mitsu-ko 3. oya ni wakareta. Ano kyodai wa taiso wa A naka ga yo gozaimashUa (D). O-jii-san wa mimi ga toku narima16. Mr Yamada 7. 10. 12.

Go and hand over to the police. Nihon de mo yofuku wo kiru hito ga dan-dan oku natte kimashlta (C). is I in America. Isuko de shimbun zcoyonde iru futotta hito ga Nakamura San da (B). : les stout.EXERCISE Verbs used as adjectives. that which are so old you can no longer wear them. : doku : poison. 17. a poisonous fish. 6. 13. 1. . yaseta thin. . (B). 21. Konaida jochil ga hirotta 19. Kono boshi mo mo kaburenaku natta kara. 61. 12. 11. and so it has become necessary 18. : little to become by little. 7. 20. Watashi ic a yaseta hito ga urayamashii (B). Suzuki San no oku-san wa ano skiroi yofuku wo kita klto de gozaimasu (D). haku urayamashii futoru futotta ya-se'ru : : : : envious. ikare-naku natte shimaimashita (C). 14. Go and tell Taro to come here. rcafuruku natte hakenaku natta (B). keisatsu : police. My 16. Ano hito tea futotte iru yd ni mieru (B). Study 233 235. ni go-nen bakari ite kita ani ga yomu no desu (C). In Japan also. 9. atarashii no zvo hitotsu kawa-nakereba nara-naku natta (B). Throw away boots like of the ring my servant picked up the other day. Sonnafunikfitte yubi-v:a iva otoshlta hito ga zvakatta so de gozaimasu (D). so I must buy a new one. I hear that his illness is incurable. 17. 4. . Taro ni hca-nakereba nara-nai koto ga aru kara. The man sitting next to my father is in the same oflice as he is. Mr Kawata writes saying that he's very weak and has found himself obliged to discontinue going to the office. fat . This them. That man looks stout. 9. 9. O to-san no tonari ni koshi-kakete iru hito wa o to-san to onaji mise ni iru hito deslw (C). 20. The man standing on the bridge is a teacher at my school. This fish is poisonous. 5. hirou : to pick up. It seems they have found the owner for my wife and myself to go home. Kawata San tea karada ga yoicakutte. watashi wa kanai to issho ni kaera-nakereba nara-nai koto ni narimashtta (C). Kono sakana wa doku ga gozaimasii. 8. 7. 2. 11. ka? (D). Who is it in your house who reads the English newspapers ? 21. 12. 3. Yube hirotta tokei wo keisatsu e todokete o-ide nasai (C). hake-nai kutsu iva sutete o shimai nasai (A). mise ico yamc-nakereba nara-naku natta' to itte tegami wo yokoshimashlta (C)! 5. but I was prevented from doing so by somebody falling ill at home. Anata no o uchi de Ei-go no i'himbun ico o yomi nasaru kata wa donata de gozaimasii. byd-nin ga dekite. yatoitai no desu (C). My elder brother who was five years 1. I can no longer wear thought of going travelling in August. I can no longer wear this hat. These boots are old. Hachi-gatsu ryoko shiyd to amoimashlta ga. Hashi no ue ni totte iru hito wa watashi no gakko no sensei ' (A). dan-dan thin. Kono kutsu (B). to become fat. as boots. 22. the watch you found last night. 10. people who wear foreign clothes are gradually increasing in number. 13. there's something I must tell him. That stout man over there reading the newspaper is Mr Nakamura. 16. Ei-go ga hanaseru ni-ju-go gurai no otoko tvo hitori 6. Mrs Suzuki is the lady wearing that white foreign dress. 19.(D). Amerika 14. 4. I envy thin men. 15. I wish to engage a young man about twenty-five years old who can speak English. trousers). Kore u-a doku no aru sakana da 2. Ano hito no byoki tea naora-nai bydki da to desu (C). Inaka ni ita haha ga nakunatte. 18. 22. 10. 8. mother who was living in the country has died. (refers to or feet. to put on wear . koko e kuru yd ni itte o kure desu 15.

This eordis too weak (easily broken). nevertheless he has got a very childish face. 3. He says he is going to leave school on accbunt of his health. it smells bad. : eramu to choose. but eggs. Kono uchi kara yosa-so na no wo erande kudasai (C). 4. Mr Oda was in England a good many years. A no hlto wa bydki de gakko zvo yameru no da to itte ita ga. tamago wo yottsu kudasai (C). 7. 18. 7. desho. cause. 1. nani ka hoka ni wake ga ari-so da (B). Persons as bad-ternpered as that man are scarce. Uchi no jochu UY/. 15. Ano kodomo wa riko-so na kao da ga. There are probably no foreign books at that bookseller's. Ei-go ga hanase-nai-rashii desu (C). kari ni itte mo dame desho (C). ishi stone. taihen (tnil i-nikui (B). Ashita wa tenki ni nari-so da (B). Yamada Sun no ji wa taiso yomi-ii ji de gozaimasu (D). 23. That child has an intelligent face but he seems weak. This house in some of its details is built in European style. 6. This is an illness from which one seldom recovers (completely). : derivative adjectives. now three years since my servant that of a country girl. 14. Anna okorippoi hlto wa mezurashm gozaimasu (I)). Ano hon-ya. 17. Watashi no oji iva do iu wake 8. Hana-ko San no uchi wa wakari-niku gozaimasu kara. 4. but you have at least the advantage of being able to eat fresh vegetables. 5. 3. 1. 16. Tonari no Kanekichi San wa karada wa okii keredomo kodomorashii kao wo shite iru (B). ni wa seiyo no hon wa nasa-so da (B). Mr Yamada's writing is very easy to read. I believe it'll turn out line tomorrow. Kono sakana wa kusai kara. Don't eat this fish. Tegami wa yasashii kotoba de wakari-yoku kaite kudasai (C). there's probably some other reason. Umi-tate no jibiki wa nasa-so desu -kara. Choose the one you like best from among these (lit. 20. wake reason . Kono himo wa kire-yasui kara. 22. 18. taiso wasureppoku narimashUa (C). 22. I've become so absentminded lately. tabete wa ike-nai (A). 5. came to Tokyo. go issho ni itte agemasho (D). 20. Kondo kita jochu wa taiso jobu-so desu (C). Study 236 erabu kusai . 9. 19. The servant who arrived recently seems to be a very healthy person. 6. karada ga yowa-so da (B). 19. Ano saka wa ishi ga atte. the one which is probably best). I really don't know what to do. 23. walking there is very difficult. 13. Kato San no tokoro ni tea a>n> 12. hoka no motto jobu nano wo inoftc kite kudasai (C). Please write the letter using simple Avords so that it can be easily understood. please bring me a stronger one. tori-tale no aomono ga taberareru no ga yd gozaimasu (D). 14. : malodorous. I think it likely that Mr Kato hasnot got that dictionary. 245. Tokyo ni kite san-nen ni naru keredomo rnada inaka-fcdsai (13). 11. The country is inconvenient (in many Avays). 15. may I accompany you there ? 16. but her appearance is 2. Oda San wa zuibun nagaku Igirisu ni ita no desu ga. My uncle for some reason or other is always forgetting things now. 12. 10. 2. 10. That hill is very stony. 9. 17. Inaka wa fuben de gozaimasu ga. 21. but he doesn't seem to be able to speak English. 8. : house. Master Kanekichi from next door is very big. Watashi wa kono-goro zvasureppoku natte komatta (B). Please give me four new-laid 13. Miss Hana-ko 's house is rather diflicult to find. Kono ie wa seii/6-kusai ie desu ne? (C).EXERCISE Compound and ie : 62. 21. It is still . 11. Kono bydki wa naori-niku gozaimasu (D). so it would be useless to go and ask him to lend it to you.

13. Have you got any more red pencils ? salt. Kono shiroi tori (B). hae'ru : to grow . 13. Is there any of the sugar you bought the other day left ? 5. Akai empitsu ga mada am ka? (A). <> little . Ano ginko ga dekite kara san-ju-nen ijo ni naru 12. Mada ip-pon gozaimasu (D). O cha wa mo nai ka ? (A). 25. isu wo mo futatsu motte kite kure (A). toy. 20. Klsha de iku no tofune de iku no to dotchi ga yokei kane ga kakarimasu ka ? (C). by little they have died. 1. dan-dan karete Niikunaku natta no desu (C). Rana-ko wa Kinu-ko yori omocha wo takusan motte iru desho (C). bring me another (one more) cup of tea. and there are only a fe\v left. etc. YamadaSan no o taku ni wa kono kden yori yokei sakura no ki ga gozaimasu (D). 22. tune no ho ga yokei kakarimasu 10. Go-nin kuru hito ga aru no da kara. 4. 6. Is there no more tea ? 7. Sato zco mo futa-saji irete o kure (A). Isogashlkutte shiyd ga nai kara. got one more. You mustn 't eat any more fruit today. There's some in the jar. 24. It'll take me two weeks more to finish translating this book. Study 246 252. I am so busy that I shall engage another servant. taku : house. think Hana-ko has more toys than Kinu-ko. nay more three-sen stamps. 6. Ano bin wa kore yori yokei hairu desho (C). Mada tsubo ni gozaimasu (D). 9. 4. mo ip-pai o cha wo o kure (A). 14. Shio ga mo gozaimasen kara katte mairimasho (D). so go and fetch two chairs more. 2. 18. It is more than thirty years since that bank was established. kare'ru : to wither die . (C). 17. 18. Mo kyo wa kudamono wo tabete wa ikemasen (A). cherry-tree. 1. cupfuls. I 'm so thirsty. for glassfuls. I've 19. 19. spring up. 26. shukan week. 3. 11. I don't think more five people coming. 5.EXERCISE Comparison of adjectives. more than There are I big fifty Chinese scholars at my school. Ammari nodo ga kawaita kara. there's none left. Watashi no gakko ni wa Shina-jin ga go-ju-nin ijo orimasu (C). however. kawa-nai de ii desu (C). nashi wo hitotsu yori yokei yara-nai de kudasai (C). 8. There are more cherry-trees in Mr Yamada's place than there are in this park. omocha sakura : : : 63. 3. 15. 23. his stomach is out of order. Please don't give Taro more than one pear. Kono kami wo mo sam-byaku-mai motte kite kurem'asen ka ? (C). 10. Mitsuo ni motto chichi wo o yari nasai 16. num. 17. sendatte clay. hai : aux. This white hen lays more eggs than that 1 k one. than two hundred people can get into this room. to go by train or by boat ? 9. You needn't buy 16. Sendatte katta sato ga mada am ka ? (A). 21. I have some still. mo hitori jochu wo yatou koto ni shiyo (B). Taro wa onaka ga warui no desu kara. Formerly there used to be a lot of trees growing on this mountain. 25. San-sen no kitte wa mada arimasu kara. ijo : more than. 2. Kono yama ni wa moto wa motto ki ga haete ita no desu ga. /o?io heya e wa ni-hyaku-nin yori yokei wa haire-nai daro to omou (B). 7. 22. Give Mitsuo some more milk. Bring me three hundred sheets more of this paper. I'll go and buy some more 20. 21. There are 23. 12. By boat costs more. : : the other more. yokei wa ano oki na tori yori yokei tamago wo umu (B). I think that bottle holds more than this. (A). (of plants). Kono hon wo yakushite shimau made ni wa tno ni-shukan kakarimasu (C). 26. Which costs more. Put in two more spoonfuls of sugar. 24. 15. 11. 8.

1. suteishon made densha de ikeba san-jip-pun kakarimasumai Koko kara Kono kawa no fukasa wa has-shaku wa nai daro (B). Study 253 259. Watashi wa Yamada San hodo Ei-go gajdzu de wa arimasen (C). 22. Kono boshi wa hakurai no to onaji gurai yoku dekite iru (B). These two tumblers are the same size. shoku-nin 1. 23. pound nedan : price. Kyoto is not such a quiet place as Xara. (C). the longer the better. Imoto ica watashi yori hitotsu shika shita j a arimasen (C). Kobe yori toi tokoro e wa ika-nai ho ga yokaro (B). 16. (lb. watakushi yori wakaku miemasu (D). I can't sp. sufficient. I may be wrong. 11. sewa : assistance. the more amusing it is. 15. : foreign-made. This hat is as well made as a foreign-made one. Itoko wa watakushi yori futatsu ue de gozaimasu ga. 18. but the prices are very different. zutto : very much. 4. We employ less men than they do at that factory. 21 Kono asobi wa hito ga okereba oi hodo omoshiroi no de gozaimasu (D). 8. 3. Ano koppu to kono koppu wa dkixa wa onaji gurai desu ga. K ikeba kiku hodo kawaiso na musume da (B). 10. Uchi no shokunin no kazu wa ano mise yori sukunai desu (C). nedan wa taihen chigaimasu (C). Ano hito wa tabun watashi yori mittsu gurai slnta desho (C). Taro kara mireba Goro San wa zntto karada ga okii (B). hakurai no tari'ru : kazu kin : : number. 19. Kyoto wa Nara hodo shizuka na tokoro j a arimasen (C). 23. 7. The more people there are who play at this game. I think it takes less than thirty minutes from here to the station by tram-car.). That pencil is the same price as a foreign-made onQ. . 12. One pound of sugar will not be enough. Kono himo wa nagasugimasho ka ? (C). 9. 20. You had better not go further than Kobe. however. 4. pitied. ni-kin katte kite o kure (A). so you must take care of him (and do what is necessary). Ano empitsu wa hakurai to onaji gurai no nedan desu ga. to be enough . Sato San wa mi-tsuki tara-zu de ano shosetsuwo yakusMte shimatta so da (B). Kyonen wa kotoshi hodo . My sister is only one year younger than I. but the quality is not as good. 22. nagakereba nagai hodo it no desu (C). Sato wa ik-kin de wa tari-nai. 5. 14. I think this river is less than eight feet deep. 13. 18. roku-ju-yen tara-zu de dekimashita (C). 17. atsuku nakatta to omoimasu ga. 6. cousin.vord artisan. 11. 13. Ani to one wa onaji gurai Ei-go ga hanasemasu (C). . iro-iro sewa zvo shite yara-nakereba ikemasen (A). 2. Will this string be too long? 20. 15. : hodo : approximate quantity used in comparisons. 6. Haruo is younger than you. Ano tsukue wa chumon shite koshiraesashita no desu ga. I daresay that man is about three years younger than I.EXERCISE Comparison of adjectives. do desho ? (C). itoko : 64. 5. hakurai hodo shina ga yoku arimasen (C). I had that desk made to order. I believe last year was not as hot as this. No. 21.-ak English as well as Mr Yamada. 9. lie. buy two pounds. 3. 10. 2. IS). The more I hear about that poor girl the more I think she's to be 17. 16. Compared to Taro. it cost less than sixty yen. 8. Haruo San wa omaf yori toshi ga shita desu kara. -. My elder sister speaks English just as well as my elder brother does. 14. 7. My cousin is two years older than I but he looks younger. 12. Master Goro is a VITV big boy. They say that Mr Sato translated that novel in less than three months.

Kore ic a \ihon ichi no nagai kawa de gozaimasfi (D). 10. 18. 22. to bad temper. (C). '2.picture which Mr Koyama painted at Hakone is very well done. Yamada San ga kondo koslnta tokoro wajitsu ni shizuka de ii tokoro desu (C). kanari muzukashii Ei-go no hon wo yomu yd ni narimashita (C). is my eldest brother. The house that Mr Yamada has just moved in a lately. 14. Your handwriting has improved very much lately. Iro(C). fish is very dear. 6. Even-body 17. 5. J)ono tori ga yokei tamago wo umimasu ka? And hlto (C). Kutsu wo chiimun shitai no desu ga. 19. 11. Watashi no mura de no kane-mochi wa Tarnura to iu hito desu (C). is in a . Kono mise tea Tokyo ichi no kutsu-ya da (B). Sensei ga kigen ga icarukutte okotte bakari ita ga. fact. 25.EXERCISE Superlative. The patient is much worse today so please come as soon as possible. 1. ja nai yd da (B). 1. As I have a lot to do. yoppodo nareta mto de nai to wakara-nai (B). Mj^ son is now able to read fairly difficult books in English. 8. O-kaze de taoreta no wa daibu 6ki na ki da 15. iro shigoto ga aru kara. dekiru dake hayaku o-ide kudasai (D). This is the longest river in Japan. 10. that man 's letters are very difficult to read. 24. Kono himo wa gokujobu de gozaimasu (D). If there's any book among these you care for I'll give it to you. mura : kane-mochi : a rich man. 16. Which of these hens lays most eggs ? 7. sakana ga baka ni takai (B). Which is the best inn in Kyoto ? That gentleman 's father was the best doctor in the town. and I wish them made as 18. Taro doesn't seem to care very much for school. 20. 13. : nare'ru to become accustomed. Uchi no mustiko ica (B). 19. village. The richest man in my village is a man called Tamura. i want to have some boots made. o mochi nasai (C). naru-take jobu ni koshiraete moraitai desu 17. 9. Anata no ji wa kono-goro yohodo yomi-yoku natte kimashlta (C). The tree that was blown down by the wind was rather a big one. 2. 4. As the weather is bad. 14. Kyodai-ju de ano musAme ga icliiban riko da to minna itte iru (B). 8. 16. very quiet neighbourhood. (D). This is the best bootmaker in Tokyo. naru-take yasuku koshiraete kudasai 9. dekiru dake hayaku kaette kuru ts-umori da (B). please make it as cheap as possible. Yamada San no o-jo-san-tachi wa makoto ni gyogi ga yd gozaimasu. (C). strong as possible. Tht. : yohodo . Tsukue a -o IntotsU koshiraete moraitai. 1 intend to come back as soon as possible. 4. 3. Watashi no kyddai no uchi de yasete iru no wa ani desu 6. Taro wa ammari gakko e iku no ga suki dekite_ iru (B). 24. 20. Kyoto ichi no 3. Tenki ga warui kara. Kyo tea baka ni atsui ne (B). The thinnest of us all. 7. Study 260270. jitsii : 65. 22. 11. (C). Our master used always to be his temper seems to have improved a good deal 25. 23. Ano kata no o to-san wa kono t/ado-ya wa doko deshd ?. only those who are thoroughly accustomed to his handwriting can make them out. kono-goro daibu naotta yd da (B). Koyama San ga Hakone de kaita e wa jitsii ni yoku 13. however. Kono hon no uchi de suki na no ga attar a agemasu kara. 21. brothers and sisters. I want to have a desk made. yoppodo very. says that that girl is the cleverest of all her brothers and sisters. 23. 12. Kyo wa bijo-nin ga taisd warn gozaimasu kara. This cord is very strong. isn't it ? 12. machi-ju de no o isha de gozaimashita (D). The Misses Yamada are really very wellbehaved young ladies. 21. no tegami wa nakanaka yomi-nikuikara. 5. 15. makoto : truth. It's awfully hot today.

14. 12. 9. Taro wa kesa tamago futatsu to chichi wo koppu ni ip-pai nomimashita 13. When my brother was twenty my uncle took him to England. of those bottles that are on the shelf and wash them carefully. That man is twenty. for times. hito-hako ju-ni de yon-jis-sen ni nri nasai (A). but he looks twenty-two or twenty-three!! . Nikai nifuta-ma arimasu ga. This morning Taro had two eggs and a cup of milk. 12. 19. HUo-hako yon-jis-sen shigoto wa otoko go-nin de is-shukan kakaru daro (B). ni-ju-ni-san ni mieru (B). 16. 4. futa-go twins. It cost fifty sen a bottle. otoko ga yottari iru (B). 18. 14. 66. Hlto-bin go-jis6. nara-nai (B). 20. Raigetsii gaikoku e iku made ni yofuku wo hUo-soroi koshirae-nakereba (C). Ano mise ni wa onna ga san-nin. I think it would take five men a week to do this work. Sell these pears at four sen each. 13. 7. Kono nashi wa hUotsu yon-sen. 3. I must engage one more. 1. The work is too much for two servants. 9. I must look for a bigger one. It takes two days and two 15. or forty-sen the box of twelve. 20. IMease send to my house immediately three boxes of pears at forty sen a box. Ano futa-go wa itsu de mo soroi no kimono wo kite imasu (C). There arc three women and four men in that shop. kane wa ima haraimasho (C). 2. so the change will be six sen. N ana-sen no empitsu wo ju-ni-hon katte o-ide. Those two chairs are American made. Ano hlto wa hatachi desii ga. 5. Kono uchi wa mi-ma shika nakutte. (o) tsuri . mo shitte imasu (C). I'm giving you ninety sen. 11. dare ka ni kashitai orimasti (C). Kono abura wa o ikura deshtta ? (C). 18. 15. 19. sukoshi oki na no wo mitsukemasho (C). mo hitori yatowa-nakereba narimasen (C). Jochu futari de wa shigoto ga 6-sugimasu kara. : the change. 11. an article). it has only three rooms. Ano seiyo-jin wa Nihon e kite yo-tsiiki 1. What was the price of this oil ? 6. mo Nihon-go ga yohodo hanaseru yd ni narimashita (C). 2. It's only four months since that foreigner arrived in Japan. kanari yoku 8. I was thinking of letting them to somebody. Hashi no uedefutari no kodomo ga ip-piki no inu wo ijimete ita (B). Kono hen ni wa ni-sam-ben kita koto ga arimasu kara. Ano tana ni aru bin wo futatsu motte kite. 7. I Ve been two or three times in this neighbourhood before. ijime'ru : to tease worry. Bring t^o 5. 10. tsukaimasen kara. kure (A). I must have a suit of clothes made before I go abroad next month. nevertheless he can already speak quite a lot of Japanese. There are two rooms upstairs and as I don't use them. Go and buy twelve seven-sen pencils. Kono (C). hen : : abura : oil. Ani wa hatachi no toshi ni oji ni tsurerarete Igirisu e mairimashUa (D). 21. 8. kirei ni aratte o sen de katta (B). Study 271280. no nashi ivo mi-hako suguni todokete kudasai. 4. 10. 'lit is house is small. 21. so 1 know it fairly well. 17. 3. ma soroi : suit (of clothes). kyu-jis-sen yarn kara.EXERCISE Cardinal numbers. semai dem kara. roku-sen no o tsuri da (A). to omotte gurai ni shika narimasen ga. Koko kara Nagasaki made wa futsuka futa-ban kakarintasu 16. pattern. 17. mitsuke'ru : to find. Anoffitatsu no isu wa America de dekita mono de gozaimasii (D). Those twins always wear clothes of the same nights to go to Nagasaki. (money returned as balance of that tendered for soroi no : of the same pattern. I'll pay for them now. hatachi : twenty years of age. : num. room. Two children were worryiiii: a dog on the bridge.

How much is Ogawa 's .EXERCISE Auxiliary numerals. 7. 7. 8. 24. I 10. The Khiiimis MPL. noina-nai koto ni xhite iru (B). 10. No.a ni onwshiroi o hanashi no hon ga arimashita kara. Study 281 283. Kono nimotsu wo san-ko Sendai made kara.siid ka ? (D). 21. ininna onua bakari desn (C). I intend to go for a walk to Ueno. is-soku katte yard (B). yon-satsu katte. only. house tomorrow. 3. Uitotsu dake wa urimasen (D). 12. 24. 20. Is there a shop where they sell foreign books ? 19. get me a enough. I bought four and sent them to 11. tabako rra karada ni zearui'to isha ni iw arete 16. ano hashi wo zvato. As soon as I'd taken a dose of this medicine. Kodomo ni wa kono kusuri wo ip-puku no hambun nomase nasai (A). relative. 5. knife. 28. two will be quite 20. : watam dake road. the doctor says it's bad for my health. There are none in this street. 8. Ashlta koshimasu kara. and they are all girls. Yon-sen no hagaki go-mai. street : : : : neighbourhood.four cup altogether. ni-guruma tc o ni-dai tanonde kudasai (C). shi ' ic a 1. there's not a single place where you can get foreign books. Kono liana. Two English steamers are expected tomorrow in the afternoon. 18. order two hand-carts. use three pairs of boots a year. 15. 23. aznketai (B). Please bring two knives. Kuruma wa san-dai yobimasho ka ? (C). 9. 12. nimoUii ga sonna ni oku arimasen kara. lie. Ogata. ni-dai de takusan desu (C). 16. o tsukue no ue ni motte itte okimashita (D). 15. my relations pair. 5. Kore to onnaji kitgi wo rop-pon motte kite kure (A). 25. 19. 3. Go and buy live four-sen postcards and ten ten-sen stamps. cha wo ip-pai o kure (A). itai Kono kusuri wo ip-puku nondara atama no no ga naotta (B). I want to check these three pieces of luggage to 18.ru to migi kawa ni san-gen gozaimasu (D). I'm thirsty. 14. Kono kinjo ni yado-ya ga gozaima. 17. h ana-ike : 67. Seiyo no hon wo uru mine ga arimasu ka ? (C). shinrui tori : : relation . 2. 17. Wata- nen'ni san-zoku kutsu ga irimasu (C). Bring me six nails like this. to cross over. Nodo ga kawaita. Kono tori ni wa gozaimasen ga. Thanks. Kimura San no kyodai wa yottari atte. ni-guruma 1. . I wonder if there's an inn in this neighbourhood ? 4. 4. . Give the child half a dose of this medicine. 13. O rusu ni ko-zutsumi ga ni-ko mairimashita 6. 9. flower-vase. 11. Tsu-i de ni-ju-yen de gozaimasu. In this town Seiulai. I have put them on your desk. When I've written three or tour letters. 21. 2. 22. Ueno e sampo ni iku t^umori da (B). Arigato. jis-sen no kitte ju-mai katte kite o kure (A). 13. Taro no kutsu ga ammari fiiruh u natta kara. so I have given up smoking. Kono machi ni wa seiyo no hon wo uru tokoro wa nai no desu (C). Tabako vco ip-puku ikaga de gozaimasu ka? (D). 14. While you were out two parcels came 6. As I'm going to move to another for you. inaka no *hi urn i ni okutte yarimashita (C). but as soon as you cross that bridge you '11 find three on your right. Have a smoke. Taro 's boots are worn out. kara.ike wa ikura? (B). I'll buy him another pair. Naifu wo ni-cho motte kite kudasai (C). Tegami wo san-shi-hon kaitara. hand-cart. There were some 1 interesting story-books at in the country. kawa kinjo naifu : side. I haven 't got much luggage. 25. Ashita no gogo Igirisu no fune ga ni-so tsuku hazu de gozaimasu (D). Shall I call three rikishas ? of tea. 22. my headache was better. this (lower-vase ? Twenty yen the can 't sell one by itself.

a company (commercial) a company. The sixth house from the post oHice is the house of one of my friends. . Sufeixhtm e wa do ikeba yo gozaimasu ka? (D). 4. Does this tram-car go to Shinagawa ? 22. 21. medicine. 14. mi-bam-me ni o-kaji ga arimashlta (C). Tokyo e kit*' tansu no shita kara ni-bam-me no hikidashi ni haitte iru (A). \Vegetoffatthenextstation. Futa-hako-mc no iutxhi wa kuftatta no ga mittsu atta (B). to : door. 14. Mae no Ei-go no sensei wa Amerika-jin deshita ga. liuxlii :co wataru to sugu ni suteishon desu (C). 20. 16. but the next one was no good. at last. No. 9. 15. always. but lu always out I was able at last the fourth time to see him. 19. yotabi-me ni yatto au koto ga dekimashita (C). 18. Ni-bam-me no kado wo hidari e inaguite. Te-bukuro zco daslilte o kit re : itte.e iru no ga Sugita to yokoshite kudasai (C). lie is studying . 7. offices of ippai shiju yatto full. our present teacher is an Englishman. please close the door. inquire. Migi kara roku-satsu-me no lion ma 8. 2. please. Kono densha wa Shinagawa e ikimasu ka? (C). 23. Are all these boxes full of eggs ? 5. the second drawer from the bottom. the third from the right. The last one who leaves. Yottsu-me no isu ni koshi-kaket. oto : after : : : . 3. The fifth son says he wants to be a doctor. Sam-bam-meno musuko wa Kobe 3. 11. lie. 1. 1. Kono hako wa minna tamago ga haitte iru no de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 21. 2. inigi kara iniltxume no oki na tsubo wo motle o-ide nasai (A). 8. tazune'ni : to visit . Shinagawa-yuki wa kono ato desu (C). Tana ni am. Konodensha tea ipi>ai dexu kara.EXERCISE Ordinal numbers. lie. 22. 19. Tsugi no teishaba de oriru no de gozaimasu (D). Go-bam-me no musuko wa islta ni naritai to itte benkyo shite imasu (C). ima no wa Igirisu-jin desu (C). There uere three bad pears in the second box. 10. Alo kara ni-dai-me no kunnna ni de gakko no sensei ivo shite orimasu (C). Ichi-ban shimai ni deru hito wa to wo shimele kudasai (C). 11. 18. he goes to the same office as I do. 13. This tram-car is full. 10. shiju a rusu de. Open the door as soon as yon get up in the morning. 6. ato no ninorimasho (C). 6. 5. 23. 12. 17. The person riding in the last rikisha but one. Brown San ni aitai to omotte. . 17. Study 284289. 13. kaisha : 68. Hand me the sixtli hook from the right. the following one is the Shinagawa tram-car. The first of the pears I've just eaten was very J2. Asa okitara ichi-ban hajime ni to wo akele o kure (A). is Miss Tanaka who arrived recently from abroad. 10. Yubin-kyoku kara rok-kemme no uchi ga tomodachi no uchi da (B). 20. Briny the big jar from the shelf. Our former teacher of English was an American. watashi no kaisha ni iru otoko desu (C). 4. How can I get to the station? Take the second turning to the left and cross the bridge. ni-bam-me no wa tamago no hakoja arimasen (C). tsugi no wa mazukatta (B). tansu : chest of drawers. let's take t henice. next one. The third night I was in Tokyo there was a big fire. san-do tazunernashita ga. the second one is not a box of eggs. behind. No. 15. notte ita no ga kondo gaikoku kara kaette kita Tanaka San no o-jo-san desu (C). Ima tabeta rtashi tea Iiajime no uv/ o/shikatta ga. I wanted to see Mr Brown so I went to his house three times. 7. 9. . The man sitting on the fourth chair is called Sugita. Get me my gloves they are in the clu^t of drawers. My thin! son is teaching at a school in Kobe.

Kobe ni san-ka-nen ite. I had start ? 15. 10. in this place. Ano ko tea Taisho ni-nen san-ju-go-nen ni Yokohama e kimashita (C). The second month after my arrival in Japan I fell ill. Ammari karada ga yokit arimasen kara. nen-me de kcmdo kuni e kaeru no da so desti (C). mikka-me ni isha ni mite moraimashlta (C). 13. I am not very well so 10. Yokohama ni tsuite m. I was in London two years but I cannot speak English well. Wataku'shi ga hajimete Nihon e kita no wa hajiinariiuashtia (C). As it's six years since he was here he will be surprised to find many 14. 19. . On the third day after my arrival in Yokohama there was a big earthquake which frightened me a I hate earthquakes so I thought I would never be able to live long great deal. That hank before you recover completely from this illness. ni-ka-getsu gurai Kyoto no hen de asonde kurn tsumori desu (C). It 19. Watashi wa jishin ga dai-kirai desu kara totem o nagaku koko ni iru koto rica deki-nai to omoimashita (C). Ano ginko wa Tai$ho san-nen ni-gatsu yokka ni hajimeta no desu (C). 8. The third month after ache three before I went to see the doctor. 11. Ju-gatsd yoka ni tatsu to itte orimashita (C). Meiji ni-ju-roku-nen ku-gatsti ni-ju-ni-nichi wa watakushi ga umareta hi de gozaimasu (D). Yamada San tea san-gatsii toka ni Rondon rro tatte. Roku-nen-me de kaette kuru no desu. 1913. jishin : earthquake. 6. 1 hear your brother is going to America. I intend to go to Kyoto for a couple of months. 17. I arrived in Japan for the first time on the 1st of in August. 20. 12. 2. 4. this was a very lonely place at that time. will he I-MUT I entered a school for learning Japanese. Yoroppa no dai-senso wa Taisho san-nen hachi-gatsu ni 3. 9. Chichi wa Meiji shi-jil-sannen no 6-misoka ni shinimashita (C). kara. 1893. I began :\ I arrived in than a month days Japan. Meiji 5. itsu o tachi nasalmasu ka? (D). head10. It is now ten years since 1914. 7. 17.) to begin. Meiji sanju-ni-nen no roku-gatsn tsuitachi deshita (C). hajimete : for the first time. : to be astonished. Rroivn San wa Nihon e kite hachikite futa-tsuki~me ni bydki ni natta (JR). ga sukkari naoru made ni wa ik-ka-getsu ijo kakaru (B). 20. day.ikka-me ni shogatsu hatsv.ka ni umareta no desu (C). Nihon e kite kara junen-me ni narimasu ga. It's eight yens S. to start. 15. 2. when does he things changed. 1899. hajimaru (intr. Atama ga itaku natte kara. 6. since Mr Brown arrived in Japan. Nihon e kaeru to itte yokoshimashUa (C). June. 6-jishin ga atte zuibun odorokirnashlta. The great war in Europe 3. Mr Yamada writes savin-. : odoroku tatsii : 1. Nihon 9.EXERCISE Dales. Watashi wa Rondon ni ni-ka-nen orimashita ga. That child was born on the 20th of January. 14. 5. 1914. 4. 7. senso : war. urnare'ru : to be born. hi : 69. 18. watashi ga kita koro koko wa honto ni sabishii tokoro deshita (C). Nii-san ga Amerika e o-ide nasaru so de gozaimasu ga. He said he was starting on the 8th of October. I was three years in Kobe and came to Yokohama in 1902. yoku Ei-go ga hanasemasen (C). the 4th of ' February. 13. was founded on came to Japan. 1. 1910. 11. My father died on the 31st of December. Study 290-297. was born on the 22nd of September. He's going back home for the first time now. Kono bydki Nil/on e kite ini-tsuki-me ni Nihon-go no gakko e haitta (B). 16. iro-iro kawatte iru no ni odoroku desho (C). that he is corning back to Japan and is starting from London on the 10th of March. 12. 18.

mainothing. let's >jn 10. O-jo-san icu 14. so hurry up and go (to your work). yubin-kyoku no mae wo sakki totta toki go-fun de ku-ji deshita (C). ga. mairemaaen (D). it was five minutes to nine. Mr Asada is leaving by the nine o 'clock train. 5. ko(t)chi . Mise e toi desu kara. What 2. kotclii 9. My father sent a telegram saying he had arrived at Kobe yesterday at 12.EXERCISE Time. but she is so healthy she hasn't seen a doctor once in five years. Study 298304. 2. roof started leaking. The sun is rising now at about half past six.50. 11. in that place. asa shichi-ji ni uchi wo de-nakereba ma ni aim awn (C). atashi no tokei if a torn aite itc tcakariNan-ji de gozaimasu ka ? (D). yak&soku : promise. The office is far (from my house). llaha TLY/ roku-jnirassharu so da kara. 13. 0. Close the gate every night at ten o'clock. 12. an hour and a half and then I go to the office. suteishon e niukae ni itte o-ide (A). mise e iku no desu (C). This child has been eating nothing for six days. I am expecting her by the eleven o'clock train. 5. rooms for 1C. 18. Mai-asa go-ji ni okite. forenoon. . Last Sunday it rained very 19. 19. Yokka-kan yama-nai de ame ga futta kara yane ga mom yo ni natta (B). I study English upstairs. As your uncle (says he) is coming tomorrow morning by the seven o 'clock train go and meet him at the station. him kara : afternoon. Mai-ban ju-ji ni 3. 11. 8. : : to go out to meet welcome. jikan han Ei-go wo benkyo shite kara. taiso jobu de go-nen-kan ichi-do mo isha ni ikittixe>> (('). Hiru-mae ni o-ide nasaiinasu ka? iiiru-sugi de gozaimasu ka ? Wataicvshi wa hiru-mae wa tomodaehi no uchi e iku yakusoku wo shimashita kara. mon wo shimete o knre (A). so he '11 arrive at twenty past twelve midnight. My mother is sixty-five. . go ni narimasu ga. sore kara nikai no soji wo shi nasai (A). . Kono ko vca muika-kan naniii mo 12. After lunch go to the post office. If you are going to Tokyo on Sunday. . 15. mon In/yd : : gate. 9. when I passed few moments ago. : (in compounds) every. so I have to leave home at seven o'clock if I want to be in time. 7. 1H. : hiru-mae hiru-fiugi . and then do the 1. 18. in the morning as I've promised to go to a friend's house. isoide o-ide na^ai (B). Mo hachi-ji jip-pun mae desu kara. It rained four days without stopping so Unheavily in the afternoon.) 1. sun. Asada San zva ban no ku-ji no klftha de atchi ?ro latte kuru no da kara. Ashlta asa no shichi-ji no klsha de oji nan ga 6. 10. Are you going in the morning or in the afternoon ? I can't <. achira : there . nara issho ni ikimasho ka ? (C). iclnkite. mukae'ru n(t}chi . 3. 17. Kono-goro zva roku-ji han goro ni taiyo ga deru (B). 4. nunni mo (with neg. By what train is your daughter corning back ? 14. 4. (hnae wa hint kara yftbin-kyoku c itte de kaeru hazu de gozaimasu (D). o'clock is it ? in front of the post office a My watch has stopped however. 70. no ju-ichi-ji no kisha nan-ji no klsha de o l-aeri nasaimasuka? (D). 16. Chichi 'ca kind gogo rei-ji gotabe-nai de chichi bakari nonde imashlta (C). Konaidn no nichiyo UY/ him kara o-ame desMta (C). 8. Anata Tokyo e nichiyo ni iku e tsuku no zva gozen rei-ji ni-jip-pun da (B). 17. 7. It is already ten minutes to eight. 15. kochira : here in this place. Him. sakki : a short time ago. he has only been drinking milk. W masen jip-pun ni Kobe ni tsuita to itte dempo ?co yokoshima^hUa (C). I get up at five o'clock every morning.o together.

shina ga so yoku nai yd dem (C). Kono kami wa sendatteno kami no hotondo bai no nedan desu ga. koto mo kakii koto mo dekimasen deshita (C). about three quarters full of water. Kono hon wa nan-wari mokarimasu ka? (C). 2. I found that half were bad. I've got such a headache. The milk for the baby 5. On an average eight or nine a day. about. 7. but instead of that I've decided to study two hours 9. Akambo ni yarn chichi wa chichi shlchi-bu ni mizu sam-bu mazete yatte o kure (A). 8. Last year I was ill in bed about six months. Sakunen wa byoki no tame ni hotondo han-toshi nete kurashi- mashita (C). A no musunie wa 22. 13. ichi-nichi oki ni shimashUa 8. A third of the shops in this town belong to foreigners. : on account of. Have you got many customers ? or thirteen men mending that bridge. 15. minna yakusu ni wa go-rok-ka-getsu wa kakaru daro (B). Bring me a tumblc-r it '11 take me five or six months to translate it all. : : to be earned (of money). earthquake the other day. 18. : omitting. 20. Study 305 oki : sakunen average. 15. Last year. 3. maze'ru : to mix. Kind inaka kara okutte yokoshita kudamono no hako wo akete mitara hambun wa kusatte ita (B). Asuko no hashi woju-ni-san-nin no otoko ga naosMte ita (B). Taihen oki na hon da kara. 19. 4. I think that girl 22. Mai-nichi ichi-jikan zutsu Ei-go wo narao to amoimashita ga. but the quality is not so very good. No he has turned thirteen (European style). 21. 11. 7. but I left because I have not been well lately. 6. kono-goro domo karada ga yoku <t rim asen k ara. 17. when my eyes were bad. I wasn't able to read or write for three months.-jishin de uchi ga hi/aku ni-san-jik-ken taoreta to shimbun ni dete imasu (C). 4. the box of fruit that came from the country yesterday. Ano miseni tea maru roku-nen orimasMta ga. 16. 13. 5. 19. . This paper is almost twice as dear as what I had 20. sake. Konaida no o. How much per cent. every other day. There were t \\d\c 14. Is as much as that one. lie. 16. do you is to be seven parts milk and three parts water. 10. I thought of studying English one hour every day. This box holds three times Master Taro thirteen according to the Japanese way of counting ? -10. make on this book ? 6. each. 318. ni-sanjikan nete iyo (B). Koppu ni mizu wo shlchibu hodo irete motte kite kudasai (C). Kyonen me ga warukatta toki wa mi-tsuki-kan yomu jii-go-roku daro (B). Ichinichi heikin hak-ku-nin gozaimasu (D). Kano machi no sam-bun no ichi wa gaikoku-jin no mise de gozaimasu (D). T . Twenty-five per cent. 14. Ammari atama ga itai kara. : ichi-nichi oki no tame ni zutsu : every other day. Taro San wa kazoe(C). 3. 21. 12. Kono hako zca ano hako no sam-bai hairu (B). for mokaru hotondo 1. ichi-jikan wo bai no ni-jikan ni shite. 2. hundred and twenty or a hundred and thirty houses were wrecked by the big must be about fifteen or sixteen. It is such a big book that I expect 17. maru ju-san de gozaimasu (D). I was six (complete) years in that 12.EXERCISE Various numerical expressions. O kyaku ga takusan aru ka? (B). 11. The newspaper says that a last time. Ni-wari go-bu mokarimasu (C). I intend to start on office. I shall lie down for two or three hours. Raigetsu no go-roku-nich i goro ni Kyushu no ho e ryoko ni dekakeru tsumori desu (C). heikin 71. the 5th or the 6th of next month on a trip to Kyushu. : last year. yamemashita (C). 9. 18. When I opened 1. doshi no ju-san de gozaimasu ka? (D).

. 14. -Kara-da ga warukereba shizen benkyo ga dekinaku nant (B). The teachers stay until tour. Kimi tea Ei-go ga hanasemasA ka? (C). ing to see them this summer. will do the work for you). That tree died of itself (nobody did anything to it).EXERCISE Personal. hitori de klsha ni nottari shite wa ike-nai (A). jibun de kai ni ikimasu (C). 2. 4. possessive and reflexive pronouns. 5. .confidence of the public. It seems that that shop doesn't enjoy tin. but 1 don't think it's true. Uchi no Hana-ko wa jibun de kimono wo nutte kimasu (from ki'ru to put on). Kono bydki wa kamawa-nakittte mo shizen ni naoriinasu (C). Baku no uchi no mon no soba am nashi no ki wa xhi-. Ano kiwa shizen ni karete shimatta (B). My daughter Hana-ko sews her own dresses. 8. o. 17. 7. shitaku : preparation. 13. 12. kore 19. 0. 15. 15. Ana hito-1aclti wa Chosen e iku no da so desu (C). Yattsu no Teruo wa mai-asa hitori de shitaku wo shite gakko e ikimasu (C). 13. 5. 1. Boku no ho e wa nan to mo lite to iu hanashi desu ga. wakara-nai sonna koto wa nai daro (B). Kimi to boku to issho 6. Let's help each other. Whenever you and I go out together for a walk it's sure to rain. kotoshi no natsti ittc m it/ft to omotte iru (B). When one doesn't feel well one naturally becomes incapable of studying. Study 319 327. 21. and you can't go travelling about by yourself. wa tomodaclii no desu kara. o-ide nasaimasu ga. I wonder whether it's true. but the 'i 8.when you've got a lot to do I'll help you and when I've got a lot of work to do please help me. 12. vu may take it. 18.o yokosa-nai so da (1>). Ano mise wa kara. Kono nashi wo mittsu zutsu ano kodomo-tachi ni yatte kudos ai (C). Nagasaki no chikaku ni shinrui ga ik-ken aru kara. Give each of those children three pears. 16.) nothing. generally. pupils leave at three o'clock. 4. . My son Teruo is only eight but he gets ready and gees to school all by himself every morning. 17. 2. Yarnada San ga Sendai de bydki in naif a tetsudatte morattari shimasho (C). Ano oku-san wa niinna. 23. You'll get over this illness without any special treatment (N atnre 16.1 '\ e no confidence in Suzuki. Would you please lend me that book ? IS). Watashi ica Suzuki <co shinyo uln-nai (B). 7. yokosa-nai ftmniari shinyo ga nai to iu hanaxhi da (B). Isogashii toki wa o tagai ni tetsudatie agelari. That lady does all her shopping and marketing herself. 10. 14. . I have some relatives in the neighbourhood of Nagasaki (one house of relatives). 1. 11. They say that Taro hasn't written home lately 23.en ni haeta no da to iu hanashi da (B). I'll give Can you speak English you that box. 9. 9. 1 am thinking of g. 11. yo-ji made ni sampo ni deru iambi ni ame gafuru yd da (B). They say the pear-tree by our gate grew by itself (i. V ou are an invalid. 22. 21. nuu : to sew. 22. Omae wa byd-nin da kara. 20. seito wa taigai san-ji made ni kaetteshimaimasu (C).e. Sono luiko wa omae san ni yarn kara atchi e motfe o-ide naxai (A). Sono hon wo ka-shlte tcudasaimasen ka ? J ibun no mono nara kashtte agemasu keredomo. so I can't. I haven't heard from him so I don't know. ga. filiinyo : confidence. but it belongs to a friend. : nan to : mo : taigai iambi ni (with neg. was not planted).. 10. 72. as often as whenever. Kore desu ka? (D). Taro wa kono-goro uchi e tegami i. 20. Sensei-gata UY/. Is this the one you mean ? If it were my own I'd lend it to you. honto desho ka ? (C). I hear that those men are going to Korea.. I hear that Mr Vamada has fallen sick at Sendai. kashite ageraremasen (C). 3.18.

theatrical play. 14. No. Study 328 koisaga. That is the office Mr Yamada goes to. hanashi no aru hon ga arimasu kara. Shimbashi e tsuku to Taro to Jiro ga mukae ni kite ita (B). 6. you. 9. : to be afraid. day. What my brother said just now is perhaps a I'll start on my journey. yake'ru (intr. When the sun rises. 5. 23.ru : kashi-ya empty. San ga Yube no kaji de yaketa uchi wa aki-ya datta so da (B). Are ga Yamada San no irassharu kaisha de gozaimasu (D). poketto : pocket. 3. Sono 15. that's not the one. gotten what I was told just now. : house to let. 22. 6. 9. 5. Koko wa natsu Yamada San to Suzuki iSan ga kita tokoro desu (C). I arrive from home. 8. 4. amusing. Suzuki came in the summer. 18. betsu na no wo sagasu tsumori desu (C). burnt. kashite agemasho (C). no (or na) : different. O yu ga waitara so itte o kure 16. Sono hon wo yonde shimattara. is afraid of. When you've finished reading that book. Konaida Sato hanashita kashi-ya wo mi ni itte kimashlta ga. is Hana-ko 19. I went to see the house to let which Mr Sato told me about the other pied. 18. 335. Ano ko zvajunsa no kao wo mini to kvwagatte nakimasu (C). Mr Suzuki's dog is the one 23. 11. 13. This is I intend to look for another one. it is too small. 12. They say that the house that was burnt by the fire last night was unoccu2. watashi wa do shita no daro ? (B). the rain.) to boil. and we had to walk two hours in . 7. the birds return to their nests. 19. inaku (intr. shibai : theatre . Kore wa uchi no Hana-ko ga kowagaru inu daro ka ? (B). When the water starts boiling. lie. 21. Kimura San ga kuru made ni sono tegami tco kaite shimai nasai (A). Wlit-n arrives. Taiyo ga hairu to tori ga su ni kaeru (B). to cry . su : nest. 20. sore j a arimasen. Igirisu ni ita toki sono shibai wo mimashlta ga.EXERCISE Relative pronouns and adverbs. When the sun 12. (A). When we crossed 22. 4. When I was in England I went to see that play. so omoshiroi to omoimasen deshlta (C). the cock crows. ni-jikan hodo nurete aruita (B). Ano kata no kaita mono wa shiju yonde orimasu (C). however. kondo wa mo sukoshi muzukashii no wo agemasho (C). sing (of birds). Taiyo ga deru to tori ga naku (B). 3. 7. to it lend I'll to be that tale is found. 13. <aki-ya : 73. the river Tone it started raining. 17. unoccupied house. Taro and Jiro were there to meet me. 16. I'll lend you one a little more dif14. 15. When I was 'in Kobe I went to (visit him at) his house two or three tiim-s. 1. I wonder what's the matter Show me what you've got in your pocket. Ano Into no hi no wo kaite kudasai (C). Uchi kara o kane ga kitara ryoko ni dekakemasu (C). let me know. Ima ototo ga itta koto wa tabun machigai daro (B). funds When 17. 2. Have that letter written when Mr Kimura that child sees a policeman he is afraid and starts crying.) to become destroyed lire. ammari semai desu kara. 10. When I arrived at ficult. Writedown what that man says. Tone-gawa wo wataru to ante ga futte kite. Sakki iwareta koto wo mo wasurete shimatte. but I didn't think it so yi-ry 10. I always read what that man writes. 11. so where Mr Yamada and Mr mistake. Hana-ko ga kowagaru no wa Suzuki San no inu desu (C). 8. Kobe ni itajibun ni ni-san-do ano hito no uchi wo tazuneta koto ga arimashita (C). have the book in which Shimbashi. sets. Is this the dog Hana-ko afraid of ? 21. naku : : by betsu 1. I Ve already forwith me. Poketto ni aru mono wo o mise nasai (B). 20.

Kore kara Yamada San ni henji wo kaite dashi ni ikimasu (C). his letter). (C). I am thinking of going to EngSurely that's not the way to do it. 6. Sato ica dono gurai ireru no de gozaimasu ka? (D). Konna yado-ya ni iru no wa akite shimatta (B). Demonstrative. futari 'de sampo ni ikimashita (C). How have you been lately ? 13. 6. interrogative. tsumara-nai : worthless foolish. hakkiri kane-ire wo otoshita n' desu ? (C). Koko-ira datta to omoimasu ga. Ano hito zva to no toki ni omoi bydki wo shite. I think it was somewhere about here. Sore 1. and then a friend came and we both went for a walk. 23. If I send this bottle (packed) like this it will be quite safe. . O karada wa kono-goro ikaga de gozaima#u ka ? (D). Read this book through. but I've never found a person who learnt it as quickly as Miss Hana-ko. if you pack it like that. 5. I haven't been able to do anything I'm thinking of seeing a doctor. takusan daro (B). 13. 10. Don 't you understand yet after having been told so often ? 9. Kono han wo yonde shimatte. 2. Shujin wa yo-ji han ni kaette mairimasu kara. 3. Are hodo itte kikasete io ma da wakara-nai no ka ? (A).sore kara hoka no wo goran nasai (B). . hakkiri : clearly. Doko-ira de 15. E. 21. Don't read a book like that. I'm tired of a tale like that. 20. 11. wakarimasen (C). Are kara konaida katta Igirisu no shosetsu wo yonde iru to tomodachi ga 18. and after that. 12. shimpai : anxiety worry. That man had a serious illness when he was ten years of age. 8. I'll now (write and) send Mr Yamada an answer (to 4. Sonna hon wo yonde wa ike-nai (A). 7. How much sugar shall I put in ? 7. Mikka bakari atama ga itakutte nanni mo dekimasen. If you take as much money as that. you needn't worry about it. Go and study there. I 'm sick of being in an inn like this. After 2. 22. Table I of 336. . Annahanashi wa mo akite shimatta (\\). I have studied English for some time. a aki'ru : to get tired of. wa tsumara-nai j a arimasen ka? Muko e tsuite kara benkyo suru ho ga zutto hayaku oboerareru desho (C). nani wo nasaimashUa ? (D). land. please wait until then. Oh yes. 22. sore kara tate-naku 20. 14. Kore made iku-do mo Ei-go wo oshieta koto ga natte shimatla no desu (C). 3. llana-ko San no yd ni hayaku oboeta hito wa arimasen deshlta (C). 16. but I don't know for certain.EXERCISE kane-ire 74. Anata wa doko no suteishon kara o nori nasaimashita f (D). 8. 9. 23. Sore dake o kane wo motte ittara. My master will be back at half past four. dozo sore made o machi kudaxai- masen ka ? (D). a short while . so nasareba mo xliinipai wa arimasen (C). (After thai) I read the English novel I bought the other day. and indefinite pronouns and adverbs. : . it will be quite enough. 19. Whereabouts did you lose your purse ? 15. 16. arimasuga. (Up to now) I've very often taught English. 21. Shibaraku Ei-go wo benkyo shite kara Igirisu e iku kangae desu (C). . shibaraku : some time n g while. 4. Kino gakko kara o kaeri ni natte. l . I wonder if there's a doctor round about here? 19. : Study purse. 5. 12. and since then he hasn't been able to stand. What did you do yesterday after you came back from school ? 17. Koko-ira ni o islia san ga arh)ianhd kite. I've had such a headache for three days. isha ni mite morao ka to owoimasu 1. At what station did you get on the train ? 14. 10. and 337353. don't you think so ? 11. 18. read another one. Kono bin wa ko shite okureba daijobu daro ne? (B). ka ? (C). 17. that's the way to learn quickly.

Tokyo ni aru desho ka ? 9. Tokyo-ju (C). 11. botan netsu : : Study button. somehow to go up Mount Fuji once. 2. (C). Yamada San wa moto doko ka kono kinjo ni ita koto ga aru so desu (C). 8. : nokoru sagaru . I can't live in a place as hot as this. You had better get somebody who knows English to read it to you. (or: Go and call any doctor). Nodo ga kawaita . what less. nani ka nomu mono wo o kure (A). Dare ka ni michi tco o kiki nasai 19. Kimura San ga inaka e o kaeri nasaru so desu kara. 13. 21. I have never been to Ueno yet. 9. 1. go tsugo no ii toki ni Enoshima e itte kimasho (D). Some day when you are free please take me there. There's still a little left. to remain be left over. 18. 23. Mada Ueno e itta koto ga arimasen kara. . dotchi ka hitotsu narau tsumori desu (C). doko ka suzushii tokoro e ikimasho (C). 4. 15. When you've finished readlet 's bring 24. and ask him to take it to her. 12. Has anybody lost his purse ? 19. SOgashitara. 20. interrogative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs. I must buy something which they haven 't got in the country for Miss Hana-ko. Ei-go ka Furansu-go ka. One of you (servants) go and call the doctor.EXERCISE 75. 16. kane wo harau ka dotchi ka ni shinakereba nara-nai (B). How is the patient ? 12. me something to live They say that Mr Yamada formerly used somewhere in this neigh- bourhood. look out for a cooler place. atama no itai no wa kawara-nai to itte imasti. . I hear that Mr Kimura is going back to his house in the country. Is there no more sugar ? 14. 3. 10. Do ka shite ichi-do Fuji-san e nobotte mitai (B). Kono kami wa hakuraiyori yasu gozaimasu ga. Hi. to descend go down. . 6. the second column of Table II in 336. itsfi ka o hima no toki ni tsurete itte kudasai (C). Bozo kmw hana wo dore ka hitotsu kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 15. 7. 4. Go byo-nin wa do nasaimashita ka? (D). 10. 5. If Somebody has taken my dictionary. 20. Sono hon wo yonde fihimatiara Jiro ka dare ka ni o yari nasai (B). The fever is some13. Mada ikura ka nokotte imasu (C). : : shina-mono 1. toka ni kaeru to itte o kure (A). 14. 11. Dare ka o isha son wo yobi ni itte kite o kure (A). Sato wa mo nai ka? (A). Shina-mono wo kaesu ka. 17. I must either return the goods or pay the money. fever. Demonstrative. Itsu ka (A). Donata ka kane-ire zvo otoshita kata wa arimasen ka? (C). anyone comes while I am away. jibiki Rusii ni dare ka kit am. 8. but he says his headache is as bad as ever. Dare ka boku no wo motte itte shimatta (B). Ko in botan ga hoshii no desu ga. tell him that I'll be back on the 10th. If you look all over Tokyo you will probably find some like it somewhere. doko ni kaaru daro (B). I wonder whether there are any to be had in Tokyo. I would like to manage 5. Donata ka Ei-go no deldru kata ni yonde o moral nasaru to yd gozaimasu (D). 18. 24. Konna atsui tokoro ni wa iraremasen kara. shina ga ikura ka warui yd de gozaimasu (D). Some day when convenient to you let's go to Enoshima. 3. Will you please give me one of these flowers? 6. articles goods. 7. 17. 2. Netsu wa ikura ka sagarimashita ga. Ask somebody the way. 22. I want some buttons like this. nani ka inaka ni nai mono wo katte Hana-ko San ni motte itte moraimashd (C).

8. lie. 13. 6. Sendatte no arashi de ura no ki ga ni-xambon taoremashlta ga. ikura mo arinuisu 25. not one is fit to eat. Ryoko shita koto ga arimasen kara. 14. teburu : table. go mo Furansu-go mo dotchi mo hanasemasen (C). There are any number of cherry-trees in that gentleman's garden. If that's the kind of candle (you are referring to) I've got any number. Can you give me any information about a person called Tama-ko Suzuki ? 21. Suzuki Tama-ko to iu hlto no koto wo shitte imasu ka? (C). it's empty. donata wa Kyo mo kusatte ite taberare-nai (B). rear. Dare ka kimashtta ka? (C). 5. 4. Ko iu chawan ti </ kaitai to omotte hobo kiite mita ga. 10. Itsu mo kau mix? 12. 22. arashi : Study chawan : teacup. Nobody has come 5. Fund shimbun wo go-roku-mai kudasaimasen ka? (D). but I couldn't find any anywhere. Would you please give me a few old newspapers ? 24. Ano kata no o niwa ni KY/ sakura no ki ga iku-hon mo gozaimasu (D). I've got any amount. 6. No. give a few to Miss Mitsu-ko. none of them are mine. 4. So iu 15. the third column of Table II in 336. I can neither speak English nor French. Ano kan ni wa nanni mo gozaimasen . 22. uchi wa do mo narimasen deshlta (C). 2. de o kai nasai (B). Thanks. Buy it at the same shop you always go to. 9. densha de au hlto da (B). Arigato gozaimasu. Tokyo no hoka wa doko mo shirimasen (C). 9. Otdto san ga ftakki mon no soto de koronda so desu ga. karappo no : empty. Arcany of these books yours ? 17. mo tabako wo noma-nai (B). doko ni mo nakatta (B). 23. interrogative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs. Ano hito wa itsu mo mise e iku toki kara. itself. doko mo itaku tea shimasen deshlta (C). ura : the back . I know Hakodate quite well. . 1(5. korobu : to fall down. Ano futatsu no teburu wa dotchi mo cliumnn Uchi de wa dare no desu (C). Kononaka ni dore ka anata nohon ga arima*u ka'? 18. so take as many as you want. hear that your brother fell down outside the gate. 24. rosoku nara nam-bon mo aru (B). I've been there any number of times. That's the man I always meet in the tram-ear when I'm going to the office. rosoku : candle. 20. 76. ikutsu mo nashi ga aru no da kara. dore mo watakushi no de wa gozaimasen (D). 19. Did anybody come ? 3. Watashi wa Ei17. 2. 13. Both of today. Hakodate e wa iku-do mo mairimashita kara. 18. 23. shite koshiraesashlta At home nobody smokes. As you've got any amount of pears. 20. 16. I self . Kono nashi wa dore mo o-ide ni narimasen deshlta (D). The storm the other day blew down two or three of the trees at the back of the house. he didn 't hurt himself at all. 25.EXERCISE storm. sukoshi Mitsu-ko San ni o age nasai (A). 10. 12. but no damage was done to the house 1. Every one of these pears is bad. There's absolutely nothing in that tin-can. E. those tables were made to order. 19. 7. 1. No. 11. 21. 3. lie. kan : tin-can. hoshii dake o tsukai nasai (C). watashi wa nanni mo shirimasen (C). 15. (C). Demonstrative. doko ka kega wa shimasen deshlta ka? (C). I knou nothing at all about her. yoku shitte imasti (D). 7. soto : outside exterior. 14. I wanted to buy some teacups like this and I asked everywhere. karappo de gozaimasu (D). As 1 've never travelled. 1 knoAv no place outside of Tokyo. Omae wa 11. has he hurt him(anywhere) ? 8. Shio iva ano tsubo ni ikura mo aru (B). There's any amount of salt in that jar.

dare de mo hairemasu ka ? (C). 15. Akai empitsu ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). Koppu wa ikutsu de mo ano hako ni aru 13. . Gogo nara itsu de mo uchi ni imasu kara. Kono hasami iva Tokyo ni aru deshd ka? (C). : rambo na 1. doko ni de mo arimasn 25. 12. mitsukaru to become found : be found. Kono niwa wa (C). 14. I wish you'd explain to me some things I don 't understand in my book. doko ni de mo katte na tokoro e itte asonde o-ide (A).' . careful. Come some day in the afternoon. 2. 4. kanshin : admiration. oki na no ga mitsukarimasen 15. you can get them anywhere. In case of illness. 5. E. Chiisa na kashi-ya nara nan-gen de mo atta no desuga. Dore de mo yd gozaimasu kara. sister. she takes such care of her little brother and 2. Shall I go to Ueno on Saturday. Study fude : writing-brush. Yes. 9. ikura de mo kane wo tsukatte ii (B). There are any number of tumblers in that box. (C). I'm always in. 18. ? (D). Kuroi no wa nam-bon de mo aru ga. when can I go to see you ? 10. 21. You must read it over and over again until you know it (by heart). Byoki nara (C). Oh yes. hasami : scissors. 7. Whenever I go. 23. (D). Have you got a red pencil ? any number of black pencils. 17. May I use any of the scissors here ? 4. Nan de mo omae no suki na mono wo o kai nasai (A). 20. Ueno e doyo-bi ni ikimasho ka. 21. ototo ya imoto no sewa wo shimasu kara. Fude de mo. convenience. dare de mo imasu (C). this garden ? 17. 19. 7. ya : a copulative particle . Certainly. ossharu (polite) to say . but I couldn 't find a big one. May anybody visit 18. Everything that man does. but I haven 't got a red one. 3. Demonstrative. 23. the fourth column of Table II in 336. Use either a brush or a pen. katte : teinei na : polite : . anybody may go in and see it. Donata de mo omae wa rambo da to ossharu (A). E.EXERCISE 77. . (A). 24. Oji san ni itadaita o kane de hon wo katte yd gozaimasu ka. 12. it doesn't matter how much money is spent. Iku-do de mo oboeru made yoma-nakereba nara-nai no desu (B). akai no wa ip-pon mo nai (B). Ano hito wa watashi ga iku to itsu de mo hon wo yonde iru (B). disorderly unruly. 9. pen de mo. 3. (B). Ano musume wa yoku shite kanshin Everybody admires that girl. 22. and. Do de mo omae no katte ni nasai nichiyo (C). There were any number of small houses to let. Does it rain everywhere in Japan during the month of June ? 8. ni ikimasho ka? 6. I'll give you the one you like best. I '11 give you a holiday tomorrow. 5. Nihon zva doko de mo roku-gatsu ame gafuru no desu ka ? (C). May I buy a book with the money my uncle gave me ? 22.11. Koko ni am hasami wa dore de mo tsukatte ii no desu ka ? (C). I wonder M'hether I can get scissors like this in Tokyo ? 24. itsu agareba yo gozaimasho ? (D). 8. o-ide nasai . 11. Would you please give me one of these pictures ? I don't mind which. or on Sunday ? 6. he does carefully. interrogative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs. Hon no wakara-nai tokoro wo oshiete itadakitai no desuga. 14. Do just as you like. Everybody says you are very unruly. Hat. 10. Ashita ichi-nichi hima wo yarn kara. you can go and enjoy yourself wherever you like. dore de mo ii no wo agemasho (C). Buy whatever you like. 25. that man* is always reading. 1. 1 3. speak. 26. dotchi de mo o tsulmi nasai (C). donata de mo haitte goran ni natte yd gozaimasu (D). 16. Ano Into no sum koto wa nan de mo teinei da 16. kono e zvo ichi-mai kudasaimasen ka ? (C). I've 19. 20. 26.

2. 3. W'hat arc you worrying about ? 11. kore de yoroshiii gozaimasho ka ? (D). Yamada San ga Rondon no shimbun wo totte o-ide no hazu da kara. Yes. Yamada San no banchi ga go zonji de gozaimasu (D). . 21. Oku-sama wa tadaima shimbun wo yonde irasshaimasu (D). wakarimasen (D). 21. so I beseech you to come immediately. Kono tegami wo o to-san ni o me ni kakete kudasai (C). 2. 20. Byo-nin ga taiso netsu ga demashite gozaimasu kara. 18. I have written the letter. Your father has a headache. Do~o tt/io hon wo haiken sashtte kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 4. Kind chddai itashimashita kudamono wa makoto ni kekko de gozaimashita (D). go shujin ni o me ni kakaritai desu (C). I hear Mr Suzuki is studying French very hard.EXERCISE Honorific verbs. 10.(A). My name is ltd. 12. Nani shimbun wo goran o to-san wa ni narimasu ka ? (D). 14. Your father knows Mr Yamada 's 1. Furansu-go wa taiso yoku o deki no hazu de gozaimasil (D). Go to Taro's master and tell him that. When you come next time be sure to bring your daughter with you. Danna sama wa nan-ji no kisha de o kaeri de irasshaimasu ka ? (D). . will it do ? 6. 18. What newspaper do you read ? address. 9. kekkd na : splendid excellent. go and ask him to lend me the paper of the 10th of last month. sister who is abroad sent her photograph the other day. 16. 16. 6. Kondo o-ide kudasaimasu toki zehi o-jo-san wo o tsure mdshite kudasai (D). O to-san wa atamaga itakuttc irassharu kara. Your brother has become much stouter since he is in the country. so don 't bother please show me that book ? My My him in any way. 10. (what we've been speaking about). good. Furansu-go no hon wo o yomi de irasshaimashita (D). The patient has developed a high fever . Mada tegami ga mairimasen kara. 8. Please show this letter to your father. The fruit you kindly gave me yesterday was simply exquisite. 23. ima o-ide nasaimashlte mo. Mr Saito doesn 't know English. mistress is reading the newspaper. . By what o'clock train is your master returning ? 19. Would you 23. but I understand that he knows French very well. Tegami wo kakimashite gozaimasu ga.now. 15. sugu ni o-ide kudasiiimasu yd o tanomi moshimasu (D). Tard no sense i ni o me ni kakatte. Watashi wa ltd desu ga. Nii-san wa inaka e o-ide nas'tte 4. 22. 17. o we ni kakemashd ka ? (D). would you like to see it ? 13. tadaima : at present soon just now. I haven't received a letter yet. When I went to see . 8. Kono-goro Suzuki San wa isshokemmei de Furansu-go wo go benkyo de irassharu so de gozaimasu (D). I understand Mr Yamada goes to bed at nine. Konaida Hana-ko San wo o tazune itashimashitara. she was reading a French book. can I see your master ? 22. Study 354363. 14. so I don't know. please show it to me. : yoroshii (hardly ever used attributively) 1. jama wo shi-nai yd ni o shi nasai . 5. Saito San wa Ei-gn wa go zonji de (wa) kara. . Yamada San wa ku-ji ni wa o yasumi no hazu de gozaimasu kara. 15. 5. 78. gozaimasen ga. 17. o me ni kakaru koto wa dame de gozaimasho (D). . zehi : by all means without fail. Nani wo go shimpai nas'tte irasshaimasu ka ? (D).Miss Hana-ko the other day. Sendatte gaikoku ni iru ane ga shashin wo yokoshimashita kara. 3. 20. Hai. 11. 19. haiken itashimashd (D). taihen o futori desu ne (C). 12. 7. I have reason to believe that Mr Yamada takes in a London newspaper. shashin : photograph. sono koto wo mdshi-agete kudasai (C). sengetsu no tdka no wo karite kite o kure (A). 7. so you couldn 't see him even if you went to his house now. 13. 9.

ntsu de gozaimasu (D). 17. 12. . If you are going to study a foreign language you'd better strongly made. sumimasen (D). . husband go to the office ? 20. husband always takes the children for a walk to Ueno on Sunday. they are 9. These boots are cheap and considering the price. Tonari. Ainiku tadaima kono kami wa gozaima^en. kaisha wo yamemashita (D). 21. Gaikoku-go wo go benkyo nasaru nara. A no sentaku-ya no o-kami-san tea o seji ga ii (B). Go-kuro sama desu ga. 11. I shall have to dismiss you. Excuse me 14. Study 364378. mo o-itoma 14. Ano onna no teishu wa daiku da (B). 2. 12. I Ve been sadly I will now take my leave. 15. O jama itashimashita. kongetsu kara. It's no use speaking to you. sitmu . . 7. flattery. 18. -2. . Moshi o isogashiu gozaimasen deshltara kono tegami wo Ei-go ni yaku17. 8. Does your body at home ? 18. 3. Arigato gozaimasu. Please 6. Go-busata itashimashite. That woman's husband is a carpenter.My to Kobe. konc nimotsu wo nikai e agete kudasai (C). Dozo anata no o shashin wo ichi-mai kudasai (D). she's not 1. 22. sake-nomi I. 9. cold today. : drunkard. Omae wa ikura itte mo o-shaberi ga naora-nakereba hima wo a'fl yarn (A). domo o kinodoku sama de gozaimasu (D). I am 1C. Thanks to you Taro is now quite strong. in sentences said to beg somebody's pardon). 3. I wish you would translate this letter into English for me. 4. so if you don 't jive me your photograph.EXERCISE Honorific nouns. 6. Thanks (to you) everybody is quite well. he has gone 4. . If you are sorry but unfortunately I have no paper like this at present. I like that uoman next door. o-kage sama de minna jobu de gozaimasu (D).no o-kami-san wa o seji ga nakute suki desu (C). 21. Go-busata shite orimashita ga. : to be easy in mind (especially used in the neg. 10. Kind wa O Kiku wo gakko e tsurete itte kudas'tte domo o sewa sama deshita (C). 10. My husband is not at home. makoto itashimasho (D). is . he left off going to the office from the beginning of this month. 7. Yado tadaima Kobe e mairimashite. 19. Taku wa nichiyo ni wa itsu mo kodomo wo tsurete Ueno e sampo ni mairimasu (D). My husband (says he) has not been well lately. kuro labour. mina-san o shlte itadakito gozaimasu (D). 79. I how is everyhope you '11 excuse my not having called upon you lately 19. but would you please take these bags upstairs ? 13. jriven to flatterv. 11. 8. 15. Kono kutsu wa o yasui wari ni jobu ni dekite orimasu (D). I am very sorry to trouble you. o wakai toki ni o hajime nasaru ho ga yoroshiu gozaimasu (D). I am really quite ashamed of myself. Danna sama wa kaisha ni itte irasshaimasu ka ? 20. : trouble o-itoma : leave discharge. . m That woman has got a drunkard for a husband with the result that she always in some trouble or other. Thank you for kindly taking Kiku to school yesterday. 5. 5. ainiku : unfortunately. Ano onna wa sake-nomi wo teishu ni matte shiju kuro shite iru (B). (o) seji : politeness civility . rvari ni : relatively . O-kage sama de Taro ga taiso jobu ni narimashita (D). 22. That laundry-man's wife is very civil and well-spoken. comparativelv. (D). not busy now. for having interrupted you remiss about calling upon you. KJIO wa taihen o samu gozaimasu (D). It's very correct yourself of talking so much. 16. 13. start while you are young.goro karada ga warui to moshimashite. Taku wa kono. kawari wa gozaimasen ka ? (D).

13. 3. Fujisawa kara de mo ikaremasu (C). 19. Sonojibiki wo uru no wa nii-san ni sodan shite kara no koto ni nasai (A). 11. Kono hon wa dare ni de mo hoshii hito ni ageru no de. 9. dfsu ? (C). 5. cartage. Yes. Two d<><f were fighting on the bridge. Honya no mae ni kuroi oki na inu ga ita (B). 17. Chobei wa nani wo shite mo 9. it's on this side. Sumimasen ga. but would you mind waiting while I have my dinner ? 7. yoroshiu gozaimasu. Kimi-ko San no uchi wa ano yubin-kyoku no ura da (B). 2. Was it the big dog that died ? 3. other hand. 80. I'll give a copy of this book to whoever wants one. lie. The bank is not on the other side of the bridge. 22. This pencil is dear. 24. please go inside and see the interior. (toko tea oki no 10. I won't send this letter until I've shown it to Mr Yamada. watakushi ga kawari ni mukae ni mairimashita (D). 5. 15. Kono nimotsu wo kisha de okuritai no desu ga. . itte 1. noroi : slow (in a bad sense). it wasn't the big one. kawari : alteration instead of on the . kagen ga warui nara watashi ga kaicari ni kai-mono ni kimasho . please wait till I come back. 14. sono kawari ni teinei da (B). lie. . 21. I want to send this piece of luggage by train. Niigata made no unchin ica ikuni 7. 15. Kore wa anata no tokei l-ara de mo. Shinda im na inu desu ka ? (C). Ano mise de kaikara. watashi no wa sonna oki nan' ja arimasen (C). 4. . 19. 12. chiisa na ho de. Study 379 kagen : state of one's health. shokuji wo shimasu aida o machi kudasai (C). As my sister (says she) has a headache. oki na no de wa ariniasen. (C). kotchi da (B). haitte naka wo goran kudasai (D). I bought the toy which is on the chest of drawers with the intention of giving it to the little girl next door. 10. Tansu no ue no omocha wa tonari no o-jo-san ni ageru tsumori de kalte kit a no desu (C).su (C). natsu de mo arimasii (C). If you are not feeling well I'll go and do the shopping for you. Yes. Anewa atamaga itai to moslrimaxn 24. soba). No. Consult your brother before selling that dictionary. I'm j going to that shop to buy something. sodan : consultation. there's snow even in summer. Enoshima e iva Kamakura 17.fil (C). Kono desu ka ? (C). No. 20. Is this your watch ? 18. I have come to meet you in her stead. 6. but on the other hand the quality is good. (anata no kawari). what would the charge be to Xiigata ? 6. There was a big black dog in front of the bookseller's. it was the little one. 2. 8. Miss Kimi-ko 's house is at the back of that post office. tegami wo dasu no wa Yamada San ni misete kara ni shiyo (B). (C). 13. Hai. unchin : charge for transportation carriage 1. 14. taclii-domaru : to stop while walking. Kono niwa wa dare ga mite mo i> >i<> desu ka ? (C). and all the passers-by stopped to look at them. : shokuji a meal. Is there any snow on the top of that mountain? 21. 23. Ginko wa Jiashi no muko janai. Excuse me. 4. 20. 18. mine is not such a big one. 16. 16. but on the other hand he works very carefully. . You can go to Enoshima either from Kamakura or from Fujisawa. Kono empitsu wa takai kawari ni shina ga ii (B). May anybody visit this garden ? J2. There's no denying that Chobei takes a long timeabout everything. 22. E. 23. 388. 8. 11. Ano yamu no ue ni yuki ga arimasu ka ? (C). mono wo shite kimasu kara. sono aida o machi kudasai (C).EXERCISE Postpositions and Quasi-postpositions. Hashi no ue de inu ga noroi koto wa noroi ga. kenka wo shite iru to soba wo toru hito ga minna tachi-domatte tnitc inuixhita .

There are some trays in the pantry. I wonder who the gentleman is. 22. reading a book behind Mr Yamada ? 5. Kore wa anata no te-bukuro de gozaimasho ka ? (D). Dare ga ano mado no garasu wo kowashita no da ? (A). I think he has a toothache. Kochira mo nichiyo ni ame ga furimashita ka ? (C). 11. Hoka no hito (C). How high is Mount Fuji ? 18. Tatte iru no wa Yamada San ja arimasen . . I much 12. glass of) that window ? 14. so I'll go and buy some. musume no gakko de wa gozaimasen . 2. 7. Is this the school your daughter goes to ? goes to. Inu ya neko ga o suki desu ka ? (C). ano kawa no ga watashi no desu (C). he's impossible to go out of doors. Inu ga kaette kimashtta ka? (C). kore wa uchi no o-jo-san no o-ide nasaru gakko de gozaimasu ka?(D). Inu wa suki desu ga. 26. shiroi no wa hobo sagasasemashita keredomo.) or ruined. I am fond of dogs but I don 't like cats. 20. 21. \VWch are your boots ? 31. 6. ryoko ga deki-nai no ka mo sliiremasen (C). Ame wafurimasen deshita ga. those leather ones are mine. lie. No. be broken 1. ga ko-nakulte mo Suzuki San wa kitto kuru (B). 10. Yamada San no ushiro de hon -wo (A). Mr Tanaka is here. Kore ga 10. this is not the school she 9. dashite kudasai 6. she goes to the school at the foot of Ueno park. Have the dogs come back ? 27. 5. 21. 23. Fuji-san no takasa wa dono gurai arimasu ka? 18. What's the matter with Taro ? 16. There's no more sugar. behind. Kore ga ii yd da (B). Who broke (the 13. neko wa iya desu (C). Mizu wa dono gurai iremasho ka ? (C). The black dog has come back. garasu : kawa glass. Kore wa chichi ga seiyo kara tsurete kita inu degozaimasu (D). take them out. This one appears to be the best. Ueno koen no shita ni aru no ga musume no iku gakko de gozaimasu (D). It was broken in the earthquake. yonde iru hito wa donata desho ? (C). but the white one is not to be found anywhere. Do you like dogs and cats ? 29. Mr Yamada is the man sitting near the table. 25. lie. 29. I dare say the reason that he can't go travelprefer Chuzenji to Hakone. Dore ga anata no o kutsu de gozaimasu ka ? (D). put in ? 3. Kuroi nowa kaerimashita ga. 3. katte mairimasho (D). Those brown ones are mine. 30. 15. Kane ga nakutte yori (*) Chiizenji ga zutto suki de gozaimasu (D). Kono tegami wa Hakodate kara koko made yokka kakarimashita (C). ushiro : the back koware'ru (intr. 20. 8. : tray. 19. O ban wa mono-oki ni arimasu kara. Putin seven parts of milk and three parts of water. 26. 12. leather. Ha ga itai no desho (C). 17. Are these your gloves ? 8. to break . 7. I . 25. ling is that he has no money. No. 2.EXERCISE Wa (o) 81. 28. Suzuki San wa mada o mie ni narimasen (D). 30. and Ga. This letter took three days to come from Hakodate here ? 19. teburu no soba ni koshi-kakete iru no ga Yamada San desu (C). 13. o-kaze de soto e dent koto ga dekimasen deshita (C). 11. 17. Jishin de kowareta no degozaimasu (D). 24. 23. It didn't rain but the wind was so strong it was not the man standing. Mr Suzuki is sure to come. Even if nobody else comes. but Mr Suzuki hasn't come yet. Sato ga mo gozaimasen kara. Watashi wa Hakone 14. Tanaka San wa irasshaimashita ga. 15. Which dictionary is the best ? 22. 27. mada miemasen (C). Sono akai no ga boku no da (B). 28. This is a dog my father brought from abroad. (C). bon : : Study 389392. How much water shall 1. 31. 9. 4. Taro wa doko ga warui no daro ? (B). Did it also rain here on Sunday ? 24. Dono jibiki ga ii daro ? (B). Chichi shlchi-bu ni mizu sam-bu irete o kure 4. 16.

honto no kinuja nai no desu (C). Donata ka o ko san ga go byoki de irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 6. 7. hiru-meshi : lunch. Kagen ga warukereba aruite ika-nai de. I met Mr Yamada in the tram-car. Yasai wa lisa de mo ano kado no mise de kaimasu (C). 10. Shall we go on foot ? 20. machi ni hoteru ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). 2. 22. hayashi : wood forest. Yado-ya nara gozaimasti ga. osoroshii tokoro de gozaimasu (D). 2. densha de mairimashd 21. Ano ki no kage de shibaraku yasumo (B). 17. There 's no school in our village. This morning. so the children have to go to the school in the neighbouring village. I bought six of these tumblers for two yen. Kono koppu wa muttsu ni-yen de katta no desu (C). 24. 24. 10. : : ijasai : vegetables. As it wouldn 't do to arrive 21. 23. A great many of the Chinese can speak English late. Aruite 18. (D). : Ginko de ju-nen ijo awa-nakatta tomodachi ni atte. and I sold it for twenty-eight yen. . O to-san ni so iwaremashita (C). I had the pleasure of meeting at the bank a friend whom I had not seen more than ten years. 18. Shina-jin ni wa Ei-go no jozu na hito ga takusan arimasu (C). 4. he has been in bed four or five days however. kuruma de o-ide nasai (B). . for 4. Let 's eat it in that wood. Ano mise ni iva taihett Ei-go no umai hito ga hltori iru (B). osoroshii : fearful. Sono hako wa ki de dekite iru no desu ka ? (C). 25. Osoku naru to ikemasen kara. Onaka ga suita ga. 20. Is that box made of wood ? 13. it's nothing to worry about. 12. On the other side of that mountain there's a deep 15. ni-ju-hachi-yen ni urimashita Ano yama no kage wafukai tani de. 13. 7. I was told so by my 11. Let's rest a while under that tree (in the shade of that tree). real silk. Are there many mosquitos in your house ? 8. Is there a hotel in this town ? 17. keredomo shim- wa gozaimasen pai na byoki de wa arimasen 1. If you are not feeling well don 't walk. 22. Have any of father. kage tani 1. shadow valley. I always buy my vegetables at that corner shop. wa ni-ju-yen de katta no de gozaimasu ga. . sore kara hobo aruku tsumori desu (C). ureshii : joyful. 5.EXERCISE De and Ni. There's a man at that shop who speaks very good English. Jiro is not feeling well. doko de hiru-meshi wo taJbeyd? (B). but it's not ravine. The flowervase I showed you the other day I bought for twenty yen. 15. quite well. 9. gakko eiku no desu (C).) to wake. Are wa kinu ni miemasu ga. Is one of your children ill ? 26. Anata-gata no naka ni (or de) Chosen e itta koto ga aru hito ga imasu ka ? (C). where shall we eat our lunch ? 5. Weren't you woken by the wind last night? you ever been to Korea ? 12. let's go by tram-car. 26. 3. 8. 14. 23. (C). mairimasho ka ? (D). Konaida o me ni kaketa hana-ike (D). 19. hoteru 19. Kesa mise e iku toki densha de Yamada San ni atta (B). Anatano tokoro ni ka ga takilsan imasu ka? (C). it's an awe-inspiring place. Kono 14. Watashi no mura ni wa gakko ga arimasen kara. Hakone ni is-shukan hodo tomatte. Yube no arashi de me ga samemasen deshita ka ? (C). 25. (D). I intend to stop about a week at Hakone and after that to go touring on foot. same'ru (intr. ureshikatta (B). going to the office. That looks like silk. 3. rninna tonari mura no (B). go by rikisha. I 'm hungry. 9. 11. but there is no foreign-style hotel. . 16. There are native inns. Jiro ga shi-go-nichi mae kara kagen ga warukutte netc imasu. Ano hayashi no naka de tabeyoja nai ka? 6. 16. Study 393. shelter. 82.

: a little bit. I can read English but I can 't speak it at all. dare ga sonna koto wo iimashUa? (C). but I thought I saw you in the 20.EXERCISE Adverbs. What else can you do ? to help you. 21. 8. 18. nige'ru 1. 3. Yes. bokuja arimasen (C). night didn 't wake you ? 14. Watashi wa Ei-go no honwa yomeru keredomo. I don't know Mr 4. Uchi no neko wa shi-hiki ko wo undo. my feet hurt me. Hai. . not mine. Is there no could. 12. 11. Nobody said so. lie. Isshokemmei ni shite mo deki-nakereba shikata ga nai kara. the clothes"used by the deceased. -darake : all over full . 10. Sayo de gozaimasu. I did. The house you see dimly the other side of the river is the one Mr Suzuki recently built. lie. ammari yoku shirimasen (C). 25. sekitan sutekki yaku chitto . who said I didn't go ? 19. I can only walk 25. Do you mean to say that severe earthquake last What o'clock was it ? at all. 14. it's Isn't it yours? 15. No. I don 't suppose Miss Hana-ko will park. Kawa no muko ni bonyari to mieru no ga Suzuki San ga atarashtku tateta uchi da (B). soro-soro arukimasho (C). 12. Suzuki San ni wa ni-san-do atta kiri de. Bydnin ga kite ita kimono wa nokora-zu yaite shimai nasai (A). coal. to escape run away. Burn absolutely all Siizuki very well. 7. chitto mo shirimasen deshlta . Somebody left a stick behind yesterday. Taro and Jiro are brothers but they don 't look slowly. Doko ka no otoko no ko ga uchi no nashi wo totte. Yes. 5. itte kimashUa. lie. This is entirely different from the sample. 17. Some boy I don 't know stole some of our pears and ran away as quickly as he 10. tate'ru : mihon : : sample. no desii ga. there 's not any left. Konna ni ame ga fureba Hana-ko San wa irasshara-nai ka mo shiremasen ne ? 21. no desu ka ? (C). Kamakura e nichiyo ni ika-nakatta no desu ne ? (C). koen de anata wo mimashlta kara. Afthi ga itai kara. Oh yes. No. tamago wa mittsu kiri nai no ? (B). Kind kono sutekki wo wasurete oite irash'tta no wa anata de wa gozaimasen ka ? (D). there's enough for about two months. lie. 6. 9. mada futa-tsuki tsukau hodo gozaimasu (D). Mo 2. come. so httori de omotta no desii (C). mo 13. walking-stick. build. Write 't clearly so that everybody can understand. 5. 26. 1. This road is nothing but stones. Kore wa mihon to maru de chigaimasu (C). No. 19. 22. 16. E. you like it. 23. soro-soro ika-nakereba nara-nai (B). but this is the only one that is still alive and strong. 8. 13. 83. are there only three eggs left ?. 6. Sekitan wa mo nai ka ? (A). mo sore kiri de gozaimasu 24. jobu de ikite iru no wa kono neko ip-piki kiri desu (C). What. 18. Dare ni de mo wakaru yd ni hakkiri to kaite oki nasai (A). 2. ano kata wa o tenki ga warukutte mo kitto o-ide nasaimasti (D). Taro to (D). Jiro wa kyodai da keredomo maru de kao ga chigau (B). Oh yes. don-don nigete itte shimatta (B). 7. 22. If it continues raining like this. 23. 3. (trans. So you didn't go to Kamakura on Sunday. 26. Anna hidoi yube no jishin ni me ga same-nakatta chitto mo gozaimasen (D). 20. 17. (C). If you can't do it by yourself no matter how much you try. 24. hanasu koto wa chitto mo deki-nai (B). : : to set : up . Our cat had four kittens. she's sure to come no matter how bad the weather is. let's walk slowly. that is all. lie. 4. 15. I Ve only met him two or three times. Kono michi wa ishi-darake desu kara. had better get somebody . nan-ji goro deshita ? (C). of. 9. dare ka ni tetsudatte morattara ii desho (C). I didn 't feel it 16. Study 394403.) to burn. more coal left? 11.

7. Since then I haven't seen brother nor my heard from him. For the sake of exercise. uta wa bimbo . 1. is poor and his health is bad into the I really couldn 't tell you howbargain much he suffers. gakko e hairu no da to iimashita (C). Go and buy ten three-sen stamps and twenty postcards. kashi : sweets pastry. 18. 3. Omae ga watashi no rusu ni deta no de doko e itta no daro to omotte ita (A). This cloth is cheap and strong. Yamada e itte. really had a very good time. Tori wa suki desu ga. 9. kemono : quadruped. 11. to keep (of animals). Bring me some milk. c nari. uta : song poem. every morning and every evening I go as far as that river. 21. 14. 7. birds. I 20. and I was wondering where you had gone to. . 14. some sugar. 12. Kyoto e nn> mo Kotoshi no natsuiva yama e nobottari. If you get up early in the morning it would be good for the health and you will be able to study better. tegami mo kimasen (C). Last summer I climbed mountains and I went travelling. and such like things are all modern inventions. . My father writes novels and he also paints pictures. Hon wo nasai wo utattari shite. 19. Taro 2. utau : to sing. henji wo moratte kuru no desu (B). but I've not yet : been to Kobe. to Jiro wa (C). kawari-gawari : by turns. You went out while I was away. tame ni narimasu (C). . 2. I've been to Kyoto and I've been to Nara. 11. sore ni karada ga yowai no desu kara. 15. . 10. Taro and Jiro read the newspaper to their grandfather by turns. I like 19. San-sen no kitte wo jii-mai ni. jitftu ni omoshiro gozaimushlta (I)). mada Kobe e zva itta koto ga nai (B). kudamono da no wo tabe-nai yd ni shi nisai (A). inu ya neko wa iya desu kara. 18. : poor. Mr Brown can both speak and write Japanese. At that shop they sell books and newspapers. 8. Asa hayaku okireba karada mo John ni 12.EXERCISE Conjunctions. 405. so I don't keep any. Mr Yamada said that he went to London and entered college there. 17. Brown San o kashi da no. This book is amusing and it is instructive. (>. 5. (o) 84. and two tumblers. 6. 8. 17. 22. telephones. donna ni komatte iru ka shiremasen (C). undo : movement exercise. but I hate dogs and cats. Take this letter to Mr Yamada 's place and bring back an answer. Ko'no hire wa yasukiitte jobu desu (C). 20. bimbo na : kau kawari-gfVOHtri o-jii-san ni shimbnn wo yonde kikasemasii 3. Let's amuse ourselves by reading books and 15. Kono tegami wo motte Yamada San no tokoro e itte o-ide yondari. Kara e itta ga. hagaki wo ni-ju-mai katte kite o kure (A). Don't eat too many sweets and fruit. 22. Kono hon wa omoshirokutte. Study 404. ae wa amniari denwa to ka iu yd na mono wa kono-goro dekita mono da (B). 21. 5. 9. benkyo moyoku dekiru no desu (C). That man singing songs. Densha to Jca tori ya kemono wo katte imasu (C). 16. itta shi. Watasln wa asa-ban 1. omoshiroku asobimasho (C). 4. Chichi wa shosetsu mo kakn shi. ryoko shltari shite. mo kakimasu (C). wa Nihcn-go wo hanasu koto mo kaku koto mo dekimasu (C). Ano Into desu. My uncle keeps several kinds of birds and animals. Ano toki kara ototo ni wa atta koto mo nai shi. Chichi ni said ni koppu wo futatsu motte o-ide (A). 4. shimbun mo uru (B). Oji wa iro-iro no Om San wa Kondon undo no tame niano kawa no tokoro made iku koto ni shite imasu (C). 16. 10. Watashi wa soshite. Ano mise de wa hon mo ureba. Electric cars. 33. 13. kaimasen (C).

okikutte mo. whether people like that come or not. You must take the eight o 'clock train. . 22. 15. kohii : coffee. 20. So long as the eggs are fresh it doesn't matter whether they are small or big. 13. 21. I hear that Kiyo has already got three or tour children. chanto : perfectly . 20.i yok-u nai desho (C). 14. Offer Miss Kimura somr pretty girl and she has a very gentle disposition. That G. sei< stature. isn't it? 2. atarashii no naru ii (B). or I am afraid you 'II carry be late. O Matsu de mo O Yuki de mo yokoshlte kndasai (C). O Kiyo San wa mo kodomo ga san-yo-nin aru so da (B). short man sitting in the chair is my cousin. 5. Anna hUo-tachi ga kite mo ko-nakutte mo kamau mon' desu ka ? (C). mujaki na : innocent simple. I want somebody to help me. I think it 's about seven or eight years since that woman has been separated from her husband. 19. Show me what you've got in your hand. My house is small and inconvenient so I want to move somewhere else. he's called Yamada. correctly . Miss Shinobu from next 4. 10. May 1 fat. nii-san desu ka. kudamono ka agete o kure (A). Ano hlto wa yasete ite sei ga takai (B). 2. 1. but I cannot find a house to suit me. sweets or some fruit. Yamada to iu no desu (C). well-behaved. so I'll ask Taro or Jiro if it for me. 12. It's impossible for a woman to carry this. shimeppoi tokoro desu kara. That man is thin and tall. ne (D). Watashi wa ano hito no ban wo shite i-nai kara. 7. shimeppoi : damp. Tamago wa chiisakutte mo. 17. 21. bright. or it you or was it your brother ? I won 't give you this book. Te ni am mono wo mise-nakereba kono hon wo yara-nai (A). so send Matsu or Vuki here.-ry 18. O cha lea kohii ka agemasho ka ? (C). 3. If you wish to go let rne know by telegram or by telephone. As this place is cold and damp I don't think it's good for the health. Miss Sonoc is v. What does it mai ivr. 17. 85. . 8. offer you some tea or some coffee ? 7. 16. shirase'ru : to inform tell. Uchino nashi wo totta kodomo tea doko no dare da ka chanto wakatte iru (B). Please tell me clearly who it was who went to Tokyo. Ano onna wa ieishu to wakarete kara shichi-hachi-nen ni naru dfi. 9. 11. karada no tame ni anata desu ka. itsu doko e itta ka shira-nai (B). Isu ni koshi-kakete irufutotta sei no hlkui hlto tea. 3. 5. Ikitai nara. . Study 406 . Scnoe San wa kirei na otonashii musume san da (B). is a very innocent and charming child.EXERCISE Conjunctions. 12. Kono o heya wa hirokutte akaru gozaimasQ. 8. This room is very big and bright. was 9. I. quiet .ro (B). Tonari no Shinobu San wa taihen mujaki de kawaii ko desu (C). otonashii : ban : guard. Where is that man from and what's his name ? 35. 18. fuben desu kara. . 6. I'm not in charge of that man so^I don't know when he went nor where. 13. 19. denwa de shirasete kudasai (C). 10. Tetsudatte moraitai koto ga aru kara. 16. Kimura San no o-jo$an ni o kashi ka.1 know exactly who the boy was who stole our pears and I know where he lives. Onna ni wa totemo motemase-n kara. 14. naka-naka ii uchi ga mitsukarimasen (C). akarui : well-lighted hlkui : low. 4. Watashi no uchi wa semakutte. Hachi-ji no kisha ni nora-nakereba ma ni awa-nai ka mo shire-nai (B). 22. koshitai to omou no desu ga. Tokyo e itta no wa door . exactly. hakkiri itte kudasai (C). Koko wa samukutte. Taro ka Jiro ni tanomirnasho (C). 11. 407. watashi no itoko de. Sono o kata wa doko no nan to ossharu o kata de gozaimasu ka ? (D). dempd ka.

