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Graphic Guide To
3rd Edition Revised and Updated
graphic guide to
graphic guide to
third edition, revised and updated
Text © 2008 by Rob Thallon Illustrations © 2008 by The Taunton Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Taunton Press, Inc., 63 South Main Street, PO Box 5506, Newtown, CT 06470-5506 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Editor: Peter Chapman Copy editor: Karen Fraley Indexer: James Curtis Jacket/Cover design: Susan Fazekas Interior design and layout: Susan Fazekas Illustrators: Illustrations 6B (right), 23C, 25C, 33D, 44A–D, 45B, 61 (top left), 62B-D, 74, 75A & B, 76A, C & D, 82, 83, 84, 85A & B, 86A–D, 87A–D, 94B (top and center), 106B, 119, 120 (top right), 122–125, 152A & D, 153C, 157B (right), 160, 161A–D, 198, 199A–D, 204A & B, 205C, 215B & C rendered by Anthony Baron. Illustrations 6B (bottom, second and fourth from left), 23C (bottom left), 27A & B (right), 28A, 30 (left column, second, third, and fourth), 31, 37 (left center), 44C, 53B & C, 54B & C, 55B, 69A, 70A, 71B & D, 72C, 81A & B, 89B (bottom), 96 (bottom right), 100C, 110A & B, 118, 128A, 142B–D, 153B & C, 154A–C, 155A, 159C & D, 161B, 162, 198A, 201A rendered by Vinicent Babak. All other illustrations rendered by Scott Wolf. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Thallon, Rob. Graphic guide to frame construction / Rob Thallon. -- 3rd ed., rev. and updated. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-1-60085-023-3 1. Wooden-frame buildings--Design and construction. 2. Wooden-frame buildings--Drawings. 3. Framing (Building) 4. House framing. I. Title. TH1101.T48 2009 694’.2--dc22 2008026178 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Homebuilding is inherently dangerous. Using hand or power tools improperly or ignoring safety practices can lead to permanent injury or even death. Don’t try to perform operations you learn about here (or elsewhere) unless you’re certain they are safe for you. If something about an operation doesn’t feel right, don’t do it. Look for another way. We want you to enjoy building, so please keep safety foremost in your mind whenever you’re working.
To Dee .
her loving support. Dee Etwiler. Joe Johnson. South Natick. Chuck Miller. for helpful suggestions about and multiple drafts of most of the new drawings. The production of this third edition has benefited greatly from the existence of the first two editions as well as from the digital revolution. MA. of course. MA. P. my editor. James McDonald. Portland. contractors. Eugene. Chris Brandt. NM. NJ. John Carmody. and her patience. Tom McClain. Jud Peake. VA. my wife. OR. Peter. In addition. David McClean. Sperryville.. Oakland. South Natick. a task for which I am very grateful. University of Oregon. Contractor. FAIA. Stephen Suddarth. Whereas for previous editions I have thanked long lists of people who contributed in numerous invaluable ways. For this I thank Peter Chapman. The first edition was reviewed in its entirety by the following architects and builders: Edward Allen. Contractor. Tallahassee. Simpson Strong-Tie. for patient and skillful editing with just the right touch of humor. Eugene. P. Donald Corner. Walter Grondzik. Hal Pfeifer.E. for his patience and understanding. I need to thank my colleagues and especially my family for enduring unpredictable behavior and schedules on my part during the development of this volume. CA. South Natick. for insightful assistance with the format and for putting as much energy into rendering the original drawings as humanly possible. Scott Wolf. for skillful rendering of the new drawings in the style of the originals. and engineers throughout the country. for inspiration and support for this project long before it was realized. Santa Fe. Washington. And for the second edition. DC. Professor. was also responsible for working with me to define the scope and focus of this edition. OR. portions of the second edition were reviewed by: Edward Allen. Judith Capen. Christine Theodoropolous. Weyerhauser/iLevel. MA. FL.E.acknowledgments T his book has been enriched immeasurably by the contributions of professional architects. Joanne Bouknight. Jennifer Renjilian Morris. It has been almost 20 years since the first edition was originally conceived. My gratitude to those who helped to formulate and develop that first effort persists because the importance of their contribution has only increased with the passing of time: Paul Bertorelli. Steve Kearns. Courtney Jordan. for helping to define the scope of the book and the method of producing it. MN. and assistant editor. for her research assistance. Blaine Young. Chris Anderson. OR. my architectural partner. .E. LeCompton. David Edrington. OR. I remain grateful to: Steve Culpepper. Architect. Lloyd Kahn. my assistant.. Senior Editor. Minneapolis. FL. this time around the work that did not fall to me directly was very graciously and efficiently managed at the publishers. for his unwavering belief in the importance of the Graphic Guide series and his deft facilitation of the second edition. Princeton.. Lastly. Joel Schwartz. Eugene. Eugene. for valuable assistance in articulating my thoughts about structural relationships in early chapters. OR. The participation of all these reviewers has made the book significantly more comprehensive and the process of writing it more enjoyable. Scott McBride. KS. This third edition was reviewed in part by the following: Edward Allen. P. Ketchum. Don Peting. for listening to my ideas and suggesting the project to the publishers in the first place. Anthony Baron. for gracious management and astute tuning of the writing. ID. Miami Beach. Dan Rockhill.
contents Introduction ix 1 Foundations 1 Footings 3 Foundation Walls 7 Pier & Grade-Beam Systems 13 Basement Walls 14 Retaining Walls 17 Drainage & Waterproofing 18 Wall Caps 19 Slabs 20 Utilities 25 4 roofs 127 Framing 129 Sheathing 162 Flashing 167 Roofing 177 Gutters & Downspouts 193 Insulation & Ventilation 197 2 Floors Beams 29 Joist Systems 32 Girder Systems 46 Subflooring 48 Porches & Decks 52 Insulation 61 27 5 stairs Framing 211 Treads & Risers 216 Balustrades 218 Handrails 221 Exterior Stairs 222 Exterior Steps 223 207 3 WALLS 65 Legend 226 List of Abbreviations 227 Resources 228 Glossary 230 Index 238 Framing 67 Lateral Bracing 77 Sheathing 78 Shear Walls 82 Moisture & Air Barriers 88 Windows 90 Doors 96 Flashing 102 Exterior Finishes 106 Insulation 120 .
With all the attention given to advanced practices and materials. Today. Now. contractors. Wooden buildings are now greatly more resistant to the forces of hurricanes and earthquakes. before the publication of the first edition of this book. has been covered extensively in previous editions but receives further discussion here. which has gained serious traction in recent years. Best practices are evolving rapidly because of improved communication and building science. Vinyl windows.introduction L ight wood-frame construction originated in this country over 150 years ago and quickly evolved into the predominant construction system for houses and other small-scale buildings. In addition. there existed no detailed and comprehensive reference focusing on light wood framing. and innovative materials are proliferating to meet increased demand. joists. A principal reason is its flexibility. it was surprising to find that. virtually any shape or style of building can be built easily with the studs. relatively rare just 20 years ago. stronger. These and many other advances were incorporated into the second edition. and with more efficient use of materials. This third edition expands on those issues covered in the first two editions with the addition of the most recently developed practices and materials. Advanced framing that both conserves material and allows for upgraded insulation is rapidly gaining acceptance. Wood frame buildings today are built faster. and students. but the building culture is not static. . Engineered lumber products. the pieces are easily handled. and rafters that are the primary components of wood-frame construction. The topic of environmental responsibility. which were just being introduced. Because the modules are small. are now more common than sawn lumber for many parts of a building. Remodeling projects follow the same track. These form the backbone of the system of wood frame construction and are the starting point for the important and considerable work of remodeling and renovation. owner-builders. over 90% of all new buildings in North America are made using some version of this method. There are many reasons why this system has been the choice of professional and amateur builders alike over the years. seventeen years and two editions later. These two subjects have dominated the research in recent years and significantly impact each chapter of the book. over 275. are now the standard. Given the popularity of the system. In particular. this edition updates the details for engineered lumber products and takes a closer look at the important issue of moisture in wood frame building assemblies. it is also important not to forget traditional principles and materials.000 copies of Graphic Guide to Frame Construction have found their way into the libraries of architects. The acceptance of the Graphic Guide as a standard reference has corresponded with great strides in building technology. and the skills and tools required for assembly are easily acquired. the material is readily available.