.fem. 20. Kono 13. 10. Kore. Ano 1 Md t hon wo yonde mo yd gozaimaau ka ? (D). Ma.In this gale. 14. tonari no Haruo (C). 15. if you don 't do what you are told. Moshi. you can't read it either. indifferent. How fast Well. iu koto wo kikanai to butsu %o ! (A). 2. 20. O machido sama . 23. yappari also at last. toto futte kita (B). kore iva anata no ja arimasen ka ? (C). .. waiting a long time. 21. 21. I say. De mo. domo yome-nai no desu yo (C). Asuko wa. 17. 1. . toto : machido tori : to obey. Take care. What a pity. I sajT you mustn't go about laughing at people like that. 3. yappari wakara-naija arimasen ka ? 16. I cannot read this letter. 8. 25. I'll read it for you. butsu : to beat (men or animals). : heiki na : undisturbed . You are right . anna ii tenki datta no desft mono. shibaraku (C). Oh. San ga asuko no hashi no soba de koronde ashi ni oki na kega wo shlta n" desu yo so desu ka ? kawaiso ni ne (C). If you do a dangerous badly. Nani. A. ano tori no hayai koto ! (C).that house. What is it Miss Hana-ko ? 27. hachi-banchi desho yo 26. . 14. 23. Oh. 4. Masakafuru to wa omoima-sen deshita tea (C. . to have kept you so long . Kono arashija. Hana-ko San desho ? Ma. . this letter is really very difficult to read. . Oh. kono gurai no arashi wa heiki sa 1. Kimura San wa nam-banchi desuka ne ? (C). 27. finally : . Sore goran. let's be going. 2. Ndni. There you are . I don 't know what to do 11. it would be a serious matter. 6. As it is very windy this evening. 5. I believe it's number eight. Naruhodo ! kore wa mattaku yomi-nikui tegami desil ne (C). 3. 86. there 's no fear. totemo fune wa de-nai desho ne? (C). Master Haruo from next doer fell down near that bridge and hurt his leg Poor fello\v 19. you must be careful about the fire. 6. certainly. I suppose it is impossible for the steamer to leave . Ma. 13. Oh nonsense. 18. 12. 5. . ii to mo (A). Oh. moshi. Kornban ica kaze ga tsuyoi kara. There you are. sonna koto desu ka ? tegami ga ne. Dore. ! ! I say. well. After all it's begun to rain. Yoshi. Sorry . 17. . sore koso taihen da (B). commands.ja Sato San ni yonde morao (B). 7. ikimasho (C). isn't that so ? 9. ! ! . . Sonna abunai koto wo shite.). Sore. so yatara ni hito wo waratcha ike-nai yo (B). kega wo shitara. but the weather was so fine out rainy. 1. there's nothing out-of-the-way in a wind like this. koto tco kiku : : yatara na : careless reckless. iu koto iii something which is said . What is it? What's happened? 12. komatta! (B). I '11 beat you. After a gerund -tc -cha and -ja. too. sd. (B). What Is that all your trouble ? Show me the letter. isn 't this yours ? '26. 19. . e to. . 18. 11. way manner. 7. Kora. A. 10. I thought it impossible that it would turn Well. Nani? Do nas'tta no desil? (C).let me see . watashino itta tori da (B). 9.why. hi : Study 408 410. I say! what's the number of Mr Kimura 's house ? 24. It's just as I told you. Sayo. A. wa and -de wa are familiarly contracted respectively into fire. o mise na^ai. it is a long time since I saw you that bird flies ! ! ! . (C). you don't say so thing like that and hurt yourself. 22. 8. daijobu sa ! (B). (C). All right then . let's ask Mr Sato to read it. H'm. May I read that book? 22. 15. yonde agemasu kara (C). .EXERCISE Interjections. Ara ! 25. 16. 24. hi wo ki wo tsuke-nai to ike-nai yo (A). Ano ne.

she turned out to be Miss Kiku. . : voice. 5. : atsumaru (intr. do ka shlta no ka mo shire-nai (B). Kanda made itte kimashlta (C). Mr Suzuki has decided to buy his house. As that gentleman doesn't understand Japanese had better inquire. koe wo kakete Kiku San datta no sa (B).n sakana ga o kirai datta to omou ga. 10. Yasuda ginko de wa ura no aki-chi wo uru koto ni kimeta to iu hanashi da (B).) to call out. 8. yoppodo kurushi-so da kara. kimani (intr. Boku ni wa totemo mote-nai (B). . 7. ano o uchi wa Suzuki San de o kai nasam koto ni kimatta so de gozaimasu (D). I hear that the Yasuda Bank have decided to sell the unoccupied ground at the back of their premises. Brown San ga kuni e o kaeri nasaru 'no de. Ano kata wa Nihongo ga wakara-nai kara. Karita kogatana wo otoshltara. 13. Can box ? 3. 4. . zuts-u headache. 12. 11. It&ii mo kau mise no nashi wa yasukutte mini to mo umaku arimasen deshita kara. : unoccupied ground. as far as 14. otosa-nai yd ni ki wo tsukeru hazudesu . you do you expect me to understand a difficult book like this ? 2. 15. Kyo uchi no mae wo totta musume ga domo mita koto ga aru yd na ki ga sum no de. Tanaka San ni ni-do mo' tegami wo dashlte mo mada henji da$hi nasai (B). My brother and my sister both went 911 a trip to about two Kyoto. called out to her. They say that as Mr Brown is returning home. girl knew her. and when I The pears at the shop I went some better ones). : kembutsu koe koe : sight-seeing. karita mono arimasen ti-fl daiji ni shite. kawari ni kanai ga ikimashita (C). Muzukashii kono hon ga do shite watashi ni wakarimashd ? (C). I was the only one of the family who didn't go. tabi-tabi ittaja ka ? (B). 2. 5. it 's much too heavy for me. hakkiri shi-nai kara. Matsu is in bed with a headache as she seems to be in great pain I suppose we had better call a doctor. 13. Mr Tanaka get somebody to translate your letter into English (and hasn 't answered yet although I've written him two letters. dare ka ni tanonde tegami u-o Ei-go ni na.EXERCISE Construction of sentences. I had a toothache yesterday. A lift How this . kiite miru ho ga ii (B). Oh no. in front of our house today and I had a feeling went instead.) to assemble. agonizing painful. aki-chi : 87. Anala ni kono hako ga motemasu ka ? (C). 1. isha wo yonde mite morawanakereba narumai (B). onnaji no wo katte kaeseba ii desha keredomo. Sakuban asuko e atsumatta Into wa ni-hyaku-nin gurai atta to omoimasu (C). . you ought haven t of the things you borrow and not lose them I've often told you so. I believe Mr Yamada doesn't like fish. I usually go to were cheap but they weren't mce. as I'm not certain 10. 4. kime'nt (trans. so I passed Kanda (to see if I could get lost the penknife . Ha ga itakutte kind Tokyo e ikimasen deshita kara. 1. O Matsuwa zutsuga sum to itte nete iru ga. 6. kurushii sakubau last night. 3. you sent it). 7. 15. 9. As you ve must borrowed buy another one like it and return you you to take proper care all that instead tiien'it will be right: however. Yamada San wa tabu.) to be settled. ga ko-nai ga. 14. sum : : to settle . I think hundred men must have collected there' last night. Perhaps he's ill or so I didn 't go to Tokyo my wife something. decided. 9.oshlte moratte o 11. 12. 8. Study 411 413. decide. 6. to be under the impression : . u-o : kake'ru : ki go. watashi dake ikimasen deshlta (C). believe. Ani mo one mo Kyoto e kembutsu ni ikimashita ga. however.

how. (sore made dozo o machi kudasai) 10. . . If an answer doesn't come by tomorrow. you are always worrying his dog.EXERCISE Ellipses. busho na taskika .. Study 414. 17. I'll come with my brother to visit you tomorrow. but I'll return it to you on the tenth I cannot). 23. (nara-nai) . basha : carriage. Do you saj7 you know Taro 's address ? Nothing could give me 1. deki nasaru no desu ka) ? (D).(o tenki ga warukereba dame de gozaimasu) (D). Mr Yamada is very cruel. . Anna kodomo ni kane wo motashlte ni. (tsurete koraremasen) (C). 20. dempo wo utsil : to send a telegram.. . I am ashamed of myself. (iku) (B). No. but. na : safe certain. (gozaimasu) (D). Jtasha yori kuruma no ho ga zutto suki. Are you going shopping ? 22.(e iku no desii) (B). . 16. . (busho shite jochu ni saxeta) (B). Imoto san zva. ike-nai no da. What? 16.(nakatta) 19. o ai nasaimashltara. 6. . tdka ni wa tashlka ni o kaeshi moshimasu kara. O kai-mono . 0. 11. konna ni o jozu ni. Moshi O Haru San ni 7. (unluckily he's ill). no wa . '? . . 18.. 14. Whoever 's going to believe what that man says ? 6. 2.. . he beat me.. 7. (please wait until then). (ureshii koto desu) (C).nai 18. . .. so. . 3. 5.(o (de gozaimasu ka) . . . Where's the London magazine that came yesterday ? book-shelf upstairs. Are you going to walk ? 24. so I'll take a . .. . my feet hurt me.? (Aruite o-ide nasaru no desu ka)? (C). I much prefer a rikisha to a carriage. (you are lazy and got the servant to do it for you). 22. 4. desu ka) ? (C). slovenly. .1. 23. so. No. dempo rco uta-nakereba . Jibun de sureba ii no 13. O . (osshatte kudasai) (D). . I 've looked every where..(ainiku bydki de gozaimasu. 88.(butareta no da) (A).. . ever. That's why. . 2. . : lazy . Hobo sagaslilta no da keredomo. . . . You oughtn't to give a child like that money to carry. sister ? 21. Nikai no 1. Ashlta oloto wo tsnrete agarimasu (D). Kore ga (iu no desu ka)? anata no o kaki nas'tta e. Ashlta Dare 5. I'll have to send a telegram. Aruite desu ka. hon-dana ni agete okimashita (C). 1 can do it if the weather is fine but. Teishu gajobu ni natte kurereba hoka ni nanni mo komaru koto wa nai no de gozaimasu ga.. . boku wo butte. And what about your 20.) (D). If you meet Miss Haru please remember me (if the weather is bad kindly to her... Yamada San wa zuibun hidoi yo . lie... 24. Did you draw this picture ? I didn't know you were so greater pleasure. made matte henji ga ko-nai nara. . You ought to have done it yourself but . . If my husband were well I'd have nothing to worry me. dozo yoroshtku. 13. tenki de. ginko. no desu ka) ? (C). . . . . Sore tea naniyori. . rikisha. Kind Rondun kara kita zasshi wa doko. . tenki ga yokereba dekiru no de gozaimasu keredomo 8. 4. clever. .(I can't find it anywhere). nai koto de.. Imoto wa O Chiyo San to doko ka e iku yakusoku wo shita 21. 14. lie. (ni o-ide nasaimasu so desii karc .. Omae ga 9. hon-dana : book-shelf. . (D). Domo sumimasen ga. 3. . 11. . I put it on the 1. Konnichi wa makoto ni ii o yoku yaru 15.(gozaimasu) (D). . .(desu ka) ? (C). Ala. 12. . . ashi ga itai kara kuruma de. (B). (desii) (C).. beat you). ... ga anna hlto no iu koto wo. The weather is really very fine today. My sister has promised to go somewhere with Miss Chiyo.(B). 17.(he 10. ka) ? (C). 12. You are a bad boy . itsu de mo asuko no inu wo ijimeru kara. zasshi : magazine periodical. (honto ni sum man' (B). . I'm going to the (I can't bring her).(]:<>. Nani ? Taro no iru tokoro ga wakatta to. 19. 8. bank.

are given better places. Akio says he's coming at six o'clock this evening. Suzuki San ga tnikka ni kuru yd ni hagaki zco 15. That child never knew his father. omokutte hitori de wa motte ikare-nai kara.MiSato 's new house was finished. O to-san kara tegami ga ko-nai uchi ica ryoko ni ikare-nai no kai? (A). they say. Kippu K'o motte ika-nakereba asuko wo mirare-nai no desu ka ? (B). 2. : : deki-agaru : to be finished. there was not a single person who did not shed tears. No. They say that . but those who have tickets 1. 13. he did not come. usually enclosed in a box. Can't you go in and see that without prepare some lunch for him. I S B 89. it's not my uncle. 15. business. mada haira-nai uchi ni kaji de yakete shimatta no desu ""tie (C). (that's what the letter says). oya no kao wo shira-nai no desu (C). Muika modem kono e '0 kaite shimau yd ni tanomareta no da ga. but was burnt down before he moved into it. 429. . 17. I was expecting Mr Suzuki as he had sent a postcard saying he was coming on the third however. 14. kippuno aruhito no ho gaii basbo ni irareni no da (B). 6. When the audience heard the sad tale of that girl. 16. 'tte : he says . As Mr Yamada didn't bring his lunch with him today. you must 3. If you tell him the reason I don't think he will refuse to pardon you. Doyo-bi noasa hayakn Hana-ko yokoshita no de matte ita ga. 12. Can't you she was leaving Kobe for America early Saturday morning. . within. Ano ko no chichi wa ano koga umare-nai mae ni shinda no de. Does the letter say that your uncle is coming next month ? 11. 12. dare ka ni tetsudattc morawa-nakereba nara-nai (B). IS. Oji san ga 11. he died before the child was born. finish this picture by the 6th. Tell Matsu to come if she's not busy. E. travelling until you receive a letter from your father ? While you were away Mr Goto came and said he was going to Kyoto about the was asked to end of this month. 5. domo atania ga itakiitte shigoto wo sum ki ni nare-nai (B). 5. 17. No. Sanga Kobe kara Amerika o tochinasarn yd ni ossIiaimashUa (D). 4. Wake wo hanaseba yurushite Imre-nai koto wa nai desho (C). . Kono kimono wo O Matsu ni sentaku sashite o kure (A). a ticket ? 4. 13. 18. Matsuni moshi yoga nakereba kum yo ni itte o Jcure (A). 10.'< . I can't. 20. yd 1. (A). 7. it's m/aunt who's corning. 'obasanga o-ide ni nam to itte yokoshUa no desCi yo (C). O rusu ni Goto San ga irasshaimashite kongetsu no owari goro Kyoto e tatsu" to osshaimashita (D). help me. ko-nakatta (B). 6. 19. 9. uchi fie gohan wo ageru shitalcu zvo shi-nakereba nara-nai 3. Tell Matsu to wash this dress. but I have such a headache that I don't feel likr work. 19. Molte ika-nakereba nara-nai koto wanai ga. 20. Yamada San ga kyo wa bento zoo motte ko-nai so da kara. yurusA : to pardon permit. Miss Hana-ko v'id 16. Quotations. Interrogations . Oji sanja arimasen yo : raigetsu irassham 'tte tegami ga kita no kai ? (A). Akio San ga 'komban roku-ji niuchie kvru' toitta (B). Sato San no atarashii uchi tea yatto deki-agatte. 0. (C).E X E RC Negatives basho bento : . naka-nakatta hito wa hitori mo nakatta (B). . ' Ano nimotsu wa ' 1 As that bag is too heavy for me to carry by myself I must get somebody to 2. A ticket is not absolutely necessary. lunch light refreshment. 14. 10. Study 415 place. Sakki koko ni atta mono wo shira-nai hazu ga naija nai ka? 8. Sono musume no kawaixo na hanashi wokiite. 7. You can't help knowing about a thing that was here a few minutes ago (isn 't that so) ? 8. so desu (C). uchi : while .

Of course I thanked him for the fruit he kindly brought me. Sono hon mo hako ni iremasho ka ? (C). that I feel as if I knew him quite well. . 6. ima-goro : about this time now. but the fact is I don 't like that kind of fruit at all. 17. but I can't speak it at all. : sea. I suppose that man will be a carpenter. lie. muzukashi-sugiru kara yatte mo shlkata ga nai (B). . Ikura kotoshi no hayari de mo. 15. sekkaku : with special pains or difficulty. No. Kesa sukkari shitaku wo shite. kore wa hako ni ire-nai de o kure . Masaka ano hito ga aonna koto wo iiya shi-nai daro (B). hanashi ivo kiite. expressly. . don 't you know that one of his arms is weak ? 13. kisha no naka de yomu no da kara. It's true I can read English. 5. abunai to iu dempo ga kita no desu (C). that's the house Mr Suzuki is going to move into. 5. futotta hito ga iru daro ? Ogawa to in no wa ano hito da (B). umi 1. yoku shitte iru tsumori da (B). 12. Watashi kita keredomo. don 't put that in the box intend to read it in the train so I '11 take it with me. 13. boku wa ano kudamono wa dai-kirai (B). I 'm certainly not going to wear a hat of this extraordinary shape. 2. itsu ka hima no toki ni Nihon-go ni yakushite miyo to omou (B). it's impossible he should have said a thing like 6. Yamada to iu hito ni wa mada ai koso shi-nai ga. xoba ni oki na aki-ya ga ik-ken gozaimasho ? Suzuki San ga koshite irassharu no wa ano uchi de gozaimasu (D). 4. Probable Present and Future Tenses. lie. but the rain prevented me. that's Mr Ogawa (of whom we were 17. Oji son wa ima-goro inaka de uno shdsetsu zoo yakushite irassharu daro (B). 14. tokoro : time when. 16. iro-iro shi-nai yo (B). I have never met Mr Yamada. Nii-san ga irassharu kaisha no te ga katappo warui no ja arima^en ka ? (C). 14. daiku ni nanzo nari ya shimasen yo. fashion. 7. No. nanzo : and such like things.Japanese when I have time. de. This tale is so very interesting that I intend to translate it into speaking). 11. Ano hito wa daiku ni naru no daro ? (B). Oh. katappo : one of a pair. Nichiyo ni umi ni oyogi ni iko to omotte ita ga. 12. Yamada San no ushiro ni sei no takai. thinking of going for a swim in the sea on Sunday. 16. . hanasu koto wa maru de dame desu (C). I believe my uncle is now in the country translating a novel. ame gafuru no de ikare-nakatta 3. 10.EXERCISE hayari : 90. Sekkaku motte kite kureta no 9. but I've heard so much about him miles). he can 't be a carpenter or anything like that. Study 38 52. jibun de motte iku (A). 3. The Present. I don 't care how fashionable it is. Kono hanashi wa taihen omoshiroi kara. I bought this book with the idea of giving it to Taro. I had everything prepared this morning for going on a journey and was just about to start when a telegram came saying my mother was seriously ill. Shall I put that book also in the box ? I 10. 9. There's no fear of my being ill because I walk five or six ri (12 15 that. ryoko ni dekakeyo to shite iru tokoro e haha (B. kakko : shape. ga konna kakko no boshi wo kabure wa shimasen (C). Do you see that tall stout man behind Mr Yamada ? Well. hut it's so difficult that it would be of no use even if I did give it. arigato to ii koso shita keredomo. 4. 11. Taro ni yard to omotte kono hon wo katte 15. 8. You know there's a big house to let next to the office your brother goes to ? Well. 2. wyogu : to swim. wa Ei-gp wa yomi koso shimasuga. . I was 1. Go-riya roku-ri aruitemo bydki ni narya 7. 8.).

15. irasshara-nai no de tsumara-nakatta (B). Oh. teishaba e mukae ni itta ga. 7. : are ready. me ni au : to be treated cruelly. America. so I'm thirsty Are you still here ? I I for them. Hajime (C). kore kara ikura kii&tri wo nonda 'tie. 8. nevertheless the colour has already faded and it's good 12. I've been walking. 18. do desu ? (C). Anata wa tnada koko ni H shita so desu ga. Rokuzo can come if he likes. : : sudden. there's plenty of room anyhow. senjitsu : the other day. Atsui o yu wo irewo tsukete o kure (A). belly. 10. . komban o taku e motte mairimasti (D). so I went to the station to meet him. 14. . hanashite kirnasho (C). This hat was very for nothing. omae ga Fuyuo wo baka ni shi-nakereba sonna hidoi me ni iva awa-nakattaro (A). Sakki made anna nifutte ita no ni kyu ni tenki ni natta (B). basho ga takusan am kara (B). 19. wouldn 't have broken be careful in future. 17. The boots you ordered the other day 9. : : namake'ru yoru saki kyu na hara 1. If you first hadn't Fuyuo. dear. o cha wo ip-pai o kure (A). played tricks on '11 pay . No matter how much medicine you take. Kono boshi wa zuib-un takakatta no da ga. 8. kaeshite kure-nai no desu yo (C). miyage hidoi hara wo tate'ru : to get angry. : a present (generally a souvenir from some place). ' : to be idle. received a postcard from Mr Su/uki saying he was coming by the eight o'clock as he did not tram. to call in when passing. Kondo Tokyo e itta toki Goto San no tokoro e yotte. why did the child die before me ? 4. 11. - bring the goods. ita n desu ka ? Boku wa mo uchi e kaette shimatta . 10. but was disappointed come.2. 1. 13. bring me a cup of tea. 6. Wakai toki ni namake-nai de yoku benkyo shite okeba konna ni komara-nakattaro (B). If I had I wouldn't be in . I lent it to Taro and he hasn 't returned it 6..(B). Inu ga kega zco koto to omotte ita no ni (C). It was raining hard until a I'll take them to your house this evening.* and now all of a sudden it's fine. He died. mo iro ga kawatte dame ni natte shimatta (B).EXERCISE Past and Probable Past Tenses.such of time. iro : 91. If his eyes hadn't been bad. Study 5357. before. 7. 13. When you 3. 2. Do shite anoko ivawatashi yori sakinishinda no daro? (B). . Ano hito wa nani wo iwarete mo hara wo tate-nyi (B). 16. 18. Shina-mono wo matte kita toki kane wo haraimasho 3. 4. 5. Me ga waruku nakereba ano hito mo Amerika e ittaro ga. Kokuzd mo kita 'tie kamawa-nai . Next time 1 studied go to Tokyo I'll call on Mr Goto and tell him about it. 5. undo wo shi-nakereba yoku nari wa shimasen (C). how is he getting on ? 19. he also would probably have gone to yet. If yon hadn't put in such hot water it difficult circumstances now. Aruita no de nodo ga kawaita . Hachi-ji no kisha de Suzuki San ga irassharu to iu hagaki ga kita kara. Mo shinimashlta (C). 16.. instead was when I my waisting young properly 15. 14. You know I had a big dictionary which my uncle gave me as a present when he came back from England ? Well.(unluckily he fell ill). 9. Oji ga Igirisu kara o miyage ni motte kite kureta oki najibiki ga atla desho ? are wo Taro ni kashUe yatta n' desu ga. he (probably) wouldn't have hit you. few moments ago. you'll never get well unless you take some exercise. That man never gets angry no matter what I say to him. 12. Anata wa nakereba koware-nakattaro ni . thought you'd gone back home. but. 11. Senjitsu go chumon no kutsu ga dekimashita kara. 17. I hear your dog was hurt. colour.

. I really . 14. zuibun hazukashiu gozaimashlta (D). 15. during the . I have nothing special to do anyhow. . Kono ko wa yo-naka ni naite shiyo ga gozaimasen (D). (the same as if you take too little). I don't think he'll grant it me. don 't know what to do with Matsu she is always telling the children lots of silly things. 5. 3. shikatte qnorawa-nakute wa nara-nai (B). No matter how much I beg his pardon. Dose betsu ni yd mo arimasen kara. she hasn 't answered me yet . Inaka wa juben desu ga. the child 's father must be told and he must scold the child. If you go out without an umbrella. domo kama. ayamaru : to beg pardon. 10. 13. matte mo yurushite kure-nai daro (B). I'm ashamed to be seen with a face like this (e. That child is always up to mischief.ru (B). I'm getting so absent-minded lately I really don't know what to do (besides the other silly things I've done) yesterday I went out shopping without taking any money with me. shaberu : to talk without thinking. 1.'}. You are looking very pale. three o'clock ? 8. wasureppoku kono-goro zu ni kfli-motio ni itte. mo . If I were to go to the country it would be very inconvenient to send the children to school. hazukashii 1. ano ko no chichi ni so itte. naoru made soto e de-zu ni iyo 14. wa kodomo ga gakko e iku no ni tsugo ga waruku naru kara. ittai do shlta no daro ? (B). ii kagen ni shi-nakereba ike-nai no desu (C). 58. wouldn 't it be a good thing to see a doctor ? 11. yo-naka night. 16. kind mo kane wo motadomo kornarimasu taihen . atarashii yasai ga taberarete ii desu (C). hikkosu : to change one 's residence. I felt quite ashamed of myself. kara. midnight : . go anshin (D). 10. you must take a moderate amount. naite. 2. so you needn 't be anxious in any way. I wonder whatever can be the matter with her ? 5. so I suppose there's no help for it but to remain here. much during the night I really don't know what to do. Ano ko wa shiju itazura wo shite wa shikararete iru (B). shameful ashamed.-ura ayani iro-iro na koto wo shabette. This baby cries so 2. 12. Study looks. 1 can go to your house and sing there. Tonari no ko wa uchi no hana wo totte komaru hoka ffhikata ga arumai (B). Anata no koto wa chitto mo waruku ornotte zva imasen kara. o taku e agaite utatte mo yoroshiu gozaitunnii 0. 6. 7. Inaka e hikkoshite ni mite o morai nas'tte wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D). so if you like. anshin kao-iro : : : 92. Watashi tea mota-zu ni dekakete wa. 13. that's why he's always being scolded. O Matsu wa kodoAno htio wa U. peace of mind. 4. 4.g. If you take too much exercise that also would be bad for you. 8. The country is inconvenient in many ways.EXERCISE Gerund. I 've got nothing against you. 15. I am much inconvenienced by the child from next door who is alwayo picking my flowers. ittai : exclamation of wonder. but one has at least the advantage of being able to eat fresh 7. Although I've written twice to Miss Ilana-ko. 11. Amman undo wo shi-sugite mo karada ni doku desu . Do~j) kyo 6. you will be inconvenienced should it rain. ame gafutta toki ni komaru daro (B). 9. 16. dose : anyhow. Would you kindly sing as usual in your room today at about vegetables. a boil) I must remain indoors and not go out until it gets better. yappari koko ni iru 12. Hana-ko San ni ni-do mo tegami -co dashite mo mada henji ga ko-nai ga. Konna kao wo hito ni mirarete zca hazukashii kara. o islia nas'tte kudasai (C). Kasa wo (B). Taiso o kao-iro ga o warui yd de gozaimasu kara. san-ji goro iteu mo no yd ni anata no o heya de uta wo utatte kudasaima$en ka ? (D).

8. (Japanese) towel. I dare say Jiro will want to read that book. 1. Don't believe a word a man like that says. Sono lion wa Jiro ga m. 13. 14. when I 'm busy help me a little. : kakure'ru to be silent. Go and have your lunch. Please don't read my letters. otonashiku shite o-ide nasai . please stay here and don't hurry away. leisurely. hide yourself here. 2. Sono ki e nobotte wa dame. kyo wa gohan wo tabe-nai de ite goran (A). 0. I'll soon be back. As I am very busy today. Nisan-nichi shizuka ni nete o-ide nasai (C). 21. 7. : to hide oneself. Kyo wa nichiyo de. 2. I'll buy you a good pair of scissors next time I go to Tokyo. 21. You've no business to meddle. commanding and requesting. sore made kono hasami wo agemasu tsukatte irash'tte kudasai (D). Study 59 64. 4. yukkuri : watashi no hey a e yokosa-nai de o kure Taro ga kitara kyu ni dete bikkuri sashite o yari nasai (C). Don't do your washing (today). : : sewing needlework. Watashi no tegami za-o yoma-nai de kudasai (C). Haruo. Remain here and behave well. 3. omae itte donna yd ka kiite o-ide (this o-ide means 'come') (A). 11. and when Taro comes. betsu ni go yd ga gozaimasumai. Ame ga furi-so da kara. isogashii toki wa sukoshi tetsudai nasai (A). Omae no te no kitanai koto ! Kirei ni aralte irassliai (A). 11. Kyo wa taihen isogashii kara. Instead of (wasting your time in) doing nothing but read novels.itai to iu ka mo shiremasen kara. it's dangerous. 8. 15. 5. Please lend me a towel. If your recovered. Sono kitte wa o sute ni ni. stomach is so painful don't eat anything today. You. bikkuri : surprise. Tenugui wo kashite chodai (C). Stay in bed quietly for two or 17. 16. Watashi ga kawari ni wise ni ite yaru kara itte gohan wo tabete ki nasai (A). go and see what he wants. What dirty hands you've got! Go and wash them. . Don't give him any answer for some few days. 14. please give it to me. 22. tenugui 1. abunai kara (B). 19. 18. Sonna ni onaka ga 'warukutte komaru nara. 10. 12. 19. I don 't suppose you 've got anj'thing special to do today as it's Sunday. I'll remain to him.EXERCISE The Imperative . 10. 22. A no hito no tokoro e wa shibaraku henji wo dasa-zu ni o-ide nasai (C). damatte j i nasai (A). Ano gaikoku-jin wa kitto kotoba ga wakara-nai no de komatte iru no daro . Don't climb that tree. watashi ni chodai (C). 15. 20. Don't do any sewing until your eyesight has completely 9. be silent. in the meantime try to manage with these. 16. 5. 4. you study your English instead of worrying the dog. Shosetsu bakari yonde i-zu 13. don't let anybody come to my room. 20. sentaku sum no'wa o yoshi nasai (A). mada sute-nai de oki nasai (B). baai : circumstances. I expect that three days. 6. inu nanzo ijimete i-zu ni. 3. foreigner is in difficulties because he doesn't understand what people are saying 18. sukkari naoru made hari-shigoto wo shi-nai de irasshai (C). go yukkuri asonde irasshai (D). 17. Kondo Tokyo e itta toki ii no wo katte kite (A). Ornae ga kuchi wo dasu baai a nai. it looks like rain. soshite kara. Anna hito no iu koto wo shinyo shite wa dame desu (C). hari-shigoto damaru . If you are going to throw away that stamp. 12. 93. jump out and give him a good fright. Ei-go wo benkyo nasai (A). dare mo Anata wa koko ni kakurete irasshai. Haruo. 7. so don 't throw it away yet. Omae wa Anata wa me ga 6. sugu kaerimasu kara (A). in the shop instead of you. naru nara.

It can't be finished as soon as that unless it "s a person accustomed to the work. look out for some other quiet spot and bathe there (lit. Nareta hito de nm to so hayaku wa dekimasen (C). 8. Doyo-bi nara ikaremasu ga. The bootmaker says he hurt himself and was not able to work for two days they will not be ready until the day after tomorrow. O kane wa san-ju-yen mo moltc 9. moshi irasshara-nakereba ototo san de mo ii kara kite morau yd ni itte kite kudaxai 10. ask anybody you like. While I was on that bridge somebody called my name. but on Sunday I can 't go as I 've got to take a cousin of mine round to several places. it will probably be all right). 20. (D). behave yourself. 19. 18. Omae ni sono hon ga yome. 3. 16. I think you '11 catch the nine o'clock train. I can go on Saturday. miru to san-ju gurai no shira-nai 13. I shall be free as soon as I have finished writing this letter. nami arai : wave. Ima sugu ni dekakereba ku-ji no kisha ni ma ni au desho (C). the day after tomorrow. you needn 't (go against your will). would you mind posting this letter for me ? 18. If you don 't want to go. and if you swim there. Sampo ni irassharu nara.ru nara yard (A). If you start immediately. . Mr Yamada if he is not at home ask his brother to come instead. 5. 7. Please call 10. Ikitaku nakereba muri ni ika-nai de mo ii no desu (C). muri da to omou nara. If you think what I say is unreasonable. Ano hito no uchi e il\u to itsu de mo Kyoto no hanashi ga dete hito datta (B). Whenever I go to Tokyo I get a headache. 2. 16. Wake wo hanaseba misete kure-nai koto wa nai desho (C). Ototoi churnon shita kutsu ga dekite itara motte kite o kure (A). Ju-ji nara oyasumi nasai (B). I've no doubt they'll show it to you. kuru (B). Watashi wa Tokyo e ikimasu to atama ga itaku narimasu (D). 94. 4. I won 't take you anywhere. nemuru asatte ototoi : : : annai : : guide. doko e de mo go issho ni ikaremasu (C). 15. konotegami wo dashite kudasaimasen ka ? (D). muri na rough. Asatte de nai to deki-nai so de gozaiinasu . Kono tegami wo kaite shimaeba hima ni narimasu kara. the day before yesterday. If it's ten o'clock go to bed. If you take thirty yen I think that will be plenty. 6. Ano hashi no ue ni iru to dare ka watashi no na wo yobu no de. If you don 't . 11. 4. 17. 12. 1. If . 2. Fora o cha wo nomeba nemure-nai no wa wakatte iru no desu (C). On looking round I found it was an unknown person about thirty years of age (who was calling me). mairemasen (C). kutsu-ya ga kega wo shite shigoto zvojutsuka yasunda no de gozaimasii 'tte 6. Yamada San wo yonde kite kudasai . but if you are going for a walk. : unreasonable. jubun enough. ikeba jubun desho to omoimasu (C). : to sleep. Watashi no iu koto ga (C). Otonashiku shi-nakereba doko e mo tsurete Hie agemasen yo (A). sumimasen ga. dare ni de mo kiite goran nasai (A). Excuse me for troubling you.EXERCISE Conditional. 15. If it is rough there. 11. 12. 20. bring them. Asuko wa nami ga arai nara. If the boots I ordered the day before yesterday are ready. 13. you can read that book. 17. nichiyo ni wa itoko wo annai shite hobo e ikunakereba narimasen kara. Study 6568. 14. 8. and I shall then be able to accompany you wherever you may wish to go. 5. 7. 1. tea in the evening. 14. If you give your reasons. I'll give it to you. 3. 19. I know I can never sleep well when I take 9. doko ka hoka no ii tokoro wo sagashite oyogeba yokaro (A). Whenever I go to that man's house we always drift into talking about Kyoto.

10. sugu ni uchi e o-ide kudasaimasu yd ni osshatte kudasai (D). Moshi hachi-ji no kisha ni ma ni awa-nakattara densha de iku ho ga yokaro 12.) to open. kaze wo hiku : to catch a cold. matafutte kita (B). ano hako ni takdsan haitte imastt (C). Take this letter to Mr Yamada 's house and wait for an answer . 9.My eyes are very painful since last evening doctor. 7. Oku-sama ga o-ide nasaimaslntara dozo denwa e yonde kudasai (D). Sono himo wo hiki sae sureba aku no desu (C). but she disappointed me as she didn 't come. nodo ga itakutte shiyo ga naL Shi-go-nichi tattara naoru daro ga. If your mistress is in. Study . 4. moshi Into ga kitara. so I don't want to see anybody. i-nai to itte o kure (A). When the Ueno cherry-trees are in blossom. 95. Kono ko tea gohan wo tabe sae sureba kitto onaka ga itaku naru no desu '1te . Kono tegami wo Yarnada San no tokoro e motte itte. Supposing somebody were to come while I was out. 18. kyo isha ni mite morattara. I was this window ? 1C. r . 16. You've only to pull that cord and it will open. Ano akai hon wo kind mite itara Taro ni okoraremashita 18. (D). Yube kara baka ni me ga . yo-ji ni kaeru to itte o kure (A). Should anybody come. I was awaiting her coining with pleasure. I thought at least it would be fine today. When Miss Hana-ko returns please ask her to come to my house as soon as she can. 1 3. If you don't catch the eight o'clock train you had better go by tram-car. however. <5. yorokobn : to rejoice. 5. gakkari shimashita (C). 1. Kyo koso zra tenki ni naru daro to omottara. 15. 13. . . 9. I expect I Ml be better in a few 4. 3. : : Jo-bukuro ga kore detari-nakattara. Kane sae arya donna koto de mo dekiru to omou to (B). 17. 7. dare ni mo aitaku nai kara. jo-bukuro : envelope. aku (intr. Hana-ko (C). tell him that I'll be back at four. iki'ru : gakkari : tired dejected. sugu ni dashite kite o kure (A). let's go and see them. if he is out you needn 't w ait but leave the letter there. Ueno no sakura ga saitara mi ni ikoja arimasen ka ? (C). saku to live. 2. 1. itai kara. This child says that he has only to eat something to make his stomach ache. please call her to the telephone. 17. 8. If these envelopes are not enough. 6975. Oba ga kind kuru to itte yokoshita no de. 11. 6. henji wo moratte ki nasai . My aunt sent word she was coming yesterday . . 11. yorokonde matte imaslntara. to blossom.. Send your letter as soon as it "s ready. If only my father were alive I wouldn 't find myself in such straits. 3. dfsu kara. days. 10. 2. Do shitara kono (C). ( V* ichi sae ikite orimashitara konna ni komari ya shi-nai no de gozaimasu ga.EXERCISE Conditional. (B). 12. As I was walking in the rain for two hours. How do you open that is why I intend to take him to the doctor today. in ado ga akimasu ka ? (C). reading that red book yesterday and Taro got angry with me. It's a great mistake to think that provided you have money you can do everything. when I went to see the . 14. kimasen kara. shimpai shi-nai de ii to iu koto datta (B). 8. say I'm not at home. San ga o kaeri ni narimashttara. 19. kyo o isha ni tsurele iku tsumori desti 15. moshi o ru&u dattara oite kite ii no da (A). 14. Ame no naka wo ni-jikan bakari aruitara kaze wo hiite. I caught a cold and my throat is very painful. it's raining again. I've got a lot of work which must be done today. he told me it was nothing to be anxious about. 19. 6-chigai da (B). however. RUSH ni moshi dare ka kitara. Kyo wa shi-nakereba nara-nai koto ga atte. Tegami u-o kaite sinmattetra. there are plenty more in that box. 5.

H . errand : messenger. tattari suwattari sum no ni fu-jiyu da to itte yokoshimashita (C). 11. mushi ka nanka tabete imasu (C). : nanka : and such like things. ii desu to mo. issho ni Kobe e ikitai to mosii no degozaimasu ga. beard. nani ka yd ga aru n' daro ka ? (B). to read and speak Japanese quite fluently. Study 76 branch. free.. Suzuki San ga mada gakko ni ita koro wa yoku uchi e kitari. fu-jiyu na not ni Nihon-go wo yondari hanashltari shimashita (C). Mr Brown used writes and says that as . kyo wa naru-take tabesasetaku nai no desfi (C). Ano hige u'O suttari. . G. . may I let him ? 17. Mr Yamada his legs are painful he can only stand up and squat down with difficulty. 5. kotchi no eda ni 7. warattari shite iru (B).. Desiderative. Anna chiisa na kodomo wo hitori de tsukai ni yattari nanka shite wa abunai (B). I wish you wouldn 't let him eat any today. 9. to gain . doko ka e iku no desho (C). Ano ko wa uchi e kaeritasa ni 1. 10. and had his bath. 12. soru . Certainly. and I used to go to his . Kono kata wa anata no e wo mitasa ni toi tokoro iu nara o yari nasai (A). 1. 8. Brown San wajiyu Yamada San zva ashi ga shujin no tokoro wo nigete kita no da so da (B). Just look at that bird. kara waza-waza o-ide ni natta no desu (C). you'll be ill. 9. When Mr Suzuki was at school he often used to come to my house. If Hana-ko also says that she wants to go to Ueno. Goran nasai. 4. Byd-nin ga nashi ga tabetai to iimasu ga. as far as possible. Watashi-tachi futari ga mokeru o kane wa tabetari kitari sum ni wajubun desu (C). tsurete itte agemasho (C). They say that child was home-sick. 2. it goes from one branch to another eating insects or something. Hokkaido e itte kara wa. 4. It's dangerous to send a little child like that on errands and such like things. tegami wo yokoshita koto mo arimasen (C). mushi tsukai insect. laughing and singing. 3. 'm . 3. So desu ne. I suppose he's going somewhere. suzvaru : to squat down. : : nama no moke'ru . : : jiyu na free. The money we two earn is quite enough for our food and clothing. o yu ni haittari shimashita . Those two men seem always to be in high spirits. of course I will. I wonder whether he wants (me for) anything. That man has been walking backwards and forwards in front of the house for some time. 6. 14. however. Jiro ga anata to go omoshiro-so ni uta wo utattari. Ano futari wa itsu de mo 11. 16. Hana-ko mo Ueno e ikitai to 15. Nii-san wa kesa hayaku okite kitari shite. hito wa sakki kara uchi no mae wo ittari kitari shite iru keredomo. Sonna aoi kudamono wo nama de tabetari sum to bydki ni naru (B). E. Jiro says he would like to go to Kobe with you would you be kind enough to take him ? 12. 13. 5. 80. The patient says that hewants to eat some pears. 14. tabesashite yoroshiu gozaimasho ka ? (D). earn. that he came especially from a long distance with that object. bokuga ano hito no uchi wo tazunetari shita no desu ga. 8. warukutte. and ran away from his master's house and went back home. 15. My brother got up early this morning. 2.HXERCISE The Frequentative and eda hige : : 96. 13. 17. tori ga atchi no eda ni ittari. raw. sum : to shave. let her go. tsurete itte itadakemasho ka ? (D). 7. 10. This gentleman was so desirous of seeing your picture. 16. shaved himself. If you eat green fruit like that raw. since he 's gone to Hokkaido we haven 't even written to each other.

over a cup of tea or something. I am quite well. Ashlta wa mise e iki-gake ni Yamada San dekile itara. please get my breakfast ready half an hour earlier than usual. 3. itte )iii)))axhi1a ga. ly. 10. that so I was but of to you busy my respects. If you are going to the back if the watch I gave to post office. uchi e KY/ chitto mo yora-nai ga. Master Taro. fellow of mine in the train. wotte kite o kure (A). . chitto mo taikutsu shi-nakajta (B). Amerika e mo itte mi. a man called Motono we talked about all sorts of 6. fuku : to wipe. call brella here on your way back please and I've been to Europe. Although that man comes to Tokyo frequent9. ga. oki na koe de sliabette iru kara. he never comes to see me There was a man standing in front of the butcher's. san-jip-pun hayaku shokuji ni shite kudasai (C). I've been to America.t>> h'lto n: a e mo kt'ki. 4. bring it. Excuse me. shite ima-shita ga. call at the watchmaker's on your way be mended the other day is ready. I haven 't seen you I put it off. 1. ni ni no e iku nara yatta tokei-ya yotte. but would you kindly lend me this book ? morrow evening. for it. and I '11 hear what you've got to say. Sumimasen Ashlta no ban o kaeshi shimasu (D). 5. . kaeri-gake ni o yon nasai (C). isogashii no de. mina-san o kaicari tea arimasen ka ? (C). It's a long time things so the time didn't hang at all heavily on my hands. I like my native land best what are your feelings ? 1. remarkable. omoi-gake nai : taikutsu : tedium weariness. Go-bmata Kino 5. . I will return it to3. suteki na : fine . 14. . taiso go-buftata itashimashita (D). everybody well at 2. ktisuri no kokoku wo shite iru no da (B). . 2. 10. . 82. writes. yapparijibun no umareta tokoroga ichiban yd gozaimasu . I . have been sadly remiss about calling upon you is. kaeri-gake ga Yubin-kyoku iro-iro hanafihi 11. Come to my house. o-kage xama de -nan no kawari mo gozaimasen. talking away in a loud voice and wiping the perspiration from his face I was wondering what it all meant and it turned out he was advertising some medicine. but [ can't Your son. 12. but after all. I met unexpectedly an old schoolleisurely. de mo nomi nagara yukkuri ukagaimaslio (C). 8. .. unexpected. anata rf do o omoi ni narimasu ka? (D). katta niku no nokori ga aru kara. Yoroppa e mo kara. dore mo suteki ni umai 13. I hope you 're well. 12. I was 7. : kokoku advertisement. Study 81 . no uchi e yoru kara. nani ka okotte de mo iru no daro ka? (B). left his umsay that he does anything very well. ukagau : to hear. 11. Kisha no naka de omoi-gake naku onnaji gakko ni ita Motono to iu otoko ni atte nagara kita no de. Ano hito vca tabi-tabi Tokyo e ki nagara. Agaro to omoi nagara. That man paints. You needn 't buy any meat today. 8. kyo ica kavca-nai de ii (B). naoshi e konaida. 6. O hanashi tea uchi e itte o cha. Shiharaku mie-nakatta ne ? kaicari tea nai daro ? (A). there 's some left from yesterday. uta mo utaimasu ga. 13. ? . shosetsu mo kaki. \iku-ya no mae de hitori no hito ga ase TC oftiki nagara. Thanks. As I intend to call tomorrow at Mr Yamada s on my way to the office. perspiration. taku no Haruo San ga kasa wo zcasurete ikimashita to na hcarenwsen (C). .EXERCISE The Verbal Stem. 9. O 14. 7. home ? . do shit a no ka to omottara. ase : 97. I wonder if he's put out about anything. Arigato gozaimasii. kano hon ico ka-shite kudtisaimasen ka ? 4. and sings. thinking going pay and have been very impolite.

Ko-zutswni ya 1. How 1. tsubusu : to crush . Nashi no karva wo muko to shite itara. Hibiya kden e iku no ni uam-pun kakarimasii ka ? (C). yoso e dekakeru tokoro deshita kara. ashi wo tsubushimashita (C). 5. 21. O mise no kinjo e hikkoxhf nasaru ho ga benri deftho (C). I was going to peel a pear when the child bumped up against me. butsukaru : to hit. 26. bump against. 4. Turn to the left at that corner and go straight on (that's the nearest way). 0. when she comes back. Teishaba e iku ni wa dono michi ga ichiban chikai desho ? (C). kaettara. (C). Which is the nearest way (to go) to the station ? 24. 16. Well. Ano oki na hako wo sumi e yard to omotte. smash. 27. 1 3. kuruma wo yobi ni yari na-sai (A). I immediately came back. Ano C. 2. Hayaku kuni e 11. Tanaka San ni ao to omotte ikimashlta ga. When have you to finish that work ? I have to finish it by Satui'day midday. Why do you go for a walk every morn22. 3. 17. 16. His writing is very difficult to read. Ano kado wo hidari e magatte massugu iku to ichiban chikai (B). Asa no gohan ga oiskiku taberareru yd ni desu (C). Naze mai-asa sampo wo nasaru no desu ? (C). What do you use that string for ? 2. 13. Doyo-bi no him made ni shi-nakereba narima^en (C). Yamada hito wa ammari tabi-tabi tanomi ni kuru no de kotow ari-nikui (B). sugu ni kaette kirnaslnta 8. 28. Mr Yamada bought a plot of land to build a house. a different place. Sono himo wa nani ni o tsukai nasaimasu ka ? (D). I use it to tie up parcels. 25. De wa. 23. jwnen : ground sumi : corner. I was going to move that big box into the corner and I hurt my foot. 10. 15. (C). 17. 9. kodomo ga butsukatta no desu (C). Tadaima tegami wo dashi ni ikimashlta (C). It is bad for the health to stay up late at night. I would like to return soon to my native land. 12. Yoru osoku made okite iru no wa karada ni shi ni itta no de gozaimasu (D). How long docs it take to go to Hibiya park ? . . I go to work up an appetite for my breakfast. 24. That man has come so often to request me (to do something) that it is difficult to refuse him. Konojibiki wa tailien hlki-ii (B). kototcaru : to refuse. 22. O Hana San wa Tokyo ni kitai to iimashUa (C). did you cut yourself ? 4. 9. 6. 23. 26. 7. jiwa yomi-nikui (IS). doku da (B). O Jritori de ryoko wo tiasaru no wa tsumara-nai desho (C). . He went to study English. What did your brother go to London for ? 18. I went to see Mr Tanaka. 8. Please wake me ing ? 21. as he was on the point of going out. Wouldn't it be more convenient for you to move somewhere near your office ? 2S. 27. 20. 5. 18. 98. 20. 25. nanka iwaku no ni tsukau (B). Miss Hana says she would like to come to Tokyo. San wa uchi wo tateru tame nijimen wo kaimashlta (C). Matsu wa irn kai ? (A). Do shite o kega wo nasaimashita ? (D). up tomorrow morning early enough to catch the seven o'clock train. 11. muku : to peel. 7. 19. Is Matsu in ? 10. Ei-go wo benkyo 19. Study 83. but. hayaku okoshite kudasai (C). She has just gone out to post a letter. iwaku : to tie. It would be very uninteresting for you to travel about by yourself. Ashita no asa shichi-ji no kisha ni ma ni cm yd ni. yoso plot of land. : another. Ano hlto no 14.EXERCISE The Infinitive (English). 14. Nii-san wa nani shi ni Rondon e irash'tta no desu ? (C). 12. Sono shigoto wa itsu madt ni nasareba ii no desu ka ? kaerito gozqimasu (D). This dictionary is very convenient to use. 15. tell her to call a rikisha.

I don 't remember at all what kind of a man he is.o iku no deshitaro ga. ano ame de. but as I ve lived there since I was 12. ane ga kind kara kimochi ga icarui to iimas-ii kara. kaku ni Isukaitnasu (C). 10. watashi ga mite morau no ja arimasen. soto e dete kodomo-tachi ga asonde iru no wo mite ita w' desu (C). yatta wake desu (C). She was a very good all about it. There are any number of things I would like at the children playing. she gave up the idea. toasurete iru. ? doctor the see to are So 9. so I went out and looked to 8. we have no confidence in him. donna hito datta ka chitto mo omoi-dasemasen (C). My master usrs better 'd time study. 11. I met Mr Smith two or three times when I was in Kyoto. a strol! a pity to go to bed yet with such a beautiful moon shining let's go for 0. 6. you 1 paper for writing . Kono kami wa shujin ga tfgarni w<> i-nai de. Kyoto ni ita jibun ni ni-san-do atta koto ga aru n desu ga. atarna ga itaku natte kita kara. Saisoku nas'tte mo betsu ni shitsurei j a nai desho . kimochi : feeling. keredomo. 13. . Tenki ga yokattara haha m. recollect. Watakushi no kuni wa'Sendai de wa gozaimasen keredomo. uso : lie falsehood. Hon wo yonde itara kara. jibun : time. 2. Ano hito wa ichi-do chichi ni uso wo itta won' desu kara. 5. but with rain like that. C. urging. but I find writing such a nuisance. kesshite : an emphatic negative particle. but as I was only ten years old then. 7. Instead of 1. ju-go no toshi kara oriinaxu no de. Anata ga ano hon wo youtu no dattara sutete shimazva-nai de totte oku no datta (B). wastmg your letters. I know it quite well. Ammari ii tsul:i tic neru ni wa oshii kara. taihen yokatta no desu (C).EXERCISE Various Verbal Phrases. going you write. Kakitai koto wa ikura de mo aru n" desu ga. my sister is not'feeling well since yesterday. Why did you send' Matsu away ? however. My mother would have gone if the weather fifteen. yameta no desu (C). 5. ' . 1 1 Sendai is not my native town. iro-iro komaru koto ga atta mono desu kara. domo o-shaberi de. Study 84 91. Do in wake de 4. lie. deplorable regrettable. masu ka? (D). kaku noga mendo' 1 isha ni o-ide nasaimasu ka ? Doko ka o warui no de gozai(C). she was such a chatterbox that servant. that is why for him. 12. 3. kusai desu 0. . benkyo wo suru ga yokaro (A). Are zva shigoto wa isshokemmei ni shite kurete. I wouldn t have thrown that book away if I'd known you wanted to read it. and she worked very hard several times she made things very inconvenient for me. I would be rude for me to ask don't see why you shouldn 't . O to return the dare say he's forgotten 4. it is not I who am going to consult the I have come doctor. . 13. Do you I lent think ? it book him 2. shitsurei : rudeness. 14. yoku shitte iru no de gozaimasu (D). I was "reading a book and I got a headache. o isha wo tanomi ni kita n' desu (C). Asonde bakari 16. 8. No. Smith San ni wa sore kara uchi de zva kesshite shinyo shi-nai no desu (C). what's the matter with you ? 10. Mr Yamada I . 15. had been fine. hima zco 1. and since then. so I had to discharge her. That man once told my father a lie. sukoshi aruko ja arimasen ka? (C).no kamo shireMatsu ni hima zvo o dashi ni natta w' desu ka ? masen (C). 99. mendo-kusai oshii : : troublesome. Yamada San ni kashlta hon ZPO saisoku sum no wa shitsurei desho ka ? (C). saisoku : omoi-dasu : to call to mind . 15. 3. to gurai no toki deshita 7.

Anata wa sensei wo okorashite wa son ja aritnasen ka? (C). 5.so// w. mite o moral ni natte wa ikaga de gozaimasv. Nikai no . O kao-iro ga o warn gozaimasu ga. If you know the meaning of this character. 8. fortitude. 2. wa doku de gozaimasu kara. 13. As you 're going to Maru-ya 's. Do you mean that lady in foreign clothes ? She is a friend of my sister's who arrived recently from abroad. If I go that road the boys will play tricks on me. He arrived at half past three. 14. Konna ni iro-iro chirakashite oite. . 6. I think it 's about a month since you calk'd since then the patient is much about the same. Thanks very much for the beautiful pears you you. At what time did Mr Yamada arrive ? 9. 11. . Anna hito ni baka ni sareta to omou to kuyashikutte shiyo ga nai 7. Did you come walking all the way from the station ing me some socks ? here ? You must be very tired have a cup of tea and rest awhile. (D). and left again after fifteen minutes' talk with my father. Study 9297. O Matsu ni sashite. akari : a : light. I'm aw fully put out to think that a man like that has made a fool of me. 12. Yamada San wa nan-ji goro irasshaimashUa ka? kara. her name is Mrs Hatano. kuyashii : regrettable annoying. taixo oishiu gozaimashita (D). tsuide : opportunity at the . katazukete o kure (A). omae wa chotto watashi no hei/a e kite o kure (A). . 5. 10. ask Taro to write it for 15. San-ji han ni irash'tte chichi toju-go-fun bakari o hanashi nas'tte o kaeri nasaimashita (D). 11. Senjitsu wa kekko na nashi zvo kndas'tte doino arigato gozaimashUa . 17. . I think you'd better light the lights. Tell Matsu to sweep upstairs.gozainiasho 2. trouble bother. Kono ji no imi wo go zonji de irassha-imashltara. katazuke'ru : to put away (in its place) . 7. : : kutsu-shita mendo son 1. 1C. so I'll go another way. 1C. and send it quickly. dozo oshiete kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 4. Taihen kuro gozaimasu ne. If you find it too much trouble to write (the letter) yourself. 9. would you rnind buy13. tsuide ni watashi no kutsu-shitd wo katte kite kudasai (C). it's : r . : socks stockings. ka? (D). same time. meaning. gaman imi : patience : . 15. to otoko no ko-tachi ni itazura wo sareru kara. It's to your own disadvantage to be always maplease explain it to me ? king your master angry. pale. Mam-ya e irash'ttara. 1. bijonin wa sendatte to sukoshi mo kawatta kotoga gozaimasen (D). Yube anata no tonari ni koshi-kakete irash'tta no IK a donata deshlta ? (C). ]0. Who \vas it sitting last night next to you ? 17. Jibuti de henji wo kaku no ga mendo nara 1'aro ni kakashite hayaku o dashi nasai (1?). kutabire'ru : to be tired. hadn 't you better see a doctor ? 3. It's very dark. 4. 12. akari wo o tsfike nas'ttara yoroshiu. konaida gaikoku kara o kaeri nas 'tta Hatano to iu kata de*n (C 1 ). so put everything away. Kono mae anata ga o-ide kudos' tie kara hito-tsuki gurai ni narinia^hd ga. sent me the other day thev were delicious. chirakasu : to disarrange scatter. I'd be ashamed for visitors to come and see things all in disorder like this. You are looking no good trying to bear your illness without taking any medicine. 6. muri ni gaman wo nas 'tie irash 'tie (D). . come to my room. o kyaku sama ni korareru to kazukaxhii (13). loss. ftuteifthon kara zutto aruite irash'tta no desu ha ? Zuibun kutabire nas'tta deshd . Asuko wo toru.EXERCISE Irregular Verbs. betsu no michi :co totte ikimasho (C). Ano yofuku wo kite irash'tta onna no kata desu ka ? Ane no tomodachi de. and you. 3. put in order. 14. 1 00. S. o cha de mo agatte o yasurni nasai (C).

iatamu to fold. watashi wa ii to omou keredomo. arimasu (C). over. sugu ni rnotte knru to ii nagara. . of drawers. hltori ga inu ni kni-tsukarete naite iru no datta (B). Iie. I went with my sister yesterday to (lit. Yamashlta San go. oita kara (A). \Vaiakushi mo ane to issho ni kino Ueno e mairimashUe gozaimam (D). . to him and although he said'he 'd bring it back soon. tonsu no hikidashi ni irete (D). mo m-igaite guzaimasu (D). megane no kanjo ico tori ni Chokichi San ni itte moratte yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). I've looked for them in every drawer. mada kaeshite ko-nai (B). 3. Ilana-ko San ica ha. neighbourhood last. irr*a kaite daso (B). Your dress is folded. Master Taro came a few days ago to ask me to lend him my dictionary. 11. friend. oii'.sojanaidesu. write it out and have it ready for you \vlun crying. unoccupied I think we could put I left them in the chest me 18. 14. Study 98 inigaku ftawagu kanjo : reckoning account.m (D). I'll translate this. 10.tomodachidem(C}. gloves. houses . you come again. Nikko de kaite kita e zvajitsu niyokn kaite am (B). Sugu ni henjircodashite shintawa-nai to -n'asurete shimau kara. to make a noise. 5. Hai. 17. 101. he's only a 5. kui-tsuku : : : tatemono kuu : : building. mo konna ni oki na tatemono ga ikutsu mo tatte iru (B). 7. the gentleman 6. \Vatakushi wa taihen kimochiga warn gozaimasu kara. and now. (C). to polish clean. Anata no kimono wa tatande (D). 1 it lent it yet. knsa : grass. 1. Itoko ga kotchi e kuru no de. 4. just look at all the big buildings there are. Was who was here just now a relation of yours ? 3. 17. G. The children were making such a noisr I went to see and found that ]ust now that* I wondered what had happened. 14. he hasn 't returned . yoku kangaete okimashi) 18. Kondo anata tokoro ga. Kono mae kita toki n-n kono hen zva kusa ga haete ite sabishii tokoro datta no ni. 19. it I'll think my Bring ly know. Mr Yamada has been in Hakone a week recovering from his illness. I don't exactt do what him you say up. The picture Mr Yamashita painted when he was in Nikko is really very well painted. but I can t find them. No. 16. Ko-naula Taro San ga jibiki wo kashUe kure to itte kita kara. Danna sama no kutsu wo migaita kai ? (A). n'atashi no te-bukuro zco motte kite o kure . the letter soon. 7. 16. 11. As I'm sure to forget it if I don't answer ril do it at once. what had happened was that one oY them had been bitten by a dog. hUo-tsuki bakari to-matte itai to in no da ga. 13. Sakki kodoino-tachi ga 6-sawagi wo sum no de. Yes. . 19. disturbance. So de gozaimasune. was all grass and there were no all this AYhen I was here 9. Miss Hana-ko has written to say that she can 't come this evening as she has a toothache. Hobo sagashlte mimashita keredomo gozaimasen (D). Ueno. My cousin As the top floor K is coming and he says he would like to stay a month here. ga itai kara komban irasshara-nai to tegami de itte kimaslnta 10. 1. Have you cleaned your master's boots ? 4. 13. and was 12. : to bite (as an attack). 8. 9. 110. 2.EXERCISE Auxiliary and Terminal Verbs. As I'm not feeling at all well would you mind if Master Chokichi were to go instead of me to collect the bill for the spectacles ? 15. to bite eat. ga irassharu made ni kore wo yakushlte kirei ni kaite oite agetna. Yamada San wa byoki wo naoshi ni is-shukan bakari mae kara Hakone e itte 2. I have 8. megane : spectacles. Sakki kite irash'tta kata wa go shinrui no kata de gozaimaxil ka ? iru so da (B). nikai ga aite iru kara.ae no kangae wa do da ? (A). nan daro to omotte mite miia 12. kashlte yattara. 15. . they are cleaned).

Jochu ga mo mitsfikarim. Kyo waatamaga itai kara. 8. 19.) to become warm. Mise no kaeri-gake ni Hibiya de densha wo orite. Benkyo shite lie akiru to uchi wo dete.(C). You are a nuisance. O yu <a/ mo 15. 9. First boil the water and after that warm the milk. 12. 18. E. As I've a headache today instead of going by tram-car. attame'ru (trans. Please put all the books in that box. 7. Ano ame no naka wo aruka-nakereba nara-nai no ka ni kimete imasu (C). Tetsubin ni o yu wo ippai wakashite moraitai (A). 24. 3. I was feeling anxious (in the train) thinking I'd have to walk in the rain. I got off the tram-car at Hibiya and I made a rail on Mr Tanaka. Chodo ju-ji ni kane wo narashite kudasal (C). kobore'ru (intr. 102. 118. It's now a fixed habit of mine when I get tired of studying. 10. Oinae wa urusai kara shita e orite o-ide (A). ja. nokotta no zva kaban ni iremasho ka ? (C). Boil a kettleful of water hardly got off the train when it stopped raining. 1 9. Kono o bon ni nosete danna sama no tokoro e motte o-ide na^ai (A). 21. On my 22. shelf ? I (am so short that I) cannot reach it myself. attamani (intr.) to make a noise ring. Would you kindly give this photograph to your brother? 9. : . 17.) to take down.) to spill. 17. hashigo-dan bell. tana kara ano hako wo oroshite kudasaimasen ka? Watakushi wa sei ga hikukutte todokimasen (D). (C). 3. 1. The water is 16. to go out and walk about the park for a while. : : . 2. When the milk is warm give it to the baby. chodo : exactly just. kden no naka wo shibaraku aruite kuru koto 10. Sono hashi wo wataru to Kanda desu 8. : Study 111 ambai kane : : condition : . 13. densha e nora-zu nikurunia de ikimasti. Excuse me. O yu ga wakimashita (C).-iy back from the office. sore kara chichi wo attamete o kure (A). Chichi ga attamattara akambo ni o yari nasai (A). : staircase. 18. 5. Put this fruit on a tray and take it to your master's room.) to hand over. Please ring 1.EXERCISE Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. the bell exactly at ten o'clock. tetsubin kettle. 20. Minna wa hairimasen . That bell rings every Sunday morning at seven o'clock. urusai : annoying. Have vou found a servant vet ? : . Ana kane wa nichiyo-bi no asa shichi-ji ni naru no de gozaimasu (I)). but would you mind getting me the box from the boiling. short \\. manner. They won't all go in shall I put what's over in the trunk ? 23. Yes. . 12. O yu wo saki ni wakashite. please do so. 24.asMta ka? (C).) : : to get spilt. koboshtta no wa dare desti ? Koboshita hlto zva jibun defuite oki nasai (B). 13. ii ambai deshlta (C). kisha wo oriru to sugu ni ante ga yande. 6. 20. naru (intr. kobore-nai yd ni shizuka ni motte irasshai (C). 22. Whoever has done it must wipe it clean. forme. 6. orosu (trans. : : kobosu (trans.) to warm. When the water boils let me know. 11. 14 and 15. 2. 23. watasu (trans. 7. narasu (trans. When you cross that bridge you will be in Kanda. but luckily I'd 11. I'll take a rikisha. 16. AJizu ga ippai haitte imasu 4. to omotte shimpai shite kimashUa ga. Kono shashin wo ototo san ni o zvata^hi kudasaimasen ka ? (D). Sumimasen ga. Who has spilt ink on the stairs ? carry it very carefully so as not to spill it. Hashigo-dan e inki wo Icara. This (jug) is full of water. Hon zva minna sono hako ni irete kudasaimasen ka ? (C). waite iru (H). you must 4. 21. 14. so shite kudasai (C).) to cause to sound ring. 5. yu wa mo zvakashite arimasu (C). go and stay downstairs. O yu ga waitara so itte o kure (A). Ta naka San no tokoro e chotto kudamono wo yotte kimashUa (C).

24. that master. He is called Suzuki. Watashi wa shira-nai (B). course people will laugh at you if you go about in that strange way. 103. wo shite iru (B). : . . yourself and not be helped by others. gomakam home'ru : : to deceive. that him. he pretends not to hear. 16. Nashi to iu no da (B). If you put on that dress. Takeo was kicked by a horse yesterday and was hurt. my aunt was surprised. That thin man is called Koyama. You had better do your own things calls him. Is the window upstairs A lot of fish was caught yesterday. Sonna okashi na fu wo sureba warawareru no ica atarimae da (B). kara. out (dressed) like that. 21. nusumu to kick. : . 12. 14. Nihon-go wo donata ni osowari nasaimashita ? (D). 2. 22. Come back quicklv so as not to get scolded by your It was made in Kyoto. Kami wo kai ni ikimashUara. 11. Mr Tanabe taught me. 4. Ano hito wa shujin ni yobarete mo shiran kao raise ga shimatte imaslnta (C). I don't know. 16. osowaru teach. Nikai no niado wa. Takeo wa kind uma ni kerarete kega wo shita 10. atarimae no : usual ordinary. was the but some already shop buy paper 29. 25. 10. of shira-nai) : having no knowledge . : to bite. 17. by My finger they closed ? 8. Of 14. kao de irasshai Anna koto zvo saretara okoru no (C). Take care and don't Jet the rikisha-man cheat you. What is this fruit called \ 27. oba san ga bikkuri shlta (B). 24. 20. 22. 9. 20. 28. Yube dorobo ni yubi-wa wo nusumaremashita (C). I went to 26. fui no : sudden. 3. 5.o chawan wa doko de dekita no desu? (C). 4. 6. Mho taught you Japanese ? ring. irreg. shimatte iru kai ? (A). 2. As I went a bitten was 5. Ano fiitotta. It is very annoying to hear children crying. Last night a robber stole my 15. 15. 29. It is only natural that he should get angry 6. 13. 13. feigning ignorance. Son.EXERCISE Passive Verbs. waru-kuchi : evil-speaking. Kodomoni nakareru no ga ichiban urusai (B). passive of oshie'ru to okashii . mo yaseta hito zva Koyama to iu hito dtm (C). Suzuki to iu hito desu (C). kamu 1. shiran kao : not to betray one's knowledge by the expression of the face. people will laugh at you. 26. Danna ni shikararem kara hayaku 19. 11. Even when his master closed. Ano 27. ko wa itsit mo sensei ni homeraremasu (C). o kaeri (A). 28. : to steal. : : way manner. Jibun no koto wa hito no sewa ni nara-nai de suru ho ga ii (B). 12. If you go 1. 8. okashi na : laughablej strange. fu . kern. don 't take any notice. Koko ni nan to kaite arimasu ka ? (C). Study 119 125. Kind wa sakana ga takusan toremashita (C). 25. nan to iu kudamo'no de gozoimasu ? (D). That child is always praised by his teacher. hito wa nan to iu hito desu ? (C). 7. Tanabe San ni osowarimashita (C). Sonnafu aruku to hito ni warawaremasii (C). Kyoto de dekita no de gozaimasu (D). shimaru (intr. 21. 3. wo shite Sono kimono wo kiru to Shina-jin to niachigaerareru daro (B). What's stout man called ? 23. Even if people speak ill of when you. 18. Ano (B).) to shut. 9. What 18. shiran (corr. wa Inu ni yubi wo kamaremashlta Fui ni watashi ga itta atarimae da (B). you may be taken for a Chinese. Kuruma-ya ni gomakasare-nai yd ni ki wo tsuke nasai (B). unexpectedly. to praise. Kore ica 23. Where was that tea-cup made ? is written here ? 17. behave like to dog. It is called a pear. Waru-kuchi wo iwarete mo shiran (C). 7.

30. moat. : to do. : hikkomu in iru : : to draw back . . hori : 104. Up to now he's to go out as I'm ashamed people should see me like this. It's all that child's fault that people are saying things 2. Hlto kara nani ka iwareta toki wa kitto o ncfti zvo oi-dasareta no desti (C). retire. 17. Ano otoko rco damashtte yard to omotte ite. soto e detaku gozaimasen (D). deceived by Akio. I don't want 12. kakurete irasshai (B). Ano otoko wa ammari namake-mono desu kara. As it would be a very disagreeable thing if he were seen. Ano o kashi zca tabetai. 4.EXERCISE Pa>Mve Verbs (continued). Sakki butsukatta otoko ni kane ?co torareta no ni kimatte imasu ga. 13. If you dig a ditch there it would be extremely inconvenient for me. ni sono old na koe de uta wo utawareru to atama ga 4. it is very rude to remain silent when you are asked a question. condition. if he didn't get angry with you ? I'll arrange it cleverly. but it would be all right. Omae. so let's 0. Inu wo korosareta Into wa ano mine no shujin desu (C). dorobo to iwarete wa mo ynrusu koto wa deld-nai (A). 6. 0. 15. doko ka e (B). 3. ditch . called me many things and I've put up with it. turned out the other way about. I thought of deceiving that man but it will think that 1 stole it myself. That man is so la/y that his father turned him out of the called a thief. o to-san ni 14. me a headache. abekobe ni damasarete shimatta (B). 12. I'm certain that the man who bumped against me eat them up between us. 6. namake-rnono i/oxi't : a lazy person. Well. but I can't allow myself to be 13. ha no itai no ga sukkari tmnarimashita (C). keredomo. . but as my family is poor. dama-sfi : to deceive . Anata ni iwareta tori ni shimaskitara. I was taken in by him. 8. 1. De mo. somewhere. As your father will beat you if he finds you. afraid. to dig. Miraretara taihen 'desu kara. Harm) wa Akin kara damasarete kuyashikute shikata ga nai no desu (C). hide yourself 1. Konna i/osu ico shite iru tokoro wo Into ni mirareru f<> hmukas-hiu gozaimasu kara. I 'd like to eat those sweets but I 'm afraid of the scolding 8. you'll give health. there's no doubt people 10. about us they ought I've decided to give up smoking as the doctor says it's bad for tho 3. he 5. 5. O to-san ni mitsnkaru to butareru kara. 15. donna ga kaette kite shikar areru to kowai (B). kimi ga okorare-nakereba ii no dard ? ffttari de are wo tabete shim ad (B). just now took the money. isoide hil'kamimashUa (C). 11. 14. taihen shitsurei na koto desu kara ne (B). If you keep on singing songs in a loud voice like that. The man whose dog was killed is the owner of that shop. Nani ka kikareta toki damatte iru no wa l/enji wo shi-nakereba ikemasen yo. 'kowai : fearful . tichi ga bimbo desti kara. Ima made iroiro no koto wo iwarete mo gam an shite Ha ga. Tabako wa karada ni warui to isha ni iwarete kara noma-iiai koto ni kimemashita (C). Be sure to answer whenever you are spoken to house. Baku ga timakn yarn kara. Hlto ni iware-nakute mo ii koto wo iwareru no mo minna ano ko no tame da 2. 17. I did as you told me. 10. I'd get when my master comes back. 7. korosu : to kill. Ilaruo was very much annoyed at being hurriedly went into the house. Sonna tokoro e hori wo horarete wa watashi no ho de taihen tsttgo ga wurni desu (C). 7. and my toothache has entirely stopped. 16. //an/. wataktishi ga totta to omowareru ni clngai arimasen (C). wouldn't it. not to. abekobe : the other \vay about. cheat. 11. itiiku naru (A).

leave child alone on errands. Anata gajibun de ginko e ika-nakereba o kane wo uke-toru koto ga deki-nai to iu hanashi deshita (C). 105. to cliange. 7. My money was stolen at an inn and I found myself in a very awkward position however. thanks to a 12. 2. hankechi : handkerchief. you can't get the money. Yube wa kono ko ga naite bakari ite toto -nemwe wa shimasen deshtta (C). 3. 4. you will inconvenience me a great deal. Musiiko san ga naotte hatarakeru yd ni natte o shiawase desii (C). Sono ki wa suberu kara. If you plant the tree there.ise no kaeri ni hankechi wo roku-mai katte kite kudasaimasen ka? watashi wa kaze wo hiite ite. They said that if you yourself don't go to the bank. ko iu toki ni inn no shnjin kara kane wo torn koto ga dekimasu ka ? (C). godown there. 12. Although you say I oughtn't to send that money as it wasn't I who lost it. tomodachi no o-kage de yatto kaette kuru koto ga dekita (15). ga. ' ' ' 1. 1. Study 126136. imn kara basho wo torikaeru wake ni wa ikimasen (C). so I wasn't able to sleep the whole night. Yado-ya de dorobo ni kane wo torarete shimatte komatta keredomo. Uchi no tori ga kesa yoso no inn ni korosareta no desii 9. 10. so hima no iru. torikae'rn shiawase na fortunate. I am glad to hear that your son has recovered and is able to work again. ue'ru : to plant. 8. Anatn no ycna kata ga do shite kono omoi mono wo motte ikaremasho ? Dose ototo gd asonde imasu kara. Last night this child did nothing but cry. 3." o. Sore wa watashi ga otoshtta kane j a nai kara. Soko e ki wo tierarete wa watashi no ho de komaru no desu ga. Mo asuko e kura wo tate-hajimemashUa kara. 5. 6. soto e deraremo^en kara (C). daidokoro wo kamawa-nai de watashi ga issho ni itte yaru wake ni wa ika-nai desho ? (C). I am soriy to trouble you. uke-toru : to receive. uke-toru wake ni ika-nai to itta ja crimasen l:a? (C). the kitchen. hashigo wo kake-nakereba noboremasen (C). Surnimasen ga. . Chodo kyo o me ni kakarete konna ureshii koto iva gozaimasen (D). As I have already started building the friend. o m. it won't take long so I'll mend it for him after all. koto de wa nai kara. 4. couldn 't you plant it somewhere else ?" 10. How can a weak person like you possibly carry this heavy thing ? Anyhow. as my brother has got nothing to do for the moment. ladder. 14. 1 3. I was able to return home. he can go with you and carry it. 6. 11. 14. killed by a (strange) dog in such a case can I claim money from the owner of the dog'? 9. you can well understand I can't go with him and . 8. at last. I told you I can 't receive that the now I cannot change place. suberu : diidokoro : kitchen. 13. It has been a very great pleasure for me it unless you've got a ladder. go issho ni motashlte agema. you won 't be able to climb 7. . but would you mind buying me half a dozen handkerchiefs on your way back from the office ? I've caught a cold and I can't go out. 11. Sakki o to-san ni 'kimono >o naoshite kure to iwareta toki isogashikutte naose-nai to wa itta keredotno. This morning one of my fowls was {to have been able) to see you today. That tree" is slippery. chotto naoshite ageyo (Pi). When my father asked me just now to mend his kimono I said I was so busy I could n't'do it however. .EXERCISE Potential Verbs. hashigo : to : slip. 2. : kura : godown. Ano ko wo hltori de tsiikai ni yatte wa ike-nai to itta 'tie. yoso e uete itadaku koto wa dekimasen ka ? (C). lucky .su (C).

You ought to know that you shouldn't let children read a book like this. wake ga atte kochira e kite imasu no de. (B). 11. you'd better give it back to me. gokaeshlte kudasai (B). lie. 1. but I was obliged to be here. What could we do to make him stop ? H. watashi ni harawasete kudasai (C). 15. uchi no Hana ni nuwaseta no de gozaimasu (D). 1 king that child cry i'or ? . sonna luii yd ni ban :co shite ite kudasai (C). niga-su : to let escape. 7. Although he's been told not to drink sake because it's bad for his health. . ochi'ru : to fall. wake ka ashi wo suberasete ochite kega wo shimashlta (C). \Ve are very anxious about my brother. I'll tell (//'/. doka waruku ommcanai dc kudasai (C). iKikashltari suru no desu ? (C). 12. Ototo wa karada ni warui kara sake wo noma-nai yd ni to iwarete mo yappari notide komatta mono da . omou yd ni ika-nai no desu (C). Taro got on to the roof yesterday. Kodomo ni kego wo sase-nai yd ni shiju ki kara. Watashi ga uchi e itie kuru aida kono inu wo nigasa1 1. 9. 10.esa-seru nara inu wo 13. 17. If you are going to let the children worry the U3. 18. Kind Taro ga yane e agatte. 17. 6. Be always careful so that the children may not hurt themselves.3. What are you ma1. If I had only been there I wouldn't have let you do (heavy) work like that. . Mire to be hungry when you came back. : : feast. Watashi sae soba ni itara. so I prepared a good dinner for you. 5. 12. do ka shite yamesaseru kuffi wa nai daro ka ? (B). make'ru kufu sake : : scheme. Koppu wa watashi ga kowashlta reta kara jochu ni arawashlte o kure (A). 8. mlobu hokori : dust. Kitto onaka wo sukashlte o kaeri daro to omolte. . Konna hon wo kodomo 18. next time I go there I must beat them down. 8. alcoholic drink plan : made from rice. he nevertheless goes on drinking. wo tsukete ite o kure (A). please don 't let the dog run away in the meantime. As that shop 2. . stove. 2. sutobu ni hi wo takasemasho (D). I'm just going to my house for a moment. Watashi ga yatta inn rvo kodomo ni ijim. get the servant to wash it. do iu chisd wo koshiraete matte imashlta (C). please don't . 16. 3. Kono kimono wa shltate-ya de nutta no de gozaimasu ka ? (D). my daughter Hana made it for me sewn by my daughter Hana). takv. always charges so dear. As I broke the tumbler. and for some reason or other his foot slipped and he fell and hurt himself. I had it the servant to wipe it (with a duster). Your desk is all dusty. 14. think had no intention of putting you in an awkward position. Anata wa do iu wake de ko-no ko wo ni ijomasete wa ike-naija nai ka ? (A). If you are cold. so Couldn't do as I wanted. 14. : to lose reduce the price. Did a tailor make this kimono ? 7. I thought you would be <log I gave you. No.EXERCISE Causative Verbs. O tsukue no ue ga hokori-darake de gozaimasu 9. : to kindle. I'll have the stove lit. 4. 15. Taro's dog had a fight with Haruo's and was beaten. Taro no inu ga TIaruo no inn to kenka wo shite makemasblta (C). let me pay for it. Ano mise wa baka ni takai kara kondo ittara makesashlte yara-nakereba 5. jochu ni fukasemasho (D). 10. As 1 ill of me. Anata wo kotnaraseyd to iu teumori'fa nai no desu kara. As my dress is dirty. shigoto ?ra sase-nai no desii ga. Kimono ga yogo16. 4. no desu kara. go-cbifid : 106. O samu gozaimashltara. Study 137148. shltate-ya tailor.

eda nagete asonde iru no desu ka ? (C). Tadaima kimono wo kite (C). Yomikaketa hon wo yonde shimatte kara. perly. tolni : : scolding. 10. I found myself in an awkward position : but a man who happened to pass kindly told me the way. dotchi wo itte ii ka to omotte ko matte ii'U to. 20. please write. ball. Yatto tenki ni natta to oniotte Ham. 107. 19. Kind no yukata kowai inu ga ushiro kara katte kega kita no de. Is Taro amusing himself by throwing a ball about ? 3. 4. She is dressing herself. Don't 5. kaki-naoshite kiidasaimasen ka ? (C). o yasumi nasai (C). 14. 8. irasshaimasu (D). When you've finished reading the book you've begun to 16. yukata hosoi : yugata : evening. 7. 18. 10. Kono tegami wa wo shimashita ammmi kara. 4. and now. Kono ko wa shira-nai Mto no kao wo miru to kitto naki-dashirnasu (C). 2. 8. Compound Verbs. This bird hurt itself and can 't fly pro- 7. Yube mado wo akeppanofihlte netara kaze wo hiite shimatta (B). tonari no heya ni oite kudasai (C). The road branched* into two. Yubin-kyoku e itte dempo wo utte kite o kure.EXERCISE Reflexive Verbs kogoto inari : . I thought that at last the weather was going to be fine. Daibu kutabiremashita ne. I slept last night with the window open and I've caught a cold. sit down there for a while and rest yourself. 11. to jump . Kono tori wa kega wo shite yoku tobe-nai no desu 5. to leave open. Jiro San wa densha kara tobi-orite tailien na kega wo shtta so desti (C). Kmio kugi ni bdshi wo kakete yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 13. 17. while it was still in motion. Yesterday evening a fierce dog was following me. isoide kake-dashitara. Whenever this child sees a strange face. as the affair is urgent go there running. If you get on a thin branch like that. kake'ru : to run. . hoka no wo kashite ageyo (A). You must be very tired. thin. 17. Taro wa mari -co 3. Hana-ko no bydki wa yatto kono-goro naori-kakarimashUa (C). Todana wo akeppanashite oite wa ikemasen (A). that's not the proper place to hang your hat. The meaning of this letter is not quite clear. 14. and hurt himself badly. O to-san wa Haruo no kao wo -mint to oki na koe de kogolo wo iiinasu no df. . 11. At last Hana-ko is beginning to rex-over from her illness. . asuko c koithi-kakete (C). Mi chi ga futatsti ni wakarete lie. soko wa bdshi wo kakeru tokoro ja arimasen . May I hang my hat on this nail ? 18. No. 9. he's sure to start crying. \\'hen my father saw Haruo he scolded him in a loud voice. nage'ru : to throw. fly. They say that Mr Jiro got off the tram-ear read. it has begun raining again. you would hurt yourself. kakete itte o-ide (A). 13. ga oretara kega ico sum ja nai ka? (A). I'll lend you another. isogi da imi ga hakkiri shimasen kara. Hana-ko wa nani wo shite imam ? (C).it again. Haruo wafurue nagara to no kage ni kakurete imashUa (C). 6. 12. 20. 12. and as I didn't know which to take. 1. 2. 15. mata furi-dashimashita yo (C). lie. What is Hana-ko doing? 0. 16. and Haruo trembling hid himself behind the door. Sonna hosoi eda e nobotte. ki ni butsii- 9. 15. 1. furue'ru : to tremble. go and leave it in the next room. Go to the post office and send a telegram. Study 149155. and the branch were to break. so I started to run as fast as I could I knocked myself against a tree and hurt myself. tdri-kakatta hito ga oshiete kuremashtta (C). 19. leave the cupboard open.

feelings. enryo . 5. . The tale I am about to tell you is the tale of Momotaro. iya desu. 10. Taro is crying. Ano kyodai wa yoku kenka wo suru ga. 18. naru-take nikai e ikanai yd ni o shi nasai (A). Ikura itakiitte mo gaman suru hoka shikata ga nai (B). reserve regard for another 's shobai : occupation. my father. 5. You mustn 't interrupt your brother while he's studjdng. Shujin ga.EXERCISE The Verb Sum. A man 2. Yarnada San ga go bydki no koto wa shochi shite orimashita ga. Watanabe wa Ei-go ga hnnaseru no wo 4. tvukare'ru : to get tired. soon occupied like you. . . 6. Yokohama e hikkosu no wa chichi ni sodan taiso jiman shite irn n' desil (C). negau : to ask . 12. Anata mo Kyoto e kembutsil ni iku nara. 6. 1 '11 arrange to go with you. 10. needs to take half an hour's exercise every Those brothers are always quarrelling. Shibaraku no aida goe ga shimasu ne. as there's nothing else to be dene. aisaisu shitara. 14. To go about boasting is not at all a nice thing to do. so I don't know what to do. lie down. 11. Watanabe is very proud of being able to speak 4. anata nigo sodan shitai koto ga aru kara. 17. sono kawari s-ugu ni naka ga yoku naru (B). Kono shabon wa ga shimasu kara (C). 7. Kesa Suzuki San ni atta kara. For some days I don't want the patient to see anybody talking is sure to tire him. No matter how great the pain is you must put up with it. 15. Chichi wa ikura negatte mo watashi ga Amerika e iku koto wo shochi shi-nai no de. Taro no naki11. 9. shochi : consent knowledge. 19. ' day. 18. desu kara. but he went by without taking any notice perhaps he didn 't see me. don't care for people who stand too much upon ceremony. Nii-san no go benkyd no jama wo shite zva ike-nai kara. but on the other hand they make it up again. komatte imasil (C). byd-nin ni dare mo awase-nai yd ni shite moraitai desu . the scent is too strong. sugu o-ide kudasai ( D). Zutsu ga suru nara. mo tsukaremasu kara (C). hanashi wo suru to do shite 18. 3. enryo shi-nai de nete iru ga ii (A). 13. go and see what's the matter with him. go zonji no kata mo am desho (C). 2. . nioi : smell. (C). Ammari enryo suru hito wa sukija arimasen (C). 3. 1 Anata no yd na shobai wo shite iru hito wa mai-nichi san-jip-pun gurai undo wo shi-nakereba ike-nai desij. 19. to moshimashita (D). If you 've got a headache. Jiman suru no zva mittomonai nwno da (B). . My master says that he has something he wants to consult you about. 16. boku mo issho ni iku koto ni shiyo (B). Kore kara o hanashi suru hanashi wa MornMaro no hanashi desu (C). nioi shiran kao shite itte shimatta . I ly. so please come immediate17. Kore wa sendatte mo hanashita hanashi shite kara no koto ni shimashita (C). : salutation. shabon : soap. 9. so I suppose some of you will know it. I already told this tale some days ago. 7. 12. 8. I've decided not to move to Yokohama until after I've consulted English. 15. so as iar as possible don 't go upstairs. do shita no ka itte goran nasai (B). tabun ki ga tsuka-nakatta no daro (B). 8. don 't stand upon ceremony. no matter how much I ask him. but I never dreamt that he Avould die so suddenly. I don 't like this soap. If you are going on a trip to Kyoto. My father will not consent to my going to America. request. aisatsti : 108. I knew that Mr Yamada was ill. 14. masaka konna ni kyu ni o naLunari nasaro to wa omoimasen deshita * 16. Study 156163. I met Mr Suzuki this morning and I raised my hat to him. 1. jiman : self-praise.

tea shiju bydki de gozaimashtia kara. O cha ga nomitaku nattara. Kuni e kaerakino kara okite sukoshi arukeru yd ni natta bakari desft (C). I also would like to buy one. 7. Do you say Kiku is missing ? 9. taberaremasen (C). mamoru : to protect ivo . 11. 8. They say that hats like him. If you put that very serious. 6. home. Suzuki San rva o td-san ga Nara e irassharu no 16. Watashi :cd yatto Ei-go no shimbun de. while I'm away. metta ni (with neg. 11. At last I'm able to read English newspapers. My father died when I was three. hayaru : to be fashionable. 5. metta ni kabutte iru hito ga imasen (C). Kono rca itsu de yaku haha naku haha 7i? tata-naku naru (B). Hana-ko San no yd na boshi ga hayaru so da kara. and I'll be greatly inconvenienced. I'm disgusted with him. haven't they ? You hardly ever wearing them now. you '11 spoil it entirely. o kashi wa suppalii natte imasu kara. If you plant trees there.) seldom. Kiku ga i-naku natta 'tte? Sore rva taihen da. that is why We became so poor that we hadn't a small shop. 12. 5. yaku ni tatsu : to be of use. sen : former . my room won 't get the sun. issho ni iku koto ni natta sd da (B). uru koto ni narimashita (C). atari iva gohan vco taberu koto mo dekinatte shimaimashita (D). 9. Lately hats of see anybody shape have gone out of fashion. and it will be" good for nothing. I find I am obliged to reti to get lip yesterday and walk about a little. 109. 14. and I'll have nothing more to do with 4. raku na : easy comfortable. (my son) Goro is sure to want to go also. Ano hito mo yakusokn ico mainora-nai kara. sugu ni hobo sagasa-nakereba (B). previous. yaku : service. At last 18. 4. yakusokn word. Watashi-tachi ga sen Ha nchi n-a kega nanzo sase-nai yd ni shite kndasai (B). it has been arranged that Mr that" Suzuki's They say Suzuki shall go with him. ga yomtru yd ni natta bakari desu (C). : to keep one 's suppai ataru : : sour. 13. The house we used to live in is now for sale.' 3. and my mother has always been sick. Anata ga Amerika e irasshareba uchi no Goro mo kitto ikitaku naru deshd (C). Whenever you are thirsty. Oji kara moratta kane de shobai wo hajimete. 3. 1. cloth into very hot water or do other silly things like that. Study 164. ' yoyo at last. 10. take great care that the children don't hurt or come to any harm. . . watashi mo kaitaku natta (B). 2. itsu de mo so itte kndasai (C). hi : sun . Miss Hana-ko 'sare fashionable now. 2. 8. With money my Uncle gave me I opened liana was now. sunshine. 12. father is going to Nara. f nakereba nara-nai koto ni natta kara. Sono kire wa dtsitl o yu ni nante iretara siikkari 1. katachi : shape. I can't eat it. Kono-goro zca kd iu katachi no boshi wa hayara-naku natta yd desu ne. and enough to eat. to strike against. 6. 10. mamoru : defend. let me kriow. my mother and myself can live comfortably. Chichi zva waiakushi ga mittsu no toki ni shinde. Soko e ki wo nerareru to boku no lieytt e hi ga atara-naku natte komaru no desii (C). This pudding his promises. rusu no aida ifoku ki rco tsukete.EXERCISE The Verb A'ara. liana wa yoyo to watashi ga raku ni kuraseru yd ni natta no desu (C). 7. mo iya ni natte shimatta (B). we must immediately look for her everywhere. kodomo ni 14. . 16. If you this go to America. nante : and such like things. 15. That man never keeps is (has turned) sour.

I've shut that dog up in a box so that it can 't run away. 17. kono-goro daibu yoku narimashlta (C). polite term for blind person. Omocha too koshiracru Into ga kono kinjo ni imasu (C). 7. My father went to the doctor for a long time on account of some trouble in his nose however. mada gakko ni iru uchi ni shinde shimaimashita (C). 1 1. sono uchi gaikoku-jin ga sam-byaku-nin arimasu (C). 22. I believe. Ano gakko ni wa mekura no gaikoku-jin ga hitori iru (B). Anata no 1. There's a man in this neighbourhood who makes toys. 5. At that school there is one blind foreigner. The second-class passengers are in that room. be) in this room until I come back. 14. One of my friends is a famous doctor. Ano uchi ni ni-to ni noru hito mo am (B). sono gurai no koto wa dekiru hazu da (B). ima iru no wa go-nin dake desu (C). 11. left out. There are two Englishmen in this room. uchi e kaette shimatte. 12. domo niaimasen ne (C). ninu : to suit fit. nuke'ru : to come off get . and he said he was thinking of being a merchant. 6. Jochu ni watashi ga kaem made kono heya ni iru yd ni ii-tsukete kudasai (C).EXERCISE The Verb 'To akindo botchan liana : : 110. Nikai ni nekashlte arimasu (C). 10. 14. . 15. 2. Where 's the child ? 10. 11. 7. akindo ni naru kangae da" to itte imashita (C). 1C. Jii-go ni nattara. there is one. but he died while he was still studying. you ought to be able to do a thing like that. My brother had the intention of being a doctor. would you please lend me yours? 8. 12. 18. Chichi wa nagai aida hana ga -^arukutte isha ni itte imashita ga. 18. '1 . 4. Please tell the servant to remain (lit. 19. 15. Botchan wa doko ni irasshaimasil ka ? (D). Anata no tokoro ni kono jibiki ga gozaimashita ne ? watashi no wa nukete iru tokoro ga atte komarimashita . Goro San ni 'nani ni naru tsumori desu ? to kiite mitara. but there's no denying it doesn *t suit them. Kono machi no hito no kazu waju-shichiman-nin desu ga. There are 170. 9. As you are fifteen. Nihon no onna de yofuku wo kirn Into mo kashite kudasaimasen ka ? (C). he is now in America. as some pages are missing from mine. 6. ii-tsuke'ru little : : merchant. I put him to sleep). chotto 8. Ni-to ni futari aru (B). Yes. sumimascn ga. hitori gozaimasu (D). ' ' . Kono kinjo ni omocha wo koshiraeru hito ga aru (B). Among these people there are some secondclass passengers. 16. 3. 10. famous. I asked Mr Goro what he was thinking of being. but for the moment there are only five here as the others have returned home. boy. iwa Amerika e itte orimasu (C). 21. Ani wa isha ni naru tsumori deshita ga. two are Englishmen. 5. Watashi no tomodachi ni nadakai isha ga hitori arimasu ga. Ano inu :ya nige-nai yd ni hako e irete arimasu (C). Be'. 2. 9. arimasu ga. Among the men who are in this room. 22. Kono heya ni Eikokujin ga fiitari imasu (C). 300 of them are foreigners. 13. Kono heya ni iru hito no naka ni Eikoku-jin ga 20. 21. nose. 17. . H ai. gakko ni mekura no seilo ga arunasu ka ? (C). Study 165. noru hito wa ano hei/a ni imasu (C). He is asleep upstairs (lit. 4. There are fifty scholars at this school. There are some Japanese ladies who wear foreign clothes. he is much better now. 13. : : mekura nadakai nekasu : to put to sleep. The man who makes toys is in this neighbourhood. You used to have a dictionary like this. to command. Kono gakko ni wa seito ga go-ju-nin ant no desil ga. 20.000 people in this town. Are there any blind scholars at your school 3.

4. Study 166. condition. 8. 16. . ozei : crowd. 1 8. 7. 5. sky. but I'll never give my for him. 6. keredomo. 8. rusu wa yoku ki wo tsukete kudasai (C). Wake wo hanashite o negai shitara. 111. 10. mata itazura wo shite o kd-san ni shikarareta to mieru (B). No matter how busy you were to that. I'll send the servant to look for all I know. do ka shita no ka shira ? Jochu wo sagashi ni yatte miyo (B). supposition. opinion. (C). sukkari hakujo shita so desu (C). 14. 'perhaps'. sora : okkochi'ru : to fall. 11. tabunjibun de koshiraeta no desho (C). Doubt. Ikura isogashii to itta ''tie. mata ame gafuru (no) ka mo shiremasen(C). momen : cotton. Hen ni attakai kara. it looks as if she 'd been up to mischief again. 16. hikatte. neighbourhood. kono arashi ja. dare ka karva e okkotta no ka shira (B). hakujo : possibility. As it ly warm (for this time of the year). confession. (B). Mo Taro ga kaeri-so na mono da ga. They say that inn in this Yes. Kono sora-moyo de wa itsu arne ga furr. . There ought to be an back I was Taro time It's 15. What a pretty box a line. It is strangea storm. 1. Hana-fco San ga naite iru . 19. hen na 1. they say he has confessed everything. ni'ru : to be alike. man they? mother. so make up your mind ! . arashi ga knru (no) ka mo shire-nai (B). it may rain at all become cloudy right 17. be careful (about things in general) while I am away. so you had better take an umbrella. he's clever at everything. Anata wa ii ka mo shirem. mitai na : like similar. Kaeri wa osoku naru ka mo shire-nai kara. of somebody. me you might at least have dropped he bought it ? 19. Ano hako wa taihen kirei desu ne ? ja ka shira ? (C). semblance. Nan de mojozu na hito desu kara.mai mono de mo nai kara. may consent. Miss Hana-ko 11. This cloth is cotton. Those two 9. I dare say it will rain again. Ano futari zva ammari yoku nite ite. 12. chotto tegami tvo kaku gurai deki-so na mono kai ni natta no arimasen ka? (B). 10. watashi wa kesshlte shochi shimasen kara. I dare say we shall have may be late before I return. E. Tamura San wa irassharu ka shira 2. I dare say he made it himself. kumoru : to be cloudy. Kono kire wa momen desu ga. mo yd : pattern . I can't be absolutely certain 6. let's inquire wonder whether anything has happened to him. dare ka ni kiite miyo (B).asen go. Irasshara-nai to mo ie-nai (E). maru de kyodai mitai de gozaimasu ne (D). 8. 2. 18.EXERCISE report. kinu mitai desu (C). You think it all sky as It 's it is. I wonder whether Mr Tamura will come. any moment. look exactly persons are so like each other they her is crying . but it shines so that it looks like silk. 13. and got scolded by don't his confessed has theft. sono tsumori de ite kudasai . 17. 15. probability. 7. of a sudden. Kono hen ni yado-ya ga ari-so na mono da . Kyu ni kunwtte kimashita ne. Hashi no ue ni anna ni ozei hito ga iru ga. kasa wo motte iku ho ga ii daro (B). Ano otoko wa dorobo shita no wo hakujo shita to iu hanashi desu ne ? (C). like brothers. 12. misete kudasara-nai mono de mo arimasumai (C). : strange. 9. 14. hikaru : to shine.

Konna ni hidoku futcha Suzuki San wa ko-nai desho ne ? (C). 6. I don't think Mr Suzuki will come with this heavy rain. . Rokuro writes to say that he is busy and can 't come tomorrow. but I can't think how it got here. Why. 14. Anata no ossharu koto wa rnaru de jijitsu to chigatte imasu (C). 1. jo : lock. Yamada San wa Ei-go no shimbun ga yomeru desho ka ? (C). . from . 2. Isn 't this your umbrella ? 21. and it won 't stop bleeding what had I better do ? 7. ano kata wa. Is that what he says ? You may be sure that 's only an excuse. burei : blood.EXERCISE Certainty chi . 18. Are wa yoyo toka bakari mae ni okirareru yd ni natta n' 12. boku ni aitaku nai no desu yo (C). 15. 4. Is your house as pretty as this one ? 8. Rokuro San wa isogashii kara. Anata ga Nikko e irasshareba oku-san mo o-ide ni narimasho? (D). Sakki kogatana de yubi wo kitte. 4. 12. will your wife go with you ? 3. mochiron : splendid. it's only ten days since he's been able to get up. why he was two years in London. 5. 3. Hana-ko San no o uchi wa kore yori okii desu ka ? (C). 5. Anata no o uchi mo konna ni kirei desu ka ? (C). 6. you may be sure he'll get a scolding his father. ii-wake : excuse. Rondon ni ni-nen mo ita hito ja arimasen ka ? (C). yes. I wonder ? 13. 17. do shite koko ni atta no desho ? (C). Sore wa mochiron no koto desu (C). o to-san ni okorareru ni chigai nai (B). of course. 15. Master Hachiro and I are thinking of walking to Kamakura on Sunday. do shite aite iru no daro? (B). Boku no uchi nante. The fact is that he doesn't want to meet me. 10. to compare. do shitara ii desho ? (C). I cut my finger just now with a pen* knife. Oh. 19. Oh. watashi no ni chigai arimasen ga. 20. 2. Koko kara suteishon made ni-jikan de iku no wa naka-naka rakuja arimasen . So desu ka ? Isogashii nante ii-wake ni chigai nai. It's not an easy thing to walk to the station from here in two hours the road is very bad. of course. 18. Ame nanzo ni makete irassharu yd na hitoja arimasen mono (C). Taro was rude to Mr Tanaka today. toki tashlka ni jo wo oroshita tsumori da ga. I feel certain I locked (that door) when I went out this morning how does it happen to be open now. If you go to Nikko. 8. 7. E. 1. Of course he can. Okii desu to mo ! konna uchi to nante kuraberaremasen (C). tashlka ni o-ide nasaimasu yo. my house is not nearly as fine as this. konna ni rippa ja arya shi-nai (B). . : rippa na kurabe'ru jijitsu : fact. anata no ototo san ni mo irassharu yd ni osshatte kudasaimasen ka? (C). Can Mr Yamada read English newspapers ? 16. Taro rva kyo Tanaka San ni burei na koto wo itta kara. Of course it is. Oh. there's no doubt about it's being mine. He's not a man to be beaten by the rain or anything like that. Kore wa anala no kasaja arimasen ka ? (C). no. so a walk like that is entirely out of the question. 17. 9. Why. 21. emphasis. 20. he's sure to come. chi ga naka-naka tomara-nai no desfi . Study 167. 112. 9. Hachiro San to boku to nichiyo ni Kamakura made aruite iko to omou no desti . won 't you tell your brother to come with us ? 11. What you say is in complete disaccord with the facts. 11. ashlta korare-nai to itte yokoshimashita yo (C). 16. Yomemasu to mo. 19. hidoi michi desu kara ne (C). you can't compare the two. Kesa deru desu kara. 10. mada sonna ni aruku koto wa totemo dekimasen (C). lie. Yes. Is Miss Hana-ko 's house bigger than this one ? 14. na : : rnde. 13.

169. be careful he doesn 't run away. you must get up at five. 4. ga. Sonna rippana kimono wo ki-nai de. As there's somebody sick at home. and don't hesitate to speak Japanese otherwise you will never learn to speak it well it doesn 't matter how many mistakes you make. makoto ni sumimasen ga. Study 168. or shall I send it by ordinary post ? 6. anna zonzai naji wo kaite wa ike-nai to yatte kudasai (C). There 's some poison in this bottle. Don't . mo kaenai mono da kara. Don't mind what other people think. azukaru : amai kaii : : sweet. . 113. gaman nasara-nai to ikemasen (C). m Kono o tegami ?. If you specially important letter. ja itte o-ide (A). 10. fudan no wo kite o-ide nasai (A). 12. gozaimasu ka (Jty 6. I have received news that my mother is dangerously ill I arn sorry to inconvenience you. Sore wa ike-nai . Kyo wa uchi ni byo-nin ga arimasu kara. Myaku kaera-nakereba narimasen 13. kodomo ni sawarase-nai yoni yoku mite ite o kure (C). ondo Takeo ni tegami wo yarn toki. futsu de ii desu (C). daiji ni shite. 2. don-don Nihon-go wo hanasa-nai to itsu made mo jdzu ni wa nare-nai no desu . Haha ga abunai to itte mairimashita kara. It's not a 7.EXERCISE Obligation .) : tomorrow. so bear the itching with patience. Something unexpected has happened which obliges me to go to Kyoto. my 6- (in comp. zonzai na 1 . wa (A). as the dog is not Yamada asked him that he mustn't write such a to take care of this dog while he was to this house. 11. itching. 16. 4. so you needn't come tomorrow evening. Mr away. but would you be kind enough to give me two days' leave ? 10. 17. 17. Li o tenki da kara. wasurete wa ike-nai (A). Kaku to nao kaiku naru bakari desu kara. sawaru : to touch. put on such good clothes go in your everyday things. you may go. go-ji ni okiru no da . uchi ni nare-nai kara. please tell me can too rio longer be bought. 5. 15. 7. permission. nige-nai yd ni ki wo tsukete He kudasai 3. (D). machigatte mo kamaimasen kara (C). Do you want me to register this letter. Kyu na yd ga atte. omae wa ikitaku nakereba ika-nai de mo ii (A). I must 3. . nakusa-nai yd ni shi nasai isha san (A). 2. 5. so take great care the children don 't touch it. : careless. Next time you write to Takeo accustomed Don't put your head or your hand out of the window. 8. : to receive in trust. 9. 16. minna de Ueno e iko to omou (C). Enryo shi-nai de. scratch it. As \ve are leaving by the seven o 'clock train tomorrow morning. it's dangerous. . Kyoto e iku kara. 1 am sorry to hear that (your mother is ill) yes. kaku : to scratch. rnyoban wa ko-nakutte mo ii (A). and don't forget it. 1. it will only itch the more. dozo futsuka o hima wo itadakito gozaima&u. so ordinary post will do. Kono bin wa doku ga haitte iru kara. Myoasa wa shlchi-ji no kisha de iku kara. . mado kara kao ya te wo dashite wa ikemasen (B). . 11. careless hand. itte K kaki-tome ni sum no de gozaimasu ka ? futsu de yoroshiu Betsu ni daiji na tegami de mo arimasen kara. 12. Yamada San no o rusu no aida kono inu wo azukatta no desu ga. 8. futsu no ordinary. i). 14. Kono hon wa kashite yatte mo ii ga. Abunai kara. The doctor said that you mustn 't give this child many sweet things to eat. ga kono ko ni wa ammari amai mono wo tabesase-nai yd ni to osshaimashlta (C). 15.

asuko e haire-nakatta no desu (C).vie wing. ichi-do ko iu koto wo shUara. waza to aoi no zoo totte Saburo ni yarimashita (C). 5. moshi motte ko-nakereba. If they have stolen it (the money). Taihen ii 5. kodomo-tachi wo tsurete. thinking over it Avill do no good at all you had better go back to your master quickly. O kane wo motte (C). You had better not joke with that man as he easily gets angry. I am glad I brought my purse with me wouldn 't have been able to go in there. ofuku wo kau ho ga toku desho (C). it would be to your advantage to buy a return ticket. . 3. If you can 't sleep at night you had better not sleep during the day. 4. ayamaru 6. konna koto ni wa nara-nakatta no ni (B). jodan wo iwa-naiga ii (B). O kutabire de gozaimasho . article of inferior dossari : : plenty. waza to on purpose. Konna yakamashii tokoro nara. what do you say to taking the children. if I hadn't. tenki desu kara. tell him what has happened. jodan : joke. yurusa-nai yo (A). Although you have come to such an out-of-the-way place on purpose (to see me). Although there are plenty of ripe pears. makoto ni shiUiirei itashimashita (D). You must be tired. Kaeri mo densha ni noru nara. 13. 11. yam-mono : cheap quality. Didn't I tell you not to leave the house today ? 12. o kamai mo itashimasen de. I Ve told you time after time that when I am away you are not to touch anything. What do you mean by doing what you've been forbidden ? I won't forgive you next time you do it. . If I hadn 't believed what that man said. You had better not do that. and going flower-viewing ? 7. 9. liana-mi : flower. and I have been very impolite. kite yokatta . ikura kangaete ita 'tte. koshUe ko-nai ho ga yd gozaimashUa (D). 14. 15. O kane ga aru no nara. 9. motto joto no bdshi wo o kai ni nareba ii ja arimasen ka ? sonna yasu-mono de naku (C). Abunai kara sore wa shi-nai ho ga ii desho (C). Ano hito no iu koto wo shinyo shi-nakattara. Watashi no rusuni wa nani mo sawatte wa ike-nai to itsu mo itsu mo itte aru no ni. 12. 14. shikata ga nai . If you have money enough. Kyo wa nan da ka arukitaku nai kara iknmai (B). it's dangerous. Torarete shimatta no nara. judging of two lines of action. 7. sukoshi o yasumi ni natte wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D). hiru-ne : midday nap. toku Study 170. preference . Toi tokoro wo waza-zvaza irasshaimashita no ni. As the weather is so fine. 1 dim 't know what 's wrong with me today. 11.. hai/aku shujin no iokoro e kaette. 16. If I had been there I should never have allowed such a thing to happen to you. yakamashii : noisy. If you are coming back by tram-car. . 3. hito ga tomefa koto wo sum. 10. 114. 15. Ban ni yoku nemure-nai no nara. hiru-ne rco shi-nai ho ga iija arimasen lea? (C). Mo ' 1. . 2. 6. I have offered you no entertainment. 17. I wish I hadn't moved to such a noisy place as this. instead of a cheap hat like that you might buy a better one. : advantage. hana-mi ni o-ide ni nattara ikaga desu ? S. won 't you rest a while ? 17. 16. but I don 't feel inclined to walk so I don't think I'll go. this wouldn 't have happened.EXERCISE Advice . (ho) ga ii (B). I 8. Yoku jikushita nashi ga dossari natte iru no ni. . 10. Watashi ga itara kesshite sonna koto wa sase-nakatta no ni (B). 2. wake wo hanashite. and ask his pardon. he purposely picked a green one and gave it to Saburo. Kyo wa uchi wo akete wa ike-nai to itta no ni (B). 4. 13. ] Ann hito wa sugu ni hara wo tateru kara.

Kyo-ho to mo itai desu (C). and my I wish you would tell me what's the op13. au : to suit. kondo wa tenki ni naru desho (C). 115. As there's a strong if some possible. hasn 't it ? I hope. and I had to give it up to make (my son) Taro a doctor instead. 1. 2. My eyes were but he was out. tsuben : interpreter. I want it made two inches shorter. ami-do wo shimete moraitai (B). Study 171. Nan de mo iri-yo na mono ga attara. It is usui. desu ga. 11. atsui : thick. would you please lend it to me ? I wih return it at the end of the month. (D). 2. rainen no haru kuni e kaeru yo ni shitai mono desu (C). we are going to have fine weather now. a osshatta n desti ' yo (A). 4. o bento wo koshiraete moraitai desu (C). akarui uchi ni kaeru yd ni shitai mow' da (B). iri-yo : use need. posite to atsui thick ? is too long. Ashita wa doko ka e asobi ni iku tsumori desu kara. As the road 3. Anata tea ii o koe da to kikimashita. I want to be woken some lunch ready for 18. stick This 1 6. coming. Ki/o wa roku-ji ni kaeru kara. wish. that time). I shall 11. 14. rusu de dame datta (B).EXERCISE Desire. me ga waruku natte nare-nakatta kara. so I went to see the doctor. 16. Sore 13. with ? vou preter at four o clock 17. Dotchinome ga itain' desu? (C). Tsuben wo tsurete o-ide ni nattara ikaga de gozaimasii ? 17. extreme. 3. was studying to be a doctor but my eyes got bad. so I want . Your mother said that to you because she doesn t want you to get ill. 8. Ammari kutabireta kara. 19. I'm so tired I'm going to sleep awhile. Watashi zva isha ni naru tsumori -de benkyo shite itara. siikoshi neru. 19. . Would you care to take an inter14. thin. . want. spring! It has rained a great deal. are not to hear eye sorry you I come as soon as bath (get to have want I be back today at six. 1. Kono bo wa naga-sugiru kara. so I want to 4. rai-(m comp. sono kawari ni Tarn wo isha ni shitai mono da (B). 10. kashlte kudasaimasen ka ? Misoka ni o kaeshi itashimasu (D). everything ready by 15. 10. utai ni naru no n'o kikitai mono desu (C). 6. 5. 7. Komban wa kaze ga ts-uyoi kara. 18. hot bath. 7. hijo us-ui ama-do : : outside shutters. ni-sun bakari mijikaku shitai (B). Domo koko wa zvatashi no karada ni aimasen kara. I 'm in need of thirty yen. doka itsu ka o 8. need. I am hurting me very much. Michi ga warui kara. voice. I 'm thinking of going on a pleasure-trip tomorrow. Both. Kane ga san-ju-yen hodo iri-yo desu ga.): next. 6. na : : extraordinary . 5. Sore wa ikemasen desu ne. is painful ? Which well. day. 12. however. Somehow or other this return to my native country next locality does not suit rny health. Yo-ji ni okoshlte moraitai (A). I . I'd like to hear you sing wind this evening. sugu nifuro ni haireru yd ni shite oite moraitai (B). furo hantai : opposition. please I hear you have a very beautiful say so without standing upon ceremony. 15. is bad I want to return home while it is still light. Zuibun yoku furimashUa ne . 9. ryo-ho : both. enryo naku so itte kudasai (C). 12. O kd-san wa omae wo bydki ni shltaku nai kara. haru : spring. Atsui thick no hantai no kotoba wo oshiete itadakital no desu (C). If you are in need of anything. 9. Hijo ni me ga itaku natte kita no de t is\a ni mite moraitai to omotte ittara. I want to have the outside shutters closed. get me to take with me. wa nsiti desu (C).

: sitting-room. 16. so don't wait dinner for me. key. oru (trans. otoshlte kita ka mo shire-nai . Thanks. 15. Nagasaki e fune de irasshaimasu ka? (D). I am afraid something is the matter with him. ivory. : to change one's clothes. : mekki ryori : : plating. I wonder whether this is. 14. 19. 13. Kimono wo ki-kaetc iru to jikan ni ma ni awa-nai ka mo shire-nai kara. 18. 116. lie. Ima o-ide ni natie mo ma ni awa-nai daro to omoimasu (C). is not genuine. and that. the dining-room. : cooking food. 2. 16. tabun nise-mono desho to omoimasu (C). . betsu ni nan to mo iware-nakatta (B). 4. Kono to omoimasu (C). No. I can't find them anywhere. I am thinking of masays he intends to start a restaurant on the Ginza. haha ga sukoshi netsu ga atte. 10. Intention. Yoshio wa Ginza de ryori-ya wo hajimeru tsumori da to itte imashita (C). zoge : mama matsu 1 . shokudo : dining-room. 5.au koto wa dekimai to omoimasu (C). 8. Suzuki San wa kyd wa ko-nai nai ne (B). nete imasu . 7. Yamada San wa kyo rnise kara kaeru to damatte nete o shimai ni natta . to-sanga daiji ni shite iru matsu no eda wo otta kara. shimpai desu (C). Kono hey a wo watashi no i-ma ni shite. I am afraid I must have lost my keys in the train. 3 I am afraid you won 't be in time even if you start immediate- I am . but he didn 't say anything. I am afraid this ring is only plated. and I am afraid she may get worse. 4. As it's so cheap I am afraid that perhaps it's only imitation. 10. 7. kono boshi wo katte kimashtta ga. ki-kae'm original condition or state. shire- zoge wa horn-mono ka 12. 3. 1. ti. Ima ko-nai nara. Yoshio 15. asuko wo shokudo ni shiyo to omou (B). debt. Kono yubi-wa wa mekki ka mo shira? (&). I this hat for Miss Mitsu-ko as there was no other but I am afraid she not like it. 18. pine-tree. 173. I'm afraid of travelling by boat. If Mr Suzuki hasn't come yet I am afraid he won't come today. office. I am afraid Matsuo is not strong enough to carry that box. o ki ni ira-nai ka to onwtte. I was afraid he would scold me. kenyaku : : economy.) to break fold. 1 am afraid you'll be late if you change your dress. 17. Ikura kenyaku shite mo. 9. hobo mite mo nai (B). chikara i-tna : strength. : ham-mono kagi leari : genuine nise-mono thing which . Mina-san o jobu de irasshaimasu ka ? (D). Are you going by boat to Nagasaki ? 17. 12. Matsuo wa sono hako wo motte iku hodo chikara ga arumai (B). Arigato. kisha de iku koto ni shimashita (C). go as you are. : Study 172 article. my mother is in bed with a little fever. okorareru daro to omotte itara. I am afraid I won 't be able to pay all my debts next year no matter how much I try to reduce my expenses. 5. o saki e ban 'no gohan wo Kyo meshi-agatte kudasai (D). Amrnari yasui desu Klsha no naka e kagi tvo bought may ly. 6. As I broke a branch of the pine-tree my father is so fond of. 2. 13. Mr Yamada went to bed today as soon as he came back from the without saying anything to anybody. kara. Is everybody well at home ? 19. 9. genuine ivory ? 11. sono mama de o-ide nasai (B). king this my sitting-room. watashi wa June wa kowai kara. -iza : . 8. ki ni iru : to like. waruku naranakereba ii ga to omotte imasu (C). 14. rainen no uchi ni kari wo kaeshite shi-m. . Mits-u-ko San ni hoka ni nakatta no de. nani ka atta no ka mo shire-nai (B). 11. afraid I may be late this evening.EXERCISE Fear . kaeri ga osoku naru ka mo shiremasen kara. I have decided to go by train.

or whether it's meat. shio no hanashi desu ka? Anata wa baka desti. sore wa ittai nan ni suru mono desho ?" "Jddan ja nai. He got very angry. If salt when 'added to food improves the taste so much. sono shiroi mono ica nan to iu mono desu ? " "Kore ? Kore wn shio to hi mono desu yo. Shio wa nani ni suru mo-no ka shira-nai nante? Anata wa yoppodo nonki na hito desu ne. uso ja arimasen ka ? " A. it tastes flat. Try and see how you like it. call He thought it very strange when he saw into their food. Karakutte. profitable . Sankich i no tokoro e itte kutte." " ? Nan desu 'tie ? Burei na koto wo itte wa ikemasen. Tabe-mono ico koshiraeru ni wa nakute nara- wo . E . isn't it ? for ? Well. Ma. Sankichi San. he thought that without doubt it would be still nicer if eaten from by itself.ith moderation. you are a funny fellow Whether it's fish. Sankichi !" "What are you saying ? Don 't be rude. Part III. ddka tameshite goran rtasai yo. ne. lllto ga tabe-mono ni shio ireru no wo mite fushigi ni omoimashtta." "Certainly Rokuro took the sjilt with him. are you referring to the salt ? You are a fool. : . to. iya na mono wo oishii nante. ' ' "So siikosjii iu benri no e. what do vou that white stuff?" "This? Why. may be looked up the Vocabulary. Sankichi. Mono ni wa hodo ga arimam. Do you mean to say you don't know what salt is used It's always used in cooking. this is salt/' " " Eh ? And what do you use it for ? "You are joking. " Rokuro didn 't know what people putting it salt was. Sankichi ni moratta no wo htto-kuchi ni tabeyo to shite odorokimashUa. mono desu ka? Chitto mo Ja. So he put into his mouth all at once the salt he had received 't know what he didn so It was but was salty Sankichi. if it has no salt.EXERCISE who have mastered the first fifty Exercises may to try their 117. Do shite sonna ni takusan no shio wo ip-pen ni tabemashita ?" . ' ' ' ? Shio ivo ire-nakereba niku de mo sakana de mo oishlku shirimasen deshita. shio dake tabetara nao umai ni chigai nai to ornotte. Konna. Rokuro wa shio wo moraimashtta. do suru koto mo dekimasen." "He ? Sosfnte. nai mono ja arimasen ka nara-nai n desu yo. When did I tell you a lie ? "Didn 't you tell me a short time ago that salt had a very nice taste ? And isn't it a lie to say that beastly stuff like this is nice ?" "Oh." "Is it such a useful thing as that? I hadn't the slightest idea. Things must^be used v. "I say. Please ! let me have a ! ' ' little. moshimashlta : "Anata wa uso-tsuki desu ne. "Sankichi San. he went to Sankichi 's house and said "What a liar you are. Rokuro wa shio to iu mono wo shirimasen deshlta. Tabe-mono ni ireru to sonna ni oishiku nan* mono nara. disagreeably surprised. This and the following Exercises consist of anecdotes and find in it hand occasionally at these more difficult Those and interesting constructions words and stories. phrases which are not known. Why ever did you eat so much salt at one time ?" Take some. Watashi ga'itsti " anata ni u#o wo iimashita ? "Desu ga. do. ka?" nasai. karaTaiso hara wo tatete. sakki watashi ni shio wa taiso umai mono da nante osshatta desho? " kudasaim-asen o niochi E.

' ' "Good day. "A. You've gone and pulled out the next tooth which was : sound.Ko shite nukimashlta. great " " Is it very bad ? What had I better do ? Can you stop it ? "H'm This tooth is too far gone to be stopped. ' ' ' Kore de mo itaku nai to ossharu n desu ka ? A. : itai ! tatete zuibun hidoija arimasen ka? Anata wa tonari nojobu na hawoonuki nas'ttan* desho?" " Dore ? Kore tva domo." terrible!" I shall "Oh." ' Is that so ? Well then. I'll draw the other one. but apply some medicine so that the extraction may not be painful. Konnichi wa. nuite agemasho. taiso hara wo ' ' A. ' ' kudasai. dozo kochira e o kake kudasai. Would you kindly examine it ? " ' Is that so ? Which one is it ? " ' ' the One of top teeth on the left-hand side. "Domo ha ga itamimasu kara. itakatta." He felt the place with his finger and found that it was the next tooth which had been drawn (and not the bad one). tooth. I am indeed very sorry for you." Taihen warui desu ka? Do shitara ii desho ? Vmete itadake-nai desho ka ? "So desu ne. sore wa daijobu . Well I never ! Yes.Ko natte wa umete mo dame desu. Koreja itamimasho. I made a mistake .EXERCISE Ha * ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 118. this is "You needn't be anxious. o kane wa ip-pon no dai shlka itadakimasen kara. only charge you for one !" . . that's too bad. One of my teeth is very painful. Itaku nai yd ni kusuri wo tsukete nuite . Yubi de sawatte mini to. Sd. honto ni o kinodoku sama deshita. Machigaete. ' ' mo itaku nai yd ni yarimasu to mo. mite kudasaimasen ka?" So desu ka ? Dotchi no ho desu ? Hidari no ue desu. . ka. So he got very angry "Oh. Yappari nuka-nakereba narimasen ne?" So desu. it does look bod ." And then he pulled out the. A man ' ' went to see a dentist on account of a decayed tooth. I'll do it so that you'll feel no pain at all. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . it must pain you a ' deal. nuite itadakimasho. ' ' ' ' E. please draw it . Ja. * Is this what you call a painless extraction ? It hurt me Oh. "Oh. Mo "Ma. ip-pon " ' ' E? sore wa taihen ' ' ! ' ' lie. I'll have to draw it. this one I suppose. no -icarui hito ga ha-isha ni ikimashita. tonari no ha ga nuite arimasu kara. chitto . how painful ' ' 1 ' ' ' ' ' ! very much." perfectly ' ' Let me see." Please sit down in this chair. it's Yes. kore desho? Naruhodo warui." "Have no fear. go shimpai nasara-nai ' ' de kudasai.

ja. sono kozo wo yonde : Chomatsu. As theft is a lot of work to be done." And "You And saying "Yes. The master of the shop called the boy "Chomatsu. At a certain shop there was an errand boy who had recently arrived from the country. don't waste your time on the road. jis-sen yarn kara. o-jigi zvo shimashita. I "Where . it . omae yubin-bako no aru tokoro wo shitte iru ka?" Shujin ga "///. machigae-nai yd ni yoku ki wo tsukete itte o-ide . : "Seven sen. Shujin wa : Hayakatta ne ? tegami wa dashite kita kai ? Hai. I understand. To ii nagara. san-sen no Tsuri wa ikura da ka shitte iru kai ? kitte wo ichi-mai kau no da yo." certainly I posted it here is the change a three-sen stamp. tadaima kaerimashita. to his master) : : am back. saying The master (said) this. "(So da . ' ' ' ' ' ' ' kaf itte. Did you post the letter ?" are back quickly. Do you know what the change will be ?" Chomatsu thought a little while (and said) "Yes." Chomatsu went out with the When he came back (he said "Master. wakarimashita. you must buy a three-sen stamp. . Itte mairimasil." is it?" "(Going out from here) you go to the right along this big road. Chomatsu wa tegami to jis-sen no o kane zvo motte dete ikimashita. kore wa o tsuri to uke-tori de gozaimasu. I go and come). ' ' "Yes. and sen seven his master he this." ' ' "/vowo o-dori wo migi no ho ' to. A salutation said on leaving one's house. and the receipt. do you know where the pillar-box is ?" : do." "Very well then. kono tegami wo dashite kite o kure ." "Dokoni aru?" e itte. isogashii no da Wakatta kara. Kaette kite shujin ni : "Danna sama. I letter and the ten sen. tashlka ni dashite mairimashita . cannot be translated into English. De wa ne. he bowed to him. take care and don't make a mistake. Chomatsu wa sukoshi kangaete imashita ga : A' ana-sen de gozaimasu. gave . tochu de asonde ite wa ike-nai. you turn at the chemist's shop and go a little further on it is on the left-hand side. (lit. Do you understand ? ." "That's right well then. go and post this letter here is ten sen. * Itte mairimasu. "* "Ilai.EXERCISE Am 1 ' 119. mise ni kono-goro inaka kara dete kita kozo ga arimashita. nana-sen to san-sen no kitte wo ichi-mai shujin no mae ni dashi- To ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' mashlta. kusuri-ya no kado wo magatte sukoshi iku hidari-gawa ni gozaimasu. shitte orimasu.

He got very angry." desu ka ? Sore wa fushigi desu ne. He thought that by mistake they had only given him three. if that is so. To itte. to kanjo shite Ip-piki. got on to one of to buy some horses. and said "Didn't I pay just now for four horses ? nevertheless there are only three. home. there are only three aren't there ?" "Oh. * Isn 't there some mistake ? The man answered "Is that so? That is very extraordinary. The buyer said "Oh. Don 't talk nonsense. main ip-piki ni jibun de notte kaette ikimashlta. Sukoshi tatte kara. two " and they counting : went to the place where the horses were. mustn 't you ? ' ' ? You must count . mimasu to ' ' finia no tokoro e ikimashlta. but only found three. no. but look . called the master. it's all with these words he again got on to a horse. shujtn wo yonde ko moshimashita : "Sakki watakushi tea shi-hlki dake no o kane wo haratta no ni. nani ka machigai ga am no ja nai desho ka?" Shujin wa : "So sho. they found there were four. Shi-hlki katte. and went on his way. On the road he began to count the horses. So he went back to the house of the man who sold him (the horses). when he got back to the seller's house. Taihen okotte. ni-hiki shi-hiki orimasu.EXERCISE 120. He got off the horse. De wa. After a little while. mashlta. hito ga uma wo kai ni ikimashlta. What about the horse you are riding yourself that one. uma wa sambiki shika orimasen. sam-biki shika orimasen. ' "Well. uma wa do shite mo sam-biki shika i-nai ja awinasen ka?" "Sonna koto ga aru mon" desu ka?" " De nasai . Tochu de uma wo kanjo shite mimasu Machigaete sam-biki yokoshlta no daro to omnito. futari de kanjo shite mima- To itte. sono uchi no ip~piki ni jibun ga notte uchi ni kaero to shimashita. sore nara ii no desu. utta hito no tokoro e kaette ikimashlta." much "Have you come back " ' ' surprised : again ?' ' ' ? 'What's the matter now ' What's the matter now ?" do you say ? There is no getting over it that there are only three horses. yappari ip-piki tarimasen. utta hito rva odoroite : Mala kaette o-ide nas 'tta no desu ne ? Do ka nas 'tta no desu ka ? " Do ka nas'tla no desu ka' 'tte. Sore de. he counted them again and found there was certainly one wanting. sam-biki shika i-nai desho ?" " lie. ' : Onc. let's count them both certain A man went for them and started : ' : ' ' together. mo^goran Jibun ga notte o-ide ni naru no wa do shlta no desu ? Sore mo issho ni kanjo nasara-nakereba ike-nai de IK a arimasen ka ? ichi-do kazoete hito ' ' ' ' ' 1 ' ' He bought four. Katta hito ica : ' A. thus. tfma kara orite. well. the seller was very And right. utta no uchi ni iku to. mo ' mimashita ga. Asid saying so.

hageta htto wa su. erai sensei de. "As you see I also am bald. ' ' ' ' "ZJofro ni irassharu o kata desti ? K&no machi ni desu ha?" Taihen lie. Kyoto ni o-ide ni natte.EXERCISE Do ka shite ke 121. dS Dozo ke ga haeru yo ni shite kudasai. One day he said to a friend Ci I am so bald. He was always thinking of how he could manage to make his hair grow. Please do something to make my As soon The doctor suid nothing. sorts all tried I have inconvenienced. o negai ni agarimashita. to arrive here in four or five days." damatte. anata no atama agerareru nara. I would begin " by curing my own. jibun no wo saki ni naoshltai mono desu." Where does he live ? Does he live in this town ? "No. Nakamura San wo go zonji nai no desu ka f Zuibun nadaJcai o isha san ' ' Am tokoro ni atama no hagete iru htto ga arimashita. httotsfi mite o morai nasai. that is why I have come to make a request of you. I am really in great trouble." shite mo naorimasen. but took off the cap he was wearing. He is a very re' ' ' ' markable doctor and has obtained some extraordinary results. moshi. it's a pity that I didn't given me a good piece of news. Domo arigato gozaimasu. ' ' . Do shttara ke ga Nakamura San ni o mise ni natte goran nasai. Ke ga chitto mo arimasen. Watakushi wa atama ga hagete komatte orirnasu. Thanks much. konaida tomodachi kara. the bald man went to see him : clever at curing Doctor. but he occasionally comes here. hair grow. but they have been of no use.gu ni ikimafihita : "Sensei. you heard of Nakamura ? He is a very famous doctor. why don't you see Nakamura and ' ' see how you get on ?" "Did you say Nakamura ? I don't know any doctor of that name. kabutte ita boshi wo nuide : ''''Goran no tori icatashi mo hagete imasu . iro-iro fnshigi na byoki wo takusan o naoshi ni nanmashUa. bald and on that account I am greatly of remedies. a friend told me a few days ago that you were very I am all sorts of illnesses. li koto wo ukagaimashlta. just go and consult him. to shiju shimpai shite imashita. ga haeru yd ni shitai mono da. Aru tcki tomodachi ni iimashita : tl Do-mo watakushi wa atama ga hagete ite komarimasu. sensei wa iro-iro no byoki wo taihenjozu ni o naoshi kudasaru to iu koto wo kikimashita no de. He had no hair all. toki-doki kochira e irassharu no desu. Iro-iro tameshite mimashUa ga." Nakamura sensei ga o-ide ni naru to." " So desu ka ? So iu jozu na o isha san ga irassharu nara. If I were able to cure your head. What would you advise me to at : do to make my hair grow ? "Well. You have such a clever doctor. O isha san wa wo naoshite In a certain place there once lived a man with a bald head. ' ' ' ' . motto hayaku mite moraeba yo gozaimashlta. ' ' haeru desho ? So desu ne. Shigo-nichi no uchi ni o mie ni naru hazu desu kara." as Dr Nakamura arrived. Nakamura San desu 'tie ? So iu namae no o isha san wa hajimete kikiDo in kata na no desil ? " mashtta. ' ' desu yo." As he is due "You very ' ' don't say so ? If he is go and consult him before. What " kind of a man is he ? haven't "What. he lives in Kyoto.

EXERCISE

122.

Yamoda San wa taihen kechi desu. Yabuketa uwa-gi too itsu made mo kite imasu kara, musuko-tachi iva kimari ga warukutte ta.marimasen. "0 to-san, uwa-gi ga zuibun furuku narimashita ne ? Atarashii no wo o kai
ni natte wa ikaga dean ?" Nani, kore de takusan, mada kirareni yo. Ni-ju-yen kakete uwa-gi zco ichimai koshiraeru yori, sono kane wo motle iru ho ga yoppodo ii. "0 to-san iva itsu de mo so osshaimasu ga, sono kimono wa ammari hidoi ja atashi-tachi ga arimasen ka? Zehi, atarashii no rvo o kai nas'tte kudasai. hazukashikutte shiyo ga arimasen."
' '
' '

W

'tte, hazukashiga.ru koto wa nai. do shite mo, uwa-gi wo ichi-mai kawaseyo to omoimashUa. Yasukereba kau ni chigai nai to omotte, shitate-ya ni sodan shimashita. Soshite, ni-ju-yenno woo to-san ni wa shlchi-yen ni utte moratte, ju-san-yen wa jibun-tachi ga harau koto ni kimemashita. "0 to-san, kyo shitate-ya ni ittara, baka ni yasui uwa-gi ga arimashlta yo. Shina wa goku ii n' desu ga, wake ga atte, tokubetsu yasiiku uru no desu tie. Dare ka katte shimau to ikemasen kara, sugu ni katte irasshai. So ka ? yasukutte ii no ga areba, katte mo ii ne. Yarnada San wa shitate-ya ni itte, sono uwa-gi wo roku-yen go-jis-sen ni makesashite kaimashita. Keredomo uchi e kaetta toki ni wa mo sono kimono wo motte

" Kimono

ga fnruku natta

"

Musiiko-tachi

wa

' '

' '

' '

i-nai no desu.

"Mattaku omae-tachino
' ' ' '

Roku-yen go-jis-sen de ? Ja, doko ni ant n desu ? misete kudasai. Kaeri ni densha no naka de tomodachi ni misetara, 'ju-yen de utte kure kara, utta no sa. San-yen go-jis-sen mokete kita.
' ' '

iu tori yasukatta, roku-yen go-jis-sen de katte kita yo." '
'
'

to

iu

out and torn that
' '

used to \venr his coats until they v/ere so worn bear the shame of it no longer. Father, your coat is very old, isn 't it ? Iladn 't you better buy a new one ? Oh, this one will do, I can wear it still. It is a great deal better to have twenty yen than to spend it on a new coat. "You always say that, father, but really your clothes are too awful. Do
a miser.
his sons could
' '

Mr Yamada was
' ;

He

' '

buy yourself some new

all feel very much ashamed. ones. rny clothes are old, there is no reason to be ashamed of that." The sons thought that they must, somehow or other, make him buy a new coat. They thought he would, no doubt, buy one, if it were cheap, so they went to the tailor and talked it over. They arranged with the tailor that he should sell their father a twenty-yen coat for seven yen, and they themselves would pay thirteen yen. "Father, we saw a very cheap coat at the tailor's today. The quality is very good, but for some reason or other, he is selling it very cheap he says. Go and ' ' buy it quickly or else somebody else ma}' get it. You don 't say so ! I don 't mind buying it if it's cheap and good. Mr Yamada went to the tailor's and after beating the price down to six yea

We

"

"Even

if

'

'

' '

fifty,

he bought the coat.
really as

However, when he returned home, he had not the
six
it

coat with him.

"It was
' '

me

"For six yen On my way
to
sell it

fifty ?

cheap as you said, so I bought it for Well, where is it ? Please show

to us.

yen fifty." "

back,

to

him

I showed it to a friend in the tram-car, and as he asked " for ten yen, I did so. So I gained three yen fifty sen.

EXERCISE
Jochu ga arimasktta.
atte
' '

123.

Shijii

mashita ga, baka desu kara do shitara
:

oku-sama no o ki ni iritai mono da to omotte oriii ka shirimasen. toki tomodachi ni

Am

sureba oku-sama no o ki ni iru koto ga dekiru desho ? To kiite mimashita. Tomodachi wa : "Sore wa nanni mo muzukashii koto j a arimasen. Oku-sama no nasam koto wo nan de mo sono tori mane wo sureba ii no desu. Sore ga ichiban ii shi-kata desho." So desu ka ? ii koto wo oshiete kudos ''tie arigato. Hitotsu yatte mimasho. ' ' Jochu wa. mane wo shiyo to omoi nagara, oku-sama no nasaru koto wo ki wo tsukete mite imashita. Kono oku-sama ni wa yoku akubi wo suru kusega arimasu.
' ' ' '

Do

Jochu wa

:

koto wo mitsuketa Dare ni de mo dekiru.

"A,

ii

:

akubi wo suru mane gurai nara yasashii koto da.

' '

To kangaemashlta. Sore kara wa, oku-sama no mae ni deru to kitto old na kuchi wo aite isshokemmei ni akubi wo shimashita. Oku-sama wa fushigi ni o omoi ni
natie
:

ko no-go ro yoku nemure-nai no kai ?" ni nemure-nai koto zva gozaimasen." "Soreja, naze so tabi-tabi akubi ga deru no daro ne?" "Sore wa oku-sama no o ki ni iritai kara de gozaimasu. " no nasaru koto wo mane sureba ii to omoimashite

"

"Ornae

zca

lie, betsu

Nan
shite

de

mo oku-sama
"
ga.
.

Oku-sama wa o okori ni natte Nante omae wa baka daro.
' '

:

Ii koto nara ikura

mane wo

mo

ii

.

There was once a servant. She was always thinking how she could please her but as she was a silly girl she didn't know how to set about it. One she met a friend. day What shall I do in order to please my mistress ?
mistress
' '

;

' '

Thus she inquired.
"There's no
does
:

The

friend (answered)
' '

:

difficulty

about that.

Imitate your mistress in everything she

that 's the best way to please her. "Is that so ? Thanks very much for giving me such a good idea. I'll just try it. The servant, with the idea of imitating her mistress, took particular notice of all her mistress did. Now, this lady had the bad habit of yawning frequently. The servant (said to herself) Ah, I ve found a good thing. To imitate yawning is easy enough anybody can do it." Thus she thought. And from that time whenever she was in the presence of her mistress, she never missed yawning, opening her mouth as wide as she
' ' : ' ' '

;

could.
' '

it would "It's because I "wanted to please you, madam. I^thought " did good thing to imitate you in everything you The lady got angry (and said) What a fool you are It is always a good thing to ^imitate something good, but. (do not imitate another person's bad habits)."
: ' '
! . .

The lady thought this very strange. "Aren't you sleeping ,well of nights lately ?" Yes, I 'm sleeping all right. "Then, why are you always yawning ?"
' '

EXERCISE

124.

Dorobo ga sabishii tokoro de, ki no kage ni kakurete hito no torn no wo matte Dorobo wa imashita. Shibaraku sum to hUori no otoko ga tori-kakarimashita. sugu ni tobi-dashite, kowai kao wo shite iimashlta : "Motteru kane wo minna o dashi nasai." ' Kiisuri wo Kane wo ? aru koto wa ga, kanai ga bydki de nete iru no da. kattari, oishii mono de mo tabesaseyd to omotte motte kita kant da kara, totemo omae ni yarn koto wa deki-nai. "Guzu-guzu iwa-nai de, arittake no kane wo minna o dashi nasai. Kanai ga bydki da nante uso ni chigai nai. Uso da to ornon nara issho ni kite goran. Shiyo ga nai, sore ja, siikoshi dake nokoshite nto wa omae ni yard. ' Wakara-nai hito desii ne ? Kanai no bydki nante watashi no shitta koto ja Kane tco minna o dashi nasai to itteru w' desu yo. Inochi ga oshlkerya, nai. otonashiku watashi no iu koto wo o kiki nasai." Dorobo wa teppo wo mukemashita* Otoko wa toto kane-ire zoo dorobo ni
'

am

'

'

'

'

' '

' '

'

,

yatte

:

watashi wa nanni mo nakunatte shimatta. Sore de wa, kawari ni, sono " teppo de mo kure-nai ka ? "Kane wo toreba hoka ni yd wa nai ; teppo ga hoshikereba agemasti yo." Dorobo wa iko to shimashita. Otoko no hito wa yobi-tomete : "Sd, kondo wa watashi no ban da : ima no kane wo kaesti ka, omae no inochi wo yokosH ka, dotchi ka ni o shi. Dorobo wa heiki de :

"A,

' '

"O kinodoku
After a
' '

sama, sore wa kara-deppd da."

in a lonely place waiting for people to pass. time a man happened to come along. The robber immediately jumped out and with a threatening face, said Give me all the money you 've got. "Money ? I have some, it is true, but my wife is ill in bed. I intend with this money to buy medicine and some dainties for her to eat, and therefore, it is
little
: ' '

A robber hid himself behind a tree

entirely impossible for

to give it to you. "It's no use talking It is sure to be a give me all the money you've got. lie, your wife being ill and all that. If you think it is a lie, come with me and see. I don 't know what to do well, I will just keep a little and give you all the rest." "Will you never understand what I say ? Your wife's illness is none of my business. I've told you to give me all the money you've got. If you want to save your life, do quietly as I tell you. The robber aimed his gun at him. The man at last gave the robber his
; ' ' ' ' ; ' '

me

' '

purse.

you, "

have your

"Ah, I've lost everything! Therefore, in exchange for what I've given won 't you at least let me have that gun ? I 've got the money and that's all I want. If you want the gun here it is. The robber was about to go away. The man called him "Ha, it's my turn now. You'll return the money I just gave you or I'll
' ' ' ' :

life

;

one of the two.

' '

The robber unconcernedly " I am

said

:

very sorry for you, but that gun

is

not loaded

' ' !

EXERCISE

125.

Mukashi, taiso ki no yowai hito ga arimashUa. Senso ga okotte, do shite mo ika-nakereba nara-naku narimashita. Sore de, shikata nashi ni, kuroi Uma ni notte demashlta. Keredomo, senso ga kowakutte dekimasen. Soko-ira ni taorete
iru hito no chi n>o kao ya karada ni nuri-tsukete, kega wo shita furi wo shite nete Sono uclii ni dare ka ni uma wo nusumarete shimaimashitn. imashita. Senso ga o shimai ni natte kara, soro-soro kaero to omoimashlta ; keredomo : Moshi dare ka ni uma wa do shita to kikaretara do shiyo ? Kore wa knmatta A, so da, iima wa senso shUeru uchi ni korosareta' to itte yard. Sono shdko ' ni wa skippo wo kitte motte ikeba ii. ni shindeita To kangaete, soba shiroiwnanoshippo wo kitte motte kaerimashlta.
' '

'

'

'

'

Sum
' '
'

to tomodachi ga : Kimi, kyo wa do datta ? '' Isshokemmei hataraitayo

' '

;

katakinokubi wo
' '

yottsu, itsutsu totte yatta.

Kono

chi-darake da. "Sore wa laihen datta ne." ' ' Nani, kono gurai no kega nante nan to mo omowa-nai. Kuni no tame ni wa inochi ti-o stitete mo oshiku wa nai. Toki ni, uma wa do shtta ? ' iJma kai ? Kega wo shite taorete shimatta. Honto ni kazcaiso na koto ivo Itsu made mo wasure-nai yd ni shippo wo motte kita." shita yo. " Jodan wo itcha ike-nai yo ; kimi no uma wa kuroi uma ja nai ka? Kyu ni shiroku naru wake wa nai. Ki no yowai hito wa nan to mo henji ga dekimasen dcshUa.
tori

kega wo

shite,

' '

' '

' '

'

' '

Once upon a time, there was a very timid man. His country was at war and he was obliged to go to the war together with the others. And so, as it couldn 't be helped, he set forth on a black horse. However, he was so frightened that he could not tight. He bedaubed his face and body with the blood of a man who had fallen near there and he pretended to be wounded and lay down. In the
;

meantime, somebody

stole his horse.
:

After the battle was over, he thought of returning home. However what shall "Supposing somebody were to ask what has become of my horse, I'll say that my 1 really don't know what to do. I say ? Ah, I have it horse was killed in the battle. And as a proof of that, it will be sufficient to take a horse's tail along with me." And with this idea, he cut off the tail of a vyhite horse that was lying dead near him, and started to join the others. A friend said "I say, how did you get on today ?" I cut off the heads of four or five of the enemy. I 've done my very best. And as see I have been wounded and I am all covered with blood."
!

:

' '

' '

even my Oh, I think nothing of a wound like this. I don't grudge the service of my country." "By the way,* what's become of your horse ?" I was really sorry "My horse ? He was wounded and fell dead. And so I brought his tail as a souvenir." Don 't joke. Yours was a black horse, wasn 't he ? He can t possibly turned white all of a sudden." The coward didn't know what to answer.
\

you That was very brave of you. "

' '

Ii

' '

h

EXERCISE
jii-snn ga
hito

126.

uma ni notte, kodomo ga sono ato kara tsuite mairimasu to, kore Goran nasai, nan to iu hidoi o jii-san desho ! Kodomo wo ga : arukashite jibun wa uma ni notte ikimasu yo." O jii-san wa : " A, ano hito no iu koto wa dori da. Kodomo wo nosete tjaranakereba nara-nai." To kangaete, uma kara orimashita. Soshite kodomo wo
wo mita
'
'

nosete yarimashlta.

Shibaraku
toshiyori

sum
'

to

"
:

arukashite, jibun ikura de gurai okiku nattara, '

wo

Md, ano musuko wa burei ni yatsii desu ne ? wa notte iku nante, akireru ja arimasen ka

?

Anna Ano

mo

arukeru no
hito

' '

ni.
' '

To omoimashita. kara orite, futari to mo aruite ikimashita. " Eaka na hito-tachi ! chotto Sukofihi iku to tori-kal.-atta hito ga : goran nasai, mo ni nanni nose-zu ni tada hiite iku no desu ; anna baka ga na uma anojobu-so aro to wa yume ni mo omowa-nakatta. Futari wa sore mo so da, to omoimashita. Soko de kondo wa futari de notte mairimashita. Aru hito ga mite : "A, nan to iu fu-shinsetsu na hito-tachi daro ! Kan-aixn iJma ga de aruke ya ni, ip-piki no uma ni futari noni to wa ammari da. ?" shi-naija nai ka Oya-ko wa kore wo kiite uma kara orimashita. Soshite ari-awaseta himo de bd ni uma no ashi wo shibatte, fiitari de rnotte ikimashita. flashi no ue ni kuru to, ozei no hito ga kono yosu, wo mite o-sawagi wo shimashita kara, uma wa So shite, toto kawa ni ochite, shinde shimaimashita. odoroite ugokimashita.
Naruhodo, ano
Sore de

Musuko wa :

no iu koto wa honto da.

uma

' '

mam

.

An old man and
horse,

and

"Look

his son were going along a road the old man was riding a son was following on foot. When people saw this, they said at that cruel old man He makes his son walk while he himself is
;

his

:

!

riding." The old man thought " So he the boy ride. got
:

"Ah, what those people say is right. I must make down from the horse, and he told the child to get on
!

to

it.
:

After a while He makes an old man like Look, what a rude boy that is that walk while he himself is riding it's enough to disgust anybody. As he is fairly big, he ought to be able to do any amount of walking. " So he The lad thought got "By Jove! What those people say is true. down from the horse and he and his father continued on foot. T hat After they'd gone a little distance somebody who was passing said fools those men are Just look Without making use of that strong horse in any way, they are just pulling it along. I would never have dreamt such fools
;
'

"

'

:

'

'

:

W

!

!

existed.

' '

So now they both got on the horse. "What hard-hearted fellows those are seeing this, said It's too bad for those two men to be riding on that poor horse. Why, it can

They

felt

that that was true.

A

certain

man
' '

:

!

hardly walk.

Father and child when they hdard this, both got down from the horse. And then with a cord which happened to be there, they tied the horse's legs to a When they came to a bridge, a lot of men pole, and they carried him along. saw this strange sight. And as they laughed and made a great noise, the horse got frightened and began to move. The result was. that it fell into the river

and

died.

EXERCISE
Am
"
ni tazunemashita.

127.

hito ga yoso no hatake ni wa mugi ga yoku dekiru no ni, jibun no uchi no ioa mai-toski sukoshi shika toremasen kara, fiishigi ni omotte, tonari no shnjin

Konnichi tea. Kyo wa sukoshi o 'a-kagai shitai koto ga atte agarimashlta. taku no hatake kara wa itsu de mo mugi ga takusan toreru yd de gozaimam ga, uchi de wa ikura ii lane wo maite mo dame de gozaimasu. Do iu wake de gozai-

maslid?" il Sono koto desu ka ? Nani, betsfi ni zvake tea nai no desu yo. " "De mo, zcatashi no ho wa domo umaku ikimasen kara, doka hitotsu oshietf kudasaimaseii ka ?" " Nanni mo muzukashiku wa arimasen. Tsuchi ga katakfttte wa do shite mo mugi ga yoku haemasen kara, tsnchi wo yazvaraka ni shite soko e ii tane wo o maki nasareba, kitto yoku dekimasu."
,
' '

"Domo arigato gozaitnashita, sore de wakarimashita,. Kotcshi koso wa jdzu ni yarimasu. Oshiete moratta tori, isshokemmei ni hatake wo hotte, tsnchi wo yawaraka ni shimashita. Keredomo, tane zvo maku toki ni hUotsu komaru koto ga dekimashUa. ' Moshi watashi ga hatake ni haitte tane wo makeba, mata tsuchi ga kataku Nani ka ii koto ga arumai natte, s*ekkaku no hone-ori ga muda ni natte shimau.
'

ka?"
To kangaete ii kufil wo shimashita. Vma ni notte tane wo makeba jibun no ashi de tsuchi wo juma-nai de -mo ii to omotta no desu. Soshite kangaeta tori ni shimashita. to, naruhodo, jibun no ashi wa hatake ni tsnkimasen deshita ga, sono kazcari ni uma no shi-hon no ashi ga hatake rco mecha-mecha nifunde shimaimashita.

Sum

A certain man thought it strange that other people's fields should yield good crops of corn, while every year his ov.n should only yield a little. So he went to make inquiries of his next-door neighbour. "Good day I have come today because there is something I want to ask It that you always have a good crop in your field but I about. seems you can do nothing with mine no matter how good the seed may be. I wonder what the reason is ?" Is that all you want to know ? Oh, there 's no special reason.
!

;

' '

' '

"Well, but 'as
to

I

cannot get good

results,

won't you please

tell

me what

do?"
4 ' ' '

Oh, there's no difficulty about the matter. If the ground is hard the corn not grow well. So loosen the soil, aad if you then sow good seed you will be sure to get a good crop. "I am very n.uch obliged to you now I understand. I will be sure to go about it properly tins year." So following the advice he had received, he dug the field as hard as he could and loosened the soil. However, when the time came to sow the seed, a difficulty
will
;

will again become hard and all go into the field to sow the seed the soil 1 can do." what my labour will have been in vain. I wonder And thinking over it he struck on a good plan. He thought that if he got on a horse to'sow the seed, he would avoid treading the earth. So he did as he had planned. IJut then, though he did not as a matter of fact press the the field with his four feet. ground with his own feet, the horse trod all over

arose. ' If I

EXERCISE
' ' ' '

128.
' '

Hanshichi San ja arimasen ka ? Shibardku desti. ne, yotte o-ide nasai. "Konnichi wa. Chokichi San desu ne. Kyo wa isogimasu kara, kondo yukkuri kimasho. " Md, chotto o yori nasaimasen ka ? " Kyo zua mattaku isoide iru no desu. Mala kondo dete kimasu yo. Arigato. " I)e mo ii ja arimasen ka ? Waza-waza o-ide nasaru no wa taihen desu kara, " tori-kakatta tsuide ni yotte o-ide nasai yo. "Sekkaku desu ga, ato de kimasho. Ima wa honto ni isogashlkutte tolemo Sayonara. yotte wa irare-nai no desfi. Hanshichi San, do ka nas 'tta no desu ka? taku ni go byo-nin de mo o ari
' '
' '

' '

' '

desuka?"
sonna shimpai na koto ja nai n desu. desho ? Nagaku tea tomemasen kara. ..." Ja, Desii ga, kyo bakkari wa yo-ji ga atte, sugu ni kaera-nakereba narimasen kara, sumimasen ga, gomen nasai." " Do shite so isoide o-ide nasaru no daro? Metta ni awa-nai no desu kara, " chotto yotte kudas'tte mo yosa-so na mono desu ga Go shinsetsu wa arigatai desu ga, kyo wa yotte iraremasen ; mata chikai uchi ni kitto kimasu yo. Domo lien desu ne. lltai do nas 'tta no desu ? "Jitsu wa, ima kanai no kimono wo katte kita no desu.'' " So desu ka ? Ja, nani mo isoide o kaeri nasaru wake wa naija arimasen ka ? Hayaku katra-nai to, oku-san ni shikarareru to de mo ossliaru no desu ka ?"
' '

'

' '

" lie, ii
' '

' '

' '

' '

' '

9

' '

Masaka

!

Hayari ni okure-nai uchi ni motte
' '

itte yaritfii to

omotte

"

"Why, it's Mr Hanshichi, isn't it ? It's quite a long time since I met you. Come in a moment. Good day. Mr Chokichi, to be sure. As I am in a hurry today, 1 '11 come again when I have some spare time. "Won't you come in for just a moment ?"
' ' ' '

"It's very kind of you, I am sure. I will come later on. I am really so busy now that I cannot possibly stop. Good-bye." "Mr Hanshichi, what's the matter ? Anybody ill at home ?" "Oh, no, nothing as serious as that." "Well then, why don't you come in ? I'm not going to keep you long. " "Yes, but 1 have some special business today, I must get back soon. I am sorry to appear uncivil, but please excuse me." What are you in such a hurry about, I wonder ? As I hardly ever meet
' '

"Thanks. I am really very busy today. I'll come again another day." Oh. but you might come in. It would be a great trouble for you to come especially to see me and as you are passing now, please come in.
' '
' ' ;

think you might stop when I do happen to see you." obliged to you for your kindness, but I cannot stop today. I will come again in a few days without fail." This is very strange. Tell me what's the matter with you. "The fact is, I've just bought a dress for my wife." You don't say so ? Well, that's no reason for getting back in such a hurry. Do you mean to say that your wife will scold you if you're not back soon ?" "Nonsense I want to give it to her before the fashion changes !"

you,

I

"1 am very much
'

"

' '

'

'

!

EXERCISE

129.

Mukashi, Kichibei to iu mame-ya ga arimashita. toki shinrui no hito ga nakunatte, omoi-gake naku, sono hito no nokoshile itta o kane wo hyaku-yen moraimaslnta. Kichibei u-u, hltori de kurashite imashita. kane wo uchi ni oite shobai ni deru icake ni wa ikimnsen ski, mata, mai-nichi sonna takfisan no o kane wo inottc aruku koto mo dekimasen. Do shitara yokaro, to kangaemashtta. Soshlie, tatami ico ichi-mai huide. scmo shita ni o kane rc-o kakushlte okimashita. Keredomo, yappari shimpai desu kc.ra, uchi wo deru toki to, kaetta toki to zva kitto tatami zvo agete mint koto ni shite imashita. Tokoro ga, chodo sono mukai ni shiju asonde iru otoko ga orimashita. Kono yosu wo mite : "Kore wa domo okashii. Ittai Kichibei San zva naze anna hen na koto wo Da ga, ano tatami no shita ni wa mai-nichi, mai-nichi shfterii no daro ? nani ka ant ni chigai nai. Hitotsu Kichibei San no raw ra itte mite yard. Kono mono-zuki na hito zva, Kichibei ga itsu mo no tori mame wo uri ni demasu Suru to, hyaku-yen no o to, ant toki, sotto hditte, tatami a-o agete mimashita. kane ga chanto kami ni tsutsnnde oite aritnashita. " Naruhodo, kore de tiakatta. Kore hodo no kane wo tada Jcoko e cku no zca
' '

Am

mnda na koto da. Watashi ga tsukatte yard." Namake-mono zca niko-niko shi nagara, o kane
ni
shiite,

zvo totte, tatami zco moto no tori doko e ka nigete itte shimairnashlta. Rusu ni konna koto ga atta no wo yume ni mo shira nai mame-ya wa kyd mo kaette kite tatami zco agete mimaslntara, daiji na, daiji na takara wa kage mo

katachi
' '

mo miemasen. A, kore de yatto anshin

shtia.

Kurd ga nakmiatte

' '

yokatta

!

years ago, there was a bean-vender called Kichibei. Once a relation of and he unexpectedly received a hundred yen out of what that man left when he departed this life. Now Kichibei lived all by himself. On the one hand he couldn't go to his work and leave the money behind him. On the other, he couldn't go out every day with so much money on him. "What had I better do ?" he thought and he lifted up one of the mats, and hirl the money underneath. However, as he was still anxious, before going out and after returning home, he would lift the mat to see if the money was safe. It happened that just in front of his house, there lived a man who never had any fixed work to do. When this man saw these strange proceedings : This is very curious. Now, why does Mr Kichibei do such an extraordinary No doubt he's got something under that mat. When thing every day ? Mr Kichibei is out, I will just go and find out. " One day when Kichibei went out to sell his beans, as he was accustomed to do, this inquisitive man entered the house quietly, lifted up the mat and looked underneath. When he did so, there were the hundred yen wrapped up in paper. "Oh, now I understand. It's useless for all this money to be lying here

Many

his died,

;

' '

idle.

I'll

use

it

The idle man, smiling, took the money, replaced the mat, and made off. The bean-vender who hadn't got a notion of what had happened during his absence, as usual, when he came back, lifted up the mat and looked underneath.

for him.;'

When

he did so, he found that nothing was left of his precious treasure. "Ah, I can enjoy peace of mind at last! My anxiety has disappeared. What a good thing !" (he said).

so she called a doctor. o isha san ico yondc : no watakushi me wo naoshite. Keisatsu-sho de wa sugu ni o bd-san wo yonde kikimashita : Anata zua o islia ni bydki ga naoreba o rei wo suru to itta so desu ga. ' ' . After some time the old woman's eyes got better. Konaida o isha san ga naotta to ossJiaimashUa ga. Keredomo. I was to pay nothing. why don't you pay what you promised ?" "You are right I certainly did promise to pay a lot of money if I got well. ' ' nanni mo agemasen. woman knowing it. naifu nanzo ga. Yoku mieru desho ? De wa. plates. Ko iu koto ni shite wa iknga de gozaimasJid ? To moshimasu to. So she made an excuse and did not pay the doctor any money. ' ' . if T do not get better I will give you ly. The doctor said the other day that I was well. one of her utensils. pots. keredomo. Shibaraku tatte o bd-san wa me ga naorimashUa. o bd-san wa mae ni atta iro-iro no dogu ga chitto mo miemasen kara odorokimashlta. o rei Soko de. sendatte o yakusoku nas 'tta o Sd. So please pay Well. and other things which were formerly in the house. you cure my eyes and make me see the same as I used to formerhowever. kudasareba. The doctor went occasionally to the old woman's house and put some medicine And every time he went he took away with him. if you don't do Didn't you expressly promise to pay me as you promised. naora-nakereba nanni mo age-nai to moshimashUa. The ' ' It . mata mieru yd ni $hUe ga wo takusan itashimasu . Soshite. Nani ka ii-wake wo shtte. the old woman was very much surprised as she could not find several of the utensils and pieces of furniture which she had before she was ill. sdtto jibun no uchi ni motte ikimashlta. . do desu ? kane wo itadakimasho. mae ni uchi ni atta tsukue ya. me ni kusuri zco sashife yarimashita. naze ' ' ' ' ' ' yakusoku no kane wo haraimasen ka?" "Sayo de gozaimasu . but if I did not get well. anata wa uso zco tsukimashita ne ? Naottara o rei ico suru to chanto Do shite mo o yakusoku no tori ni nasara-nakereba." police called the old woman to the police station and questioned her seems that you promised to pay the doctor if he cured you. you are cheating me. o iaha san ni kane wo haraimasen. 130. Well. nabe ya. ' ' ' ' ' ' got angry ' : Old lady. how are you ? You can see quite well. naoshite kudasara-nakereba. knives. narimashita. well ? if you got Anyhow. can 't you ? me what you promised. without the old in her eyes. I cannot see my desk. However. sara ya. The doctor "Doctor. isha san wa toki-doki o bd-san no uchi ni kite. hUotsu mo tnie-nai no de g ' ' An old woman if lost the use of her eyesight. osshatta ja arimasen ka ? keisatsu ni so iimasu. However. o isha san wa shochi shimasliita. ' ' isha san ' ' wa okotte : bd-san. Do you agree to this arrangement ? This is what she said and the doctor agreed to it. watakushi wa tashlka ni nanreba o kane wo takusan haraimasu ga. I will pay you handsomely nothing at all. 1 will complain to : the police.EXERCISE mekura ni " bd-sanga moshi anata Sensei. kuru tambi ni o bd-san no dogu wo hitotsu zutsii.

" " It 's a It does seem a little too long. Sore de komori-gasa wo uru rnise ni itte : "Konnichi zva. She was always breaking plates." And with these words she let fall another plate and smashed it into pieces. : ' ' ' ' Aru hlto ga tornodachi kara okuri-mono ni sutekki wo moraimashlta. you don't seem to understand. Shochi itashimashlta. mo ichi-mai no sara wo yuka ni otoshlte mecha-mecha ni watte misemashlta. hold on. . Tadaima sugu ni kiriinasu kara. 1 will cut it immediately so just wait a moment." ! THE END. so I don't know what to do with you. This stick is too long. Kozo ga sutekki no shlta no ho zvo kiro to shimasu to o kyaku wa bikkuri shite : A. please. . But when he was was a little too long. Oku-san. nai yd m' 'tie. o-yorokobi de motte aruite mint to. Mo sukoshi shikkari shite kure-nakucha shlkata ga naija nai ka ? Do shite ano ?" daiji na sara wo watte shimatta no Ko shite watta no de gozaimasu. Naruhodo. As the shop-assistant was about to cut off the lower part of the stick. So he called at an umbrella-shop. Take. One day her mistress said Look here. ue no h da yo. very fine article. I see I will do as you wish. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' A it certain man once received a walking-stick as a present from a pleased. honto ni wakara-nai de kornaru ne. kore ja sfikoshi nagai yd de gozaimasu. Siiteki ni haikara na sutekki desii kara. it's at the top. dozo shibaraku o machi kudasai. omae wa are hodo watashi ga setomono wa yoku ki wo tsukete kowasa- ' ' ' ' A servant called Take was very careless. Rippa na mono de gozaimasu ne. Would you kindly cut a piece off ? I would like it two inches shorter. Take tea bonyari-mono de. Don't you see that you must really be more careful ? However did you manage to break a good plate like that ? "Madam. although I am always telling you to be careful not to break the crockery. tumblers and tea-cups. shiju sara da no. "I say. "(iood day. nagai no wa shlta no ho ja nai. he found As friend. itsu mo itte kikashlte aru no ni. it was a splendid and fashionable stick he was very going out for a walk and wished to use it. kimi. chaivan da no Gejo no wo kowashimasu. The long part is not at the bottom. sukoshi nagasugimasfi. koppu da no. Aru toki oku-san ga : Take ya. sukoshi kitte kurenai ka ? Ni-sun mo mijikaku shite morad.EXERCISE ' ' ' 131. makoto ni sumimasen To ii nagara. This is how it happened. Kono sutekki ga nagakutte komaru kara. 1 am very sorry. the guest in a great hurry stopped him. ' ' Irasshai. isn 't it ? Yes.

++ A3SL H H n 7 AS IE tr tr tr IT IE ep ff WJ ^TH if lU A . IE IE xxxxxxxxx 5S v 5 X X x X x X * g X xxxxxxxxx Jjff J n n n n *-.IE 3E IE IE.

The Fukuin Printing Co. SHANGHAI. HONGKONG (All rights reserved.CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE FOR BEGINNERS BY ARTHUR ROSE-INNES II ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE NEW EDITION YOKOHAMA..) and SINGAPORE. Ltd.. Yokohama .

.44 " . Desire. report Certainty. . supposition. . preference. 38 39 40 41 41 . probability. 109 40. . 36. 93 22. . 108.114 115 116 . . 94. . 7. Gender . .. 1 05 34 35 37 38 . need 112 113 113 4l 39. Number Derivative and Compound Concrete Nouns. Page 5 Exercises in Part I. semblance. 101 Various Verbal Phrases Irregular Verbs Auxiliary and Terminal Verbs Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Passive Verbs Potential Verbs Causative Verbs Reflexive Verbs Compound and Derivative Verbs The Verbs Sum and Naru The Verb 'To be' Miscellaneous Translations . Fear Intention III 42 43 43 44 116 NOUNS Article . 26.. commanding and requesting . 37. 12. 95 Frequentative Desiderative.. . . 107 37. 100 25. . possibility. 102 34.. . 8. 27.96 32.110 Doubt. 29.Contents. .98 32. action . Derivative and Compound Abstract Nouns. 9. . . . 92 10. Diminutives and Augmentatives 44 45 45 46 47 51 51 51 38. opinion. 1 1 4. . 52. / * . 103. 43. .5. 24 26 29 30 31 32 34 . 'perhaps'. Second base or . . . . 90 91 Gerund Imperative Conditional . 11. emphasis Obligation . 07 Infinitive . Stem 20 20 21 22 96 21. . . 6. . II VERBS Conjugation Moods and Tenses General remarks Present and Probable Present or Future. want. 18. . I WRITING AND PRONUNCIATION . 03 . Past and Probable Past 10 10 12 12 13 14 14 16 17 19 . 53 54 55 . judging of two lines of . 1 11 Permission Advice. 104 34. . 35. . 00 07 38. wish.

' " .. 74. Comparison Superlative 49 52 54 55 56 57 59 61 61 . 76 77 VII VIII HONOR IFICS AND POLITE PHRASES POSTPOSITIONS-PREPOSITIONS ... 19. . . 15.9. '. . * * Negatives Interrogations . 41. . .1. Age House Numbers House Storeys Vagueness 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 71 . 79 80 81 WaandGa DeandNi Adverbs Quasi-Postpositions 80 80 81 . 29. . 63. Quotations 93 94 94 .82 IX THE OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH Conjunctions Interjections 85 85 87 89 90 90 91 84 8 . 3. .. 20. Demonstrative. .. 59 60 31. 33. 14. .. .. .. 64 28.89 . Page 47 Exercises in Part I. . .71 . .. 23. 78. 9. 13. 20... 24.19.. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs 73 75 . 65 V NUMERALS Cardinal Numbers . Verbs used as Adjectives Compound and Derivative Adjectives . . .... Auxiliary Numerals Ordinal Numbers Dates Time Various Numerical Expressions Fractional Numbers 64 65 66 67 68 68 66 14.30.. .. . 22. 71 71 71 VI PRONOUNS Personal..56 . Quasi-Adjectives in Na or No Adjectival Phrases. . 75. 31.. ... . Possessive and Reflexive Pronouns Relative Pronouns and Adverbs 72 . * X SYNTAX Construction of the Sentence Ellipses . . . 15.73 . . . .69 17.61 62 28. . 82 84 .67 68 16.IV ADJECTIVES True Adjectives .2.. . . ... .57*58 ..20. 70 71 71 71 Percentage Multiples .

valuable suggestions and . 5. V. for many criticisms.The author s thanks are due to his friend Dr. of Saga. Peeke. H.

2. and this number is sufficient to read the newspapers and 1. : write about everyday matters. b) The Kana. a collection of several thousand signs or ideographs of Chinese origin. . No The simple ka ga signs in Japanese correspond to our notion of letters. syllables of the Japanese language are : a . a collection of signs and diacritical marks in which each sign corresponds to the sound of a syllable. The Japanese characters are of two kinds a) The Kanj i (or Honji).ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE CHAPTER I. WRITING AND PRONUNCIATION. 3. Two or three thousand of these characters are known to persons of moderate education. Each of these Kanji signs corresponds not to a sound but to an idea.

The following syllables are written in Japanese each. but they are not really dipthongs : sha .ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR kana with two characters 6.

as a gerund or the postposition de.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE The i and u are often hardly audible they are then written in this book With i. followed e) The to ja (the nigori of cha). oku. note the following vagaries of pronunciation 1) mittsii : There is a growing tendency in Tokyo to use double consonants : for tada. as : shiteru c) for shite iru. regard to these short vowels. and this difference is indicated in the kana writing. may be contracted for yonde wa. . yonja first two syllab. kore bakari. may kaitoila be dropped for when followed by the verb kaite oita. There is a gradual falling off in the length of the syllable until we reach vanishing point. bakari. oi-kake'ru. ol the verb shimau are contracted to cha final de (the nigori of te) of : : . following sound or for the sake of emphasis. as after Ira koko. tracted to cha. may lose the i. . asoko. The : final e of the gerund. In the gerundial termination of adjectives -kutte for : -kute. atatakai. and it is Authors difficult to determine when you should begin using the short mark. H. no such clear distinction exists between an ordinary vowel and a short one. iro-iro na. Besides the frequent changes due to nigori. for sokora iku and irassharu) after a gerund b) I'm (and less frequently : may lose the i. though there is in Japanese a clear and sharp distinction between an ordinary vowel and a long one. it must be observed that.es the and te or de of a gerund f) The final syllable as or ja. as by the postposition aa. sore kiri. as d) The final : te of a gerund followed by the postposition wa may be connecha for nete wa. doko ka. are not agreed on the subject and the average Japanese fails to recognize any Note also that these short vowels are not pronounced equally difference at all. 14. : 2) Contractions and corruptions and soko doko. short by everybody and that they are often lengthened on account of the 1 3. a) soko-lra.

ibi e for ei . shinde shimaimashlta. as h) nas 'tie for nasatte. The termination eba of the conditional of verbs and adjectives is often contracted to ya. as&ko however. wa suffers contraction after many words the following are a few samples for kondo wa. If.. kairu kaeru. fu-j'iyu. keredomo. and to put him on his 6) Besides the cases . soshlte 5) honto also using one for kirei na. there is sometimes a slight accent on the syllable preceding a double consonant. for yo. : . but others (especially the very common use of shi for hi) are decidedly incorrect and should be avoided. iku yuku. but must be changed to a : from ame mizu. nasaru and irassharu. sorya 7) The above lists are incomplete even as regards common words however. We also have : da. shiroi chigoe iiya chigai. t5. generally not apparent : iambi yon Jienteko karappo okkochi'ru 4) sotto kara. etc.8 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR kaichatla for kaite shimatta. . is often dropped. konda atsuka for atsuku wa. otosu. : okkotosH Long vowels for short ones and vice versa nani for so shite. kya mon' n* o tanomoshimasii san . g) The a before : it shinjaimashlta in the verbs kudasaru. guard. an e is found at the end of the first component in a compound word it often not only may. However. no or ni. ugoku. sore wa. mono. asoko. A . honto. (See 94) wataktishi. . kurya i) atsukerya keredo or even kedo for atsukereba. hen. . nani. : Saying shi for hi or vice versa kire na for hiroi. the reason for which for tabi. for ni wa.. and on the syllable containing a long vowel. watashi or even atashi . for nani. o nan fu-ju 3) tanomi mo- shimasH. as : for kureba. for de aru. ama-mizu mentioned above in 2). vowel for another for yubi. sama. ochi'ru. igoku Some of these last changes are admissible. nya nd no wa. they are enough to show the student what to expect. is Additions. lie. kiri shlka.. Japanese words are pronounced with an equal or almost an equal stress on each syllable. etc.

on the carrot. 19. The euphonic changes of the numerals are explained in 280. 18. anaka (o honourable. Our grammatical notions and terminology do not apply well to Japanese. when in terms of English (or any other European) grammar. to the idea of ' word ' as we understand it and in their writing. from aoi 'green' and mono 'thing' not but an aoi be would A mono. but is the name given to hanging scrolls only. The Japanese have nothing to correspond . mano a thing) anything to eat. joined by a hyphen or amalgamated into one word. but is almost inseparable is from certain words we we : o-jigi (o honourable. . is not the same again aomono 'vegetables'. Sometimes it still retains its meaning at least vaguely. Numerous examples of how compounds are formed may be found . if possible. necessarily an as aoi mono. 151 et seqq. often throws an accent on a neighbouring syllable. mono a thing) which . forget how the word is written. m m or p. but has a specific or proper meanWe have already seen the case of kakemono 'a hanging scroll' ing of its own. to a rikisha.. happens that the meaning of a compound is not equal to the sum of the meanings of the components. 21 . in nn. other aomono . not any hanging thing. This any more than do the words carriage or cart correspond the Japanese language is explained must be borne in mind throughout. \Yords very frequently suffer modifications in their sound when they enter into composition. there is no separation between the words. is written as a compound on the other hand kakemono (kake'ru to hang. > 20. like tabe-mono (tabe'ru to eat. The most common case of all. It must be remembered that written explanations about pronunciation are generally of little use. short vowel 1 7. 181 22. in this case we write one word. is written The honorific o has sometimes entirely lost its meaning as in in one word. b. whether kanji or kana. Compound words are extremely numerous in Japanese and are to be found in all stages of coalescence. is used without the o : in this case we write the words as separate. 236-245. 182. It frequently . jigi salutation) a bow . these words write as compounds. green anything but not an an aomono is which is hand a reddish. 16. and that the only way to acquire a good accent is to try to imitate a native and. as a consequence. cha tea) find that the honorific is used in the majority of cases. aoi mono. is to change the first into its corresponding nigori'ed syllable. In combinations like o cha (o honourable. and. but sometimes the word cha in this same meaning. Considerable disagreement seems to exist between the best writers as to whether certain words should be written separateIn this work a word ly.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE makes the syllable short. naka inside) belly . syllable of the second component before Note also that the final n of the first component is pronounced (5).

VERBS. (Bases) . 25. We shall however apply this name to the inflexion by which the -verb is usually named by Europeans. 27. 26. There is no form of the Japanese verb that really corresponds to our infinitive. The author has only endeavoured to show the easiest way of forming those parts of the verb in most common 28. Most verbs are capable of forming by means of certain terminations. CONJUGATION. Negation is not expressed as in English by adding a negative adverb there is a complete negative conjugation in Japanese. finitives of the passive.CHAPTER II. All these infinitives are then conjugated regularly. 24. 1 use. potential and causative voices. this is long and complicated. TABLE I. The following is not an attempt at giving a complete or scientific con- jugation of the Japanese verb . in23. . Japanese verbs have no person or number.

. NEGATIVE. TABLE AFFIRMATIVE. II.29.

to the 3rd conjugation. in the case of verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations. Now add to the proper base the MOODS AND TENSES. (See also 359 et scqq. kawaite iru 'to be dry'. The first form of the negative future is singular in that. Table II shows what terminations are to be future of mi'ru. : *The verbs in eru or ini which have not this decimal point. Yobu and yonde iru have the same meanings respectively as yobiniaxu and yonde imasu . (See also 415 et seqq. have a simple form as yobu. which belong to the 1st conjugation are few. and a compound form (composed of the gerund and the auxiliary verb i'ru or oru] as yonde iru. 31. Take the verb yobu. I understand.* 32. Those some way. need . Jceru to kick . the polite forms are at the end of the tense. added and to which base be must added. Chamberlain's classification. kiru to cut : . In order to conjugate any verb. they 33. 5 yob. i'ru). 1 yobu. 37.). As all verbs ending in em and iru do not form their bases in the same have been distinguished by a decimal point (e'ru . The Japanese sometimes use the negative where we use the affirmative ko-nai uchi ni. as written in this book. suberu to slip . The following are the commonest ehimeru to become hairu to enter damp . we have nemai and not nerupart of base 1 that comes before the point mai for the negative future of ne'ru . : The continuativc forms are used in Japanese more than in English icakatte iru. maim to come. but the latter are more polite. and in the author's -English-Japanese Conversation Dictionary}. shim to know. 4 yoba. found in the vocabularies of this Parlett's English-Japanese Dictionary.). In Table II (see 29). negiru to cheapen . belong to the 2nd conjugation in Prof. go . heru to diminish . thus. : . in each case in which a distinction is to be made. and those in i'ni. (See 99). kaeru to return . termination shown in Table II. the termination mai is added to that. yonde iru 'I am calling' : kawaku 'to dry'. 3 yond. ijiru to meddle with iru to enter. teru to shire . . mimai and not minimal is the negative : All other verbs belong to the 1st conjugation. which corresponds to the continued act or state. corresponding to the passing act. and 34. 36.12 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR the column 1 gives the termination of the verbs work (also as in Hobart-Hampden and 30. 2 yobi. 6 yob. According to the first line of Table I we have as bases: . Many tenses in Japanese. before he comes. i. end in e'ru. 35. for instance. first form the bases as per Table I then add to the proper base the termination shown in Table II. shaberu to gossip . which.e. Thus yobu means 'I call' . General remarks. as With regard to Table I.

refer to any 43. however. dtslio . : ? . Ashita tea ame ga furu Mono-oki ni aru desho 40. The forms yonde iru daro and yonde i-nai daro meant. : iko t> omou. are used for all pel 45. they are used for any person. ikd to shite. certain.4?io hito zca 41 . yobo. Ashita Tokyo e ikimasu . it . is act when the state and not the passing The forms yobu desho and yoba-nai desho are generally used 2nd The following examples may serve to illustrate the difference the Japanese present and future Mr Ito go to Tokyo tomorrow ltd San wa ashita Tokyo e ikitnasu ka ? will 1 46. . It is used for the present. These forms. think there are some in the pantry. he. he walks. are often used to announce a decision or to invite the 2nd person to co- person go. about equivalent to 'as you probably . I shall go to Tokyo tomorrow. . I (you. being about to for the force and 3rd persons only . and is used when speaking of those things of the future which are considered uncertain also when expressing or asking for an opinion and in interrogations of the 1st e. or let us go. 44. however. The dominant idea of the Japanese present tense is the idea of certainty. Arukimasu . I expect that man can speak English. followed by to omou or to shite may . I '11 go. Ashita Tokyo irasshaimasu ka ? are you going to Tokyo tomorrow ? 39. IVatakushi ga mairimasho ka ? shall I go ? By adding desho (or less politely daro) to the forms of the present obtain forms of the probable present. yobimasho office. is place I 42. yonde iyo. It is also used for interrogations regarding the future of the 2nd persometimes also of the 3rd person. and for those things in the future which are considered 38. imperative. I . a big drug-store in front of the post am speaking of) is next door to that.) intend to go . especially those in daro or desho often have a quasi-interrogative force. it will probably rain tomorrow. s on . Nikon no shokuji zva tabe-nyisen . They which has just been taken by the 1st person it corresponds to the 1st person plural operate with the 1st in this latter case Iko or ikimasho . for general statements. I don 't eat Japanese food. The Japanese probable present or future means uncertainty. when desho has the quasi-interrogative mentioned in 41.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 13 Present and Probable Present or Future. know' there probably agree' 'isn't that so ?' mae ni oki na kusuri-ya ga aru desho no Yubin-kyoku 'as you will ? sono tonari desu well. isn't there? (the The forms and yonde imasho when used alone refer generally to the 1st person. person future. etc. Various forms of the probable present. we Ei-go ga dekiru desho .

10). 9). 12) and 14). even if he doesn 't come see 200. I have not seen the newspaper yet. . 52. we obtain forms of the probable past. (e. Bikkuri shita . This idiom is especially common w ith sum in the and more . Just as there 53. This is especially common with inchoative verbs. . the present or even the past. 55. : : .g. The first form of the past tense followed by 'tie may be translated by 'even if Ame ga futta 'tte ikimasu . kaite am written (98 et seqq. Desho may again have the quasi-interrogative force mentioned certain past is often used in Japanese when we in English use the Wakarimashita may mean: 'I understood' or 'I understand'. Past and Probable Past. 'I was surprised' or 'I am surprised'. Before the negative of suru.14 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR ltd San wa ? first ashita Tokyo e iku desho ka ? do you think Mr Ito will go to Tokyo tomorrow In the to know 47.f 1) It it is (Compare is 200). or koso. also a certain past a certain present and a proband a probable past. final i *Before ya the of the base is often dropped : ikya shi-nai. the meaning is past used in the 2nd or 3rd person in hypothetical cases. use. c) the verb A common Iki 48. foot-note. 57. Gerund. see 67. b) tea sum. as . For the Japanese present followed by to. The negative meaning may refer to the future. 58. it rained so much See also 99. By adding desho (or (or daro) less politely daro} to the forms of the past tense. I think. The gerund is perhaps the inflexion that is in most frequent 56.* : The Japanese present has sometimes a past meaning Shimbun yea mada mimasen . is shimai 49.). may be used only noted under 11). 51. The corresponding construction in the negative is slightly irregular Konakutta 'tie . in cases similar to those (The gerund ending in mashile 3). ought Mr Ito 's employer) . 1 did not go. r emphatic form of speech consists of a) the second base. When the negative is (negative future) past tense of suru is used. 7). is (See 56). vca 50. The English present is often translated by the Japanese past. particularly so with suru in the negative present. case I inquire about the fact of somebody who. in the second case I ask for an opinion. wa shi-nai . (114). 5). I shall go even if it rains. there 54. . . is able present in Japanese. : used before auxiliary verbs. for iki ya shi-nai. in 41. 5. often corrupted to ya. 4). motte iru to be carrying. Taifien ame ga furimasu kara ikimasen deshita. The present. (do not go or did not go). I certainly will not go.

8) It is tie Ashi ga itande shiyo ga nai : . gerund 3) The verb that ends a clause. *The meanings of mo. Tabete ii . wa (itcha) do desu ka ? what do you say to going there ? 13) The affirmative gerund followed by wa. or is followed in English by 'and' is put in the gerund Han tvo katte kaerimaslilta . The tea is sometimes dropped when the meaning totte komaru. doubt.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 15 first of two verbs when they do not form a compound is put in the motte hunt to bring. . Part IT I. lite tively into -cha and -ja. 7) It often corresponds to 'so' in English feet hurt me so I don't know what to do. it means 'even it" 'although'* Ame ga futte mo ikimasu . (a) if it were to rain I would it (b) 1 am inconvenienced by this rain. eat it. gerund is emphatic. threat. it has a slight imperative force* iits yd gozaimasu ka ? shall I go now ? do you wish me to go now ? after an affirmative 11) Followed by mo ii it means permission. . has often a sort of conditional meaning : Yokohama e hikkoshite Wa following the to wafuben de gozaimasu. my to sometimes translated by a preposition Himo : zco motte ircaku . would be inconvenient for me (if I were) to move be inconjutte wa komaru . go even if it rains. it is often used in sentences that contradict what another person has said. Followed by mo !4) I will : : ' . you may return home : ika-nakute mo ii . Ame ga venienced . regret. are familiarly contracted respecNete wa (nechd) i-nai . we must sometimes use other con- 2) The : : junctions besides 'and' there is no end. etc. Note that -te wa. (a) if you get up to mischief you 'II be scolded . he is not asleep. or that express a protest. or the negative gerund in nakute followed by wa. he bought a book and returned home. Ima 10) Followed by ii. concession* gerund it may be rendered by 'may' after a negative gerund by need not'. Yokohama. Kaette 12) mo ii . -de wa. I don't know what to do as he is (you is Wa repetition : Hana wo are) always picking my flowers. after a gerund sometimes means repetition Itazura wo shite tea shikarareru . (Compare 151). (b) he is often scolded as he is always up to mischief. you needn't go. 6) It may signify the reason or cause raining I did Ame ga : futte ika-nakatta as it was not go. 5) It : Hajime atte ozcari ga nai : . with a string. there was a beginning but hiite sometimes expresses instrumentality : Kuruma wo kurashimasu. he makes his living by pulling a rikisha. ii and mo ii after a gerund are not always as indicated above consult the words mo and yoi in the Vocabulary. : . oh. no. 4) After the translation of the gerund.

16) The negative gerund. (and say you don 't know). open the door. 59. without any remaining over). (lit. if you do so it won't do). (lit. shown in 98 et seqq. Besides this elliptical use of the gerund. you may go in without taking off your Chichi ga nokora-zu koborete shimatta . yes Kono shosetsu zco yonde ? (yonda ka ?) have you read this novel ? 19) The following constructions are interesting : Aruite desu ka ? are you going on foot ? Gohan wo 20) tabete (kara) no koto ni nasai . you must write. It often corresponds to the negative imperative. every bit of the milk was spilt. 15) indicates verb ike-nai (or nara-nai) is sometimes omitted : Ika-nakucJui . commanding and requesting. women no ni omae mo . first ones. 18) The gerund is To you zvo akete .. . savour more or less of a command and should be used only to inferiors. is equivalent to the ? O to-san tea mo o kaeri ni natte ? (natta ka ?) ! is father back already E. put it off until after dinner. and may be translated by 'must': Kaka-nakute tea The ikemasen . forbidding or requestThe forms in kudasai are the only polite ones the others. The negative gerund in nakute followed by tea and ike-nai (or nara-nai) an obligation. (less often nara-nai or dame).. (kure) often used elliptically . o kaeri ni natte yo ! (=natta yo !) oh. Sonna ni sazcaija 'don't make such a row'. 'you must not do that'.16 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 14) The gerund followed by wa and ike-nai. : Shitte iru tell zca wo tsuite. means that it is wrong or useless to do something. especially the ing. is about equivalent to 'please . common to men and women. . . The imperative is rendered still more polite by beginning the sentence by doka or better still by dozo.. : 17) Instead of yoba-nai de and yonde i-nai de you occasionally hear the corresponding constructions in the masti terminations yobimasen de. Kobe wa san-nen bakari nii-nai de im (nokora-zu. is often translated by 'without': Kutsu wo tora-zu ni haitte mo ii . yonde imasen de. or 'don't do that'. aida ni taihen kawarimashita . a lie have another. . especially that in -zu. past tense. if you make such a row it (stilt-aide zva) ike-nai.('shira-nai' to itta) . won't do). is The use of the gerund with auxiliary and terminal verbs 2.. The forms shown in 29 are a selection from among the numerous ways of commanding.. although you know. I have been three years without seeing Kobe and during that time it has changed very much. 21) Various contractions of the gerund are noted in 14. peculiar to themselves. or to 'must not'. boots. The Imperative. (lit. in which the gerund . I have to go. if you do not write that won't do). So shite tea ike-nai. Yonde kudasai..

especially that of time. don 't get up. In Japanese the conditional and expressions equivalent to a conditional. but also serve to express other nani relations between two events. 'please be so kind as to call. Pan wo kudasai please give me some bread. onnaji it will be all right borrowed. de matte o-ide . practically. Karifa empitsu wo nakuslntara. The expressions studied under the titles 'Obligation' 'Permission' and 'Advice' in 168. eh ? 64. don 't by itself let it girls) Kudasai (or chodai) means. the lost kaeseba ii deshd .' 60. imperative of mi'ru to look. Instead of kudasai children (especially wa dame . don 't answer In the negative imperative dame often heard instead of ike-nai. Otoshlte drop. 169 and 170 are related to the present subject. o-ide nasai or : the imperative of i'ru to be. o-ide nasai. Oki-nai de irasshai . Sukoshi ki wo tsukereba koware-nai no ni . viz. and iku to go . 61 . let us be going'. as in English. 62. Shigoto ga sumeba ? that work finished have when to do wo shimasu ka ? what are you going you the have second meaning the in may When two conditionals are used Japanese mono wo katte of 'so long as' 'provided'. In the imperative. o-ide. have not only the ordinary conditional meaning. is generally used instead of the corresponding simple verb thus. not simply 'please'. 'please give it to me'. and vice versa.' order to do and continue to do something is often expressed by the i'ru.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 17 call. The conditional present is often used instead of the past 65. your book 63. Dekitara motte kite kudasai . the special honorific verb. if you had been irasshai is more it careful it wouldn't have broken. Conditional. if there is one. To the is often added in familiar speech ja nai ka? Dekakeyo ja nai ka ? let us be going. ? As stated in 42 the first person plural imperative ' : is often rendered by the Japanese future first of these forms Dekakeyo or dekakemasho . please bring with you if it is ready. An order to continue not doing something is sometimes expressed by the negative gerund followed by the imperative of i'ru. if you've pencil you . matte kimasii kara sono aida kore wo motte irasshai . wait here. and goran the nasai. kuru to come. In Japanese. An Dozo yonde kudasai. please hold this while I fetch some water. i gerund followed by the imperative of irassJiai nasai or Koko Mizu wo according to the degree of politeness. a request often takes the form of an interrogation : Hon wo kashite kudasaimasen ka? A'ould you be kind enough to lend me . wo dasa-zu ni is o-ide nasai . often say chodai. Kono tegami ni wa shi-go-nichi henji this letter for four or five days.

= nomu nara = nomu = noma-nai nara = noma-nai may is equivalent to : = nonde tea = noma-nakute wa The past : conditional. after adjectives placed forms). The present . Taberu to to o by to is about equivalent to the present conand may then be translated by when. Kyo tea ame ga fura-nai to omottara while. supposing he came. after. Oishii nara o agari nasai . Aite iru nara kashite kudasai . please lend it to me. Hi ni atetara iro ga samete shimatta . it serves to indicate a direct quotation and has nothing to do with the conditional. 70. 67. etc. drive it away. kiku to hear. present. your mother . is : : provided you buy another one like 66. (See 427). if it is a cat. The gerund followed by tea has frequently a conditional meaning. as soon as. will scold you. when (after) you've finished let's go for a walk. 68. Note that if to is followed by iu to say.18 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR and return sometimes expressed in Japanese by plaor the after the nara* present past (more especially after the less polite cing the is also after Nara desiderative form of verbs. I'll go. Sore ga sundara sampo shimasho . omou to think. Dekitara (sugu ni) okutte kudasai . if that is so. the train starts. Neko nara oi-dashlte o kure . I've been walking and I'm tired. if you wish to see it. to rain. . like the present. Aruitara kutabireta . that of condition the relation of time express other relations besides especially common and the translation may then be when. likewise you sometimes hear as the termination . if you have no use for it at and after nouns Mitai nara tsurete ikimasho . less The above construction especially common with the polite forms of the present but it is sometimes used with the masu forms. he had hardly arrived when it began a dis- By tinctly hypothetical prefixing moshi to the conditional present or past we give meaning moshi kitara . 15. Note also so nara (corrupted to sonnara) 'if things are so' *in that case' Sonnara ikimasho . . Tsuitara sugu. please send it as soon as it is ready. less to see 58. Kane ga naru klsha ga deru is when the bell rings. 14. The idea of the conditional it that. although I thought it wouldn't rain today. if you eat it. The following expressions are therefore more or nomeba noma-nakereba 69. I Mill take you. : it *You may say naraba instead of nara of the past conditional -araba for -ara. etc. ame ga futte kimashita . while kd-san ni shikararemastt . please take some. tense followed ditional it often refers to time as soon as.. if you like it. 13. rnata futte kita . it has been exposed to the sun and the colour has entirely faded. etc. it has started to rain again.

verb followed the by ly ? ka arimasen zca de ua shite verbs in the English version SJiabettari warattari weren 't you talking and laughing ? The frequentative is sometimes used when there is no repetition Do shite icatashi no hana vso tottari shimasu ka ? what do you mean by picking : second member being : . on looking then at the clock. iite mireba riko na hlto da .yasashii yd da keredamo hcmto wa taihen muzukashii . it K clever fellow. Kore ZKO mireba. : The negative present conditional followed by ike-nai or nara-nai may translated be generally by 'must' Ko shi-nakereba narimasen . Toki has sometimes a hypothetical meaning Moshi tegami ga naku- natta toki (ni) tea do shimasho ? what shall I do if the letter should be lost ? have already seen that in Japanese the conditional is used in many 74. Nedan mo yasukereba shina mo ii . the two is often introduced between the 'and' An sura. it must be done in this way. 76. It is frequently used in pairs. Nih&n-go mo lianaseba ji mo kakemasu . ' it turned out not to Nippon mo kawareba kazcaru mon da . judging from what one hears. the price is cheap and the quality good. Frequentative. but it really is very difficult. The termination eba : of the present conditional is sometimes contracted to ya in familiar speech 72. would be at ease. the more carefully I look at it the prettier ! 1 find it. We in cases which there : is no conditional in English : here are some more examples Kuru to omotte yorokonde imashitara kimasen deshita . The present (ni) tea conditional preceded by sae means I could only see 'if Ai sae sureba anshin sum . he can not only speak Japanese but he can also write it. 75. of elliptical idioms. you can go (but Mi mo shi-nakereba kiki mo shi-nai . I was rejoicing at the idea of his coming. but it turned out that he didn 't come. The frequentative form used when acts or states generaloccur by turns. Yoku mireba miru hodo kirei desu . (lit. Kikeba byoki datta so desu . Ato de kiitara uso deshita . if him my mind : only' 'provided'. how Japan has changed Do oshietara ii desho . Sono toki tokei wo mimashitara ju-ji sugi deshita. how shall I explain it to them ? 1 think you had better not). you had better do like this. I found it was past ten.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 19 71 . he must be a at it. I hear that he has been ill. is The Japanese are very fond See 414. I inquired afterwards and be true. 73. I neither saw nor heard anything. to look seems easy. Ko surya (sureba) ii . is In these a conditional often found. Ikeba ikareru . 4.: it won't do if you don't do it thus).

signifies object of an action Mmashtta . we may use the stem of the verb at the end of each member the last one which takes an ordinary verbal inflexion except at the end of Shiroi hana mo an. See 47-49. 4) Followed by wa and suru it is emphatic. Like an adjective it has also a corresponding abstract noun in -sa . 'to wish to go'.g. some of the children are reading books. : : 9) When a sentence is composed of two or more : parallel propositions. it hanashi suru uchi hi r for the ordinary inflexions of the verb.g. The desiderative is not used in the 3rd person unless followed by to iu r mosu or no desu. it forms polite substitutes.). (o) Preceded by o and followed by certain verbs. noun. this construction is especialKaerily common in connection with the verbs iku to go. 7) shiri . The desiderative form 77. : in several of the following cases. and kaeru to return gake ni yorimashita . 79. inflexions of one. we get ikitagaru. I have come from very far because I was longing to see my mother. The Second Base or Stem. The object of the desire often. generally followed by ni. 2) Followed by suru : of the verb 3) sometimes takes the place of the ordinary inflexions . Desiderative. becomes the subject and takesga : Kamakura ga mitaku wa arimasen ka ? don 't you wish to see Kamakura ? 80. Followed it the motive or Tori ni 5) by ni. he did it.: from ikitai. The stem of a verb: 1) is very often used as a noun as may be seen to ' . akai . wishing to go'. 78. it generally means that two actions are carried on : simultaneously : Warai nagara kodomo ni omocha wo yarimashita he gave a toy to the child. e wo kaitari. Followed by nagara it sometimes has an adversative sense Warui to nagara shita . I called on my way back. is an adjective and has all the et 192 (See seqq. 82. while w e were talking. 'the wish to go'. This abstract .: from ikitai 'wishing to go. some are drawing pictures. though he knew it was wrong. By changing the final i to gam we form a verb e. 8) Followed by gake ni. and some are my flowers ? Note that in English though only one flower : looking at postage stamps. he came to fetch it. laughing. kd-san no kao ga mitasani toi tokoro kara kimashlta. e.' we get ikitasa. See 359-360. 81. The frequentative is occasionally used in a distributive sense Kodomo-tachi tea hon wo yondari. refers to the reason or cause of an action.20 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR you use the plural (a kind of repetition) have been may picked. it means 'on the way' . 6) Followed by nagara. but not always. Jcitte wo mitari shite imasu . The second base of a verb is very important and has to be referred to frequently we will call it the stem.

Ko-zutsumi wo iwaku no ni tsukaimasu . it is bad tfma wo kawa-nai koto ni kimemashita . ikura harattara ii desho? 5) it is : When by how much ought I to pay to have (for having) this parcel taken to the station ? Mada neru G) When it or to shile : hayai . by the first forms of koto. the final ri it. life mo dame . When : it follows a verb which purpose of tome ni or 'in order to'. 2) " better to take an umbrella. no or ho . by the not of motion.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE no 21 mo ari. instrument or agent. and some blue. When it follows a verb of motion in order to '. it is a bad thing to live by Kasa wo motte iku ho ga ii . equivalent to a supposition and accompanied by by some construction with a conditional meaning: o yoshi nasai . it would be inconvenient for . <fe iru to iu koto wa yoku nai koto desu . the no is sometimes omitted Kondnimotsu wo teishaba made motte iku no ni. it is useless to go. ni omotte boshi wa to omotte Dekakeyo 7) to wo kaburimashita . The : o yan nasai English 1) When it is the present or past followed by to substantivize the verb : the subject or object of another verb. wouldn't do to make that de gozaimasu . 10) When the stem ends in ri and of the stem is sometimes changed to 83. help me to lift this. to waste time. the first forms of the present and (no) ni . n The Infinitive. all these words serve Hitori oneself. it will' or 'it Ano hito ga okoru to ike-nai kara man angry so don't do that. give real infinitive in Japanese. the no is sometimes omitted Tegami wo kaku ni kami ga iru . 'it When would'. I want some paper to write a letter. and signifies 'for the first forms of the present followed by Komaraseru tame ni shimashita . followed : by the verb nasaru. Yokohama e hikkoshite wafuben me to move to Yokohama. it would be Hima wo tsubusu no wa warui . by the first forms of the 4) present and (no) ni . I put on my hat to go out. aoi no mo arimasu . Tori ni kimashita 3) he came to fetch is it. T hen it follows the means. he did it to annoy me. I use it to tie up parcels. to iu koto. some is flowers are white. I have decided not to buy a horse. infinitive is There is no translated in a variety of ways for o yari nasai. some red. and signifies 'for the purpose of or by the stem of the verb and ni : . Kore wo ageru no ni tetsudatte kudasai . by the future and signifies 'with the intention of. W : equivalent to 'for' followed by the present participle. it is still too early to go to bed.

I have never seen it. form of the verb: wish to call. a box to put plates in. nai . difficult to understand. I have been there. tell wo yobashite kure. (83. Yomu mono ga translated by the infinitive in English : Kurakute yomu koto ga dekimasen . I have nothing to read. O Haru to go=send O Haru O Haru wo yatte kure.22 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 8) After verbs of speaking as : telling. requesting. daiku ni koshiraesaseyo. Shige ni kuruma Tell Shige to call a rikisha Ko-nai to kotowarimasliita Ashita kuru yd ni itte kure . 10) After the infinitive is translated by the desidcrative Yobitai .su ka ? is there anything to pay ? the meaning is intention. promising. in this room there's no place to put my books. see 173. yes. is I 11) After 'easy' or 'difficult' etc. . Naki-dasu . to begin to cry. Tell Tell O Haru to come=call O Haru O Haru wo yonde kure. it is so dark Mita koto ga nai . . refusing. Dono michi zvo ikeba ii ka wakarimasen . Kono heya ni lion wo oku basho ga arimasen .. Various Verbal Phrases. advising. sometimes they are entirely changed before*translating : cause Shige to call a rikisha . I'll get (tell) the carpenter to make one . When : Chichi wo akambo ni nomashUe o kure . give the baby some milk to drink. I don 't know which road to take. 84. ? Kobe e itta koto Itta koto ga arimasu ka ? have you ever been to Kobe ga gozaimasu . the infinitive and yasui or ii (easy). Harai ga aritrw. I cannot read. : translated by the stem Koko wa 12) sumi-ii tokoro desu ka ? When : is this a pleasant place to live in ? the infinitive has the meaning of 'must' it is translated in various ways Shi-nakereba nara-nai shigoto ga aru . etc. 13) the Note 14) following ways of translating the infinitive Kaku hima ga nai .. . 'wish' 'want' or 'would like'. him to come tomorrow. The first forms of the present or past when followed by koto become substantivized and generally have a meaning in the Japanese mind akin to our infinitive. 1) but they are not always to be . the infinitive is translated by to following the direct quotation or by yo ' ni following the present ' : he refused to come. . class are sometimes translated by the to the above Sentences belonging 9) causative. Sara wo ireru hako . I have no time to write. or nikui (difficult) Wakari-nikui . I have work to do (which I must do).

The no is often equivalent to mono or koto : 23 by machigai deshita . 86. Iku no desho (or daro) : shall (will) probably PRESENT. (the act of doing is impossible). . ikimashita no desu : did go . if I had known you were going. I have nothing to Dare ga kita no desu ? who came ? Kesa kita no wa kono tegami desu . takusan arimasu . Especially the verb sions the : it is the letter that came this morning. sometimes. Itta no deshitaro (or dattaro) : probably did go. . . . (younger) brother has to go Tokyo e iku . . shall (will) probably have to go. . Iku no desMtora (or dattara) : if go if ought to have gone . . I have a great deal to do . itta no deshita (or datta) : should have gone . In the case of negative verbs. however. my (younger) brother is going to Tokyo to Tokyo tomorrow. the negative element may be either in the first component or in the second . Anata no tegami nanzo yomu mon'' (or mono) desu ka ? I'd never dream of reading your letters. Iku no deskltaro (or dattaro) : probably did go probably would (should) have gone probably ought to have gone. this read. Kyo wa I isogashikutte sore Compare the following examples: wo sum koto ga dekimasen . it has a distinct force some of the commonest combinations with . worthy of note that koto. Examples : Ototo wa . Similar constructions may be formed with the compound inflexions. yonde ita no desu . etc. gone. ought to have gone was to go was to have gone. such as. (things to do). mono and no may refer not only to the act of the verb itself as in the above examples. . (no deshita. I am very busy today can 't do that Sum koto ga . PROBABLE PAST. but also to the thing which is the itta Kesa It is no tea object or subject of the verb. yonde iru no desu .) so often heard after sometimes serves merely to round off a sentence and forms expres- common is meaning of which is ordinary inflexions of the verb of its own. should (would) have Iku no deshita (or datta) . sug- go go Iku no desu (or da) : go shall (will) go am going should (would) must go have to go am to go ought to go. etc.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 85. Yomu mono ga nai . . the no desu. etc. CONDITIONAL. . PROBABLE PRESENT AND FUTURE. The following are gestions for their translation. . 87. ashita tomorrow my no desu . e. what I said this morning was a mistake. PAST. practically indistinguishable from that of the . ika-nai no desu or ikunoja arimasen. Itta no desu (or da) . . The first forms of the present and past may also be made substantives adding mono. mon' or no. .g.

if you had gone. Women often say ? Kippu wa aru no no elliptically for no desu. kuru and iku form their bases irregularly as shown in but the common inflexions of these verbs are formed regularly from the However. See Vocabulary. but as it was cold I soon came back. Anata ga uchi e kuru no deshitara. like nouns. 92. I ought to have gone with my brother. if it had not rained. the passive and the causative : bases. 90. and kuru are and kosase'ru sare'ru and respectively. if he had known that a visitor was coming. kyaku no kuru no ga wakatte iru no deshitara. to have'. you had better bring it. if I had only had money. watashi wa mise e iku no ja arimasen deshita . o-okori ni okotta . he walks beautifully Okotta no okora-nai no ja nai. de gozaimashlta . I would probably have gone also. I Kimi ga iku nara boku mo itta no daro . I am going to Tokyo. kaze wo hiita no de. no desu ka have you got your ticket ? is ? etc. E. aru no . kuru f iku.24 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR would have gone yester- Kind amegafura-nakereba iku no day. I also would have gone. On the other hand the no altogether : sometimes corrupted into n' or even dropped Tokyo e iku n' desu . Soko kara mo ikeru desu . but as I caught a cold I had to give up the idea. I wouldn 't have gone to the office. 93. yes. yameta no desu . 88. Kane sae areba watashi mo itta no desu . it is no case of creeping. take a postposition without the words no. The verbs sum. I also went there. 28 . 91 . infinitives infinitives of suru sase'ru korare'ru. 89. Observe the constructions of which the following are examples : Hau dokoro ja nai. I have. Verbs may sometimes. you can also go from there. why. is especially noticeable on account of negative forms. ika-nakatta no desho . he didn 't simply get angry. ! IRREGULAR VERBS. yoku arukimasu . koto or mono intervening : Motte kuru ga ii . he probably would not have gone. The verb aru 'to be. Part III suru . if I had known you were coming to my house. I can tell you . Watashi mo asuko e itta no deshita ga samui kara sugu kaetta no desu . its . yoku arukimasu or hau no hawa-nai no 'tie. he got into a towering rage. Ani to issho ni iku no deshita ga.

OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 25 .

It will be noticed that in the negative. he is reading a book. It is interesting to note that a verbal phrase like yonde iru may mean not only 'is reading' but 'has read'. The verb i'ru (or oru) following the gerund serves to form inflexions that The verb i'ru is generally preferred in the indicate a state or a continued act. as it generally r the letter The the verb gozaru. Naite iru . the first form gives no information on that point. but the second form implies that he is still there. is often contracted to ja. Ano hlto wa seiyo no shosetsu wo takusan yonde iru . I am tired. Causative verbs end in -se'ru : their 3rd base is irregular. Kutabirete iru . Hon wo The i yonde irasshaimasu is of i'ru . Instead of i'ru. 98. de is generally followed : de wa 96. polite verbs gozaru. the proper translation is 'to be dry'. nasaru. Amerika e itta and Amerika e itte iru both mean 'he went to America'. and irasshai .26 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR by wa 95. The gerund of an intransitive verb followed by i'ru (or oru) is generally translated into English by means of the past participle or an adjective. . AUXILIARY AND TERMINAL VERBS. but the regular form -set also sometimes used. and irassharu drop of their last syllable when the suffix masu is used. viz. translation of nete i'ru ' it is therefore the correct but to be drying means to be approaching the state of dryness. he is crying. 99. ossharu. indeed. thus : naiteru for naite iru. 'to be lying down' means that the subject has attained ' the horizontal position and continues in that position. centre of Japan. thus irash 'tie for irasshatte. nas 'ttara for they is : flexions. ' number of foreign novels. is practically never heard except in the masu inThe last three verbs have as imperative nasai. the honorific verb irassharu or o-ide nasaru may be used. but 'to be dying' means that the subject is approaching death. 'To be moving' means that the subject has reached the state of motion and continues in that state. and therefore be dead'. but in the provinces. in this case irassharu also drops one of its ss. that man has read a great . oru is often heard. and therefore is not the translation of kawaite i'ru. often dropped colloquially after a gerund. -shit is Note that . the proper translation is Likewise. sometimes however by the present participle. kudasai. it is therefore the correct translation of ugoite i'ru . 97. often drop the letter a before tt . but in either case the English must express the idea that the subject has reached a certain state and continues in that state. : nasattara. to is not the translation of shinde i'ru. kudasaru.

55.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 27 Ano 100. often translated by 'go' in English Kippu wo katte kimasho . rampu ga kiete iru may be said either when the lamp has gone out naturally (e. I will try to open the window (which more agreehas stuck)' or 'I will open the window and we will see whether i* is : ' able so'. he came and told me a funny story. The verb mi'ru (or goran nasaru) following a gerund. the buying. in Japanese. . that old man has shaved off his beard. also have a quasi-interrogative force. It may See 40 . to be the first : Omoshiroi koto zco itte kita . it is. one intransitive and the other transitive. 54 . Besides this meaning of motion towards the place where one is speaking. When two verbs. . the gerund of the intransitive verb followed by i'ru (or oru). and the gerund of the transitive verb followed by aru have almost Thus : rampu ga kiete iru and rampu wo keshlte aru both identical meanings. The verb kuru. means that an there is a doubt as to whether the action can be action is to be . mean 'the lamp is out (not lighted)'. I will go and buy a ticket : . naorimashite gozaimasu is a very polite equivalent of naotta I have 101. the second and third. the coming back. it makes it into a probable past. (lit. (irassharu. the full and complete following a gerund indicates use it is used generally future its to view a with time of a matter for the being 105.g. present 103. it has begun to rain. Daro . that the action of the verb was completed and that things remain in that state it can generally be translated by the passive in English. 104. However. makes it into a probable following the past tense. The verb okti s . have corresponding meanings (see 111). it is wrapped up in a cloth. I will buy a ticket and come). ojii-san rca hige rco sotte iru . Note also the construction of the polite : gerund of an intransitive verb followed by gozaru recovered. o-ide nasaru or mairu) following the gerund. The complex action of buying may be said to consist of three parts the In English you mention the first two going. Furoshiki ni tsutsunde arimasu . : however. 41 . whereas rampu wo keshlte aru is (or desho) following the present tense. 102. attempted accomplished or whether the result will be satisfactory Mado u-o akete mimasho may mean. adds to the first verb the idea of motion towards the speaker or person addressed . kuru after a gerund often means 'coming into being or into existence': Ame ga futte kita . Occasionally the verb kuru which is the second of the two verbs ought logically . want of oil) or when it has been intentionally put out by somebody said only when the lamp has been put out. The verb aru (or gozaru) following the gerund of a transitive verb means .