however. standard materials. Durability also depends heavily upon the overall design of the building and whether its usefulness . There are some accepted construction practices. Plumbing. describe details relating to the structural shell or to the outer protective layers of the building. money. the scope of the book had to be limited. the practice in some regions of building foundations without rebar is not prudent. has here been stripped away so as to expose the details themselves as much as possible. however. Many local variations are included. it must be designed and built to resist moisture. Virtually all the drawings. I believe. I decided to focus on the parts of a building that contribute most significantly to its longevity. Should we be investing time. it should be possible to build a wood frame building in any shape. Interior finishes and details are not covered because they are the subject of a companion volume. and other insect pests. and mechanical systems are described only as they affect the foundation and framing of the building. The small investment of placing rebar in the foundation to minimize the possibility of differential settlement is one that should be made whether or not it is required by code. and in any style. does not depend entirely upon material quality and construction detailing. at any size. a building must be built on a solid foundation. electrical. therefore. it must be protected from termites. 1996). The stability of a foundation affects not only the level of the floors but also the integrity of the structure above and the ability of the building to resist moisture. Durability. and it must be reasonably protected from the ravages of fire. Graphic Guide to Interior Details (The Taunton Press. although integral with the concerns of this book. to design buildings with adequate overhangs or with flashing and drip edges that direct water away from the structural core by means of the natural forces of gravity and surface tension. With this type of information. Design. Another common practice that I discourage is the recent overreliance on caulks and sealants for waterproofing. A FOCUS ON DURABILITY Although the details in this book have been selected partly on the basis of their widespread use. it must be structurally stable. This practice seems counterproductive in the long run because the most sophisticated and scientifically tested sealants are warranted for only 20 to 25 years. All these criteria may be met with standard construction details if care is taken in both the design and the building process. I believe that wood-frame buildings can and should be built to last for 200 years or more. and materials in buildings that could be seriously damaged if someone forgets to recaulk? It is far better. ants. The process of construction. For example. that I do not think meet the test of durability. covered adequately in many references. is dealt with only at the level of the detail.x Introduction THE SCOPE OF THE BOOK To provide a detailed reference. The details shown here employ simple. the primary focus is on durability. To accomplish this.
com. Subsections. I have relied primarily on my own experiences but have also drawn significantly on the accounts of others. a title. however. . refers to drawing A on page 42. Newtown. Codes vary.Introduction xi over time is sufficient to resist the wrecking ball. In order to build upon this endeavor.O. to let me know of your own observations and critical comments. the reader. Most are drawn at the scale of 1 in. A FINAL NOTE My intention in writing and now in twice revising this book has been to assist designers and builders who are attempting to make beautiful buildings that endure. Materials symbols are described on page 226. I encourage you. P. the last chapter on stairs is intentionally out of sequence). This format should allow the details to be transferred to architectural drawings with minor adjustments. Subsections are called out at the top of each page for easy reference. usually with another more specific introduction and an isometric reference drawing. ON CODES Every effort has been made to ensure that the details included in this book conform to building codes. for example. The chapters are divided into subsections. With the drawings. I have tried to describe the relationship among the parts of every common connection. also roughly ordered according to the sequence of construction. Abbreviations are spelled out on page 227. The callout “see 42A”. Any notes included in a detail are intended to describe its most important features. CT 06470-5506 or via email to thallonarch@continet. Each chapter begins with an introduction that describes general principles. Please send them to me care of The Taunton Press. With this system. equals 1 ft. The more intangible design factors such as the quality of the space and the flexibility of the plan are extremely important but are not a part of this book. starting with the foundation and working up to the roof (however. (Details will usually have to be adjusted to allow for different size or thickness of material.) Those details that are not easily depicted in a simple section drawing are usually drawn isometrically in order to convey the third dimension. the notes sometimes go a little further than merely naming an element. Box 5506. or for positional relationships. Sometimes a reference and title is assigned to an entire topic. for roof pitch. or 11⁄ 2 in. Each drawing has a reference letter. HOW THE BOOK WORKS The book’s five chapters follow the approximate order of construction. By describing the relationship of one element to another. lead to individual drawings or notes. As many details as possible are drawn in the simple section format found on architectural working drawings. all the drawings (and topics) may be cross-referenced. Alternative approaches to popular details have been included as well. and often a subtitle.. so local codes and building departments should always be consulted to verify compliance. although the scale is not noted on the drawings. equals 1 ft.