I will give him a . 106. 2. dasu. The choice of the verb will depend on the considerations governing the use of honorific and humble verbs. 1 07. Terminal verbs sometimes retain their ordinary meanings instead of the special meanings mentioned in the above paragraphs. I wish you would write this for me. see 362. See 4749. Butte yarimasho Yonde Yonde 110. use kure'ni if the act of an inferior. agemasho ka ? shall I read it to you ? kudasaimashlta . use yarn . c. The verb shimau following a gerund indicates the completion action. is contracted colloquially as explained. or (b) he bought it for me (as I was busy and could not go out) in this latter case. 109. 14. 2. or ' The last syllable of the gerund and the first two syllables of shimau are often zta. (age'ru. : Chomen ni tsukete okimasho . he read it to me. kure'ru or kudasaru*) following a gerund adds the idea of 'giving'. I wish to be called early in the morning. (a) he bought it and gave it to me. I want to have my watch cleaned. not at last he has finished being ill '. 14. It thus happens that sentences of this kind may have more than one meaning katte itadaita may mean. to a superior. yesterday I went and saw Taro's school. kake'ru and hanasu after the stems of verbs have special meanings which are explained in 1 51 108. Anata ni kaite itadakitai . Kind Taro no gakko e itte mimashita . 'at last he finished by falling at last he fell ill '. The verb morau (or itadaku) following a gerund. You may s<jmetimes find two terminal verbs used. to have the newspaper read to one. if the act of a superior. the causative : Shimbun wo yonde morau . . The verb yarn. he has gone away (and will not come back). is : ill'. : *Kudaoaru is also used after the stem of a verb . and forms an idiom resembling the passive or . Asa hayaku okoshlte moraitai . Tokei tco soji shite moraitai . : beating. Toto bydki ni natte shimaimashUa . use age'ru : if the giving is in favour of the 1st person or somebody connected with the 1st person. If the giving is the act of the 1st person to an inferior. The verbs naosu. the favour received is not the thing itself (for which I pay) but the act of going and buying it.28 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR the gerund and oku are sometimes contracted colloquially with transitive verbs as explained. The verb sum (or itasu) following the stem of a verb and merely an emphatic form of expression. kudasaru . the one affecting the other naoshite agete okimasho I shall mend it for him (and leave that settled). I will put it down in my note-book. adds the idea of 'receiving in answer to a request'. or lite of an ' merely emphatic shimaimashita . f. kakaru.

kutabiremasMta I am tired. or 'you can Xihon-ji ga kakemasen 114. but 'to get dry'. Transitive verbs sometimes have a quasi -causative meaning: kazcakasu 'to dry' i. some intransitive verbs take an This complement with zvo designates the Watasu means 'to action takes place.e. employ the present . tired' is 'To be expressed by kutabirete i'ru. 'this pencil writes well'. In English the in same verb Kesa kaerimasMta 112. . similar to the by i'ru has a meaning very of the transitive verb followed by aru . is often transitive or intransitive according there are generally two different verbs with a . 'to cause to dry in the sun or before the fire.).not be lost sight of. . V to circumstances . Likewise: kisha zco ori'ni. *The Vocabulary at the end intransitive one and vice versa. I returned this morning. : 'To be dry' is ex- pressed by kazvaite i'ru. I will return the book tomorrow. asobu to amuse oneself.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 29 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. in English. of this book gives the transitive verb corresponding to an .* Ashita hon zco kaeshimasu . they mark the beginning Some of these are frequently translated by a quasi-passive but . Many intransitive verbs are inchoative. etc. down from a train.' See 143 144. . I Kazvaku is meaning should. Kutabire'ru is not properly 'to be tired'. zeataru means 'to go kazca wo zcataru means 'to go across oneself and is therefore intransitive across the river' or 'to cross the river'. 111. kawakimashita it is dry . (to play) verbs correspond to English reflexives: hataraku to exert oneself. their primary cannot write Japanese characters. i. kaesu (trans. but 'to become tired'. 115. to get 117.g. of a condition.) and kaeru (intrans. Many intransitive which the 127. Thus not properly 'to be dry'. object with the postposition zco. final u of the transitive Kono empitsu wa yoku kakemasu write well with this pencil'. Japanese common root e. 118. The gerund . (to work). gerund corresponding verbs are used as potentials especially those in is replaced by e'ru in the intransitive. to return. 116. Though it may seem paradoxical. locality at which or from which the take (something) across' and is therefore transitive. These verbs are often used in the past in Japanese when we. Some Japanese intransitive . See : of the intransitive verb followed see 1 01 113.e.

made is manufactured there. The noun. or with scissors ? Risuke to iu hito .g. 120. 122. : Kega suru to be wounded. : . . 8) by the verb deki'ru .* ga 2) by a transitive verb followed by mono (de$u) or no (desu) : Kore wa kogatana de kitta no (desu) ka ? hasami de kitta no (desu) ka ? was this cut with a knife. negaimasu . 5) by the gerund of an active verb followed by morau : Hayaku okoslilte moraitai . which in English takes the preposition 'by' in the passive 119. formed by adding re'ru to the 4th base In verbs ending i'ru. Thus korare'ru to be brought. was astonished . 1 21 The passives of compound verbs and of such combinations as motte motte kuru to bring. are formed by changing only the last component. lobe. Asuko de setomono ga dekiru . to Kono ji wa yomasemasu this character is read thus (lit. (the mouse the passive construction. it is sometimes translated : not translated by the passive I 1) by an intransitive or potential verb is : odoroita. it is written.: korosti to killed tabe'ru to eat. ni. a man they call Risuke). the door is shut. korosare'ru to be to be taberare'ru eaten. I wish to be called early. 4th base korosa. we are caused is or taught to read this chacracter thus ). : a mouse M : Note also the following . korare'ru sare'ru. To ga 6) by the gerund of an intransitive verb followed by i'ru (or oru) : shimatte iru . 4) by the gerund of an active verb followed by aru : Kaite aru . Kono kutsu wo naoshi ni yarimasho . (lit. when there is . 4th base kill. add rare'ru to the 4th base.30 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR PASSIVE VERBS. The verbs sum. to be finished. E. porcelain toreta. : construction. examples . you are requested not to put your head out of the window. All the above examples serve to prove that the English passive often *You can caught itself in also say : nezumi ga neko ni intransitive construction is used the trap) . It often happens that the English passive Japanese . The torarcta. to be assisted. a man 3) by an active though subjectless construction ado kara kao ivo dasa-nai yd ni called Risuke. I'll send these boots to be mended. kuru and oshie'ru form the passive irregularly thus and osowaru. when an outside agent is referred to. is generally followed in the Japanese passive is by the postposition in 123. a mouse was caught by the cat. no reference to an outside agent. The passive voice in e'ru is or . nezumi caught (in the trap). 7) by a noun followed by ni naru : O sewa ni naru .

: be able to melt'.)' or 'to be able to cut'.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 31 translated into Japanese by other constructions than the passive. to able 'to be or be put'. kire'ru 'to cut (intr. Thus okare'ru is often used in a potential sense. 124. sometimes another in Japanese. other hand the Japanese often use the passive where the active On the would be more natural in English. verb . sometimes one. ' father's watch' becomes in the watch was stolen by a thief. as in the follow126. ure'ru 'to sell (intr. in watch stolen by a thief chichi ga ' : and therefore we may have the passive construction in Japanese. a thief stole my English passive construction 'my father's Japanese we would have 'my father got his dorobo ni tokei wo nusumareta. the subject of the passive verb is the person affected by the ' action of the verb.)' or 'to be able to sell'. are *Verbs ending in -tnu. . Thus. I lost my . the passive in English however. the Japanese passive has often a potential meaning ni shinaremashita .)' or 'to be translated by the passive. be able to take'. From this peculiarity of the Japanese construction it follows that (as in the above example) the passive verb may govern an objective case it also follows that intransitive verbs may be used in the pasTo die is an intransitive verb and utterly incapable of being used in sive. the dying of one person may affect another. 125. The Japanese passive rrfean either 'to ing common cases kake'ru 'to write (intr. if you do that your mother will scold you. Many verbs (not those ending in e'ru) have also another potential formed by changing the final u into e'ru* This potential is always intransitive and is often identical with the ordinary intransitive verb (111). or by the potential. it may also can 'silk sells well'. kinu ga yoku uremasu may sell a lot of silk'. So sum to o kd-san ni shtkarareru . POTENTIAL VERBS. . The Japanese passive construction differs considerably from the English. intransitive are kind of this verbs case but do not forget that .)' or 'to be able to translated by the intransitive. 'you toke'ru 'to melt (intr. be 128. 'a lot of silk is sold'. Thus. yome'ru 'to read (intr. Besides this sense. the subject of the passive verb is the object of the transitive in Japanese.)' or 'to tore'ru 'to take (intr. read'. put' may 127. watakushi wa kyonen kanai see 126.)' or 'to be able to write'. wife last year. All three translations will suit the not always possible in English. In English. change tsu into te-rv.

'must not'. frequently placed before the negative potential in . I can you do this ? can speak English. On the whole. cannot possibly write all this. "This construction seems to be less used are beginning to speak a little Japanese. 130. as I am busy I cannot kake-nai I wa The negative when "used possibly go so soon. i. When the English potential has an objective case. 1 37. this generally becomes the subject with ga (or tea) of the Japanese verb.* . if ? . (it is extremely difficult). 132. yamu to read. and kiku to irregularly. who by the Japanese themselves than by foreigners . add sase'ru to the 4th base . CAUSATIVE VERBS. deki'ru to the 1 31 We thus see that kake'ru. I can read it but . The English subject sometimes takes ni. The following emphatic construction is interesting Yomeru ni wa yomeru ga . . 1 hear. Causative verbs generally form their 3rd base irregularly as mentioned in 97. tabesase'ru to cause to 138.. and the passive potential in the sense of may '. viz. it is anything I can do is . The verbs mi'ru to see. (when asked : will you do me a favour 134. Deki'ru by itself often has the meaning of can do (something) '. I can read English. in verbs ending eat. will be found in 168 and 169. ?) The word totemo it.e. the intransitive potential is decidedly the ' most used. 136. ' ' Other ways of translating the idea of moral ability or inability. mie'ru and kikoe'ru. I can 't read English. form the intransitive potential ' 33. 4th base yoma.. There seems to be a slight tendency to prefer the intransitive potential in the sense of 'can'. Kore ga dekimasu ka Ei-go ga dekimasu Dekiru koto nara . tabe'ru to eat. The potential may also be expressed by adding koto ga infinitive. kakare'ru and kaku koto ga deki'ru may all be used as the potential of kaku. may and : . Causative verbs are in e'ru or i'ru formed by adding se'ru to the 4th base : . yomase'ru to cause to read to feed.82 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 129. Watashi ni wa Ei-go ga yomemasen . order to emphasize Totemo kore hodo 135. Ei-go ga yomemasu . 4th base tabe. . in a moral and not in a physical potential sense is sometimes translated by wake ni wa ika-nai (or mairimasen) : Isogashii kara so hayaku iku wake ni wa ika-nai .

OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE jf 33 The verbs kuru.e. sum and mi'ru form their causatives liosase'ru. put the dog out meaning 'let the dog go out'. ? Kono hako made ? 142. when the causation I is purely imaginary. meaning 'to get one's beard shaved'. Ashlta furasetaku nai to . have. to build a house . (shinase'ru to cause to die). Inu wo dashite o kure . to inform. let Hani sew it next time. Sentaku wo sumasete uchi e kaerimashita . . meaning . mi'ru to see mise'ru to cause to see. to tell. may shim to know . . 140. Uchi wo tate'ru . The is done by one person (or thing). she finished her washing and returned home. Kane ga nai no de naoru byo-nin zvo naosa-nai deshinashlte shimatta . Watakushi no hon kodomo ni . fundamental idea of the causative is that the action allow something to be done negative imperative. miset). thus : Some causatives . Hige . i. to show. 'let the cat get into the pantry '. kiku to hear be translated by special verbs in English. The cr. hope it will not rain tomorrow. HUotsu koshiraesashlte have one made. Neko wo mono-oki ni irete o kure . : as having been positively perform ?d. don't let the child meddle my books. irregularly.e. 143. Sometimes when the idea logically corresponds to a causative.e. meaning 'don't let the fire go out'. he had to let the patient die because he had no money to buy the proper remedies. i. ijirasete zva ike-nai. tell it. (lit. kikase'm to cause to hear. and (b) to : tabesase'ru to cause to eat. wo sum to shave one's beard . i. . The causative may have two meanings (a) to cause to do . sase'ru and mise'ru (3rd base regular. : . get or tell. an ordisubordinate is attributed to the nary transitive verb is used the action of the to happen is considered allowed is which or action an merely principal agent. to feed. zva doko de koshiraesasemasMta ka Shige to write in where did you get this box Shige ni kakase nasai . do not wish make it rain tomorrow). 139. Sukoshi matashite o oki nasai the latter meaning is especially common in the causative may generally be translated by make. Kondo Hani with ni nuzvase nasai zco : make him wait a moment. i. Hi ico kesa-nai de o kure . don't put the fire out . The let.e. but another person decides whether the action is to be done or not. put the eat in the pantry. shirase'ru to cause to know. tabc'ru to eat 1 41 .usative is sometimes used I Japanese. meaning 'to have a house built'.

component : motte kosase'm. From the causative is formed the passive of the causative. lated : English reflexives are trans- sometimes by intransitives asobu.e. Thus. the object upon which the action is performed takes wo. When it is : desired to lay stress on the 'self. There is no causative of the passive. (lit. 149. tobi-agaru.34 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 144. (fire or wind. 148. 151. the person to do the action takes the postposition ni. O kd-san wo nakasemashita . 'to cause the sun. I will have the carpenter mend the gate. tobi-dasu. : 150. jump-ascend). COMPOUND AND DERIVATIVE VERBS. There are no reflexive verbs in Japanese. The meaning of these if verbs is generally easily understood. I want to get my watch mended. when there is a clear action of the agent on himself. the person who performs the action takes the postposition wo. 145. to jump out. or serve to compound verbs is formed by adding one verb They correspond sometimes to English prepositional express a more or less complex idea. 3) sometmes. (lit. dry the cloth'. In the case of an intransitive verb. the child is amusing himself. playing Jibun de hige wo surimasu . REFLEXIVE VERBS. verbs. 146. the meanings of the components are known. 147. etc. Mon wo daiku ni naosasemasho . hire dry a cloth' really means.) to transitive verbs 'to have a quasi-causative meaning. to amuse oneself. hitori de or jibun de Kodomo ga alone). are formed by changing only the to cause to bring. The causatives of compound verbs and of such combinations as last motte kuru to bring. hitori de asonde iru . to drown oneself. The idea of the causative is sometimes rendered politely by the gerund followed by morau : Tokei wo naoshite moraitai .e. to shave oneself . he made his mother cry. sometimes by compounds with sum : shitaku sum. to jump up. rarely met with. . (i. not shaved by another). (to play). the Japanese add (i. (to get ready). Some wo kawakasu. A very large group of to the stc-m of another. jump-put out). In the case of the causative of a transitive verb. he shaves himself. to prepare 2) 1) : oneself. by a transitive verb hige wo suru. mi wo nage'ru.

to be in the way. which is often used ama-sugi'ru. (lit. accost yomi-kake'ru. refers to the beginning of an action : tobi-dasu . buchi-korosu. The verb sum occurs very frequently in Japanese.: hang). kangae-naosu. ikitagaru to want to go. to sit. sugi'ru The termination garu added to the stem of adjectives (or the desideraform of verbs) or occasionally to nouns. The primary meanit governs the accusative case with the postis 'to do' 'to make' wo : position Shitaku wo suru . THE VERBS SuTU AND NarU. (lit.: the stem of an adjective. Anata no jama wo suru . forms a considerable nu nber of : verbs kawaigaru to pet. Instead of a noun we as a noun. Kake'ru signifies the beginning of an action hanashi-kake'ru to address. to be too sweet. Some verbs when used thus in compounds after the stem of a verb have special meanings worth while noticing : Dasti to means to take out or . This accusative may be modified by an adjective or by a clause. : kaki-naosu koshi- e.g. to beat to death. The postposition zco is very frequently omitted. may have e. to make preparations. from kinodoku sorrow. ing of sum . to make obstruction. from kawaii charming. : jump out furi-dasu. to take a thing out and leave it out. look-drop). slvi-naosu. tive . (lit. from ikitai wishing to go. 153. 152. mi-otosu. loins. 154. The compounds of sum are explained in the next paragraph. to begin to wither . to leave open . the verbalize to hardly more than a suffix serving 156. to do over again. (lit. beat-kill). 157. to overlook. (lit. and suru then combination The noun. and a verb to exceed). to happen to pass. to be in your way. (amai sweet. Compound verbs are also formed by a noun and a verb . i. becomes 158. to jump in.g. . Hanasu suffers certain euphonic changes and becomes -ppanasu Kakaru shows that an action al : is about to commence or else that it is accident- kare-kakaru. it denotes that something has been left in a certain state akeppanasu.e. 155. Wri-kakaru. : . kinodokugaru to feel sorry for. to start raining. dafihlppanasu. Naosu means to do over again by way of bettering or correcting to write over again . to begin to read. to change one 's mind.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 35 tobi-komu. jump-enter). do-mend). Jama wo suru . kake'ru.

. to embroider. Sometimes suru when used independently resembles aru in construction and. or an adverb. the context will indicate which . The past tense of naru may be translated into English by either the past or the present . Zutsu ga suru . and the verb suru. I have a headache. to procure sum .36 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR thus formed passive. to be wounded. to be impolite. final The ru of suru . see the verb. naru see the Vocabulary. Atsuku natta out hot (today) Ikitaku natta (after it is . The second base of a See 47 49. In this case suru cannot be replaced by the polite verbitasu. I it turned out hot (yesterday) it has turned Atsuku naru desho . Sono koto ga deki-naku natta . wish to go (formerly I didn't care about going). 162. : Vocabulary. naaaru or the humble verb . being cold) hot now. . *It character usual to attach mini to the preceding word when this consists of only one as jikttsuru. to be astonished. Nui wo sum . intransitive or Jochu sum . Kega sum . The humble verb is itasu may be substituted for suru . there is a smell. Part 163. is to be used. The use of nara-nai after the negative conditional has already been mentioned I now (72) . we may have the second base of a verb (which often acts as a noun). Bikkuri sum . like sum. very common construction is the following. : thus in one word or two. . Instead of a noun before sum. may be transitive (with an accusative and wo). it is now impossible. in practically all cases in which suru written as a separate word the corresponding honorific verb is nasaru. Note in particular its use after the desiderative verbal adjective and after the negative verbal adjective. for other uses of is . wa. 160. sassuru is a compound of sum and makes sasshimasu. III. Part III. and means 'to be' or 'to have' Nioi ga suru . nakusuru. whether written a compound of sum and makes is kosurimasu. ico seica a servant (for another). yakusuru or yakusu to translate. meaning it takes ga instead of wo. Naru 'to It is generally become' may be considered the type of an inchoative verb used after an adverb or an adverbial construction. Shitsure i 159. and some of the combinations deserve special attention. A. kosuru is not Compounds of sum. expect it will turn out hot. etc.* 164.* are conjugated not all that end in sum are compounds of sum : verbs However. : sometimes dropped in compounds thus nakufiuru or nakusii to lose. etc. (114).. For other uses of suru. 161.

When aru is used attributively. The verb 'to be' is translated in various ways a noun is predicate. mo ichi-dai no kuruma wa zullo ato ni imatu. (See 161)..OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 37 THE VERB 'TO BE 165. . 1) 5 . at least vaguely. wd nara-nai desho.* There are many flies in Yokohama Yokohama ni hai ga takusan imasu. . 5) The verb 'to be' followed by the participle signifies a continued act . in the sense of 'a certain'. one day (there was a day). a carriage. behind the pine-tree tsuki ga matsu no kage ni iru. it still has this meaning of 'there is'. etc. the' moon. the verb The need not be translated. a certain man. 128. (there was a man) am hi. . a ship. 7) See 35. 6) Irassharu and o-ide nasaru are polite substitutes for i'ru. 119-124. any bread ? pan ga arimasu ka ? There are some cats without tails shippo no nai neko ga aru. nan da ? 2) Aru means properly 'there is'. that appear to *Things like a rikisha. translation of the passive 'to be' is shown in 98-101 . . it is always used when referring to inanimate objects. 'to be' is translated by de aru. the contractions da. present in a place is used when speaking of animate beings that are are they generally conceived. who possess a certain quality.. am going to be a doctor fire . etc. etc. What is this ? kore wo. desiiy etc. . (94). or 'there was'. oki na kaji ni isha ni naru tsumori desu. as having oru) gone or come there. a certain day. or the more polite de gozaim-asu. it can often be translated by 'a certain': aru hlto. are often treated like living beings and are construed with the i'ru instead of aru. 10) Occasionally 'to be' has a meaning of become' and is translated by naru : I don 't think I it will be much of a . or state. 'to be' 8) When the Japanese predicate is a true adjective (191). That flower is red ano liana . it is not used attributively 8) Gozaru takes the place of am in polite speech Is there . the sun. tea akai. a train. or when we wish to pick out from a group one or more individuals : When . 9) Sum though properly 'to do' has sometimes the meaning of 'to 'to be'. . etc. It was a lie uso deshita. verb have proper motion. 4) I'm (less commonly . it is also used when the simple existence of a living being is spoken of. There are two carpenters among these men kono uclii ni daiku gafutari aru. it is translated by the gerund followed by i'ru (or oru). The other The moon rikisha is is a long way behind .

These mats seem to be dirty kono tatami wa kitanai yd da. 3) Semblance. 2) Probability. shiran) I : . may rain ame ga furumai mono de mo nai. . nevertheless ). Kamakura let in . beginning with the least probable : a) The first form of the present followed by ka shira (less commonly ka . . wonder whether it will rain ame gafuru ka shira. I can't say there Kama kura. sem- isn't) is not a house to ni kashi-ya ga nai to mo ie-nai keredo . It . possibility. I dare say there has been an accident nani ka atta no ka mo shiremasen. of at the the Tabun sentence and the verb in the probable d) beginning It I . don 't think (but it 's possible) he will refuse to show it to you if you tell him the reason wake wo hanashltara misete kudasara-nai mono de mo arimasumai. . c) Noun followed by no yd da : He looks like a thief are wa dorobd no yd da. be omitted : Probably e) it will rain (tabun) ame gafuru deshd. . omou : f) Kitto placed at the beginning of the sentence and the verb in the future It is sure to rain . . kitto ame ga furu desho. . b) The negative followed by mono de mo nai : . seems to be raining ame ga futte iru yd da. b) Quasi-adjective in na followed by yd da : That seems to be a pretty house ano uchi wa kirei na yd da. report.38 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR ' for an answer. to The it first I think will form of the present followed by rain ame ga furu to omou. Doubt. . 1 ) Bare possibility with practical certainty of the contrary There may be a house to let hi Kamakura (but I feel nearly certain there : ' perhaps'. tabun may . : . appearance. (lit. blance. 166. . . a) It looks like rain : Verb or adjective and yd da : ame ga furu yd da. etc. c) Ka mo shire-nai or no ka mo shire-nai at the end of a sentence I dare say it will rain ame gafuru ka mo shire-nai. 11) 'Isn't ?' expecting 'yes arimasen ka ? placed at the end of the sentence is : often translated by de wa Isn 't the doctor ill ? o isha son wa bydki ja arimasen ka ? MISCELLANEOUS TRANSLATIONS. supposition. present or past . probability. opinion.

: to mo. it is not dear. 6) . : adjective in na. 1) Words or phrases like. phatic : Takai koto wa nai . . e) Stem of the verb followed by -so da : . to cmphazise the negative potential. ni chigai nai. seems to be finished dekita to mieru. -so na mono da.e. . foregoing the present tense into the past the probable past. naka-naka. so desu or so de gozaimasu added to a verb. . adjective. -rashii . That man looks like a foreigner ano hUo wa seiyo-jin mitai da. b) The stem of the verb followed by now He ought to be here directly mojiki ki-so na mono da. mochiron. They say the mats are clean tatami ga kirei da so . : . used 3) Totemo. 12) verbs and especially after adjectives is o! 5) Koto wa nai used after 2) Kesshite. two of its uses are especially im4) Wa after many words is emphatic and (b) after a verbal stem (4749). or quasiIt . added to a verb or true adjective : They say he c) bydki da to iu hanashi da. 134. 4) Report. They say the mats are dirty tatami ga kitanai so desu.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 39 d) Adjective stem and -so da : These mats seem to be dirty kono talami wa kitana-so desu. may be expressed by a) So da. b) To 'tie iu hanashi da is ill . . constructions may all be used in a past sense by changing The They say it is . desu. the probable present) into 167. : . dekita-rashii. see Part termination The f) looks like rain . portant (a) after a gerund (58. Certainty and emphasis may be expressed by tashlka ni. hearsay. or tatami ga kirei na so desu. or to iimashlta] added to a verb (in this case equivalent to to iimasu : ano Mto wa or true adjective cheap sore wa yasui 'tte reason 5) Probability founded on some special a) Verb followed by hazu da : He ought to be here directly now (because he said he was coming by the 5 o'clock train) mojiki kuru hazu desu. . 'they say' etc. It ame ga furi-so desu. used in connection with a negative verb. : To mie'ru or mitai at the end of the sentence . h) Adverbial form of an adjective followed by mie'ru : This spoon looks dirty kono saji zva kitanaku mieru. III : It seems to be finished g) . or the future (i. kitto.

the child meddle with ike-nai fire . . The negative gerund in nakute followed by wa and is ike-nai (or nara-nai). . b) The : first form of the negative present followed by . : Don 't b) hanashlte wa ike-nai. 2) Obligation to abstain from doing something is rendered by One ought a) : The negative imperative talk . Wakaru mon' desu ka ? what an absurd idea of course he can't understand it. don 't put the fire out).40 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR Deki-nai koto wa nai . . to and ike-nai (or nara-nai) You must be c) careful ki wo tsuke-nai to ike-nai. I suppose Taro can understand English. is Hazu da at the end of the sentence : this construction used generally in the 2nd or 3rd person to speak the truth . 141 et seqq. . Taro wa Ei-go ga wakaru desho ne . ironical question against the absurdity of the sentence after which serves to protest emphatically which it comes. when *Nara-nai is used in the case of merely pointing out or stating an obligation . de nori-kaeru no desu. form of the present followed by no desu. (less often nara:* the verb ike-nai (or nara-nai) is sometimes omitted in familiar speech must go ika-nakereba narimasen. : by ike-nai. a threat or a warning that something disagreeable will happen unless a certain act is performed. 1) Obligation to do something is expressed by a) The negative present conditional followed nai) I . You must change e) trains at Nagoya . I certainly can do it (lit. Obligation. wa let Don 't the my books watakushi no hon wo kodomo ni don 't cause the child to touch my books). or quasi-causative construction. . : the verb ike-nai (or nara-nai) sometimes omitted in familiar speech You must tudy d) The first . translated : by : The negative verb. it is not a fact that I can't do ty it). a scolding. 6) : The use of the present tense when ikimasu is . benkyo shi-nakute wa (ike-nai). referring to a future time means certain- Ame gafutte mo 7) I shall go even if it rains. (lit. desu ka ? : Mow' an 168. and is ike-nai (or nara-nai) : 3) Obligation to prevent a) something from happening . Into wa makoto wo iu hazu da. ike-nai the sentence partakes of the nature of a command. yd ni. to The first form of the present followed by You mustn 't move ugoku to ike-nai. In a general way. (lit. and the imperative of suru Don 't let the fire go b) By a causative Don't ijirashite let out hi ga kie-nai yd ni shi nasai. go out hi wo kesa-nai de o kure . nara-nai is commoner in the 1st person and ike-nai in the 2nd. Nagoya .

judging of two lines of action.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 41 Don't dogs). not wait . would like to have two days ' Permission is occasionally expressed by the potential .. Advice. in Japanese as in English. or not to permit b. and ho ga ii . 1 ii . or 141 et seqq. kasa wo motte iku b) kasa wo motte iku ho ga Ja arimasen ka? 'isn't that so : sometimes added to the foregoing constructions It ho would be better to take an umbrella. ) Permission to do something : is translated by the gerund followed by mo mo is sometimes omitted You may go itte mo ii. this savours The conditional : (or first command You had to ii . 4) let any dogs get in . wouldn't it ? kasa wo motte iku ga ii ja arimasen ka ? desho to the constructions given c) Advice may be given politely by adding under (a) : . Permission. . preference. see a causative quasi-causative construction. i. hot or cold water ? Hosoi no to fiitoi no to dotchi ga hoshii no desu ? do you want a thin one or a thick one ? 2) Giving advice a) : forms of the present and to) followed by ii .e. to I asking permission leave 5) Futsuka no hima wo itadakito . inu wo irete wa ike-nai . . see 126 et seqq. 4) The indicating of a wish : is often equivalent. 2) Permission not to do something. the statement that no obligation by the negative gerund in ndkute followed by mo ii : You need not go ika-nakute mo ii. or of a the present or past of the verb or the adjective. 168. gozaimasti. is translated Negation of an obligation. by to happen. . conditional and ii daro (or 1) Asking for advice is translated by the past desho) : Which road shall I take ? dono michi wo ittara ii desho ? : Asking about preference may be translated as follows Mizu to o yu to dotchi ga yd gozaimasu ka ? which do you want. 170. by the negative gerund in ndkute followed ii : by mo 3) You need lated 3. kasa wo motte ikeba ?' is ii . matte i-nakute mo ii. (lit. 169. better take an umbrella ii. . To permit something is sometimes transit. don't introduce any exists.

. regret by adding no ni : I wish it wasn't raining ame ga fura-nakereba ii no ni. is translated by hoshii 8) Taro wants a pear Taro wa nashi ga hoshii. to ( ) and ( yokatta (no ni) yokatta daro (ni) ii { no ni You ought to have taken an umbrella kasa wo motte iku ho ga yokatta. de yokatta. . : Ni . c) I hope d) Shltai (mono da) after the adverbial form of an adjective it will be shorter . massugu no ho ga chikai desho. no ni. . . want. kasa zco motte iku ho ga ii d) In the above cases we have always had the idea of : 'better'. fear or regret is translated by the present conditional. The word ho which appears in many of the constructions mentioned in this paragraph. wish. 1 ) A simple desire that a thing is or will be. Desire in the sense of 'would like to have'. 2) Desire coupled with doubt. b) Yd ni shltai (mono da) following a verb hope it will be ready tonight komban dekiru yd ni shltai. followed by ii (or yokatta for the past). besides other possible ways. though generally used. 171. it . Desire. or present and to.42 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR would be better to take an umbrella Perhaps desho. : Some form will I hope you of the future in desho (or daro) : soon be better jiki yoku o nan desho. : . a) shltai : . ho ga The present conditional The present. ditional followed Advice disguised as a polite suggestion may be given by the past conby ikaga desu ka ? or do desu ka ? Would you care to take an umbrella ? kasa wo motte ittara ikaga desu ka ? 3) Approval of past line of conduct is expressed by the gerund followed by : yokatta It was a good thing you took an umbrella kasa wo motte itte yokatta. motto mijikaku shltai mono da. . is sometimes omitted. It was a good thing you didn 't take an umbrella kasa wo motte ika-nai . Disapproval of past line of conduct is rendered. Doubt is emphasized by adding ga or keredomo . which are often but not always used elliptically 4) : The present. need. You ought not to have taken an umbrella kasa wo motte ika-nai hoga yokatta . by any of the following combinations. is translated by : I I (mono da) following a noun hope it will be fine tomorrow ashlta tenki ni shltai (mono da). other ad- jectives have similar constructions Perhaps it would be shorter to go straight on e) .

. by a) Shimpai suru or shimpai da I am b) afraid of dirtying my dress kimono wo yogosu no ga shimpai desu. will happen. the desire may also be suggested by the interrogative future Shall we go for a walk ? sampo ni ikimasho ka 172. . do something is translated by the desiderative form of the verb. Intention may be expressed in two ways between am afraid no practical difference : . it is generally translated by means of the adjec- tive kowai or the verb koicagaru : Are you afraid ? kowai no desu ka ? 2) In the sense of anxiety that : something disagreeable has happened or : . or probable past kutabireta desho. : often followed I 6) by mono da . is translated by iru or iri-yd I want a rikisha early 5) Desire to tomorrow morning myoata hayaku kuruma ga iru. To omou. : translated by : want to have my watch mended tokei wo naoshlte moraitai. (of business) the sense of 'need' 'require' yd : . 1) ? In the sense of real fear.. wish to go ikitai.) The probable present afraid I I am am d) you are tired . mo shire-nai. I I he won't come today kyo zva ko-nai to omou. ante ga fura-nakereba : ii ga . was afraid he would get angry ano Into ga okoru daro to omoimashlta. b) The imperative Please call a rikisha for me kuruma wo yonde kudasai. .OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 43 4) Desire. suggested by a question followed by ikaga desu ka ? or do desu ka? The conditional past a) Would you care to take an umbrella ? kasa wo motte ittara ikaga destt ka ? b) A noun followed by wa and ikaga desu ka ? or do desu ka ? 7) A desire may be : What do you say to a walk ? sampo : ica ikaga desu ka ? c) If the action refers to the 1st person plural. is Desire that somebody may do something for me. in da .. if it does not rain would be a good thing but . Fear. which there seems 173. An of the negative present conditional elliptical construction consisting ii followed I it by ga : am c) afraid it will rain . a) The gerund and morailai : . (lit. . nani ka aru no ka Ka mo shire-nai I am e) afraid that something has happened . I . afraid he is not strong enoguh : sonna ni chikara ga arimasumai.

it is sometimes translated by ni or de. father oba. servant geisha. me . 175. occupations of men and women. 'the sooner the better' is translated by hodo : see 259.: chichi. the phrase to hi mono is someThe dog (or a dog) is a clever animal inu to iu mono wa riko na mono da . When 'a' means 'each'. when it is necessary to call attention to the sex of an animal it may be done : . In other rare cases. it is translated by the equivalent of 'one'. me a pear nashi wo hltotsu kudasai. . male 177. how much a foot ? shaku (dc) ikura ? 5) 'The the' e. The English article is sometimes translated 1) : give 2) When 'a' means 'one'. but we could also say inu wa riko nn mono da. whole class.g. thus : Tokyo e iko to omoimasu. . genan. E. The Japanese noun It has in itself is preceded by nothing that corresponds to an no gender or number and these circumstances are . 174. I .g. 176. III. aunt . 4) The difference like that between 'a' and 'the' may sometimes be expressed by the correct use of zva and ga . generally entirely ignored in speaking. 3) to When referring to an action sum or tokoro desu. which is about to be performed you may use was going to peel a pear when a child bumped up against kaiva ivo muko to shite itara kodomo ga butsukatta no desu. nashi no CHAPTER NOUNS. : I intend to go to Tokyo . I am about to start dekakeru tokoro desu. GENDER. singing girl. Gender is to be found in some nouns that refer to relationship or to the . Please Four times a 3) month times placed after the noun. 2) The future followed by to omou : 1) I . ARTICLE. . : When tsuki (ni) yo-tabi : 'a' or 'the' refers to a .44 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR The first form of the present followed by tsumori intend to go to Tokyo Tokyo e iku tsumori desu. article. see 392.

animals are not capable of receiving these prefixes. 2) By prefixing otoko no for the male. and dasti a Mkidashi verbs two drawer. . lost more polite. Kodomo-tachi may be used for the plural of kodomo 180. chemist a means suri-ya. added and secondarily. and kake'ru to hang and isu a chair. tomodachi has no special plural. 5) Noun and stem of verb or vice versa . The idea of plurality may be expressed. from ie hand. DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND CONCRETE NOUNS. and me (or men) for the female . men-dori. NUMBER. from nigai and warau to laugh. of to a noun serves to form a large number 8) The suffix Va a house. from tafamu to fold : : akai red. 1 81 . cock . prefixing o (or on) for the male. compounds that mean the names of shops. HJ 's shop or the chemist. A Japanese noun of itself is either singular or plural according to circumstances. -tachi or -gata . and months and fukuro bag days. time. from ktisuri medicine. The words kodomo and tomodachi were originally plural. though it is rarely necessary to do so. and sakujitsu and konnichi. 2) Compound nouns are formed of tsuki-hi : : to take out. ox . kuni-guni various countries.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN* LANGUAGE 45 1 ) By o-ushi. idea of plurality is The thus : hobo everywhere. recently. hen. Many 1) The concrete nouns are derivatives or compounds : stem of a verb is very frequently used as a noun hanashi a conversa: : two nouns te-bukuro gloves. window. from ho a side sometimes expressed by doubling the word. 7) mado-kake a curtain. yesterday today. from mado a tatami-isu a folding chair. 6) Stem of adjective and noun metal. me-ushi. or onna no for the female. but they have the special idea of plurality and like any other Japanese noun may be used is indifferently in singular or plural. from hanasu to speak. thus. All names of . bull. from kuni country. 1 78. by adding the suffixes -domo. sak-kon. we the not of shop. from hiku to pull. from kOM b Stem of adjective and stem of verb niga-u-arai a sneer. tradesmen. before forming the compound abbreviated are the words 3) Occasionally from i. cow midori.e. the last of these 179. want to show clearly we are speaking of the man and : . and aka-gane copper. The stems of 4) : tion. .

: red .46 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR add San Mr. 10) The particle no placed after an adjective is equivalent to a noun with See 188. no. 13) A great many Japanese nouns are merely mispronounced European b) An adjective stem : : c) A noun inaka-mono a : . the meaning of 'one': chiisai no a small one akai no the red one. or even n\ 12) The adverbial form of certain adjectives is sometimes used as a noun hayaku kara osoku made from early morning until late at night suteishon no chikaku ga ii (a house in) the neighbourhood of the station would be preferable. adjectives : . i. aomono vegetables. rustic. like -jin man. -go language. large number of compounds : a) It may be added to the stem of a verb : kimono a dress. amami sweetness. 11) The word mono thing or person. -kawa river. from aoi green. from ki'ru to put on. was . -shima island. 9) Some of these compounds in ya refer only to the person : kuruma- ya a rikisha-man. d) Compounds in mono often have a special meaning as explained. 3) The termination -mi added to the stem of an adjective. Occasionally the noun part of quasi-adjectives in na is used in this same way jobuia strength. 4) Two words is-isn't. there is too much scarlet in this pattern. from akai scarlet (adjective). but I find the heat very trying. nashi or nouns) meaning opposite things aruthe question of the existence of a thing suki-kirai the ques(verbs. words. Kono moyo u-a aka ga katte iru . Abstract nouns are formed in various : 1) : These nouns refer to the degree of a quality. 5) An adjective followed : an abstract noun by the postposition no is sometimes equivalent to Samui no tea ii ga atsui no ni wa komarimasu . e) Mono is often contracted to mow'. 1 9. I don 't mind Takai no ni iva odoroita . . from jobu na strong. astonished at the dearness of it. or sometimes the quality itself akami a tinge of long. forms nouns that mean a tinge of a quality. I the cold.e. tion of liking or disliking. especially English. and many added to nouns to form compounds Igirisu-jin an Englishman Furansu-go the French language. DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND ABSTRACT NOUNS. 2) The stem of an adjective to which -sa is added nagasa length. ways The stem of adjectives oka scarlet (noun). from inaka the country. used as a suffix serves to form a very Words others are : . from nagai : 182. .

Diminutives are often formed by prefixing ko child or small.. isn 't it the same thing ?' Speaking of a picture or a book. followed 8) adjective by koto : hayai koto velocity. Oishii kudamono the feeling to or subjective quality of a thing iabemashlta . only hai no ko. Augmentatives are sometimes by prefixing : dai (or tai) : d-kaze a gale. CHAPTER IV. senses two in used they may refer to the objective Muny adjectives are of a person. gatana a penknife. there is ' : . number or case. from itamu to ache. we might call it omoshiroi mono an amusing thing but we would say ryoko sum hodo omoshiroi koto wa nai. but koto always denotes an abstract idea. less frequently 186. Japanese : . (lit. but speaking of the young of a fly we cannot say 6 formed big. from kaze wind . tangible. but all animals cannot take ko as a prefix while they can all be followed no ko a puppy . Mono and koto both mean 'thing'. ko-inu or inu but ko-hai. Ko- stone. 183. : . I ate with pleasnice fruit anata no kudas'tta kudamono wo oishlku omoshiroi koto an Likewise an I feelings the fruit you kindly gave me. 184. we might say onaji koto ja arimasen ka ? well. If somebody complains that he was given two five-sen stamps instead of one ten-sen one. DIMINUTIVES AND AUGMENTATIVES. from katana a sword . This form is used as an exclamation hayai koto ! what velocity ! It is also often used when we deny the existence of a quality It is not dear . ADJECTIVES. 207. ko-ishi a pebble. etc. there is nothing more amusing than travelling. adjectives have no gender. from ji thing. 17. Ko is sometimes used as a prefix to form the names of the young of animals. daiji importance. an act. whereas o-naji koto means 'the same sort of thing' 'something equivalent'. takai 7) The stem of verbs An : : no dearness). from ishi a 185. itami pain. a fact. while mono generally refers to something concrete and Thus onaji mono means 'the same thing' 'the identical article'. koto tua nai. from hayai rapid.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 47 6) Adjectives not followed by no are occasionally used as abstract nouns : . etc.. by 710 ko with the same meaning we may say.

48 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR amusing thing (i. . more easily felt ' There is a slight difference between these two expressions than defined the difference is something like that which exists . somemasu I will dye the cloth : red. 3) As a . if the adjective ends in no. old ones of postage stamps) is about equivalent tofurui kitte old postage stamps.e. but we will remark here that Japanese adjectives. in which case it is placed before the noun : na Into . An adjective may be used in four ways takai uchi 1) As an attributive. are included here under one heading as they by an adverb correspond to one and the same form in Japanese. Kitte no furui no (lit. 188. these always end in ai. when it may refer either. we have kirei na no a pretty one. : . indeed But the two cases a) case b) might often be considered and called a predicate. which 'ought to produce gratitude). may sometimes folJow each other without kirei any conjunction or special construction Ano zcakai handsome young man. : to the verb itself 4) As an adverb. There are various classes of adjectives 1 ) True adjectives. a thing which produces amusement). Likewise neko no shinda no and shinda neko both mean a dead cat. 190. The joining of two or more adjectives will be treated later on (406). 2) Quasi-adjectives : ii. oi or ui. 1 89. From chiisai small. we have chiisai no a small one from kirei na pretty.predicate in polite sentences with the verb gozaru : kono uchi zca tako gozaimasu . this house is high. : of the small one. and b). red) . ever. well). 2) As a predicate in ordinary sentences kono uchi wa takai . and omoshirokatta I was amused arigatai koto a thing to be grateful for (i. ) hayaku arukimasu he walks quickly yoku mieru I can see it well or b) to a noun through the verb ano uchi zva okiku mieru that house looks big kire zvo akaku. (lit. and adjectival phrases like ki no hayai impulsive.e. another no is not added follow 770 sometimes each other when the first Two one. this house is high. 191. like the English. old ones and old postage stamps '. A similar construction of no is found after verbs used attributively (233) . that young handsome man). and arigatai I am grateful. No is also used in an inverted construction not infrequently heard. formed by adding na or no to nouns. ' ' between postage stamps. mita no the one I saw. case a) is generally translated : (as quickly. Howhoka no ano'hsr. hoka no another may 'of: chiisai no no the second hanashi desu we are talking and 'one' one means . . : . etc. In English. that : : a high house. . . not only in the case of true adjectives but also in the case of quasi-adjectives in na or no. Any adjective may be given the force of a noun by adding the particle no which then has the meaning of 'one'. though logically distinct. and b) by an adjective (as big.

1 with gozaru adverb 93.. serve as the negative of the verb aru 'to be 'to have ' is which often found alone but tive of adjectives. ii. 192. . tako yasashiu* shtro ) What : . as shown in the following table : attribute takAi tak\i ) f . itself we have the nai an adjective used to form the negareality : following forms attribute predicate nai adverb 195. as ' we have seen in is (93). Another construction of adjectives used predicatively was 196. and its inflexions which.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 49 3) Adjectival phrases composed of a noun (or its equivalent). which happen However. naku The : negatives of true adjectives are derived from the adverbial form attribute as follows takaku nai takaku nai takaku naku in the negative predicate adverb noted in 167. as kitanai dirty. the postposition no and a true adjective. *Shiu is pronounced shu. 1 94. to end in nai. yasashi. there is no objection to using ordinary adjectives : kitano gozaimasu. . 154. When used by more frequently still. See 181. True adjectives end in ai. The stem is equivalent to a noun and is used sometimes alone . shiroi and samui. yasashii. 4) Various tenses of verbs and verbal phrases used as adjectives. oi or ui. 7. yasashu yasashu . according to the way in which the adjective These terminations are changed is used. Ordinary negative adjectives in nai are not used in combination with is to be found in the inflexion of gozaru . 182. TRUE ADJECTIVES. 6. shiro and samu are the stems of takai. Nai is non-existent. it is to be found very frequently in compounds. 5. in these polite sentences the negation the verb It is itself : takaku nai or tako gozaimasen : never takaku no gozaimasu.. 2 153. before the verb gozaru not dear . shiroi predicate shiroi samm samm stimu predicate _ takAKU shiroKU samuKU yasashiKU remains after taking away the final i of a true adjective is called the stem taka.

198. deki-naku nai. Other adjectives. True adjectives. We cannot say naku nai for the negative of nai . takai means not only high '.50 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 197. kitanaku nai. however. that thus. they should have a conjugation analogous to that of the verb. form their negatives in the ordinary way stikunaku nai. but is high '. ending in nai. and behave in many ways like verbs. : ' ' 199. the only form that can be used is nai koto rca nai. especially when used as simple predicates (190. AFFIRMATIVE takai NEGATIVE . kitanai. mittomo-naku nai. mittomo-nai. It is not surprising then. partake of the nature of verbs and enclose in themselves the meaning of 'to be'. All the inflexions may be formed from the stem. whether compounds of nai or not* as sukunai. 2). deki-nai.

. if it is : women Kono heya wa semakutte . (compare *ln verbs the past tense may be formed from the gerund or the by changing the final c into : : : 58. this can be done by substituting arimasen 202. In the past tense. (I : don 't like it). this room is so small . may be obtained by using desho instead of daro.* Yasukute mo kaimasen . yasukute or yasukutte). may be contracted to -dm takakucha or takakutcha. katta no deshita gerund from the past tense. In the probable present and past. a meaning of 'even if it even if it is cheap. In the negative. followed by 'tie has like the past tense of a verb followed by '(te. affirmative or negative.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 51 it is 4) It often corresponds to 'so' or 'very' in English so painful I don 't know what to do. desu or even no}. omoshiroi no dattara (or deshitara) . : Other combinations met with are omoshiroi no daro (or desho) . i. (iya da). by changing the final a of the past inflexion into e. it mustn't be too heavy... for nai. 86). omoshiroi no de wa nai (or arimasen) . I won't buy The quasi-gerund (b) is used elliptically by women like the gerund. |See preceding foot-note. 7) lakakute wa or lakakutte wa becomes : Oinokucha ikemasen 8) by wa has sometimes a conditional force heavy it won't do. n ' desu. you may add to the adjective no desu Kore wa chiisai no desu . peculiar to ! themselves Omoshirokutte ? amusing E. omoshirokutte yo : oh. or no deshita to the plain adjective : shiroi no deshita . no desu may be added to the past inflexion of the Omoshirokatta no desu or omoadjective. The quasi-past (a). it was amusing.e. a or vice versa.. the past inflexion). omoshiro. 5) : Itakute shhjo ga nai . omoshiroi no de wa nakaro (or arumai) . this result 203. (often abthis one is (Compare 205. omoshiroku nai no daro (or desho). omoshiroi no dattaro (or deshitaro) . I won 't buy 6) Followed by mo it means 'even if 'although': it even if it is cheap. the true gerund Yasukatte ? was it cheap ? (from yasukatta. 204. We have seen that no following an adjective may mean 'one'. verbal construction Sei ga takakute irasshaimasu an adjectival gerund imitates . and b) a sort of gerund with a past meaning. but less stiff than the formal gozaimasu... Women is it have another ? elliptical use. he is tall. (188). The adjectival gerund is sometimes used elliptically by both men and adjectival gerund followed . In adjectives this is not so but we obtain a) a sort of past inflexion by changing the final e of the gerund into a . Wa The following the adjectival gerund : is emphatic the : final -te of the gerund and wa. (from (compares?) Yasukula (or yasukutta) 'e kaimasen . When and arimasen deshita for nakatta in 199. omoshiroku nai no da (or desu). In the present tense breviated to small. the adjective is used predicatively one may sometimes wish to employ a construction less curt than the plain adjective. 18). yes !f 9) The polite verb irassharu or o-ide nasaru after a common 201..

I . 211. however it is occasionally used alone. ed by the postposition ni or de and then means 'without'. is usually corrupted to ii . True adjectives are occasionally. more either na or no. I am glad care (lit. ure! Abunai take I Oh. suffer no alteration. shii 206. QUASI-ADJECTIVES IX A'a OR No. The adjectives sukunai scarce and oi plentiful. used as nouns Amai mo karai mo shitte iru . Ano hana (or no) is changed to tva kirei desu(=de arimasu). yoku. pretty. used attributively. omoshiroku nai no nara. In some cases na or no may 216. (Compare 91 ). In the negative. yoke-so deshlta . omoshiroi no de nakereba . yokatta. is prefixed fu-shinsetsu na unkind. L'reshii. but baka no hanashi means 'the story of a fool'. shimai no peiji the last page. a Sometimes fu not. (lit. 208. but all the other inflexions such as yd. The two adjectives yoi good. na (or no) is replaced by de nai : baka de nai Into. . joyful. dangerous). from : . ano hana ica kirei de gozaimasu that flower pretty. it generally has the meaning of an adjective. In many other cases although the word is logically a noun and is treated grammatically as such. In many cases the Kesa kden de baka zee mitq. noun may be used separately like an ordinary noun saw a fool this morning in the park kin gold. the latter : be used almost indiscriminately. are sometimes used Nashi is usually followcolloquially in one of their literary forms. Some nouns ma}' take general. omoshiroi no de zca nakatta (or aritnasen deshlta). ! ! : 207. . 215. etc. he is a man who knows what 's good. . omoshiroku nai no daro (or desho). shinsetsu kind. The adjective yoi good. yoshi. 209. na is and followed by the verb aru or gozaru. omoshiroi no de nakattara (or arimasen deshltara}. 212. Many nouns and tively as adjectives : baka kirei na hon a pretty book stems of verbs. omoshiroi no de zra nakattaro (or nakatta desho) . The following idiom is worthy of note It seemed Atsui no atsuku nai no 'tie. . omoshiroku nai no dattara (or deshltara}. though very seldom. 213. de When quasi-adjcctives are used prcdicatively. The former makes the meaning more concrete baka na hanashi is 'a foolish story'. joyful). followed by na or no are used attribuna Into a foolish man kin no tokei a gold watch . talk about heat : ! as if I were burning. and nai non-existent. Adjectives are often used interjectionally in Japanese. he knows the sweet and the pungent). 210. (lit. not-foolish man.52 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR omoshiroku nai no datta (or deshtta). are not used attributively. nashi. 217. as kirei 214.

A great many quasi-adjectives in no are formed from the names of Amerika no lion countries. The nouns from which quasi-adjectives are formed when used as ordinary nouns may take any postposition. . When used adverbially (1 90. and nouns (adverbs) of time and place an American book kin no tokei a gold watch kind no tegami yesterday 's letter . makkurona massao na makkai . soft. asoko no uchi yonder house. . Kono lion ica kirei de omoshiroi this . : . ki-iro cases are : from okii . perfectly round. massaoi % mammaru na completely green. very much like a true adjective (200). . attakai . de naku may be substituted for na (or no) . become a quasi-adjective. flaring red. We have seen that the stem of a true adjective is equivalent to a noun This noun-stem may sometimes be followed by the particle na and (193). na yellow. In the negative. komaka na minute.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 53 Iii negative sentences. 222. makkurai . 223. chiisa na little. . okashi na ridiculous. cannot wear it. The quasi-adjective is used as a gerund. yd na is of special importance. makkura na pitch dark. chiisai okashii yawarakai . Ano hana tea kirei de wa nai. 221 Among the quasi-adjectives formed by na. 21 9. that flower is not pretty. kono hana wa kirei de nakute nioi ga warui this flower is not pretty nor of pleasant odour . de (tea) nakute or de (ura) naku (94) takes the place of na (or no) : kirei de nakute mo it even if it is not pretty it will do . In the negative. The most common oki na big. ano hana zca kirei de wa gozaimasen . book is pretty and interesting I : sore -xa ammari hade de kiraremasen that is so showy. na (or no) is then replaced by de. b) na Shin(or no) is replaced by m. yaicaraka na attaka na warm. Examples of its use will be found in the Vocabulary. . 21 8. Part III. (See 94). but perhaps it is more common to use ni and put the verb in the Baka de naku negative mieru he looks anything but a fool baka ni mie-nai he does not look a fool. 220.. materials. masshiro na rnakka na snow-white. . setsu ni shimashfta he behaved kindly kirei ni mieru it looks pretty . jet-black. . . tea is put after de. . 4> a. mammarui. . : . omae no iu koto tea burei de vca naku machigatte iru what you say is not impolite but it is not correct. makkuroi . komakai ki-iroi . masshiroi . baka ni mieru he looks a fool.

When used as predicates these phrases change no into ga and they resemble ordinary sentences e. zvaruktitte will ikare-nakatta be understood from the following example . watch. Ji'frai na . You cannot say zonzai hlto. forming a compound . 226. In a polite sentence would be changed to yd gozaimasii. lively. make mistakes like these. like kitanai dirty. In the past tense ii would be changed to yokatta. A great When adjective ii many of these adjectival phrases are formed by means of the good. vigorous. vigorous. Something similar iji-waru na is found in some compound adjectives. : . and a true adjective are used attributively.* with true adjectives. no last. hateful. shimai "Other quasi-adjectives in ai are hakurai no imported. E. genki no ii '. Do not confound quasi-adjectives ending in ai. we may the two nouns together. ano Mto zva genki yoku mieru that man looks 230.: Ano kodomo zca genki ga ii .g. like zonzai na careless. 229. 4. b).54. Other adjectives are treated in this (lit. or nai.: spirits'. Kigen ga yoku narimashlta he is now good-tempered . hantai no opposite. lent). common. a. no is changed to ga or sometimes is put in the adverbial inflexion. would be altogether inexcusable as there are no true 'adjectives ending Beginners are very apt to in ei. A great number of adjectival phrases composed of a noun (or its equivathe postposition no. 227.g. neither can you say kitanai no Into : kirei hlto instead of kirei na hlto a handsome man. The gerundial construction Tsugo ga go. ano hlto tea genki yoku hatarakimasu that man works vigorously .i hear no instead of akai. shimpai na causing anxiety. above are three of the The first quasi-adjectives only used attributively. shiro no instead aka You sometimes quasi-adjective. it was so inconvenient I was not able to : suppressed and the adjective used adverbially (190. and their opposites by means of zvarui bad. of shiroi. i. genki no ii means literally 'good of kodomo means a lively child ' lively. the nega: tive adjective. etc. for instance kara no place kuruma or kara-kuruma an empty rikisha kin no tokei or kin-dokei a gold 225. ADJECTIVAL PHRASES. ii as for that child his spirits are good). bad-tempered. of a true the stem 224. 228. tagai no reciprocal. that child is . Occasionally adjective followed by no is used as .e. 231 . as : Sometimes instead of using the quasi-adjective attributively. ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR from iji no warui. same way.

VERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. Ano kodomo wa on wo shira-nai . Many verbs and verbal phrases may be used attributively in Japanese . an impossible work. . . 233. Futotta hito . that woman is guilty. that child is ungrateful. nai take the adverbial form naku . a fat person. The negative of negative verbal is adjectives in nai. pusillanimous. He looks guilty tsumi ga aru yd ni mieru . no general rule can be given as to how to treat the corresponding but a. hard of hearing. like deki-nai. Tsumi no aru onna . b) verb or verbal phrase in Japanese. . The un no n naka no benri no ii ii lucky. When no corresponding adjective exists in English these Japanese adjectival phrases must be translated by relative clauses. On wo shira-nai kodomo . lively. these adjectives are used predicatively in English. tsumi ga ari-so da. When : Ano onna wa tsumi ga aru . Some of these adjectives may be used adverbially in English (190. an ungrateful child. tsugo no iji ii warui warui warui nai okii . in 197. mijikai . 4. is changed to ga. no ii ii good-tempered. etc. (see 328 The following are a few examples out of a large 330). they are sometimes rendered into English by an adjective. formed as 235. ame no oi mimi no toi sukunai . Deki-nai shigoto 234. rainy. To act guiltily tsumi na koto wo suru. number that may be rendered by an adjective. in Japanese the verb resumes its ordinary functions no where it occurs. intimate. genki no ii ki no hayai ki no chiisai ki no nagai impulsive. sometimes by a relative clause. opposite warm warui iscarui convenient. Ano hito wafutotte imasu . Each case must be considered individually. The number is : practically unlimited. a guilty woman. that man is fat. when used in Negative verbal adjectives in. kigen no good-tempered. . convenient. patient. noroi . . mie-nai.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE of these adjectival phrases are a few of the commoner ones following only 232.

an action which has just taken place. we have fu-shinsetsu na unkind. jobu-so na apparently healthy. . are irregular when they take the -so of probability they become yosa-so and nasa-so. Nearly verbs have a desiderative form in -tai which a true adjective. 240. zvakari- nikui difficult to 239. An important group of quasi-adjectives in na is formed by adding -so (appearance) to the stem of true adjectives or verbs. 242. it means that instead. 245.: : omoshiro-so na likely to be amusing. or to the noun part of these adjectives have a meaning of probability. and nai non-existent. By adding -rashii to a noun we get an adjective which often corresponds to our adjectives in 'ish' or 'ly'. from umu by prefixing fu From From shinseisti shiazcase na kind. an adjective hoso-nagai slender. from na name. . quasi-adjectives E. The adjective kusai malodorous. E. jozurashii seems to be skilful. means inaka-kusai that one is reminded of the noun. it may sometimes be translated by 'seems to be'. furi-so na likely to rain. it means that the : zcakari-ii easy to understand is .: kodomorashii childish. The termination -ppoi added to certain nouns. refer to 244. (See 77). The compounds of nai may either follow nai in this irregularity or be formed regularly. offensive. 241 . (See Part III). often in an objectionable way : rustic. COMPOUND AND DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES. and takai high. stems of adjectives or makes an adjective and generally means that the noun is in excess : mizuppoi watery. we have fu-shiazcase na unfortunate. 1) Compound : A : : : understand. eggs). okorippoi quick-tempered. (occasionally yasui) if is 238. na fortunate. connection with the verb naru : deki-naku natta it it is now impossible.g. 237. The adjective yoi good. zvakari-nikui difficult to 3) The stem of a verb followed by an adjective 236. otokorashii manly. Thus umi-tate no new-laid (of : to lay. 243. verbs. performed with difficulty understand.g.56 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR has become impossible. added to a noun. from zvakaru to understand. adjectives may be composed of noun and an adjective nadakai famous. Quasi-adjectives in no formed by adding -tote to the stem of a verb. If ii is the action action is performed easily . The negative of quasi-adjectives is sometimes formed (or bu) 'not': this corresponds nearly to our prefix 'un'. nikui difficult. (lit. and nagai long. nikui is added. 2) The stem of an adjective followed by from hosoi narrow. all added to the stem of a verb. stinking of the country).

is he 'this is cheaper' ambiguity is dispelled by using ho side. 'this is cheap' or . Nagai ho ga suki . is merely affirmed or denied. . b) in I a definite six way . 5) When we wish to express an intensified quality like 'still better'. : 1 ) Ho is lid ga yasui . in an affirmative sentence 2) When it means 'left' or 'remaining' arimasu ka ? mada wa ? Have you any more nails kugi no heya ni mada arimasu. bring a better one. 2) is usually preferred Asama yori Fuji (or Fuji no ho) ga lakai . Kono hon no ho ga generally repeated in Japanese omoshiroi ga mo hitotsu no : : ' : : I motto : a) in a vague way want some more nails motto kugi ga . I prefer the long one. we may All : use nao : Kore tea nao ii . please lend me a more amusing book. yasuku nai Dan-dan okiku naru Kore Kore this cheaper. Kono ho ga yasui . for instance. mo : more nails kugi ga mo rop-pon iriinasu. this book is more one is but other the cheaper. 248. this one is still better. watashi room in There are some more my want mada . : growing bigger little by little. 3) Sometimes motto more. Fuji is higher than Asama.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 57 COMPARISON. There are may be treated in various ways in Japanese 1) : The quality iKa yasui tea . is used Motto ii no zvo motte o-ide . Mo sukoshi oki na no ga hoshii . 'More' 'some more' or any more' is translated as follows and the amount is designated 1) When it means 'a greater quantity'. may ' be of two classes 1) the word 'than is not used . 249. when the things compared are both named. the implicit form of comparison (247. is . 1. not cheaper. 2) the word 'than' is used. this is cheaper. this is cheap). 2) The foregoing sentences are sometimes ambiguous Kore zva yasui. Explicit comparisons. in Japanese . may mean. . this is (lit. 247. is also sometimes used. I want one a little bigger. no inflexions of the Japanese adjective (or adverb) correspondto our ing comparative and superlative degrees. the sentence 246. 3) In all negative sentences mo : . 4) Mo sukoshi a little more. amusing this construction is generally avoided 2) 'Than' may be translated by yori . When only one of the things compared is mentioned. Motto omoshiroi hon zco kashlte kudasai . iriinasu.

1) ' Less than ' may be rendered by : : negative sentence is less than a pound of sugar in the bag fukuro ni tea nai . : is less important than Kyoto . 250. 'More than' It will cost . or 3) A and B may be equal. is my father is three years older 255. It is not more than one pound ik-kin yori yokei de wa nai. 252. . we may find has the qualit)' in a greater degree than B. You need less than five yen go-yen kakara-nai desho. The more may be translated by yokei. : 253. : . A There . Tara-zu 2) There is less than a pound of sugar in the bag sato ga ik-kin tara-zu fukuro will . Or a con' : . 3) Sometimes by yori sukunai : There is less than a pound of sugar in the bag . You than three feet long . or 'younger'. I have more pears than you watashi tea anata yori nashi wo yokei motte imasiiThis small hen lays more eggs than that big one kono chiisai tori tea ano dA* na tori yori yokei tarn ago wo umu. That is a great deal more than is necessary sore ja taihen yokei da. The following construction is al. nagasa tea san-jaku tara-zu desu. that in to B in regard to a certain quality. sometimes takusan : Which box holds the more ? dochira no hako ga yokei hairu daro ? 251 .58 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR don 't want any more mo irimasen. 257. or simply ue. . o interesting Tokyo kara mireba Kyoto wa semai . sato ga ik-kin yori sukunaku It is less will . there is not a pound of sugar in the bag). shlta. as in the examples given 247 and 248 2) A may have the quality in a less degree than B. (lit. ico mo sukoshi motte kite kudasai. as Xara 1) When we compare A A . Several constructions relating to comparatives are mentioned in 170. ' ' may generally be translated by ijo or by yori yokei : more than five yen go-yen ijo kakarimasu. Bring me a little (some) more water please mizu I . Kyoto is small compared to Tokyo. A little more is translated by mo sukoshi. as 'so many years older' translated by toshi ga ue. fukuro ni 254. am sold iva ik-kin . It is less than three feet long . It is less than three feet long nagasa via san-jaku wa nai. : 256. and say Kyoto is more important than Nara '. . . than Chichi tea haha yori mittsu (toshi ga) ue desu my mother. toshi ga shlta. haitte iru. ni haitte iru. ' ' . The comparison of ages. nagasa zca san-jaku yori sukunai. need less than five yen go-yen tara-zu kaltaru desho. In the second case the beginner had better turn the sentence into one of the first class.

it is as cheap sitting as standing. the highest (most famous) in hotel Tokyo. Miss Kiku is as pretty as Miss Yuki. the highest . 'The the '. I have as much money Anata tea watakushi to onaji gurai sei ga takai . 260. The simple ii ? ii . Nara is may be used thus not as big as Kyoto. : in various ways superlative may be rendered explicit is often placed before adjectives: one' 'number Ichiban 1) Koko de wa nan to iu yado-ya ga ichiban yd gozaimasu ka ? which The is the best inn here 2) ? noun of place in Japan. after a : text can however be clearly stated mountain Nippon ichi no takai yama . Tatte iru no mo kakete iru no mo nedan zva onaji . Dore ga Kore ga 261 . the sooner the better. SUPERLATIVE. be rendered by hodo. 3) By means Kono 1 . 'The most' meaning greatest : takusan by yokei. Comparisons of equality are often rendered by the words onaji gurai or hodo as shown in the following examples Kiku San wa O Yuki San to onaji gurai kirei desu . Kyoto(-ju] unless made clear by the conIt will be seen that the adjectival idea is vague By means of the words ichi. may Hayai hodo ii . you are as tall as I. : as Yumoto wa Ashinoyu Ashinoyu ? to onaji gurai takai tokoro desu ka ? is Yumoto as high as you. the most amusing several of quantil 'the 262. Tokyo ichi no hoteru . mountain Nippon ichi no yama . famous) doctor in Kyoto cleverest the no de isha (most . may generally these may of one Sometimes any zuibun. thus 259. the best (largest. finest) skilful. it : in Japan. -ju de or de. the more I think of it the more sorry I feel. taiso. : Nara tea Kyoto hodo oki na tokoro de wa 258. Watakushi wa anata to onaji gurai kanega aru . naka-naka. which adjective in Japanese often is the best ? means implicitly the superlative : this is the best.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 59 struction with hodo nai . yohodo or goku. sometimes ? Which box holds the most ? dono hako ga yokei hairu daro rendered be by taihe 283. 'Very' when translated. In the first : Omoeba omou hodo kanashii . of uchi : book from among uchi de no omoshiroi hon . four examples to onaji gurai may be replaced by hodo. the older he grows the worse he becomes. Okiku naru hodo waruku naru .

or kono bin wa oki-sugimasu. it is not easy fco know which one to TaiJien ii . he is so . 'Not very' not so very' may be rendered by amari. it is very good. zutto. or ammari : 266. sonna. 'Fairly' 'moderately' 'rather'. followed adjective. sugi'ru. sometimes only one suits the case select. donna. anna. 270. . Goku chiisai kodomo . 264. there is nothing to be done' 'there is no help for it' is a very common Japanese idiom and corresponds to 'exceedingly' ' 'awfully': Atsukute shiyo ga nai . Part III. o 267. much tea anata wa o Don't drink too much tea ammari o This is too . The gerund of an adjective or verb followed by shiyo ga nai or sMkata ga nai which means literally. It is pretty cold this morning . much kore wa yokei da. after which : by an in the last example). jitsu. amari omoshiroku nai.60 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR and used. it is awfully hot. . are translated by daibu or kanari. liito When Ano wa Kurakute mie-nai it is . what to do '. This bottle is too big 'Too much' is translated by yokei. under the words. kesa wa daibu samui. is translated . dekiru dake hayaku uchi e kakete lite 268. ill he cannot walk. as possible' is translated by dekiru dake or naru-take : to the house as fast as you can . not so very old sonna ni toshiyori de wa arimasen. 269. byoki de arukemasen . 265. Other expressions with a superlative meaning are to be found in the Vocabulary. etc. baka. Naka-naka muzukashii . cha wo nomi-sugimasu. it is very difficult. konna. makoto. . cha wo nonde wa ikemasen. 'Too'. 'As Run Jcure. very small children. I am awfully tired ' or ' I am so tired I don 't other negative verbal expressions follow the gerund we often have sentences with a superlative meaning which may be translated by 'so' or 'too to'. kono bin tea amari okii. You drink too . domo. it is too dark to see. . an infinitive is not found amari followed by the adjecby a) (as tive or b) the stem of the adjective and the verb sugi'ru. sonna ni or so with a negative verb ' : It isn 't He is very interesting . ' Kutdbirete sliikata ga nai know.

. S/ii four. be used . shi may e. muttsti) mil nanatsu yatsii(col]. 20 21 ni-ju ni-ju-ichi 100 hyaku ni-hyaku 200 300 600 800 22 ni-ju-ni 23 30 3] ni-ju-san san-ju san-ju-ichi sam-byaku rop-pyaku hap-pyaku sen 7'-^.g. ju-ni etc. yattsit) nana yd to hachi A"W (or jffi (or yarca) kyu) kokonotsu to (to in kokono (or kono or koko\ ju-ichi 10 11 comp. any other numeral intervenes between and nin. ju-ni etc. The combination fthi-nin is particularly objectionable . UMERALS . mittsu) yotsii (coll. never used hi the sense of four persons The following nouns *However if are also preceded by yo instead of shi shi : ban number. hltotsfi ichi hii 2 ni futatsu mitsii (coll.: ehi-go-nin. is often avoided on account of m' being homonymous with and is shi death. yottsu) itsutsfi 3 4 5 son shi (or yo or yon) / mil yd ii or (itsti) 6 7 8 9 roku shichi (or wana) mutsfi (coll.) ju-ichi ju-ichi 12 ju-ni etc. four or five persons.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 61 CHAPTER V.i 1000 32 san-ju-ni shi-jii (or 40 50 60 70 80 yon-ju) go-ju roku-ju shichi-ju (or nana-ju) hachi-ju 2000 3000 10000 20000 100000 1000000 its san-zen ichi-man ni-man ju-man hyaku-rnan 90 ku-ju (or kyu-ju) 272. CARDINAL NUMBERS. In the 1 first ten numbers there are three different sets of numerals. 271.* see 281.

auxiliary numeral e. Remnants of the second set of numerals above ten are to be found in case when speaking of money. two nights futa-ban. nen The word rin 1/10 sen. 5 itsu. etc. 3 mi.62 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR auxiliary numeral for carriages. You may also say eight plates in complete sentences the no may be dropped. On account of the great similarity of the sounds shi four and shichi seven. Certain nouns. jikan fun byo shaku foot sun inch bu 1 /10 of sun or other units ri Japanese mile kin . . ku similarity with rokn. e. kumi set kire slice sara plateful hari stitch shina article a shi step . two eggs tamago futatm . . two. generally takes yon. and year. 9 kokono. hatsuka the twentieth day. 7 nana. These nouns are all units of time. 10 to : the numeral comes before the noun e. . yama heap : : soroi set . and nana instead this is especially the order to avoid the possibility of a mistake : is often replaced by kyu. may take but never futa-. : A nen year shukan week money. sara hachi-mai . In like circumstances. tokoro place. eight months The commonest nouns used in this way are tsuki month : ban ya-tsuki. saji spoonful . 4) A few nouns take the second set after suppressing the final tsu . and misoka the last day of the month (lit. : : fitta. ni roku-nin hito ga iru there are six men in that room. mil. . three hii. three chairs isu mittsu . . . htto-. four boxes hako yottsu. in this case the noun. etc. etc. : . three books hon san-satsu. kuchi. numeral. 8 ya. me. fukuro bagful . . ri Japanese mile. mi-.g. do.g. the words. . . the thirtieth day). fifty sen go-jis-sen . tsutsumi packet . . .g. 276. Questions relating to number are asked in different ways according how the numerals are used in the simple affirmative (276). two yen ni-yen . . etc. set usual order is : : : . linen to be sent to the wash : one. . suji line . or measure the commonest are o'clock minute second hour ji yen . rin 1/10 of a sen . . lien. . 1 Into. weight. ma room . do times or degrees. kuro. of shichi in yo (or yon) is often used instead of shi. . pound (Ib. (see 272). kai storey . 275. gyo row. hatachi twenty years. six men Into roku-nin . three o 'clock san-ji : six hours roku-jikan. You may also say futatsu no tamago. sen . hako boxful . used figuratively like anshin. perhaps on account of its 274.) wari 10 per cent 2) Most nouns take the first . In other cases the set to be used depends on the .g. three boxfuls mi -hako . bin bottleful tabi time. . ji o'clock. 6 mu. takes either yo or yon. . 4 yo. in this case the numeral precedes the noun e. The third set of numerals is used in counting over things. 2 : : night . with an auxiliary numeral . In general when . dai the word sen 1/100 yen. 3) A good many nouns take the second set the numeral is generally placed after the noun e. noun to which the numeral 1) refers : few nouns take the first set without any auxiliary numeral .g.fu. to 277. Ano heya roku-nin no Into. 273. tdbi a time . iro kind.

Taking the same examples as above. we have - the how many yen ? nan-sen ? how many sen ? iku-ji ? what o'clock ? how many hours ? 2) Into iku-nin ? how many men ? sara nammai ? how many plates ? hon iku-satsu ? how many books ? 3) tamago ikutsu ? how many eggs ? isu ikutsu ? how many chairs ? hako ikutsu ? how many boxes ? 4) iku-ban ? how many nights ? iku-hako ? how many boxfuls ? ikutsuki ? how many months ? 278. the end sound of the numeral and the followed by a noun or an auxiliary first sound of the noun (or auxiliary numeral) in the following table : may either or both suffer modifications as shown Before ch. it may be replaced by either iku or nan in the interrogation . first set is numeral (276. it comes immediately after the noun isu wo futatsu katta . a slight difference in the meanings of these two expressions the first means 'one box'. t or is ichi becomes it- hachi hat- . When a numeral of the 1.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE first set of numerals is used in the affirmative. however. the second set is replaced by ikutsu . the abbreviated second set by iku. . When a postposition is used. : 280. I bought two chairs. the second 'one boxful'. There is. Some nouns may be used in more than one way thus we have hako 1) iku-yen ? ? nan-jikan . hitotsu. : and hito-hako. 279. 2).

1 ip-pan.: 1 is-soku. 6 rop-piki. 100 hyap-piki. 1000 sen-gen. 1000 sen-ka.sr/i.: 1 ip-puku. nan-ko ? ka. HAI for glassfuls. 1000 . buildings. 8 has-so. 5 go-nin. knives. 1000 sem-buku. parcels. 6 rok-ko. etc.: 1 ik-ken. TSUI for pairs of things such as vases. 3 san-ka.: 1 it-cho. end for things with handles. 3 sam-biki. The word ban half. 3 san-ko. sips of tea. 6 rok-ka. nan-satsu ? KEN for houses. 10 jis-satsii.64 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR For the purposes of these letter changes. are treated for the AUXILIARY NUMERALS. as bundles. 4 yottari or yo-nin. 6 rok-ken. 10 jip-pon. 3 san-satsu. pens. carriages. w is sometimes treated like an h as in ichi-ica or ip-pa. : : satsu.: 1 ik-ko. In each case the irregularities or special euphonic changes are noted NIN for men : 1 hltori. 6 roku-zca or rop-pa. 1000 sen-zo. nam-ba ? DAI for jinrikishas. 1000 sem-bai. nam-bon ? MAI for flat things such as sheets of paper. 10 jip-pai. 10 jit-tsui. nam-buku ? SATSU for books 1 is-satsu. 10 j it-cho. 8 hat-tsui. 1000 sem-ba. ships. 6 rop-pai. 100 hyak? nan-ka . coats. jip-pa. etc. 6 rokunin. 8 Jias-satsti. 3 san-gen. hyak-ken. tools.: 1 it-tsui. hatcho. etc. hyak-ko. 3 san-zo or san-so. 100 hyap-pai. etc. etc. socks. etc. 10 jip-puku.. rugs.. 100 hyap-puku. rap-pa. 281. ka) for various things that have no special auxiliary etc. whiffs of tobacco. 6 rop-puku. 10 j ip-pa. 100 1 ik-ka. 3 sam-bon. 8 sam-ba. so for boats. clogs. lOjik-ko. 1000 : sem-bon. 3 sam-bai. trees. such as sticks. nam-bai ? FUKU for scrolls. hyap-pa and sem-ba. etc. 3 sam-buku. 1000 sen-ko. 1000 sen-zoku. nan-gen ? SOKU for pairs of boots. etc.: 1 is-so. 8 has-soku. etc. 1000 sem-biki. 3 san-nin.: 3 sam-mai. nam-biki ? : WA for birds also for bunches of things tied together 1 ichi-wa or ip-pa. 10 jis-so. plates.: 1 ip-pai. etc. cupfuls. and bundles of things tied together. 6 rop-pon.: 4 yo-dai. ikutari ? iku-nin ? nan-nin ? : HON also for letters for long cylindrical things. 100 hyap-pa. interrogative pronoun nan and the purposes of these letter changes like son. 10 jik-ken. 100 hyap-pon. 1000 sem-mai. The following are the commonest auxiliary numerals. sam-ba. nan-zo ? nan-so ? KO (less commonly numeral. nam-mai ? HIKI for animals 1 ip-piki. boards. 100 etc. 10 jis-soku. jinrikishas. lOjip-piki. nan-zoku ? 3 san-zoku. from :ra the auxiliary numeral for birds. 2/utari. bottles. 10 jik-ka.

: . 286.g. Ordinal 285. Ichi-bam-me no. . It may not be correct Japanese.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 65 282. and after that comes the noun e. rokubam-me no hlto the sixth man . ni-bam-me no. . . (postposition ka or yori. (postposition ga. For instance. Ordinal numbers are not much used in Japanese : the cardinals are often used instead. thus roku-nim-me no hito the sixth man ni-kem-me no uchi the second house. hachi-bam-me no sara the eighth plate sambam-me no isu the third chair. e. numbers are formed by adding bam-me to the first set of nusam-bam-me the third nanatsH-me the seventh. me is added to the noun roku-jikam-me the sixth hour . if used). When the ordinal number is used before a noun. etc. hajime no the 289. the ordinal number derived from the first set of numerals : then the postposition no. one tsugi no the next .: six postcards hagaki roku-mai . In the case of class 2) the auxiliary numeral is often used instead of ban. you had better employ the second set of numerals. 283. but you will be understood whereas if you use an incorrect auxiliary numeral you may not be understood at all. In the case of the nouns that belong to classes 1) and 4). auxiliary numeral. if used) . ichi-ban shimai no the last one before. wa. the ordina! derived from the second set is used and followed as above by no and the noun . The following expressions are related to this subject first one . ato no the one after mae no the one me ni-hlki *When barked at the postposition made. These ordinals may both be followed by postpositions sam-bam-me kara shichi-bam-me made or mittsu-me kara nanatsu-me made. e. Sometimes. In classes 2) and 3).. The construction with the noun is usually as follows : noun. 287. empitsu ni-hon ka chomen (wo) ni-satsu ageyu.g. mittsu-me no isu the third chair. please give me two postcards. : ORDINAL NUMBERS. . 284. mo. hagaki wo ni-mai kudasai . ' ' ' ' : when not followed by a noun. (1 88). mean the first one the second one etc. it is not usual. especially in the case of class 3). I'll give him two pencils or two notebooks. futatm-me no. etc. we may again classify the cases as in 276.* e. if instead of sara ni-mai (two sara ni-hon plates) you say sarafutatsu. 288. : . mi-hako-me the third boxful. : to the seventh. or zco. is put first. or n the construction is as follows : two dogs no inu ni hoerareta.g. from the third merals or me to the second : . but it is intelligible would be unintelligible. When you don't know which is the proper auxiliary numeral to use. instead of using the ordinal number derived from the first set of numerals. numeral. is de. hitotsu-me no.

(tstiki. then the tract or add 1867. 291.: 26th of July. Taisho roku-nen. ni-nen or ni-ka-nen two years. then the E. ni-ju-roku-nichi.D. etc. To pass from the Christian era to the era of Meiji or vice versa. The Japanese count their years by eras which correspond to the reign The present era is called Taisho and began on the 31st of each sovereign. 290. The months of the year (excepting January) have no proper names in Japanese they are distinguished merely by a number. 293. The year is expressed by naming first the era. July.g. To pass from the Christian era to the era of Taisho and vice versa. In a cardinal sense we numerals combined with month an ordinal sense. 1912. 292. 1917 . Before the Taisho era was the era of Meiji. 1917 is subtract or add 1911. getsu or gatsu) in both a cardinal and CARDINAL Hito-tsuki ORDINAL . We give below the : Taisho roku-nen.66 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR DATES. Dates are expressed in Japanese by naming first the year. sub1912. cardinal number of the year and then the word nen year . shlcJii- month and then the day. gatsu. in began may say either ichi-nen or ik-ka-nen one year. thus A. which 1868 and ended at the death of the late Emperor on the 30th July.

months or days in an ordinal sense but without The last : : reference to date. . TIME. the fourth day yokka-me. moon. Nan-nichi? sense iku-nichi ? or ikka ? 'how many days ?' or 'what day of the month ?' Note you cannot say tsuitachi for 'one day'. etc.ich i-nich i last day of the month (whether 30th or 31st) is called misoka and the day of the year o-misoka. : may be translated by hajime no. minute. i. is a quarter past one. of minutes number the when more used is frequently 299. The time of day is rendered by means of the words fifteen ji. .OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 67 294. The day 1st of the month is named as follows ichi-nichi tsuitachi ju-ichi-nichi llth ni-ju-ni-nichi 22nd 23rd ju-ni-nichi ju-sa(n)-nichi 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th ni-ju-sa(n)-nichi futsuka tnikka ni-ju-yokka ni-ju-go-nichi 24th 25th 26th 27th ju-yokka ju-go-nichi yokka itsuka n i-ju-roku-nichi ni-ju-sfrichi-nichi ju-roku-nichi ju-shlchi-nichi muika nanuka yoka kokonoka toka ni-ju-hachi-nichi ni-ju-ku-Jiichi 28th 29th 30th 31st ju-hachi-nichi 18th 19th ju-ku-nichi hatsuka ni-ju-ichi-nichi 20th 21st san-ju-nichi sa n-ju. minutes twenty-five Ni-ji san-ju-go-fun . rarely when Ichi-ji ju-go-fun (sugi) . second. hour. water. The week has not as much importance the names of the davs of the week are first The ' 297. earth. in Japan as it has in Europe . When speaking of years. to three.e. The numerals for the days of the month are used also in a cardinal thus ichi-nichi means 'one day'. two thirty-five. i. is minutes of number the large. : Nichiyo(-bi) Getsuyo(-bi) Sunday Monday Tuesday Kayo(-bi) Suiyo(-bi) Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Mokuyo(-bi) Kinyo(-bi) Doyo(-bi) from nichi from getsu from ka from sui from moku from kin from do sun. month mi-isuki-me or san-ka-getsu-me . The word sugi past. metal. 298. 296. fire. minutes past one. futsuka 'two days'. 295. fun. tree.e. byd. the suffix the third ' -me is used thus the second year ni-nem-me . small.

). 6 rop-pun. (See 280).jip-pun-kan ten minutes. in Japanese. are often used to express the time of day. but rarely when specifying the hour. 305. The way to express fractional : numbers will be understood from the following examples sam-bun no ichi 1/3 ski-bun no son 3/4 B-bun no A A/B 306. VARIOUS XI MKRICAL EXPRESSIONS. han. mi-tsuki-kan. thus ichi-ji go-jip-pun or ni-ji jip-pun mae . Asa morning. however. him middle of the day. often followed by the postposition no. the word kan must be added to ji. . ban no shichi-ji ni-ju-go-fun . rei-ji jip-pun or ju-ni-ji jip-pun. byd san-ji-kan three hours . : san-ji han. 300. ichi-ji an hour and a half. half an hour. When the time is so many minutes past twelve. A 'quarter'. half a pound will illustrate (lb.68 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR When only a few tion with ' mae minutes are wanting to the hour we may also use a construcbefore. 'one fifty' : : or ten minutes to two '. half a day. ban evening and yom night. : : When getsii and san-ka-getsu-kan all mean 'three months'. are also used. The following expression is also worthy of note jip-pun de ni-ji ten minutes The idea here seems to be that 'only ten minutes are wanting'. is English always 'fifteen minutes* in speaking of duration. san-ka304. 7. the Japanese often say zero o'clock (rei-ji) instead of twelve o'clock (ju-ni-ji). Fractional numbers. Gogo no shichi-ji ni-ju-go-fun or The 302. or such instead of 'thirty minutes' you say 'half in Japanese just as 1 ip-pun. icjii-jikan han. fun. expressions. gogo. him mae forenoon. sam-pun. 3 like things. how these words are used han-nichi. ju-go-fun. All these words. The word 'half is han. Kan may also be added to other units of time when used in this sense mi-tsuki. 303. and him kara or him sugi afternoon. han-jikan. Ten past twelve.25 P. 10 jip-pun. half past one. The following examples han-gin.M. Ante meridian and post meridian are expressed respectively by gozeti. Except when speaking of a railway time-table. The word fun preceded by a numeral has the following irregularities . 'half past three'. to two. or ham-bun when used : substantively. are and placed before the number of hours. 301 .

etc. half will be enough. means o often expressed in Japanese as in English by in Japan'or'. be translated 316. ese. 313. san-gai is 'the second floor'.g. motte mittsu wo nashi few me yottsti e g. no conjunction ni-san or futatsu mitts* . The words 'several' and 'few' may often kite kure. i. two or three 315. not . When two numerals are thus combined *The apanese generally include the first and month hatsuka made from the tenth to the twentieth of the *** *"* . excepI ikutsu desu ka ? yattsu (ni-ju-ichi) de gozaimasti . they are followed ban-chi if by ban referring to the European part of the town. ichi-bu. ano nashi wo hambun tabete. 'the first floor' the floor above the ground floor.e. In English joined by This construction is found in both the is used. This the usual \kazoe'ru to count. hambun arimasu . House storeys. etc. 311. 314. European age. style.* is 312. therefore corresponds to our 'per cent'. Vagueness is thirty-four or thirty-five san-ju-shi-go. : . in the : maru ju-roku. even if only one day old. if The first set of numerals is used . etc. The second set of numerals is used in speaking of ages r tionally 'tw enty (years of age)' is hatachi. the bottle is half full of water. ten'. etc. when not otherwise qualified. etc. the are these conjunction two numerals.s 11 day*. sam-bai 310. mean 'one per ten' 'two per ten'. etc. Per The Japanese ' ' ' 'two per cent'. ni-kait\vo floors. I ate half that pear and I gave half to my friend. hambun tomodachi ni yarimashita .OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 69 hambun de takusan . A baby is 1 from birth until the New Year .e. it becomes 2 then. means in English i. 309. ni-wari. ni-bu. Age. of the first set The storeys or floors of a house are named by means of numerals and the word kai . The Japanese count their ages by adding 1 on the first of January. 307. as a rule. you of reckoning one 's age . means the tenth part of bin ni mizu ga another unit. etc. unit zcari is 308. how old are you ? am eight (twenty-one). is 'one per cent' centage. bring a pears to indicate vaguen 317. Multiples are expressed by the word bai. toshi year]. The word bu. or by referring to the Japanese part. not a per cent but a per Thus ichi-wari. thus: three times as much . first and second set of numerals. sixteen (complete) years of prefix way mam House numbers. shi-bai four times as much . E. bai double. it is called kazoe-doshi If you wish to refer to complete years. The tenth part of the vcari is a bu which 'ten per cent' 'twenty per cent'.

YOU : (plural) anata-gata. 319. although you ordinary numerals often take the place of special words never say ni-nichi for futsuka two days. : THEY (persons) ano hito-tachi . by goro when means approximate moment E. it means approximate quantity or date. : HE. I : women) WE : (others : and I) anata (polite) oniae (used only to one's inferiors). by it kurai. 323. Personal The use of meant. or even (by to atashi . 'They say' is rendered by so da or to iu hanashi da. kimi (corresponding to boku) . When necessary. sore. about three o'clock san-ji about the second of next month raigetsu no futsuka goro. . 318. POSSESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. or humble words. you may say either ni-san-nichi or futsuka mikka for 'two or three days'. kore. is usually translated . omae son . grammars. . . or the context shows what person is in 320. personal pronouns are used more freely than they are in real life. frequently contracted to watashi.. kore. 'About' before a numeral. . (far). See 166. boku (used by young men and boys). omae-tachi. etc. hodo or bakari when goro . . 321 . PRONOUNS. .g. 'that' (near) may be substituted for ano 'that' 322. In isolated sentences such as those found dictionaries. and never san-nichi for mikka three days. CHAPTER VI. about ten yenju-yen gurai . 4. ano otoko IT : are. . PERSONAL. In the 3rd person kono 'this' or so-no (things) are.70 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR thus. the personal pronouns may be translated as follows zcatakushi (polite). Personal pronouns are nouns and may be followed by any of the post- positions. SHE ano (o) kata (polite) that person ano Into that person that man ano onna that woman are that man (or woman). omae-san-tachi. (singular) YOU watakushi-domo . sore. (you and I) anata to wataktishi (to). honorific and possessive pronouns are very little used in Japanese. : etc.

See 188. hito wa. it is a thing which must be done. are ga zcatakushi no hataraite iru kaisha desu. of the house) : is often not translated into Japanese (149). watakushi ga mita hlto wa . Sentences with relative pronouns are generally translated as follows the relative pronoun is omitted. . In the relative clause only verbs in the present and past tenses are and of these tenses. those ending in masu. : 325. Reciprocity may be expressed when necessary by (o) tagai : ni naka yoku shimasho . When be rendered necessary may by jibun or hltori used as adverbs. In speaking respectfully to or of. the large pine-tree which grows tively (233). The following examples will serve to clause preceded by a preposition : show how to . let us be on good terms with each other. translate a relative That is the company for which I am working . The steamer by which he sailed is the biggest of the company ano hito no . 326. is followed by the postposition no or ga. it may also mean 'yours'. the polite forms. 330. often met with. and the relative clause is placed before the noun It thus becomes a verbal phrase used attributo which the pronoun refers. sono hanashi no kaite aru hon I have read the book in which that tale occurs wo yomimashita. Possessive pronouns are formed by adding no to the personal pronouns they become quasi-adjectives.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 71 324. nottafune zva sono kaisha no ichiban okiifune desu. if expressed. the person that I 329. : The subject of the relative clause. we say go jibun 'Of itself meaning 'spontaneously' may be translated or o hltori. and usually followed by de. . That is the town to which I am going sore ga watakushi no iku machi desu. i. on the top of that mountain. Thus: anata no means 'your'. or . RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS. a person. Ano yama no ue ni haete iru oki na matsu . the grass grew of itself. (I didn't sow any O tagai 327.e. There are no relative pronouns in Japanese. The word 'self by ni : Shizen ni kusa ga haemashita seed). 'My 'and 'our' are often translated by uchi no (lit. shizen it uchi no inu our dog. are not used . 328. . Shi-nakereba nara-nai koto desu Watakushi no mita saw.

' Yokohama . Inu wo korosareta hUo tea ano occasionally used hlto desu . what I saw yesterday. 334. Sometimes by the past conditional. the sentence is passive to avoid this construction in Japanese generally changed The passive may be changed into the active 1) The tree (that was) planted by my father chichi ga ueta ki. 332. however. by toki I lived in ' (ni) orjibun (ni) : When 2) It Yokohama ni ita toki (ni). relative 333. killed. When I told him what you said he got very angry ame ga furi-dashita. I had only just bought yesterday.* mono (sometimes contracted to no) by Kino mita koto . a story which it makes one feel sick to listen Sono meishi no kata . Anaia no ossharu no rca honto desu . a) In general statements the bell rings the train starts . The pronoun 'what'. In the sense of by the time '. sundara icatashi no heya ni o-ide. When b) first form of the present and to. by made ni : will be done when you come o-ide nasaru made ni kitto . Relative clauses are often translated in other ways. : iu : Suzuki to iu hlto . Haru to moshimasu . 2) Especially worthy of notice is the translation of 'called' or 'named' by lit.'a man called Suzuki. 3) In the sense of 'after' or 'as soon as'. some of which are shown in the following examples : Taro ni kowasareta koppu which Taro broke was the one tea kind katta bakari the tumbler Mune no icaruku naru hanashi . when a : : . (more a man they call Suzuki). The passive . to my room . i. that is the man whose dog was no desu . to. ano hUo ga kuru to . which is equivalent to 'the thing which'. generally by first form of the present and to . kane ga naru to kisha ga deru. the tree that 331 . dekite imasu. what you say is quite true. he has one daughter whose Musume ga hitori atte name is is O Hani. 'When' as a relative is translated in various ways translated koto or ' ' : ? 1 ) In the sense of at the time '. . Where as a relative is often translated by tokoro : Is this where we take the boat ? koko gafune ni noru tokoro desu ka 335. 3) The passive is.e. Referring to the future finished When you have c) come Referring to the past past conditional. the gentleman who left that card. my to father planted. When he arrived it started to rain . . oshatta koto wo itlara taihen okorimashita.72 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR is not often used in Japanese in this kind of construction verb is found in English in a relative clause.

.2.9 . il 1 . S^^-G aS x >> "^ 8 c -- ** a gS - 1 h^"^ CJ !s 3 c s -- < > S 5 * cJ O 1 g 2 - o cS ft 2 i 3 SB >-i c S ff -g-s-g^sss o .= o" OO gogo oo fe "S fe S "o5 * .52-2 3 2 pH (O CO ^ S o .OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 73 ^^ ^ j " _ ^* !g !a "S fe o ^3 JS ji ^3J5-5J5o ^5 o -fl^3 s lsfl' '1 ^S :? 'O 5i^^. X I "3 ea ^ 111| 9 4> * S 9 s S -1 I g c:>> 3 Jo -g -o -5 ^^.

ano. dare ka. Kore. sotchi. Asoko is very often corrupted to asuko. of the adverbiat*forms. In the Vocabulary under the word dare. sochi. The meaning and 349. (Part III). ano and dono are often equivalent to kore no. and dotchi. 76 and 77 ples 337. 348. used attributively. (something recent. is similar to a superlative may be inferred from the following examples : . ' * in Japan ? O cha to Dono hon wo yondara 341 kohii to dotchi ga o stiki desu ? which would you like. tea or coffee ? ii desho ? which book would you advise me to read ? : . Kore. achi. etc. sono. and nani is frequently contracted to nan. are. and dotchi when speaking of two things only. examples of dare ka. 338. Interrogatives in connection with numerals are explained in 277. ka ? which is the highest mountain 340. so : on' means 'in future' sore kara 'after that' may refer to or future are kara after that refers always to the past. etc. atchi. and dare de mo will be found in Exercise 75. never wa ga kimashita (ka) ? who has coane ? dare 343.74 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR translations given in the above tables only show very these pronouns are used in Japanese. and dochi are generally pronounced kotchi. are often contemptuous. Dono is an adjective. Kono. The nouns dore and dotchi both correspond to the interrogative which ? but dore is used when referring to more than two. etc. it also means 'which?' and refers to more than two things. konna ni. and the other expressions in that column are grouped together so as to show clearly the force of ka in these combinations. kore hodo 'so as this'. are. dono. sore kore kara 'from done by the 2nd person. . past 346. to things still farther away. should be carefully studied. etc. Kochi. and in Exercises 74. sore. and are may denote time kore is the present moment. dore are often met with. examples of the other expressions in that line. Kono denotes time in the common expressions kono aida (or konaida) ' 'a short time ago'. etc. 342. sore. and are may be followed by any postposition. The English how (Part I). sonna. 75. when used as subject. : ' much Kono gurai 'about this much'. kono. and the corresponding expressions in sono. Konna. Interrogative pronouns. sore 345. ano. to things at some little distance or things connected with the 2nd person . 339. etc. Nihon de dore ga ichiban takai yama desti. for instance. The numerous examimperfectly in the found Vocabulary. but past) . Kore. kono-goro of late (something recent which still continues). ' ' now 347. donata ka. refer to things near the speaker . for instance. sono. Sore is used when referring to something just said or 344. . kore dake 'this much'. dare mo . takega.

and often is. 350. doko no e is generally used instead of ? dono : Doko no gakko ikimasu ka ? to what school are you going 353. . honorifics. relation it Even the between the 2nd and : < o to-san mo me persons is kudasai please show to your father . . it is not so very difficult. ac- or not to the 2nd person. is going to be said or done . . We to your son.. I cannot do such ? difficult work Sonna ni muzukashii no desu ka ? is it as difficult as all that Sonna ni muzukaslnku nai . this out morning immediately a I went gohan wo taberu to dekakemashita eating my breakfast. ni muzukashii skigoto tea deki-nai . this is what I think . words. HONORIFICS AND POLITE PHRASES. show it 355. . but vmsuko san ni misete kuc . related and whether the act of the 2nd person is but you would Patois 'I eat (something you have given me)'. Ika hodo is a polite substitute for ikura.. account whether the act of the 1st person is related or not to the 1st. so Watakushi wa ko kangaemasu . Ko generally refers to something which to something which has just been said or done. replaced by ikaga which is more polite. The Japanese have the habit of distinguishing in their speech the the 1st person) to which they tions and things of the 1st person (or related to actions and things of the 2nd person (or related apply humble words.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 75 Konna as this. When inquiring about a place. . 352.. can generally be. of superiority or inferiority Thus sometimes taken into consideration. 354. To ask the name of a thing we use nan to : Kono kudamono wa nan to iimasu ka ? what do you call this fruit ? CHAPTER VII. . from the They also take into to the 2nd person) and to these they apply honorifics. don 't do it like that. 351 Do as an interrogative. Dare ga so iimashUa ? who said so ? So shite wa ikemasen . and humble t . may divide all verbs and nouns roughly into three classi words.

following honorific verbs : 358. humble words are used for the 1st person. are not much used in Japanese. or if that 3rd person is present. he would probably use plain words for both the 1st and 2nd On the other hand we often apply honorifics to the 3rd person if we show special respect.76 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR may exist in the words themselves which are depreciatory or in certain adjuncts which modify the meaning of the principal or exaltative. 356. In this way. as before mentioned (319). if a man is speaking own persons. which. humble and honorific words in a great measure take the place of our personal and possessive pronouns. 357. The lists will give an idea of the more common humble and HUMBLE Be Come Do Drink Eat Give . must be judged on its merits. however. honorific* are applied to the 2nd person and plain words are employed for the 3rd person. want to servant. Thus. Each to his case. Speaking broadly. The difference word.

so far as politeness is less polite.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 77 HUMBLE Show S Peak . The construction of iraslam after the adjectival gonmd was polite . occurs aru.g.. o hatiaxhi ituxfi uchi ni (humble). don 't you ? ' may be said more politely thus. may somewhat not in less politely.. de aru may be used. i'ru to irassharu. . o hanashi suru uchi ni. goran nasai. or. midway between dekakemasu ka ? and o dekake de gozaimasu by the following periphrases 1) o. while I was speaking. is decidedly familiar. ni naru or de gozaru . is ujse. but the sentence is then appreciably O dekake desu ka ? 'are you going out ?' is. de The combination goran de gozaru. o yari nasai. 359. and person *A the gerund polite construction of gozaru after was noted in 100 : hon wo o after a verbal stem or noun fDe irasaharu sometimes takes the place of de gozaru de gozaimasu (or de irasslaimat*). mo o kaeri nasaimashlta ka ? mo o kaeri ni narimaslnta ka ? or mo o kaeri de gozaimasu ka ? have you already returned ? Instead of de gozaru. nasaru are polite but the plain imperative in nasai as o-ide nasai. etc. be replaced by ni naru. 362.. the constructions in de gozaru and de aru are not when employed it is usual to put zva after the de. about concerned. irassltaimasu de go ? de ka ?) (or gozaimasu yomi noted in 200. . by de . benkijo nasaru (polite). 3) nasaru. yoku honwo yonde irasshaimasu ne. if itasii is put instead of sum they are made humble.^ Verbal constructions in which suru occurs can be made honorific by replacing nasaru . PLATN mise'ru -I HONORIFIC fo mise nasaru o mise kudasaru > (action in fa^haiken wise'ru ) vouroflstp. Verbal inflexions containing i'ru may be made honorific by changing Yoku hon zco yonde imasu ne 'you do read a lot.. however. In the negative. 2) the ka ?* 360.) o me ni kake'ru (moshi-age'ru} (in ) \mosu (ukagau\ I } ihanasul tazune'ru it agaru / In the above table nasaru where gozaru. to study . the stem of the verb. When the action of the 2nd (or 3rd) person is performed in favour of the verb kudathe 1st you use the honorific o. ka benkyo . 9. Say kudasai in The above verbs instead of nasai. A plain verb may be made : honorific by replacing the ordinary inflexions stem of the verb. 361 . e. Benkyo sum by stmi. much used Between the verbal stem and de gozaru or de aru you sometimes or no yd : find no liazu o deki no hazu de gozaimasu he ought to be able to (I expect he can) do it.

Sometimes indeed the honorific has entirely lost its meaning as in onaka the belly polite (lit.g. are generally though not always used with an honorific. by kure'ru. if the performer of the act the gerund followed one's inferior (e. Plain nouns may be made . whosesoever the tea or the hot water may be expressions like o-jo-san daughter . is an im- of saying you '. 366. 367.- . The verb . if the stem has two or more syllables. o yu hot water. The following are some of the more common humble and nouns HONORIFIC HUMBLE PLAIN : honorific chichi chichi liaha ( o to-sama o ha ha kd-sama yado Husband \ [ taku uchi shujin teishu (lower class) 1 J I danna (upper danna sama class) Wife kanai { musuko kanai (lower class) ) o-kami-san oku-san (upper class) J ( 1 o-kami-san (lower class) oku-sama (upper class) Son Daughter Elder J brother) Elder sister musuko musuko san o-jo-san musume musume ani nii-san one ne-san honorific by prefixing the words o or go : have received your letter. Custom has tacked the honorific prefixes on to certain nouns in such a 365. 368. honourable inside) ' . . Jochu go. honourable in front). 364. omae (lit. I request you.* or else. 363. Kono tegami wo o yom i ? or kono tfgarni IKO yonde kudasaimasen ka ? would you please is saru . (See 18). (Compare 109). are hardly ever heard without the honorific. etc. kudasaimasen ka read this letter for me ? However. gozaimasu ka ? are you busy ? way O isoganhlii *Kudasaru may only be used after the stem of a verb. The honorific o is sometimes placed before an adjective.78 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR the gerund followed by kudasaru. verb humble for this age'ru placed after the gerund has the result of making the occasionally also mosu is placed after o and the stem of a verb : same purpose Yonde agemasho ka ? shall I read it to you ? tanomi moshimasu . yonde kureta one's servant) use the servant read it forme. o-shaberi chatterbox. O tegami tco way that the uke-torimashita I exaltative idea has become very vague : : thus o cha tea.

Tanaka son. I have done honourable obstacle). If you wish to be polite always use the inflexions of the verb in masu. it was Mr honourable help). replacing the verb aru by the verb gozaru. instead of those without and what is the same. Go-kuro sama deshlta . sasshi I . seica sama deshlta . excuse me for keeping you waiting so long. . You cannot say Sonoe San. thanks for your kind assistance. (lit. datta and daro. Take San Miss Bamboo. sister'. The honorifics are often used in as strange. Tanaka San no oku-san Mr Tanaka's wife. (lit. (lit. a thing which women especially are very fond of doing. sama which more honorific by adding the word Mr san Thus: imoto means 'my (or his) younger imdto san will be 'your younger sister'. it was Mr august trouble). -Periphrases like : San no musuko san Mr Tanaka's 373. generally abbreviated to San. Mrs. When calling a woman by name o is generally prefixed must not be used if the name has more than two (Japanese) syllables Yuki San Miss Snow. By frequently . I say honourable sympathy). and desho instead of da. you put the surname before the personal name when calling a person by his full namo. O-kage sama de . are employed when the simple use of san her personal o might be the cause of ambiguity. mashita. by Mr honourable shade). O machidd sama . (lit. 374. which serves to distinguish my things which are inferior from yours (or his) which are superior. respectful. However the the action of the verb. (lit. (lit. masho. am I moshimasu very sorry for your sake. it probably was august tedium).OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 79 369. Go taikutsu de gozaimashltaro . august pardon grant). excuse me. there are certain polite inflexions of the verb which must be used when speaking to anyone to whom AVC owe courtesy. deshlta. excuse me for having interrupted you. you must have felt bored. Master. jama itashimashita . O kinodoku sama . we can make our conversation still more markedly polite and 375. nor Kin-ko San (Ki-n-ko). Here are a few of the fics are to be found : ways which at first strike the foreigner more common polite phrases in which honori- Gomen kudasai . thanks for your trouble. The equivalent in Japanese of our Mr. (or We may also is make some nouns polite). or Miss is Sama It is put after the name. In Japanese 372. Besides this use of humble words and honorifics. (lit. Mr honourable long-waiting). (lit. deeply sympathize with you. by your kind influence. 371 . (lit. use desu. irrespective of the person who performs : : when we wish to be polite. Mr honourable regret). 370.

no. ga. POSTPOSITIONS PREPOSITIONS. yori. 2) Do stead of ikimashlta ga datta. mo. . In regard to honorifics. made. The Japanese equivalents of our prepositions are. Part I. na.80 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR Go busata itashimashita . C ordinary politeness. nouns 382. . The words that in Japanese serve to mark the relation of one word to another are placed after the word to which they refer and not before as our prepositions. For the way each one used. C would probably be too polite and D would be ridiculous. wo. In speaking to an do not use style B and still less A . so to help the foreigner to form his judgment a letter. to. : (lit. wa. ka. ni. Two or even three postpositions may follow tach other in Japanese. it gives a and so may be of some help. of three postpositions following each other. is kara. these may serve The : Watashi no de iva arimasen . This classification must not be taken too literally however. B. C. yori. e. has been placed after each sentence in the Exercises. 7> respect. to. called postpositions. therefore. ya. and also in the Vocabulary. or ittaga dame 377. I 1) 376. in their As examples respective places . 378. no. Dare ni de mo o kiki nasai . rough idea of the subject of doubt it is better to be too polite than not polite enough. . not mix up polite and impolite turns of phrase in one sentence. or D. etc. A. say ikimashlta ga dame deshita. consult the Vocabu- lary. CHAPTER VIII. ask anybody. made. it is not mine. shi. B familiarity. I have been sadly remiss about have done august remissness). 380. principal of these combinations may be found in the Vocabulary. Indame datta. there are two things to be carefully avoided Never apply San or any . 379. in speaking to your ordinary acquaintance In case servant. ni. III. Part III. The question of speaking with the proper degree of politeness is_ of the utmost importance in Japanese. Part 381 . see the words de.other honorific to yourself. A means that the tone of the sentence is one of authority or anger. calling upon you. Postpositions generally are placed after nouns or words equivalent to they sometimes follow adverbs. The principal postpositions are: de.

that house is small and besides it is . mon no soto. as stated in 346). Quasi-postpositions. kami. also follow kono. 384. sono. These words drop the postposition no after a verb or adjective. there (not no hoka). shimo. oinole. 2) As predicates they take de : When ATARIMAE desu (de arimosu) dcsH . (watashi no} kawari ni ayamari ni itte o kure ico refers and the no are Omae ga me). shita. win. ushiro. there are some there HAKO NO NAKA ni aru . ordinary paper . HAKO NO NAKA 3) in the box. ato. they take ni : 4) If the verb aru has the meaning ASOKO ni aru . it is . (remember that kono. it rained yesterday but the weather is fine today (not no kazcari). : hoka. saki. very 1) much like inside the box. outside the gate . Sometimes the noun to which the quasi-postposition both omitted. semai hoka ni kitanai . tsuide. tives in no are formed (212 they come before a noun they take no : ATARIMAE no kami . a noun followed by a quasi-postposition. under the bridge . etc. . the sense : . soba. dirty. etc. nothing else one can do : Kino furimashita kawari ni kyo wa ii o lenki de gozaimasu . Certain nouns preceded by the postposition no are used very much like postpositions and may therefore be called quasi-postThe principal nouns used in this way are the following aida. maivari. naka. of 'there are'. muko.e.g. it is not in the box. ue.) from which qtiasi-adjecet seqq. hashi no shlta. i. (Hako ho) naka goran nasai . look inside (the box). behave the nouns (e. it is usual . are is equivalent to kore no. atarimae. etc. hako no naka. As predicates in a negative sentence they are followed by de wa : ATARIMAE de wa nai . soto. the paper inside the box. 385. kage. positions.).01' THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 81 383. it is not usual HAKO NO NAKA de rcfl nai . Ano uchi wo. They and ano without the no . Phrases like these. ni or any other postposition ace 5) Before other verbs they take : . go and apologize : (for Here are a few examples of nouns followed by quasi-postpositions on the table tsukue no ue. tame. lira. asoko. 386. . HAKO NO NAKA no kami . So sum hoka (or sono hoka) shikata ga nai . there are some in the box. mae. kau-ari.

82 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR ASOKO ni mieru . 388. I can see it there . ASOKO kara deta . 2) Similar to the above is the rule that wa is used when the Japanese construction requires the subject to be placed by itself first.* Wa is used 1) when it is a question of selecting a predicate i. . shokudo ni arimasu. is : '. but he does not know whether it is the Foreign Office. 389. Wa and Ga may both be used after the subject of the verb and the problem of determining which is the correct one to use in each particular case is an ever-recurring puzzle to the foreigner. to our prepositions. Some of the following rules or observations may prove useful. it came out from there HAKO NO NAKA kara deta . Nashi wa mono-oki ni arimasu ka ? He. HAKO xo XAKA ni niieru . if I am taking a friend round Tokyo to see the sights. beginning with an interrogative pronoun or adverb Ano hito wa dare desu ka ? who is that man ? Shio u'ff dono gurai mazatte imasa ka ? how much salt is there (in this) ? 3) Wa has the effect of separating from the rest of the sentence what comes before it and calling especial attention to what follows. . As mentioned in 58. . it came out from inside the box. and we come across a big building the subject is there before his eyes. It is as if we said 'I am speaking of. He 390. 387. ASOKO wo miinashlta . the Post Office or what it is. The beginner may derive some consolation from the fact that there is a good deal of variety among the Japanese themselves in the use of wa and ga. A. 8.e. Are the pears : : *For further information see Imbrie's Wa and Ga. It is doubtful whether it is worth while learning a lot of more or less complicated rules on the subject. and later on to your instinct. Likewise. I looked there HAKO NO NAKA wo mimashita . X For instance. in 151 we showed that English prepositional verbs may often be translated by Japanese compound verbs. I looked in the box. this is the Bank of Japan.the subknown and we wish to find out or wish to inform somebody what predject The state of mind may be represented by 'A is icate should be applied to it. and what I want to say (or ask) is this'. I can see it in the box. asks : Kore wa nan desu ka ? what is this ? Kore wa Nippon-Ginko desu . the gerunds of verbs sometimes correspond . and then followed by a question in regard to it. or whether it is not better to learn a few easy rules and trust to your luck. in the cases not determined by these rules.

Mr Yamada is the gentleman standing : that tree. For instance. San desu ka ? : who is is he ?). zva ? .e. In the following Ano kata wa Yamada . subordinate clause 4) Ga (or no) is used with the subject of a 392. please tell me what it is but if this is not the bank. of aru when 2) Except in the case of contrast. I cannot speak Japanese. is generally separated off by wa : Kore yori wa are ga ii . 'there is' have (got)' Kane ga arimasu ka ? have you got any money ? is ' it : 3) ' Except in the case of contrast. dochira. the predicate is known and we wish to find out. dotchi. to which Inu ) . see 328. Ano kata ga Yamada San desu ka ? is that gentleman Mr Yamada ? (if not. what of the dog ? 391 Ga is used 1 when it is a question of selecting the subject i. ga is used before deki'ru (in the sense of can '). ga is used with the subject has the meaning of. no. Wa is generally used when there is a contrast. (if . dore. that is the bank. (I am speaking of the pears. on coming to an imposing-looking building he might ask Kore ga ginko desu ka ? is this the bank ? : does not mean if this is not the bank. a friend may ask me to take may him be representto the bank . The answer might be He. hoshii. are they in the pantry ?) As a consequence of this. no. at least an implied one Watakushi wa mairimasu .OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 83 in the pantry ? no. they are in the dining-room. The answer might be that gentleman Mr Yamada ? San desu lie. : 5) : how about the dog ? or. and Nihon-go ga deki-nai . I shall go. donata. (414. * what rule is. the subject takes ga. Are ga ginko desu . that in sentences containing a formal comparison. : 5) 6) Wa is specially common in negative sentences. ano ki no shlta ni tatte iru under kata ga Yamada San desti . dono and nani. and the thing with which the subject ?) are all followed by ga : Dare ga so ilia ka ? who said so ? b) Another application of the above compared. iru (to need). or wish to inform somebody. The state of mind ed by 'X is B '. ano kata wa Suzuki is not. a) We may consider as a particular case of the above that interrogative pronouns. Wa is used in elliptical interrogative sentences with only a noun. wa is not used after the subject in a subordinate 4) clause. who ? which ? ' ' He . (others may go or not as they please). examples wa and ga are contrasted. which is Mr Yamada ?). please tell me which is the bank'. . subject that predicate should be applied. he Mr Suzuki. (dare. that is better than this.

which is the bank ?). 'for' is translated by de when buying is spoken ni or de when we are talking of selling. Kore ga ii no desu ka ? is this the good one ? (or is the other the good one ?). (Compare 217. 1) In the sense of 'at' or 'in'. . Kore ga ginko desu . Tokyo ni takusan arimasu . ni when Kisha de iku . this (not that) is the good one this one is the best. used when speaking of the instrument. . 219). it is such a country place that it is not convenient. de speaking of the agent : is in Tokyo. 3) partitive Nihon no fujin ni (or de) yofiiku wo kiru Into mo gozaimasu : . this is a bank (and not a post office). Kore tea ii . some of the Japanese 4) ladies wear foreign clothes. what is it ?). When a noun it used adverbially it is followed by the postposition (Compare 218). Some of these examples show that the difference between tea and ga may sometimes be rendered by the proper use of a and the '. ' ' ' : . this (and not that building over there) is the bank. this paper was made to see in Japan. Kin ni mieru . by. Daiku ni kosJi iraesasemashita . Kore wa ii no desu ka ? is this a good one ? (or a bad one ?). When for three.84 ELEMEN'TAKY GKAMMAK Kore ti'a ginko desu ka ? is this a bank ? (if not. Ame de mo iku tsumori desti . there are a great many 2) In the sense of 'by'. to go by train. a visitor came me so I wasn 't able ni. by Ni-yen de katte san-yen ni urimasliita . very good. Kore tea ginko desu . it used as a predicate or in constructions imitating a gerund. kita Kyaku ga to go. 393. In the sense of 'of either de or ni may be used '. of. de refers to the place where an action is performed ni to the place where a thing exists. Tokyo de kaimashlta . Inaka defuben da . for. De and H\ may both be translated by at. in. this is a good one (not a bad one) this one is good. de. . I intend to go even if it rains. Kore ga ginko desu ka ? is this the bank (for which I am looking if not. of speaking of price. I bought it in Tokyo. This de is often used after the no which serves to substantivize verbs and 5) is When a noun takes the postposition adjectives it is : Kono kami iva Nihon de dekita no de 'oto desu . (J) no de ikare-nakatta is . looks like gold. I had it made by a carpenter. Kore ga ii . I bought it for two yen and sold it .. .

356. konnichi today . from tabi time etc. iiakkiri (to) distinctly. 0) A few ordinary nouns may be converted into adverbs by reduplication hobo everywhere. zutto. jitto. oro-soro. . as : bonyari (to) dimly. amari too. 3) In some cases the adverbial form in ni is in use but there is no correspond. kiru to cut. from nokoru to be 395. konnichi made until today. ADVERBS. motto. in rapid succession . (218). i. 3S4. chotto. The to which is found at the end of other adverbs and which forms now an integral part of the word itself. 397. . sotto. these adverb-nouns may take any postposition there. mago-mago. 2) Nouns which serve to form quasi-adjectives in na or no become adverbs when they change the na or no into ni. . a noun followed by de is equivalent to an adverb : maru de quite. to is . IX. guzu-guzu. mecha-mccha. : . them at first. sometimes added . . is perhaps often of the same origin chanto. from 7) Stems of verbs : . (of loitering. They and each one has its own not find it worth his while to learn many of They are often formed : by reduplication as may be seen by the following few examples don-don. 8) Gerunds of verbs all : hajimete for the first hokora-zu without exception. slowlv. from hajime'ru to begin left over. . kitto. niko-niko. : .< . from amaru to be in excess kiri only. There is a large class of adverbs to which time. asuko that place. : chitto. extremely numerous.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKKN LANGUAGE 85 CHAPTER. Words which in Japanese do duty as adverbs are generally derived from other parts of speech. or grumbling) (of being bewildered) (of confusion) (of smiling) . The principal are the following : 1) True adjectives in their ku terminations. Onomatopes form a very important will class of are special use. The beginner several hundreds in fact. THE OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH.e. 5) Nouns without any postposition Like ordinary nouns. adverbs in Japanese. ing adjective : sugu 4) Occasionally (ni) immediately. from ho side tabi-tabi often. 4 192). (190.

You may often hear things like this Doko de katia no desu ka ? lie jibun de koshiraeia no desu. of our 400. E ico goran nasaimashlta ka ? have you seen my picture ? Hai. say 'yes' say 6 de gozaimasu. e or lie by itself means yes'. where we would say no '. it is well to notice that the Japanese. say (b) ' when they think it what they believe is you said and they think : (a) when they think you expect the answer yes . haiken shimashlta .e. Zuibun zcarui. arimashlta . impolite or inconvenient to contradict what you say or in your mind (c) when they haven't understood what ' yes : ' ' yes is practically the safest answer to give. of answering to what is in the mind rather than to the words themselves. and his meaning will be 'The suggestion implied in your negative If on the other hand he does intend to question is correct I am not going '. : : : . that when answering a negative question tlu-y but not always. but it is better to repeat the verb in the corresponding negative inflexion. often. ' be translated by He . but to what they think is in your No may ' mind. The usual affirmative to is e or he and of in the to say. result of this custom is. 399. aruku. of the lower class. Adverbs in Japanese as in English may modify verbs. We get a nearer approach to yes in the expression so desu (or more politely. say 5 de gozaimasu) which means that is so and which sometimes takes the place : ' ' ' ' ' . Hayaku Zuibun hayaku aruku. go. I made it myself i. I won't. I have seen it. especially those tetsudatte to mo yes. he will However. it myself. . and he means ' : . of course I will . where we say yes Supposing you ask somebody Kyo ikimasen ' ka ? aren't you going today ?' If he does not intend to go he will say Saijo de gozaimasu. ' yes '. when the verb humble necessary using Go hon Tea arimasktia ka ? did you find your book ? E. that is not so. very bad. way replying repeat the verb. It is not as you suggest the question is: Tetsudatte kudasalmasen ka? won't you kindly help he will think you are counting on his help. agemasu Besides the case mentioned. answer : lie. I found it. tetsudaimasen no. and his answer may be/>'. It must be borne in mind that the Japanese yes or no refers not to the objective fact nor to what you have said. yes. hai.86 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 398. to walk very fast. your question supposes that I bought it somewhere. and no ' He. I made : . dreadfully bad. to wajk quickly. It can hardly be said that hai. me ? I am going'. ' ' ' ' 401 . if : or lie. adjectives or other adverbs. ' The ' ' ' . There is no word in Japanese which corresponds to 'yes'. Where did you buy it ? No. Osoroshlku warui.

Kyo kimasen ka ? aren't you coming today ? lie yes (?). therefore. he must try to obtain an explicit answer and not merely a sayo de gozaimasu or an He. should he use the negative form and be in doubt as to the meaning of the reply. the last to is generally omitted Sato to. : The conjunction placing ' and ' 1) By to after : : Inu ya neko ga suki . Inu da no neko da no ga suki or Inu to ka neko to ka ga suki . fond of dogs and cats (and other animals).OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 87 402. I will buy both is both and ' : and meat. Tokyo Tokyo noun each after Ni be used in enumerations 5) except the may fish ' last . including the last. I bought a book and gave it to my . I am fond of I ' am dogs and cats (and other animals). niku -wo matte ikimasho . opinion is. ' ' fish and also Between nouns which are habitually coupled together and is often not and evening. bread and meat. The joining of verbs or clauses is effected as the last. in and in mo both ni mo ni Yokohama . between nouns is translated each noun . I bought some sugar. avoid showing in the question what his own . 2) Ya placed after each noun except the last. Some other adverbs were mentioned in the chapter on Pronouns see 334 ' . Kimasu ka ? kimasen ka ? are you coming or are you not ? This last question will probably produce the desired result. sakana ni. The interrogative adverb. I will take bread. However. the best plan is to repeat the verb in the affirmative or negative as the case may be. is often used especially when the list is not given as a complete one 404. is put in 1) The verb or adjective at the end of each clause. 5) : Hon wo friend. When answering a question. ' 403. : : gerund (393. when he really wants to get a true answer. expressed in Japanese oya-ko parent and child asa-ban morning follows 405. katte tomodachi ni agemashlta . it has the meaning of and also ' : Pan meat. 3) Da no or to ka may also be placed after each noun. 6) ni. except de is construed like a followed the gerundial form remember that a noun by : . When asking a question the beginner should prefer the affirmative form and. niku wo kaimashita . no (?). et seqq. 4) Mo is placed after each noun when the idea Sakana mo niku mo kaimasho . why is translated by naze or do shite. Yokohama. CONJUNCTIONS. pan to.

the quality is good and the price Ano hito : is cheap.88 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR Shina ga yoroshlkute. also used occasionally after clauses ending in a noun or ni or to. Chobe became quite a poor man. the quality is good. jitsu ni ii tokoro da . Kane wa nakusu. except the last (82. I both heard and saw. and what is his name ? Natsu wa suzushii. (lit. and after adjectives the last verb or adjective does not take shi. Shirokute kirei . the quality is good and the price is The stem of the verb may be used at the end of each clause. S) Sometimes no conjunctival word nor special construction is used Doko no. : 2) It is sometimes necessary to employ two clauses in Japanese where in English we only use two adjectives coupled by 'and' The article is good and cheap . 5) The frequentative : Shabettari warattari shite ita de ' wa arimasen ka ? '. Shina mo yoroshikereba nedan mo yasui . translated Tori ni o-ide 7) 1 by the stem of the verb and ni nasai . besides that '. This shi is generally used in conjunction with mo mo. nedan ga yasui cheap. Shi is used after verbs. ji mo kakimasu . what with losing money and doing no work. 1 219) is used for all the adjectives except the : . that man can speak and he can also write the characters. it is really a very : nice place. is not the end of a com- . 4) The conditional is used as shown in these examples Kiki mo sureba mi mo shita . 3) . Sentences may sometimes be joined by such phrases as so ' shite (soshlte). nan to iu o kata da ? where is he from. 405. last. shigoto wa namakeru. 406. weren't you talking and laughing ? 6) After verbs like it is ' ' go and come when ' and : ' means purpose or object. please go and fetch it. to iu wake de Chobe San sukkari bimbo ni natta . 3) When an adjective it plete sentence may is at the end of a clause which be treated as above. the quality is good and the price cheap. sono ue. fuyu wa attakai. . shina ga yoroshlkute nedan ga yasui. 'And' between adjectives is treated as follows 1) The gerundial form (200. and price cheap). 9). 2) . These expressions are having done so '. cool in summer and warm in winter. sore ni. thus : wa Nihon-go mo hanasu shi. Japanese Shina mo ii shi nedan mo yasui . pretty and white. Kirei de shiroi white and pretty.

He corrupted to iiya). expression of face. write with a pen or a brush (but don't use a pencil). sora). siderably according to circumstances. in elementary exclamations such as a. hurry up or you 4) be late. by the negative conditional. INTERJECTIONS. This is especially noticeable follows as classified be roughly 409. ano ne. koto (after a verb or adjective). 408. O taku ni neko ka inu ka ga imasu ka ? have you a cat or a dog in your house? Atsui no ga o suki desu ka ? tsumetai no ga yd gozaimasu ka ? do you like it : : hot or cold ? Dotchi wo goran nasatta no desu ka ? okii no desu ka ? chiisai no desu ka f which did you see. When 'or' refers to an approximate number it is generally not translated (315. hesitation : : Assent Dissent : : nanihodo. or by the nega- Pen to ' tive present followed will by to : Isoga-nakereba o'soku narimasu or isoga-nai to osoku narimasu . you can go . ' Or ' is translated : 1) generally by ka repeated after each noun what is one sentence in English often becomes two or three in Japanese Kore ka are ka . domo. or' 'whether or' in the sense of 'no matter which' is translated or construction equivalent to a gerund : after a . (sometimes Reprimand : Calling attention to kora. uso. e to. so desu ne. naruhodo. hai. moshi moshi. the meaning of Japanese interjections varies con- tone of the voice. either by boat or by train. admiration ma. 3) When equivalent to if not '. As in most languages. wonder.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 89 4) Iii Japanese as in English adjectives are sometimes put one after another without any conjunctive word Kirei na wakai hlto . sayo. . . The principal interjections may are (corrupted to ara). so desu. nani. nani. this or that. 317): Go-roku-nen 5) 'Either gerund by mo mo Fune de mo kisha de mo ikaremasu five or six years. e he. kore. sore (often corrupted : moshi. a handsome young man. : 407. : : Surprise. is O tenki ga yokute mo warukute mo ikimasu I will go whether the weather good or bad. mattaku. so desu ka. Perplexity. etc. the big one or the small one ? 2) To ka is sometimes put after each noun : ka fade to ka dotchi ka de o kaki nasai .

In Japanese. . 413. 4o kd-san ni & 2I 6 certainly 7 will tegami zvo kitto ^kakimasho. or any word on which emphasis is laid subject. Kind mita hito . Hhis evening. isogashii kara ikaremasen. dake only. of the red book. . of whom you take such .. I can 't go. however. these words are not used this is particularly the case when the subject is qualified by a word like mo also. Sore de takusan . I 'm : . domo. Protest. isogashii kara . Construction of the sentence. .90 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR Joy. thus you may hear both kono onaji liako and onaji konp hako this same box likewise. * Adjectives are sometimes placed in an order which sounds strange to Western ears . the red book. . of course. ne. sa. Sometimes. however. busy. are pronounced sometimes long and : : : : sometimes short. zo (for threats). complaint koso. he. SYNTAX. . come after the word Akai hon no . to mo. before the word they qualify*. the bank bought it. the price of the red book. exultation banzai. Interjections like a. anata no daiji na o-jo-aan and daiji na anata no o-ju-san your daughter. The order of a Japanese sentence is generally as follows adverbs of time or place. or clause to which they belong. that is enough. Ginko de katta . . (389-392). The regular order is. mono (generally after desu). wa. Akai hon . . qualifying words come Postpositions. masaka. busy' but 'as I am busy I cannot go' . yo. sa. when expressed clauses dative accusative adverb verb l Komban ( -watakushi ica) 3 hima : . wa. the dependent clause is put You do not say I cannot go because I am first and the principal verb last. The Japanese subject takes the postposition ga or wa. e. ne. occasionally de. 41 0. ' e 3 if I am one clause depends logically on another. often inverted and then the dependent clause partakes of the nature of an afterthought ikaremasen. Akai hon no nedan . write 5 a letter *to my mother. : : dattara free. 411.. etc. . 412. the man I saw yesterday. When . great care. Emphasis Final emphasis ne. CHAPTER X. etc.

only I went. iru to need . are very often omitted in Japanese. In verbal phrases used attributively. Elipses are very frequently met with in Japanese. 1) Personal and possessive pronouns. I must go. Kimi nifune ga dekiru ? can you make a boat ? Watashi ni wa Ei-go ga wakarimasen . becomes the to see subject in Japanese. tea in ni. . 1 33. Kudamono ga suki I like fruit. there is plenty. etc. look at that. Ganku Japanese takes the postposition wo. where is my hat ? . money I need money. Tabako ga kirai . or ni Japanese. my wife is ill. I dislike tobacco. and kirai dislike. in cases of contrast these however. are omitted if the object is qualified by such occasionally words as mo also. when expressed. Watashi dake ikimashita . but not always. I bought some eggs but The English objective case often becomes the subject in Japanese. Tamago wa kaimashita ga. he said so. Ika-nakute wa (narimasen) . niku wa arimasen there was no meat to be had. Taro wants a pear. Ei-go ga wakaru . 1 ) The accusative of a potential verb. Sore wo goran (nasai) . the subject takes ga or no no (or ga) kalta e a picture painted by Ganku. I'll go also. whose book is this ? mine. dake only. Kane ga irimasu . Kore wa dare no hon desu ?Watakushi no .OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN* LANGUAGE 91 Takusan arimasu Futari kimashita . Watashi no boshi zva doko (ni arimasu ka) (it is) ? a long time (since we met). two persons came. In answering a question. following are the principal cases in which this happens : See 1 29 . Kanai ga bydki da 2) . the words of the question are often not repeated. 4) See also suru used independently. Kamakura ? the words hoshii desi- rous. Taro iva nashi it takes . English. 161. ga hoshii . deshita . Watashi mo ikimasho . takes wa. So iimashita . I understand English. 2) The The accusative of a desiderative form often. I don't understand 414. Kamakura ga mitaku wa arimasen ka ? don 't you wish and 3) The verbs wakaru to understand. Shibaraku (o me ni kakarimasen deshita} . . (328). 3) The suppression of the final verb. In the above cases the English subject. in The object wa . whether as subject or otherwise. suki fondness for anything.

waitress. Desu ka ? is used elliptically after a noun (followed or not by a postposition). . Sore wa so desu keredomo . The difference between this construction and the one just mentioned in 5) is. I wouldn't have gone (ikeba iku to wakareba). please remember me Nani ! ano kindly to Miss Kin. way you although you ought to have done so). Japanese sentences often break off after keredomo. ga. 2 . an adverb. that the construction in we want wa serves to introduce a new subject of conversation about which information. b). Dozo O Kin San ni yoroshiku (moshi-agete kudasai) . ni. or a gerund. whereas desu ka ? serves to supplement or complete our : knowledge which is imperfect. just come here a moment. what you say is 170. true no doubt. following construction is also worthy of note kata ga ikeba watashi wa ika-nakatia no desu . Tenki ga yokereba iku no deshlta ga . . 166. . If you meet a child on the road you might ask Gakkd desu ka? I see you are somewhere is it to school ? going Somebody might say to me So shttara iya desho ? if I do such and such a I might answer Watashi desu ka ? thing. Kimi no Achira e tokoro (o iki wa doko (desti ka) ? where do you live ? The Ano 4) zvo. 2. 5) A noun followed by wa may be used elliptically in an interrogative sense. : : are you Sono nimotsu wo izeaite kure want it tied up tightly ? ? referring to me tie up that parcel. Areba yd gozaimasu ga. I wish there were some but hardly think there mono wo . are). 1 . it would probably be disagreeable. 4 . the adverbial form of an adjective. Moshi. I am very sorry for your sake. 171. koto ga (dekiru ? I silly Into ga shinda to (iu no desu ka) ? what is that man dead ? Makoto ni o kinodoku sama de (gozaimashlta) . nasai) .92 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR mono ka) 'm not going to do such a ! Sonna baka na thing as that. . you could do it in this haven 't tried. if I had know n that man r was going. . Kitsuku desu ka ? do you . 172. but (there (I is a great deal to be said against it). : . I say. or mono which is the same as if we finished an English sentence with a word like etc. 'but' or 'nevertheless' (See 75. I would have gone if the weather had been fine but (it was raining). go away. nc-san chotto (o-ide nasai) . . no ni. . Inu wa ? how about the dog ? what of the dog ? This may mean where is the dog ? has the dog recovered ? will you sureba dekiru no ni or ko sureba dekiru tried but (you if ' Ko ' ' ' ' : bring the dog along with you 6) ' ? or almost anything according to circumstances.

An English affirmative sentence is sometimes translated by the negative in Japanese Ko-nai uchi ni . I can do it (but it is difficult). verb is put in the negative There are no negative pronouns in Japanese and the pronoun in the positive : instead. : myself (you're speaking of) on foot (that you're going) ? . they begin by pronouncing entirely lost in words. it Ko to shi-nakereba narimasen thus). (lit. he did not come). 8. . tightly (that 7) . Negatives. Deki-nal koto iva nai . according to circumstances. 18 200. it is not a fact that I cannot do it).(arimasu) I don't think you ought to have done that. it is not a fact that it is a thing which it won do not to do). 5. . Remember that a noun followed by de is often equivalent to a gerund 393. though logically we often might expect mota-nai de kita (lit. . struction of all is a verb in the negative present conditional followed by ike-nai or nara-nai. or (b) he came but did not bring it. not carrying it. before he comes. thanks very much for your kindness the : other day. he came). This conveys a meaning of obligation and may generally be translated by 'must'. 8) It is worthy of m>te that when the Japanese say certain polite set phrases. The result is that these negative sentences are sometimes ambiguous. clearly.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 93 Ashlta Ueno e iku I am going to Ueno tomorrow. 416. must be done in this way. Thus 'he did not bring it' is motte ko-nakatta (lit. but finish with an unintelligible mumble the profundity of the bow with which they accompany the The result cannot be represented properly in print : Senjitsti wa domo arigato gozaimashita . during his not coming). carrying it. In Japanese as in English two negatives destroy one another or are equivalent to an affirmative. Double negatives are employed very frequently. (lit. (lit. 't : . I know nothing. shira-nai . Sore wa ammari yoku nai koto de. The above example may mean. the Nanni mo everything). 419. it won't do not do find three negatives in Japanese : Shi-nakereba nara-nai koto de zva nai . The commonest con417. 415. (lit. I don't know anything. is always obtained by putting the second verb in the negative and leaving the first one as it is. (a) he did not come at all. 418. Aruite desu ka ? Are you going to walk there ? The reader will notice that these questions have an Irish flavour about them : Is it to school (that you're going) ? Is it you want it tied) ? Is it The gerund is often used elliptically see 58. it is not an obligatory thing. You may even (lit. ? Is it . or I ignore The negative of combinations like motte kuru to bring.

kashite kudasaimasen ka ? would you be kind enough to lend rne your What is one question in English may become two or three in Japanese. Quotations. 'doyo-bi ni kaeru to so iimashita. sugu nio-ide Yamada to come immediately. 422. Yokohama no densha ni ko kudasai' to itle kite o kure go and ask Mr kaite arimasu ' : Mado kara kao ya : yd ni negaimasti* . often heard at the end of a sentence. the Yokohama tram-cars have this notice ed not to put your head or your hands out of the window '. omou. zca ' ^Sometimes none of these words are used Fune ga tsukimashita ka kiite goran nasai. is the sentence contains an interrogative pronoun or adverb. 425. etc. Mr Suzuki aid he would return on Saturday. minna jibun de motte iku ho ga ii . 407. The words quoted. are not necessarily the very words of the The person who is quoting will change. iimashita I . O tenki daro to omoimasu ' think it will be fine. 424. ko. 18 200. Various interrogative pronouns and adverbs are mentioned . On the other hand a pleonastic construction with both to ar. In Japanese as in English. however. To is used always after. go and ask if the boat has arrived. . The repetition of another's words or the expression of one's own thoughts is generally done in Japanese in the form of a direct quotation. seqq. Yamada San ni. question. in familiar Japanese. after.94 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 420.* ' Nichiyo made ni kaeru to . ko generally before. 421. a request is often made in the form of a 403. 1). ''Jibuti te wo dasa-nai 'You are request- no nimotsu omoimasu .d is sometimes employed Suzuki San wa.*" ' ~) : . 63). of Ne which women. by putting the principal verb in the affirmative and adding ja nai ka is ? isn't that so ? (165. he said ' : I shall be back on Sunday '. if needs be. . ' : . Interrogations are formed by adding A-a at the end of the sentence. Negative interrogations which in English expect for answer 'yes' are sometimes made. ka the end at necessary Samui desu ka ? is it cold ? However if not : Dare ga kita ? who came ? In familiar speech Am or kae is sometimes used instead of ka. watashi wa so 'Everyone had better take his own parcel' that's what I think. especially in the speech frequently has a quasi-interrogative force and may often be trans- ated by 'isn't that so ?' sometimes ask questions by finishing the sentence with a gerund a rising inflexion of the voice. A direct quotation is expressed by to. Hon wo book? 423. (58. 8). in 336 et Questions regarding numbers are explained in 277. Women kiku. or so. and so generally ' the words quoted. hanasu. with pronounced 427. and a verb like iu. . the original speaker. 426. 11 .

and pronouns may be used instead of a proper name. tell him in 429. Kirei desu 'tte . Shige ni kuruma . Tell Shige to call a rikisha=cause Shige to call a rikisha zvo yobashUe kure. (lit. such a way so that he will come tomorrow). is ' * osshaimashita the master said 'I am used frequently after a quotation. Although indirect quotations are occasionally employed. he says it 's pretty ' '. Mr Yamada came and said I wish to speak to you'). tell him to come tomorrow. A servant will say to her mistress Danna sama wa 'Tokyo e irrassharu' to : going to Tokyo'. 'so that' : Ashita kuru yd ni (so) itte kure . the Japanese generally prefer not to use them. and turn the sentence in such a way as to avoid them Tell : O Haru to come here=call O Haru . Yamada San ga anata ni o hanaslii ga am' to itte kimashlta Mr Yamada came and said he wished to speak to you. . O Haru wo yonde kure. although the actual words were Tokyo e iku. etc.OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEX LANGUAGE 95 honorifics and humble words into plain words or vice versa. 428. An indirect quotation is sometimes rendered by means of yd ni (lit. The colloquial ''tie which is often equivalent to to iimasii or to iimashtta. Mr Yamada 's actual words were perhaps Danna sama ni o hanashi shltai koto ga gozaimasu I wish to speak to your husband.

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and YOKOHAMA.) SINGAPORE. LTD. SHANGHAI. HONGKONG (All rights reserved. .CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE FOR BEGINNERS BY ARTHUR ROSE-INNES III OF COMMON JAPANESE WORDS WITH NUMEROUS EXAMPLES & NOTES. NEW EDITION KELLY & WALSH.

.... interrogative literal(ly) adj. negation attr.... adjective(s).. from feminine. found after each example gives an idea of the degree of politeto inferiors only ' . pron. aux.. abbreviation. quasiquasi -postposition exclamation q. adj. pref. conjunction. sing. singular following (word). verb transitive. passive pers. genitive hon. quasi-adjective q.. adv. frequentative subj.... potential prec.i.. compound(s) cond. adjectival n. auxiliary numeral abb.. desiderative ell.. indicative inf. affix... adverb(s). English esp..... conjugation plural ppn. expressing f. preceding (word) corrupted dat.. composition.. n. person(al). postposition pol. terminal usu. generally. according. pronunciation q.. active interj. conditional conj. contracted corr... refl. predicate.. negative... adverbial affirmative neg.... attributive... contraction. present elliptical(ly) prob... pronoun. irreg.. pot. interjection interr.. ppn... and D' are somewhat formally polite. polite contr. C' are polite in an ordinary way. causative cogn. etc. with v.. . irregular lit. relative figurative... infinitive iufl.. dative der. derivative(s) pred. term. pres... : A' sentences should be used ' B' are familiar * .. pronounce. by women rel... v.. usual (ly) intransitive impol. Black-face numbers refer to the paragraphs of Part II.... inflexion verb verb intransitive v. subject suf.. w. etc. numerical pass. nominative num. frequent(iy). numeral. comp. suffixed gen.. a... prefix.. B. nom. prefixed desid. honorific sup. accusative act. corruption. affixed.t.. humble i.... especial(ly) excl. auxiliary caus. etc. impolite ind. C or D. termination. noun(s) aff.. phrases pi. transitive hum.. cognate phr.. The ness ' letter A.. followed freq. suffix.. etc...List of Abbreviations. abbreviated ace.. probable Eng. superlative t. used reflexive fern.. interrogation. foil. fig... expr. ellipsis.

agaru. . ageru-mono : down. every there. up. ppn. aburakkoi : greasy (of taste). between . dislike. yonde agemasho ka ? (D) shall I read it to is : achi-kochi. abunai hanashi : a doubtful story. (The Japanese mats are higher than the level of the ground. : '' . achira. : to expose a person 's faults (as before others) . to tell. age-ru. sum : to move agetari-sagetari up and down. atchi e o iki nasai (B) get away be off. nedan wo age-ru : to raise the price. a iu ju na . ayattari-sagatfari sum : to rise To go up nedoko wo age-ru : to put away a bed. v. There. move up and Comp. abunai koto deshita (C) escape. The wrong way . and 3rd persons. atchi). months. kome ga agarimashita (C) rice has gone up to : (in price).: a(t)chi-ko(t}chi : here and there. admiration. Inter j. koe wo age-ru : to raise the voice. Interval of time or space . while . Dangerous abunai koto wo sum : to : do something make progress (in manual ga agaru accomplishments). : . abura wo tone. 4) To finish . v. : it was a narrow ikura de agaru ? (B) cover the expenses ? : how much would abunai koto wa nai (B) there is no danger. a. to tease. where. 1 ) . w. o agari nasai (B) please come in (into the To : 3) Used humbly when speaking of one's own going to another's house. (drink or eat what has been served you). but not if me the gift is to or mine.' Comp. during. [achi Here and there . yobi-age-ru : to call out. you ascend. used also of the giving of the 2nd - w ! . shigoto wo age-ru : to finish the work. surprise.t. that illness is ano bydki wa abunai (B) very serious.VOCABULARY A. abunai. [koi thick]. mdshi-age-ru aida. quarrel has arisen between no aida ni kodomo ga hltori mo arimajutari : sen deshita (C) : they (a married couple) : had no children. juta-tsuki no aida : for two mikka no aida bydki deshita (C) : I was ill for three days. drinking or smoking of the 2nd person. a iu . mochi -age-ru : to lift up. the other way abekobe. abura ivo uru : to waste time. o agari nasai (B) please help yourself . a. to mortify . 2) a : gift. lift up. Fat . : you give it ? 3) Used humbly action ? . okotta (B) : a jutari no aida ni kenka ga the two. expr. oil grease. 6) Various. after a gerund when an performed in favour of another.J. 1 ) To raise . meshi-agaru : Like 4) but more polite still . etc. achi-kochi ni aru : found everywhere. e : to enter school (said of child gakko agaru who goes for first time). Like that. tobi-agaru : to jump up. agaru v. five and six. abunai me ni au : to be exposed to danger. . Comp.i.i. kochi here]. dangerous 'or risky. so you ascend when you go in). kaki-age-ru : to finish writing. achi-kochi wo sagasu : to seek everywhere. pain. [cogn. go to roku no aida : between : he died yoru no aida ni shinimashita (C) during the night. [shimi a stain]. A mo agarimashita ga o rusu de gozaimashlta (D) you were out when I called yester1 house). abunai tenki : doubtful weather. also atchi -kotchi). the rain has ante ga agarimashUa (C) stopped and the weather has cleared : day. : Comp. 1) : 4) Used politely when speaking of eating. enter a house. 5) Various. (achi is gen. complete. said of eating and drinking. achi. that sort of like that. te : : they can find no about.t. abunai (yo) take care look out ! abura. q. v. abura-kami : oil-paper. may nani ka o agari nasaimasen ka ? (D) I offer you some refreshment 5) To be completed be finished. (pron. a iu yd na : that kind of . deki-agaru : to be completed. sorrow. kami wo age-ru : to do up one 's hair. pron.]. 2) Used humbly of the giving of the 1st person . an oil painting. abura-e : nani ka agemasho ka ? (C) may I offer you anything ? dare ni agemashUa ka ? (C) to whom did : abura-jimi : grease-spot. . shdko ga agara-nai (B) proof. ageru . Lc gn. shi-age-ru : to finish doing. tomodachi no aida ni among friends.

akrru. leave]. akin do. : eating between meals. akari. . to leave a house empty. . 3) Aite i-ru i to be open aite iru heya : an empty room. To get tired of. to wo akete kure (A) open the door. t. . akari wo mise-ru : to show a light. teburu wo ake-ru : to clear the table. ano Mto ni hanasu no ni akite shimatta (B) I am tired of telling him. w. Taste . aku. chotto no aida . ana wo ake-ru : to make a hole. Copper. v. red]. aki-ma : an unoccupied room. kodomo-tachi wa ki no aida ni kakureta (B) aku to Yamakita keshlki Der. 1) . [ai(da) between. [ake-ru to : the children hid themselves trees. ake-ru. To : Bright clear. aku to open]. Empty open. adj. [a ai-no-ko . mi-suji zutsu akete kaku : to write on one . o ainiku sama ! (C) that was very unfortunate A ai-no-ko. ff. so 3) Various. etc. 114. no tame ni baaho wo ake-ru : to mnk: To open .j. adj. [akarui. akambo. n.). v. t. akireru. . [yo night]. To be astonished . q. akari wo kesu : to put out the light. Comp. q. [see - kono-aida ainiku. changeable fickle. ano hUo wa Nihon-go ni akarui (B) very learned in Japanese. ainiku no ame : a rainy day coming just when it is not wanted. ppanasfi}. yo ga ake-ru : the day dawns. v. sore ni akimashtta (C) I am tired of it. aki-bin . A merchant trader. q. : aki-ru to get tired of. to unpack. : akippoi. while he was doing'so. akabd : railway porter. kane metal]. aki-chi : unoccupied ground aki-mekura : a man with eyes open but blind an illiterate person.) . see maZ. ita aida ni : while I was in : leave open. Comp. [cogn. 3) v. surprised.i. : aka-gane. n. hana-sii to . aku v. kono hon wa akimas/tlta ka ? (C) have you done with this book be vacant. Vacant aita. 1 ) A open. aki-. wo ake-ru : to empty the water Comp. aisatsu sum : . 1 ) v. parcel. aisatsu. aida-gui eat]. for : a long a h'ttle michi wo ake-ru : to make room on tinroad to open a new road.v.aida Gotemba no aida wa yaina no between naka-naka it (B) Yamakita and Gotemba the mountain scenery is very fine. and der. ga : akeppanasu. is (lit. bright]. i. v. room for for nagai aida distance. aka. 2) Used without no aida Amerika ni America. [akai red]. bin wa aite imasu (C) the bottle is empty. : Autumn. Baby. makkai..v. akari. Red. flavour. sum : after a verb while. akaku naru : to blush.: akippoi. [f. line ie and leave three ake-ru : wo sono aida time. : porters wear red caps].: red. akai. Red. : he is kono heya wa ashlta akimasu (C): this room will be vacant tomorrow. wearied of . the night over). aki-isu : an empty chair. To open. v. v. : an empty bottle. t. Eurasian . akari wo tsuke-ru : to light the light. greet. : in the meanwhile during that bin no mizu out of a bottle. [cogn.i. j. 2) v. sukkari akaruku narimashita (C) it is 'already broad daylight. Unfortu- interj. aki-ya : an unoccupied house. among : the kisha ga deru made ni wa tnada san-jip-pun mo (or no) aida ga arimasu (C) it still wants thirty minutes for the train to leave. nikui odious]. q. bin no kuchi wo ake-ru : to open a bottle. To be over. adj. t. Comp. . aka. (trunk.]. [kuu to . 2) To become vacant. akeppanasu : to leave open. aji no nai : flavourless. no of. : a long while . [akai. to salute . -ppo! q. yo-ake : dawn. 114. a half-caste. in blank. To empty make vacant. Soon aka-gane. aki. nately. aji. : 2) Clever. koko wa aite imasii ka ? (C) is this seat t-ngaged ? is this place taken ? : 'i . rampu wo akaruku sum : to turn up the wick of a lamp. [akai red. light. [past of aku to open]. ake-ru. : : . nan-ji ni akimasu ka ? (C) at what o 'clock does the door open ? kuchi wo aite (or akete) goran nasai (C) (note the exceptional open your mouth use of aku as a v. ! . n. akarui. 182. w. ko child]. empty. Salutation greeting. nimotsu wo ake-ru : to open a bag. [boshi cap i. sukoshi no aida while.

yu no ambai wa ikaga desu ? (C) how is the bath ? (is it hot enough ?) chodo ii ambai desti (C) it is just right. [furul to fall]. [mizu water]. usu. o you 2) Deficient in salt. (A) : o sakana no ambai wa ikaga de gozaimasti. : ame ga this is (far) too kore wa ammari takai (B) (far) (far) dear. v . ammari kirei da kara do shite mo kaimasho : futte ji kataku naru : after rain the ground gets hard. many anala-gata . futte kimashiia (C) ii : has begun to : amari. way dd iu ambai ni shimaahd ? (C) . of ano yd na]. : least five yen. (B) (beyond my control). suki de wa arimasen (C) (C) : ama-mizu : rain-water. q. . : .i amai hito : a man easily women. pi. ana wo horu : to dig a hole. (polite). A yawn. ashita iku (B) rain or fine. : same meaning : as 1 ). ame Before gerund or noun so . kaze ga fuite mo. go-yen amari kakarimasu (C) it will cost at (C) : it is rain. ii ambai deshUa that was a good (C) : : thing. ame wo yoke-ru : to shelter oneself from the so pretty I really must buy it. Der.]. kono kimono : ame no Comp. ammari yoku nai i/yunyu I wa ammari not very good. pron.]. Hole pit cave. umai of nice taste]. mita koto wa nai (B) I hardly ever so. too to. ) : more than enough. sweetness. ? iru : he is a man ame ga furu ame ga iuru will rain ? to rain. Elder brother. not many . v. q. ame-furi : rainy weather. amasa : : amami (degree of) sweetness. mada 3) Soft shio ga amai (B) . : (far) too. . futte (B) I hope it Before an adj . mo. amai yatsu : a silly. sult of artificial preparation. ammari benkyo shite bydki ni narimashUa (C) he studied so much he fell ill.}: how does the fish taste ? 2) Condition aki- manner. Elder sister.neg. wa ammari nai (B) hardly any : one says not many ammari many people) . (not very often). ? ittara hope (C) : how are : 1) Sweet. [contr. [f. You. [f. so. anna.: not very : . [to! door]. little (few). . no matter what happens. amai. anata-tachi : you. such as that . To be kane ga amarima-su (C) the money is more than is wanted. : : times). [mi q. akubi.].aku kono hon ica this book ? aite. wa ammari furukute kiraremasen (C) these clothes are too old to wear. weak : amaku guru onna n. sing. q. Rain. . kono-goro so iu hito ammari aimasen have met him but seldom lately. 4) Followed by a. ama-gasa : Japanese umbrella. 3) After a quantity at least more than. [-/in man]. [f. doit? kono ambai de ambai wa do desu ka feeling ? yokaro (B) things will continue as they are. aki-ru to get weary]. not much. [6. (gen.big]. ani. ame ga yamu : to stop raining. led soft. shio-ambai ame. : ca. akubi ga de-ru : to yawn. ane-muaume : the eldest daughter. 1 ) amaru to be ame ga won't fura-nakereba rain. I shall go to Tokyo to- Tokyo e : morrow. like that . ima u-a if ga aite imasu (C) : I have a iru The seasoning little spare time now. [mustime daughter]. ame ga rain. fern. there are people like that. don't like milk much. ana wo ake-ru : to make a hole. see any. be over. ka ? (D. ammari takusan : ammari sukunai : 2 ) too too : much (many). ano kodotno wa icatakushi no te ni amaru that child is too much for me. to spoil (a child). 4) Amai mo karat mo shitte who knows what s good. v. v. stupid. (not : ammari. weak person a . ama-do': outside shutters. Amerika. aita . in excess . [-goto . : it is not salty enough. or taste of food as the re- 4) Various. heavy rain. of amari. omae no kimono ni ana ga aite there is a hole in your dress. That kind of . . . (after a quarrel friendship becomes deeper). anna iru ka ? (B): are you using 1 amaru hodo ambai. akubi (wo) xuru . ammari) in excess]. by Der. ana. (not amaru. anata. ane. -tachi . America United States of Ameri. [-sa q. pron. o-ame : oi kuni : a rainy country. : how : shall I I . Amerika-jin I : an American. [kasa umbrella]. : deeho ka ? (C) do you think it it Der. v.

. ano onna : she. [ant to be . . adj. things far off ano (o) kata . Blue . . are-ru arashi. : . your kindness (present) the other day. gen. adj. niwa ga arete iru (B): the garden is neglectstormy . : aoi. form of arigatai]. [aoi. n. n. ano hito : he . : ed). .) he . anshin sase'ru : to relieve : somebody 's . blue sky. or its der. [aru to be . 2) : Has a To wash moto wo arau to investigate somebody . to arc are kara : after that (time. [mono thing]. contr. -ad q. To happen to have happen to be. nai .: see also deS) and 94. Thank you. bo : a stick which happened to to i^e . (C) : thank you . ao. uchi ni ari-ai de ii (B): whatever there may happen to be in the house will do. improbable. we katai hard. in a past sense : . arigatai. not to feel ima ari-awase wa kore shika nai (B): this is all that I have now. ya. arau. [often=ore no]. he can 't understand a word of Japanese. (of the face) pale. likely to be (exist) . au to meet].anna 1) am arai. have (got) tained in all the following examples al: is . awase-ru to join]. That (referring to 336 . ari-so (na). of wonder. polite substitute for aru A vegetables.: blue .]. violent. this idea is con1) There is. don't worry that is put re- arigato. anshin. : Comp. gozaru. be there.]. green. annai-jd letter ed. arigato (gozaimasu) foil. anshin wa deki-nai (B): I cannot dki ni arigato arigato gozaimasu (D) gozaimasu (D) thank you very much. grate- arigatai to omou . [aru to be is rare. [jo< letter]. Blue green. invitation. [pol. ari-so mo nai : unlikely . ammari anshin wa narimasen yo (B) don't be too sure. of introduction . [see ma2]. uchi ni ari-awase no mono : what one has in the house. appearing to be. . aru. (a little thing like that !) (said after being thankit : : Used massaoi . often has a contemptuous sense. it is a thing to be arigatai koto da (B) : uneasy. see 93. Probable . senjitsu u>a arigato gozaimashita (D) thanks : : for kore de yatto hlto-anshin (B) well. difficult are thankful there: when we find it]. 343).v. not to worry . adj. ano hito-tachi : they. ano naka : inside that. are f inter j. v. attr. The subject of aru takes the ppn. koko-ira wa : only). : to guide. 182. . To be rough . Comp. she 343) they. n. green]. new kindness fore ful. Thankful . ano. past. Peace of mind. The neg. look here. ano ne ! (B) : (used to call attention) . ripe .v. That (referring to things far off 336 it that person (impol. tempest. 114. of Coarse . anshin sum : to be free from care . green inexperienced unaoi. Happening present incidental presence. ano otoko : he. Guide . . written ari-ai. De aru etc. rough . please give him arigato to itte kudasai (C) best thanks.' annai anata : sum wa yoku go annai desho I suppose you are familiar with this (C) neighbourhood. immediately before a noun. I'm relieved at last of that anxiety. my . and aomono ao-zora : : der. of aru is irreg. (C) ease. A storm arai violent]. storm. [fu. laid waste. arappoi arasJii : see -ppoi. corr. anshin no deki-nai hlto : a person one cannot have confidence in. : . I say . adj. sense before an adj. grateful for. anna ni also has this sense. . [arai rough]. anna ni nagaku Nihon ni ite mo mada chitto mo Nihon-go ga u-akara-nai (B) although he has been in Japan such a long time. anshin o shi nasai your mind at lief . "s sup. is gen. [f. become rough. arigataku omou : to feel grateful. annai. invitation. are-ru. anna koto ! (B) don't mention it. ano is sometimes used at the beginning of a sentence when the speaker feels rather embarrassed or wishes to introduce a subject.neg. Der. umi ga arete imasu (C) the sea is rough. are. ao. masfao na : sup. (ano = are no). : relieved to hear it. anna ureshii koto wa nakatta (B) : I was never so pleased in my life. ari-awase-ru. : anshin shimashita (C) I am much a great domo naka-naka help worrying about it. not to be anxious . anna hon wa yonde wa ike-nai (A) don't read a (silly) book like that. ari-awaseta. she. to da q. : . . [aru to be . to .i. fu-annai : ignorance. pred. [sora sky]. see mind.

whether there is any or not. [han$ food . etc. get. morning. atte mo nakute mo : with or without. [nashi non-existent]. [see : Comp. 4) step. it is luroshlki ni tsutsunde arimasu (C) wrapped up in a cloth. morning and evening. yu2 . of a tsuyoku arimasen (C) When he is not strong. ase. : from morning cows) 2) . verbs it 3) After the gerund of transitive refers to a completed act and may often be translated by a passive idiom. Morning. dekite kara hi ga ami (B) : it was only finished a short time ago. am Used after the abb. it may be used in both the aff. arimasu ka ? (C) have you any bread ? o td-san ga arimasu ka ? (C) is your father alive ? (have you a father ?) some >tei no takai Nihon-jin ma aru (B) Japanese are tall (although most are : : : as hi Nagasaki ni itta koto ga arimasu ka ? (0) : have you ever been to Nagasaki ? itta koto ga arimasu (C) I have been there : (sometimes). [konoZ this asa]. aru hi : & certain day one day. subj. itta koto ga arimasen (C) there. aru. hon ni kaite arimasu (C) it is written in . asa-ban . ruu : ni nani ka kawatta koto ga atta ka has (B) absence ''. kono shabon wa nagaku arimasu (C) this soap has lasted a long time. : : this : myoasa the book. you walk till . Perspiration. evening]. asa-oki : early rising . meshi rice]. means to be. asa-han . pan go. : haven't got a Kagoshima de mo yuki no furu koto ga arimasfi (C) it does snow sometimes also in Kagoshima. asatte. asa-yii . happen. nan nichi gurai aru desho ka ? (C) how : niwa wo arukimashua the garden. [6on2 . : 2nd set of numerals (276. certain.. -darake]. see dake where can ? da=de aruku. to cool]. takes ni like a dative in Jap. aruite ni-jikan kakarimasu (C) : it is a two hours' walk. (C) are there any left ? aruki-kata ner]. hsai. there is' translated kind no asa : yesterday morning. q. find. aru-nashi : the question of the existence of : pan wa doko ni arimasu ka I get some bread ? your hat is here. donna koto ga atte mo : whatever happens. asa kara ban made evening. 1) Leg. foot. . arittake=aru dake. Comp. [neru The day after tomorrow. aru hlto : a certain man (there was a man). by. 6) De wa arimasen ka ? see de 4). aru means to last. adv. . here it is. sleeping late in the morning. mada arimasu ka jibiki many days will it last ? ? : aruki-mawaru : to walk round walk about. Comp. : .: horns belong to : aruki-kata ga haya-sugimasu (C) too fast.v. ari-awase-ru . [see myo-\. (length). [oki-ru to rise]. one. der. amari mita koto ga nai (B) I have seldom : : arimashita (C) I've found it . and kesa : der. Shallow..: it can be . ari-so . and neg. [hiyaaii ose-darake : covered with perspiration. with the adv. : I have never been short).aru though the translation may be. ashi. To walk. seen any.' ' infl. : manner of walking. last. anything happened in my aruite ikimasu (C) : I will go on foot. [mawaru to turn]. 5) k to ga aru : sometimes ? . hiya-ase : cold perspiration. and ari-ai . Comp. boshi ga arimasen (C) : I hat . 2) ka ? ever koto ga koto ga nai : never. ase ga de-ru : to perspire. once. tsukue no ue ni aru desho (C) you will probably find it on the desk I think it is on the desk anata no boshi wa koko ni arimasu (C) : . asa. ? (C): a thing. ' Aru still has the meaning of when used as an adj. see da. infl of a true adj. shijii aruite (C) : : I walked about always travel- imasu (C) 1 am ling. . asa-meshi : breakfast. I can t find my hat. an early riser. dare ka o kyaku ga attara : if a visitor should come. after the true adj. [kata : man- ga o ari desu ka ? (C) : have you got a dictionary ? cows have ushi ni (wa) tsuno ga aru (B) horns (note that the Eng. gen. sonna ni nagaku arimasen (C) it doesn t it isn 't very long last very long (time) : asa-ne : to sleep]. 4) Aru in the neg. moshi. tomorrow morning.

: years). hi ni ataru to kuroku naru (B) if you remain in the sun you will get sunburnt. ordinary .l. ate ni nara-nai.v. ato-ashi : hind leg. proper. [cogn. . vant. Tomorrow. atama ni haira-nai (B) I cannot under: touch. atarashii to hide move Comp. amuse : oneself visit (for by women. : .t. asuko. pron. ga tsuku : to be tracked. kimono wo hi ni ateie kawakashlte o kure (A) dry my dress at the fire.: .n plete . be out' of work. 1 ) is .v. w. adj. [no name]. pended upon. : a three-legged ashi ashi ashi ashi (C) no ura : the sole of the foot. day asobu. no hayai Into : a quick walker.]. attakai). words have come 2) my : true. warm. There .t. ashi -ato : footprint. atama. Der. [see .). . a game. chitto o asobi ni irasshai (C) : come and see me now and then. 19 It) three years (not come. asobi ni iku (C) : Warm. : an address. Usual (no or na). Der. [cogn.: play. asoko-ira : about there thereabouts. ate'ru atama no nai frito : a silly man. assari. to hit the mark.: unreliable. atchi. . 1) To strike against watakfi-shi no itta koto ga atatta (B) . adj. that place 336 343.v. tsumetai ka. [see sii'ji. (C) : wa ikemasen you mustn't count upon me.v. asuko).ru\. simple. atete goran nasai (C) : guess what it is. sam-bon ashi no ieburu table.i. plain. : . To play . Expectation . (gen. atama wo itaku sum : to rack one 's brains. 2) To expose to heat. : a t< i in n ga itai (B) I have a headache. Shina wa Nihon no nishi ni ataru (B) China is to the west of Japan. : mae-ashi [mae before]. ashita no hyaku yori kyo anata no nani ni atarimasii ka'f relation is he of yours ? bachi ga ataru : to be punished by heaven. take care where you step.: ate. from November 1914. : foreleg. te wo atete yoran (B) touch and see whether it is hot or cold. v. moto origin]. ate-na . (get ii atama no into my head). ashita. ate ni naru. na-ate . [see ryo]. q. q. from head to foot. atarimae Fresh new. hito : a clever man. ashi-kakc san-nc. aim pur- attaka-sugi-ru attamaru. kesa tabeta sakana ga atatta (B) the fish I : The : had ano (C) : this morning has disagreed with me. Head. Plainly : v. atsui ka. asobi. doro-ashi : muddy feet.ru : to maltreat a serhito wa what no go-ju : fifty tobetter than a hundred tomorrow a bird in hand is worth two in the bush. [ato after J. w. asoko. q. see asoko. ryo-ashi : both legs. ate ru v. 3) Various. atatakai. v. [ashi foot place where one steps or is standing. atashi. (gen. tamago : fresh eggs. 2) Asonde i-ru : to be idle asonde aruku : to gad about. asuko wa doko desu ka ? (C) what place is that ? Der. [ato after]. : asobi. to get warm. months). see achi. [ate-ru to hit]. [see kata]. Suzuki San no uchi I e asobi ni ikimashita to visit Mr Suzuki. atarashii. used esjj. a game.i. . : went koen de asonde kimashlta (C) I have been for a stroll in the park.ashi 3) Phrases. n. ate. 1) To hit strike : : stand it. attalxi (na) : pleasure). it 3) To guess. of ivatakiishi (q. Comp. [asobu to play]. atama kara ashi no saki made . to To warm oneself. ashi-moto. muda-ashi . Der. and comp. v. ataru. ateTu. assari shita simply.: reliable. ashi-moto . jibun no atama no hai wo oi nasai : frighten the flies off your ow n head mind your r . to March the first and last are not complete : hi ni ataru : to warm oneself at a fire remain in the sun. jochu ni hidoku ata. : atama kakushlte shiri kak-usa-zu the head but not the body. ashi-moto ni ki wo o isuke nasal (C) . v. my legs. . Play . .: to make warm. to go somewhere for pleasure. ga bo no yo ni naru made arukimasMta I walked so much I could no longer : own business.i. n. Abb. ate ni suru ate ni shite to rely on. kata-ashi : one leg.t.: hi-atari. . pron. attame-ru. \doro mudj. pose.g. ira]. ate ni narimasen : (C) : he is not to be de- Der. ataru. ashi-kake : used of incomplete units of time (years. to be too warm. .

ari-awase-ru : to happen to have. these (B) Nihon no o rha wa watakushi ni aimasen (C) : Japanese tea does not agree with me. au v. atsumaru. atsume-ru.t. (B) : I hidoi me ni au : to be treated cruelly. To meet see. In comp. w.]. push (l)ehind Various. [see -sa]. Comp. cordial. kyo no atsui koto ! how hot it is today ataukuie shiyo ga nai (B) it is awfully hot. ayamaru. itftu Tanabe San ni aemasu ka ? (C) : when . : right. heat. [cogn. to consult to be]. ! atsuU. : . [ant have]. v. : to talk together. collect. : ima jibun awaseru kao ga nai (B) now ashamed to show my face. w. [cogn. : ten days after ten days from now (either before or after). [see so]. : is can 1 see Mr Tanabe ? . tdri-awase-ru to pass]. I will go later on. atsumaru To To v. awase-ru gen. attameru.i. attakai. v. jfote. A pusli from behind like that. atsuku sum : to heat.) to incite. iro wo awase-ru : to match colours.t. 5) Various. w. agree. vehicle .].. [kiku to ask]. kore wa inu no kami-tsuita ha no ato desu this is the mark left by a dog's bite. To fit suit kono kutsu : : 4) The remainder what is left. w. 3) ivatakushi no ato wa mada kimarimasen (C) my successor lias not yet been appointed. A man a rikisha a who pushes behind any push-man a backer. toka ato ni.i.l. atsu-suffi'ru : to be too hot.]. awashU.i. ato ni-hon kaka-nakereba nara-nai have still two (letters) to write. : to mix together. deki-ai : happening to be made : ready- Comp. awase-mono wa hanare-mono : things which have teen artificially united are easily and wife who separated (said of husband . : atama wo atsumete sodan suru together (said of several). osu to push].i. warm cogn. tokei wo awase-ru : to put a clock : I am right.i. hind legs. q.ru thickness. : au to meet sometimes awaset. : these accounts do difficulty. Mark impression place. atsusa : atsu-sugi. To join . au.v. is a atsuku o wo moahimaeu (D) thank you very much. ato-oshi.t. to ato-oshi wo suru : vehicle) . kono tokei wa atte imaau (C) this clock . ato kara ikimaaho (C) ichlban ato no dempo : the latest telegram. : to happen to pass by. Au : v. : to be too thick. . Der. [f. v.t. ari-ai : happening to be there. visitors came. se nui-awase-ru: to sew together. wa watakushi no ashi ni awa-nai boots do not fit me. : Thick rei . (C) teburu wo katazukete sono ato e isu wo o oki nasai (B) put away the table and put a : : attame-ru v. w. disagree). ato-oshi .' together' or happen ' qausi-causative of the 3rd base is gen. ato wo katazuke-ru : to clear away things. [f. unite. . awasrni chair in its place. i-awase-ru : to happen to be present. : : : don 't successor.]. To become warm. [cogn. To apologize beg pardon. 2) After behind. : : awaseru. [I maze-awaee-ru assemble . 3) Various. sore de wa ato no mono ga komaru (B) that would put those remaining l^ehind in a . see atatakai. [ato behind . w. ma ni au : to be in time. 1) ayamaru attamaru. sonna ni ato kara oshite wa ike-nai (A) . [A . kanjd ga awa-nai (B) not agree. Der. I wish to see your shujin ni aitai (B) master. footprints. otsume-ru assemble.a to ato. atatakai . hanashi-au niau. attamaru 1) v. shokuji wo shita ato ni kyaku ga kimashita (C) after we had eaten. ashi-ato : : made. v. I came anata no ato ni mairimaahUa (C) after you. atatakai warm cogn. Awase-ru .i. has the meaning of ' to. (fig. yubi-ato kizu-ato ato-aahi finger-marks. Hot. and comp. [nuu to kiki-awase-ru: to make inquiries.].t. . . q. ato no : the one after the remaining one. v. ato wo tsuke ru : to follow in another's track. itsu o ni nasaimashita you see him ? ka ? (D) : when did is : au wa wakare no hajime 2) the meeting the beginning of the separation. [maze-ru to mix]. : : a plain verb the corresponding humble verb is o me ni kakaru (358). v.is .v. . . aisusa atsui". and comp. To warm.t. [cogn. scar. v.

ful 10 bakkin ano Into wo baka ni suru : to make a fool of him. bakkari). kin money]. na hanashi : a no hanashi : foolish tale. otoko r no wa arimasen (C) there is only a girls school here. To (give in) deposit entrust.about a hundred scholars. (the only thing wanting is the eating of it). there is no boys' school.]. teishaba . you are cheating me. na koto wo itte wa ike-nai (A) : don't talk nonsense. azukari'tnono : thing received in deposit. baka baka baka baka na : foolish. kore bakkari wa agerare-nai (B) this is the one thing I cannot give you. baka ni tsukeru kusuri wa nai : there is no Comp. About. kono boat ni wa yaku ni tata-nai (B) it is of no use in this ease. kono kenka tra watakushi ga azukatte okimasho (C) : leave this quarrel for me to To : ! \ : . anata wa mada imashlta ka ? watakush i wa mo uchi e kaette shimaUa koto to bakari omotte ita no ni (C) what. sore ga dekiru no wa ano hlto bakkari da. baai ni yoru to : according to circumstances. bakkin. Place . I only arrived kino tttuita bakkari desu (C) yesterday. are you still here ? I made sure you had already gone back home. nan to iu baka daro ! (A) what a fool he is ! baka na mane ico shite wa ike-nai (A) don't be a fool don 't play the fool. kort wa onna no gakko de bakkari tsukait hon desu (C) this is a book used only in girls' schools. azuke-nin : depositor. [see -rashii]. ni nomitai (B) : I am awfully thirsty. baka. ashi ga baka ni natta (B) my leg is asleep. baai wo kangae-nakereba nara-nai (B) you must take the circumstances into account. azuke-mono ba.t. gohan wo taberu bakkari ni shite okimashlta (C) dinner is quite ready. bakari de naku mo : not only but 3) : the tale of a fool.ay ash if ayashii. baka ni sarcru no wa iya desu (C) : I don't like to be made a fool of. to meet]. masaka no baai ni : in case of need. xono ba de : in the very act . basho baai. . bakari. (gen.t. not quite such a trifling tiling as you : : : fcaA-a '. bachi ga atatta no da (A) right. doubt- azukaru. . so baka ni shila mcno de mo nai (B) it is. tomodachi ga bydki de aru bakkari de Kobe e kimashlta (C) I have come to Kobe only because my friend is ill. on the spot . bai no dkisa . . bakkari. [ba place . A . : medicine can cure a thing given in deposit. au furoba .t.v. w. be responsible for kaeru made kore wo azukatte kudasai (0) please take charge of this till 1 come back. the only supposition I thought : : : : : : : masho (C) : let's make it six years. Punishment : (in- by heaven). Comp. Circum- : ridiculous foolish. also : . w. : : (B) I feel half silly in this hot weather. [cogn. see bakari 1). (often placed after verb). q. . ni osoroshii mono nashi : fools rush in where angels fear to tread. settle. mi-tsuki bakari aimasen (C) : I have not seen him for about three months. questionable . but I have eaten it.t. : stances case. v. twice as much. azulifru also v. azuke'ru. also v. Der. teishaba ni azukemasMta (C) I left it in the cloak-room at the station. baai ni yotte . flicted it serves you Double . [batsu punishment fine. receive in deposit : take charge of . double of three. bai hodo okii : twice as big. the 2) possible). san-nen no (or wo) bai no roku-nen ni shi- koko ni wa onna no gakko bakkari de. nore hodo baka ja nai (B) I know better than that I'm not such a fool as all that unimari baka ni shite iru (A) you are making a fool of me . baka ni sum nara shite goran nasai (A) I am not to be trifled with.//. (B) he alone can do it. room. ammari at-sui no de atama ga baka ni natta : : Suspicious . azukari-nin : person with whom a thing is deposited. bai ni auru : to (make) double. : mita bakari de naku tabeta koto mo arimasu (C) : I have not only seen it (e. just . (that was the only thing I thought. [cogn. . bai. pron.]. bakarashii fool. there hyaku-nin bakari no seito ga ita (B) were. bai ni naru : to (become) double. then and there. sam-bai : three times as much. v. 1) Only .: baai . A fool. [batsu punishment]. donna baai ni mo uso wo itte wa ike-nai (A) under no circumstances must you tell a : : : : lie. sore wa baai ni yorimasu (C) that depends on circumstances.'/ imagine. azukaru. bachi.g. Comp azukari-kin : money received in deposit. that kind of fruit).

Convenience. 2) Grandmother is almost (the honorific o man. yo (four) is gen. kutabiremashUa ka ? -betsu ni (kutabireare you tired ? nothing to masen). [see myo-]. A Comp. bimbo. . bimbo hima nashi : poor people have spare time. . betsu (no or na). Der. of a house 2) -ban is used after the numlier if in the foreign part of the town . [see &ono2~L tomorrow evening. 1 ) Number your : turn. benri. banl. here. Poverty.vening night. [kawaru to change]. 2) Betsu ni : especially. : o mise no denwa wa nam-ban desu ka ? (C) what is the number of the telephone in office ? san-zen nana-hyaku ju-hachi-ban desu (C) thousand seven hundred and three : eighteen. 4). ben to. Note. ban-. ban wo furu : to keep watch. : . : always prefixed). takuban : yesterday evening. [jin man]. Surprise. used instead of shi. -me (-bam-me). [jin : : long live 1) . : : Comp. benri na : convenient. betsu no mondai : a different question. banchi ga chigatta tegami : a wrongly addressed letter. .]. Note. used also elliptically as a neg. . 4) Ichiban (q. Space place . of salutation. : days did you stay there ? Comp. san Mrs]. Excl. if in the Japanese part bandu (q.bam-me bam-me. : . have you any neflte ? I have betsu ni wake wa gozaimasen (D) no particular reason. benri no ii : convenient. guard watchman.v. Before ban. suf. to study. joy banzai. bimbd suru : to be badly off. enclosed in a box. bikkuri sase-ru : to surprise. betsu-betsu ni uremasen (C) : they are not sold separately. a snp. kawari-ban : by turns. betsu-ma : a separate room. aha carriage]. room.v. benri no warui : inconvenient. no tame ni basho wo ake-ru : to : make room for ished you frightened me. . is kore wa betsu ni harau no desu ka (C) this charged for extra ? betsu ni nani mo arimasen deshita ka ? (C) yoso . 2nd set of mim. bakkin . 11 bimbo batsu. (the o is often prefixed). [mono thing!. [ba horse . let us go one betsu-betsu ni ikimasho (C) by one. banchi. Beikoku-jin : a citizen of the United States. basho wo torn : to take up room. Number (of a house in the Japanese part of a town see prec. he is many Benkyo suru yori : to sell cheap. koko ni basho ga arimasu (C) there is room . [ma\ room].) instead. is used it 3) Pillowed by the suf. . [rusu absence]. sum : F. betsu-mondai : a different question. and comp. betsu-betsu (no or na). [mondai question]. [-koku country]. ashita no ban : tomorrow evening. assiduity. answer to a question. [haha mother . [surul to do]. used in is . hurrah ! ba-san. [yo& night]. bikkuri suru : to be surpriKi.* : : Comp.. . . [f. komban myoban : : this evening. yo-ban : night-watchman. triumph. benkyS. prec. Carnage . benri no tame : for convenience' sake. [nin man]. bachi . coach. betsu-mono : a different thing. ban-nin : a watchman. I sell benkyo itashimasu (D) cheaper than elsewhere. light refreshments usu. Separate. Bei-koku. see foil. basho. bikkuri. q. betsu-betsu . [see saku-}. sense. . (C) speak of. bass-uru : to punish. betsu na kotoba de ieba in other words. another other. astonished. United States of America. see 285-288. Ban is used in connection with the abb. u-atakushi no ban da (B) : it is my turn. a human being]. lieu-ban tomarimashlta ? (C) : how : benkyo desu (C) 2) he is studying . A pretty i bijin. A num.) is gen. -ban3. used for forming certain ordinal numbers see 285-288. [ba place]. used after the first set of numerals. 276. ruau-ban : care-taker of a house during master's absence. Learning 1 ) .v. suffix added to the first set of cardinal numbers to form the ordinals . Lunch . basho ga nai (B) there is no room. 1 am (was) astonbikkuri shimashlta (C) : basha. 271 Punishment. 1) Different that is ansore wa betsu na koto desu (C) other thing that is not the point. honorific Old woman. : Benkyo diligent. bimbd na : poor.).

byoki no furi wo sum : : byoki de uchi ni vru to feign illness. [corr. A .big].neg. rei politeness].]. [de-ru to go out]. I : 3) Kind . [nin man]. (sometimes pron. kono bun wo mittsu okutte kudasai please send me three of this kind. rude. pron.t. jit thing]. bonyari. .neg. absent-minded. kill . . aki-bin : an empty bottle. pref. . fune ga toku ni bonyari mieru (B) I can see a ship dimly in the distance. .: gobu-gobu : equality of two things half and half six of one and half-a-dozen . go buji de (C) a pleasant journey to you. of /-. yube hito-ban-ju okite ita no de atama ga bonyari shita (B) : I am not feeling very bright as I was up all night. of utsu.). bo tan. knock.v. 2) Used for expressing fractions. [go five]. prec. Byd is preceded byo. .v. one part of salt. buchi-komu into]. buUsuke-ru). bimbo-nin no ko takusan : poor people have 12 byoki I wish you a go buji ni itte irasshai (C) pleasant journey. Free from accibuji. [aki. hachi-bum-me : eight parts out of ten. Unreserved . 4). : Comp. bu. . Stick. : bonyari matasareta (B) they like a fool for three hours.. (276.: de-busho : a stay-at-home. ki spirit]. Neglecting to write or visit . cogn. Comp. bu is preceded by the 1st set of : knock (ace. san-jikan : mo made me wait have been upon you. [kowasii to break]. : byoki de nete vru to remain bed on illness.].v. : the glass seven tenths (three quarters) full of water. strike.v. : to knock in. polite . .neg. Comp. [butsu to strike . [mono person]. boshi too toru one's hat. enryo reserve]. To beat (men or animals) strike . boku. go-busata itashimashita (C) sadly remiss about calling . [waru to split].].i. burei na koto wo iu : to use rude language. . . mina-san go buji desu ka ? (C) are they all well at home ? bun. Illness byoki. . ko-bin : a small bottle. a modified q. fcogn. . the 1st set of num. Comp. Comp. Note. bump against. tsukaru to touch cogn. bydki desu (C) I am ill. num. 1) Part.: bonyari -mono : an absent-minded person. bonyari shita : dull dim . a big bottle. : slight indisposition. foil. [akai red porters wear red caps]. by young men is gen. Note used after the abb. Tray (the honorific o . buchi-waru : to break by a blow. w. Second (of time). [chan Mr]. [byo. 2) One tenth part of another thing. Im(na) . . share 1) Part watashi no bun wa dore hodo desu ka ? (C) : what is my share ? jutsuka bun : enough for two days. [f. 308. peace buji na : safe happy. [kol small]. ichi-bu wa shio : three parts of water. Dully dimly distractedly.. bu-. q. busata. to remain at home (be) in on account of account of illness. [bu.. jubun . sick- go byoki de irasshaima#u ka ill ? / (D) : are you of the other. bonyari shite i-ru : to be dull dim absent. quality. dent . I : busho (na). butsu. w. [6. \t-etsu iron]. sam-bu wa mizu. ting dark I can't see. burei minded.. : : many bin.). [nin man]. tetsubin : a kettle.bimbo Comp. boshi wo nugu : to take ofl Comp. children. (sometimes pron.illness . ness. Bottle. sickness. fcogn.) at (dat. byoki. [korosu to kill]. pref. Button. v. : to knock to pieces. buttsukaru). buchi-kowasti. boshi. [butsu to strike tsuke'ru to apply . bhnbo-nin : a poor person. 2nd set of num. chotto shita byoki desu (C) : : it is only a bu-enryo (na). [bu. bon. [komu to put hat. by5-nin : a sick person. q. therefore per cent. [bu. butsukeru. Neg. To throw (ace.: akabo : railway porter. byo-. To hit. by Comp. bu].) against (dat. w. (seldom used without the honorific pref. o-bin : : bo. . q. buchi-korosu : to beat to death . your son. Illness . (C) : (used principally and boys). w. bold.empty]. bun]. v. Lazy and dirty slovenly. A respectful term for a little boy .). Loppu ni mizu wo shichi-bu irete kure (A) fill butsukaru. bonyari shite. Comp.: hambun . yoku mie-nai (B) : as it is get- go). bin means a bottleful. botchan. 3) Especially one tenth of the wari (10%). Spanish or Portuguese]. shi-bun no san : three quarters.

Mrs. (A) put away in its proper place. and der. kiki -chigoe. To be different be mistaken be wrong. see prec. kichigai : madness. particularly girls). adj. . [corr. cha. chigatta bdshi wo kabuMe i-ru : to have on a different hat.v. [iku to go]. chiisai koe : a low voice. koro about time]. chikara r/a nuketa (13) him. chi u-o tome-ru : to stop the bleeding. Near . [yal house]. mam de yuki to sumi to no chigai (B) as different as black and white. chiisa na is only used Note : : to be bleeding. [cogn. small. the q. [cogn. correct. before long. ii . nama no chichi : fresh milk. Blood. chi-suji : : pedigree. [f. down writing. sore wo chanto kaite itadakitai (B like to have that clearly put kono tokei is : tliis clock have you token leave Comp. Ground. chiisai . l>\ a ppn. his Htreimtl.]. make different mistake. totta (no) ni chigai arimasen (C) it. Milk .i.: chi-. ano hito wa mada chichi kusai (B) he is : very green. . : there is no doubt he took ano hito wa do ka slnta ni chigai nai (B) : chika-goro . Power . q.: to make a mistake. [kiZ spirit]. ckika-mifJii . aki-chi : unoccupied ground. : chan. iim en . perfectly . kokoro no chiisai : timid. [kangae' ru to think]..). w. little children. w.v. chichil. is tin. Tea (the honorific o is gen.]. v. chi ga de-ru kangae -chigai : misunderstanding. Comp. chigau. (used especially by and of. exactly.v. close by. machigau q.ru : to hear incorrectly. chanto shita. Mr.fin(C) kaji wa chikaku dettu ka near here ? at times like 'f : Comp. etc. [Av'fcMl to hear]. Comp.byoki uteuru byoki : an infectious disease. chigai.: serious . chilca> michi a short cut.. chan to. [chikai near. sore wa chigau (B) that is a different matter . Little . Note : the adverbial form chikaku behaves my father. chanto o ii nasai (A) tell me frankly. To a noun and may be foil. A non-polite word for father (364) . shall to will to wa do chigaimasu ka ? (C) what is the difference between shall and will ? anata wa ki de mo chigatta no dejfu ka f (C) : : perfectly. jwhin . chanto o shi nasal (A) do it properly.: chichi-ya : a dairy the milk-man. a tea-house. adj. Recently . . pref. chikai shinrui : a near relation. foil. watakushi no kangae wa chigaimasu (C) I think differently. q. (not boiled). there : : somebody Comp.ru : to take by mistake. strength. : cha-ya chawan : light 'brown.]. about it. basho ga chigau : out of its place. chiisa na . Difference.i. v. now. cha-iro : : . o cha hitoteu ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D) may I offer you a cup of tea ? o cha wo irc-ru : to make tea. Comp. [torn to take]. icakashUa chichi : boiled milk. botchan. chigau v.: kiki-chigae-ru : to misunderstand. Comp.t. : . attributively. (223). chigae-ru. iki-chigai : passing each other on the road. the chichi?. slight a person. [hana nose]. sore ni chigai nai (B) : there is no doubt . chanto wakatte iru (B) : I understand it : : : : : : maru de chigaimasu (C) : it is altogether kore wo chanto shimatte kure this wrong. chikara. Comp. [aki empty]. [iro colour]. lately . that is not the question. chigae-ru v. hana-ji blood from the nose. (inexperienced). In good order . a tea-cup. : a shorter road . chika-goro. sukoshi mo chigawa-nai (B) it is exactly the same. chikai uchi ni : soon . compare tot.v. tori-chigoe. honto ni chigai nai (B) it must be true. chikai. ushi no chichi : cow's milk. chi ga tomaru : to cease bleeding. chiisai toki : when I was little. kono hon ni wa ii no chigai ga takusan aru there are a great many (B) misprints in this book. wa chanto atte iru (B) exactly right. the breasts. correctly . chichi wo nornu : to suck the breast. of aonl]. [kikni to hear]. in 6 chanto shitaku ga dekita (B) the preparations are all complete. q. chigai : of your senses ? ) : J should in difference . chigau no : the wrong one.t. [see yal]. chil. hito wo cha ni sum : to make a fool of : : 13 chikara must be something the matter with him.

'entire' see . how chotto no ma ni taiso okiku natta (B) tall he has grown in this short time. et. you must be it wa ch&men ni tsukemashlta down in my account book. sazo o chikara otoshi dt gozaimasho (D) mon. v. chirakatte i-ru . moment. shosetsu de gozaijitsu ni chikara no masu (D) it is really a powerful novel.]. A little . at once. chotto shita koto kara futari no naka ga iraruku natta (B) the two men fell out over : you an answer : chis5. chumon shite koshiraesase-ru : to have -ju. [cogn. 1) Middle. chotto matte . chodo dekakcyo to guru tokoro deshita (C) I was on the point of going out. chikara ni euru : to depend. knives. An order (for goods). chikara ni naru : to become the support. chikara no nai : powerless. mono wa minnay okatta (B) the articles you have made for me have always been : cliddo ii just right. chomen. chu. Note chodai. satisfactory until now. used for things with handles sencho : . . v. chodo hohii to omotta mono deu (C) it is the very thing I wanted. [shi- short choito). 10 j it-cho. w. in this latter way). : chitto o asobi ni irasshai (C) come and see me now and chitto Comp. ano hlto wa sore wo yarn chikara ga nai (B) : : chumorr chodo ima kaerimashlta (C) I have just returned. chuto : then. : chumon de koshirae-ru : to make to order. chumon. chumon wo tori-kesu : to cancel an order. (sel- a trifling affair.t.i. : chodo onaji : exactly the same. second class . denwa wa ima o hanashi chu desu (C) : the telephone is engaged at present. it : a round sum.chikara chikara no aru : powerful. give an order. unchin : charge for transportation. chirakaru. (gen. go). hlto no chikara wo kari-ru by somebody. chu no shina-mono quality. shokuji chu itazura wo shite wa ike-nai (A) you must behave properly during meals. cho-. A. (114).: chikara-shigoto goto work]. chikara wo otosu : to lose heart. chikara no yowai : weak. (thicho : mayor of a town. just : (used as an exclamation for calling attention) I say . [senl ship]. w. pron. Exactly : . captain of a ship. . kudasai (C) : just wait : a mocannot please. Hire : . konna mono chumon shi ya shi-nai (B) I didn 't order this. rely upon. chito . just a moment. 1 it-cho . 2) : nani ka go-chiso itashimasho (C) to offer you something. (used thus by itself it is a childish substitute for kudasai). (C): it middle class . chotto. [to2 mo kamaimasen is doesn't matter class]. made to order. chumon sum : to order.v. bit . chikara no tsuyoi : strong. get .t. Same as chotto (q. (after partaking of any food or re: Banquet . it suf. rikishas. are wa anata no chumon no tori it is exact- ni mairimashlta (C) that matter has been settled according to your wishes. ima made anata no tokoro ni chumon shita chodo. feast . Note. tools. principal. makoto ni gochiso sama de gozaimashita (D) thank you. scatter- ed about. Please please give me .i. rhodai sum : synonymous with itadaku q. Head : on the way. Comp. : an article of medium freshment). chitto chol. 8 hat-cho . entertainment . Korea. (C) : feeling very down-hearted.) but less . go-chiso sama deshUa (C) . : to he in disorder scattered about. To disarrange scatter. I put Chosen. : . In its nigori'ed form ju. . allow me chitto . [ya\ house]. chotto o-ide nasai (B) : just come here a (sometimes pron. yachin house rent. \shii town]. tore : An account book note book. chodo hachi-ji de gozaimasu (D) ly eight o'clock. Comp. a bit. to be assisted choito. (said as an expression of condolence). chirakasu v. chotto no koto de kisha ni nori-okureta (B) : I just missed the train. [cogn. dom used without the honorific pref. : During in the course of. chirakaru v. and has the meaning of tochu : is used as a . chodo ni ehite o oki nasai (B) please make : : : am : he has no ability to do it. chotto o henji ga ment give dekimasen (C) I To get in disorder . chirakasu. fare.v. practically synonymous with sukoshi q.]. Comp. A time -chin. com- chikara wo tsuke-ru : to encourage. n. few. : rough work.v. just.

[nigori'ed form of -tachi q. yo (four) Price. dai has the meaning of 'very much'. da kara : therefore. however. 8). 1) Safe . anata ga koko ni irasshareba daijobu desu I shall feel quite (C) here. be some.great . for da. pedestal. it is somewhat more polite. : sometimes used adverbially. [dai. precious. (and other animals). sore wa ichi-daiji da (B) : that is a serious matter. o daiji ni nasai (C) : take care of yourself. daijobu (na). 2) A. 1) hltotsu . etc. daidokoro.J. 6).e. dake Before dai. to'2 class]. daijobu desu (C) . : this morning. somewhat more meaning large. used after a noun which is a predicate occasionally they are used after the stem of a verb. -dachl. chiito. taigai . . this substitution cannot be made. [dai. Middle class . : Comp. daiji . it was a lie. . and also to adj. q. daijobu . tai so . be substituted polite. . (414. daii.: kuruma-dai : rikisha fare. .: the no is some- daiji de nai : unimportant. added to the present and past of verbs. forms an alternative for the ordinary verbal inflexions. Pref. a good daibu. . dake : only one/ kore dake : only this (one) this much.. : mada kesa better today. . 1 ) . [chu middle second class. wa daibu samui (B) . are gen. wa daibu kimochi ii I feel much kyo ga (B) . pan some bread. (see under no 14) is often used after verbs and true adj. : one. portant. kisha ni wa daijobu ma ni aimasu (C) shall certainly be in time for the train. nedai : a bedstead. kore wa akai desu (C) this one is red. all right requiring no anxiety. da ga : nevertheless still and yet.great bu part]. 4) No desu. daijobu gozaimatu (D) there are sure to I am neko da no. gakko e iku desu ka ?) are you going to school ? 9) Various. : safe is if : you are : 2) Daijobu without a ppn. and kirai to dislike. are you going out ? o dekake desu ka ? (C) is Mr Suzuki San wa o-ide desu ka ? (C) Suzuki here ? 7) Da no is used in enumerations. it w sore no aru no wa Tokyo dake desu (C) to be found only in Tokyo. : let us stop if daiji (na). 2) Desu. before suki to like. especially when the list is not given as a complete : .n. To be (for conjugada. see below.great . 1) A stand Only. o cha dake de naku satd mo o kai nasai (B) : : . . of de arimasu. daiji ni sum : to take care of. . used instead of shL : to pay the price. Comp. (359). : it is all right. tion see 94). taihen . hon (no) dai wo mo haraimashita have already paid for the book. I have onh gp< dake shika nai (B) .v. it is pretty cold Kit. also under the word no 14).: chumon-dori : according to order. of de aru]. soko kara mo ikeru desu (C) : you can also go from there. serious . dai wo harau (C) : I . jU Important it is already done. taisetsu . . arimasu (C) I too have a request to make.big]. gakko desu ka ? (i. . [ne-ru to sleepj. quasi-interrogative force 40 41 6) Desu after a verbal stem preceded by an honorific. carriages. [dai. . daidokoro. sunda koto nara yame da (B) : chen. However. Carpenter. like something im- times dropped. On 6). q. iiso deshUa (C) : da . used sometimes where Comp.: daibu . [contr.v. Much deal a good many pretty fairly. jobu strong]. kirei da (B) it is pretty. a noun 8) Desu ka ? is used elliptically after an adverb. da would be inadmissible see below. a corr. kondo dake : only this once. daibu nokotte iru deal.chumon : 15 Note. On meeting a child on the road you might no ask. they sometimes have a 54 55. did you de ikimashita ka ? (C) futari dake two go all by yourselves ? kore dake desu ka / (C) is this all ? sore dake desu (C) that's all. is watakushi ni mo chumon go. taiyo . inu da no ga suki (B) fond of cats and dogs. you needn't be anxious you can depend upon it. 4). conveys the idea of They are uncertainty or probability. or a gerund. kaji ga daiji ni nara-zu ni sunda (B) : the fire was put out before it became serious. for jinrikishas. dai-. (sometimes tai). 5) Daro or desho gen. Comp. the other hand desu cannot always take the place of da : see below 7). daiji ni : carefully . etc. desu. [dai. 3) Da. De aru may and it is gen. gen.v. : : : . dake. dai*. [dail a stand tokoro place]. is used very Note ^big. daiku. (B) : : there still re- mains a good . occasionally as in 7). : much like Desu is. thing].

: Not foil. q. dake (or arittake) tsukatte shimaimashUa (C) I used all 1 had. damatte itte shimaimashUa (C) he : left least preparations. . d amakasu. [tomaru to stop].: step by step.v. . dare. damaru. so shite wa dame da (B) it's no use doing it like that you mustn 't do it so. . of Eng. benkyo sum dake omoshiroku natte kuru (B) the more I study it the more interest: : dara. : As Dollar.) take. of damasu q. wrong. (A): you mustn't enter people's rooms without leave. is-sun dake watakushi yori sei ga takai (B) he is an inch taller than I. 1) my best to find it. To deceive cheat mislead. (i) But . I'D try aagaseru dake sagashlte rniyo (B) : i-darake etc. (of a sugar. hito-tsuki dake Rondon ni ita (B) I was in London one month. [ishi a stone]. used in a bad sense). embrace . damasareru no wa iya da (B) : I don't like to be cheated. corr. 3) That much (sometimes not translated). [doro mud]. : : desu. [ana a hole]. . : : minna.dake buy to 16 not only some tea but also some to kaita dake dake kaite arimaeu (C) that was all that was written.nai. By degrees . and arittake (=aru kore wa dare no desu ka ? (C) whose is this? dare no kakari desu ka ? (C) whose duty is it 1 . Useless . take as much as iru dake o tori nasai (B) : Comp. : ana-darake 'mh : : over blood. ' abura wo jis-sen dake katte o-ide (A) go and buy (as much as) ten sen 's worth of oil. . full of holes. [hashigo ladder]. it. : ? (B) who is this man? dare da ka selyo-jin ga anata no rusu ni kimashlta (C) : some foreigner or other came while you were out. o damari nasai (A) hold your tongue. he naturally speaks English very : : 2) Dare this ga.]. [chi blood]. stony. Master (of a house) husband. uhltaku dake wa shite oite kure (A) make at : : one's tongue. chi-darake : doro-darake am you want. kore dake itte kikaseru no ni mada wakariinasen ka ? (B) don't you understand yet after having explained it to you so much ? are dake yatte areba takusan daro (B) as I have given him that much I think it will be enough. ing 5) I find as. dan -dan. full of . kakeba kaku dake jdzu ni naru (B) the more you write the better you '11 do it. 3) Dare no. damasu. dan.v. dan-dan. desti (C) : 2) At least. watakushi wa mo dame : masho (C) : : Comp. : : without saying anything. nagaku Igirisu ni ita dake atte. : : Note : dake sometimes has the sound (q. domo Ei-go ga umai (B) as he has been in England so long. : pensive but it is good. (often corr. sore dake wa tashika desu (C) certain. ano otoko ni wa sore dake no kane wa nai (B) he is not rich enough. takakereba takai dake shina ga yokn nariinasu (C) the dearer the article the better : it is. all : with . dekiru dake hayaku o kaeri nasai (B) come back as quickly as you can. : dare ga kesa kimashlta ka ? (C) who came ga ii to omou ? (B) whom do you recommend ? dare ga nan to itte mo kamawa-nai (B) I don 't mind what anybody says. therefore. dame desu (C) it's no use. To be silent : . as naru-take dake).v. hito no heya e damatte haitte wa ike. read as yomitai dake o yomi nasai (B) much as you like. to damakasfi). dame (na). . on the other hand takai dake atte shina mo ii (B) it is ex. to nothing. dare daku. All over . A step. \dan a step]. dame ni naru : to become useless to come : : . I'll go back home. To hold in the arms hen) sit on eggs brood. gradually little by little . danna sama wa irasshaimasu ka ? (D) is your master at home ? . hashigo-dan : a staircase. [corr. danna. : 4) The the. : that : much is if I could ano uchi wo kau dake de ii (B) only buy that house that would be enough. covered with mud. . kane mo tsukau dake (ni) shigoto mo sum he spends money but he works (and (B) earns it himself). there is no byd-nin wa mo dame desu (C) more hope for the patient. step by step. dare : morning ? : well. uchi e kaerias I can continue no longer (doing my work). covered (gen. . kono hito wa dare da by ppn. hold watakushi dake wa : I at least as far as I am concerned. da rake.dame deshlta (C) it was all in vain.

all men ilare dr mo kane . Dare ka . dare mo shira-nai mono wa nai gurai desu (C) hardly anybody ignores practically everybody knows. o kyaku sama ni o kashi wo dashimashita he set some cakes before the guest. r : believe it. ica dare ni l:>ta no desuka ? (C) this letter addressed ? : wo yarn no desu whom must I give this ? kore. dare de. u-a dropping the mo]. often equivalent de mo. mo tegami wa dashimashUa ka ? (C) ha8 the letter already gone ? inu wo dashimasho ka ? (C) shall I let the tansti. dare mo shira-nai (B) nobody knows. put out . dare ka no . dare no de mo ii kara hltotsu kashite kudasai (B) never mind whose it is lend me : : naki-dasu : to start crying. produce . [Mku to pull]. mochi-dasu : to carry away. tobi-da*& : to jump out. ffitatsu am kara hitotsii dare ka ni agema-sho as I have two IH1 give one away. mo. against people like . start running. a itai ! nan datte hlto wo butsu n' da (A) why do you bump up oh. Note donata is a polite substitute for hiite : : lea ? (C) : : to dare. kongei&u ju wa dare ni df mo misemasu (C) during this month it will lie shown to : I dare ga o tori de mo kamawa-nai (B) don t care who passes by. [corr. dare no kangae mo onaji koto desu (C) everybody else 's opinion is just the same. yatoi-nin wo dasu : to discharge an employee. oi-dasu : to drive away. you hurt me : ! to : no kodomo dare mo ka mo kazc v that. : everybody says : [kake-ru to run]. expose . To take out . (C) somebody : else has come. Ei-koku wa erai hito wo tak&san dashila (B) England has produced many great men. kake-dasu : to run out . (fig. let out. dare dt mo haireru no desti ka ? (C) is this open to the public ? dare de mo kite ii (B) any one at all may come. uke-dasu : to ransom. send . [tnotsU to carry]. To anybody come ? : kara kimono wo dashlte kvre (A) get dress out of the chest-of -drawers. nige-dasu : to run away. dare de mo. it often refers to the beginning of an action as in some of the foil.">) dare ka soko ni orimasu (C) somebody or other is there./a suki desu (C) (it mustn't tell to) : shippo wo dasu : to reveal unintentionally one's true (bad) character. dasu. dare kara mo waruku omowarete ima-sti (C) everybody has a bad opinion of him. dare iirfii mo ka mo : everybody.) to try one's hand at or start sonn> new work. : to start raining. dare ni kiitc nlo so in hanashi desfi (C) : such is the story ask whom you will. dare ni mo J'anashlte ica ikemasen (B) you : : : anybody. to begin to speak. : : ) juri-dasfi ii-dasii : : love money. i<oka ni wa dare mo tsurete itte wa ikemasen besides that person you mustn't (B) : cha wo dasu : to bring in tea. dare ni mo. : : : : . datte. imasu (C) every one of the children has (got) a cold. [uke-ru to receive]. : my : : : inata dare ka kimashUa. dare mo shinji-nai desho (C) people won t : ) dog out ? ano hon iva doko de dashimasu ka ? (C) where is that book published ? ikura o dashi nasaimasu ka ? (D) what do you offer ? how much are you prepared to pay ? (compare the slang. of da to itte. see de 7). bring anybody else.) to put out one's hand . dare ppn. [ou to pursue}. let dd datte. . dare-dare ga kita ka shiralete kudasai (B) who please find out the names of those : ! anybody. (C) ti Dare. dare ka ni. watakushl wa kamau-a-nai (B) it be how it will I don 't care. omoi-dasu : to recollect. dare ka kimasen deshlta ka ? (C) hasn't : : to take out . [nige-ru to run away].dare 4) datte . koko ni dare ka no chdmen ga am (B) here is somebody 's note book. mo . [omou to think]. (C) In comp. dare ppn. ni shite mo yoku dashippanasu. mise wo dasti : to open a shop. [I'M to speak 1. one. [da*>*i leave]. 7 Dare de mo . ni-ban kara hi wo dashlta (B) a fire broke out at number two. Dare ni to kono tegami dare ni dare ni whom is itta. fork out). hikidashi : a drawer. mo . [tobu to jump]. tegami wo dasu : to send a letter (by poet). dare-dare is a kind of plural of dare. or de attf mo aft or : came. lianatru to leave out. tc wo dasu : (lit. dashippanasu : to leave out. 8) Various. [naku to cry]. mo so iiniasu (C) so. [hanasu to leave]. chikara wo dasu : to put forth strength. send away . nai (B) whom- ever you may have told it to you did wrong. [furul to rain]. dare ni mo aimasen (C) T met nobody.