xii Foundations Introduction .
No amount of repair on the structure above the foundation will compensate for an inadequate foundation. and in addition they provide a large habitable space. and the ground floor is a concrete slab. plumbing. The footing is usually shallow. In the United States. 1 Introduction 1 SLAB-ON-GRADE FOUNDATIONS Slab-on-grade systems are used mostly in warm climates. a foundation system keeps the wooden parts of the building above the ground and away from the organisms and moisture in the soil that both eat wood and cause it to decay. even in the most finely crafted structure. The foundation is the part of a building that is most likely to determine its longevity. Second. minimizing settling. and other utilities.. where frost lines mandate deep footings in any case. the insulated wooden ground floor is supported above grade on a foundation wall made of concrete or concrete block. Basement foundation systems are usually constructed of concrete or concrete-block foundation walls. it will continue to move. preventing uplift from the forces of frost or expansive soils and resisting horizontal forces such as winds and earthquakes. First. and subfloor to be poured at the same time. Basements Slab-on-Grade Foundation Crawl Spaces . it supports the building structurally by keeping it level. foundation. Drainage and waterproofing are particularly critical with basement systems. i. and allows for simple remodeling. If the foundation does not support the building adequately. cracks and openings will occur over time. The resulting crawl space introduces an accessible zone for ductwork. once a foundation starts to move significantly. Like crawl spaces. where living is close to the ground and the frost line is close to the surface. CRAWL SPACES Crawl spaces are found in all climates but predominate in temperate regions. Many slab-on-grade systems allow the concrete footing. but all rely on a perimeter foundation. Each performs in different ways. In this system. basements are accessible. there are three common foundation types.e. so there is no reason to invest in a modern building that is not fully supported on a foundation that will endure for the life of the structure.Foundations chapter Foundations A foundation system has two functions. We now have developed the knowledge to design and construct durable foundations. a continuous support around the outside edge of the building. BASEMENTS Basements are the dominant foundation system in the coldest parts of the country.