' : : : ii ja arimasen ka ? (C. yomu no 5) de wa nai (~yoma-nai) . occurs. good byo. for instance Taro to Haruo to ga kyodai de aru koto wa : shira-nakatta 4) (B) : I didn't know that tin- Taro and Haruo were brothers. has an emphatic force aru no de wa arimasen arimaaen) : th"iv : : kasa wo motte ikeba ( is not. in adj. : that is so no doubt de wa gozaimaeti ga : : : : ) : : . he died in Tdkyo de shinimashita (C) A indicate the predicate of the verb or gozaru. etc. circumstance. value. means. ni-fun de hachi-ji : two minutes to eight. : < : me). time. watftshi datte dekimasu (C) : even I can do it . ? is often used at end of a question that expects the answer o isha san ladies wear foreign clothes. tdka de ichi-nen ni naru (B) : in ten days t will be one year (since that happened). asa hayaku dekakemashlta (C) and so he set out early in the morning. datte so. position. itte kudaaai (C) : : say it in English sayd de gozaimasti (D) that is so. or the place in which the action or state ject in English . phr. : you must not read. watashi datte sono kusuri ga areba sugu agemami ga (C) : if I had that medicine I 'd soon let you have some. de. 17). De wa arimasen ka 'yes'. kore wa to de ikura desA ka ? (C) what is the price for ten of these ? himo de shibaru : to tie with n string. : mono (B.datte datte. Nihon no fujin de yoftiku wo kiru hito mo the Japanese ffozaimafifi (D) : some of : however De foil. cause. yubin de : by post. showing the relation of situation. In neg. . so. kimono dake de tak&san da (B) you've got quite enough dresses and sashes (without buying any ima am but in the Japanese mind it is conceived as the means whereby. o taku de : at your house. reason. sentences de is usu. not you. ano jimen wa ginko de kaimashlta Bank bought that plot of land. hadn't you better take an umbrella ? ikd ja arimasen ka ? (C) Jet's go. on. in. san-ji han de gozaimasu (D) three. it may be translated by at. . 18 ck sonna hazu not be. koko de setomono wo yaku no desii ka ? (C) do they make pottery here (at this place)? June de : by boat. 3) (C) : the uses of de and ni). forms the ne. to ja. it may often be translated by gerund without (58. do not confound this no de with no de meaning 'because'. 16. De after the neg. etc. measure. (See 393 for a comparison between the 1) mittsude takusan (B) three will be enough. see 94. obi datte. with. is usually contracted . by. ppn. by wa . contr. more). from. De wa arimasen in constructions like tlit> foil. o tanomi de : at your request.. : : see no 19). : : it is half past : : Tokyo. ni-yen de katta (B) I bought it for two yen. koko de arimasti (or desti) (C) : this is the am De may : place. he nanni mo iwa-nai de itte ahimatta (B) went away without saying a word. by de often becomes the sub: . watakuzhi wa walaktish dc ikimush'Ua (C) I went of my own accord (nobody forced de. empitsu de kaku : to write with a pencil. yasui no de ii (B) (No here means 'one'. onaji nedan de : at the same price. A noun foil. not De wa is freq. Remember that dc ant. O Kei San wo yonda no de#u (B) it was Miss Kei I called. however. by am cannot always be contracted to da . I can do it also. o isha san ira byoki ja arimasen ka ? (C isn't the doctor ill ? baka de nai hito : a not-foolish man. : I (ho) do not read . de wa sayonara (C) well then. anata ja nai. shakii de ikura (B) : how much a foot ? it-to de o-ide dcsu ka ? (C) are you going first class ? } Atari de kimashlta (C) they came both together. : wa nai (B) : but that can- 2) mam de entirely quite. that wa byoki ja arimasen ka ill ? ? (C) : isn't the doctor michi de : on the way. hito no kimochi wa kao-iro de wakaru (B) men's feelings can be told from their : omae wa about cfiitto mo shira-nai ja nai ka ? (A): isn't it a fact that you know nothing at all it ? : looks. isogasMkatta n' desti fern. jikan de yatoitai (B) : I want to engage you by the hour. : ano hashi wa tetsu de dekite imnsfi (C) bridge is made of iron. a cheap one will do.) yes. )dbu de aritai (B) I wish I were healthy. instrument. kirc-i de wa arimasen (C) it is not pretty. Ei-go de please. condition. etc. See also 'tie. s6 ja nai (B) that isn't so. of. but I was so busy. datte. pres. for. foil.

(Compare 58. de mo. sentences . mada roku ji ni nara nai (B) but it's not six o'clock yet. 10) De wa kika-nai : more than. kake-rvl q. whon itsu o dekake de gozaimasu ka ? (D) do you start ? agaru to lx deki-agaru. doko. de mo haratte if come out fortheome. it may be considered as the contraction of de atte. . Going > : : : : : a house. de mo sonna hazu wa nai (B) still that cannot be.v. de-iri. : . A de-busho. ? at least pay half. [deki-ru to be made . may mark the end of a clause which is not the end of a sentence : it is often translated by 'and'. de mo mimasho (C) I '11 read a book. <MIComp. [de-ru to go out Lit. ano hito de mo itsu kane-mochi ni narumai mono de mo nai (B) it is not exactly impossible that even that man may sonic : : day become rich. it becomes: tie mo : nai (B): it's not exact Iv- an impossible thing.Vihon de mo yofuku ga danin Japan dan oku natte kimashita (C) also. opening]. b) qualified satisfaction. 'either or' nor' in neg. de mo in parallel clauses has the 8) De mo meaning of 'whether or'. Taro wa to de Jir5 wa yattsu desu (C) Taro : the kind). Ready-made. done. (58. let's (C) take tea. [deki-ru to be made To be completed be finished. even if you iya de mo shlkata ga nai (B) don't like it. To be made. ikvtsu and nan. : don 't care who passes by. 9) For de mo after dare. itsu. which may be 'such a translated by 'not exactly'. demo is sakede he lion nai (B) it's not exactly so. ame de mo iku txtimori desu (C) I intend to go even if it rains. .mo asonde o-ide (A) take ten day's or a fortnight 's rest. tdka de mo hatsuka de. 9--11). Mto kiru wo . . a make-shift c) vagueness. and resembles several gerundial constructions . same as ashikake. it can't be helped. In the neg. (though I md dekimasMta (C) it's ready. busho lazy]. asoko de setomono ga dckiru (B) : (C) : that porcela : it machido desu kara cfia de mo nomimasho as he is a long time coming. well. 7) Demo has several meanings: a) a concessive force which may be often translated by 'even'. Comp.mpitsu de mo (B) : a pencil : will do. kuchi mouth. [de-ru to : in and out . . minna deki-nakereba hambun kudaaai (B) can't : deki'ru. (though I 'd prefer a pen). deki-ai no kutsu : ready-made boots. pounds. manufactured there. nonde iru nodaro (B) I suppose again drinking sake (or something ( mo : (wa) nakutc . construction foil. finished. : ten and Jiro is eight years old. de-guchi. de (wa) naku or de (wa) : nai. see ashi. dore. To go out start. The way out exit. jik-kin de wa kika-nai : more than ten : : : no haratta no wa ni-yen de wa nai san yen datta (B) it was three yen that 1 paid and not two. kono hen wa shizuka de ii tokoro desu (C) this neighbourhood is quiet and nice.: to 1) . 'not Nihon-jin de mo gaikoku-jin de mo : every one whether Japanese or foreigner.j. [de-ru to go out. see these words. kuru to come). finished]. ga futte) dekakeru no is wo no- bashtta (B ) : I have postponed departure on account of the rain. used of incomplete units of time. mo gin de mo arimasen (C) this is not gold nor silver. ma de mo kikoeru (B) I can hear it even now. [de-ru to go out stay-at-home.: de-iri-guchi : a door used for trance and exit. donata. de-iri wo suru : to go or come frequently <> t go out . the number of people who wear foreign clothes is gradually increasing. meet]. ano hashi wa teteu de dekitt imaml bridge is made of iron. by wa has often the force of a conditional). dekakeru. iru2 to go in]. . ready. kore wa kin de. it will kaette kara de mo ii (B) enough when prefer : be time 'd you come back. ikura. [de-ru to go out . my nani ka okotte de mo iru no daro ka? (B) I wonder if he is put out about anything. sooner). sore iva ammari hade de kiraremasen (C) that is so showy I cannot wear it. thing as' or not translated at all. receipts and payments . dochira. in aff. mada dekimasen ka yet ? : (C) : isn 't it ready e. au to deki-ai (no). ii you pay all. ko iu hon ga yome-nai yd de wa Aoyama gakko ni haire-nai (B) if your education is not sufficient to enable you to read books like this you cannot enter Aoyama (remember that a gerundial college . d6.de t)) 19 deki'ru deki-nai koto de 8d De following a noun. ame de (or ame.: dekiai-mono : leady-made things. dekite iru no ga arimasft ka any remly-made ? is '< (C) liave you . dare ga o tori de mo kamawa-nai (B) I tratashi : : .

to be finished. [den. dekiru dake itashimasho (D) I will do my utmost. tokoro desu (C) : I am just about to go out. A telegram. . d-sama no mae ni demashlta (C) he caiminto the presence of the King. 1) . to !>e a failure. dekiru dake yoku nasai (A) do it as well as : : e yonde kudasai (C) : please call hin to the telephone. be with child. dom. To be . ano hon wa raigetsu demasu (C) : that book will come out (be published) next month. haphazard. dekiru : possible. : : to bleed. dete kuru : : to come out . [ft i sun ]. namida ga de-ru : to cry. as far as : possible. kari ga dekrru Note Com p. deki-nai : impossible. this subject is often the object of the English potential verb. [sokomm \ dc-bunho : a stay-at-home. nmashlla (C) while you were out a phone call came from Mr Yamada. if possible . . [busho lazy hi-no-de : sunrise. [agaru to be : de-gucii! i"gj- the way out. takes the ppn. (See koto 5). \au to meet]. [den. San.' : : here. kit. Ei-go ga dekimasu ka ? (C) can you speak English ? Nikon-go wa sukoshi shlka dekimasen (C) I only speak a very little Japanese. deL-ireba if can. koko wo ikeba leiahaba e d^tnasu ka (C) does this road go to the station a-slnta gakko r dvntosu ka are yon tid(C) ing to school tomorrow T it kaji wa daidokoro kara deta so desu (C) seems that the fire l:>egan in the kitchen. 3) De-ru has sometimes a humble meaning.electricity]. Electric- nani-gotu >no do a~o yon must m>i . denki . you are wanted on the telephone. . Comp.: random . detaranic wo iu : to talk at random. chi ga de-nt kodoino ga de. negatte de-ru : to make a request of a person : tliis possible thing. o rusu ni Yamatla San kara denwa ga kaka: .' : ''. roku-ji ni shokuji ga dekimasu ka ? (C) dinner at six o 'clock ? I have can denwa my korega dekimasu ka ? (C) can you do this t kyd wa agaru koto ga dckimasen (D) I cannot go to see you today.ii<> majite u-a ike -nai (B) to excess in anything. : to get into debt. the subject of deki-ru gen. Electricity. spirit].electricity j.electricity Electric car tram-car.electricity ity . adj. denki. start. 2) To leave . denwa de gozaima. electric light. denwa.: deinpo .V. is it possore wa dekiru koto desu ka ? (C) sible to do it ? Ei-go no dekiru Into : a man who can speak : English. I can . : 1 received desu. come out. dempo. dempo u'o kakc-ru a tele/rain. : to say something to a person in authority. 5) As a verbal adj. [den. : . apjjear : found. bydki da den-. ileki-ai : ready-made. there is a nail sticking out tnotfhi-de-ru '. dempo wo iitxft : to send to iti dr-mpd ga kita (B) a telegram saying he is ill. di-iri q. do. -aha carriage]. detaranie. Tanabe. ga dc. denwa wo kake'ru : to telephone. o kuni de. Comp. 6) Various. ga .' (C) : does rice grow in your country ano finin wa sengetsu kodmno ga dek'i>ushlta (C) that lady had a baby last month. '' : : . know.v. . shimbun ni de-rn : to appear in a )>e nt-\\^- paper.deki'ru 2) 20 able : do densha. it is not an imdeki-nai koto wu nai (B) : : : : you can. klsha \va nan-ji ni demasu ka ? (C) at what o 'clock does the train start ? kesa Kobe wo demashlta (C) I left Kobe : : morning. Nonsense random . deki-sokonau fail]. : tele- : de-ru. ? how is (C) Ei-go no deki wa do desu ka he getting on in English ? : constituted in authority. dekiru koto nara nan dc m<t itaxliimasu (D) 1 will do anything that is in my power. [kuchi mouth. nonsensical. wa komc.kimasu ka ': '.su (D) Mr Tanabe. denilitr : dt-nu-a . Cj. 4) Various. 3) To speak (can speak) . 1) Degrei-. [den.krru : to give birth to a child . sec da. : deki-agaru finished]. To go out ima deru : dekiru dake hayaku henji wo shite kudasai (B) please let me have an answer as soon as possible. abnnai kokn ni kugi ga dete iru (B) how dangerous. detaramr ni lutiii &m~u : to answer at ran. opcn|. seki ga de-ru : to cough. 4) Dekiru dake has a superlative meaning. use ga de-ru : to perspire. detaranie na.

do-. mo ni-doto Kichiza ni cm koto wa dekimaseti (C) she would never be able to see Kiohi. do shlta no ka shira-nai (B) : I don't know how it happened. do is preceded by the 1st set of Note num. do shlta hlto desu ? (C) what kind of a man is he ? sore wa do shlta wake desu ? (C) -what is the reaf on of that ? dd shlta wake ka o-kami-san ga byoki ni : : Comp. : iku-do mo often. ni-do-me : the second time.) not even once. san-do ni ichi-do : once in three times. next time . that won't do at dd : you leave school ? when I yoku kiite mini to do dard ? (B) and think sh questioned her. Dd dol . How it ? Interr. [mai every].. what do you : shite mo ashlta dekake-nakereba nanmasen (C) it is absolutely necessary for me to leave tomorrow. dd (gerund) also ddmo). 1) Copper. do de#hd? (C) hotter this year than last. Kdmoto San wa dd shite mo jdzu da (\ there is no denying Mr Komoto is very : said ? kyonen wa kotoshi yori atsui to omocBMWd ga it seems to me that it'. culty I '11 give you mo . Do shlta ? : Japanese. ? (C) : how do you do . ? what ? dd shite kyd ikimosen dethlta ka ? (C) : why didn 't you go today ? do shite deshd f (C) I wonder how that : do #uru no desu ka . how are you ? 2) Do desu ka ? (C) koko wa do de*u ka ? (C) how do you hk : : : this place ? heitai wa dd desu ka '/ (C) : being a soldier ? isaho ni itte v-a do desu how do you hk ka ? ? (C) : what d you say to going with me :}) absolutely this money. dd shite mo dekimasen (C) impossible. before do. dd ni mo . happened ? do shite so natta no desu ? (C) : how did that do shimashd ? (C) do sureba ii deshd ? (C) what shall I do ? do shttara ii ka ? (B) : happen do ? what had do 8>iru I better do ? : no daro ? (B) what shall I do ? how is he to proceed 1 do shimasu ka ? (C) what do you propose to do ? what do you do sureba ii no desii ? (C) advise me to do ? anata ga i-nakereba do nhimashd ? (C) what should I ever do without you ? do sum koto mo deki-nai (B) 1 can't pre vent it. yo (four) is used instead : somehow or other his (C) wife fell ill. do shlta koto ka hltori ga ashi wo suberaset* somehow or other one ochimashUa (C) narimashua : : of 4) them slipped and ahlte. ichi-do : : 21 do do shlta no deshd ? (C) I wonder what has wonder how it happened dd nasaimashlta ka ? (D) what is the mat ter with you ? kodomo wa do shita no desu ka ? (C) wlv! has happened to the child ? watashi no boshi tea do shlta ka? (B) what has become of my hat ? do sfilta mon" daro ? (B) what shall I do ? : : V happened ? I ''. pron. very Nikko e iUe mitai (B) 1 would like to see Nikko (compare hitotsu 2). of fhi. do no desu ? (C) what has happened what is the matter ? shlta dd natte mo kamaimasen what happens. ( 6) Ddmo . however I maj be wrong.do anata no megane wa nan-do desu ka ? (C) what is the number of your spectacles 2) Times. ichi-do any number . [see mai-do : every time. once. dd shite mo ike-nai (B) all. : za again. da dd mite mo ano hlto wa Nihon-jm i whichever way you look at him he : dd shite mo kd shite mo dd mo nara-nakereoa kono kane wo agemashd (C) if there no other way out of the difl : clever. Hakone e wa do iku no de#u ka ? (C) how can you get to Hakone ? desi gakko Y> dete kara do nasaru o kangae ka ? (C) what do you mean to do when : shite omae wa watakushi no tometa koto wo shimasu ka ? (A) how dare you do what I have forbidden ? : shite ii ka wakarimasen (C) : I loss to know what to do. (C) : I don t care . : it is absolutely : dd shite mo dekakemasen : (C) : in any casn : I shall not go out. kondo : this time . mo mimasen : (C) : I have never seen of times : not even once. : - : : ichi-do it. Hakone e dd shite iku no desu ka ? (C) do am at a : how : : can you get to Hakone ? 5) Dd shite mo. ichi-do mo (with neg. fell down. itrhi wa dowo nan d-kazega jukimashlta ga masen (C) a gale blew but nothing happened to my house.

I think I prefer the country to living in town. dochira no. [dono which 1) : tokoro place].: juru-ddgu second-hand furniture. tools.2 : : Comp. [furui oldj. [-go Doitfu-go speech]. do iu ju na . 8) Do de mo . of the German]. doesn 't matter how : do it anyhow. dd no kd no : something or other. dogu. dd (ni) ka kd (ni) ka fthiincmhu (C) I will do it somehow or other. : Doitsu no. : : dd ka sum to aku no deu ga do sum no da ka this must open somewakarimasen (C) how or other but I don 't know how. 10) Various. Doitsii-jin : : a German. do ni ka . a polite substitute for do. pron.: German. dotchi ka o shi naoai (A) either hand over the goods or pay the money. other side of this river. do itashimashlte (C) not at all (after being thanked) : don't mention-it. 3. dd ka kd ka . dochi dochira (dochi . dochira mo. do iu Mto desu ? (C) what kind of a man is he ? sore wa dd in wake deu ? (C) what is the reason of that what do you mean by : Comp. any way will : mo ira-nai (B) I want neither. r Where live ? ? which and . Animal. dohu v.do do ni mo naru (B) it can be turned any way. adj. [contr. the [jin man]. (something has happened to upset you). be strong enough. 3) Dotchi no .ease.i. but ii sometimes is about equivalent ro 'please'. : doko. Doitsu. you are not yourself today. '! that ? dd iu wake ka kcsa shimbun ga oaoku kimashlta (C) : for some reason or other the newspaper came late this morning. 5) Dotchi mo . (JokeTU. dokka. The original meaning is 'somehow or other'. dochira no michi -iro ikimashd ka ? (C) which road shall we take ? dotchi no hd ? (B) in which direction ? in what part (of the town) ? 4) Dotchi ka . doka kore r~o kaife ki'da*ai (C) please write : this. do ni lea kd ni ka : somehow or other. yd gozaimasu (1). dochira ka. dotchi}. sono kami nara dotchi de mo daijobtt daro docliira : : : (B) : either of those pieces of paper would it is. [corr. dochira de mo ii (B) either will do. butarete mo naki mo do mo shi-nakatta (B) although he got a beating he didn *t cry or do anything like that. kind of. dotchi mo onaji da (B) they are both alike.J. anatu no kangae de dd de mo nariwasu (C) either of the things you suggest w ll do. it really do mo kd mo shiyd ga nai (B) can 't be help. dotchi mo yolrn nai (B) neither is good. [see dd ka under dd-\. no\'e take out of the way. do (ni) ka dekimasen ka ? (C) can't you : doko dochira kara o-idc nasaimashlta ka ? (D) : where do you come from 2) ? : \Vhich (of two) t dochira ga o suki desu ka ? (C) : which do . dd (ni) de mo o ski nasai (B) : kono uchi dochira ka o ki ni irimasu ka ? (D) will either of these suit you ? dotchi ka to ieba machi yori inaka no hd c/a suki desu (C) if I must choose between the two.' : you prefer ? mizu to o yu to (D) : dotchi ga yd gozaimasu ka is it cold water or hot water that you : manage dd (ni) p'. kane wo harau ka. 6) Dotchi dc mo . 9) Do iu . Xote ikaya. Tool : instrument : (piece of) fur- niture. v. language. dochira de mo. dd ka shlta no desu ka ? (C) is any tiling the matter with you ? do ka shite kawa no mukd e ikitai (B) I wish I could manage somehow to get to the : : want ? shina-monowo ivatasu ka. German doka. 7) Do ka . hito no tokoro-gaki wo do (ni) ka shite shiritai mono desu (C) I wish t could find out his address somehow or other.t. . of doko ka. see doko]. it some way shite o ? : ka kure (A) attend to it sono uchi ni do (ni) ka narimashd (C) sooner or later it will come to some satis- : ano factory conclusion. : : : : do de mo it do . can l>e used in many of the examples in 1. To re- . dotchi ka agemashd (C) I will give you one : : : : of these (two). ? ([)) : koko wa doko desu ka ? what ? is the ? dotchi e o-'ide ni narima^u ka where you going '' of this place ? doko ga ichiban ii hot-cm deshd is the best hotel ? name (C) : which . o taku u-a doko dcsu ka is ? (C) (C) : where do you : dobutsu. 7) Dotchi ni shite . (see also doka). 1 ) Where are gen. [cogn. Germany. omae wa kyd wa yoppodo dd ka shite iru (A) there's no doubt about it. dd hi yd na : what mo : in either case. w. do ni d-c mo.

: put it any- have donata de gozaimaau ka f (D) whom the honour of addressing ? don-don. IJ) Doko doko mo shirimasen (C) I don't know any : where.v. . : (often abb. something bad for the : health. de ma. eat the plate also). Suff. move aside. . doku ni mo kusuri ni mo nara-nai (B) it is neither good nor bad. doko ni aru no daro ? (B) I wonder where doko kore e itta ka-ahirimasen (C) e : I don't know : doko made de mo o tamo itashimashd (D) I '11 go with you as far as you like.. [totno companion]. (397). doko made so far.) where did you wa doko where does this : get it so cheap. ppn. polite substitute in the 2nd person. Who . doko ni de mo itte irasshai (B) go wherever : : very unexpected. mizu ga doko kara ka (or ka kara) morimasu (C) there's a leak somewhere. [cogn. [dono doko e de mo o oki nasai (B) where. doko e ka (or ka let's : : doku na : poisonous. 5) Doko. used for domo. doko ni mo gozaimasen (D) there are none : anywhere. [corr. doko ni ka (or ka ni) aru desho (C) it must be somewhere there must be some some: to doku I . doko e o-ide ni natte mo so yasuku wa urimasen (C) go where you will you won't : : where he has gone. doku kucba sara made mo : in for a penny in for a pound one may as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb. donna. fern. dokoro. v. mo. doko ni ite mo tabako wo nonde itnasu (C) he smokes wherever he is. doko e iku toki de mo inu u-o tsurete ikitnashlta (C) he used to take the dog with him whenever he went anywhere. : : Doko de mo . Rapidly noisily. mo ikimaahita (C) : I went ever (C) : don 't know how to manage. mo. doku ni naru : to prove injurious to health. : ka .t. ppn. doko -doko e irasshaimasMta ka ? (D) what places did you go ? doko-ira ? whereabouts ? [see -ira]. doko ka. used . dcnki ya Tokyo de wa doko no mise de mo ga*u wo tsukaimasu (C) in Tokyo every shop is lit by electricity or gas. To getout of the way . Poison . what. doko-doko is a kind of plural of doko. o doki nasai (A) get out of the way. forming the plural of nouns. doku-. : : this morning. [do how mo even see do2 6]..v. ket/a wa yubin ga doko kara mo kimasen (C) I haven 't received a letter from anywhere : : poison. doko de mo arimasu (C) you can got indeed very sorry for you. w. ppn. doko. doko ka (dokka) kono kinjoni sunde iru (B) he lives somewhere in this neighbourhood. what oaorosMJai domo michi ga uwrut (B) an awfully bad road domo shiyo ga nai (B) : there is really n : ! it help for it. kino doko mo o wami yd de wa arimasen there seemed to be nothing desMta (C) : the matter with him yesterday. to dokka) . : of those places. doke-ru v. : don't know who the doko no gakko it is. man e is. domo nani wo auru ni mo nagaku kakaru about everything ! (B) how long he takes domo kono-goro hima ga nakute komarimafu I have so little time now-a-days. kind of]. I'll go part of doko made ka ikimasho (C) the way. Has a vague sup. sore too domo that is (C) : that is really too bad . doko de mo ii (B) anywhere will do. e) iko ja arimasen ka ? (B) go somewhere. doko made itte mo yama bakari desu (C) no matter how far you go there are only : : : buy it ? 2) Doko ka mountains. doko.doko are 23 desu ka ? donna doko kara de wa doko no Mto (C) : what na: mo kimasu tionality is he ? doko no kata ka shirimasen (C) (C) : from I : they L-OIU-- all parts. ppn. ppn. doko ka no otoko no ko ga uchi no nashi wo some boy I don't know. donatfl. doko.i. you like. torimashita (C) stole some of our pears. (lit. .: if you take : . osp. kyd wa doko e mo ikimasen (C) I'm not going out today. (178). meaning or serves to emphasize a word. iku michi de#& ka ? (C) road go to ? doko kara ikhnasii ka ? (C) by which road are you going ? doko made ikimashita ka ? (C) how far did you go ? doko de katta no ? (B. nigori'ed form of tokoro q. mo . dono yd na : : which kate person]. 1 (C) : . : Comp. ikimasu ka : ? (C) what school do you go to ? (352). anywhere. gerund.]. for dare q. domo o kinodoku eama desu ne (C) : I am doko made there 4) is mo shinseteu na Mto desu no limit to his kindness. domo. doko kara mite mo: whichever way you look at it.

doyo. dore dale ? dore hodo ? how much ? : ni may practically always tx. donna ni itte mo : whatever you may say. dori de mie-nai (B) : no wonder he is not to be seen.donna 1) What kind of ? how ? : donna hon ga irimasu ka ? (C) what kind of book do you want ? donna deshita ka t (C) how did you like : Jird wa dore hodo shikaUe mo kika-nai (B) Jiro doesn't take any notice no matter how much I soold him. (C) : absolute: hlto anybody may enter. iku : to call at the Bank on t!i<- 1 shall buy one kaimaaho (C) (some) of them.usoi instead of e . e e yott* Tokyo ginkd 2) Dore ka. dono bin ni -no ippai haitte bottle is full. 2) Nigori'ed form of lori q. dose. 6) Various. e e no yo na : picturesque. Teikoku Hoteru c. kore wa dore me ikeinascn ka ? (C) won 't dore ka : : e tomaru : to stoj> at tlw: Imperial Hotel. ddzo irasshai (C) please come in. dore mo kore mo kowarcle iru (B) : every single one is broken.\\i-lcoiiif to it. waj. right. wo kaku : to draw (paint) a pictuiv. 1) '" el. [kakv to writo. [see yo-bi\. I'll go back home. (L>) it is dono. After all anyhow. : Note think will please him. dosr kono klshawa okureru (B) thin train Is sure to be late anyhow. but e only sometime:-! nm\ take the place of ni. Please . dore ka o lei ni irimashlta ka ? (C) is any of them to your taste ? 3) Dore mo. it? Reason right.]. at . : don. tana e age-ru : to put on the si -elf fig. c : c broken. . iij Dore is used as a more or less meaningless interj. dorobo ni au : to be robbed. kono-qoro wa o tenki ga wand kara aakana no takai no mo dori dc-au (C) : as we have had such bad weather lately fish is nat- urally dear. no kao ni doro wo nuru to bring dis- donna hUo de ly mo hairaremaati. donna koto ga atie mo : whatever may happen. kaero f (B) well. [aahi feet]. : I would like to see how wa'akushi ni dori ga am (B) : I am in thi- 2) Donna ni. : Comp.iNayoya . paint j. mairimasu (D) excuse mo for going dore de dore de mo ii mo ki (B) any one will do. have a sup. at the beginning of an action. a polite way of granting . . : teuku : to arrive at Tokyo. dorti. dare ga ii ? (B) which is the beat : ing to ? kopftu c mizu wo irc-ru : to pour water into a T glass. ni iru dard (B) any of these I : first. : doro. dono michi wo itte mo : by whichever road one goes. . 1) [ ? tori road]. towards . Handle. donna gerund mo. Dollar. doyo-bi. : occupied. [corr. grace upon somebody. dore. : e^. Robber thief. donna ka mitai (B) it looks.: doro-ashi : muddy feet. e3. 10 be oblivious of. chunion aunt : to onler fi\uu N. ' : donna ni ureshii ka ahiremasen (C) I cannot tell you how very pleased I am. dorobd wo sum : to rob. doko ikimasu ka ? (C) where t. goya. (B) : every 1) Place : to . . Picture. see doc/ii. Saturday. into. Mud. of Eng. they are al! 2) Time. 1 ) Which ? dono 1-on ? which book ? dono michi wo iku ga chikakard ? (B) which is the nearest road to take ? 2) Dono gurai : about how much ? what quantity V dono gurai no dkiaa ni shimaahd ka ? (C) : Comp. dore ? wliich one ? let me see it. : anata what Dono size shall I make it ? wa doasari hon -wo o mochi denu what a lot of books you've got. : dossari. any of these do dore 4) v int. meaning or a meaning of 'absolutely without exception. dore. Dore de soko saki at that monrioni : . dozo.) request : most certainly . : arc- you go- Which (of more than two).v. >ir (C) : dono yurai kakarimasu ka long will it lake ? 3) ? (C) : about how \ mo : universality. dorobo. e-kaki au artist. donna uchi ni de mo go'zaimaau to be found in every house. you jn. iru. (B) : mo kmcnrete -mo. dono iau mo tsukotte iru (B) every chnir is : dotchi.

[wakare-ru ! : would be a remarkable man if he knew as much erf. tion). empitsu. ddzo fjo enryo nahu (C) please do not stand upon ceremony. very well are following what the other man is saying yes. A lead-pencil.]. [ju. : . approval : yes. a little girl care of her little baby brother . (often pron. [jutatsu two]. uncomfortable. Tanabe San go fufu : Mr and Mrs. tween husband and wife. sorr wo kiitf taihen ni odoroita yd na / shimashtta (C) : when he heard that h pretended to be greatly surprised. more or less : surprise . select. edge. [ret politeness]. see erabu. bu-enryo na : not Imshful. Two (in the 3rd set of ffl2.. empit-su wo kezuru : to sharpen a penciL : ' NiJhon-fu (seiyd-ju) wo riane s'ini : to imitate Japanese (European) customs.u fufu-genka: a quarrel and wife. neck-band. see foil. Sudden. scrupulous \jukai fade. . husband and wit. pret. : Comp. : English. Ei-go. enryo suru : to stand upon ceremony. . Great . fuch-i wo nuu : to hem. erai ! bravo well done ! he are dake "jeakattara erai mon' da (B) applied to admiration clothes. : it was as usual. kore wa Tamaki San no fude de*u ( Tamaki. eramu. kono chawan na fu-soroi da (B) these tea: : cups are all odd ones. Awra no juchi : banks of a rivt-r. : anything which excites our and approval .: branch. cda-michi burei : na : rude. [practically the same as crown*]. as tnat. .. . [-koku rountryj. a hen feeding her chicks. : an oil painting. bu-enryo na [bit. it may indicate you all right. hi-soroi : ignorant. Eikoku-jin : an Englishman. na : unkind. ben(ri) com enienwj. road]. betwet-n husha. na : unfortunate. Li-go de tea book to iimaaii (C) in English we say book '.neg. (in its nigori'ed form &M~). To choose pick out . Collar r>a. . fuda. 275). .neg. wind. remarkable. eda. : divorce. fufu-wakare ratel. fu-annai na fu-shinaet*u ju-ahiau-ast fortunate]. : ju-jiyii na. [hagaki postcard]. : enryo-bukai deep]. [shi-au-a*< 6 . Way manner customs. L'i-koku : England. Ei-go : English (language). Everyday usuaL fudan no tori de arimathlta (C) .. Reserve regard for another's feelings. Has various . I see. is a picture (writing) by Mr Kobo ni mo fude no ayamari : even Kol evt brvwh sometimes makes a mistake Homer nods at times (Kobo was a c ebrated learned man). [slrinscisu kind]. fuju na) not fre". Ei. !Kano hito wa yoku fude ya tattu (B) good writer. erabu. fui abura-e 4 . \jiyu free]. : : num. inconvenient. : i . . pref. [Ei. [annai a guide]. fudan no kimono : everyday Writing brush pen. A nog. cessive formality feel and etiquette make us inconsiderate . amari enryo uru no ni mo komaru (B) ex. The English language. A term of praise erai. A countersign label. Ei-go ni yal:u sum : to translate into English. In comp. kono ttchi kara crande kudasai (C) plase choose from among these. [kenka quarrel]. Ei-go de liannsu : to say in English. fu-. : all at onot fni ni : suddenly dog . England. fQfu. kd tu /w ni siiru kd ga it (B) you had betHM do it this way.v. enryo. engawa. inu mo kuwa-nai : not even fufu-genka wa takes any interest iu a quarrel a fui no. Tana t Comp. fuben na. Veranda. q. A rim border . v to : let me see (when considering a ques. thing]. Ei-go ga deki-'-u : to speak (know) English.25 e-hagaki: a picture postcard. not bashful careful . [ji a branch-road . [abura oil]. interj. vague meanings na : net equal or uniform. [jin man]. fudu wo teake-ru : to label. meganc no juchi : spectacle framw. f uchi. Ei-yo no dekiru hito : a man who can speak . A married couple . etc. see 271. A L'ornp. . [sorou to be arranged in order]. that sore n>a teata-kftshi ni fuben detiu (C) is inconvenient for me. fudan no. Although generally used in a good sense it may be applied to a storm. Inconvenient. [michi buji : free from accident. : do in /M ni sureba ichiban ii dexho f (C) which do you think would be the best way to do it ? diiga fta fu ni : in a different way. . [enryo reserve] ffil . .England -go speech]. even such who takes good things as. rain.

i. fusliigi jushigi ni oniou : to think (that something : : na : . fuku*. . f-aiihiqi A marvel : wonder. A cels. abb. now furu-. 100 hyap-pvku . ? : ifotashi ica fune. (276. To wipe. furoshiki. tremble . A. . num. rop-puku. : to cover with a lid. hlto in : : a trap. Comp. fun.]. fukuro no naka no nezumi : caught like a swing. hi nil. sips of tea. see futoteii. [muku to v. [c gn- w. fune dr iku : to go by boat. cover. [ ? futahn two]. amtnari chirakatte iru no de ashi no fumidokoro ga nai (B) the place order I cannot find a spot to step on.fujin fujin. Tanaka fujin fukai. : furueru. 10 jip-pun. To swell . [ ? jukure-ru. [doKil. eye-lid. Con':p. enryo-bukai : careful. w. [natu siunmerj. I will go. [me eye]. fukureru. furul. furu v. [ddgu instrument]. : shine. 4) . fuku-. a tray. : xhira-nai furi (wo] sum byoki no furi (ico) auru : : to feign ignorance. to have control of money.]. [hiroi wide].ji jii-go-fun : ga areba o kiki nasai don't believe it. used after the abb.) to begin]. fune. gloves. 3 sarnirregularities occur pun . o-de wo futte aruku : to walk swinging one arms swagger [6. [fuyu winter]. ni noru : to get on board. u*a itou Amerika ni iku fune (C) furi. [hon book). sick. : when does the boat /turu : for demasu ka America sail hirobuta : ? mabuta : Manner. ga fukai (B) the fog is thick. is in such dis- : second-hand articles. : a quarter past one. mydasa shimo ga furu ka mo eh ire -nai (B) I think we will have frost tomorrow morning. originally a cloth spread in the bath-room to cloth used to wrap up parstep on]. is) strange. used for scrolls.big te arm]. whiffs of tobacco. futa ivo toru : to uncover. (in comp. (hidokit) ame ga furu to rain (heavily). tread on. 2nd set of wagging his tail. : kazega fuile iniasu (C) the wind is blowing. v. [futatsii two]. to pretend to be Deep. lady. Ship vessel boat. fuki-dasu : to burst out laughing. wo ftiru to shake one's head. . if you : . 1 ip-pun . . num. [furo bath : uhlku to spread . what beastly weather ! Comp.: expressive. ni tsuyoi (B) I am a good <" Comp. 1. iku-fun ? nam-pun ? how many minutes? fun is preceded by the 1st set of Note num. naze fukurete iru no da ? (A) what are you . fune va o kirai dvfa ka ? (C) don 't you like irh >'. ask him. futtari tettari it/a ing. (276.. fiishigi. imi no fukai adj.i. Comp. Note fumu. rain or futte mo. 4). bofhi u^o furu : to at/atna : shake mouse Comp. (276. futa. furo u-a nan-ji ni wakimasu ka '? (C) will the bath be ready ? A : when Comp. [te hand]. 2nd set of . Old. furu-hon : a second-hand book. The foil. kiri Mrs Tanaka. (hot) bath. nam-buku ? See ip-puku.t. [see -so]. be inflated be sulky. furo. to swell].: furi-danu : to start raining. To sulking about now fukuro. [iin futa human : being]. tette mo mairimaau (C) : Comp. . fukul. fukasa : depth. : to wrap in a furo- To fall : c-ime down. na tenki da (B) : now rainstopping. 6 rap-pun . futa (wo) sum. [jo3 letter]. : jd-bukuro te-bukuro : envelope.: furi-muku wards . marvellous strange. jushigi na koto ni yuki f/a fuita (B) that snow fell sakari ni the wonder of it was while the cherry-trees were : wa *akum no in bloom.t. face to- turn]. yuki ga furu : to snow. shiver. [ba place]. [enryo reserve]. : Note 10 : ip-puku . lid . \\VnsiUJ . Juroshlki ni tsutsumu shlki. To blow. furo n> hairu : to take a hot bath. fuki-keeu : to blow out. : A the sea sailor. (B) . fururru v.000 jip-puku . Comp. inu ga shippo wo futte iru (B) the dog is ' . fiikuro no kuchi wo shime'ru : to tie the strings of a bag . Two . (iri>) furl to pretend. etc. : sem-buku fukuS. natau-jukn : summer clothes. fune. 3 sam-buku . Clothes. v. no ashi wo funde iva ike-nai (A) don't tread on people's feet. fukuro means a bagful. wave one's hat. 1) see 298 et seqq. : To step . . 1 .: to turn .n. Minute.: juroba : bath-room. fuyu-fiiku : winter clothes. furu-ddffu To shake .i. futa-. A bag. [cogn. furui tomodachi : an old friend.

kesa shimbun Comp. . I would like to have ga hoshii (B) some water. still sometimes merely connective.i of news. child.J. son between the use of </a and ira. sjaikoku. : 1 need a red think you could find two like this if you searched all T okyo. second day of the month. [gai outside . : ga miemashUa (C) : the teacher has come. [jutatsu 27 two oru to be]. akai empitsti ga irimasu (C) pencil. zutsu ga sum (B) I have a headache. Ijy ga English the object or pred.futuri futari. fUtsu shimbvn u~a slnchi-ji ni kimuau (C) as a rule the newspaper comes at seven o'clock. [ko child]. : gaku 3) . especially those On the way added to meaning (lit. ste'ms of verbs. enae. yet. jutatu is abb. ordinary man (not an . kane ga aru (B) he has money. : : tore ga dekimaxA ka ? (C) : Nihon-ji ga yomemaxft (C) can you do that ? I can read : Japanese characters. . iuta-go twins. : . phr. takes the place of . to fiita . make a bed (Japanese). ffm man]. juyu ga kirai (B) I don't like winter. kntrl-gake ni on my "> bat home. . adj. miee c : high). ueedpred. : Comp. (228 231). i'utsu. In comp. :?) C!a gen. a foreigner. Der. Two per- Before the verbs aru. : wa tsumi ga aru (B) man is (C) I ni atmasli iki-gake ni tomodachi met a friend as I WHS gofag '" tB : office.: general jiitsu 2) and yet. juta-oya : both parents. large.(B) I wish he would come today but. ( . 4. fuyu-fuku clothes. da ga (at the beginning of a sentence) : : ^ usual occurence. ira sei a guilty man. juyu-muki no. usual make this is the third time 1 zaimashita (D) the trip to Shanghai and I have been lucky enough each time to have the sea : omcial). a quilt futon. 3) Sentences often ano hito ga kyo kuru to ii ga. To grow large or fat : ga-. [see -ka]. adj. futsuka. nomu ka kumri wo byoki de iru ka no jutatsu either you take the medipi hitotsfi (B) cine or you remain ill. ano kodomo is tall is . juyu-mon'j : winter clothes . 4) Ga is used before sfiki. adj.: gaikokn-jin -gake. Two days . Thick big . futoi koe : a deep voice. adversative : but . see 389392. ga fui ni lien I was wo miteukemasMta (C) when reading the newspaper this morning I suddenly came across a strange piece na koto : : [fiik-u fuyu-gi .: for winter uso. futeu no. . nt'ot ga sum (B) there is a smell. : wo mits ima&hUa. an audacious rascal. I would like to sono lion ga yomitai (B) tvad that book. 4) (ja ga : whether iko ga yoeo gu u-ataah* or either -or. jutoru : to grow large or fat. 1) Ga is gen. as for that man guilt exists). \Vinter. abroad. futon u'o shiku : to iutoru. . kore de san-do bhanhai e n\airimaiihUa ga shi-awase ni itu mo iimi ga shizuka de gonevertheless . [oya parent].: fat. Ga is no hlto : an ordinary. mono to suit]. inizu : : . futoi. his stature : coming and going.. conjunction. (lit. set no takai kodomo : a tall tsumi no aru hlto : eign countries . hito ano guilty . . smooth. as for that child. wakaru and sons. ga takai (B) that child that whilst . one of the two. kirai and : lioshii. and before the noun foil. : . futotta. 1 futoi kangae futoi yatsu : : wicked thoughts.(J am afraid he will not bo able to). Ei -go ga u-akarimasu (C) I understand : : j>otential verbs. -ka q. tabako ga suki dvzu (C) I like smoking am fond of smoking.v. [muku. see 276. futosa : thickness. Bed-clothes . irti xitru. jidsuka : two days. no iii adj. mattress : cushion. ppn. fuyu. For a compari1) Sign of the nominative. futatsu ni sum jutateu ni wakcru : to divide in two. -kohi country J. ko-nai ga do shiyd ka / (B) he hasn't come so what shall 1 do ? finish elliptic-ally by ga. let's both of us go.. Der. ikimashita ga dame dfthita (C) I went but it was no use. kvru to put on : thing]. suf. Two. [jutatsu two . in tliese two last examples *ei and AJote tmwi mav lx> corsidered to l>e subjects. gal. also before the dcsid. no katte da whether I go or not is no one's business but my OVITI. adj. often becomes in : : kono kurai no mo jutatsu to mono im Tolcyo-ju sagashUe va nai dcshd (C) I don't : English. : (to need). See om . futari dc ikimaslio (C) futatsu. [see -sa]. [futoi thick].

[ge inferior]. Ei-go : kinodokugam : to feel sorry for. [Nilit> pugnance]. or desiderative form of verbs.aman. see also Bei-koku. gomen.: gin-zaiku : anything made of silver. [oorr. gejo. gejo . g8jo. go. School.[gf inferior . etc. . -ge. go2. [see kono-~\. kono shigoto urv daro (B) sundara zuibun gakkari. the plural of nouns. gogo. vigourous : high- gakk5. garasu. [see it is very small nevertheless nai (B) there is nothing to be done but to put up with it. [OOTTI. ii . gaman no nai hlto : a man wanting in . : child is of a big build. -garu. etc. . speech. : to endure with patience . used for forming gata. tho English language.gakkari gakkari. Obstinacy. [kawaii charming].busata. Afternoon.: gof&ku-ya : a draper. [ichi one]. [ikitai wishing to go]. see 293. gojo wo liani : to br> obstinate. go hobi. geta wo haku getsu. Feb- dejected disappointexl I tjminari aruita no de gakkari shitu (B) am quite tired out as I have walked a . fore is A bank.England]. atmigari no : of a person sensitive to heat. genki no spiritod. [go honourable boiled rice.(B) : \vo is nakushUe gakkari shUe very sad as he has lost his . go-chiso. jo woman]. Gasshu-knku. [kinodofai sorrow]. samugari no : of a person sensitive to cold. geta. raigttsu : [//'/- next month.v. . genki na .]. : prised. Silver . [see sen--]. spirit. ichi-getsu : mo a tude. [ge inferior .v. Maid-ser\aiit. getsityo . han food]. Patience fortitude. Monthly wages. Vulgar inferior quality. getsU}. Per. of Eng. January . forti- : Clogs.v. A word : : language . [ge inferior]. to put on clogs. r gaman wo nasai (B) : be patient gaman uru longer. fcogn. ikitagaru : to wish to go. Vigour . genan. genan . Evenly matched six of one and half-a-dozen of .aH ka ? (C) is thern gas laid on (in the house) ? Suf. gofuku. gara. c. see busata. : : last month. 7 when this work genki. the [see rat-]. Gas. 2) only son. ge. gin. Maj go-gatsu. [iya re- Nihon-go Japan]. gasu. . month after next. A meal . gohan.: ruary . mai-getsu : ever> month . etc.: gehin . fhiisai keredomo gaman #uru yori hoka wa : kongttsu : this month. [-koku country]. 1) Added frequently to the stem of adj. (jasu gasu ga hiite arim. [corr. it forms part of the words gohan. Male ser\ ant.'o kcmi : to put out the gas. hin sort]. It may be placed be. gckkyu. . giri. . gehin n&. geisha. see chiad. *enget#& [see -saiku]. gohan wo taku : to cook rice. Month. s. goran and gozaru. common]. (178). Nigori'ed pron. Relieved from anxiety ga : agreeably sur- Comp. used for forming verbs. see hvfii. [kata person]. a great number of noune it usually found before hobi and kuro .]. United States : ! gobu-gobu (no). [iokn Added a few nouns. i. low class. Glass. ivatakushi wa sore de gaman shimasho (C) : I will make the best of it. q. q. gakko wo sagaru : to leave school. contain oneself. etc. [see yo-bi]. of kiri. Comp. gakkd ni agaru : to enter school. Comp. (compare kin gold). of America . w. do *hUc mo gaman ga deki-nai (B) I absolutely cannot stand it. zoku-go to the colloquial language. . ano ko wa gara ga okii (B) that . . 1 ) go jo (tho-gatau . w. Mtori-musuko ho irv. : the Japanese 'anguage. monthly every]. \Ki. Note these ver!>s in -garu have also passive and causative forms. -go. Five. ni-gatau . [go five bu parts]. ginko. of -ke q. Kind quality pattern. it will he a great relief is finished. [get*ti month]. : Comp. gatsti. A singing girl. Suf. \go five gatsu month]. iyagani : to have an aversion for. saraigetsfi sarai-]. it practically always is placed before busata and chitto . : Cloth drapery dry goods. getstiyo-bi : Monday. sukoshi little January. Inferiority . geln . of Eng. honorific pref. ' I the other. Nigori'ed pron. '2 ) gol. : Tired : long way. Month.]. kawaigam : to pet. gasu wo twlke-ru : to light the gas. Comp.

form of the verb aru can gen. instead. (96). adj. [kesii to extinguish].(bdl\ . adj. go mi. gomen kudo-sat : excuse pardon (usevi also tor : . [gyfi cow . gum. goran. : behaved. guzu-guzu shite. omae : you l>ehave . sono sodan nara go-men desu (C) if that is what you want to consult me about. India-rubber . guzu-guzu sum : to hesitate dawdle. Gozaru is used only in inflexions . . a ing). kono MiLiie iva taihen guai ga yo gozaimasfi (D) this desk is very convenient. 2nd (or 3rd) person.q. of Spanish or Portuguese goitta india-rubber. gomakasu. go kuro. con- calling attention) : I s*y. Comp.' : sayo de gozaimasu (D) that is so. . A row . The working of the difierent parts of an apparatus . keshi-gomu : india-rubber (for era. he kono-goro daibu guai ga yokn natta (B is now quite well off. when the action is in favour of the 1st [Kir- son). how ikaga df goza>ma#& (ka) ? (D) : : in you ? : .: well. The neg. 1) Slowly (in a bad sense). {go honourable men pardon]. : : guzu-ffuzu iu "itsu to complain : . [go honourable ran look].Morning forenoon. they take special am and the r/icifiu . . nyfi milkj. rie : I beg your gozen. (C) goran ni ire-ru : to show (to the 2nd person).v. {gyu cow Nigori'cd form of koro q. : ': made mo guzu-guzu iu nara junta ico if you continue bothering yobu zo ! (A) : me I'll call : nani wo gtizu-guzu ittern n' dcxu ka ? (B. goran kudasaru : to look (of the 2nd person. Dirt rubbish. (192). goran (A) : please look : Nigori'ed pron. : ! terminations. (100). tokei : something doors do not fit wata#hi ica konaida kara rrnai ga want< I have been feeling unwell for some (B) : the slidingwell into their grooves. ima-goro sonna koto wo iii no mo gvai ga it would be very inconvetcanti ne (B) nient to say such a thing now. goran de am to look (of the 2nd person). . of gozaru. to be. goid na obstinate stubborn. goran naeai (C) see here. gozaru itself is put in a neg. lea ? (C) have you finished with your newspaper See mi-ru 2). . guzu-guzu. atsui ka tsumttai ka te ivo atete goran it is (ncuai) (B) touch it and see whether hot or cold. gomen. gurai. : : jjote : : window and that). The corresponding plain verb is mi-nt q.v. kono . ''. [go honourable. : wa guai ga wanii (B) wrong with this clock. goro. see chifhil. he stubgojo ni mo ayawara-nakatfa (B) bornly refused to apologize. as da is equal to Jc nrn. ant to be]. days past. ica gyogi ga warui (A) very badly. goku. grumble. inflexion. nai is not used with gozaru . guai. * what are you grumbling about line (as of writing or prin gy5. gyogi 1st set of nun gyo is preceded by tin' Conduct behaviour mam no ii (warui). To deceive to take in. don excuse.#u tea guai ga warui (B) this chair is very uncomfortable. : : v:o goran nas'tte irasshaimasii ka ? (D) what are you looking at ? thiinbun im mo goran desu. .v. (397). amado no guai ga irarui (B) kono is : dition. A gozaru. niado u'o dkefe goran (na*ai) (B) open the nani 2) Complainingly. It is also used very politely after the gerund in -maahite. state of one's health . (196). 2) After gerund to try. Pargo jo : : : gyunyu see da. gum]. : : goran ni naru (less polite) goran nasaru . Goran behaves like a verbal stem preceded : : by an honorific (359) . in its place we na\ put 'h i/o-arii . A plain verb may be made honorific by putting o before the stem and df. . mint meal gyuniku. so nan-do wo gomakashi ga kiku to omou ka ' (A) do you think you can fool me time after time sonna koto de gmnatatareru >ono desu kn 1 am not to be hoodwinked in thai (B) way. are pred. always dropped. goran no tori ashi ni ktgn IPO shinia*/>&a as you see I have hurt my leg. a policeman. the r is almost When true adj. [corr. of kitrai. gomu. see kuro. which it pol. goku cJiiisai koflotno : very small children. nonde goran (nasai) (B) drink it and see (whether you like it or not). ) : : : sing). let's see (if it is nicer like gyogi. iru hima tra arhnasen (C) there is no time to hesitate. (3S9). Very. gyunyu. . replace and. gozartt after it. sugu dekiru koto wo itsu made mo guzu IJHZK he is dawdling over a thing shite iru (B) that can be done in no time. 1) Used pol. of the looking of the .gojo mo ii kagoi ni o shi nasal (B) don't be so obstinate and listen to reason. I beg to be excused.

hajime kara Tdkyd ni aunde ira^ahaimoau ka ? (D) have you always (since your arrival in Japan) lived in Tokyo ? ano hlto ya ichiban hajime da (B) his turn : : comes first. [hachi eight gust. : shlta (C) : all full : heitai ga ippai haitte inmthe (railway) carriages were soldiers. (D) I have seen it.ha hal Leaf . of hashiZ which is less common]. ning ha an onding. . . Tooth . To be fade. become bald ano hlto wa atama ga hagete kimaahlta (C) : he has become bald. ichiban hajime : at the ver> beginning . hajime ni : at firet. has. bright . haitte mo yd gozaimasfi ka ? (D) : may I come in ? tache. Clomp. etc. [migaku to polish].i. ? haZ edge . haha. kane metal]. [hada skin akai red]. go in. ni hairu - haji?. when the question is in the assent to . sore wo haji to wa omowa-nai ka ? (A): aren't : my hail . t. the very first. [cog"hagu v. me ni nani ka haitte iru kai ? (B) is there : : foreign tendencies. before k. showy. non-polite word for mother. w. [nigori'ed pron. v.: ippai q. (364) sonna baka na. it has a meaning of of it ? hashit the beginning . [e3 pic- hagane. hachi in comp. [oku interior]. fly. hage-ru v. mae-ba : the front teeth. [isha doctor].000 sem-bai : : . The beginning. Smart haiketl. [/al leaf kakul to write]. 30 hajime haikara (na). ha-. mother. haiken sum (D) to look see. 3 sam-bai . End . Eight. ha-isha : a dentist. obtain. question and must gen. when in answer to an aff. To begin. 100 hyap-pai . haba.koto wo shitara ivatafiht m> haji ni naru (B) if you do a silly thing like that it will be a disgrace to me. hajime no : the first one. (the wrin- make the figure eight ch.t. : minna haitte iru no detihd (C) I suppose this (charge) includes everything.]. Au- hadaka. hajll.: e-hagaki ture]. be translated by no. haiken sawru (D) to show (to me).'omp. it may mean I have heard.]. . w. [ hage*ru. of .]. get in . hachi no ji wo yoae'ru kles of the forehead : to frown. 6 rop-pai 10 jip'pai . : he hachi. . v. Postcard when not otherwise qualified. succeed in getting . pan ni kabi ga hacta (B) the bread has grown mouldy. . hairu. : A humble word used for expressing the looking of the 1st person at something belonging to the 2nd person the plain verb is mi'ru q. dono hako ni . [mac before].t. Steel. hashil the be[f. . ha wo migaku : to brush the teeth. Breadth width authority. before Note becomes hat . blade. rnu : every begin- (. [corr. hai*. . off . you ashamed ginning]. A. . Nakedness. Eng.v. hagu. edge (of knife. hlto no heya e damatte haitte wa ike-nai (A) you must not enter people's rooms : : : : without leave. hae. Note 1 ip-pai . high collar]. . border. [hal leaf de-ru to Gay . : : : A). hai*. ha-migaki : tooth-powder. before * or kore ni my eye ? : ah. up-to-date elegant in dress with Comp.i. T what is implied in the question and corresponds to yes. A A strip. hak :- anything in or ts. ha!3. for glassfuls. what is it ? In answer to a question. haji Into wo shira-nai : shameless. fja nam-bai ? : Itajime ga areba owari full. Inge no haeta otoko : a man with a mous. cogn. haiken (B) haiken sasete kudasai (D) : please show it to me. . mo hagaki. hajime. To grow spring up. In answer to a call. : no mae dc haji wo kakasare-ta (B) I was put to shame in the presence of others.t. kono kimono wa iro ga hageta (B) our of this dress has faded. cupfuls. hachi-gatsu. extremity . crammed te with picture postcard. I am coming. etc). : the col- To peel .n. ano hako ni dono gurai hairu ka ? (B) how much will that case contain ? sono naka ni nani ga haitte imasti ka ? (C) what is there inside ? mo hUot-su hairimasu (C) there is room for one more. To enter . it means a 1 sen postcard. : . w to secure to oneself . [stem of hajime-ru. come out]. Ashes. . 1. hajime-ru v. Shame. hade (na). hadaka no : naked. .v. o hairi kudaaai (D) please come in. f.ru.i. ano hlto wa naka-naka haba ga kiku (B) has great influence. . : hajitnaru. gatsu month]. negative see 399. oku-ba : the back teeth. [cogn. haiken shima-shlta (D) haiken itashimashita. stripped of . v. ha wo miite morau : to have a tooth drawn.

beginning]. kore ga kotoshi. [yu evening]. [see aid-]. hakkiri shlta.i. num. A pair of scales . hambun dc takusan (B) half is enough.v. hakkiri o ii nasai (A) : speak distinctly. uchi wo hanare-ru : to leave one's (117). weighs). v. bin ni mizu ga hambun arimaau tin. home. I'd never unhajimete wakarimasMta (C) derstood it until now. (C) : my nose is bleeding. : hurry up and about it. kore ga o hanashi no hon desu ka ? (C) this the book you referred to ? ano hlto no hanashi ni u-a : according him. : hambun q. To yubin-bako a letter-box.v. Der. [hon book].t. a definite unit : the corresponding noun hakari ni kakete mimasho (C) I it in the balance (and find out it will how much weigh han3. hana-mi hana-. beach. 2nd set of (276. to give oneself airs. . : to IKJ boastful. used ha ma. .t. hakui. Ei-go de wa jibun no kangae wo hakkiri haI find it difficult to exnasemasen (C) press myself in English.i. (refers to legs or what is said. Note : \ised after the abb. hanareru. : han han han-nichi Note is : half past one.i.hajime'ru hajime-ru. : : ano nashi wo hambun Jiambun tomo- dachi ni yarimashita (C) I ate half thnt pear and gave half to my friend.v. Jiakari : a pair of scales. : in to . Half.-ru v. To begin. no hajimete no yuki desu (C) this is the first snow of the year. wo kakete Mto-bito no bcnri wo hakat(B) they considered the convenience of the people and built a bridge. hakkiri shlta henji : a plain answer. han-jikan : half an hour. Food meal. hana no takai hUo : a man with a prominent nose a proud man. [chi hana-ji ga demaftti. Flower blossom. [ike-ru to keep flower-viewing. chest . hana wo takaku suru . hashi ta : : Comp. : Der. The sea -coast . haiimete o me ni kakarimasu (D) I am pleased to make your acquaintance. [f. Chalk (for black-board). : to humble another. hanaau v. Imported foreign-made. hame. [yubin post). hanoahi dake da (B) it is only in Ik. hako. hamaru v. as boots. get loose. ano hlto wa kuru ka do ka hakkiri wakarimasen (C) I don't know for certain whether he will come or not. Comp. Clearly. hashiZ the beginning. To confess own. wear . To calculate weigh measure. omoshiro hambun : half in fun. [cogn. q v. stamp . : a flower-vase. hashi* the For the first time. . v.t. railway carriage. hiru-han : midday meal. hant. hame-ru. ima hajimeru tokoro denu (C) I am just go: 31 hanashi by some Japanese of Tokyo abb. Half. : : Nose. hana saki ni : under one 's nose. insert. [gerund of hajime-ru . : to set . the fit corresponding adj. (C) : up in trade. v. w.]. tabete. of Yokohama.]. hana-ike alive]. Comp. cogn. [cogn. hako means a boxful. is Aon2 q. hana ga Baku : to blossom. Nihon de hajimete seiyo e itta no wa dare I wonder who was the first rlaro ? (B) Japanese to go abroad. : feet. \inv-ru to see].]. hana wo ike-ru : to arrange flowers in a vase. is used as an adj. asa-han : breakfast. clear. hakurai (no).i. hakujo suru. . haku2. trousers). hana wo oru Comp. han2. aki-bako hon-bako : an empty box. [hanaau to speak]. adj. [hanZ half bun part]. : it is. hakuboku. and refers lo balance. hayaku hajimete o kure (A) set : ham bun. estimate hakaru. w. To fit. A seal . yu-han : evening meal. 4). . nan-jaku aru ka hakatte goran nasai (C) please measure it and see how many feet . [asa morning]. half day. Note hambun is only used as a noun : . hajimete. : hakkiri. hakari. [cogn. hajime . hajimete .t. : shdbai wo hajime-ru hamaru. [hakaru to weigh]. hanal. bottle is half full of water. : a bookcase. w. [hiru midday]. proud. hajimaru v. shore. Fuji-san ni noboru no wa kondo ga hajimete desu (C) this is the first time that I am going up Mount Fuji. ano mise wa hakari ga ii (B) they give good weight at that shop. block for printing. district as ar ing to begin. case . . Box . liana ni kake-ru : to talk through the nos< . story . To : : into . w. .]. : blood I hana-ji : blood from the nose. A tale : .: distinct . To sweep. han wo osii : to stamp. ichi-jikan ichi-ji han : : : an hour and a half. To put on hanashi. . part from . f. hana ga aku : to be greatly astonished. . gohan : food boiled rice [go honourable].

means a stitch. : : To pay. perhaps more used. [kvrul to put on]. Comp. To swell. akeppanasti : to leave open. : ed man.i. hanarc-m . ima chotto te ga hanasaremasen (C) I can not leave it (the work) at present.v. am : To clear sweep away. : : : : mo nai keredomo : I need not say that.]. To talk together. hari hodo no koto wo bo hodo ni iu : to speak of a needle as if it were a pole to make a mountain of a mole-hill. Comp. hari. hara. : okippanasu leave it hane. [hanasu to talk . [kane metal]. hataki de tsukue no hokori wo haratte kure (A) get a duster and dust the desk. : : harete Yru to be swollen. : . [cm to meet]. (refers to a narrow-minded person). please let me know. (it is too : silly. : my 2) kake. . hara no nai hlto da (B) he is a poor-spirit. and comp. : : ': (276. a plain verb the corresponding humble verb for the 1st person is moshi-age-ru or mosti. naisho -banashi : something told in secret. hantai. told you this several times. and i. Feather to put a thing somewhere there. v. 1) To stretch : . . and hari-shigoto Note harui. [ake-ru to open]. [kiru'<t to cut]. Handkerchief. hara de ivarau -'to laugh in one's sleeve. hatiasfil. hankechi. beginning of the year.v. : Comp. accost [see hanasu made . . spread over stick on. hantai suru : to oppose. [oku to put]. bill is already paid.hanashi ano kaia wa Beikokii-jin da to lu hanattlii -In (B) they say he is an American.: a story. hari . hanashi -kakc-ni : to address . after the abb. Meanings vague and cult to classify. dashippanasti : to leave out. of Eng. wing. [corr. hari no ana kara ten nozoku : to look at the heavens through the eye of a needle. sd (itte) hanashlte o kure (A) : tell him so. diffi- haru-.: haru-gi : spring clothes.: hara-kiri. hara ga haru : to have a swollen belly to be sated with food. v. ano Mto no hanasu no ni : according to him. Comp.v. [dasu to take out]. : jama wo is haratte anshin shlta (B) mind at ease now that I have removed the obstacles. hareru. hari-ganc : wire. taku e todokete moratte kara haraimasu (C) : I will pay at home on delivery. . too terrible). kore wa haratta tsumori da (B) I think I have paid for this. I have kore wa tabi-tabi hanashlte oita (A) : : to get angry. q. Comp. who kudasai (C) : those hanashi ga tsiiku : to come to terms. yofuku no hokori wo haratte kure (A) : brush my clothes. let : saki-barai. mi no lie banashi wo sum : to talk of oneself. hanashi-au : to talk together. hara ga tat#u . Der. i' kagcn na hanashi : made-up story. : suicide by cutting open the abdomen.t. [shigoto work]. lianashi q.rwi ]. hara ni nani ka aru ni chigai nai (B) I am sure he has got something up his sleeve. Comp. separate : To go set free. harai-zinni : setting an account. Opposition contradiction. . object. hanasuZ. : the exaltative verb for the 2nd person is ossharu. v. is : Hanasu is . siikoshi hanashitai koto ga there is (B) something I want to tell you. ai< to meet]. :- used Spring needlework. kono kanjo wa mo haraimashita (C) this. . hontd no koto wo o hanashi nasai (B) speak the truth. harau. hara no kuroi yatsu : a scoundrel. Note . ryoko no hanashi wo sum : to talk about : haru hantni no Into wa 'Me travelling. To tell speak talk say. Needle thorn the sting of an insect. . ano Mto no hara wa yoku wakatte iru (B) : I know his intention very well. mo sukoshi aida wo hanashltara ii desho (C) you had better leave a little more space between. 1) .t. 4). hara ga hetta (B) I am hungry. lu q. [fntinuZ to end]. hara wo tale-rii . . [naisho secret]. I don't kore wa hanasu no wa iya da (B) like to part with this. practically is synonymous with hanasu and [cogn. w. 2nd set of num. long no hantai wa nan dtsu ka ? (C) what is the contrary of long ? hantai deml ka ? (C) do you object to it hantai tic nakereba : if you don't object. hara ga au : to be of the same mind. sore to naku ano hlto no hara wo kiite miyo (B) I will sound him in a casual way.]. muda-bana-shi : idle talk. [muda useless]. Belly abdomen. hanashi-au. domo o hanashi ni narimasen (C) it is a thing I really cannot talk about.

haru
kono kokokii ico kabc ni hattr ktin (A) this advertisement on the wall.
:

hazu
stick

hatachi.

[cogn.

w. hatsuka
of age.

twenty

di<;

wo konotegami (A)': put a stamp on
ni kitte
it.

Twenty years
ha lake. hataku.

hatte dashite o kitre this letter and post
:

A

field.

To

dust.
:

kfsa

wa atsui kori ga hatte imashita (C) this morning there was a thick coating of
ice.

kire

wo
011

liaru 7

to stretch a piece of cloth

a board). : to exert oneself intellectually. 2) To he swollen or distended. hara ga haru : to have a swollen belly to bo sated \vith food, this /.ore wa chitto ni ga harimasu (C) package is a little too heavy.
(gen.

sumi-zumi wo yoku halaite kure (A) dust the comers carefully. kane ire iro hataite mo kore dake shika arimasen (C) even if you turned my purs-inside out you wouldn't find any more
:

money.
Der.
liataki
:

ki

wo haru

a duster.

;

:

hataki wo kakc-ru : to dust. hataraku. To work. Comp.: hataraki-tnono : an industrious person,

ippaiit

mizu wo hatte kuda-sai (B) with water.
display
:

[mono person].
;
:

:

please

fill

3)

To
sale.

exhibit.

nne wo haru : to keep up appearances. >n >se wo haru : to expose one "s goods for
inai-ban Ogawa-machi
:

hatoba, [ha waves to door ; ba place]. Pier wharf. hatsuka, [cogn. w. hatachi twenty years of age see ita]. Twenty days the twentieth day of the month,
; ;

hatsuoti.
-no

Accent
;

;

pronunciation.

kado e mitt? wo harimasA (C) I keep a stall every evening at the corner of Ogawa-machi.
:

hati.

4) Various.

atama wo haru

to squeeze (money). ,'//' >ro lam : to be obstinate. "' mono wa nedan ga haru (B) better articles are more expensive. ki ga hatte shigoto wo shite ita kara jikan no tatsfi no wo shira-nakatta (B) : as I was intent on work 1 did not notice how
:

creep, Quick ; fast : early ; soon. hayai. o hayo (gozaimasu) (C) : good morning. hayaku (A) make haste ; hurry up. dekiru dake hayakti : as soon (early) as pos.'

To crawl

:

sible.

'

quicklv the time had passed. Der.
t pull, [hiku to pull]. to tie, [shime-ru to tie], hasamaru, v.i. fcogn. w. hasamu v.t.]. To be pressed, squeezed or pinched l>etween i wo things. oku-ba ni mono ga hasamatta yd na mono no he is a man ii kata wo suru hUo da (B) who hasn't got a frank and open way of
'

my

//'/'/'''"

asa hayaku oki-ru : to get up early in tl"morning. hayaku ieba : in a word. hayaku oboeru mono voa hayaku wasurvru : what is soon learnt is soon forgotten. k> no hayai hUo : a quick-tempered men. ashi no hayai hito : a fast walker. mimi no hayai htto : a man who has a sharp
ear.

skibarv

:

:

hasamu,

speaking his mind. To' v.t. [ c gn- w. hasamaru v.i.]. two place, squeeze or pinch between things ; to cut with scissors. lion no aida ni hasamu : to place (something) between the pages of a book.

Der.: hayasa : speed, [see -sa]. Fashion. hayari, [hayaru to be fashionable]. hayari wa chotto no aida no mono desu (C) fashions last but a short while. ima wa sore ga d-hayari desu (C) : that ivery fashionable at present. dehayaru, [hayai quick]. To be in great mand ; popular ; fashionable. kono iro wa ima taihen hayarimatt (C) this colour is very fashionable. asoko de wa warui byoki ga daibn hayaru sd da (B) : they say there is a dreadful epi:

:

Her.: hasami : scissors. hashil. Bridge; chopsticks (a bridge from the dish to the mouth). hashi wo trataru : to cros? a bridge.

demic there. ano miee MW ta>hen hayaru (B)
largely patronized. Der.: hayari : fashion.
is

:

that shop

hashtt. (usu. pron. haii).

End
:

:

extremity

;

border
hashigo,
[

:

beginning. / ha*hil bridge
:

ko child, small].

Ladder.
hashigo

Comp.:
step].

to climb a ladder. hanhigo-dan : a staircase, \<l>tn

wo noboru

<i

hayashi. Forest wood, \ reasonable fitness hazu. Obligation pectation conviction. komban roku-ji ni deru hazu desu ((.') !> to leave at six this evening. Into wa makotowoiu hazu da (B) one ou-jl" to speak the truth.
; : :

:

:

:

hata.

A

<iiiic

flag.
:

Comp.: hata-bi

a feast day, [hi day].

it

did rain you ought to have conn

ga

Jutta 'He k><ru

h<i

cv-ii
.

if

hazu
nan-ji ni kisha wa tsuku hazu desu ka ? (C) at what time is the train due ? iware nai de mo sum hazu da (A) you should do these things without having to
:
:

34

hi

heikin shite ichi-nichi ja-go-nin no o kyaku sama ga gozaimasu (D) we have on an average fifteen customers a day.
:

heilai.

Soldier,
fca
?

be

told.
:

heni.
it

mo

tsuite iru hazu da (B) arrived by this time.

ought to have

Region. kono hen ni yvbin-kyoku wa gozaimasu (D) is there a post office hereabouts
:

'?

mo sugu kuru hazu da
here directly. so suru hazu no

(B)

:

he ought to be
:

hen2.

Num.

for times.
:

ip-pen yatte tnimasho (C)

I'll

just

try

:

mono

desu (C)
:

we ought

to

(compare
goran (A)

hrtoteu'2).

do

so.

sora de oboeru
:

ni naru hazu da (B) it was only to be expected that he would get ill. sonna koto wo shite morau hazu de wa nakatI ought not to have been treated ta (B)
btjdki
:

read

made nam-bcn de mo yondr it again and again until
;

you know
Note
:

it

by heart.
6 ro-p-pen
:

like that.

oita mono ga hltori de nakunaru nai (B) I don't see how a thing that I put here only a moment ago could disappear of itself. deki-nai hazu wa nai (B) there is no reason why it cannot be done. aru hazu da (B) there ought to be some. aro hazu wa nai (B) there ought not to be any. yube Yamada ga tsuita tiazu de gozaimasu I understand Yamada arrived last (D)

ima koko ni
hazu

wa

:

:

:

10 ; 1,000 semben ; nam-ben ? to hens (na), (often corr. henteko). Strange peculiar odd queer ; singular. na hlto da he a hen is (B) strange fellow. lien da keredomo. (B) strange to say. nani ga hen da ? (A ) what is there wrong ano hlto wa ki ga hen ni natta (B) his mind has become unhinged.
:

ip-pen ; 3 sam-ben jip-pen ; 100 hyap-pen
1

;

;

:

.

.

:

.

.

:

'.'

:

:

henji.

Answer.
:

henji (wo) suru tegami de henji

to answer.
:

:

night. o to-san no

mae de sonna koto wo ieru hazu ga nai (A) you wouldn't dare say such a
:

shite kudasai (C) pleaae give me a written answer. hakkiri shlta henji wo shite o kure (A) 1 want a plain answer. shirabete kara henji shimasu (C) I will an:

wo

:

thing

if

sore wa of course. aiiata ga ichiban

father were present. sono hazu desu (C) that is a matter
:

my

desu (C)

:

yoku shitte o-ide no hazu you ought to know better than
:

anybody. kore iva Tard no empi'su no hazu da (B)
this

Taro's pencil. kyo wa doko de mo yasuwi no (or no) hazu da (B) you will find all the shops closed today, Ashamed ; hazukashti, adj. [haj& shame J. shameful. o hazukashii hanashi desu ga. .(C) : I am ashamed to say that. he ; he ; hei Various meanings interj. assent ; yes ; I have heard surprise. A fence wall. hei.
1)6
:
.

must

swer after inquiry. go henji wa watakushi no kiite yatta koto no henji ni natte imasen (C) your reply in not an answer to my question, lierasu, v.t. [cogn. w. he.ru v.i.]. To diminish reduce decrease. hem, v.i. [cogn. w. herasu v.t.]. To diminish reduce decrease. karada no mekata ga daibit hetta (B) I h\ tlost a great deal in weight. bara ga li&tta (B) I am hungry. a bad hand at heta (na). Incompetent inexpert clumsy.
: ;

;

:

;

:

:

;

:

;

anata

.

.

;

:

;

ano sensei wa oshie-kata ga is a poor teacher.
heta ni narimashita (C)
tice.
:

wa heta no, koto wo shimashlta you have made a mess of it.
hcJ,a-

(B^
:

:

da (B)

lie

:

I

am

out of prac-

heiki (na). Undisturbed ; unconcerned ; indifferent ; calm. heiki na kao wo shite i-ru : not to betray one 's feelings by the expression of the face ; not to show in one 'R face that one has any knowledge of a certain tiling ; an expression of face as if notliing extraor-

hey a.

iioom.
:

aita heya

a vacant, room.

hiU
1)

Sun.
hi

hi ga deru : the sun rises. hi ga hairu ; hi ga iru ; hi ga kaknre.ru

dinary had happened.
Icono gurai no kaze wa heiki da (B) : a wind like this is a comrr;on occurence, (leaves

me
heiki hcikin.

ga ochiru : the sun sets. hi ga teru : the sun shines. hi ga ataru : the sun shines on

-

undisturbed).

no Heizaemon : as cool as a cucumber, Average. heikin no nedan : the average price.

no hikari : sunlight. 2) Day. kono tegami ni wa hi ga letter has no date.
hi

kaitc nai (B)

:

ihss

hi
amio hi no kurashi ni
is

35

hiku
hikaru. To shine. Der.: hikari : see prec. A.n. used for animals. hiki. 1 ip-piki ; 3 sam-biki Note 10 jip-piki ; 100 hyap-piki
:

mo koinattt im (B) he hard up and lives from hand to mouth. hi no tataii no tva hayai }>-.rio da (B) time
:
:

flies.

; ;

wo okuru : to pass one 's days. Oomp. and der.
A
/

6 rop-piki 1,000 *cm:

biki

;

nam-biki

?
;

sunshine, [ataru to strike]. hi-no-de sunrise, [dc'ru to come forth]. hi-tjasa : a para-sol, [kasa umbrella].
!ti

-atari

:

hiki-uke-ru,

:

}>ata-bi

: :

a feast day, [haia flag].

hi-zuke

\tsiike-ru to
h|2,

date (of letter, document, write down].

etc.),

ki-nichi ; hinata ; ; hima Fire ; flame. [ ? hi sun]. hi wo taki-tsuke-ru hi wo taku ;
fire.

him

;

yo-bi to

;

q.v.

to pull uke-ru to receivej. To undertake be responsible for. anaia wa sore wo Mki-uketa ja nai lea ? (B> didn 't you undertake to do it ? ano hltq wo Mki-ttkeru koto wa dekimasen (C) : I cannot be responsible for him. hikizuru, [hiku to pull ; zum as in kontru to

[Mku

;

:

:

make a

hi ivo tsttke-ru
tsfikii
:

:

to set on

fire.

to catch fire. hi gn abura-ganii ni hi ga tsuku yd ni : as quick to catch lire as oiled paper, (irascible).
/(

okosu : to make a f ire blaze up. hi ivo kesv : to }>ut out a fire. hi ga kieta (B) the fire ims lion.e out. .hi shizuka ni natta (B) c;a kietu yo ni everything became as still as death. hi ni atarn : to warm oneself at the fire.
<

ico

To drag along. rub]. hikkakaru, v.i. [hiku to pull kakaru to hang: cogn. w. hikkake-ru v.t.]. To get hooked get caught. inaka-mono ga Tdkyo e dete kuru to tabi-tabi kuruma-ya ni hikkakatte kane wo tcrareru when country people come to Tokyo (B) they are often cheated by the rikisha;
; :

men.
hikkakc'ru,
:

:

v.t.

[hiku

to pull

;

kake-ru to
v.i.].
;

hang

:

cogn.
;

suspend

hikkakaru hook on anything
w.

To

defer pay-

ment

intentionally.
:

hi

wo ki'dasai (lor a eie:ar).

(0)

:

please give

me
:

a light,

a fire has hi wo dashita (B) broken out at num. 2. hi no nai tokoro ni kemvri agara-zu : thenni-ban

kam

hobo de hito wo hikkakete kane wo totte nigemashtta (C) he cheated people all round and ran away. ano otoko wa hobo no kanjo wo hikkakete yothat man ran away one nige shita (B)
:

no smoke without a fire. Comp.: hi-keshi : a fireman,
is

[kcsii

to

put
;

night leaving all his bills unpaid, hikkjomu, v.i. [hiku to pull komu q.v.].
:

To

out], hi atari, [hi

move draw back
;

;

retire.
:

sun ; ataru to strike]. Sunlight exposure to the sun. hi -atari no ii heya : a nice sunny room,
Left
;

hidari.

Comp.: hidari-giki be efficacious
1.

left-hand side. : left-handed,
;

\kikn

to

iimen ga hikkonda (B) the ground has sunk hikkoano Mto wa shdbai wo yamete inaka mimashita (C) he has retired from business and gone to live in the country. xonna ni hikkonde bakkari iru to bydki nt narimasu (C) you '11 be ill if you stay
e. : :

iiidoi.

amc

Cruel severe violent. ga hidoku futte imasu (C)
:

:

it is

raining

hard. hidoi atsusa ja nai ka

?

(B)

:

isn't it awfully

hot?
hidoi yatsu : a rascal. hidoi 'me ni au : to be treated with cruelty. hidoi me ni awasK-ru : to treat with cruelty,

indoors like that. omae no kuchi wo dasu tokoro ja nai, hikthis is no business of konde o-ide (A) yours, shut up. hikkosu. v.i. [hlk-u to pull kosti, to cross ovor].
: ;

East, higashi. Beard ; moustache. hige, [ke hair]. the beard. hige wo soru (or sum} : to shave One (in the 3rd set of hii, [Mtoisu one]. num.; see 271 ; 275).
hijo (na). hiid na

hikkoshi san-do ni kaji ichi-do : three removals are as bad as a fire, w. hlkkuri-kaeru, v.i. [kaeru to return : cogn. hikkuri-kaeau v.t J. To overturn; tumble

To change one 's

residence.

down.
basha ga hikkvri-kaeriwashita (C) the carriage has upset. hikkuri-kaesu, v.t. [kaeu to give back cogn. w. hikkuri-kaertt v.i.]. To overturn up: :
:

Extraordinary

;

(B) Light ; rays. hikari, [hikaru to shine]. hikari to ga deru (B) : it shines migaku
:

ame da

it is

extreme. raining very hard,

set.

hiku.
1)

polished. hito no hikari wo
:

when

ni kabutte ibatte irn he gives himoslf nirs under the (B) he struts shelter of another's influence
.

kaa

;

about

in

borrowed plumes.

To pull ; drag ; draw lead. hito-me *co hiku : to attract attention. draw a line. miji wo hiku : to uma wo hiku : to lead a horse, the hand. fc wo hiku : to lead by
;

hiku
2)

36

hito
hin no nai : undignified. hin no warui : low-class inferior. nan da ka hin no nai hito da (B) somehm\ or other he doesn't look a gentleman. hin ga ochita (B) the quality has deterio;

To withdraw reduce : diminish. go kara, san wo hikeba, ni ga rokoru three from five leaves two.
;

(B)

:

:

I will come down go-sen hlkimasho (C) another five sen. kesa wa kawa no mizu ga yohodo hlkimashlta (C) ; this morning the water in the river is very low. ato e hlka-nai : not to withdraw ; to hold to an opinion.
:

mo

:

rated.

hin ga tsulni pearance.

:

to

improve

in quality or ap-

Comp.
gehin
:

low -class,

[ge inferior].

3) Various.

wo hiku to catch a cold. wo hiku to find a word (in a dictionary). kashi wo hiku : to hand round cakes. mise wo hiku : to shut up shop. densha ni hlkare-ru to be run over by a
kaze
:

ji

:

johin : high-class, [702 superior]. hinata, [hil sun]. Sunny place. hinata de hosu : to dry in the sun. hi-nichi, [hil day ; nichi day]. Day date. how hi-nichi wa dono gurai kakaru ? (B)
; :

:

many days

will it

take

'!

tram-car. denki ga hiite arimasu ka ? (C) electricity laid on (in the house)

:

is
':

there

kono tegami wa hi-nichi ga nai (B): this ter has no date. haru to stretch). hipparu, [hiku to pull
;

let-

'!'<

C'omp.
: a drawer, [dasu to take out]. hikkuri-kaeru : hikkuri-kaefu; hlkiuke-ru ; hlkizuru ; hikkakam ; hi-kkake-rn ; hikkonm ; hikkosu ; hipparu : q.v. In some of these comp. hiku is pleonastic or at most serves to intensify the meaning of the Toll. word,

Mkidashi
jibiki
;

stretch. junsa ni hippatte, ikarematthlta (C)

pull

;

make taut

;

:

lie

WHS

A tray. hirobuta, [hiroi large juta lidj. hirogaru, v.i. [hiroi broad -garu q.v.: f-oyn. w. hiroge-ru v.t.]. To spread.
; ;

taken into custody by a policeman.

hikui.

Low

:

short.

hlkui koe : a low voice. se.i no hlkui hito : a man short of stature. atama no klhui hito : a servile, obsequious

sono hyoban ga sugu hirogarimaahUa (C) the rumour spread rapidly. hirogi'TU, v.t. [hiroi broad cogn. w. hii-<iam To spread out enlarge v.i.]. michi wo hiroge-ru : to widen a road.
:

:

;

hiroi.

person,
liima, [hi
1

interval]. Time ; spare time ; leisure ; opportunity. ) /lima ga dekitara : when I have time. itna wa hitna desu (C) I free now. o hira no toki ni : at your leisure.
;
:

day

ma

Wide broad large. ano hito wa kokoro ga hiroi (B) is magnanimous.
; ;

:

that

man
hirn-

Comp. and

der.

:

h irobuta

;

h-irogtn "

.

am

ge-ru ; q.v. hirou. To pick up. hiru, [hil day ; aru to bo].

Noon

;

day -time

:

hima ga nai (B) I haven't time. hima ga kakaru, (or tore-ru) : to take time. kima wo tsufmsu : to waste time. kono-yoro wa shobai ga hima de komarimasu
:

lunch.

at present, trade is so dull, I don't know what to do. I'ima na Mto ; hima na karada : a person of
(C)
:

hiru kara : afternoon. hiru mo yoru mo : day and night. mo jiki hiru ni narimasho (C) it will sunn be noon. mo o hiru ni ahimasho (C) us h.uc let lunch now.
:

:

leisure.
2)

Comp.
hirurna
: day-time, [mal interval hiru-han ; hiru-meahi : midday meal. meal meshi meal]. hiru-mae : forenoon, [mae befonhiru-eugi : afternoon, [sugi past hiru-ne : midday nap.f'"/v/ to sleep
j.

Cessation from occupation. hima wo dasu, (or yarn) : to discharge from
service.
//

\ii<m-\

;

ima wo morau,

(or toru)

:

to

have one 's
;

1.

resignation from office accepted allowed to leave one 's occupation.

to be

|.

i.

doka o hima wo itadakitai desu (C) I wish to leave your service. futsuka o hima wo itadakitd gozaimasu (D) I beg to ask you for two days leave, Cord string. hi mo.
:

hito.
1)

Man

;

person.
:

:

hito ni hito ni

naru
#uru

to

ivar-li

manhood.
somebody.

'

;

to make a man of xhira-nai hito: a stranger, (not
:

known
i(')
:

i<>

lii

mo wo

shime-ru (or musubu)
hod-okii
:

:

to

tie

a

me).

^
n-n Kijol-t

string.

Yamada^an
Yarnada
is

no hito

<l<x>~<

.Mr

himo wo
h IIHO de

hin.
fi-n

to'untie a string. shibaru : to tie with a string. Quality ; kind. no ii : high-class refined superior.
;
:

a natiy** of Kyoto.
:

I. 2) People ; somebody hito wo nan to in </<r rfi

.'

(H)

:

what

%vill

peojtle say

'.'

hi to

37

ho
hitori-niusuko
:
:
I.

hito

wa do itte mo kamawa-nai (B) I don't care what people say. to iu hito mo aru : some people say hito no kuchi ni to ?ra taterare-nai : you can:

htiori-musume me daughter

an only son, [musuko son]. an only daughter, [musuone
;

not close people's mouths. hito ni hito-kiise : everyone has his peculiarities.

hito-tori, [hitotsti eral way.
hito-tori

tori

way].
:

In a gen-

wa

shitte itnasu (C)
it.

I
:

have a genplease give

eral

knowledge of

no shiri ni teiiku : to follow somebody about play second fiddle to somebody, this belongs /.ore u-a hito no moiw desu (C)
hito
:

hito-tori o

to

somebody.
:

hito to

hanashi wo shite imashita (C) he was speaking with somebody. yoku mo hito wo baka ni ihtta ne (A) what do you mean by making a fool of me like
:

a general idea of it. hito-tori no ningen : an ordinary person. Ei-go mo hito-tori wa naratte ini (B) I have gone through the usual course in English.
:

me

hanashi kudasai (D)

sono kurushisa wa hito-tori ja nakatta (B) the agony was something extraordinary.
hitotsu.
1 )

:

that
>~i

?

One same.
;

itai !

oh, against people (me) like that 3 Personal disposition. a no hito wa hito ga wand (B)
!
)

nan datte hito ivo butsu n da ? (A) you hurt me why do you bump up
:

'

fiitatsu

no uchi hitotsu

:

?

tatta hitotsu ; hitotsu dake : httotsu-hitotsu : one by one.

one of two things. only one.

:

he

is

a bad-

hitotsu oki : every other one. hitotsu mo arimasen (C) : there is not

a

natured man. inaka ni wa hito no ii hito ga takusan arima-su (C) in the country there are a great many good-natured people, One ; abb. 2nd set of hito--, [hitotsu one].
:

num.

(276, 4)
;

:

see hitotsu.

single one. hitotsu mo deki-nai (B) : I can do nothing. we came hitotsu kisha ni norimashfta (C) by the same train. mo hitotsu : another one. mo hitotsu no : the other one.
:

hito-me. 1 ) Attention notice f hito people ; me eye]. hito-me wo hlku : to attract attention. hito-me wo nusumu : to do something on the sly, unobserved. 2 A glance, [hitotu one me eye]. he took in the liito-me de sore to shitta (B) situation at a glance,
;
) :

2)

o cha

The meaning is sometimes vague. wo hitotsu o agari nasai (C)
:

:

pleas*-

take a cup of tea.
I will just writo hitotsu kaite mimasho (C) and see. In comp. hitotsu is abb. to hito- ; see 276, 4 for the list of nouns that take this abb. num.
hito-me ; hito-tori ; q.v. hito-anshin ; hito-honeori ; hUo-kuchi ; hitokurd : see anshin ; hone-ori ; kuchi ; kuro.
hiyasu. v.t. Der.: o-hiya
fic).

hitori, [hitotsu
1 )

one aru to be]. One person each. tatta hitori kima-shita (C) only one person came.
; ;
:

To
:

cool.
(fern.),

cold water,

[o honori-

t'itori

(or hitori -hitori) ni futatsu zut*u o yari
.

nasal (B) give two to each. no otoko : a man. 2) Hitori de : alone by oneself. hitori de wa dekimasen (C) : I can't do
hitori
;

ho.
1
)

Direction

;

side.

it

by
by

myself. o hitori de o sabishiu gozaimashd (D)

:

I supall

pose

you must

feel

lonesome being

2)

dotchi no ho ni ? on which side ? kotchi no ho ni : on this side. of the bank; ginko no hj> ni : in the direction in the neighbourhood of the bank. When two or more things or actions are

yourself.

mo

koko ni oita mono ga hitori de nakunaru hazu wa nai (B) I don't see how a thing that I put here a moment ago could dis:

considered simultaneously and one is chosen or compared to the others, hd ha* a meaning of 'one', 'way', 'manner'. take the shiroi hd wo motte irasshai (C)
:

appear by
all

itself.
:

hitori dc ni naorimashita (C)
cine).
l.-ono

1 got better by myself (without taking any medi-

omoclia
is

wa omac
himself.

hitori

no

ja nai (A)
:

:

not for you only. toy kodomo ga hlturi de asonde int. (B)
this
is

white one. kasa wo motte iku hd ga ii (B) you had better take an umbrella. sono hd ga ii (B) that would be better. sono hd ga suki desu (C) I like that better. take whichever ii hd wo o tori nasai (C)
: : :
:

the child

amusing
:

I'omp.

konohd ga yaaui (B) this one is cheaper. aakuncn kara shdbai no hd ga sukkari dame,
:

you

please.

hUori-mono

a,

single

(unmarried) person,
i

ni narimashita (C)
is

:

since last year business

[mono person].

very bad.

ho
Comp.
katappo : one of a pair, [A-ato one]. ryoho : both, [ryd~ both].
hobi.
7)

hoka
Enough.

raiharu
is

made taukau ho<io sckitan ga gozai maeu ka ? (D) have you enough coal to
:

Reward

;

prize

;

(the honorific go
:

gen. pref.). go hobi wo moraimaxMta (C) I won a prize. hobo, [ho side repeated so as to signify On all sides everywhere. universality].
; :

next spring ? amaru hodo : more than enough. iku. hodo i/okit arimascn (C) I don't
last
till
:

ft

-el

hobo no mise
deshtta (C)
:

wo tazunemashlta ga arimasen
I asked at several shops but I
it.

well enough to go. in hodo no bijin dc mo nai (B) she pretty enough to lie talked about.
:

is

nut

8)

The

the.

could not get

ho do.
1)

Approximate quantity about. san-ka-getsu hodo : about three months.
:

go-kin hodo kaimasho (C)
five pounds.

:

I shall

buy about
:

o' hodo ii : the more the better. okiku naru hodo waruku naru (B) tho older he grows the worse he becomes. omoeba omou hodo kanashii 'B) (.lie more think of it the more sorr\ foci.
: :
I

I

9)

hari hodo no koto

to speak of a thing about the size of a needle as if it were about as big as a stJck ; to make a mountain of a mole -hi 11.
;

wo bo hodo ni

iu

Moderation limit. bakani suru ni mo hodo
;

(ja

am

(A)

:

are limits to be observed even

wh

i

thenn you

make
in!

2) Quantity (lore hodo ?

price

;

much.
?

how much

(quantity).
?

fool of people (but you overstep those limits). no hodo wo .thira-nai yateu da (B) lie i^ a fellow who doesn't know his own po<i:

a

ika hodo ? nani hodo ?
:

how much

(price or

tion.

quantity). sore hodo ira-nai (B) I don 't need us much as that. kore hodo iUe kikaseru no ni mada wakaranai ka ? (A) can't you understand yet after having heard it explained so much sore hodo made ni shi-nakute mo ii (B) you needn 't go to that extent. 3 Comparisons of equality as as. anata wa watashi hodo eei ga takai (B) you are as tall as 1. Yumoto wa Ashinoyu hodo kirei na tokoro desu ka ? (C) is Yumoto as pretty a place as Ashinoyu ?
:
'!

10)

Time.
:

hodo naku kaette kuru daro ^B^ think, return before long.
saki-hodo mairima-shi'a short time ago. 11) Various.
(C)
:

Ji.-

will.

I

\\<-

arrived

.1

:

hodo no
dress.
ii

-ii

Into ttctu (C)

:

he

tia.-

a good ad:

)

:

hodo ni ai#at#u shite oita (B)

I

gave a
:

:

vague answer. homerareru hodo no
is

:

hlto de wa nai (B) not a man who deserves praise. kane-mochi to iu hodo de wa aritnann>

ho
(U
-

shlta

4) Neg. comparisons. nore hodc waruku nai (B): not so bad as that. Yokohama e wa sen hodo tabi-tabi ikimasen (C) : I do not go to Yokohama as often as

(G) would call
:

iya to

he wasn't exactly what you a rich man. iu hodo b-utsii : to give (somebody) a

good beating.
sakura no hana
I've (C) : I 'm sick of

wa

iya

to iu

hodo mitnash.Un
until

used to. anata no ontou hodo yasashiku wa nai (B) it is not as easy as you think. anata wa toshi hodo ni wa mie-ng,i (B) you
1
:
:

seen

cherry-blossoms

them.
].

Comp.
saki-hodo: a short tiiae ago. [saki before yohodo, q.v. hodoke*ru, v.i. [cogn. w. foil.]. To got untied come undone. hodoku, v.t. fcogn. w. prec.j. To untio undo. hoka. other another. 1) Different hoka no iro : a different colour.
;
:

5)

An individual is compared to all the other individuals of the same kind. l:lsha hodo benri na mono wa nai (B) there is nothing so convenient as a train. ano hito hodo zurui hito wa aukunai (B) there are few men as cunning as he.
:

don 't look your

age.

:
|

;

:

ti)

So

(that).
'

omoi no hoka
pecteil.
i

:

differently from \vlnt

I

ex-

ugoke-nai hodo doaaari tabeta (B) ; dossari tabete ugoke-nai hodo datta (B) he ate so much (that) he could not move. ahinu ka to omou hodo kuriwhimimashita the pain was so great I thought I (C)
:

:

would

die.

wa is-shukan di <!tk<>/'sn ((.'): thothers will be done in a week. hoka de mo nai anata no o tanomi drsu kum hone wo otte mimanho (C) as tho ivjm'st comes from you and 110 other. I will (\
hoka no
:

itreahlkute, ureshlkute,

do shite ii- ka wakaranai hodo dc^hita (C) he was so happy he didn't know what to do.
:

my

hoka no

best. hito

nara tonikakit

-

:

however

it

mav

be with others

hoka
~1

hvaku
-sides
:

except else. hoka ni ica nati' >u nai (B): f have nothinc but this. xo sun hoka shlkata ga na> (B; then- is nothing else to be done. kono hoka mada taktisan a> imasu (C) there
1?!
:

hone wo
best.

ottc

mittnuhd (C)

:

I

will

try

my

Icon o

1

:

:

are n great,

/ka
/,('

cic

wo nai
>

many
ga

besides these.
:

what
:

I

want
is

to

say

is

only

this-

yori hoka ica nai (B)

there
?

nothing
else

(.'omp.: hone-or/ see foil. hone-ori, [hone bones : oni to break : see prec. Effort ; labour. 2)]. hone-ori ga muda ni narimashita. (C) : my efforts wore in vain. hUo-honcori deahtta ne (C) thank you \ mvich for your trouble. honeori-zon no kutabire-moke. : it was ^n
:

for it but to go. lioka ni nani ga iriina#6

much
ka
(C)
:

labour

lost,

what

do you
i-hiisai

\viint

':

sono hoka iro-iro
:

:

and so

forth.

honto (no) ; honto (no). True. honto no hanashi : a true story. honto no zoge de&u ka ? uso no dtsu
real ivory or imitation ? honto desA ku ? (C) : is it true
is it

ka, ?

(<

,

:

nimotsu no hoka wo minna- mottr o kure (A) take all tlie luggage except the small parcel. there \sas hoka ni dare mo i-nakatta (B)
:

hoki. A broom. hokori. Duet. hokori wo harau
l-okori

nobody

else there,

:

to (clean off thei dust.
rises.
:

? are you in earnest ? honto ka, u#o ka, wakara-nai (B) I don't know whether it is true or false. honto wa : to tell you the truth. honto ni : in fact ; indeed ; upon my word as a matter of fact has also a sup. mean: : ;

ga tatsu

:

the dust

no uc ni hokori ga tamattr // (B) my desk is quite dtisty. home'ru. To praiso. immari homcia hanashi rfe wa na> (B) it is not a thing to be highly commended, honl. Book.
txnk-ue
:

ing. lionto

ni kirei na musianc wo mimashita. I saw such a pretty glrL honto ni so nara : if it really proves to

(C)
so.

:

I

>

Comp.
hon-bako
Iton-dana
:
:

bookcase, [hako box].

hon-ya

:

book-shelf, [tana shelf]. bookseller, [yal q.v.l.

koto wo honto ni shi-nai (B) : beh'eves such a thing. honto de mo vso de mo : whether it is true or false. Der.

dare

mo sonna

nobody

hon3 q.v.
hontora-shii
:

irn-hf*n : second-hand book, [furui old], hon-. A.n. used for long cylindrical things, such as sticks, trees, pens, bottles, etc.,
also for letter^.

apparently true, [see -rashii

1

.

Xote

:

1

iip-pon

;

ip-pon ; 3 sam-bon : 6 rap-pon ; 10 100 hyap-pon ; 1.000 sew -fan :
'
:

horu. To dig ; carve ; engrave. Der. and comp. hori : a ditch ; moat. hori-mono : a carving, [mono thiii.u Star, hoshi, (sometimes o hoshi sama).
i.

nani-bon

hon^ (no), [honto truth]. True mere. hon no jodan : merely a joke. lion no yaw-mono : merely cheap stuff,
t.

hoshii, adj. Desirous of having Taro u-a nanhi ga hoehii (B) :

;

want.

Taro wante a
like

pear. hoshii no desu ka f

(C)

:

would you

'omp
hon-nhi
:

some

?
:

tht^

man

himself, (not a represenarticle,

man]. hon-mono : u genuine tion), [mono thing].
tative), [nin

(not imitasil-

ho-gin
ver].

:

solid silver,

(not plated), [gin

hone.