such as footings for point loads within the structure and at porches and decks.) 2. and fasteners in contact with pressure-treated lumber should be hot-dip galvanized to protect against degradation from the preservative chemicals. consult a soil or structural engineer before construction begins. undisturbed soil that is free of organic material. insulation and moisture barriers. With all foundations. below all wood. are often described in local soil profiles based on information from the U. Tie the footing and wall together with vertical rebar. ICF walls must be protected on the exterior. there are several other considerations important OTHER FOUNDATION SYSTEMS The permanent wood foundation (PWF). it is recommended that you follow this rule-ofthumb checklist: 1. Straps. hangers. other insects and wood-decaying organisms. Use continuous horizontal rebar in the footing and at the top of foundation walls (joint reinforcing may be allowable in concrete-block walls). and wiring and other utilities must be either integrated or carved into the interior insulation surface. Anchoring requirements in hurricane and severe earthquake zones are shown in the following chapters. Slope backfill away from the building and keep soil 6 in. As a minimum. along with their bearing capacities. ABOUT THE DRAWINGS The sizes of building elements indicated in the drawings in this section are for the purposes of illustrating principles and reminding the designer and the builder to consider their use carefully. 5. protection against termites. waterproofing and drainage. the crawl-space or basement walls sit on a bed of compacted gravel rather than a concrete footing. This small investment may save thousands of dollars in future repair bills. developed in the 1970s. Tie wood members to the foundation with bolts or straps embedded in the foundation. Provide adequate drainage around the foundation. and other utilities are required. you should investigate the local soil type. They include support of loads that do not fall at the perimeter wall. and it is important to select the one best suited to the climate. Use a moisture barrier between all concrete and untreated wood. and the building program. and when insulation. Many codes and many site conditions require measures beyond these minimum specifications. The same framing crew that constructs the structure above can build the foundation walls. Place the bottom of the footing below the frost line on solid. 4. the site. DESIGN CHECKLIST Because the foundation is so important to the longevity of the building and because it is so difficult to repair. wiring. the soil type. Soil types. The insulation stays in place after the concrete walls have been poured and provides thermal separation for the space within. If there is any question about matching a foundation system to the soil or to the topography of the site. to a permanent foundation system. (Local codes will prescribe frost-line depth. now accounts for about 5% of foundations in the United States and 20% in Canada. Make the foundation a little stronger than you think you need to. These drawings should therefore be used only for reference. and precautions against radon gas. Use pressure-treated or other decay-resistant wood in contact with concrete. and these are discussed in this chapter. Made of pressure-treated framing. they can be located in wall cavities between studs as they are in the rest of the building. Geological Survey (USGS). but specific requirements should be verified with local codes. Insulating concrete formwork (ICF) may be used in place of wooden formwork for the walls of a basement or heated crawl space. . In addition. even if not required by code.2 Foundations CHOOSING A FOUNDATION Each foundation system has many variations. Get the details right. 3. it is wise to be conservative in its design and construction.S.
in the continental United States. because it gives tensile strength to the footing.000 and up A rule of thumb for estimating the size of standard footings is that a footing should be 8 in. Soil type—Concrete footings should be placed on firm.500–2.500 1. and possibly wind and earthquake loads—directly to the ground. 7 in. see 5B. 15 in. The chart below shows footing sizes for soils with bearing capacities of 2.500–3. the size and type of footing should be matched carefully to the ground upon which it bears. undisturbed soil that is free from organic material. Size—Footing size depends mainly on soil type and the building’s weight. W 12 in. Check local building departments for frost-line requirements. to 6 ft. Frost lines range from 0 ft. For rebar rules of thumb. Soil types are tested and rated as to their ability to support loads (bearing capacity).000 2. of stories H 1 2 3 6 in. occupants. W H Soil type Soft clay or silt Medium clay or silt Stiff clay or silt Loose sand Dense sand Gravel Bedrock Bearing capacity (psf) do not build 1.Foundations Stepped footing see 4D Fir eplac e footing see 5A C olu mn footing see 6A For med footing with key way see 4C Footings 3 Pier & gr ade. thereby minimizing cracking and differential settling.000 pounds per square foot (psf). Rebar is also the most common way to connect the footing to the foundation wall.000 2. and snow. Compaction of soil may be required before footings are placed. Frost line—The base of the footing must be below the frost line to prevent the building from heaving as the ground swells during freezing.000 4.200–2. No. 8 in.000–3. 18 in.200 2. Rebar is a sound investment even if it is not required. Consult a soil engineer if the stability of the soil at a building site is unknown. contents. A Footings . Consequently. Reinforcing—Most codes require steel reinforcing rods (called rebar) in footings.800–2.bea m system see 13 Slab footing see 22-24 For med footing see 4B Tr en c h footing see 4A Footings are the part of a foundation that transfers the building’s loads—its weight in materials. wider than the foundation wall and twice as wide as high.