Bone.
to

chodo hoshi i to otnotte ita mono desu (('< is just what I wanted. Der.: hoshigaru : to desire, [see -garu], hosoi. Thin (of cylindrical things) ; fine. Comp.: lioso-nagai : slender, [nagai long], hosu. To dry ; air ; drain off. hinata de (or ni) hoeu : to dry in the sun.
: to air clothes. to dry at a fire, Hotel, hoteru, [corr. of Eng.].

ii

kimono wo hosu
i

hone
I

kava bakkari
tvuyii
:
:

:

notl-inp

l>ni

skin and

h

de hosu

:

xjnes.

lionr
krrsa

wo

:

no hon(
desii (C)

to set a bone. the ribs of an umbrella.
it is

hone
J.

very arduous work, (an

see foil.). elliptical construction, Hone ico oru : to strive hard ; make to break the (lit.: ;i strenuous effort: (lit.:

bones).

ga ore-rv

to need great effort >.

hotondo. Ahnost ; nearly about. hotondo dekimashita. (C) it is almost ready. hotondo hyaku arimasu (C) I have a hundred, hyaku. A hundred. X ote _100 hyaku ; 300 mm-byakn ; One often rop-pyaku ; 800 hap-pyaku. hears also 400 ifon-hyaku for *hi-hyaku ;
; : :
i

:

:

hyaku
700 nana-hyaku for aMchi -hyaku ; 900 kyu-hyaku for ku-hyaku. h yd ban. Opinion reputation rumour hydban no ii hito : a man who has a good
;
;

10
Kobe

iMsuke'ru
<lc

icltiban kirei na- miisiime

:

the pret'

tiest girl in Kobe. dono lutko ni ichiban

hairimasu ka which box holds the most ?
Mr.

f

((

)

:

arm Mto wa hydban ga warui (B) that man has a bad name. hydban no rikd mono desu (C) he is supposed to be a very clever person. hydban ni naru to be talked about. ano hito no hydban ga (chi ni) ochita (B): his reputation has fallen (to the erround). awase-ru to join]. i-awaseru, [i-rul to be
:
:

reputation.

Yamada San

Yamada came
:

ga ichiban ni kimashlta (C)
first.
:

:

ichiban hajime kara
ning. ichiban klsha

from the very begin-

:

nani wo
(B)
first
:

the first train. ni mo karada ga ichiban du in everything health should l?e th< consideration.

sum

%

:

i

: a person who happened to be there. baru. To be proud give oneself airs. ibatte aruku : to swagger. ano mise wa ima de wa ibatta mono da (B) that shop is doing very well now. ibi, common but less correct form of yitbi

To happen

to

lye

present.

ichl-gatsu ; ichi-getsu J anuary
.

;

[gateu,

gets ft

month!.

i-awaseta Mto

ie.

House

;

(see uchi).
i

;

:

To be abltieru, [potential of iul to say]. say. Igirisu, [corr. of English]. England. Comp.: Igirisu-jin : an Englishman. \iin
man].
HI, [itsutsu five]. Five (in the 3rd set of num.: see 271, 275). Common form of yoi good, when used H2.

q.v.
ichi.
1)

One.
:

attributively

:

see yoi.
;

ichi-nichi

one day.
:

li-dasu, [iul to

speak

dasu

q.v.].

To begin

ichi-nichi-ju

all

day

long.
:

2) Superlative. Nippon ichi no (takai) yania

the highest

to speak ; say. ichi-do ii-dashita kara ni wa ato e wa hikanai (B) after I have said something I
:

mountain

of Japan.

3) Various. ichi ka bachi (corr. of hachi)

ka

:

at a ven:

ture.
ichi

ka bachi ka yatte miyd (B) chance it.

I

will

shdchi shimaslvita (C) : he agreed without hesitation. ichi mo tora-zu, ni mo tora-zu : chasing two hares and getting neither. ichi wo kiite ju wo shim : to know all from hearing one. Note : ichi in comp. before ch, t or is, becomes it- ; before / or h, ip-; before k, ik- ; before a or ah, is Ichi is always omitted before hyaku hundred, and generally omitted before sen thousand ; but always used before man ten thousand, for numbers between 10,000 and 20.000.
ichi
.

mo

ni

mo naku

never go back on my words. ima ni natte sonna koto wo ii-dashUe. mo shlkata ga nai (B) it is no use speaking of such things now. iie, (sometimes corr. to iiya). The tr inmeaning is no '; but, as the Japanese when answering neg. questions often say 'no' where we would say yes', iie. must frequently be translated by 'ye>': s<v
: ' '

401. ika-nai no desu ka

?
?

iie,

iku no dfnfi (C}

:

aren 't you going
kore
ka,
iie,

yes, I

am.

wa Yokohama

de o kai ni narimashltn
:

Kobe de o kai ni narimsahita ka ? (D)Tdkyd de kaimashlta (C) did you buy

this in ther, I
iie

Yokohama
:

or in

Kobe

'i

in

nei-

bought it in Tokyo. chigaimasu (C) no, it is not so

;

you

arc
) :

C'omp.
ichi-ichi
:

mistaken. iie (after being asked pardon or thanked

one by one.
koto

don 't mention
deki-nai (B)
:

it.
;

ichi-ichi

miru

wa

I can-

li-sugiTU, [iul to speak

sugi-ru

to

exceedj.

not look at every one of them. ichiban ; ippai ; ip-puku ; it-td ; q.v. ichi ban, [ban3 number].
1
)

To speak
not
ii

too

much

;

say things you ought
;

to.

isiike-ru, [iul to
1)

speak
tori

t#uke-ru to apply].
?

Number

one.
:

To

order

;

command.
ni shi-nai ka as I order you ?
;
:

Yokohama, Yamashita-cho, ichi-ban
ber 1. Settlement, Yokohama. ichi-bam-me : the first.
2) Superlative.

num-

naze ii-tsuketa
2)

(A)

:

why don 't you do
To speak
ill

of

somebody

tell tales.
I'll

kore ga ichiban
best.

(ii

no desu) (B)

:

this is the
:

kore ga ichiban suki desu (C)
best.

I like this

ni ii-tsukemasu (B) teacher about you. 3) To be accustomed to say. Der.
sensci
ii-tauki
:

tel'

tin-

an order.

wa ikemasen. let 's go by tram-ear. ikaga desu ka ? (C) : what do you say to this ? how would this suit you ? As an adj. as it wouldn "t do if you wern seen by your teacher. gerund After the neg. benkyo shi-nakute iki wo suru iki wo !iiku Breat!. potential it is gen. of He q. . 1) to go]. : to breathe. present of ikerrui. : : annoy. ike-nai koto wo shtta (B) you have ma. they are always np : to mischief. sore wa ike-nai (B) that won't do. iji. To keep a flower-vtuw. 1 irv to iketnasen kara motte ikimasho (C) will take it with me in case I need it. pass. ijiru. wo be tsiike-nakereba ike-nai (A) : you must careful . ikemasen kara. ijo (C) : I will not give somebody may knosk it it down here (so put more than makesaseta : some%vhere else). . : iiya. wa kawa-nakereba narumai as you have come down in the price (B) I suppose I must buy it. (lit.e. the in tvikute and wa. sensei ni mirareru to ike-nai kara o yoslti nasai (B) : leave off or your teacher wi!l see you . if you are not careful to live]. is Windy on ac- meanmj you mustn't do tliat count of the wind. no ii : good-tempered. ko nareba iji da (B) : if things come to this . : blunder.]. thing wrong with it ? ike-nai ko : a mischievous child. Temper. kazc ga fuku kara ike-nai (B) : as it I cannot go.-tun. iki ga kire-rn : to bo out ot mafia iki ga arimasu (C) : ho is still : a long life. to go.: hana ike or].1 : : wa. hanashvte wa ike-nai (A) : hanasft to ikcmdacn (C) : you mustn't speak if you (lil. etc. {ikaga how . alive. to become obstinate.) cannot go used to indicate disapproval. JkeriA [iki-ru to Comp.: naga-iki . ikemasen . : densha di i|6. that won't ' r as 'it is of no use. koko de wa dare ka otosu to ike-nai (B) ikimaslio (C) : go -yen ijo wa dasemasen five yen. iji iji ''ii wo ham ni naru : : to be stubborn. An wake. ike-nai koto ! ga arimasu ka ? (C) : is am . ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D) may I offer you a cup of tea ? kasa wo motte ittara. ikaga itashimasho ? (D) : what shall : How white it won't do. see prec. it is a question of obstinacy. : Xote : instead of ika-hodo you may say ikura (less polite). o cha. Compare : shirokiite wa ike-nai (i) : if it : an i^ that I have heard it I cannot pretend I do not know. How ika-hodo. ikaga desu ka ? (C) how do you do ? kore wa.ii=tsuke'ru dare no ii-tsukf de shimashita ka ? (B) by whose order did you do it ? loake. ike* nil. otoko no ko wa itazura de ikemasen (C) boys are a nuisance. . L nm sorry sore wa ike-nai koto desu. may often be translated by shirokiite ike-nai (B) it is too white. (A) : : you it. present conditional. now kiita ijo wa shira-nai to wa ie-nai (B) : of 4) Ike-nai after the gerundial form * too'. [* present and ki it is often translated by "must* or 'ought'. ikemasen : . [neg. excuse see : . (nagai long(. [potential of ikul To \ neg. 41 iki 2) and After the gerund and wa. to. iji no kitanai : greedy (of food). ike-nai. To touch handle meddle with. Corr. speak that won't do^. iji no warui : bad-tempered. ike-nai . Der. The real meanof ikul to go]. by to and ike-nai is nut usually translated by 'must not' when it occurs in a subordinate clause. 3^ The present foil.v. .. w. [iul to speak reason that consists only of words]. ikaga desu ka (C) would you care to take an umbrella ? Note ikaga may always be replaced by do which is however less polite on the other hand do may often be changed into ikaga as noted at the end of do'Z q. as it wouldn't do to arrive late. . iki. over after. (lit. ing is I (you. : soin. (C bydki ya dan-dan ike-naku narimasit the illness is getting more serious littl- : by (i) little. foil. ne (C) to hear that. or the present to. or the neg. hodo about"!. [iki-ru live]. adj. ought to study. reason i. leave off).i> . much is this ? : kore u-a ika-hodo desu ka ? (C) ? how much Various.- do'. osoku naru to . a ii-wake. ike -nai often means 'must not' or : 'don't'. sore de wa ike-nai (B) : that one won't d off ike-nai kara yoshimasho (C) I will leave : . o) I do with this ? kore wa. ijimeTU. f/62 above]. (this is the original of ike-nai) . : that won't do).v. Above beyond more than . Note ' ika-nai (do not go) is heard in the place of ike-nai. [ ? cogn. - '? : : . noma-nai to ike-nai (A) you must drink breath. To tease vex. ? what ? ikaga.

: month kyo 5) '/ Various. 1. : : ike-rul. passive and causative ikare-ru : ikase-ru. mtiAa ikite imasii ka ? (C) n'utakushi no ikite iru aida . iki-chigai.v. Note the humble form of iku. iku2.ikutsu. (po'ite for the 1st person) is mairu. is gen. my : often I'tn. of yuku] . ikka. at a . . 2) Iku >ku-(Jo ? ': : ? Yokohama e wa : 3) Potential. onion yb ni wa ikimastm nwnc des-u (C) . (wake) ni wa ikitnasen nsed for forming the neg. liako wa ikutsu : hyd wa >karnnaen (C) : 1 : ikasete o yari nasai (B) him to go. bijshi wo tori ni ikimasho (C) 1 am going to fetch my hat . : To live survive. ano hV. many. "/' can't go today.pitsu iku-hon ? how many pencils iku-tsuki ? how many months ? isu ikutsu ? how many chairs ? o ikutsu desu ka ? (C) how old are you ka . to go for. answer to an invitaby infinitive : ) How many how ? ': Ni ik-ii : to go. To go. mo omou yd ni ika-nai (B) I can't get it to my liking no matter bow often I re -write it. 3).o wa Ei-go ga wakara-nai kara ikias he does not know chigai ga dckita. novice especially. : T back again a common go away. I am going for hat. and. Ikanai. Der. . but they are all Iku great mo ikutsu mo : any number : : it kara moratta kane dr #hobai wo hajimete rnku ni kura-shtte ikeru yd ni natta no desu with the money 1 received from my (C) uncle. ittari-kitari sum : to walk Tip and down. used as ca. The imperative of iku is gen. o-ide de gozaru. Note 4) :Yaru (or to s. . iki-gake.) the honorific forms (polite for the 2nd person) are irasaharu. 'cannot'. i-ki wa densha de kavri iva arukim-asho (C) I shall go by tram and come back on : foot. : ka anmnsu ga minna cltiitntI have a good many boxes too small. (C) call the doctor. [i/fcwl to go Passing each other on the way a mutual misunderstanding. sd wa ikimasen (C) that is impossible. taken from one of the honorific forms. questions takes the place occupied in ordinary aft. potential. o-ide nasaru. hlto wa nan de kutte iku ka what does he do for a living ? t-otihi ga iku : to grow in age. ano (A) : rippa ni kurashite iku : : to live in splendid : itte kimasii (C) . ikir chigau to be different). ka mairimashlta >/(t I have been to Yokohama several times but I don't know iku-tabi yoka zonjimasen (D) it well. ikereba ii (B) 1 wish 1 could go. iki-ru. : is lie still living? a. see 28. : ikc'ru?- . [corr. 'kare-naku narimaslMa (Cj 1 am prevented : empitsii ga iku-hon mo arimasu (C) any number of pencils. wo 'nha he went to yobi ni ikimashita. allow let him go .s wa : as long 1 live. iogashii kara so liayaku iku wake ni uika-nai (B) : as I am busy 1 cannot possibly go so soon. am going but style. sentences by the first set of num.iki=chigai iki-chigai. mgimasu 3) (C) . (B) English very well there was a misunder: standing. ni' ni ikimasho (C) >et us go and see. yobarete tion. opened a shop and was thus able 10 live in comfort. iku-do kaite : : kore iva doko iku michi desu ka ? (C) : C'omp. Iku in where does this road mb gakko e now to go michi road. or the abb. (276. 2. o-ide ni naru. iku hlto : a man passing on the mo iku tokoro ikii : : the place I usually go 1 to.' wa ikka dettu ka month is it ? (C) : what day ikul. : have been ikt - : now from ' going. [iku- what -ka day].ve I iku-do (there) mo ikimashUa any number : 1 (C) of times. you can't always have things as you would wish. q. Nagasaki iki no fune : a ship bound for Nagasaki. verb. 1 hn. ikima*en) sometimes means somebody. iki-chigai ni naru : to miss or fail to meet . 1 '11 come salutation said on leaving one's own house. .u--.v. of ike.nd. second set (276. ) atchi e o iki nasai ( B) I iiTog. see -gake.v. and in other cases where a return is intended soon. tamago wa ip-pen ni ikutsu mo katte wa masen (C) don't buy so many og^s time. occasionally agaru (q. ikutsu ka : a good many. and o-ide kudasaru. 2) to go in foil. q. iki . its-it go to ? : u>o it is time iku jikan desu (C) to school. What day ': of the of the do shite mo hakurai no yd (na wake) ni trti ikimasen (C) in any case it cannot be H(ual to a foreign-made article. 4) iL~i(tnu takes the place of the second set of num.

<//. tori-chigae-rii to inistak. mo : however (B) diligent : one ikura however much I explain it to him it is no use.IK- .-.lays there ya takusar. itte imasu u-a (C) he is shine: lightning wii> supposed Lightning. : inochi. ima wa kore d* ii (B) this will do for the inki.ion. ikura ka ano hUo no on ni natte imasii (C) 1 am under some obligation to him.-an n.. .-ai. four persons : : . . it's no use. w. Ikura mo : any amount a great amount. ga baka de mo aonna koto wo I may do silly things . ika-hodo is more polite than ikura Xote and may take its place sometimes. inabikari. Cogn. refers to some inite time ima ni kuru ka mo xhire-nai (B) I dare sn\ he will come later on. line ric-e in the field : future. iku-ahaku de mo iru-dake o faukai nanai (C): Japam-so who UVHI ima no Mto papers. many Ima. ima : derni (C) : the The country rural p" inaka no hVo : inaka-mono : a . Ink. arimasu (C) Life.-sometimes. ima Kobe in K61>e. : (minna de) ikura dexfi ka (C) (C) : : how much 2! is (C) : I am ima (kuru) ka to matte imasu expecting him every moment. tadaima . use as many feet (of this cloth) as you need.- life. ikura takakutte mo : however dear it ikura benkyo shite any left. Potato. ima-goro. words ikka . \i-rul to be .1 Ikura. w. ima made nani too tthlte ita no di-./ Meaning :// ga iu wakam : to understand the moaiun. lutar! How i/ottari two persons. de mo : ikufufi de mo : any number Ik >i whatever.' (B) : there is hardly \ 4. be ban wo yaru no time to do it.v. no of : present. hitherto. future indef4) Itna ni : gen. imi. ima ni kowasu desho (C) he will end by : : : ma > t breaking it. ima ni natte sonna koto /ia ni mo da (B) : it threatens like that. of spare time.i i> daro? (B) I wonder what Miss Funii : doing now. : ima koko ni kilf ita (B) he was here now. ~>) Ikura de mo any amount whatever. ya shi-nai (B) . ? imi wo ing. . imi desHka what do you m. ima (kuru) * ka. inaka. ima kara isshokemtnci benkyo *h'unaftu (C'l in future I will study as hard a* I can.': what ha\-e you been doing r ichibai iina made mita uchi dc kore (B) this is the best I have seen so far </ : -".. wo k>ru Mto imq de wa Nihon de mo ydf&cu : now -a -. Ahoul koro about].su ? ((.thUe mo xA*it is no use speakiuu m kata ga nai (B) such things now (that it is too late).. mal room).. q. ikura u-atash. A younger sisf. t. ikura ka o yari nasai (B) thing (a little money). [English!. [ima now this time. [cogn.i" ima-goro made ni wa will be finished by this time to- about this time ikura de mo ii kara motte o-idt (A) bring as much as you please. but I would never do a thing itt" may be.tJie ikutsu. see Now. \>'<ki) \<r>th . little. the near past : the m-ar at present tins is imo.' what the j 2) Ikura ka : a certain amount. . imoto. dfk>ii. gerund. sarn'i. ima kara is-shvkan mo tateba naorimasu (C) he will completely recover in about a week's time. ima dekimaav kara matte kuilasai please wait as ?t ju. [zfa'2 how many ? cogn. iku'2].iku s inochi art. 1) persons ik-uZ. ikura ikura. mo : however nvich. I know it a ikui-a kash ittc ill (B) : price per day ''.v. i-ma. inothi urn 9tte-ru ". : i .: any number.. no ikura nan to ittc nw ahiyo ga nai (B) matter what you say. and ikutari. eficial to rice]. will be ready in a mo \ ) How much '! ment.si fC) : : ikntar> . if nashi nara ikutsu de mo gozaimasu (D) it were pears (you were in need of) I have : u-a taigai ttlnmbun wo yomu (B): people now-a-days generally read tu-\v. morrow. hagaki wa hlkidaxhi ni ikura mo aru (B) there are any amount of postcards in the : : i give him some- 3) Ima kara : in future. 8it ring-room. hima ga ikura de mo aru (B) I have plenty : : just ashlta no (C) : was it last year. \ : ] drawer. ? (C) : : . Comp.: ima-goro . is it (all together) ': Ima made ichi-nichi ikura desu ka . ik'ira mo nokotte i-na. The present ni . q. kikashKe mo damt da . F>nni San wa ima-goro nani wo shite ir. : \ : wo H-da. it chddo sakunen no ima-goro deahita (C) : : : furi-dashi-so to rain immediately.a great many foreign clothes.

: drops the final r l>efore the masu terminations the imperative is irasshai : one 8 and the a after the h are often dropped before terminations beginning with U. 2) Ippai : full. if we have life. trash 'tt< kudasai (D) please take no notice of me and go on with what you are doing. dnnata de irasshaimasu ka 1 (D) who . . (C) : One dose wo ip-puku nonde goran nasai take a dose of this medicine. : 1 was completely one sip of tea taken ip-puku. ima ehimbun wo yonde irasshaimaau (D) he is reading the newspaper now.]. . : ing ? : !nu ni kamare'ru : to be bitten by a dog. hokori ippai . . no to ire-kaetc kudasai (C) pleaM* replace it witii a new one. dozo watashi ni wa katnawa-zu ni. fukttZ a. ippai ni naru : to fill. inochi ni kakete mo : even at the risk of my irassharu. inochi atte no mono-dane : tilings can be done only lane seed]. l:ono kusuri : is sometimes used instead of yozaru on ant. used after asuko. ippai ni /ruru : to fill. ano bin wa ippai desu (C) that bottle is full. ot the cans. pray. of iraserare-ru. ip-pai hlto sake wo nomi. sam-bai sake at the first bottle the man absorbs the wine. (transitive). : a glass of water. three years. of iru to enter]. trash 'tte for irasshatte. welcome. your own dog. hon no o yomi de irasshaimasit ka (D) is he rending n book ? o dekake de irasshaimasu ka ? (D) are you going out shimtetau de irawliaimaati (D) he is kind. hlto : wo nomu .n. kore kara iva kitto kokoro wo ire-kaete ben kyo ita*hima3U (D) leaf : wheroabout. life). An honorificverb. inoru. in cases like the foil. inn. ~2) The idea of 'one' may be lost. lUaras/iii To replace kac-ruZ substitute. please come again. of medicine one whirl of tobacco. A suf.n. [mono things. thus . : 4) Iraasltaru : ippai kuwamreta (B) in. have a smoke ifrpuku o agari naaai (B) take a cup of tea just rest a while. 9). 2) Verbal inflexions which contain the aux verb vru. : lo npfiko-ira 'loko-tra : : thereabouts. : : : you ? ikaga de irasshaimasu irc-kacTii. inu wo kau : to keep a dog. the pot. kai-inu ni te wo kamare-ru : to be bitten by inu ira-sshai (C) come here : . * To be . inochi no oya : the preserver of one 's life. you ? whom have I the honour of address.nuum ka '( (D) : is youi' ip-pai. ftoko . (lit. come go. doko. at the third the wine absorbs the man. nagai fatiki-hi ni -mijikai inorhi long but life is short. [corr. anata tea sei ga takakute iraaahaiinasu (D) iliary : wo nomi. inochi no sentaku : recreation. ni-hai sake sake A /MM'* a. mi wa mikka kawareru to san-nen wasurenai : feed a dog for three days and he . ira. may be ir>ade honorific by changing i-ru into irasaharu. Tokyo e irasshaimashita ka ? (D) did you go to Tokyo ? inata irasahai (C) : : won 't 1) forget it for . (intransitive). used politely of the 2nd person It has a few irregularities it (358). koko. axukora : do- kora one's life. 3) Irassliaru is used after the gerundial form of true adj. o ikutsu de irasshaimasu ? (D) how old are '( : : ''. koko ira : and henceforth I will turn over a ne\v <ttidv hard.). go shujin wa master in ? irasfhct i. go bcnkj/6 de irasshaimasu ne (D) 1 Bee you are studying. (200. atama ga itakute irasshaiinami (D) h haa headache. J ) [ichi one . nani shimbun wo totte irasshaimaau ka ? (D) ^totte imasu ka ? (C) = totte iru ka ? (B) which newspaper do you take ? matte irasehai (C) please wait a moment. glassful tnizu ip-pai bottleful cupful. : : : : you are tall. : : inochi ni kaetti takara na-fhi : no treasure can be compared to life. : (great danger). [ire-ru ! (D) : : how are you ': : to put into: . it adds the idea of vogue-ness.irasshaima^hlta (D) pleased t<> see you. rhikara ippai ni hippatta (B) I pulled with all my strength.inochi inochi ire=kae'ru wo hirou to : escape from death soko-ira : thereabouts. washing The i is : sometimes dropped etc. : mo arukeba bo ni ataru : even a dog if he roams about will come across something worth having if you give yourself pains you will always derive some advantage. at the second the wine ateorbs the wine. although in this case vm to l>e cannot be used. 1 am t/okv. kono bin ni mizu wo ippai irete o kure (A) fi'l this bottle with water rainen ippai kakarimasfi (C) it wi'l take all next year. ippai no hokori : full of dust covered with dust. .]. \ichi one . change]. time is 1) To Dog.'.

. open- Entrance way in.i re TU \v. ing]. polite : .i. [cogn.: i-awase-ru . anata wa ima doko ni imasu ka ? (C) are : when' negai ico ire'ru : to accede to a request. ? kore wa : gozaimasu ka : (D) ~ri-yo do you need dake o mochi nasai (C) take what : you need. \v.v. 2) Quality kind. (on account of its motion the rikisha is treated like a living being 165. the colour of the face j. [i-ru* to need. v.nna) [iro kind. : iro-iro yatt> tried (C) nihnashlta (/a dait <te#li~<t several tilings but it was all use- o iri ni narinnixfi i. . : To Uve in ? abura wo ireru mono ga hnshii (B) something to. 2nd set of num.J. : be in a place (said of .t. iro-iro (no or na).remain in Kyoto until Septcin: Comp. [iru. Kyoto ni imasho (C) I shall probabh.- : ' ' /. kaze wo ire-ru : to ventilate. usui iro : a light colour. oki nai de i nasai (A) don't get up till you have completely recovered. iro-iro i-rui. go shujin iichi ni wa itnasu ka : '( (C) is your nia<t-r o cha wo ire-ru : to make tea. imasu (C) he is at home. iru. 2) I'm after a gerund indicates a state nr a continued action. nete.t.to enter. : Yokohama tsfi/. number of foreign novels.v.u (C) : <)t-al <>i na no ivo misete kudasai show mo several. [nezutni mouse light brown. .-ni sbimbun wo yonde iinasu : (C) : h<- is rt^uiin. (276. 1) make use of it when- Colour. nee. Comp.masu (C) he is sleeping. kane-ire : a purse. i-ma : q. [cogn. The / is often dropped colloquially.n .: iru : d.v. liimd <r >>'" : do you still . (see 98. hoka no kuruma wa zntto ato ni imaitu ((. koi iro : a dark colour. . mo utl'. pi. iru-.>-iri iri-</ic-lii hnini (). (when used attrik. q. tive of i-ru is gen. . some times corr. \kao face]. men : or animals : J let want any- dwell. koko de.i. kane no iri-yo ga dckita (B) need some money. : : only one quality ? iu-nin to-iro : ten men. : . he has come (and the action kitr imasu (C) continues as he is still here). tcatashi mo irete : including myself. Com]). hUo no koto ni kufhi wo irete wa ike-nai (A) don 't interfere in other people 's affairs. yo'2 use]. Comp.|. <>- ire-ru v.: ir^-t/o. need. ten opinions. to ironna or ire. . taken from one of the honorific forms. nan da ka ki ga isoide jitbt s)it< iron >'/< (B) somehow I feel flurried and i-ainmr remain quiet. ano hUo wa seiyo no shdsetsu n-u : I : : > nondc iru (B) : that man : has read a vrr./" ''I' '" '"' ul less. . nen wo ire-ru : to pay attention. 4).-iii in Kobe. : iru irtrru.: nef/aimasliitu -iv. v. go (or o) iri-yo no toki wa it-iu de mo o ii'tkoshi I find I ni hai ga takftsan imasu (C) there are many flies in Yokohama. 99 and 60).--. Compare : does this iro wa kawarimasu ka ? (C) colour fade ? kono iro wa aratte mo daijdbu desu ka (C) does this colour wash well ? face his gh. Comp. ima Kobe ni itte iniasi* (C) he is at pi. son. th<. kiu-hi ire-kae-ni.is a plain verb Xote in the l?n<l pering honorific verb. 4). Xote : The imix-ranaru. iri-yo.i: kudasai (D) : please ever you need it. (|. dare mo irete wa ike-nai (A) don't one come in.) don't I kore'u-a irinuisen (C) to take time. o-ide namni. iri-guchi. the newspaper. [cha tea].'): the other rikisha is a long way lx:hm<l. ira.\ . To put into allow to come in. o (or go) iri-yo de this ': Use. 1) niendo na Loin have put you to ti-o . Varinmi*i'' To need. . is irasaharu. iro is used in connection with the abb.v. kore wo kanjd ni irete kudasai (C) please put this down to my account.v.ini-pai wo iro ni mo dasa-nai (B) does not betray his anxiety. repeated so as to signify plurality!. have you hlto-iro shlka arintasen ka (C) kono : '! : : kimashUa he came nothing is said a -out his being here now. [kane money]. a no (C) I Into : wa iro-iro no koto u-o. iro-iro : ki-iro : nezumi-iro rha-iro kao-iro : ." D) require this thi->. T<> enter. you living now ? : ku-gatsii tnadc lier. xukkari naont made. hobo sagash imashlta ga imasen (C) I have looked everywhere but I can't find him. counten- ance .put oil in. and o-ide d< </o:<irn. xttilti he knows all sorts of things. : iro-iro : rjo I (C) trouble. kore wa mada *. ous. q.correspondi-nt. iro wo tsuke-ru : to colour (transitive). ntatte i nasai (A) wait here. grey.

ita-I ufavii : between the devil and the deep sea. issho desu lea ? (C) am I to go together with you isnho no kls/ta de kiinashltu (C) he came in 1 ) : : to hurt oneself. like 3) (C) : huny : quickly. isshokemmei matte i-nt : to wait eagferl. ishi. '2) Itadaku after a gerund shows that t! tion is performed in favour of the 1st per: : . in kaitr itadakimashlta it for me. . mi. isshokemmei (ni) shit? u>ia#''i (Ci am doing my very best. [stem of isogu to hurry J. to eat or drink something ro1) To receive ceived from another.v. akt-isti : To . .: itasu. v.) : . isogi . hyaku-nin korcsa-nakercba ii isha ni nartnai : you can't become a pood doctor uritil you have killed a hundred men prnctice : j perfect. train as 1 did. q. ilai. before the preceding one . isogashii. Painful. ' . : son. (fig. kokoro no itami : A deep grief. isogi icatakushi ga iketnasen kara ltd San ni itt< as I was unable to go itadakima-fihita (D) I got Mr Ito to go for me. \i<-H ore: saku preceding). request. ha-isha : a dentist.'): where i* (hipain ? tonna koto wo sureba itamima-HV (C> yon do that you will injure it.iho ni ikimasho (C) you let us go together. \itatnu to hurt : : . j)aiii liii> left me. A stone. iiadaita no ful - : . [hasamu to squeeze]. doko ga itamimasu La? ((. the one l>efoTe lust (used only in comp. I received it from my : : now. go.. iru no desu leu f (C) show me where the damage is.rit : : hurry. o isha wo mtikavru : to itasu Comp. : ita-gami : pasteboard. q. J will accompany go is. [se. in pain.i. : )/<' ico mitv Hadakito gozaima&u (D) : 1 would I M'ish isogu. hurry. . it . ima wa taihen isogashii (B) I am vory busy . occasionally : that house. Isha. not . : no shiffoio pressing business. am ! otherwise). itai ! (B) : it liurts : 1 itai tokoro : a painful place. [stem of itamu to hurtj. ( hair. often means to ask. isoga-nakerela osoku narimasu (C) haste or you will l:e late. With all one's might and main with concentrated attention. issho.: ieofjashii . sensei ni itadaita no desu (C) my teacher gave it to me . 2) Otherwise. I won v take any (said when offered food). isogcba koto wo shi-sokonau too much you will spoil it. One issaku-. used as an adv. send for a doctor. wata-shi wa o-isogi desu (C) : : I am in a great hurry. 1 : Comp. I will take some (said when offered food). j answer to his request see 108.j. j. Comp. : isu. o isogi nasai (C) : hurry up. do Hash inw shite (C) don't mention at all you are welcome. '1 o hurt pain get injured. nriini itai (li) 1 have an tai. ': : the same . itami . nore wo oshiete. na itami : (lit. [iscgv to hurry]. Note the plain verbs corresponding to itadaku are rnarau to receive tabe-nt to eat nomu to drink .: issho ni : together with. (D) he kindly v. in inic . itamu. IladatimtuhO whether after a gerund ->r not. insakiijitsu : the day before yesterday. do. its Adv. itai . itami ga tvmatta (B) the : ilalu fitm Pain.) a p*un in the brenst a deep grief. : teacher).: ita. isogi. me-isha : an oculist. (gen. a preRsing isogashii shigoto ga dckita (B) business has turned up. A an empty oliftir. <i#uko no ttchi de mizu wo sfih. (D) : excuse me jama itaxhimaehita \ for : you when you were 'tudakimasen (C) no thank you. makes Comp.oahi itadak/ masho (D) I will ask for some wnter ai : : if yon hurry Der. o isogasfilku arimasfn ka ? (C) : are you en- mo cnaji desu (C) 1 am as grat as if you had given it to me. Itadaku is a humble verb. issakvnen : the year beiore last.isha Doctor . used politely in the 1st person. nensei ni yondc itadakimaxho (D) I will ask my teacher to read it for me. issakuban : the night before lust. see these words. itadak-hnasu (C) thanks. doko ga itande. : il' isshokemmci. ita-nde rru : to be injured. snide : in a there is no particu you to examine my eyes.v. : isoide iku : Lo go quickly. Haste .uki- ] board.v. ishi wo tiage'ru : to throw stones. itadakitai no desu you would explain that to me. I tadaku. Busy urgent. ga : ear-ache. issho ni xuru : to put together. hasten . (lit. : To make ' bttsu ni isogimase'n (C) lar hurry. o isogashii tokoro wo o having interrupted eo busy. physician.

2) Itsu kara : from what time. About : at gejo wa itsu no ma ni ka sotto dete ikimaslilta (C) : the maid went out quietly no one any moment. 3) ittai : they haw . Cousin. gozaimattu article. \itsutsu five. q. r) Itsu. Itsu made mo : always . q. Thread . . do iimashlta ka (C) : what did you say f ? this : month will do.: itsuka. j. Mischief. kinu-ito : silk thread. string. some day next itsu ka raigetsu no uchi ni month. see 271 : 275). itasu is a humble verb used politely Note the plain verb is miru in the 1st person tsui shitsurei I didn 't do : : 47 iu it isogashlku nakereba itsu dc mo o-ide nasai if you are not busy come and see me (C) : : q. itsu-goro uchi ni iru denhd what time will he lie in ? ka? (C) about knows when. [momen cotton]. : and appearance are ever. itsu itsu itsu mo mo usual. itazura na : mischievous Jto.'{) itsu : how (C) : itsuka. what time. 4. itsu itte gerund.. call. mo no tori ni in the usual way. (D) this is a first-class this ou kore ga itto kirei da (B) : : ii prettiest. ii (B) any time L-ongetsu nara itsu de mo out. ka atta'koto ga arimasu (C) I have seen him once before. five]. td* class]. (pronounced yu). : : Exclamation of wonder. momen-ito : cotton thread. mo no yofuku de ii (B) your ordinary : : : ittai clothes will do. (in the 3rd set of recollect when it was. See also its&l. .went itsu ka kaette ahimaimasMta (C) back I don't know when. Ei-go de itte kudasai (C) ? please say n : English.itasu itashimashUa (D) excuse me. iul. soe 276. never. 1 made mo Nihon ni iru tsumori desu (C) intend to settle in Japan for good.to. whenever I go he : is omdshiroi no desu however often I see that play I al(C) ways find it amusing. naughty. -ka q. ni : by what time.) . [itsutsii Five . : hari ni ito ito wo tosu : to thread a needle. 3. soko de wa itsu made mo atsiiku narimafen (if you put itHn that place. kore wa it-td no ahina-mono de.: itsu-goro.. itsu kara Nippon ni irasshaimasu ka? (D) ? : long have you been in Japan ? rjakko tea itsu kara hajimarimavA ka when does your school begin ? Itsu ka : some time or other. mo : iinasen (C) however often. j inaka-kusai uchi no iochu wa itsu mad: tn r (B) my servant's countrified manners itau I : : be ready ? : ) Itsu : at what time. ittai. [itsui when koro about]. : 1) Properly speaking : really. on purpose. watashi ga iku ioki ioa itsu de is out. it will (C) never get hot.v.v. fifth day of the mouth. Tn comp. to itsu Der. still just as bad as when will it be dekimasu ka ? (C) ready ? itsu da ka yoku oboemasen (C): I don't quite itsu Comp. 6) Itsu de mo : always whenever. itsu made irassharu o tsumori desu ka ? (C) how long do you intend to stay here ? itsu made ni dekimasu ka ? (C) when will it : : Comp. ittai ni karada ga chiisai (B) generally small bodies. (C) whenever I go ho mo rusu desu then ? naze kite iimaaen deshita ka didn 't you come and tell me (C. things happen.v. yori hayaku : quicker than ki no ue ni kakete oku (B) I always : leave it hanging on a : tree. itsu itsu itsu mo to onaji the same as usual. itoko. . see o-itoma. \kinv silk]. Itsui.- whv . itsu de mo shlchi-ji ni okimasu (C): I always rise at seven. Five. he may come itsu-goro. tell . [ichi one . ' doko ni ima made kakurete ita no dci been hidinR have earth on where you (A) all this time ? won ittai dotchi no ho ni itta no dard (B) <ier in which direction he has gone. itsutsu is abb. what do iu imi da ? (A) do you mean ? : in the worid I mo nara mo judging by the usual way it.v. Itsu made 7) Itsu mad* : until what timt-. one first-class UokH Kyoto no it-to ichi-mai : for Kyoto. 1) To say apeak . 4) Itsu mo : always usual. itsu kuru ka mo shire-nai (B) num. itsu2. no yd na koe de iimaslnta (C) she spoke in an almost inaudible voice. Five days: . Itoma. ano shibai : wa itsu mite mo First class. itazura. frequently. itsutsu. . : . lit. ittai dd shite so naita no dc*fi (C) : ho\v : did that really happen ? 2) On the whole.

:- so. nan-ji (or iku-ii) desu is it ? i<-hi-ji ka (C) : what time no koto wo iu : to speak of Yamada 8an no koto wo n-nriil-ii in: speak ill of -Mr Yamada.: jimen . me. o kd-san wa ? zutsu ga suru to itte. j|3. of de wa . . ).")) tt> han ittta : yo-ii half past one. 3. \ch&~\.v. do up. ko . Der. struck four. Comp. polite for the 2nd person. kiinii in)' nfunia) ii'o iu : to do up the hair. jama ni agarimashita (D) I have to pay you a visit. it itta no wa watashi de wa aritnasen (C) was not I who said it. (/'I li'ikn i<> extrtict A diction- ary. : to look for a word (in a diction.v. is always use<l instead of is . no]. so ieba so da (B) from your point of view you are right no doubt. To celelarate congratulate.: iwai : celebration. : to '/ ka iu see iu . the honorific verl). iya de mo yara-nakereba nara-nai (B) even if you don't like it. in nituli >no nai koto >no da (B) : it goes without : saying. 1. Comp. iya na mono wo mtiri ni to wa iwa-nai (B) I don't want to force you to do anything : : .) it. daiji : iijitsf/ . Iu shi-ji. ii- Comp. : Aft'air . iya (na).v. Letter character word. : ni naru to be in the way. Note num.: jikan q. q. ano muaume ga wataslii u-o jama ni ima#u in coi in- xl/i/i (C) . is ossharn. ikura isogashii to itte. see de.' who told yon to do this (C) Honna koto wo itta oboe wa nai (B) ] don 't remember having said so. so in of see ht . Yo-ji. 2) Iu koto : something which is or has been said commands.v. bakkari desu (C) : it I. it (D) o isogashii tokoro 100 o : excuse for me iama itashimaxlot" having interrupted : you when you were so busy. [He. . 1) see also 298 et seqq. ble verbs. dare ga iimaslnta kn '! . '? : : way ? : jama wo sum. mo liagaki de henji no matter f/nrai yokoshitara ii desho (C) how busy you were. 3) Iu is used in Japanese in cases in which if rendered literally into English it would look as if we doubted somebody's word.7 .: iyagaru : to dislike. it is disagreeable iya na o ienki da (B) weather. . : ary). kali '. o yoshi nasai (B. in-. ji preceded . thing : .: <rnke : ii-dasft : ii-Km/i-r : i'l-txtlkc-ru . : that girl considers thai I'm . fern. four o'clock. jH. into. nete imasu (C) where is your mother ? she is in Vied with a headache. hua itta tori : leave off. in the 2) Iya is used as a corruption of sense of 'no'.//' vo hlku her way. : : as 1 have just said. To bind tie up. : The is ie-ru. : I don't like : .: jibiki ji2. 1. jama o jama shimashUa (C) excuse me for hav- no jama wo thing I want to say to you. . (pron.v. fihuknj : q. you might at least have sent me a postcard in reply.Ill jibiki so 'hire ittr liana-flhite df mo o kiire (A): say tliis : so t'imasu (C) everybody says : so. : obstruct another. Ground. q. mini haztt (la (A) you should do these things without having to he told. Note is potential a plain verb the corresponding humJst person. Contr. do iu : to%. \\<>]'<l jibiki. : : just told you. are mosu and moshi-age-ru . yu). ittr yaru : to send word. nso wo iu : to tell lies. hanashlta koto wo O Ei Nan ni itte ku<l(it>ai (B) please tell Miss Ei what T have iirare-nai <l<: iwae-ru iwaku. polite for the Comp. 1) Disagreeable disgusting.- /Id . q. iya da. kore wa jama desu ka (C) is this in your /'/' . iwau. jishin j|4. 4) Phrases. . jama. jama wo shi-nai de o kure (A) don't bother anata no iu koto ga yoku wakarimasen (C) I don 't quite understand what you mean. f'omp. . : : : ing troubled you. shite wa ike-nai (A) don'tget in people's way. you must do it. ja. 16. shigoto no hito to inconvenience another : .by the 1st set >! (276. . [see -garu\. ko iu . Obstruction hindrance. . ? Hoijr. anata no iu tori ni sliimasho ((') I will do as you say. Roma-ji . To dress (as the hair) . (used only in eomp.>o ni itte o kure (A) : sore wo sum yd ni : my likisha-man to come. as jusi To iu see to2. k>irtiHi-i/a ni k"in tell against your will. Der. naze anata wa sonna ni iu koto ivo kika-nai no de.: buji >/o-ji .su ka f (B) why are you so disobedient ? anata ni iu koto ga am (B) there is some: : : jama wo sum : to intermjit an: other's work. 4-7.

: see Amen am : jujin . Old man. he is fond of findhit<> no koto wo iu (B) . me. An hour . affair : almost or ornamented. fniit. [jibtinZ self.jikan instead of shi -jikan four hours. jikan. it is jitsu ni attakai (B) UMI m Comp. fine. : to be punctual. [corr. jikan ni okureru : to be late. jimi (na). : . it will be ready imjiki (ni) dekimasu (C) jikan : wo mamoru jikan is Note : . jibun no frighten iibun no ni irimasu (C) : I need it myself. jishin. preceded by the first set of num. directly . Ei . into jibun '//"/ nani shi ni kita for (A) : what have iibnn yuki-rja (urn to wa niezurashii koto (B) it is a rare thing for it to snow at this time of the year.l. you Earthquake. jikan wo muda ni suru : to idle away time. itnata ga go jibun de nasaimashita ka ? (D) : soon. : to be proud of xonna koto wo shlta gurai de wa jiman ni mo there is nothing to nara-nai daro (B) boast of in doing such a thing.v. 2 ) jijitsu. Jibuti?. Self oneself. '. bijin jirettal. are unkm. of jiki immediately]. jikushUe i-ru : to be ripe. out intermediary . Season .jibun Time. (276. You say yo. atama no hai wo o oi na-sai (A. his ing fault with others but he forgets Stalk : . Fact. Self-praise. (the honorific o . q. Eikoku-jin ka . . a no htto wa jibun no koto wo tana ni agete. q. is often preis fixed). jikushUa kudamono : ripe jiman. personally. it will soon be time. jibun-gatte na yatsu desfi (C) selfish fellow. Ukan ga gozaitnasen (D) : there is no time. it is for my i'-bint de tsukau no desu (C) own personal use. : masu ka ? (C) how many take if you go by steamer ? : hours does it anata jitsu wa : as a matter of fact.: jibun-gatte. wa jitsu ga nai (B) you : : no oya xan-iikan : three hours. shujin . jikusu(ru). : .fact]. mo kaeri -so na jibim dcttfi (C) it is time he : : 49 jitsu jikan ni narimashila (C) it is time now. own failings. stem axis. . to self- jibun-gatte fine 's wo shiyo sum : : to try to get own way. Comp. land. Provoking. [jiZ hour . father sanl Mr]. he is a very boast. gakko no jiki soba jiki soba just by the school. time. jii-san. jitsu. katte convenience].*h~>ta on time ? : (C) : kodomo no jibun Kyoto ni imaI lived in Kyoto when I was a ? child.-n. jiki (ni) kaerimasu (C) : : I will be back (C) : he must come in person. perin composition). he shaves jibu. v. own convenience. . jitsu possible. onjin . kanZ interval]. : jiko. jikan de yatou : to hire by the hour. H jitsu da Comp. Consulting one's ishness. [. a no htto tea jibun de ko-nakereba ikejnasen 'In : : : : : you come now ? sukoshi jikan ga hayakatta (B) it was a little too early.) : no gakko : the school in the immediate neighbourhood.no jiki jikan desu (C) : kyo wa today.v. Amerika-jin . the weather y&i jiko ni narima*hita (C) : has turned out jiku. as a 'iiiitsu atta koto ka mo shire-nai (B) matter of fact it may have happened. : mediately. etc. Withjika (ni). . jibun-gatte. <'omp. .v.n de hige wo surimasu (C) himself. irritating. q. not gay jimi ni kurattu : to live simply (without ostentation). Der. jin. q. pen-jiku : a penholder. Plain . [//2hour bun part]. etc. as a matter of fact. jiki. (B) it is a matter of fact. To become ripe. Immediately soon directly. one's real parents. jiki roku-ji ni narimasu (C) it is close upon six o 'clock. [?# earth].v. jjtsul. jiman (wo) suru . : the flies off your own head mind your own business. jigi. kita no tea san-ji jibun deshita (C) : it was about three o'clock when I arrived. anata kara jika ni hanashUe kudatni (C) please speak to him you yourself. jimen.: jijitsu. see o-jigi. [chichiZ 1) . weather. hazu ga nai (B) xonna koto wa jijitsu such a thing is. 1). climate .'# ground]. jiki chikai quite near. . im[/i-t Grandfather (the honorific o always prefixed). (used only son. Man . jibunl. jikan ni tukimasu ka ? (C) shall we arrive : : came back iratashi tea . June nara iku-jikan (or nan-pkan) kakari- A fact.: jika ni. Ground lot of ground . : did you do it yourself ? iibun no koto wo in : to speak about one'self. jibun de o iki nasii (B) go yourself.

jitto Day. kore de jubun desu (C) jubun (ni) Ueda San wo shinyo shltemasfi I have full confidence in Mr Ueda. before ch. jiyu ga kika-nai (B) (to do jiyu na itte 1 am jo-san. cr&tne). becomes jit-. also used to form the superlative. [/52 best class . ano htto wa jiyu ni Ei go wo hanaahimasu (C) he speaks English fluently. ijo ju. ju-nin to-iro : . jitto. sekai-ju : the whole world. ano Mto wa nan de mo jozu desu (C) he is good at everything. jun-jun ni . and kyu-ju for ku: . high-class. kongetsu-ju : the whole of this month. Ten. entire . : : Comp. irasshai (B) . jodan da to omotta (B) I took it for a joke. pref. : ju. 100 per cent: compare 3081.jitsu (used only in composition). Maid-serjochu. [fukuro bag]. Fun joke . [ju ten . jd wo orosu : to wo ake'ru : to unlock. : please be still. joto (no or na). soh'd robust . jiyu ni shUe mo ii (B) : do as you like. Upper side above best. jiyu ni sosete o oki noaai (B) : let him do as : he likes. fuju na) : not free. t or ts. Refined johin (na). [annai guide]. (used only in composition). jun.v. . jobu (na). Comp. nana-jti for shichi-ju. gejo .: j53.) middle]. Comp. jitsu2. Comp. (C) mada jubun (ni) yoku arimasen (C) I am not quite well yet. q. Komoto San wa do shite mo jozu da (B) there is no denying Mr Komoto is very clever. jo Lock. go jobu de gozaimasu ka ? (D) are you well? make it jobu ni koshiraete kudasai (C) strong please. jun ga chigaimasu (C): they are out of order. Comp. [ju-ichi eleven . chu middle]. jozu . fixedly. . : : : : . ichi-nichi-ju : all day long. : : : all the year round. all -ju. hon wo jun ni narabete kudasai (C) please arrange the books in order.v.v. no jo de wa arimasen keredomo ii shinamono de gozaimasu (D) although it is not of the very best quality nevertheless it is a good article (compare creme de la : hears yon-ju for shi-ju. jochu . before s or sh. jo no shina : a superfine article. Strong . [joZ best hin quality]. : : : . [jo woman vant. before / or h. : 50 Steam. (used only in composition). senjitsu . jodan. Firmly mi-ru : jitto shite. mada jobu ni narimasen (C) I am still . : go jiyu ni (C) make yourself at home. johin na mono no ii-kata speaking. (often pron. : steamer. q. [ju ten : : : . Der. to look fixedly. : free.e. . . October. First- not at liberty JOZU (na). naka-naka jiyu ni nara-nai (B) I cannot manage him at all. ju-gatsu. jozu no te kara mizu ga moru : even the wisest make mistakes even Homer sometimes nods (lit. ninety. karada-ju : the whole body. . [chu (q. sufficient : full.: joldsen jun joki. . jest. jodan desho (C) you are joking surely. aeito-ju de (kore ga) ichiban riko desu (C) this is the cleverest of all the students. jo jo2. jo-bukuro : envelope. Comp. Woman. . before /> One often jik . jii-ichi-gatsu. November. mo ika-nakute mo jiyu da (B) 1 am free to go or not.de nai : not strong weak.' jodan (suru no) wa o yoshi nasai (B) : don't play jokes. bun parts the Japanese think in tens jubun therefore means ten parts in ten. : Comp. Freedom so). jdto . . jubun. q. .: daijobu. gatsu month]. sakujitau . The whole . written annai-jo : letter of introduction invitation . Enough .neg. junjo : .v. sei no jun ni narande kudasai (C) please arrange yourselves according to height. jo. ju-jiyu na. Kyoto-ju no isha : every doctor in Kyoto. : . ju-nen hito-mukashi : ten years is a long lapse of time (and brings about many jozu : changes). ichiban jdto : the very best. Letter. opinions. jo wo kake-ru . lock. : hon no jodan : nothing but a joke. ten jol. Note ju in comp. [sen* ship]. [fu.]. . see o-jo-san. even from the hand of the expert water leaks).v. liberty. . johin . . q. healthy.v. q. this is enough. : wo tsukau : to flatter. jobu. . : a refined way of Proper order or sequence. jip-. forty . jodan ni iimasMta (C) I said it in fun. I jodan harnbun ni Jciite mimashita (C) asked him half in fun. jis~. ano hUo wa Ei-go ga jozu da (B) he speaks English very well. best quality. : jiyu. seventy . td'2 class]. jubun na kane : enough money. : A good hand at good at skilful. ju-nin to-hara : ten men. he is the Kyoto-ju de no isha desu (C) cleverest doctor in Kyoto. gatsu month J. nen-jii : : : . : weak. i.

8 hak-ka . etc. on what day . Comp.iu=ni-gatsu iu-ni-gatsu. is not vised as an adv. 100 hyak-ka.: two days. Day. Abb. dochi. Mosquito. that I pretend there is doubt as to whether he had left or not when 1 arrived). parcels.: see to. 2) Tsed for various things that have no special a. nani ya ka ya yo-ji ga arimasu (C) I am very busy what with one thing and another : ) : ka3.: kabe-tsuchi kabi. or . etc. [stem of The return. Comp. dfkiru ka do ka icakarimasen I don't (C) know whether it is feasible or not. ikka ? how many days ? may : be month trunk. nttakai ja arimasen ka ? isn 't it ~2) it's warm. years. boshi u"o kaburu : to put on a hat. q. 2. dochi ka. The interrogation is : sometimes merely rhetorical or ironical this is especially the case in the phrases mono desu ka. ano hito ?m Kamakura ka Enofhima e ikn dethd (C) he will go either to Kamakura or to Enoshima. : M) Doubt to arv ka some. three days etc.]. do. c). Uncertainty is also found in such combinations as to ka. : wa kurn ka ko-nai ka ehirimasen know whether he w ill come nani mo ka mo : everything (see nani). : when 1 arrived. : one month : who came (C) : two months '! etc. I think tnere o-nou (B) : see 294 . A policeman. 1 anata ka u-atakushi lea tka-nakereba narimasen (C) either you or I rmist go.n. nalsu sabi-ru to : become : rusty). kabiiru. : I dare say il me will rain. To put or wear on the head. other in proper order. see kaiS. 1) iarly for A. : I am rogations . mo a dog. aru mono ko ? (A) aru mon' desu ka ? who in his senses would ever believe : nan-ka-getsu ? how many months ? ni-ka-nen : two years. of kare that person. sonna koto wo iu to kado ya tain ft (B) that : will rain. Comp. Familiar substitute for ka in real inter- iko ka shiran (B) I think ['11 go. . kae. ni-ka-getsu . wa mono ni kabi ga haeru (B) in summer things become mouldy.i own' desu ka ? (B) pay you say such an absurd thing ? : ? how can -ka (usod only in composition). junjo. [jun proper order]." iratakv-sl. dare. ' nani ka atta no ka mo shire-nai (B) afraid something has happened. fttlmika . itsu ka. kaeri. . [fun proper order]. [tsuchi earth]. Months and .: ka-ya : mosquito net. nine ga juru ka mo shire-nai (B. ni kado u-o tatete shlkaru : to scold with angry eyes. kai. jnnsa. 10 jik-ka. etc . Corner (from the outside). (B) that : such a thing exists ? Iiaru>. nani ka. ixatn or uncertainty.i J-a ? is it I ? : ik-ka-getsii . nme ga juru ka it shira (B): I : wonder whether kado. [stm of foil. 4) ka shiran or ka mo shire-nai frequently heard at the end of a sentence ka mo shire-nai is also expresses doubt never used after the future. ' <>i the ? kaban. a. . etc. : : or not ? ano hito (C) : I don't or not. I yuki ga juru ka to omoimasu (C) think it may snow again. kado no torela hito : a person with all his sharp angles taken off . : plaster. (166. n. Note : " or ka ka in parallel clauses means whether or either or. kado ii-o magatte ni-kem-me : the second house after turning the corner.: nekokkabiiri. . ikimoeen ka ? (B) will you go : Ka . would sound harsh. \ValL kabe ni mimi aa aru : walls have ears. as bundles. itsii. do ka. foil. 5) shire-nai (B) : I believe it is Proper order or sequence. \ya house]. nani. A travelling bag portmanteau .: second day third day . dare mo ka mo : everybody (see dare). 51 twelve kaeri inu (da) ka . (Compare kabrru. etc. Der. (In this case the interval between his departure and my arrival is so short. a person eisy to get on with. These expressions are often preceded by Ka : no. etc. 6 rok-ka . 295. Note: 1 tk-ka . ka2. mikka . gatsu month]. ano hito ga tatta ka tata-nai ni iratakushi wa tsukhnaslflla (C) he had scarcely left : kabe.v.: kobi mould. Note 7'oe or kai is sometimes used famil: : if the sentence contains Interrogative another interrogative word ka is generally omitted arimasu ka ? (C) is there any ? : ka*. Mould mildew. To become mouldy. [iu-ni Deceniljer. (B) dare ga kitn (ka) ? (B) : '. ka in real interrogations.]. shira. junjo One after the jun-jun ni. ikimasu ka. mono ka. dare ka.

Looking-glass ror. and comp. o ytt no kagen is the bath ? j. [ire-ru to 's put kagen ga warui (B) I don 't feel \\ell. tori-kae-ru : to exchange. te wo kae-ru : to try another means of doing. : : kai ga aru kai ga nai : : to be worth while. ki -kae-ru : : to replace. kae-ru-. made it worse.]. : kagi kore oite Key. [potential of kaul to buy]. flavouring kagi. State or degree of anything. v. [shio salt : - |. w. : Reflection shade shadow . overturn . of one's health.) to change carriages. kagami wo mi-ru Jooking-glass. hatch. yobi-kaesu : to call back.i. wo kake-ru to lock. o-kage sama de : by your kind influence.v. cliddo ii kagen na jiko da (B) this is the nicest season of the year the weather i> : wa (is it : .]. kage ni narit : to get in one's light.v. kaii. shite kitdasai (C) : please feverish. [ki-ru to put on clothes]. kage wo kakusu : to conceal oneself. back home. kono-goro kage mo katachi mo iniemasen (C) one sees nothing of him now -a -days. mi-ru to look]. mo Comp. olden times shells \vep Benefit . ura-gaesu : to turn inside out. kage de waru kuchi wo iu : to speak ill of a person behind his back. w. See also buy a newspaper on your way foil. \kage reflection . [gerund of kaerul to return]. kagu. Basket cage. noru yori aruku ho ga kaette ii (B) I would rather walk than ride.v. w. ku-ji ni kaerirnasu (C) nine. . icine as i am modify the med: kagen ni shite o oki nasai (B) do thing* with moderation. I<ai2. kagen (wo) suru : to regulate teo as to suii one's purpose). [ v. ii kagen na hanashi : a made-up story.i. contrary . zuiban isahokemmei ni yatta ga sono kai i/n nakatta (B) we did our best but it was no : use. .i. in- . q. [yobuto call]. kaerul v. see -gake./ to change one : clothes. [torn to take]. kaette kurn : to come back. just right. ucht e kaerirnasu (C) 1 am going back : home. use. it goes back to its former : position. rather. On the kaette. Comp. shelter behind the other side. [noru to ride]. kaeri .t. kage-guchi : backbiting. mattaku >i ni iUa kai ga ai-imasu (C) it was really worth while going to see. wa kagi no kakam : tokoro e shitnalti kudasai (C) please put this imdor and key. te if : I shall be back by : wo hanaxu to moto no banho e kaeru (B) you let it go. [knchi mouth kagi-guchi wo iu : to backbite. lock . v.: ahio-kugen : the degree of saltiness ii : .e kaerul. : .kaeri n-a nan-ji deau ka at (C) o 'clock will you return 1 katte kudaaai kaeri ni shimbun v: 'f 52 what (1>) : kai kage. . kane wo kae-ru : to change money. .) into]. To smell: Shell. tamago wo kaesu : to hatch eggs. o kaeri nasai (C) could not see it hidden by a tree. !:agi no ana : key-hole. [cogn.t. kaesu v. mizu ni Fuji-son no kage ga utsuttc imatm . ? on the contrary. ire-kae-ru (q. kusuri wo nondara ka"tte waruku narimashlta (C) 1 took the medicine but i got : kai\ shell in used as money]. give back .ul\a!itii^e . To return go or come back. kagen.]. [cogn. : reflected in the water. ka-ette . (C) I : Mount -t'uji is ki no kage ni natt. narimasu ka (D) : o kaeri ni are you already going back ? Der. stiiu- kawaru To change alter. . kaette iku : to go back. kagami. kagami ni utsuru mirror. kaeruS. To send or kaesu. v. ho\\' ikaga desn l-'a ? (C) too hot ?). .t. v. : to be reflected in : a mir- not to be worth while. kaette warttku shite shirnatta (B) we have. netsu ga c-emashlta kara kusiiri iro kua< : . hakkiri mie-nakatta (B) clearly as it was partly : welcome back home ? : go (see o-kage).. kago. [cogn. [ura the in side surface]. please back. Comp. : worse. ano yama no kage ni wa fit kai tani go arn there is a deep ravine on the other (B) side of that mountain. 1 wonder what the do iu kagen deaho ? (C) reason is.t. on ico kaesu : to repay a kindness. nori-kae-ru (q. to look at oneself in a Familiar substitute for ka^ in real terrogations. hikkuri-kaesu : to overturn. Comp. hikkuri-kaeru kaeri-gake.

kaisha. . 5) To how long he takes over everything ga kakaru (B) it require* much labour : : ! : to begin a work. . sonna te ni kakatte wa tamara-nai (B) it is dreadful to be caught by such a trick. 2) To put on pour on sprinkle megane wo kake-ru : to put on spectacles. [stem of foil. ) kumo ga tsuki ni kakatte imasu (C) the . takusan kai-mono wo itashimashita (D) I have made many purchases. : One's . hanging on the : hidden by a cloud. omp. kake-dasu. cost. different to. daru to take To run out. To wo kake-ru ni kake-ru : to sprinkle sugar. . inada o 1 me ni kakatta koto wa arimasen one 's wants that he leaves notliing to be desired.g. kakaru. dono gitrai kakarimasu ka ? ? (C) it : how much ': o me : show . (C) it : it costs too really ? kaH. [kal to buy mono thingj.: kaigan-dori : the bund.: duty. time or trouble. A company (commercial). A fire . kaigau. kake-rul. floor. v. te) ni kakatte ahinda (B) he met his death at another "s hand. kake-rul v.' : is : tha. kai-mono. hikkakaru : to get hooked. sore wa dare no kakari demi ka ? (C) duty is it to attend to this ? kore u-a anata no kakari ni sum (B) whose I put : : you in charge of this.onto kai : (B) . conflagra: wo tffiikt-nai to kaii ni narimasu (C) if you are not cai'eful you will set the house on fire. [cogn.e.i.].]. mizu wo kake-ru : to pour water (on some watashi no (A) : . : : To hang. 4) begin. ground san-gai : seoond floor.10 (B) . isha ni kakaru ness. w.so ': /'. it is '! kugi ni kakete aru (B) nail. [ ? kakuZ to scratch Itching. Into ni kakaru : to be dependent on another : : : in the bath-room. as regards money. Meanings vague and difficult to classify. (C) : have not had the honour of meeting him yet. [cogn. kondo asuko ni hashi ga kakarimasu (C) they are going to build a bridge there soon. can't ano kugi ni kakarimasen ka ? (C) you hang it on that nail '2 To cover .i. is : moon : mono wo asuko ni kakete o kure hang my things up there. lei : ji* thing]. used polite'y in the 1st person). sono mado ni wa kono mado-kake ga kakaru no desu (C) this curtain is to be hung over that window. (a humble verb. i.kai kai ? 53 kake'ru amari kane ga kakarimasu much. Things bought purchase.]. the kakawhile you were out -Mr Yamada called you up on the telephone. hito no te ni kakaru : to be deceived by somebody. tori-kakaru : to happen to pass. ki-kakaru : to happen to come. ichi-nichi kakarimasti (C) : . . hito ni utte kakaru : to attack somebody. hito-de (i. kaji iva furoba kara deta (B) the fire began : ki ni kakaru : to make one anxious. kakari.t. ira kakari no hito man in charge mo sagarimashUa (C) the has already left (e. kail. will it cost how long will take used politely in the 1st person). kai-mono ni ikit : to go shopping. jv-nin-gakari no shigoto : a work requiring ten persons. or require. . [hiku to pull]. : kaji. [ka fire tion. to 3) Various. [tori street]. thing). out]. itattt n-o kaiku mo na> : to he utterly inI.e. kakaru v. very pleased to make your acquainto : ance. a house). : to consult a doctor. ttatd 3) take. hajimete o me ni kakarimasu (D) this is the first time I have the honour of meeting you . the floor above The takes a whole day.duty or charge : byoki ni kakaru o ruau ni to be attacked by an ill- an occupation. ame ga kakaru to dame ni naru (B) that will be spoilt if it is caught in the rain. Meanings vague 1) and difficult to classify.t. kaii tokoro c te ga todoka-nai yd : h"ke wanting to scratch a place one cannot re&cli kaii tokoro e te ga todoku yd ni yoku ki ya he is so attentive to t&fiku hito d< sii (C) : me ni kakaru : to meet . ' The sert-shoie. v. Floor ni-kai storey (of first floor. iochu u~a ni-kai ni orimasu (C) is domo nani wo auru ni mo nogoku kakaru (B) : the servant te upstairs. in for support. need. [kake-niS to run . office). go across. (a humble verb. In comp. shigoto ni kakaru Various.v. w. 1 ) To hang be able to hang. kakari q. : kare-kakaru : to begin to wither. kakaru often shows that an action is about to commence or else that ir IN rimashita (C) : Yamoda San kara denwa ga accidental. nno koto ga domo ki ni kakaru (B) that matter is worrying me a great deal. on. go over .

kakko no nedan : a moderate price. kakusu. Der. dempo wo kake-ru : to send a telegram. matter . w. an apron. [cogn.- kono bydki wa isha ni kakete mo naorimasen this disease cannot be cured even if (C) it be treated by a doctor. [mae before]. kondo no uchi wa yohodo kane wo kaketa yd da (B) he seems to have spent a lot of .kake'ru o kamau ? me to ni kakemasho ka ? (D) : : shall I show it komakaku write Der. . kaki-otosu ting.: kakushi : a pocket. [torn to take]. mekata wo kake-ru . haru kara natsu e kakete nete imashlta (C) I was ill in bed from the spring all through : tegami wo kaki-tome ni letter. used in neg. kaki-naoeu : to re-write (so as to correct).t. [dasu to take out e-kaki : a painter. w. kane wo kake-ru : to spend money bet. . koahi-kaki-ru : to sit. hagaki q. kaki-tome : writing down . w. kokoro ni kake-ru : to bear in mind. sum to register -. kaki-dashi : a bill.'iuse it itches). kaki-tsukeru. kaki-tome no tegami : a registered letter.). kake*ru2. To v. sugata (or kagc. : mae-kake a curtain. oboe-gaki : : memorandum. kakure-ru \. v. kaku-. [cogn. inochi ni kakete mo : even at the risk of life. kagi wo kake-ru .. matter (to me). To write down . [cogn. atama wo kaku : to scratch the head from shame or bec. ki ni kake-ru : to worry. uwa-gaki address written on an envcln| . shimpai wo kake-ru : to cause worry. To run. w. san-ju kakko no Mto da (B) who looks about thirty. tokoro-gaki place]. form. hakari ni kake-ru : to weigh. hide oneself. [koshi loins]. [naosu to put right] kaki-sokonau : to make a m.e-ru to stop]. make a note of. To hide . kaku Angle corner. tsukue ni kire wo kake-ru : to spread a cloth on the desk. shi-kaku : a square. To scratch out].i. memoryj. to give oneself airs. After the stem of a verb it often signifies the beginning of an action. kakusu v. . : to address accost [hanagul to speak]. : to omit (accidentally) in wri- : money on his new house. kaki-toru : to write from dictation. kake-ruZ v. kaki-tsuke-ru (q. To write . Note : one sometimes hears kakette instead of kakete for the gerund. : he is a mini Moderate in price. hashigo wo. : u-atuxan - over tin- kakko. be able to write. mind kamau. okkake-ru : to run after. (gen. watashi ni kakushlte iru koto ga am dard kakureru.v. jo wo kake-ru : to lock. hana ni kake-ru : to talk through the nose .i. or mi) wo . [ou to pursue]. to run out. denwa wo kake-ru : to speak by telephone. . v. aan-kaku : a triangle.t.|. draw : Comp. koe wo kake'ru to call out. [oboe [tokoro . registration : : my . conceal. Comp.\ : the summer. hashi wo kake-ru : to build a bridge. it you down kaki-tsukete o in detail. > - making. oki nasai (B) : dozo o kake kudasai (D) please take a seat. tsuke-ru to put down]. which al<n 2) serves as potential]. . kakul v. {cogn. to rake away. dekake-ru : to go out start [de-ru to go . [t>mke-ru to put down]. v. [sokonau to fail]. kanjo-gaki : written account. oya ni kuro wo kake-ru : to give trouble to one's parents. [e3 picturel. inado-kake : [ue exterior].). kakul. kaki-tsuke ga nakereba kane wo nai (B) I cannot hand you money without a written order. to which it also serves as potential]. kotoba wo kake-ru : to speak to. kake-dasu oi-kake-ru : there is something you are kerj>iim . kake*ru3. [dasu to take out]. it doesn't (watakushi wa) kanKiitnasen (C) : : concealed from me. bill. read]. 1) Shape . [kakul to write.t. (tis >. (B) : Comp.: to write down. hirnawo kake-ru: to spend much time in ': kaki-tsuke : a document . : written address. . yomi-kake-ru : to begin to read. koshi (wo) kake-ru : to sit. [lean jo calculation]. [yomu to hanashi-kake-ru .\. paint.v. L-akiisu : to con ceal oneself. \tom. hito ni me wo kake-ru : to look in a friendly manner upon another.t.kake-ru : to put up a ladder. To write .'stake in wri ting.i. To trouble oneself with care .\. [mado window].

. kane ni nani shigoto da (B) it is a work in which money can be made.An . nar3 to make a Comp. money like water. [korosu to trouble yourself about me. [katai a out from tho earth]. is : kanari yoku dekita (B) kanari ozei it pretty well trouble o . no mochi-atvase ga arimasen (C) 1 have no money about me. kane kane kane kane wo moke-ru : to make money. : . : matters. watakushi no none of who abunakute mo kamau mono ka (B) cares even if it is dangerous ? kamawa-nai de kudasai (C) please do not ' my kamau koto de nai (B) business. etc. : regardless of : : money. can 't aonna koto ni kamatte irare-nai (B) trouble about it.v. haZ edge]. Moderately fairly : . ano hlto no koto wa mo kamawa-nai (B) I shall no longer trouble myself about him. . kane-mochi na (or no) : rich. ga nai (B) I have no money. kane ga mokarimasu <C) there is money in : : it. noise j. Comp. noise . : he kane wo kakete ie wo tatemashlta (C) built a house at a great cost. kana-mono : an article made of metal. kaminari ga naru kamisori kamisuri to shave].koto wa nai (B) it isn't a thing that I : kan-. a. hair of the head. : put in}. [kami hair soru. [suu (sui water.: jikan shitkan /. A sign-board. may serve as a mnemonic) . Wife (kanai is a humble word therefore) my' wife. kanai. . kane wo kake-ru : to spend money bet. kane wo tame-ru : to save up money. kamiaori kamisuri : a razor. surife to shave]. your wife (o-kamisan q. .- . torn to takej. kami-ta&ku : to bite to bo in contact]. : . . the English 'bone' and the Japanese hone or in its niyori'ed form bone . ' ' A can . kane wo tv&kau : to spend money. . [abura oil]. [<*/- to it. . nukoahi gurainarakamaimasen (C) I don't mind if it is only a little. : a purae. to tinned provisions. kaminari : tlumder. To ( omp. ('omp. kane de koshiraeta mono metal. . bite. [it is probably a mere coincidence that the souid and meaning are almost the same as the English can compare the English 'typhoon' which comes from the Arabic with the Japanese taifu . rather. the government (in which case you say o-kami) . [ire-ru to put into]. : a thing made of open a shop. kane wo tsugd swrv. [kamil god 'Ihunder. kamawa-nai de kudasai (C) please don't \ratakuahi : : : 55 kami-korosu till]. A razor. kamai mo me : : a good many people. kamawa-nai ho <ja yokatta (B) it might have been better not to pay any attention : kanl. [maku to roll up Japanese letter-paper is in rolls]. . please do not trouble yourself. kami wo iu Comp. kanari. kaminari. abura-kami : oil-paper. : the thunder rolls.) head . the French 'ouate' and German 'watte'. god (in which case you kane ga kalcaru : to be expensive.]. Fajjer. kamban wo dasu : to put up a sign-board to itasluma-scn deahita (C) excuse for not having been attentive to you.: kanzume me-ru.'cotton wool' and the Japanese tmta . : kamban. leave me alone please. kana mono. . say kamt-sama) . ndruS to . akagane : copper.katriau wa do de mo katnaitnaaen (C) any way will do for me. Metal money kanashii.article made of metal. [kamil god j. wo son 8i<ru : to lose money. 1 : to do up the hair. [kane metal mono thing]. : .v. ftonna koto ni kamawa-nai de ikimasti (C) that shall not prevent me from going. kane-mochi : a rich man. [ '! liarigane : wire. hane-ire kamu. the Spanish tanto 'so much' and the Japanese tanto . . . a tin. [Itari needle]. : to raise money. kajnav. bell. (. Sad sorrowful.q. (as an attack ). done>. nel root metals are dug hard kane. Upper side. don "t let me disdozo o kawai naku (C) turb you . . [motttu to own]. [mono thing]. [kamii hair soru . kane : to kill (by biting). orrp. : it is Tokyo Yokohama kan no michi : the road between Tokyo and "Yokohama. katnii. maki-pami : Japanese letter-paper. ' ' . . Jtagane : steel. Interval of time or space. itsuka-kan : during five days. : . Itashi no kami : above the bridge. . to ^V* xwi-tori-cjami : blotting-paper. . [akai red]. . kane ni komaru : to be hard up for money. nmdo wo akvtc mo kaitiaimcmen ka ? (C) do you mind if I open the window ? kane ni kamawa-nai de. . kane wo yu-mizu no yd ni tsukan : to spend : . make kami2.

nanalsu kara Tokyo ni imasu (C) lived in till night . kore de kao ga sorotta (B) here. [noosu to mend]. After a noun (or its equivalent). kore wa nan to mo kangae ga tsuka-nai (B) I cannot come to any conclusion in this betsu ni kangae : : : to nigai kao wo express displeasure in the face frown. kangaeru made mo nai : self-evident. kao wo ukaku sum . kore wo kanjo ni irete kudasai (C) put this down to my account. ikura desu ka / (C) what does it kanjo : : : since I was seven.ae. kangae a knowing look. 2) Kara after nouns is sometimes translated Tokyo in other ways. (because it is so simple or Ijecause it is so absurd) . kowai kao wo face. . . sore wa anata no kangae-chigai desu (C) it . mono-shiri-gao karai. : 56 kara 1 G'omp. : it well. sakki kara : since some time ago. anata kara hanashite kudasai : (C) : please come to ? : speak to him yourself. sum : . praiseworthy. anata no kangae wa do de#& ? (C) what is your opinion ? watakushi no kangae de wa : in my opinion. ano hito wa naka-naka kao ya ttrcte he is very widely known. kanjo wo torn.ru. .: a misunderstanding.: kanjo-gaki : a bill.kane megane kang. kanjo wo harau (or yarn) : to pay a bill. kanjo wo shite kudaaai (C) . utterly impossible. Corn p. since. yane kara ocfiita (B) he fell off the roof the sun rises taiyo wa higashi kara deru (B) : : : kono kanjo ni minna haitte ima-su ka ? (C) does tlus bill include everything kono kanjo wa mada s-unde imasen (C) this account is still owing. (or morau) : to collect a bill.admire. make out an account pay an halime kara : from the beginning. sum : to express anger in the : differ. [iro colour].v.: a thought. yakimochi kara : out of joalou>\ : . knni kara kitategami desu (C) it is a letter : from home. Admiration. dono kao sagete ivatashi no tokoro e kita no da ? (A) I don't know how you have the : face to cnme here.v. kao ga akaku narn : tu . of to [stem kangae-ru think]. means from. there is a mistake in kanjo ga chigau (B) the account. hikidashi kara kagi wo o dashi natii (U) take the key out of tho draper. kangae-chigai q. oki na kao A his feelings. : : awaseru kao ga arimasen (C) I much ashamed to see him. 1) : q. sore kara : after that. raigetvu am Amerika e iku kangae desu (C) I thinking of going to America next : month. : to . place or time. : I ha\ - : kanjo ni machigai wa arimasen ka ? (C) have you not made u mistake in the account ? kanjo wo shime'ru : to close an account. [kakitl to writ* kanshin. kokoro wa kao ni deru (B) his face Ix'ti-us * : : blush. : now we are all : is kangae. please make out your bill. kao-iro ga o ivami yd desu (C) : am -irn to- (B) : you dnn "i look well. [cfiigau to be mistaken]. Face features. reckon account. [kangae-ru to think chigau to be mistaken]. r shira-nai kao bakari da (B) thej are all strangers to me. (wo) to calculate . kao-iro : looks. : . hito kara kiita no desu (C) somebody told me. [tsukul . JShimbashi kara u>akaremashita (C) 1 parted from him at Shimbashi. ]. : a misapprehension on your part. kanjo. to be in contact]. wa arimasen (C) I have no opinion on the subject. [me eye]. kanjo sum : : . wo sum : to look proudly. kara uen. asa kara ban made : from morning him kara : afternoon. yoku kangaete kudasai (C) please consider . To think reflect. and comp. ano hito kara yoroshlkn (B) he sends you his kind reg-irds. Reckoning bill. mm matter. spectacles. Thought idea opinion. ly denotes a person. calculation account . shiran kao wo sum : to pretend ignorance. . kirei ni kanjo wo sum : to settle definitely ' : in the east. kono hon wa chichi kara noraunaeMta (C) this book is a present from my father. go kanjo wo negaimasu (D) please settle the account. dozo mo ichi-do kangaete kudasai (C) please reconsider the matter. misunderstanding. kangae-naosu : to change one's mind. Der. an account. after. hito ni yotte kangae ga chigau (B) opinions : kanshin kanshin na kao. kangaete mimasho (C) I will think it over. The noun usual: kangoe-tsuku : to call to mind. kangae-chigal.

(sometimes abb. : !/ohan wo tabele kara dekakemasho (C) I go out after I have had my dinner. boiTOw rent (as a house). karai. you are owing me five yen. Mother: (the honorificka-san. w. That person.. (often corr. Umbrella . kara. v. karada ni ii : good for the healtli. ikaremasen. : a Japanese umbrella. Yokohama e kite kara aukoahi ijoku narimashlta (C) since I came to Yokohama I : mo kare kore hint ni narimasho (C) . is kono bin ica kara desu (C) this bottle empty.' : ': : a man of robust karada no kagen : the state of one's health.v.). to karappo) prec. senso de shinda no desft (C) : he di'd kare. te wo kari-ru : to obtain help. < ka-ean). Debt loan. kari wo kaesu : to pay a debt. anata wa u-atavhi ni go-yen kari ga . iii-yateu ichi-nichi kara : or. o ka-sama is more polhf tlmn pref. kare-ru. ichi-do ii-dashita kara ni rm ato e wa hlkaafter I have said something I nai (B) never go back on my words. Comp. todana. [A komori-gasa : a foreign-style mori a bat]. to kaZ q. in everything health should be how will (C) : wliile it another I was doing one thing and became dark. motte there is one yen an the kite o kure (A) desk. - has ac-cumulated.: kara-te : empty-handed.t. kara iru kara means because. : be close upon noon. it i> (C) just try a little (of very h'ght.. IS) serious.i. dekakemasen as it raining I shall not go out. kasft also v. (Note the the exceptional use of kara which follows meanpast tense and has nevertheless the : debts.jar which is in the cupboard. ni-' hnn-ya d" Taro San n> aimashita I met chiyo ni kuru yd ni iimashita (C) Taro at the bookseller's. katrru.. [ 1 kara^ (no). ushiro kara kuru hUo wa dare desii ka (C) who is that man walking behind us I nanatsu kara gakko e agarimashita ((') entered school when I was seven. bring it. not in the gerund. karada ga warm (B) I feel ill. come it will be time (B) back. . am (B) : 4) After verbs. nani wo vuru ni (B) : mo karada ga ii'hibun iin : : <it eight o'clock.t. karui kara sfikoshi mesh i -ayaUc qoran this food). kare kore shUeru uchi ni kuraku naritnaslutn first . isogashii kara (C) : I can't go. and after the 1st of October. v. and after as.i*mu-n piled or heaped up. o-ide (A) : the sugar-jar is in the In examples like the foil. w. nut hem -v Light not serious. : ano hUo ga kimasen deshita kara gakkari to my great disappointshimashita (C) ment he did not come. [karaZ empty]. kasanaru. kore kara : lieuceforth . [cogn. kari no : temporary. it must : feel somewhat de I better. the illnesn is not bydki wa karui (B) : . it commences hachi-ji kara hajimaru (B) . kari. put up an umbrella. B6dy. w. : : to come on Sunday. kuchi no karui otoko da (B) : he i* am cupboard. tsukue no ue ni ichi-yen aru kara. so I asked him : tongued fellow. raku na karada ni naru : to Income a man of leisure. since. kari wo taoau : not to pay one's '!'<> karui. itsu kara Nihon ni irasshaimastf. kof ga kare-ru : to become hoarse. k. kari ni : temporarily for a time. kasa wo aasu : to open. now.].i. f. I am busy. tamago no kara : an empty egg-shell.v. kaette kara mo ii enough when adjectives. in the war. ama-gasa hi-gaaa : (. umbrella. : <ru (B) shigoto ga kasanaUe biiM. ni sato no haitte iru tsubo ga motte. kara indicates not the cause of the action but what makes the action possible.t. kasa no hone : the ribs of an umbrella. bring it. To wither dry up. : a kono ana kara kazc ga kimaftu (C) draught comes through this hole. Comp. [Art snn|. q. i- : : ing of after). kasa. : : Empty. (Kara is always inclusive). since. become [cogn.' oya no namae wo kaxa ni suru (B) he makes use of his father utation to get his own way. (C) : ante ga is futtr.: kari. kara.: shio-karai : salty. \* are that].-n one upon another pile up : \ : place beap up- . [stem of foil.kara : 57 kasane'ru karada no tsuyoi hUo health. tod ana kara said ga haitte iru tsubo wn motte o-iile (A) bring me the sugar. [ a Japanese sunshade. kasaneru. Said of tastes like salt and mustard. Japanese head. : ? (D) long have you beon in Japan ? 3) After a gerund. v.: Comp. kari ga deki-ru : to get into debt.wear. kite wagaimm. kare. [shio salt]. [cogn. kara means after.J. ka*an<i. fco^n. . Der. kara da. ka the consideration.

The head kashira.i. kato na yatsu : a common fellow. . iku to mo yosu to mo watashl no katte da (B) whether I go or whether I don't is nobody 's business but mine. . Tired . senso ni katsu : to win a battle. katte ni tsukatte wa ike-nai (A) you mustn't make use of other people's things without leave. Der. : katachi. kashlte kari-ru also v. katana. [kata one ho side]. kataku sMnjite imasu (C) firmly.: katte q. ano o kata wa Takada San desu (C) that gentleman is Mi' Takada.t. katazuke-ru v. kasu. [te hand].i. katazuku v. revenge oneself. To be put in order be settled.v.). katachi ddke no koto desu (C) : it is a mere form. kata-me . w. pref. Hard . .kasane'ru wo shUe wa ike-nai (A) don't do such a thing again. katte. wo torn . do shiyo to kimi no katte da (B) it is for you to decide what to do.: one side. AFTER THE STEM OF A VERB way or manner of doing. kata-te : one hand. \ashi leg]. kono moyo wa aka ga katte iru (B) there is too much red in this pattern. : : Comp. kattarui. katp. Oomp. .t. Sword. feed rear. he believes it it 1 expected. Convenience .: jibun-gatte cheaper than will y q. one leg. kashi. inu wo kau : to keep a dog. . Enemy. nicely arranged. ga yabukfta (B) one of my hoots has a hole in it. : wo katazuke-ru to clear away (A. wo katazuke-ru. kawal. [kata side tsuke-ru to join To put away (in cogn.v. w. kataki : to order strictly. One side one of a pair. : . Side direction. [gerund of katsu to win]. chief. v. upright (moral: kau'. v. rent. omotta yori yasuku kaimashlta (C) I bought . its place) put in order settle. katsu. COMP. To keep or .v.v. katappo bakari warui no ja aritnasen (C) it is not the one side only that is to blame. : kono teach please character. to finish a work. kawa no kishi : the banks of a river.-ruS. kono hon wo katazukete o kure (A) put tin's . yugata . v.ru mo un shidai : winning or : losing is a question of luck. kata ga tsiiku : to be put in order. : a house to let. strict . wo katazuke-ru : timsume wo katazuke-ru .]. : to marry off a : kashi-ya kata. katappo no kutsu. : . katte ni o shi hito no mono : : OTHER.v. katte na koto wo suru : to act according to one 's fancy. that. [kata side tsukui to be in contact cogn.t. : kataku ii-lsuke-ru kataki. : : Comp. the workmankoshirae-kata ga warui (B) : Lower class . weary. form. [cogn. [to'l class].) things. kawa : . katappo. kudasaimam ka ? (D) how you give for it ? kenka wo kau : to interfere and take the ikura de katte much kataki wo utsu : to avenge . [ho side]. own way.-one eye. katte ni sase-ru : to let somebody have his one's own not the slightest use doing see also shikata. . ano shigoto wa yoyo katazukimashUa (C) that work has at last been disposed of. Sweetmeats cakes (the honorific o kasanete konna koto . kashi-ma a room to let. kata wo tsuke-ru : to put in order settle. to change]. katazuku . [kaf. BEFORE A NOUN kata-ashi : one of two. q. katazuite i-nai : to be in disorder. .thigoto put this to lend a hand help assist. To win . gen. settled 2) Person.]. daughter.]. kai-mono : . [me eye]. lend . gata . River. katappo q. [mal room]. kai-tf : kau-. Comp. : kono heya wo katazukete o kure room in order do this room. . katai. shape . the buyer. . third class. part of one of the disputants in a quarrel. solid . : To book away in ato its place. Figure . kirei ni katazuite imasu (C) they are all : . is katazuke-ru. . [kawaru to change]. : Comp. [ko\ small]. w. kata wo motsu : to take the side of. . te wo kasfi mimi wo kasij to listen to. yukata q. ship is ji bad. katazuku. katsu mo make. : ayemaxho : : (C) I will lend it to you.t. sono shi-kata de no yomi-kata wo oshiete kudasai (C) me how to read this wa totemp dame da (B) it like : it's convenience. : . To buy purchase. kawa muko 'no kaji : a fire the other side the river no concern of mine. [yal house]. conquer.: ko-gatana a penknife. katte ni suru : to have one 's own way. nasai (B) do as you like. katachi wa minikui ga kokoro wa is : ii (B) she not good looking but she has a good : disposition. iy). 1 ) .

. Tuesday. : kazu no oi : numeroiis. [cogn. kawari -gawari .]. [kol small]. [rashii q. and UK anlook. kawatta koto ga nai (B) nothing unusual : : . kazu. : kawari ga nai (B) there is no change. kawaku v.: ko-gawa kawaS. To dry desiccate. [stem of kawaru to change]. seito : thing all right ? ke. ryo-gawa : both . kawakasu v. ureshi-ge : appearance | turns. . Comp. .: kazoe-dnshi : age.]. inu wo sonna ni ijimete wa kawaiso it is cruel to tease a dog so. -ke. kawari wo agemasho (P) lot me give you another helping. sides. Comp. 1 will go anata no kawari ni ikimasu (C) : . muko opposite]. v. Altera. [kazu numlwr]. kawaiso. nodo ya kawakimasliUa (C) I am thirsty. . [cogn. referring to tii shiake : a salty taste. kawaiie vru : to be dry. appearance or probability. Der. joyfuij. form. To count reckon. : . kyo wa nani ka kawatta kudawono MX? o-ide (A) buy some other kind of today. poor man da (B) : kaze wo hifat : to catch a cold. kawaiso q. leather.: kazoe-m. [cogn.t. - tion. a man A apparently unconcerned. kawaigaru : to treat kindly.thousand. an astringent t^ste. kaze.v.: ke-ori no: \\oollen (of cloths)}' [orn . kawaii ko : a lovely little child.i. kawairashil : same meaning as kawaii. w. anata no kawaii o-jd-san : your daughter whom you are so fond of your charming daughter. kae-nt2 v. 50 ke kawaru.: kazari : an ornament. kawa'2 side the skin is on the out- muko-gawa : kawa bakari ni narimashlta (C) he is reduced to skin and bones.) instead of that (fig. w. kayo kayo-bi [see yo-bi\. fione to Skin . : : : a stream. To change vary. . [oru l>ej. kawakasu.: 6-kaze : a gale. the hair grow*. [shio salt J. kawari-ban : by C-omp. o kawari wa gozaimasen ka with you : ? (D) : is every- kazu ant naJca de : amoigst a gi-eat many no kazu wa tan-zen ni cliikai (B) the number of student* is close upon tlin-. .t.i. let me take your place a little while. and adj. ke no fukai : hairy. refers only to little or childish persons or things). 311. kaze ga kima#u (C) there is a draught.bigj. .) on the other hand. kaze ga kawatte ame ni natta (B) thr wind changed into rain. Hair : fur. kawaku. [-6an3 turn]. \van.: kawari q. Number. ano hUo wa chitto mo kawara-nai (B) that man hasn't changed a bit.v. doko wo kaze ga fuku to iu yosu wo xli'it' : : : 2) iru hlto : cold. : : died. shibuke: it forn [Ww : : astringent]. v.: o : ka ? rydri-nin no kawari ga mada ar imasen have you riot yet found anyone to (C) take your cook 's place ? kawari wo yarimashita (C) I sent a proxy. sfikoshi kawariinashd (C) you must be tired. mada kawaite imasen (C) it is not diy yet.kawa Comp. kawari.J. kawaii. it is add 2) In its nw/o/-red nouns or stems of verbs or adj.tari-nai (B) there are some ing. ke ga haemaan (C) ke ga nukemaxu (C) the hair falls. [ ? (of the road). Der. o teukare desho. [//"/ of pleasure. [ryo~ both]. Der. katt> fruit . q.]. ge. : kaze ga fuku ne (B) doesn 't the wind hlovr kaze gademashUa (C) the wind has bej-un to blow. to weave]. (na). 1) Wind. .v. to ari-ge : probably existing. kino futta kawari ni kyo wa o lenki (B) hand it rained yesterday but on tlie other it is beautiful weather today. adult \. sono kawari ni : (lit. Charming lovely darling (gen. otona-ge : like an adult. Side row. futa-kawa ni narabu : to arrange in two rows. ! : has happened. . Exciting pity.t.v. v. it is chiisai kawari ni nedan ga yasui (B) small but on the other hand it is cheap.: to count. kazu go. [toshi year): . mukai-gawa kawa3. kazoeru. Comp. w. : side]. 1) Added to nouns abstract nouns gen. To become dry be thirsty. [kawaii charming. To ornament adorn display. kawaiso na hlto ! poor fellow kawaiso ni told shinimashita (C) at last the .i. : : instead of you. pet [-garu q. kono heya ni kaze wo yokii tdshitt o /////< (A) ventilate this room well. [o. : Comp. : the opposite side [mukai. -so apparently : the meaning has somehow changed]. stoms. fondly .]. kazaru. Der. .v. .

[f. . Marriage. keru. o ki ni irimasu ka ? (D) : do you hke it '! kodomo no krn-ka ni oya </<//< : does it suit you 'I . keisatsu. (there is a great deal to be said against it). Nara wo kembutsu ni ikimasu I am going to Nara to see the sights. kesshite itashimasen (D) (foil. Sight-seeing. etc. kezuru. kenyaku. ki wo ue-ru : to plant a tree.n. buildings. hi-keshi : fireman.i. . . keredo(tno) is hardly more than copulative particle. Splendid fine excellent.. . Tree . no nai tokoro ni kemuri wa agara-nai : there is no smoke without fire. : my leg. I kembutsu. delicious that will do nicely. 6 rok-ken . kenka part ico kait. kesshite go shimpai nasara-nai de kudanai (D) you needn't have the slightest : many sights to see.kechi kechi (na). . o kega wa arimaaen '! ka ? (C) : did you hurt yourself Exercise . morning. but. j ik-ken . kil. karada ga jdbu de kane ga areba konna kekko na koto wanai (Ji) if you have health and money what more can you wish for ? Nikko u'o mi-zu ni kekko to itte wa ike-nai : don't use the word 'splendid' until you have seen Nikko. : : [kono q. kembuteu sum : to go about sight-seeing. : body. blanket . ketto. A. (ino hito to krnka sum : to quarrel with that : sum fight. . . view scenery expression of the face. : . Xote 1 ik-ken . ki-tubiilsu ni iku : to go (to some place) to see the sights. [hi'2 fire]. at. (C) : never kesshite machigae. nani wo mite iru no dard ? (B) that man has been standing there some time. cancel erase. this asa morning!. A of one the disputants </n a quarrel. Economy. [torn to take]. man. keredo(mo). Never : . keiko. A quarrel . put a blanket on. Although however nevertheless but often used in elliptical sen. hair mono thing]. To exkesu. Wound. tore wa so desu keredomo. steam.v.t. . English (blan)ket]. kcga (wo) mini : to hurt oneself get wounded".kemono. kanjo ga sumimashita kara chomen wo kcshite kudasai (C) as the account is settled please cancel it in your books. kexshlte o tako gozaimasen (D) I assure you the price is not too dear. kenka (wo) to quarrel. but less commonly This kc-ru). Comp. . kemu(ri). lesson. . : Sometimes I wonder what he 's looking (more correctly To kick. wood. kekko desu (C) it is splendid. ken. a me ga furu keredomo iko (B) although it is raining I shall go.masen I am sure I Kyoto ni wa kembutsu san gozaimasu (D) : sum in Kyoto lokoro ga takuthere are (C) : have made no mistake. okori-so na keshiki wa nakatta (B) he didn 't look as if he were going to get angry. 1000 sen -yen . Smoke. what you (C) say is true no doubt. practice . /. A quadru: anxiety. kedo. k|2. ki dis- Stingy used also to express approval in other senses.. a nasty. kie-ru v. ped lii .]. v. by never : no d<> I will again. keiko ga wakaru : to know one "s lesson. take part in children's quarrels (and they dis- agreeable man. kega.). kechi na Into : a stingy man . ki no kawa : the bark of a tree. shibaraku tomatte kembuisfi. tinguish put out . for houses. contr. : to interfere of and take the in To plane sharpen scrape. certainly. kekkon. kekko (na). a. ki ni iru : to like. always side with their own children).o sliimaxliita (C) : I have hurt tences. 3 san-gen .: keisatsii-sho : police-station. kesshite sonna koto wa iimasen (C) said such a thing. . of kercdo which is itself a short form of keredomo. . : Com p. kesa. means mo it by neg. . kenyaku sum : to economize. rug. [cogn.fi /a u'o fnixc'tti : to hurt or injure some. nasai (C) stay for a few days and see the sights. Spirit . 10 100 hyak-ken . : . [ke. ashi ni kegu -i'. kckkon (wo) suru : to marry. sore wa kekko de#ii (C) that's very good am very pleased to hear it. ka ? (C) are there any fine views here ? okotta keshiki wa nakatta (B) he did not appear to be angry. . w. Police. keredo. : Landscape . 1 keshiki. ano hito wa sakki kara asuko ni taJLte -int. . : : : kesshite. kono kinjo ni keshiki no ii tokoro ga arimasfi. Nihon-i/o no keiko wo uru : to take lessons in Japanese. : nan-gen ? kenka. tori-kesu : to cancel. ketto wo kake-ru : to cover with a blanket . . beaxt.

v. I am itsu rnogo kigen yokute kekko dexu (C) pleased to hear you are keeping well.ki 61 ki ni ira-nai hito : a man I don't like. I don't are to wa ki ga awa-nai (B) ki ga : kikai. ki-iroi. ki no nagai : patient. ki ga tsukimasen deshlta (C) I did not think of it I didn 't notice it. [fujin woman]. kidoru : to put on ktraku . To also serves as potential]. Tool get on well with him. ki no kiita hlto : an attentive.i. ki-iro (na). hear be heard . kiemaaMta ((. o kotoba ga kikoemasen (D) : I cannot hear is you. wo haratta no de ki ga raku ni natta I feel easy now that I have paid my (B) : this morning. w. v. ki no chiisai : timid. _ a thin. ki ga sum : to have a feeling be under th impression . \vnjfli no kika-nai hlto : an inattentive. [iro colour] Corr. kie-ru. ki no okii : generous. // serves as potential]. . kimochi sen . a lunatic. inquire. [cogn. . wake wo kika-nai (B) he will not INirn : t. doko ka de atta yd na ki ga sum (B) I have an idea that I have met him somewhere. : . ki ni sawaru : to get angry. state of one 'a undo sum I have no inki ni nare-nai (B) clination to take exercise. - w - kikoe-rn v. A . dullwitted man. he is in a bad keaa wa kigen ga warui (B) : temper kigen wo kigen no ficult his kari mind has become unhinged. by adding Yellow. kiklll.t. au : to get on well together. think. . [ki2 . . <!. ki- hear thnt e i'ta so <la (B) he has gone to America. ki no muzukashii : hard to please. ki ni kakaru : to cause anxiety. klsha . kesu v. ki no hayai : excitable.- kikitniixI'Un ' de*& airs. ki-iro q.i.v. ki ga tsuku : to notice observe. iro colour]. be audible. ki no yowai : timid. : changeable kinodoku . v. hi ga kiemashita (C) the fire has gone out yuki ga mada kie-nai (B) the snow has not yet thawed. instrument apparatus. sonna ki wa nai (B) I have no such desire. kit it (C) : /'"'" <"' do you mean that you '/'' "" about orsnnply that you heard it ? . like would kikeba Amerika : : ikuraiUemokikiinasfn (G) say would move him. fickle. ki no mijikai : quick-tempered. : melt away. ki ga toku naru : to faint. : spirit chigau to be wrong]. [torn to take]. ki wo tsukete /cure (A) take care look out. ki ga tatttu : to be excited. . torn : to humour. . pi-ec.. : kifujin.') that rumour died out of itself. anata wa ki ga 'higatte iru (A) you are out of your senses. : kichigai. .i kiitt niimal>c> (C) : I will inquire I.: yellow. kichigai. < ukagau : to inquire after another 's : * go kigen ikaga desu ka ? (C) how are you go kigen yd (C) I wish you good lurk.t. ki ni naru : to be anxious. Temper health. sore wa hen ni kikotmasu strange.: kibi. ki ga chigau : to go mad. Yellow. w. Comp. 2) To ask sukoshi o kiki shltai no <l<*>i fifa. i and thus forminx atmeadj. : kiku ki : *. reason./. Yellow./.. about I C'ornp. ki-iroi koe : . believe . q. . about the fire.i. nan da ka ki ga isoide jitto shite wa i rare -nai somehow I feel flurried and cannot (B) : : kigen wo health. noiui. : : become extinguished To go out .'". ano hlto wa ki ga hen ni narimashlta (C) : : kigen no ii hito : a good-tempered man. ki ni kake-ru : to take to heart. it sore ga ki ni kakatte nerarcmasen (C) weighs on my mind so that 1 cannot sleep.]. : nothing I I r. ki wo tsuke'ru : to take care pay attention. 1 t (C) tlmt aoundi man. [cogn. high-pitched voice. v. ryoko kichigai : mad on (very fond of) trav- Madness elling.t. kiku\ v. no kawari-yasui . ) ano Mto ga bydkt da to kikimcuMta (C) heard that he was ill.(< to ask you something. tori-nikui hito da (B) : he is a dif- man debts. to which lie bl<> It t<> . [k$ yellow : : . ki no kiita ju : a smart appearance. To hear listen. kiclngai ni naru : to go out of one's mind. . remain quiet. kigen.j. mo juisuka itai yo na ki ga sum (B) : I feel much inclined to stay two days more. wide-awake : kikoe-ru. [f.. mono -wo ki ni sum : to take things to heart. to get on with. nan no ki mo naku : without any special intention. concerned. zuibun kikoeta hlto da (B) : he : a very well-known man. feeling lady.v. hi wo ki wo tsuke nasai (A) be careful . ki c gn . sono hydban mo shizen ni. of kimft q. ki ni kuwa-nai yateu : a disagreeable fellow. ki wo mawasu : to be suspicious.. /.

is not yet kimari no ii uchi : a well-managed family.t. Itilci-chiqaerru : : kitnil. is 1 Vs Note :kin 1 ano Mto wa naka-naka haba ga kiku (B) he has irreai influence. '{c wa kika-nai : more than is-shaku de wa kika-nai : more than one . To be [cogn. 6 rok-L'i n ? 10 jik-kin 100 hyak-kin nan-gin foot. 1st set of . kimaru to be . is probably a misunderstanding on your : part. : Set- upon . Plainly clearly.t. kiku-. kin2. Camp. [nare-ru to get accustomed]. iku yd ni kimemasMta (C) I decided to go./'niasen (C) I am sorry but I cannot possibly let you have it by tomorrow.: kinjo. l:iki-nare-ru kimo wo tsubusu .' Tokyo and the Kyoto ways kimochi wo waruku sum on . : : : yet. kinodoku. kimari ga warui (B) kimaru. regularity disposition. to hurt somethingj. kikascru. [stem of settled]. [ body 's kimono.i. kiku : to obey. hi wo kimemasho (C) let us fix the day. prec. kimo no futoi yatsu : a courageous (or audacious) fellow. to kikafi) tell. doku\ poison]. : : . kinl Gold money (compare gin silver). that sore wa anata no kiki-chigai dedid (C) : serves you right.]. kimo.v. spirit . I feel confused. of speaking ? f. Tokyo masu ka Kyoto no kotoba wo kiki-wakerare? (C) can you tell the difference : kimochi wa do feel? desii ka ? (C) : : how do you lietween the '.( il<: kinuiUa (B) kinu. azukari-kin : money received in deposit. tling *< Chrysanthemum. : yonde kikase-ru : to read to another.).kiku 3) Various. (about equal to lb.v. . [azukaru to receive in deposit]. o kinodoku sama : I am very sorry for you. ik-kin . . kimaru v. fixed. kinyo-bi . // kimochi : a p'. [H3 yellow . kono kagi wa kika-nai (B) this key won't open the lock. ii kimi da (A) I am glad it happened . ko kimete okimaeho (C) let us decide on . w. decided. : separate]. ninilii kiiHiirimasen (C) : I have not decided : Neighbourhood. v. iratashi wa hidari no te no ho ga i/oku kiki- feelings. settled. kimi ga warui (B) it makes me shudder. LiiiHiri no nai : irregular. mi meat]. it corres: kimi'2. shy.]. ' : A masu (in I left-handed. kiku (B) sharp-witted fellow. Note the potential of k'ku is sometimes kik<-ni or kikan-ru. . 3 san-gin .). kono kinjo : hereabouts. it kiki-chigai : a misunderstanding. : to To kime-ru. [tvake'm to kimochi.easant feeling.]. understand to (of a child). [chigae'ru different]. kirnari. kilfi-wakfru : to tell the difference by hear- ing . You . courage. kiki-awase-ru to join]. Friday. he is a very naka-naka yoku go. preceded by the . Comp. . it inada kimari ga tsuka-nai (B) \t\ed.arc ct'itHin to tliink I took it. : . yoku kiku kusuri da (B) it is a very efficacious remedy. te ga kiku : to be handy. kikoe-ni. Feeling. decide fix . kiku : to be sharp-sighted. [chigau to be wrong]. Der.: kimari q. [ki-rul to put mono M : Clothes (especially one particular Japanese garment). sore wa o kimari no ii-wake da (A) that's : : your usual pretext.v. don'tfeel quite well today. Yesterday. ponds to boku q. kime-ru v. kiku^. [see yo-bi]. 1 kyo wa sukoshi kimochi ga warui (B) . o kinodoku desu ga chotto te wo kashlte kudasai (C) I am sorry to trouble you but would you please help me a moment ? o kinodoku desu ga ashUa made ni wa <li /. : To be efficacious. Yolk of an to make inquires. w. (sometimes corr. . kuchi wo kiku : to speak. settle. (B) : kinyo kippari. [cogn.]. to be accustomed to hear. . *'/. Feeling. Silk. ano hlto wa honto ni kinodoku dtsu (C) he is much to be pitied. [ki~ spirit no of . to k-ibi). [batsu punishment]. [awase-ru egg- kimi to misunderstand. kimo ga tsubuwru : to be frightened out of one's wits. negai wo kiku : to grant a request. /'//to to omowareru ni ki matte iru peopli. The liver . num. that settles it. kimari ga nai (B) there is no fixed rule. v. q.i. kino y a kyo no koto ja nai (B) it is not a thing of recent occurence. : : this. . . (kimi is familiar . (C) : : am Japanese pound. [kiZ spirit niotsu to have]. [-i/ kin5. bakkin : a fine. Feeling sorrow or concern for others. iu koto ivo kippari Der. to make (sometimes corr.: kinodokugaru : to feel sorry for.

this is all there : is. [ofuku going out of stock. 2nd set num. . Yamada San wa Tanaka San ga kirai desu Mr Yamada doesn't like Mr Tanaka. Comp.]. kire in the sense of slice or Note of piece used in connection with the abb. : ki-kae-ru : to change one s dress. . kirai. : : : kireru. w. [cogn. to also serves as potential]. sorekkiri. . iki ga kire-ru : to be out of breath. easy. kirul. O Hisa ga asa deta kiri kaette ko-nai (B. 1) Pretty kirei handsome beautiful. In this sense it sometimes mgori'ed it is often foil. to change]. xore kiri. : reputation to get his own way. kirei (na). kire-nai (B) : Fog . totemo sono ana e wa hairi- Dislike. of the dislike both the subj and the obj are expressed. kiri kirl2. are some- fcono kitte katana wa yoku kiremasu well.kippari kippari kippari ki p pu. \vint.//(/ ni kanjo wo sum : to settle definitely an account. norikae-kippu : a transfer. to speak distinctly. [um to sell]. (C) : kiraku. spirit : . : fond of cleanliness. 4). are formed with the stem of another verb. of shika which re-'nforces its meaninir. w. etc. kimono : clothes. ano hito wa te ga katappo kiri (shika) nai mind kire. kono koto wa watakushi kiri (shika) dare mu shirimasen (C) nobody knows about this except me. v. [cogn. O Hisa Chan ni wa ichi-do ka ni do attti I don't kiri de. gen. hito : : wa you will never be able to get that earth into that hole. l>y . Hisa went out this morning (giving no indication of anything unusual) and has not returned. uwagi wo ki-ru : to put on a coat. a slice of bread. the kimono no sode ga kirete imasu (C) sleeve of your dress is torn. 2) Clean. kore kiri arimasen (C) tlifiv : : : : : is only this all. uso-tsuki wa dai-kirai desu (C) I hate liars. . freedom. raku ease]. . de (B) that man has only one arm. 2) To terminate end . kore wa ima kirete imasu mono wo Ticket. Kiri shika is sometimes contracted to tya. kazoe-kire-nai hodo takusan arimasu (C) there are too many to be counted. which it jvjote : kore kiri.t. 1 ) v. [mono things]. s and returning]. Comp. the obj. : dislike : 1) End. tsumi wo ki-ru: to be charged with a rr mr. Only except besides. To cut can cut.i. wa kirai da (B) he dislikes it : I him. niwa wo kirei ni soji o shi nasai (A) and tidy the garden nicely. is to cut]. kore ni wa kiri ga arimasen (C) there is no end to this.-r fuyu-gi : winter clothes. itri-kire-ru : now (C) : this article . baka ni wa kiri ga nai (B) stupidity has : no 2) is limits. slice pan no hlto-kire . . mist. takes wa and the obj. hanashiteru uchi ni denwa ga kirete shimatta while I was talking the telephone (B) was cut off.: kirei-zuki like]. kirei niyaite shimatta (B) it was complete: ly burnt. (to) Kiru kotowaru iu : : to flatly refuse. the subj. wear. exhaust. yoku ahirinMsen (C) know Miss Hisn very well as I have only met her once or twice. wi oyc no namae wo kasa ni kite shimasu (C) he makes use of his fatlit-r'. ano tabako ga kirai desu (C ) that man dislikes tobacco. kirii. Ease life . [suki neko iva sore kiri miemasen (C) after that the cat was seen no more. [ki2 . the string is ito ga futatsu ni kirete iru (B) broken in two. and the however if obj. (276. : (C) : this sword cuts mo kire-nai naka da (B) they are too fond of each other ever to be separated. [nori-kae-ru to ride in another carriage]. . .t. kami ga kore kiri desu ka ? (C) is this all the paper there is ? kore kiri desu . Note the Japanese construction does not distinguish clearly between the subj. : : times pronounced korekkiri. na keshiki : a fine view. kirete i-ru : to be cut or broken. chumon shUa hambun kya kimasen (C) only half the quantity I ordered has come. [shiUil . kiwru also v. put on . : Comp. [fuyu haru-gi : spring clothos. amari kirei mo wa nai yd desu (C) : kore kiri iwa-nai (B) I'll tell you once they do : for not look very clean. oiuku-gippu return ticket. /. ano hito : ga tatte i-ru : to be foggy. kirai na : hateful. xfilia-gi underclothes.t. sometimes takes wo. kiruZ v. Comp. [stem of kiruZ to cut]. . sono tsuchi all wa : to be sold out. [harul | ' . ga . . piece. kiraku na hito [kiru% : a man who Cloth takes . 3) sweep Completely. etc.

kobosu. [inu dog]. kishi. [mugi corn]. [kaul to buy]. kire'ru v. the night-train.: kizv-ato koi. kobore'ru v. In comp.t. Note The preceding construction may be used for any animal in this same sense ko may also be used as a prefix before the names of certain animals a few examples will be found below. [cogn. ko kangaemasu (C) this is what : : kitte. spill mizu wo kobosa-nai yd ni nasai (B) take care not to spill any water. Compare 61 1). kizu ga aru to be damaged. w. of kire-ru. A wound : mind you don't . regulations. thing or other. [kawal river].stenm train. ko-gawa : a stream. A ? railway (C) : nan-ji no kisha de dekakemasii ka what train are you leaving ? Kyoto yuki no kisha : the train by for Kyoto. ki-n. . kisoku. ko in of . it is so da (B) : kitto oboete o-idr (A) . kitto wasurete forget. sha carriage]. (A) rub harder. indicates totality. . kobu. . juta-go : twins. 1 kogoto . Ko gen. : this sort of this is C'omp. kisha ni noru : to enter the train. /.n. . To : damage. neko no ko : the young of a cat kitten. : : done.i. nobori-klsha : up train. q.i. tsukue no ue ni o cha ga koborete iru (B) somebody has spilt some tea on the desk. (as a little child). : down train. North. : ko iu yd na : this kind : . o ko san wa iku-nin gozaimasu ka ? (D) : how many children have you ? ko wo motte shiru oya no on : only when \vihave children of our own do we understand our own parents' love. [omou to think]. ano sensei wa kitsiri no desti (C) that master is very strict. To kobore'ru. i/a Ifi'/kii : to get damaged.t. \v. ko-zutsumi : a small parcel (gen.i. 10 jik-ko 100 hyak-ko.]. w4 vessel].':// i/n nriwhat a pity this flower-vase is : pour out. [noborit to ascend]. [ushi cow]. Thus . [neko cat]. v. [ichi-ban ko wo umu : to give birth to a child.]. See also comp. steamer. ichi-ban-ktsha : the first train. parcels. as bundles. [take bamboo ai-no-ko : Eurasian. Inire. ko means child or little. ko iv wake desu (C) this is the reason. ko-inu : a puppy. night-dress. : a postage stamp. wo tsiike-ru : to damage. kita. |. A. : uwa-gi : [ato after]. Dirty Note: filthy. : h'ttle ko~yubi finger. kisha no hako : a railway carriage. special a. : to observe the rules. on a letter. Comp. have no . kisoku Icisokti wo mamoru wo yaburu : . kisha wo ori-m : to get off the train. [we above]. omoi-kiru : to cease to think about. wakai-f-kitta : shire-kitta : obvious. path [michi road].''. .kiru coat. [yfibin surely. postage stamp ticket. ko skltf kudasai (C) please do thus. w. kobosu v. : . refers to something which is going to be said or : . nemaki : In comp. Strong strict narrow. rule . [ivakaru to know shire'rn to lie known]. kudari-kisha one]. me no ue no kobu : a kill-joy. take-no-ko : bamboo sprout. [futatsu two]. [tsutsumi a paj-cel]. namida wo kobosu : to shed tears. [kudaru to descend]. : / : chipped. A ono kutsu wa kitsui (B) these boots are . [cogn. kobu Comp.: yub-in-kitte post!. Jtrml]. his noini-mujiru no ga kizu da (B) one defect is that he is loo fond of drink. v. ko-neko : a kitten. ij-i hara no kitanai : foul -minded. which also To cut. To dress somebody. Child.t. for llupost). [ne-ma bedroom]. kisha. A kiseTU. kitanai. [cogn. etc. w. 6 rok-ko . : like this. v. shore. [cogn. [aida between]. he nani ka isshokcniin' koboshite ita (B) was grumbling very much over some. it : kai-kiru . A piece of cloth. ko-zutsumi de okuru : to send by parcelko-gire : a little ko-michi : lane . in this manner. post kodomo ko-. oshii kotoni masu v/L> ii-o (C) : kono hana-ike ni wa /. ko. A bump swelling . [ki. kiru2. [yoZ night]. serves as potential].v. watashi wa. kitsui. kisoku dori ni : according to rule. : ko ni A fii na . surely so. wa ike- nai (A) kizu. to buy up all. get spilt. ko-gatana : a penknife. for various things that ik-ko . [ki2 steam . wen.-itto .n. ko iu (fu na) hito ga suki desti (C) the kind of person I like. v.t. ko-mugi : wheat. ko-ushi : a calf. Iff/ami ni kitte wo haru : to stick a stamp : too tight. kitto. . . number yo-gisha : A bank . no kitanai : greedy. kisen. [yubi finger]. [katana sword]. Positively l. [kire clothj. to break the rules. motto kitsuku kosutte o I think. ko suru to ii (B) you had better do it tlni*. G4 a scar.

be with child. that's very awkward.v. common : kokoro ga kimara-nai (B) that man does not know his own mind. kokoro aru hito : a person with sense. high-pitched voice. . I have no kokoku. and also in the abb.]. kodomo-tachi : children.i. Bei-koku . : uncomfortable . [kokonotsu nine]. kokoku wo dasu : to advertise. Public garden park. kogasu v.: aburakkoi fat]. ki-iroi koe : a thin. kono send ni wa minna komatte shimai: 2nd set : mashUa ficulties (C) everybody is in great on account of the war. . kokai sum : to repent . kochira e irasshai (C) please come in. body calling. regret. kokoro ni kakaru : to cause anxiety. motsu to have]. . futoi koe : a deep voice.v. 276. To be troubled. chiisai koe : a low voice. illness. kodomo wo umu : to give birth to a child. kochira e (C) come here show him in. kokoro. Comp. Nine days ninth day of the month. koto(ba) word]. koe wo age-ru : to raise the voice. kokoro no chiisai hUo : a timid man. kokai.: see 271 275). Repentance regret. In comp. I don't feel kokoro-inochi no it : kokoro-mochi no warui comfortable pleasant. kodomo ga deki'ru : to give birth to a child . kokoro ni kake-ru : to bear in mind. koge-ru v.: koge-kusai : smell or taste as if burnt. kokorc-mochi ga yoku nai (B) well. you will never be able to leave it off. this place. Qasshu-koku : the United States of America. koen.]. komatta mon' da (B) how annoying . kodomo. koe wo kaketa ga kikoc-nakatta (B) I called out to him but he did not hear. kodomo wo sodate-ru : to bring up a child.]. feeling. Ei-koku : England. dark in colour. scorch char. : : unpleasant. Here : .4). etc. . kogCTU. not to know what to do. komakai komaka na (223). kohii. of Eng.) sum : to make it a shade longer (or larger. . hito no koe ga shimasu (C) : I hear some- Comp. children. [cogn. [see -iro]. . inconvenienced.v. dense in consistency . : : .]. A beggar. kokol. w. [see kusai}.t. kogoto wo iu : to scold. . kokoro-mochi nagaku (or dlciku. Advertisement. kokoro kara : with U1 my heart. etc. To kogasu. small change. Small fine minute. v. [kokoro mind Feeling. [abura koiiki.: the [Arol child . see 271 . kokono. kokoro-mochi to : : a pleasant nan (B) mo I ie-nai iya na kokoro-mochi da feeling 1 can: have a disagreeable not describe. : kojiki wo mikka sureba yamerare-nai if komakaku you beg for three days (instead of working). : (kochi is gen. to kokono see . Comp. Nine (in the 3rd set of num. koe ga kareta (B) I am hoarse. To get scorched.). Nine (in the 3rd set of num. kokonotsu. Coffee. : greasy (of taste). to write out in detail. o cha ga koi (B ) the tea is strong. deep or koi. kokonotsu is abb. perplexed. distressed. The heart nu'nd. pron. kokoro wo ire-kae-ru : to turn over a new leaf. it . Thick . o kure (A) (C) : : pay komakai no ga arimaaen komaru. domo plural suf. kokoku sum . (used only in comp. kotchi). [kokonotsu nine]. Country. This place. scolding. togatta koe : a shrill voice. koe. oki na koe : a loud voice. hito : ano wa kokoro-mochi. komaka ni kaku : to write in small letters . in difficulties . koko-. kokoro ga ugoita ru> da (B) his resolution was shaken. 275 . koko ga yd gozaimasu (D) this place will do. 65 komaru kokonoka. Yamada San wa kochira desu ka ? (C) does . kane ni komaru : to be hard up for money. by oki de komaru /to suffer from a loss for an henji ni komaru : to be at answer. kogoto. : : . [corr. ki wo tsukete close attention.: kokonoka q. -koku.: kokoro-mochi q. Child . gaikoku : foreign countries. : : Mr Yamada 276. Voice. : dif- .: koko-ira : hereabouts. . koko ni imasu ka ? (C) is he here ? Der.i. iro ga koi (B) the colour is dark. koku ban.t. Black-board. w. [ ? kol A small . live here ? kotchi ga wanikatta (B) : I -was wrong. Comp.). [cogn.kochi kochi kochira . Comp. in a fix. kokoro no okii hito : a generous man. kogoto u-o kuu : to get a scolding. . kokoro wo kiku : to inquire into the sentiments of intentions of a person. Nine. v. 4. original meaning was children]. [kokonotsu nine -ka q.

[A-ono2 . kono-aida. ateukutte komarimaau (C) : I feel tressed by the heat. see konoZ]. words the sound and the meaning seem to point to their being derived from kono. bat. may serve as a Comp. I don 't want it. [often=fcore no]. immediately before a noun. such as this like this so. \tobu to jump].]. kore wa ike-nai (B) this won't do. kotoshi this away].komaru I don't kono ko ni wa komarimasu (C) know what to do with this child. to knock in. kono-goro wa hidoku samui (B) it has been very cold of late. . Tonight this evening. is cooked) . komban. This. pref. : much dis- Tonight . kona. konna .: komori-gasa kono has been very three days. I am just going kore kara hajiwemasu (C) : : to begin. [contr. well I kore de o wakarc itashimasii (D) must be going. kore kiri (sometimes pron. Comp. Passive of kuru. : 66 konnichi kore wa (C) good day (sometimes used to call attention as when you so into a shop and there is no attendant). refers to days lately something not entirely past). or its der. this is all this ! konnichi. omoi-koiiiu : to be under the impression . aida interval]. [getsu month . [koi small . This kongetsu. beautiful flowers as these ? konna satnu^a ni wa atta koto ga nai (B) I have never seen such_cold weather as this. : . moment). [nichi this day. [kokonotsu nine]. (C) : kono-goro ano hlto wa nani shite imasu ka ? : . there : : kore de o shimai (B) : and that is all . konzatsu. kondo kondo wa yoku yarimasu (C) : I will (C) : do it (C) : I heard about . Recently lately some days ago . of kono yd no}. konshu this week all of which . konna koto ni naro to wa omowa-nakatta I never thought tilings would come (B) to such a pass. (the honorific o is gen. Confusion disorder. kono gurai : about this much. see. [kasa umbrella . konaida. This one . (said to a : : ! : : visitor). . 1) Used attrib. oh I kore wa yoku irasshaimashlta (D) am very pleased to see you. kdmori.). . (refers also to the present kore. Kono. korekkiri) . day . kondo. kore dake : only this one. copa a tumbler]. [6on2 night . . konna ni takusan arim-a#u (C) look. set one's heart upon . kono-.: see 271 275). it lately from Mr well this time. Today . : . it often has a contemptuous sense. shimai-komu : to put away. kono-aida Nakamura San kara kikimashlta (sometimes contr. kondo dake : this once only. . [hlku to pull]. but the character with which they are written moans 'now' and not 'this'. time . [omou to think]. This week. In the foil. however. [do time see &one>2]. kore kara : from now on. : konya. komban wa (C) good evening. : month. wa nani wo shimasho ? we do next ? kondo tabeta nashi wa umakatta shall last what : (B) that pear I had was very nice. [konoZ this koro time]. . This time next time . see konoZ]. q. Now-arecently (gen. This kind of . Nakamura. completes it. To be crowded or huddled together. [shimau to put - mnemonic. sense before an adj. . kotnu. [shu week see konoZ]. see konoZ].v. . . to konaida). : what is he doing now ? kono-goro Tanaka San ni o ai desu ka ? (C) have you met Mr Tanaka lately ? konshu. konnichi this day. konna tansu tea doko de kaemasu ka ? (C) where can you buy cabinets like this ? 2) Has a sup. konna kirci na hana wo mita koto ga arimaati ka ? (C) have you ever seen such . this evening. tobi-komu : to jump in.v. Rice (before it koine. . . kono (A) mama : A : a European style umbrella or sunshade. konna. [fcol small]. [kono-aida q. [butsu to knock]. kono-aida . the shape of a European umbrella resembles the wings of a bat]. Nine (in the 3rd konol. (or tori) ni shite oku no kai ? to leave it like this ? ni-san-nichi ira taiso attakai (B) : it do you mean warm these last two or Comp. korare'ru. Glass tumbler. a short time ago. brood over . kono hoka ni : besides this. to konda. this . [Spanish. kangae-komu : to be absorbed in thought .: konna ni has also this sense. set of num. hikkomu : to : buchi-komu draw back. [kangae ru to tiiink]. konna hon nara ira-nai (B) if this is the kind of book. the immediate past. Note : kono-goro. kondo wa is sometimes contr. mi fruit]. . tsui kono-aida : a few days ago. komban this evening kongctsu this month today year . Flour powder. koppu. kono-goro . kondo this . .

korobu To To knock down korohu. [cogn. koso. ima-goro kono-goro . (used to call attention.t. abode. An emphatic particle. sore dc koso Nihon-jin da (B) stuff the that is the : interj. or preceded 1) Not preceded by anything. surprise. korosu. onaji koto desu (C) kuwashii koto wa koru. Time about koro. sore koto baka : you at least well that : na koto da (B) : is u kore rimand). fall v. kane no koto wo jiman suru one 's money. Comp. To rub. (sometimes corr. [lamu to bite]. [ ? kare-ru to wither . ato de hanashimasu (C) : the details (detailed things) : atte mo: whatever may bikkuri shite koshi wo nukashua (B) he wa so startled he was not able to move. ano koto wa do narimashUa ka f (C) has become of that affair ? that took : sore wa kino no koto deau (C) happen. . koshirae-ru. often as a rep: 67 koto 1) The ordinary use. or q.: chika-goro . Ice.]. [kake-rul to hang]. kami-korosu : to kill by biting.) are you going to do now ? kore made : xuitil now. 1) : To cross over. m ( tl da iku ni koshiraesasemashd it made by a carpenter. kawa wo kosu : to cross a river. korobasu. : to boast . wa (sometimes korya) stupid thing. difference between koto and mono see 183).i. try. adj. (for koto. action . kau-a ni kori ga harimashita (C) : the river is frozen over. move. ano hlto wa Hongo e koshita (B) : he has w. . w. . k5ri. utsu to beat]. itsu-goro. as it was concluded naki: nunda (B) without a hitch. To kill . wa arimasen (C) nothing preferable to that. of English]. kosu. Cork. : sute koso shi-nai ga ira-nai mono da (B) : I didn't throw it away though it is a thing I don't need.: koshi-kake-ru . by things koto : buchi-korosu . anata no tame wo omoeba koso iya na koto mo iu no desu (C) it is just because I think it is for your good that I say such unpleasant things. ing some profit. [stem of koru to freere].kore what kore kara nanl wo shimasu ka ? (C. in na or no the idea An knock down]. (often nigori 'ed to goro). (C) : nasat no koto gohan wo tabete (kara) put it off till after dinner. : meaning Japanese are made : of. an adj. [cogn. kosase*ru. kore koso to omou shina mo nai (B) there is not a single article I care for.: kori : ice.) if you fall seven times get up eight get up every time you never say die if at first you don't fall succeed. to kosae-ru) To make prepare. koroppu. kake-ru : t< Comp. I may go to Yokohama. .].: koroppu-mifci : a corkscrew. try again. [corr. q. baka na koto wo iu : to say silly things. down roll.: hikkosu q. I will hav happens frequently. Causative of kuru. : above. without . : made of ? kane wo koshirae-ru it : to make money. the time. change one's about five o'clock. . of 'thing' is gen. hana-mi mo mo ii koro da (B) now is the season for flower-viewing. : 2) korrru. korobasu v. kotchi. : special use* of koso is when it comes after the stem of a verb and is foil. kore ! (often corr. koshi wo sit. nan de koshiraeta no desu ka ? (C) what i : The loins. koshi. anata koso iku hazu da (B) ought to go. tashlka na koto wa shirimasen (C) : I don t for certain. I will tell you later on. nana-korobi ya-oki : (lit.t. [nuku to pull out]. to kora !) : an inter]. korimashUa (C) this will be a lesson for me. murder.v. come here at goro o-ide nasai (B) gr>-ji . Comp. Comp. kori ga tokemashita (C) : the ice has melted. Der. sore ni koshita koto is moved 2) To be to Hongo. koronde mo tarfa wa oki-nai : he does not makget up after having fallen. Comp.v. v. roll.i. there kosuru. This constraction is very like A that with wa mentioned under sum 7). donna koto ga it's the same thing. To freeze. . there though not always expressed in English. uchi-korosu : to beat to death [butsu. by the verb aunt. it is a thing tabi-tabi no koto deu (C) : place yesterday. abstract thing . kore to iu koto- wa nai (B) not anything yoxi could call important. fact . koto ni yoru to Yokohama e iku (B) : according to circumstances (according turn out). know . ? korobasu to See kochi. To be warned by a previous experience get a good lesson. v.

stiff. . (I must have a personal interview). adj. v. I have been there.t. kotowaru. b) to the act or fact of the verb itself. or a q. : so infinitive. kono kiite o wo onna no yokei wa kowarete imasu (C) this one is broken. sore. w. ! oh.i. or * worthy of study no koto may lie . : . ano ko wa taiso kaminari wo kowagarimasu that child is very much afraid of (C) . .i. alarming. mita koto ga nai (B) : I have never seen it. koto is followed particular case of the above is when by ga dekvru or ga deki.v.: koware-yasui : fragile.koto anata no koto 2) u-o 68 hanashite imashlta (C) foil.). . ''tiso-tsuki da' nante koto iro watashi ni ieru liazu ga nai (B) he had no right to call : day. To send a message send by somebody. tea watakushi no sum koto desu. (lit. . takai koto wa nai (B) it is not dear. [toshi year . This year. ano hlto no iu koto wa honto desu (C) what that man says is true. kotozuke kotozuke : wo sum a message. kotowari no tegami wo yam : to send a letter of refusal. koto ga gozaimasu (D) yes. koto ga dekiru (B) : I can go.: amusing as far as that goes but. kotoshi. To break destroy. kippari kotowaru : to flatly refuse. in na. made. To refuse. . has an thunder. hayai koto : velocity. it broke yesterkino kowaremashlta (C) .t. \kowai fearful be afraid of. me a liar bo -son hunashi (or ico say anything like that). it is (B) (lit. 3) After a verb koto may refer a) to the thing acted upon by the*verb. Der. feeling fear fear.) by koto is some- times equivalent to an abstract noun. kowarCTU. kotozuke-ru. koto gen.v. 4) In the case of b) when koto after a verb refers to the act or fact of the verb itself.: : : there is no dearness). uma wo kawa-nai koto ni shimashita (or kimemashUa) (C) I have decided not to buy a horse. garu q. sum tegami no go sodan I wa o kotowari desu (C) : : sukoshi ageta koto wa agemashitu (C) it's true I did give him a trifle. mae kara o kotowari sh't" arimasu (C) : I : mo kotowara-nai (A) 2) : warned you in advance. : . kowasu. ano kata no kotoba wa hitotsu mo wakarimaaen (C) I don't understand a single fully . of course they will l>e very care: : he was talking about you. : he is a terrible man. Language speech word. tomodachi ni tegami wo kotozuke-ru : to request a friend to carry a letter. : says. Nagasaki ni itta koto ga arimasu ka ? (C) have you ever been to Nagasaki ? : : cannot discuss this matter by mail. adj. . warn to divide]. : I reno wa kotowarimashlta (C) fused to do so. kowasu v. . 1) Fearful . 5) A 5). fcogn. kowasu when the old woman heard what had (C) happened. and he has a reputation of being such a good worker). or. an adj. [koto thing . sum koto ga takusan arimasu (C) there are many tilings to be done. she was even more sorry (than the old man). being a woman. nai t'l-w it may then be rendered by the potential.(C) that is my business. kou-arcTU v. [yasui easy]. : de uchi wo dete wa ikc-nai you mustn't go out again without asking permission. . Kobe e iku koto ni narimashita (C) it has Ijecome necessary for me (or him) to go t<> Kobe. kowai. ano ko no naku koto does cry hayai koto ! ! (B) : how ! that child ! kowai kao wo sum kowai hlto da (B) 2) of travelling by boat. [kotoha word tsuke-ru to apply]. kor" : . : to send a message. kotozukeTU. To break be broken or ruined. examples are the words koto wo.J. w. see kono%}. koto desfi kara. omoshiroi koto wa omoshiroi ga. (or q. In comp. how quick ! what velocity kirei na koto ! how pretty 7) Tlie foil. kotoba often loses its final syllable : see kogoto. [hayai quick]. 6) At the end of a sentence after a verb. ilta : See am. v.]. The following examples correspond to a). kurakute yotnu koto ga dekimfuten (C) : it is so dark I cannot read.: kowagaru q. [cogn. To kowagaru. : . : suppressed. An adj. : koto wa nai (B) nothing could give me greater pleasure than this. . Taro no koto des'~>. : to frown. causing '! kowai no desu ka ? (C) are you afraid fune ni noru no wa kowai (B) I am afraid : exclamatory force. Hard . as for amusement it is amusing but.]. it sometimes corresponds to the konna ureshii kotoba. Comp. : Der. 1) word he : To inform beforehand. kara teinei n> shimasu (C) as it is Taro (who is making them.

1) ankle. To kudaru. kudari no kisha : down train. v. kubi wo ageru (B) I'll bet you anything. kubi ni sum : to turn somebody out (of a . from Tokyo.t. kudari-zaka : a road going downhill. : . : . . kenka no kuchi : the beginning of a quarrel. interfere in what without being asked doesn't concern one. v. ure-kuchi : sale. kubi ga mawara-nai (B) to his ears in debt. my tongue slipped and I said it) . See kuu. kuchi no katai hito : a man reserved in kuchi to kokoro to : itte kudasai (C) please tell me. kuchi wo kiku : to speak.]. [warui bad]. kudasaru v. kono kuchi no shina wa kireta (B) are no more goods of this quality.e. kuchi wo dasu . Comp.]. aimashita ga kuchi wo kikimasen deshlta him. [kage shade]. tanomu : t wo kuchi wo kake-ru . ku. kuda. Mouth wo kuchi opening. [saka road]. a gerund or verbal stem please . kyu. (C) I saw him but didn't speak to kuch I to kane-ire wa shimeru ga toku : it is better to keep your mouth and your purse . kasa wo o kashi kudasaimaeen ka'f would you please lend me your umbrella T will you do me itte kudasaimasu ka ? (C) the favour to go ? : person. kuchi wo sagasu : to look for a situation. ku. kuchi wo suru : to cork. Kudasaru always refers to an action done or indirectly in favour of the let few irregularities . wo : torn : wait eagerly. : backbiting. as we go : downhill now it will be ashi-kubi kuchi. kudaru v. 2) After do the favour. kubi wo nagaku shite matsu : to wait with a craned neck kubi . imperative of kudasaru q. kudara-nai mono : an insignificant thing. 69 Taro broke eono kuchi article is kudasaru wa ima gozaitnaeen (D) now out of stock. hito -kuchi ni ieba : in a word. he is up kari de. [aehi foot]. An honorific verb used politely of the 2nd sometimes of the 3rd. dorobo sfnta no de kubi ni sareta (B) : as he was caught stealing they turned him out.) dropped before terminations beginning with tt. (sometimes pron. kuchi no warui hito : a man coarse in speech. i.]. people over and get round 2) Situation employment. [&ol small]. de-guchi iri-guchi : : : (C) : that there A servant boy errand kozo. Fruit. 273). Comp. or verbal stem please. w. thus kudas'Ua for kudasatta.t. closed. hMo-kuchi : a mouthful.i. [muda useless]. : exit. [cogn. muda-guchi : idle talk. [te kudari. kuchi ga subette itte shimatta (B) (lit. I carelessly let the cat out of the bag. : naru kara raku hand]. . It has a person. : : Comp. a gerund or verbal 1) When not following stem please give me. Not following a gerund or verbal stem to give. Desd<?sft Comp. ire-ru .v. directly . Neck head. pan wo kudasai (C) please give (get) me some bread. [moke'ru to gain money]. kudasai. to speak an inclined kudari -Idaho. Nine. kubi. : Der. matchi wo kudaaaimasen ka ? (C) could you favour me with a match ? the sensei ga otdto ni kudasaimathUa (C) teachor gave it to my youngw brother. [iru2 to enter]. [cogn. kuchi de : by word of mouth.v. [de-ru to go out]. : situation). kuchi wo ake-ru : to uncork open the mouth. [stem of kudaru cent. easy. kuchi no umai hito : a man who can talk them. te-kubi wrist. boy. 1) his speech.: buch'-kowasu [butsu to knock]. kage-guchi entrance. I can't for chotto kuchi ni iware-nai (B) the moment think of the word. : to knock to pieces. to behead. [hitotsti one]. kudasaru. go down descend. kuchi apply for a situation. [irreg. kuchi ni au : to suit one's taste. : : . kore kara kudari ni (C) : to descend]. .kowasu Taro ga kowashita no desu it. moke-guchi : an opportunity for making money. kuchi no karui hito : a man who talks without thinking a chatterbox. Pipe tube.v. kuchi no omoi hUo : a man who weighs his words. kawa wo kudaru : to go down a river. . kudamono. waru -kuchi : evil speaking. 3) Article.: kudari q. [ure-ru to sell]. 2) After a gerund : : chigaimasu (C) he is not sincere in what he says. : it drops the r before the masu terminations the imperative is the second a is often kudasai (q. hito no kuchi ni to wa taterare-nai : you cannot close people's mouths. w. [kisha train].i.

: makkurai : pitch-dark. kurail.: kutnoru : to A become cloudy.kudasaru so shite kudasareba kekko desti (0) : 70 kure 1) if you would kindly do well. Nail Air. no deshd (C) I do shite kurashltc iru wonder (C) : how he manages to live. the honorific o is frequently prefixed and the light 1) Gomp. [kumol cloud]. A godown storehouse . [imperative of kure-ru q. kufu. Kagoshima de fuyu wo kurashh'Mshtta 1 spent the winter in Kagoshima. kura.v. [ku nine. e kite Daibutsu wo r. . ni-jikan gurai A'oro made <1ono gurai arimasit ka ? (C) how far is it to Nara ? O Shichi wa kinjo de sfiira-nai mono ga nai gurai no bit in deshlta (C) Misn Shichi was so pretty that there was praticnlly nobody in the neighbourhood who hadn't heard of her beauty. To compare. ha ayamaru gurai wa sum hazu da least you can do is to apologize. (not easily taken in). (C) : jit-yen gurai kakarimasfi it will cost about ten yen. Spider. least the honorific syllables always placed L>efore the stem. domo kuju go. raku ni kurasu : to lead an easy life . two o is kurru. hands before you come. To pass the time Jive. kurabt'TU. kurai nara waiashi (ni} nw dekimasu if it is only a question of looking for (C) it. Note. (276. ano fufu takai wa o-kami-san no ho ga : sei ga kuni. used only to one's inferiors. The construction with the stem cannot be used unless the stem has at . I also can do that. . even : 1 : kugi. 2)' fi/ma Degree. . province ? .-a doko desu ka country are you ? from what kuni kara kitn tcgami : n letter from home. that would suit : me Approximate quantity. A" ure is dark. kuroi black]. ? : very he did me the kntte kudasaimashlta (D) favour of buying it for me . kurakute yome-nai (B) is so bad I cannot read. so. sures. : to Kamakura at all. the wife is slightly the taller. kumoru. asond-e hi wo kurasu kurasu the day. if F have to go back without seeing tho Daibutsu. : : : about two hours. kuju sum : to arrange a plan take mea. : to drive a nail. form 2) of water. : To be he is a naka-naka kue-nai otoko da (B) very sharp fellow. before it gets . (B) kurabele mi-nakereba dochira ga ii ka n-akarimaimn (C) I cannot tell which is the better until I see them both together. [see maZ]. kufu da (B) it is a good scheme. 4). te (A) : the kumi.i-nai de kaeru gurai nara ko-nakercba yokatta ( B ) better not to have it would have been : kumo2. mizu wo ip-pai (o) kure (A) give me a : glass kurai-. 3) Small difference. no more difficult than can do it. Dark : kuraku nara-nai ufhi ni obscure. to give]. Septemii : ber. ano gurai ii hilo wa ammari nai (B) there are very few such good-natured fellows as (C) : masu if it is that. cloud. kurasu. Der. : kure. to : : to live in idleness. Kamakura come kumoi. akari ga. kurabe-mono ni nara-nai (B) there is no . A : set. hitotsu kufu wo shUc wimasho (C) I will try and see what (plan) I can arrange. makes it somewhat less curt. After a gerund it is used in commands. [f. . kuni e kaeru : to return to one 's own country. To draw (water or othei liquid). kotchi no ho ga okii gurai (B) this one is : slightly bigger. To become cloudy. o kuni v. tsuka nai (B) : I cannot : sono gurai no koto nara watashi ni mo <le!:i- arrange the matter any way. gurai aratte. : to live in splendid comparison between them. kugi kiiki. sagasu. one 's (C) : native country. : a spider's web. pass sono hi gurashi wo suru : to live from : hand mouth. he bought it and gave it to me see 110. dono gurai kono gurai how much ? about this much. : : : of that married gurai desu (C) couple. gatsu month]. of kuu to eatj. . rippa ni kurashite iku style. (very often used in its nigori 'ed gurai). [potential able to eat. kawa no mizu wo kunde o-ide (A) go and get some water from the river. warehouse. Plan scheme. o-ide (A) : at least wash your Note kumi is used in connection with the abb. live in comfort. kyonen ni knraberu to kotoshi no ho ga atsui it is hot this year compared to last. ku-gatsu. 2nd set of num. gurai hayai : about as quick as a horse. Not following a gerund give. to spend one 's time . wo utsu peg. kumo no su kumu. Country .

[kuroi adj.kure hon wo motte book. is 4) The idea of coming. . not used) (B) give it to me. It is used. see 28 o-ide (q. : 1 will go and see : (and used in set polite phrases it is always preceded by the honorific go). : . kaette kuru : to come back. 182.) is gen. 2) After a gerund chichi ga kaite kuremashita (C) my father Not watakushi ga kuru toki ni wa mada kaerimasen deshUa (C) he hadn't returned : : when I left. I shall bo much inconvenienced. kureTU. irreg. muko kara kuru densha wa Shimbashi yuki de#u (C) the tram-car coming over there. ' 71 kure (o) kuru sono koto ni kakete wa ano hlto in such matters he (B) : kite (o) (A) : bring the : wa is kurdto da kuruma wo yonde rikisha. kurail (q. : wa sukoshi hayaku okite kure-nai to if you don't get up earlier komn. enclosed in kuru. (when . of o kure nasai. to inferiors). . my my fell adept. After a gerund kuru signifies motion tothe translation the. goes to Shimbashi. speaker though The gerin English is sometimes 'go'. jitsii come go and tell him (and Koyama San ga Hakone m yoku dekite iru (B) which Mr Koyama de kaite kita r. : : mo iya ni natte kimashUa (C) I have grown 1 Comp. then my mother ill. for me.. haruwhite o-ide (A) come back). ni kimashUa I ha^e shirase kore wo (C) : : : called to let 3) you know this. following a gerund give.ru (A) (on my account) tomorrow morning. therefore. refers to familiar kuru . the picture painted at H akone is : really very well done. he has a ano hlto wa hara ga kuroi (B) vicious heart. 2) When ni kuru follows the stem of a verb it signifies purpose or object and may be translated by 'come for' or 'come to'. makkuroi jet-black. here). wa. sometimes very indistinct. I have come tokei wo tori ni kimashlta (C) for the clock (to take away the clock). wards aruite kimashUa mite kimasho (C) (C) : I wa'ked here. o kun nasai (corr.v. itte kudasai go-kuro desu ga kore wo motte but please (B): L am sorry to trouble you take this with you. black]. hlto shiroto]. : wrote ashtta it for me. uchi no Taro ga kuremaxhlta (C) my son (brother) Taro gave it to me. dare ga kesa kimashUa ka ? (C) : who came this morning rtani ka watashi ni kimashUa ka ? (C) : haa anything come for me ? mata gogo ni kimasu (C) I will call again . naotta to omottara kardo yatto chichi ga haha no byoki to kimashUa (C) : at last kuro to.v. kojiki ni kure nasai (B) kojiki ni kurete o give it to a beggar. : : tired of it. used as the imperative of kuru. : (C) my worries my mother is : have increased now that ill. Kure-ru gen. labour kuro. Trouble anxiety . n. perative is kure q. '! : an 1) directly or favour of the 1st person. seem more logical). kuro. Black.v. Black. boku ni kureru no kai ? (B) do you give it to me ? neko ni kudamono wo kurete wa ike-nai (A) don 't give fruit to the cat.) dark. : : ano hlto wa kind kara kite im (B) he has been here since yesterday. (not yari nasai (B) used when referring to 1st person). totte kuru : to fetch. and kuru seems to refer moro to 'coming into towards the being' than to 'coming speaker'. 'jibiki (he is now back (C) wo kudasai' to itte kimashUa : for your go-kurc sama deshita (B) thanks trouble (said gen. kuroi. (not used when referring to 3rd person). he came to ask me for my dictionary. : compare expert . when speaking to one's inferiors or of some The imintimate friend or inferior.]. ano Into wa iro ga kuroi (B) he is dark. ame ga futte kita (B) : it hns begun to rain. kuro sMia ningen de nakute wa yaku ni tolaa man is useless unless he haa nai (B) gone through hardships. [see wa2. (kite iimasUta would motte kuru : to bring. haha ga byoki ni natta no de hUo-kuro desu : : back). act done indirectly in this afternoon. 5) To send word. 1) To come. oya ni kuro wo kake-ru : to cause one's parents great concern. This verb is impolite when speaking of the act of the 2nd person and when referring to the act of the 3rd person. verb. [kuroi black . kure (A) call a quite an expert. kore wo sagas fi no ni zuibun kuro shUa (B) I took great trouble looking for this. father got better (and I thought troubles were over). A skilled person person . und and kuru often represent one complex action and not two separate ideas. : : : . .

kutsu wo haku : to put on one 's boots. ano hlto wa mada chichi-kusai (B) he is : still very green. sora kita ! here you are there he dore kita ! let 's begin. kutabiremashita (C) I am tired. hito : : : Comp. v.t. Boots shoes. v. kurushimu. : : a rikisha-man. . [cogn. druggist. rikisha). to Comp. . [i. kono kusuri wa kika-nai (B) this medicine has no effect. 1 he is otoko no kuse ni ki ga chiisai (B) timid though he is a man. t [see kuruma. ! : round evil-smelling things. human evil kusai. something good painful kurushii toki no kami-danomi : in distress we turn to God. to tegami de itte kimashlta (C) came saying Kita is added to other words excl. To become : . o-ide de gozaru. to suffer pain]. (said only of kusai.t. o-ide nasaru. [cogn. kuruma ni noru : to ride in a rikisha. w. torment kurushimi. kuruma wo mo ichi-dai yonde kure (A) . kurushimu . The neg. : . v. kusuri ni naru : to be good for the health. kuse wo naosu : to correct a bad habit. kusai malodorous]. warui kuse wa tsuki-yasid (B) bad habits are easily acquired. Comp. Comp.'Akodomo no kuse ni tabako wo nonde. future is generally komai or kimai. To . : kuse. bad habit of pilfering. rotten. The humble form of kuru (polite for the 1st person) is maim. The passive of kuru is korare-ru : the causative kosase ru is little used. kusa wo toru : to weed. In comp. 7) To kitara . happen to come. kuse wo tsuke-ru : to form a habit. [koge-ru to get scorched]. kabi-kusai : apparently mouldy. kuruma wo hlku : to pull a rikisha. [f. kuruma-ya ni-guruma kurushii. but kumai and the regular form kurumai are sometimes heard.: ki-kakaru kakaru]. nani ka kuse no nai mono wa nai (B) there : : no one without some peculiarity. kusai smell). kurushimu to suffer pain]. weeds. o-ide ni naru. ! what a smell kusaku naru : to go bad (and emit an . . after a noun. iya na what a nasty boy to be yatsu da (B) smoking though he is only a child. ! a kurushii / how persecute . kurushime-ru suffer pain . 1) Peculiarity of manner habit. wo waruku iu no ga kuse da (B) he has a habit of always speaking ill of people. worry. a hand-cart. contemptuous.kuru nan (C) to ino itte : kutsu kimasen kara. nani wo hitori de sonna ni kurushinde iru To ka no all kusuri wo nomu : to take medicine. the verb yokosu is used instead. Jniruma ga mawara-nai (B) the : wheel won't turn. I don't koge-kusai : smell or taste as if burnt. worry. Drug medicine for the health.]. ano hito wa te-kuse ga . undo wa kusuri desa (C) undo wa kusuri ni naru (B) exercise is good for the health. and o-ide kudasaru. kono chichi ni wa nani ka kusuri ga haitteru . kurushimu v. taken from one of the honoriff kusaru. : call another rikisha. : is ! Doitsu-go to kitara wataslii wa maru de dame desu (C) as for German. futa wo sum : to cover a stinking object to hide things or facts of which one ashamed. To decay (A) .]. generally in an objectionable way. [tanomu to request]. kurushime-ru.i. : peculiarities. Pain Buffering ache. wakarimasen sent any message I : kusai mono ni hai ga yoru : flies collect as he hasn't 6) don't know. (B) painful. Grass .i.package]. . a letter used as yoshi kita ! all right. [f. w. kusa. kitten wo nugu : to take off one's boots. inaka-kusai : rustic. Malodorous evil-smelling. a chemist tired . oh. kusai means that one is reminded of the noun. I have recovered kutabire ga nuketa (B) from the fatigue. or kuse ni after a verb or adjective is gen. : : : ? (A) what are you worrying about by yourself ? : yd da (B) : they must have put some drugs : in this milk. kusuri. ano otoko ga kusai yd da (B) that man looks suspicious to me. ! kusai mono ni is wa .: kusuri -ya kutabire-ru. : te-kuse : habit of pilfering. kutsu. occasionally agaru : the honorific forms (polite for the 2nd person) are irassharu. 2) No kuse ni after a noun. know a single word. . Note. sonna mono wa kusuri ni ahltakute mo nai (B) it is not to be got for love or money. to kite wa=to ieba. The imperative of kuru is gen. nakute nana-kuse : one has at least seven is ic forms. warui (B) . beings). become kiisatta sakana wo tabete wa ike-nai you mustn't eat stale fish. [ni. : he has a Agonizing . Wheel carriage (esp.

: he kuyashii. v. Competition . Brothers and sisters. ni uke-ru . . konna kuyashii koto wa nai (B) I was never so mortified in my life. kyoso ni katsu. bite. 1) moths. Corr. Ico-goto wo kuu : to be scolded. kyu-sen : nine sen . 4). : get it ready by tomorrow.: kyo-ju : some time today. of the week is it ? Comp. time spent in doing any work. no hito wa nan de kutte iru no da ? (A) what does he do for a living ? kuu ka kuwa-zu ni imaau (C) he can hardly keep the wolf from the door. 2) A room. retsu a row sha carriages^. kutteuite imaau (C) : your face is smudged with ink. kyo. you ? kyonen. ne-ma : a bedroom. kuttsukvru v.kutsu kutsu 73 wo migaku : ma kyoso. ma me is I wonder ni hikkosMta no dard ka ? (B) if they've moved while I was in detail. aida-gui : eating between meals. Minute detailed. a connoisseur in paintings. see kiri. : . sono te wa kuwa-nai (B) you won't catch me with that dodge. Comp. ka go kyodai wa o ikutari de gozaimasu how many brothers and sisters have (D) : tema : aki-ma : an unoccupied room. : kyaku sama de gozaimasu (D) a visitor has come. Regrettable irritating annoying. .: kyuko-refsha . w. : to win a race. an express train. Truth. o iii-san v. join.p. Abb. [J:o to go . ashita made ni ma ni awasemasti (C) . ima kyaku ga aru kara ate de o ide nasa as I have company just now please (B) : dorobo wa shira-nai ma ni toket wo nutund watch I don't know (B) a thief stole my : away. kuwashlku hanashimashlta (C) he told . kuwashii. . L&*t year. Nine. Comp. Note wa iUu no ma ni ka iono hanai the old man some kikimaahUa (C) time or other heard that tale. kuttsuku v.]. as it had been put away. ma ni au : to be in time serve the purpose. : i \ : come o later on. what day kyo wa nani yo-bi desu ka? (C) : num. Comp. : . [nenl year]. : I will make train : ma mo naku soon in a little while. klsha wa ma mo naku demasu (C) the : Comp. [rrwl to rent].i. run a race. [ne-ru to sleep]. kyaku. gohan de kuttsuke nasai (B) stick it on with rice. kyu. rivalry . kashi-ma : a room to let. saka wa kyu deed ka ? (C) : is the hill steep? kyu ni : suddenly. stockings. hima : spare time.t. kui-tsuku : to bite (as an attack). nine thousand. shiinatte oita no de mushi ni kuwareta (B) : sumi ga kao ni thing unexpected has happened which something has obliges me to go out hapwned which obliges me to set out . . i.o : ma in the sense of room is 2nd in connection with the abb. customer. kore de ma ni awasemasho (C) this do. adhere. inu ni kui-tsukaremashlta (C) : I was bitten by a dog. kuttsuku. it was eaten by : ma i.: kyaku-ma : drawing-room. kyodai. [occasionally said instead of ku nine. . hanashi no tone ga nakunatte sukoshi ma ga as we had exhausted the nuketa (B) there was an subjects for conversation : awkward rusu no silence. I was completely ip-pai kuwasareta (B) taken in. Today. to be]. I will . kyu ni dekakeru koto ni natta (B) some: to clean or polish the : boots. mo ni awase-ru to get (something) ready : : together. of kiri shlka . w. a race. : : kuwa-zu girai : to dislike a thing before having tried it. : tsuke-ru to To stick . [ ? kuu to bite tsukul to join To stick cogn. ma2. v. [ ? kuu to bite join cogn.ma : a sitting-room. (276. I kutte iku dake no kane wa hairimasu (C) earn jxist enough to keep body and soul : Interval of time or space. To eat . anna hlto de wa ma ni awa-nai (B) that sort of man won't suit me. when. betsu-ma : a separate room.]. [kasu kyaku-ma : a drawing-room. . I was just in cholo ma ni aimasliita (C) time. ma to take as true.(na or no). kyoso SUTU : to compete .t. Sudden . : .i. : will leave in a few minutes. hirurna : [hil day]. in time make serve the purpose. wwt ga nukete vru : to appear foolish. A visitor guest . ano hlto wa e no koto ni kuwashii (B) . immediately. kya.- day-time. 273]. kyfil. steep.: kutsu-shita socks (European). kuu. kuttsuke-ru.

: town . (sometimes machigae). [kuroi black].: machigae. (often dropped in the kore : wa ma ni ukeraremasen in- wa you cannot rely on what he says. To be different . makkurai : pitch-dark. : (C) : he is still grow- massugu : perfectly masshirQi : straight. ima made wakarimascn understood it deshita (C) : I never mistake. machigae-ru v. children go-ji make a fool of him. machigai no nai : correct. desu ga anata ga machigatte irOKsharu yd denu (C) I beg your pardon but I believe you are mistaken. ) watakushi ga kuru made o machi nasai (B) wait till I come.) well I am surprisonly fancy dear me akai ! (B fern. shinu made wasuremasen (C) I'll remember it all my life. chigau to be different cogn. [aoi green]. [akai red]. . blunder . . w. Same meaning as machigai q. it was my watashi no machigai deshita (C) mistake. [marui round]. . sore madeyaman o shi nasai (B) be patient until then. [shiroi white].v. (school begins on the llth made is always inclusive). you are red o machi kudasai (C) just wait a mo: ! ! dinner ready yet ? mittsu ni natta bakkari desu (C) he is only in his third year (yet). . nani ka machigai desho (C) there is some mistake no doubt. and sometimes almost : mada kimasen (C) he has not yet come. (C) : : made shimbitn wo yomimasu I . A wo B to A it machi'gaemashita (C) : I mistook for B.): why. road. v. mada shokuji ga deki-nai ka ? (A): isn't : maesaoi md nothing. dare ni de mo machigai ga aru (B) anybody can make a mistake. street. [hadaka naked]. odoroita ! ed md ma ! (B fern. doko made o-ide nasaimashita ka ? (D) how far did you go ? kono basha ni wa roku-nin made wa noremaau (C) this carriage will hold as many : : : : : : : even my kimono made mo yaketa (B) clothes were burnt. machigae*ru. 1 Until till as far as to even. mappadaka : stark naked.t. : . : watashi no hey a ni mada ar imasu (C) : there are some more in my room. please. [me eye A fiita lid].]. be mistaken be wrong.ma ano (C) hito : 74 no hanashi made machigatte imasu (C) this is wrong. mannaka : the very centre. it emphasizes and acts as an tensifier. natsu-yasumi wa ku-gatsu no toka made desu the summer holidays last until the (C) 10th of September. shinu made : until death. machigai naku kimasu (C) I will not fail to come. made. machigau A mistake . . Der. [kurail dark].t. mada kodomo desu (C) he is only a child. toi far]. kodomo ni made baka ni sareru (B) even : : as six persons. translation). [f. michi wo machigae-ru : to take the wrong : before. there was an accident.v. : : : : off till the Greek Calends. [#ugu directly]. machigau.i. neko wa dai-kirai. mada fune ni notta koto ga nai (B) I have never been on board a ship.]. shitsurei : makoto : truth. machigae. mada arimasu ka more ? ? (C) : have you any ment machi. [mol interval . machi d5. machigaemaohita (D) cuse me I made a mistake. tvatakushi ga dekakeru toki ni wa mada kaehe hadn't returned rimasen deshita (C) mada : : : : ! : when I left. makkuroi : jet-black. : ima made : hitherto. exactly square. An interjection meaning sometimes surpris'e or admiration. [mal interval . machigau v. masshikaku square]. . I'll kyo made no kanjo wo shimasho (C) make out the account to date.i. . exgomen kudasai. mabuta. snow-white. Der. Eyelid. to be wrong]. [stem of machigae-ru to mistake]. in the meanwhile. accident. very green. . dogs are not quite so bad. mada desu (C) not yet. [naka inside]. there was a machigai ga arimashita (C) mistake .: a mistake. [matsuZ to wait Waiting a long time. w. let us put it : dare ka Jibuti no to machigaete motte itta no desho (C) perhaps somebody has taken by mistake for his own. : sore made : till that time . mammarui : exactly round. In comp. inu nara mada ii keredo (B) : I hate cats. Yet still niada. makkai : flaring red. o machido sama deshita (C) excuse me for keeping you waiting so long. sore made no koto ni itashimasho (D) : don't let us think of it any more . ma. [shi-kaku mada dkiku narimasu ing. read the newspaper until five o'clock.: machigai q. v. machigai. chigae-ru to mistake To cogn.

before. used for flat things such as sheets of paper. . : see doko.: among others. 1) As a q.i. mai-nen : yearly every year.) to go. sonna ni mae no koto de wa nai (B) it was not so long ago. crooked.n. 3) After a verb.]. 1st person.i. mae ni hanashita tori : as : am (B) : I tnake-ru. . To come : . nuike-ru v.i. it make a little v. . to mago-mago sum : to be bewildered . t< before. : : mise no mae ni tatte imashUa (C) he was standing before the shop. in front mae-ba : front teeth. make-ru To defeat . knew it before I saw it in tnairu. to cheapen. mae kara Tokyo ni imasu (C) he has been in Tokyo for the last five or : Comp. ichiban mae no basho ni kakete imaau (C) he is sitting in the front seat. [mai interval tol door]. In a confused or bewildered way. distort . . [cogn. nam-mai-me dsu ka is it ? : ? (C\ : on what page Note mai-. 6) mae motte . mai-shu : weekly . every month. 2 ) Made by . mae. [cogn. rugs.hi-yen desu (C) the price of lunch is one yen each. kara beforehand. kokoro ga magarimashUa (C) his mind be. before. san-nen mae : three years ago. w. w. means no mae a As previous. 1000 aem-mai . mae. : makemaahUa (C) I have lost. 2) When referring to time. A. and tt?< (q. to mat cheaper]. [cogn. To please do come. the no is gen. ttiado. [cogn.J. fukoshi makara-nai ka? (B) : cannot be ahU you their hats 5) ? As an already adv. mai.] (the object . coats. : kono mae itta toki : the last time I went. is a humble verb. boards. potter about. . : I said before. w. : go-roku-nichi six days. him no shokuji wa Mtori-mae ic. /> ot the verb is oftc not expressed). mae motte kotowarimasltita (C) I wa you beforehand. vru : be to bent. makastl v. kiru-mae : forenoon. front. . etc. dropped it may be translated by ago . . nam-mai f Every each (used only in compA . referring to place of. : before. Comp.t. shimbun wo mi-nai (or miru) mae ni shitte I imashita (C) the newspaper. the following mai-asa : every morning.i.v. bend become bent. magaru : v. w. magatte ano o jii-san wa koshi ga magatte imasu (C) that old man is bent with age.t. go. Itsu made : see itsu. [cogn. mae no o kata wa boshi wo totte kudasai (C) will the gentlemen in front please remove : : : majime (na). in the presence of ladies. 4) q. o taku no mae wo torimashlta (C) I passed (the front of) your gate. every week. majime de*u (C) I am in earnest.: mado-kake : a curtain for the window.t. [kake-rul to hang]. beat down. mae-ashi : front legs.v. v.) to come. [kake-rul to hang]. v. yield. o mairi ni iku deshlta jfote.i. san-ji jip-pun mae : ten minutes to three.made sore 75 wa iu ni : make'ru 7) Portion . To become cheaper. ano tokei-ya no mae de tomete o kure (A) : stop at that watch-maker's. plates. no is dropped mae ni is used when an affirmative verb follows. mae no tori : the previous way the same as (C) : ik-u (or ika-nai) mae I didn't know Maim to go to pray at a temple. mae ni means : previously . 3 sam-mai. hachi-ji mae ni wa ikaremasen (C) : I cannot be there before eight o 'clock. meshi go-nin mae : rice for five men. every year. 2) To reduce the price karu v. magete o-ide kudasai (D) . : mai-nichi every day. one man. mage-ru v. mae-kake : an apron. : : mago-mago. ppn. v.]. Serious earnest. [cogn. mai-to/>}>i : yearly . mai-do : every time. hitor i mae : portion for made mo nai (B) : that without saying. mai-getsu : monthly every month. ^^fiirimasen beW-e I went. cheaper ? makasu. w. . 3) Doko made mo 7).t. To magaru.i. v. . koto ga kore wa mae ni (mo) kiita have already heard it. polite in the The corresponding ordinary verbs are kuru (q. adj. makeru ga kachi : to stoop to conquer. [hint midday]. : daily . share. Window.t. [ha2 tooth]. bend perverted. : makaru. go-ji made ni shimbun wo yomimasu (C) : I shall have read the newspaper by five o 'clock. mae wa when a negative verb follows. v. 3). mai-tsuki : monthly . mai-ban : every night. before. ashita made ni dekimasu (C) : it will be ready by tomorrow. v. fujin no mae de sonna koto wo itte iva shituit is impolite to talk like that rei desu (C) : : came mageru. 1) To lose . w. : Comp.t.

(223).. Again another time in addition. nkni red]. f f.v. (it sometimes has the force of a superlative). Truth. Satisfaction. To protect defend. makkuroi . shite A pillow. tsruku : man wo marui round].. 1 Original condition or state. manzoku. The very makkurai: makkura na kurail dark]. en- tirely. A ball. A whole .. wind.v. tabe-zu ni mo iraremai (B) live it is : absurd to suppose we can without masaka 2) to it onfmt ga hontd : thought vewrtmUkely. masaka sense ! ! hardly ! not likely ! what non: masaka eating.v. q. mari. Exactly square. hako no mama de sutete o kure (A) : throw it The critical time. masshikaku na. maru ju-roku : sixteen years of age . massugu ni hakujd shi nasai (A) confess : q. de : completely entirely. tokei wo makii : to wind a clock. go-sen o make moshimasho 'D) :'I will come do\\n five sen. Per. : ichi (or if I buy several. sono mama ni shite oku .. own . [ma2 q. agreeable voice. ari no mama ni shite oku : to leave a thing as it is. I will call again. man. mane. makkuro na (223) . manzoku auru : to be satisfied. . naka inside]. see ichi. Round. see 311. up. .. mata. kiito mama wo o hanashi nasai (B) tell it to me just as you heard it. kuroi black]. will you make it cheaper ? motto o make nasai (B) : please make it cheaper. inu wa neta mama yonde mo ko-nai (B) the dog has settled himself down to sleep and won't come here though I call him. man ni hltotsu) sonna koto goattara taihen da (B) : it would be terrible if by (a 10. .: Mto-mane : mimicking another per. makoto ni : truly in fact . mane wo suru : to imitate mimic take oi't. q. kiri . massaoi massao na green]. Der. aoi the dog went out this morning and has not come back. : fectly straight. inu wa kesa deta mama Icaette ko-nai (B) : : time of need. Comp. son. masshiroi Snow-white.v. sono mama : as it is. in away box and all. kutsu no mama de haitte mo yd gozaimusu (D) you may go in just as you are. mammarui mammaru na (223) [maZ . makura. . Perfectly green. mamoru. . [f. [mo2 q. [ma2 q. [kamiZ paper]. de seiyo-jin no yd ni mieru (B) : he looks just like a foreigner.: maki-fjami : Japanese letter-paper (in rolls).. were to happen. ni nari mobu (C) I am at his mercy. maku-.v. : to play at ball. Der. it satisfactory. tnasaka. . roll up].v..v.v. marui round].make'ru nedan wo make-ni : to reduce the price. . [ma. really . frankly . shi-kaku square]. mannaka. Perfectly round. mata mairimasho (D mata o me ni kakarimasho (D) I will see you again. . manzoku ga deici-nai (B) I cannot consider : makoio. Jet-black. Beans peas. maru maru maru maru maru jutsvka : two full days. shiroi white]. mama de i-ru : to remain standing. [maku\ to makura wo takaku nerare-nai (B) cannot sleep in peace (from anxiety).000 to 1} chance such a thing. . : your boots on. marukkiri : completely . makoto no : true real. manzoku sase-ru : to satisfy. 2) Doing as one pleases. 1) Used as a protest when hearing an absurd statement : used also to introduce an tatta absurd supposition. masaka no baai ni . inu ga maruku natte iru (B) the dog is street. : mari . To sow . : : marui.q. : I mama. [ma2 q. marui round]. maru ichi-nen : a whole year. [ma2 middle. ano onmi wa makoto ni kirei da (B) that woman is very pretty. (223) . masshiro na . marui koe : a nice. tori e inizu wo maite kvre (A) water the .: o-make ni : besides that. \nni..q. maru. yakuaoku wo mamoru : to fulfil a promise. [ma2 q. Comp. with ) sleeping curled up like a ball. maka-nai tane wa hae-nai : seed which is not sown does not grow one only reaps what one sows. . : de shira-nai hlto : an utter stranger. ) : : . Ten thousand. mammarui . To roll up wrap round .v. makkai makka na (223). mame. sugu directly].. (223) . maru . Imitation mimicry. Pitch-dark. massugu na. makul. Flaring red. massugu na ningen : an honest man. sprinkle scatter. takusan kaeba (nedan wo) makemasu ka (C) : mata ichi-man man ? ten thousand . . . masaka no toki ni . . watashi wa ano : hlto no suru mama . . . but deshita (C) : I it was true.v. a circle.

mawasu.]. sore wa mata do iu wake desu f (C) what is . w. mawaru v. : : sukoshi matte kudasai (C) please wait a I moment. I'll see you again. me ni kake-ru : to show (to somebody) in the 1st (a humble verb. bad and in the artistic sense).mata de 77 me mazatte i-ru : to be mixed. . ki wo mawasu : to suspect . matchi -wo suru : to strike a match. inquire afte te wo mawasu : to search for . [>naze ru to mix A mixture. To turn round. tnawari.i. force. Comp. [cogn. v. To wait. me wo maruku suru : to be surprised : prised. : wa mata : : the reason of that ? (Mata has here an excl. chichi ni mizu wo mazeTu . me de mono wo iu : to speak with the eyes. me de shirase'ru : to wink at or make a sign with the eyes. me ni tsuku : to strike the eye. tilings. To mix. English]. mvru to see]. mazui.]. : to be active . tnawaau v. insipid. (B) well.v. me ni tatsU : to be conspicuous. matsu2. Der. mattaku shirimasen (C) I don't know at all. man. indicating surprise). w. mono thing]. hidoi me ni au : to be treated cruelK sufkurushii me ni au : to undergo great fering. w. talkative. [cogii. startled to faint. me ga same-ru : to wake.t. q. matchi. maze-mono wo suru : to adulterate. uchi no maicari ni ki ga uefe arimasii (C) there are trees planted round the house. used politely in the o . but he doesn't come. [cogn. : : me ga mawaru hodo isogashii to make one faint.t.t. me ga mawaru : to be surprised.: mawari. me ga tsuku : to notice. used politely pers-m). : : . [f. smart in doing see you again. machi -kutabire-ru : to get tired of waiting. kono gyunyu ni wa nani ka maze-mono ga shite aru ni chigai nai (B) I feel sure this milk is adulterated. e mawashite tegami wa hikkoshUa tokoro kudasai (C) please forward the letters to : me ni awase-ru to treat cruelly. A fond of chrysant hem urns. me wo mata kake-ru : to treat kindly. Nihon-jin no me kara mireba : from the Japanese point of view. me wo nemuru to close the eyes. startled . shita ga mawaru : to be very te : busy enough ga mawaru. I have hobo mawarimashita (C) : person). v. maze-awase-ru : to mi\ (as by stirring or grinding together). : I am o me ni kakarimasho (D) : I hope to Nihon-ju been all round Japan.t. Pine-tree. maze'ru. irasshai (C) please come again.v. (a 1st turn circumference surroundings. . to put water into the milk. no mawari ni : around. Perfectly entirely. maze-mono. o any longer. turn round. hajimete o me ni kakarimasu (D) pleased to make your acquaintance.]. mattaku. Mateh. machido. me ga mawaru : to be hidoi : : : : address. [cogn. my new . - mata. machi moshimasho (D) you. mazaru v. koen wo hUo-niawari suru : to take a turn in the garden. taste Of nasty. that is a sore wa mattak-u no koto desu (C) . disagreeable. to faint. . mattaku da (B) quite so that is so. [f.i. be jealous. me wo mawasu : to be surprised. me no mae ni aru : to have something right in front of one 's eyes. : kuchi hodo ni mono wo iu : the eye much as the mouth. mawaru . me wa Camp. q. me ni sawaru : to try (tire) the eyes. to turn round]. maze-mono. q. w. tc secretly. v. : I shall expect : machi ni matte iru keredomo ko-nai (B) I 'm waiting and waiting for him.i. mazaru. me ni tomaru : to attract attention. startled to faint. v.j. mo matte iraremasen (C) : cannot wait nani wo matte imasu ka ? (C) : what are you waiting for ? sukoshi o matase shite o kure (A) . ano junsa wa yoku me ga todoku of that pol thing escapes the vigilance liecome mixed. me. me wo odorokasu to surprise people. [stem of . sukoshi matsu yd ni itte o kure (A) : tell him to wait a moment. . kiku ni wa me ga nai (B) he is awfully speaks as : true fact. o me ni kakaru : to meet (somebody) humble verb.v. me ga tsubure-ru to lose one's eyesigl a me wo nusumu to do something on the surme wo mawasH . kono kome ni wa suna ga mazatte imasfi (C) : there is sand in this rice. matsui. (in the lit. stare with wide-open eyes.i. me wo tsuke-ru . Eye. mawaru. . ma:t-rti v.

. me no ue no kobu me a visiting-card.v. : A hen. : . (and therefore it isn't worth while troubling because one man criticizes. kono mekata wa dono gurai desho ? (C) how much does this weigh ? mekata de uru : to sell by weight. See mitsukaru. medetai koto : a happy event. mecha-kucha (na) mecha media (na). me-shlta : an inferior. : hlto-me (q. all names of animals do not admit this pref. mekura mabuta a blind person. A blind per: . hint -meshi : midday meal. Boiled rice . [tori bird].me me ni kado wo tatete okoru : to get very angry and glare at somebody. metta : to look over one's oi : female meii. sukoshi mo me wo hanasemasen (C) I can: 78 megane-qoshi ni m'rru spectacles. [me eye Jcurail dark]. medatsu : to be conspicuous. confusion mendo-kusai. yumei : famous. mecha-kucha ni sum : to break to pieces . meaning female it sometimes becomes men-. Name . glance. . Trouble bother.) spectacles. .). asa-meshi : breakfast. : eyelid. Comp. metta ni : rarely seldom . q. koto mo mendo na koto wa gozaimasen kusai q. another will be sure to approve). kono bydki wa jikd no kawari-me ni okoru no desu (C) this illness breaks out at the change of season. mekata. (an honorific verb. mei-. used politely of the 2nd person). yome .v. : Spectacles . watashi no me no kuroi uchi wa sonna koto wa sase-nai (A) while I am alive you shall never do such a thing. meshi. mekki. . iu : to raise difficulties. : you be so kind kudasaias to mendo na sukoshi : troublesome. mekura sen-nin me-aki sen-nin : for every thousand blind people there are a thousand who can see. C'omp. get in disorder.v. : .ru yd ni hidoku atama wo utta (B) he struck my head so hard he : : locality. : compare : nephew]. o-medeto gozaimasu (D) I . mendo na wo . . met . 1). . congratulate you. konna koto wa metta ni nai (B) such a thing rarely happens. : megane wo kake'ru Comp. ! (D ) : it is not the least trouble. . disarrange. kyd kara toka-me. reckless.: aki-mekura : a man with eyes open but blind an illiterate person. eye-glasses. kara hana Comp. me-ushi : cow. See mitsuke-ru. mekura. mecha-kucha ni naru : to go to pieces . [kurort dark]. mekkaru.female tori bird]. kane metal]. fame tion).v. -me. megane-goshi : on spectacles. . yu-meshi : evening meal. [me. [me eye of . mendori : hen. : sam-bam-me the third. . in disorder. Particle used for forming ordinal numbers . look after her children. Joyful happy. (177. Weight. mtttani aimasen (C) I see him but seldom. not allow him out of (used only in composi- my sight for a me moment. metta to put (na). Plating.]. [kosu to cross over]. sono yd na koto ni wa honto ni mekura de I am quite ignorant in gozaimasu (D) such matters. [me Niece. wide-awake. a meal. . ga hayai : to be observant. e nuke-ru : to be exceedingly meibutsu meishi : : the famous production of a or abnormally clever. one's spec- looking over tacles. me-inu : bitch. Rash . mekkeTU.) attention me-ue : a superior. megane. meshi-agaru : to eat drink . [tatsu to rise]. A pref. (q. (with neg. [mendo trouble Troublesome tiresome. [butsu thing]. rnegane (q. he is a e ni wa naka-naka me ga kiku (B) very good judge of pictures. me kara hi ga de. Comp. [stem of mean to eat]. Comp. : a kill -joy. [fata lid]. ): : son. o ko san ga o umare ni'natte o-medeto gozaimasu (D ) I congratulate you on the birth : your son. roku-jikan-me : the sixth hour.v. In : masen ka a ? (C) : will ? moment help me go mendo wo kakete makoto ni sumimasen I am (D) sorry to trouble you. rnusume . a. kodomo no mendo wo miru no wa haha no kakari desu (C) it is a mother's duty to : see 285-288. men do. meshi wo taku : to cook rice. medelai. me-. [kane metal]. mendo-kusai ! what a bore mendori. go mendo nagara sukoshi tet-sudatte nanatsu-me : the seventh. made me see stars. mendo wo mi-ru : to take trouble. ni : in ten days (on the tenth day) from today.

appear. you are an quite a 1) To be able to see . quality or sometimes the quality : a tinge of red. v.l. chika-michi : a short cut. amami ga usu gozaimasu (D) it isn't quite : Short. iuisuka no michi desu (C) it is a two days .mezurashii mezurashii. to offend the ears. michi wo oshie-ru : to show the way. [mitsu three]. miete kuru visible. Suffix added to the stem of adj. 4) . migaku. num. shiromi : white of an egg. w. world. Three days. mi-ru v. . . : ornaments mimi ni mo tome-nai: mimi ni hairu . 2) mi no hodo wo shira-nai yatsu da (B) he is a fellow who doesn't know his own posi: To look . yakko e iku michi de asonde wa ike-nai (A) school you mustn't play on your way to michi ga toi (B) it is a long way. . seiyo-jin no yd ni miemasu (C) : that man looks like a foreigner. mimi wa kazari-mono ka deaf ? (ironically) ?). mi no ue banashi wo suru self. tsukai-michi (q. mihon yori ophite i-ru : to be below sample. ki no mijikai : quick-tempered. kutsu wo migaku : to clean the boots. migi. to arrest attention to stop the ears. [amai sweet]. (C): anyway : michi-kusa wo kuu I shall see him shortly to loiter about on the ni tsuku struct sleep. . be visible . 79 strange mtmi mieTU. abb. amami : sweetness. [shiroi white]. compare tehon}. : 2) Meat flesh . month. [f. kasa ga mie-naku narimashita (C) I huv lost my umbrella. : Comp. dekita to mieru finished. to which it also serves as potential . kimi : yolk of an egg. : it is migi no ho : on the right. ko-michi : a lane. michi wo mochigoe-ru : to lose one's way.) way of using. Road way.v. : hat. mihon no tori : according to pattern. mi wo hiku to withdraw oneself. mimi no toi : hard of hearing. mi wo irete shigoto wo auru : to throw oneself into one's work. tooth-powder. Rare . [cogn. mimi hear. dono michi ano hlto ni wa chikai uchi m a- sawaru : : mimi masu road. you right. mie-naku naru : to become invisible lose. Three (in the 3rd set of mil. ano senaei no migi ni deru mono wa nai (B) that teacher has no superior. become boshi ga mie-nai (B) I can't find my . side. it looks big. : : mimi wo kashlie kure (A) ? : just baton : a moment. (lit. mimi ni to ni pay no hasamu to over- journey. (276. To polish clean. see 271 275). Three .: it -mi. fiaka-michi : a road up a hill. mikka. The right-hand sakana no mi : the flesh of a fish.: ha-migaki .. .t. [H3 yellow]. mi ni oboe no nai koto desu (C) I know absolutely nothing about the matter..]. michi. akami itself. [akai red].v. (C) : it is not an unusual kore thing. seem . pectedly. sweet enough. . : singular. mie-nai : invisible. mi wo omou : to think of one 's own or somebody else '3 welfare. mimi. chotto Ear. 2nd set of num. this is indeed wa o mezurashiu surprise agreeable stranger. forms nouns that mean a tinge of a sample model pattern. and w. niku wo taberu ho ga mi ni naru (B) more nutritious to eat meat. o mimi wo osae-ru : Comp. to come : in sight . ha wo migaku : to clean the teeth. [mitsa three]. mi ga naru : to bear fruit. mi wo tateTu : to establish oneself in the : : Body . mi wo nage-ru : to throw oneself into the water and drown oneself. [mitsu three tliird day of the -ka q. see mitsu. watakushi ni wa so miemasu : (C) : it seems to tion. : inezurashii koto wa arimasen (D) . : some- mi no tame or one's own benefit. self.t. mi-. mise-ru v. ude wo migaku : to endeavour to improve okiku miemasu (C) ano htk> wa : : to talk of one- (in manual work). are you (A) are your ears att. : water dropne-mimi ni mizu : like having said when ear sleeping the into ped unex something that happens quite . come : . konnichi wa mi. appear. fruit. it is a misfortune rni kara deta sabi da (A) you have brought on yourself it serves : : so to me. . Comp. kire no mimi : selvage. 1 ) body will dare ka mieru desho (C) probably come today. (B) : it appears be . mi-ru to look .i. mihon-dori de aru : to be up to sample. \ mihon. mijikai.

mina-san wa ikaga desu ? (C) how are all your people ? minami. [mi-ru to see . Harbour minikui. and comp. mina wa wakarimasen (C) : : All. mise-ru (q. [rnitsU three day of the : The to ten -ka day]. to open a shop. To see off . 1) To see . : . and comp. a thing shown . kino Taro no gakko ni itte mimashUa (C) yesterday I went and saw Taro's school. minikui . mi-nikui. yattc mi-ru : to try to do. hUotsu yatte mitara do de#u ? (C) what do you say to having a try at it ? : : mite mimasho (C) there is. ref d. itte mimasho (C) let us go and see. mise wo shimau : to put away goods exhibited for sale . Comp. [cogn.v. mi-wake-ru : to tell the difference by seeing. . : misoka. Der. mise wo dasu a thing worth seeing.t. chotto misete kudasai (C) please show it to : : me. used instead of Goran nasai may serve in most mi-ru. ordinary cases to an inferior goran will do. tor miru miru uchi ga yakete shimatta (B) while I was looking on (before my very eyes) the house was burnt. see . [mise-ru to show]. : mie wo ham miscTU. ii ja nai ka ? hadn't you better tell your father ? (perhaps he may be able to help you). -nikuiZ mado wo akete mimasho (C) : I will try to . which serves as potential. [mi-ru to . doko kara mite mo : from whichever side : miru yd na mono we look at it. mina-san : every one (persons). to give up one 's business. [mi-ru to Difficult to see.rmmi Comp. nikuil hateful]. mi-okuru .v. port. Der. ) : . mina.i. minna. See mina. watakushi no kangae wo itte mireba ko desti (C) my opinion may be expressed in this way. A shop store . mi'ru. q. : Nihon-jin (no me) kara mireba : from a Japanese point of view. minato. tansu wo mita keredomo nakatta (B) I looked in the chest of drawers but it wasn't : v. itte mitara mon ga shimatte imashlta (C) I : : stand it all. [cogn. accompany a guest some distance on his departure. South. In the imperative. . okuru to see to off]. mita tokoro de wa bydninra^hiku nai (B) to look at him he doesn't appear an invalid. difficult].: it serves To as quasi-causative of mi-ru to see]. ? office.v. Ugly. w. (often pron. isha ni mite morau : to consult a doctor. mi-okuru. 2) After a gerund mi-ru generally (not always as may be seen in the last example) means that an action is to be attempted . mise. mi-sokonau : to overlook. month (whether 30th or 31st). kono kinjo de miru tokoro wa doko dettti ka (C) what is there to be seen here ? chotto : : I open the window (which has stuck) will open the window and we will see whether it is more agreeable so. mie-nt v. mina kaeba ikura ? (B) how much would you take for the lot ? minna de ikura desu ka ? (C) how much does it come to all together ? Kihon no uchi wa mina chiisai no desti ka ? (C) 'are all Japanese houses small ? minna ake-nakereba narimasen ka ? (C) must i open every one ? uchi no kodomo wa minna kaze wo Mkimashrta (C) every one of the children has a : : : went and found the gate closed. there is doubt as to whether the action can be accomplished or whether the result will be satisfactory. : musuko wa kami wo sagasMte mimashlta : cold. mie'ru v. m-inna). mise-mono money. the honorific verb goran nasaru is gen.t. show . look at . : I'll look and see what ga.) a shop.: mhni-koauri . o to-san ni hanashlte mitara (B) : : see . to expose one 's goods for sale. [miiu the water : arimasen deshita (C) the lad looked for the paper but he couldn't find it (not 'he tried to look for' but 'he looked for . no of Jol door]. which serves as quasi-causative]. mitai . chotto Tanaka San wo de-guchi made o miokuri shite o kure (A) just accompany Mr Tanaka to the door (to show him : out). and with mise-ru v. ato de mimasho (C) I will see it afterwards. v.: o-misoka the last day of the year. mi-oboe : recollection of having seen. . exhibit. . : : there. shimbun wo mi-ru : to read the newspaper. Comp.t. Note. >n >nna wakarimasen 1 don 't under(C) stand it at all. and tried to find'). mise (q. 80 mimi-uchi : misoka ori whisper- ing in the ear. w. Tokyo kara mireba Kyoto wa semai (B) Kyoto is small compared to Tokyo.i. : kodomo wo mite tie kudasai (B) please see to the child a moment. I don't under- wo mi'ru : to watch for an opportunity. last : a show . to show.

]. shio-mizu : salt water. ueki ni mizu iro yarn (lit.). don't delay a single day longer than you can help. yappari omae go either. 4) After the gcrundial form of a verb or ame ga futte mo ikimasu if it rains. v. osoku osoku mo mo : at the latest. ichi-nichi ni ni-ri estimate. miya. mitsu is abb. mo kamaimasen (C) you may go : not buy if you michi road. but I am so busy I can't help you. minato . mizuppoi : watery. : : 81 mo kimono made mo yaketa (B) clothes were burnt. discover. kiku no mo kmvai koto da (B) it is dreadful even to hear of it. na':unatta kane-ire ga mUsukarimashita the purse 1 had lost has been found. mo ikare-nai you can't naka ni wa ones ashita ii no mo aru (B) . mo arukeba takusan desti mittomonai. to water plants. (gen. mimasen (C) I have never seen The meaning of mo after a gerund is some- (not even once). (sometimes mekkaru). : osokute mo : at the latest. improper shocking. Tanaka San ni ni-do mo tegami too dashUe mo mada henji ga ko-nai (B) although I ve written twice to Mr Tanaka. mizu. (C) mo jochu ga mitaukarimaehita ka ? (C) have you found a servant yet ? mitsukeTU. [mrru to see . Offensive to the sight . ichi-nichi v. (sometimes mekke'ru). v. to miNote see 276. To become found be found. for your (C) : if health). whose is it ? nusunde iru tokoro wo mitsukerareta (B) he was caught stealing. Hit. To find . See mitsu. adj. v.]. times vague or equivalent to wa. dare no desu ka ? I have found this. 3) Approximate quantity. Comp. [see -ppoi]. mi no mizu : sea-water. . Like. w. a souvenir from some place) . atsukute soba e mo ike-nai (B) : it's so hot you can't even go near it.i. A shinto . chitto : even my mitsukaru. give water). 1) Also : mo tsukaremasu (C) even if I only walk a little I get tired. [mi honourable ya\ house]. ano hito wa kane ga takusan atte mo kin no tokei wo motte imasen (C) although that man has a lot of money. not even chair. . ju-ji ni wa kaerimashd (C) : I'll An come back at the latest by ten o 'clock. mitsu. mittsu. mizo . it ni mizu wo maku to water the like . sono uchi kara ii no wo mitsukete kudasai kore (C) : : mo hayaJcu o kaeri nacai (B) : please come back again as soon as you possibly can . . yasukute mo kaimasen cheap it. he chotto aruite : : : kore mo yatte kudasai (C) : please send this (. he hasn't got a gold watch. mo.mitai mitai (na). : sore ni shite itte mo : even allowing that. Water (cold). in comp. (the honorific o is gen.A) : also. mitsukaru . mittsu). : are all right there are also e some of them some good ? hasn 't answered yet.v. is not a single one. mizo. (C) : please pick out the best from among these. 4. pron.: cogn. mitsumori. .i. mizu-umi : a lake. even if you go it doesn 't matter). [mizu water].g. mitsuke-ru v. . (lit. . present (gen. wo mitsukemashita. mo Tokyo : irasshaimasu ka (D) : are 2) you going to Tokyo again tomorrow ft '! Even. q. Ditch drain. [cogn.].). . chotto kangaete mo wakaru deshd (C) if you think a moment you will understand it. and der. [mitai wishing to see nw even. watakftshi miiar nahito : people like myself. (C) : I even I'll if it is although won't buy it it is cheap ntizti wo kumu : to draw water. : just the same as ever . [mita seen yc& as if]. shrine A ni-iu-yen mo areba kaeru (B) : you could certainly buy it for twenty yen or so. miyage. pref. too. okute mo : at most. you walk five miles (two ri) or so a day that would be enough (e. o-mizu : a flood. hltottu hitotsu mo gozaimosen (D) : there . : : among them. mo nokorimagen : (C) hitotsu mo : nakvnarimashita (C) there's not a single one left. (the honorific o is gen. pref. not changed even a little). . sonna koto wo itte mo toatashi wa isogaahikutte shiyd ga nai (B) I am sorry to hear that. takakute mo go-yen to wa kakara-nai deshd not to cost five : at the most it ought (C) isu mo nai ichi-do mo it yen.v. : . (C) : I will go even miyako. watakushi mo dekimaaen (C) I myself can't : : mo kawara-nai do it. although. The capital city. Three. [mvru to see tsuke-ru q.t.t. nai neg. even if. teumori calculation].

mo mittsti. reason. pen mo empitsu mo arimaaen (C) there is neither a pen nor a pencil. mo itsu. : : 82 hana-mi mo mo mo ii koro da (B) now is the season for flower-viewing.o taku e agatte utatte mo yoroahiu gozaimasu (D) (not only can I sing in my own house but) as I have nothing to do I can even go and sing at after sion. naze ? naze de mo (B) why ? I don't know.mo omae no yd ni chiisakute mo fu-jiyu da ne (A) it must be very inconvenient to be as small as you are. ji mo kakemasu (C) that man can not only speak Japanese but he can write the : referring to nouns of quantity. dokomo .v. : : mo mo 8) : a little more. : : more. mo hltotsu no hako wo motte kite : something happened). densha ni noru koto mo aruku koto mo dekimasu (C) you can either go by tram-car or you can walk. mo shlkata ga nai (B) there is no help for . de mo. 7) Various sometimes the meaning of mo is vague and need not be translated. mo hltotsu no the other one. yomu koto mo kaku koto mo dekimasen (C) he can neither read nor write. see doko. : a little more. shire-nai. sentences when mo 6) Mo follows nouns 'both and '. wa mo sukoahi de yonde ahimaimosu I have almost finished the book. (C) mo hlto-tsuki de go-nen ni narimasu (C) in one month more it will be five years hon : : : (since mi mo shi-nakereba kiki I neither saw nor heard anything. nan no kangae mo nakukiita mama hanashimashita (C) without thinking I said just what I had heard. . mo tamara-nai (B) 1 can't stand it any : : mo only three longer. mo : a) in aff. to mo see to mo. atte mo nakute mo onaji koto desu (C) it doesn't matter whether it is there or not. kuruma wo mo ichi-dai yonde kure call one more rikisha. do sum koto mo deki-nai (B) : it can't be the present. see ka$ 4) moshi mo. sentences 'either or'. . 7. whether or' in neg. there are certain: : o kure (A) bring the other box. after a neg. no : the other one. mo mo ite i-nakute kamaimasen (C) it doesn't matter whether he is there or not neither his presence nor his absence mat: : . 2) When modifying a verb mo may : : ly some. : sukoshi de : almost soon . o tenki ga yokute mo warukute mo ikimasu : : is-sen mo nai (B) I have not another sen left. ika-nakute mo ii (A) you need not go. (A) : distance or time more. densha ni noru koto mo aruku koto mo arimasu (C) sometimes I go by tram and sometimes I walk. ano Mto wa Nihon-go mo hanasu shi. I am too tired. the past or immediate future it may be translated by now. : matte kudasai (C) wait a : little mo sukoshi oki na no ga hoshii (B) little I want one a mo bigger. sukoshi hltotsu is a corft henji gurai yokoshUe mo ii no ni (B) you might at least have answered my letter. 8). gerund it may be rendered by 'need not'. Doko mo . : : : Mo ii 7). asonde imasu kara. ari-ao mo nai hanashi da (B) it's an improbable story. kutabiremashlta kara mo arukemasen (C) I can go no further. see moshi. >//' koto mo gozaimasen (D) it cannot be said that there are none . don't wish to say or discuss the : : : See also de 5) an aff. itsu mo . already. In examples like these last two. : When sakana mo niku mo kaimasho (C) I will buy both fish and meat. to) shite wa ike-nai (A) : don't do refer to . ehina mo ii shi nedan mo yasui (B) the quality is good and the price cheap. . gerund means permis'may'. onna mo aro ni anna mono wo moratta (B) with so many girls to choose from he went and married that creature. shlka arimaaen left. " I shall go whether the weather is (C) good or bad. when mo follows verbs or adj. : (C) : there are characters. : : : mo sukoshi mo sukoshi longer. 1) 'neither nor'. ammari asonde ite mo ike-nai (B) it won't do to remain here too long.wio ruption of mo q. itte mo ii (A) you may go. ichi-do hanaahUe kudasai (C) please repeat what you said . b) : ' yours (if you wish it). (ni-do again. mo ahi-nai (B) mo hltotsu one more. it now. etc. : helped. waruku mo nai (B) that's not bad. : mo mo mo it ters. please say it once . about to it sometimes is not translated at all. near. see de ka mo 20) . ichi-do : once more again. it a and such like expressions.

5) Mono serves sometimes to substantivize to be made v. it all over.: momen-ito : cotton thread. mokeTU. earn. sore dake naraba : if there is nothing : mo mono ni natta (B) there was some result. : . mokaru v. certainly.].v. anna onna wa sd aru mono ia nai : : . A catalogue list. o shimai (B) that is all (the last) . Comp. Of course : that is a ii-yd dc kado ga tatsu : much depends on how you say a thing. da mon' de : therefore. his mother beat him. ichi-nichi ni iktira : gain. some boys are ! : pencil.t. 1 mistake. mo kisha ga demashlta (C) the train has already left. mo remedy now. Taro to iu mono ga kimashita (C) : a man called Taro came.t. w. : : is no : this mo taitei dekita desho (C) your house must be about finished now. mo tsuita dard (B) he has probably arrived : : my room. Thursmokuyo mokuy5-bi .: betsu-mondai : a different question. mofcuM no mono wa minna heya ni motte itte o kure take all my things up to (A) : sen kara shitte imasii (C) I knew that long ago. that ? mochiron.ura-tnon : the back -gate.]. [see yd-bi]. number and : all : sonna mon(o) desho (C) : the following. : mono and koto see 183).i. ano ko wa ammari naku mono desu kara o kd-san ni butaremashUa (C) as that child was crying so much. mono wa tameshi da (B) it is worth while mono mo : To burn. w. : trying. to mon' or no . mosu v. that's just about * mo is you. out of the question. it oshUa furd mono nara taihen da (B) would be extremely inconvenient should it happen to rain tomorrow. 3) To iu 3) mo Various. mono 1) : quite near it now . only a . v. well. often refers to persons (impolite) 2) or animals. da mon' desu kara .. : Nippon mo kawareba kawaru mon da (B) : how Japan has changed naka-naka riko na ko mo aru mono da (B) and no clever. see no 12. mokemasu ka ? (C) how earn a day ? shield -jis-sen mokeru dard (B) you will make seventy sen. naku mono ja nai (A) don't cry. mo ii (B) that will do . mon '. . mo kisha ga deru kara kippu wo o kai nasai (B) buy your ticket as the train is about to start. there is money kane ga mdkarimasu (C) moe'ru. The question matter in discussion. kore wa taihen benri na mono desu (C) is a very useful thing. mo men. be profitable. w. this is all there is. further : will is mo dame desft (C) now it is no use to to there try now : soon be time. A gate. yakuro to iu mono wo kaimashlta (C) : I bought a thing called a yakuro. sore wa mochiron no koto desu (C) matter of course. mo yoku narimasMto ka ? (C) are you quite well again ? o uch! ^va : : : by now. mon. price was so high. [cogn. v. anna mono no iu koto wa ate ni narimagen (C) you can't rely on what that person : Mono says. Thing (for difference l>etween : . dare mo kau htto ga arimasen deshita (C) as the there was no buyer. [cogn. To much do you : : verbs or adjectives. it is Gernerally refers to concrete and material things. mokuroku. sonna mono wa arimasen (C) there such tiling.i. mondai. no more thank : : : mono a (thing) called. . day. mono. Comp. (sometimes abb.mo mo jiki 83 desu (C) little it is . moke-ru v. Comp. [cogn. anna mono / (B) it is a mere trifle. in it. 13). 4) Mono has an abstract meaning akin to koto in this it. md kaeshi-sana mono da (B) he ought to have returned it by now. mo kore kiri (B) once for all never after this time . it is ikiru ka shinu ka no mondai desu (C) a question of life and death. dekiru mono nara : if possible.i. mokaru. takwtan (B) that is enough. of mono q. mondai ni nara-nai koto : something about which there is no question something . tenki ga tsuzuita mono da kara kau-a no mizu as we've had nothing but ga hetta (B) fine weather lately the water in the rivers has diminished. sono mono no ii-kata wa nan desu ka ? (A) what do you mean by speaking to me like : else. there are not many women like her.]. kore wa empitsti de kaita mono dard (B) : this must have been written witli a : : .t. To be earned (of money) . Abb. make money. no help for it it is too late . amari nedan ga tdkai mono desu kara. an opportunity moke-guchi ga dekita (B) for making money has presented itself. Cotton cotton cloth.

forgetfulness. bonyari-mono : an absent-minded person. . a cheap article of inferior aomono : betsu-mono h on-mono vegetables. forgotten. i. do you ? abunakute mo kamau mono desu ka ? (B) neg. added to the stems of verbs or adj. azukari-mono : something received in deposit. couples. : : who : cares even if it is anata no tegami nanzo yomu mon desu ka ? I'd never dream of reading your (C) ' dangerous ? letters. left behind. namake-mono : an idle person. : either person or thing . (C) : things don't always go as one thinks they 8) pounds. uri-mono : a thing for sale. hori-mono : a carving. or to nouns. inaka-mono : a peasant. okashi na hlto mo areba am mono da ! (B) what a strange man hen na koto ga areba am tnon' da ! (B) what singular things do happen some. an absurd statement. a yes. unless the 2nd person is an inferior. tilings : made of metal. mono-oki : a store-room. with a few dare ni moratta no desu ka ? (C) you receive it from ? who gave whom it did ? to you . morai-mono : gift received. otoshi-mono : a thing dropped. kanoshiku nai to wa iu mono no yappari kanashii daro (B) you say you do not feel sad but I think you must. but I'd like to beggar. ageru-mono : a present (to mizu ga nomitai mon' da (B) I would like some water to drink. it is always the second component. nise-mono : an imitation article. It is gen. a mono-wasure : the forgetting of ' gift. mono de mo nai means bare possibility. maze-mono : a mixture. kai-mono : a purchase. 9) After the first form of the neg. i. de mo nai (B) : it may rain (though I don't think it will). and. ko sureba dekiru mono wo (B) you could do it in this way if you tried (but you haven 't tried although you ought to have done so). .e. kemono : a quadruped. : give to another). kimono : a dress. nomu-mono : something to . he's a foreigner.). Mon(o) da is sometimes used after the desiderative without adding materially to the meaning. mise-mono : a thing exhibited. 1) To receive. nomi-mono . okuri-mono . tamani mono ka? (A) you don't expect me to stand that. mono-zuki : inquisitiveness. : a genuine article. 12) Mono no has sometimes the meaning of : mono (C) morai-mono : a thing received. gaeiyd-jin desu well. 1 1 ) Mono at the end of a sentence sometimes resembles an interjection and signifies a this construction protest or complaint : : takara-mono yaeumono quality. facts .mono 6) 84 morau exceptions. is de commoner among women. Mono serves to form an immense number of compounds it may mean : a plain verb and must not be used of an act done in favour of the 1st person by the 2nd person. tattmono : a building. or a protest against. an umbrella) but however nevertheless. or mon(o) desu ka or mon(o) ka is a denial of. taki-mono : fuel firewood. : something precious.e. hataraki-mono : an industrious person. tabe-mono : food. but it is Note the difference between mono as or 2nd component in the foil. of course he can't understand it. : ! : times ! omou yd ni wa ikimasen mono desu will. things for the wash.g. [mono tiling sasu to measure]. future. Tard wa Ei-go ga wakaru desho ne wakaru mon'' desu ka ? I suppose Taro can understand English what an idea. mo warui no desu mono (B) mono (B) : : yes. The following are some of the commonest com- After the first form of the present (aff. when speaking : Comp. wasure-mono : a thing : (e. yakimono : pottery. fuyu-mono kana-mono : : winter clothes. [suki like]. (an explanation of his way of acting). : drink. is morau. yomi wa yonda mono no wnkari wa shimai (B) he read it but I don't think he understood it. at the end of a sentence ameya furumai mono azuke-mono : something given : sentaku-rnono in deposit. : a different thing. : A foot-rule. ikitai (desu) a receiver of things. 7) After the first form of the present mon(o) da has an exclamatory force. wasure-mono : something forgotten. nui-mono : sewing (things to be sewn). komban dekiru yd ni shltai mono desu (C) J hope it will be ready tonight. monosashi. Mtori-mono : a person who is not married. 10) Mono wo is sometimes used ellipticallj. mono-morai : 1st a bad one.

muko wo morau : to marry (said of the woman when the bridegroom comes to her house to form part of her family). . tho corresponding plain verb is iul or hanasul. one glad to receive a padded garment even summer. To burn. o age mdshimasu . 3) In the imperative and future. (often repeated moshi. moto kara no koto desu (C) it is a thing which has been so from the first.: ashi-moto or 1) is the place where one steps . what would : strongly. Note. Supposing . basis . An excuse . to ame ga juru yane ga morimasu (C) . dare ka ni naoshite moraimasho (C) : I will ask somebody to correct it for me.g. foundation. considered highly ? mo ame ga futtara dd shimasu ka (B) supposing (though the weather ia so fine now) it were to rain. machigai no moto : the origin of a mistake. Formerly. nesan ni tegami made wo my get (elder) sister itte ano hUo ni kaite moraimashtta (C) wrote the letter for me. isha ni mite morau : to consult a doctor. (in the motsu. kono negai u-o kiite moraeru ka shira ? (B) I wonder whether he will accede to my : Note mosu : a humble verb and is practically never used in the 2nd person . Tanaka San de san-nen hatarakasete moraiMr Tanaka has consented to masu (C) : wo mosu : to light . moe-ru v. Comp. by a conditional or a construction equivalent to a conditional) moshi sonna koto ga areba : supposing that should happen. [corr. yomt u-o morau : to marry (said of the man when the bride comes to his house to form part of his family). an ata ni tegami wo kaitc moraeru to tsugo if you could manage to write ga ii (B) the letter for me it would suit me very : mdshi-wake Mosu is tnasu : an excuse . : asa hayaku okoslnte moraitai (B) 1 wish to moshi-wake. chichi wa Tokichi to moshimasti (D) : father is called Tokichi.morau : 85 moshi mo moshi ka motsu . moto. moto no tokoro ni shimatte oite kure (A) : put it back in its old place.i. see wake. o o sasshi mdshimasH . standing. see vakf. moto wa ktsha to iu mono ga nakaUa (B} as formerly there were no such things tr-uns. a fire. 1 Comp. : : only natural. Comp. it if is tanomi mdshio machi mdshimasu . I say . 2) Capital. and generally in answer to his request this construction often resembles the passive or the causative. morai-mono nara natsu de mo wata-ire : it is a question of receiving a gift. Tasuke ni moshi mo no koto ga areba : supposing anything were to happen to Tasuke. 2) Morau after a gerund shows that the action is performed in favour of the 1st person.t. Exclamation used to draw attention . son ni omoshiroi hanashi wo kikasetc moraimashlta (C) my uncle told me an engage : kore ? (C) : what is this thing called ? sakki moshita tori : as I said before. korc u-o moraimasho (C) I will take (buy) this one. /o' be called early. [mosu to speak . mosu. moraimasho (C) I shall : : you do ? moshi ka shtiara komban u-a kaette kimasen (C) it may happen (though very improbable) that 1 shall not return tonight. are used is the supposition improbable. : when rains the ro