) Loc ate vertic al r ebar per loc al c ode & at c enter of c ells for bloc k foundation. undistur bed soil below frost line. width equals depth of footing.) C on c r ete foundation wall Note Use key way footings only with c on c r ete foundation walls wher e later al loads on foundation ar e not signific ant. C on c r ete or c on c r ete. depth 24 in. undistur bed soil below frost line. Dr ainpipe see 18A Dr ainpipe see 18A Hor izontal r ebAr per loc al c ode Bend bot to m of r ebar & alter nate dir ec tion of bend. by 3-in. C on c r ete or c on c r ete. Note For H & W see 3 Hor izontal r ebar per loc al c ode Loc ate bot to m of footing on level. Multiples of 8 in. Loc ate bot to m of footing on level.) Loc ate vertic al r ebar per loc al c ode & at c enter of c ells for bloc k foundation. C Footing with Keyway D Stepped Footing . undistur bed soil below frost line. Loc ate bot to m of footing on level. Use footings doweled with vertic al r ebar for later al loads.bloc k foundation wall Bac kfill Length of r ebar stu b equals 30 bar dia meters (min. undistur bed soil below frost line.4 Foundations Footings Length of r ebar stu b equalS 30 bar dia meters (min.bloc k foundation wall (ma x. for c on c r ete. Min. Bac kfill Hor izontal r ebar per loc al c ode Dr ainpipe see 18A Note Keep c ut in soil as vertic al as possi ble at step in footing. Note For H & W see 3 Loc ate bot to m of footing on level. (approx.) key way loc ks footing to c ast-inplac e c on c r ete foundation wall.bloc k foundation wall Bac kfill Bend bot to m of r ebar & alter nate dir ec tion of bend. A Trench Footing B Typical Formed Footing R ebar c ontinuous through step 11⁄ 2 -in.
. (min. 30 bar dia meters 12-in. and #5. lengths. 2 in. for formed concrete exposed to backfill or weather.. #4 is 1⁄ 2-in. The most common sizes for wood-frame construction foundations are #3.Foundations Footings 5 Edge of masonry fir ebox Tie fir ebox to footing at c or ners with r ebar dowels. B Rebar Rules of Thumb . the length of the lap should equal 30 bar diameters. A Fireplace Footing Clearance—The minimum clearance between rebar and the surface of the concrete is 3 in.) projec tion beyond fir ebox or c hi mney masonry Sizes—Rebar is sized by diameter in 1⁄ 8-in.. as shown below. Tie fir eplac e & foundation footing with r ebar.) depth without r ebar Loc ate bot to m of footing below frost line. Overlapping—Rebar is manufactured in 20-ft. 6-in. Ver if y with loc al c odes. #4. but a few rules of thumb can be helpful guidelines. increments: #3 rebar is 3⁄ 8-in. (min. dia. and 3⁄4 in. When rebar must be spliced to make it continuous or joined at corners. dia. #5 is 5 ⁄ 8-in. etc. for formed concrete protected from the weather. dia. Verify with local codes first. for footings. Code requirements for rebar use may vary.
for square footings or 16-in. 6. to 14 in. undisturbed soil free of organic material. Extreme loads may require oversize footings. ver if y with engineer. t ypic al. diameter for round footings. Place all footings on unfrozen. A Column Footings Bolt str ap to wood c olu mn. or use steel connectors where required (see 6B). Base elevates wood c olu mn above c on c r ete footing. Pre-cast Oversized Column footings (also called pier pads) support columns in crawl spaces and under porches and decks. Drilled Base Expansion bolts ar e dr illed into footing or slab af ter c on c r ete is finished. X H Cast-in-Place Round Cast-in-Place Square #4 r ebar at 12 in. allowing for pr ec ise loc ation of c olu mn.000 psf = 3 sq. The vertical load divided by the soil bearing capacity equals the area of footing. Sc r ew or bolt base to wood c olu mn. to 18-in. e. ft. Wet Base This galvanized steel base must be pr ec isely loc ated in wet c on c r ete. Adjustable Base Multiple-piec e galvanized steel assem bly allows for so me later al adjust ment befor e nut is tightened. Bear ing grout Expansion bolts Single Strap Galvanized steel str ap is of ten used in c r awl spac es or under por c hes. wood c olu mn or plac e 30-lb.T. felt moisture barrier between an untreated wood column and a concrete footing. Available with standoff to r aise the wood c olu mn above the c on c r ete.6 Foundations Footings Note X should not exc eed H without r ebar in footing. Bolt or sc r ew base to wood c olu mn. Nail or sc r ew base to wood c olu mn.g.. Typical sizes are 12 in. B Column Base Connectors .C . Columns may need to be anchored to column footings to prevent uplift caused by wind or earthquake forces (see 6B). use a pressure-treated wood column or place a 30-lb. O. felt moistur e bar r ier bet ween untr eated post & c on c r ete. Note expansion bolts r equir e spec ial inspec tion in most jur isdic tions Note Use P. To prevent moisture in the footing from damaging the column.000 lb. The bottom of the footing must be located below the frost line unless it is within a crawl space. ÷ 2.
Cast concrete—Concrete can be formed into almost any shape. which are especially appropriate for steep sites or expansive soils (see 13). by 16 in. but especially where the foundation is complex. of backfill should be verified by an engineer or an architect. 10 in. As a prudent minimum. to 24-in. clearance usually requires 12-in. or less). The design of basement walls and foundation walls retaining more than 2 ft.bloc k c r awl-spac e foundation wall see 9 & 10 Basement wall see 14 & 15A & B Bea m support see 16 C r i b & pony walls see 12C & D Pest c ontrol. 8 in. A Foundation Walls Concrete & Concrete Block . increments. of stories 1 2 2 foundation width 6 in. There should be at least one continuous horizontal bar at the top of the wall. but formwork is expensive. The minimum height of a foundation wall should allow for the adequate clearance of beams and joists from the crawl-space floor. The primary decision to make about foundation walls is what material to make them of. concrete block is the most common system for foundation walls. A code-required 18-in. based on the dimensions of standard concrete blocks (8 in. is where the formwork is simple or where the formwork can be used several times.bea m system see 13 Foundation walls act integrally with the footings to support the building. Joint reinforcing may be an adequate substitute (see 10B).). the width of the wall can be determined from the chart below. Cast-in-place concrete is used for forming pier and grade-beam systems. adjacent to all major openings. foundation walls. and at regular intervals along the wall. which exerts a lateral force on the wall. With minimum backfill (2 ft. moistur e & ventilation in c r awl spac e see 8 Vent see 9C & 11B Mudsill see 12A & B Foundation Walls 7 R etaining wall see 14 Windows. no. Its primary advantage is that it needs no formwork. The most economical use of cast concrete. Concrete masonry will be used most efficiently if the foundation is planned in 8-in. Codes in severe earthquake zones are at the other extreme. depending on the type of floor system. They also raise the building above the ground. therefore. by 8 in. all foundation walls should be tied to the footing with vertical rebar placed at the corners. Width—The width of the foundation wall depends on the number of stories it supports and on the depth of the backfill. temper atur e. doors & other openings see 10C & D Br ic k-veneer foundation see 11C & D Pier & gr ade. Reinforcing—Some local codes do not require reinforcing of foundation walls.Foundations C on c r ete c r awl-spac e foundation wall see 11A C on c r ete. making it appropriate in any situation. There are several choices: Concrete block—Also known as concrete masonry unit or CMU construction.
They are available in metal or plastic. and other organisms dependent on moisture. The dark plastic retards plant growth by preventing daylight from reaching the soil. In both cases. and conditioning the air as part of the air volume inside the building. ventilation actually brings moisture into a crawl space. As shown in the drawing above right. and all of North America has been mapped and evaluated for radon danger. Radon test kits are readily available. Moisture cannot be allowed to build up in a crawl space where it can create catastrophic damage caused by mildew. This vapor can be substantially controlled with a vapor retarder laid directly on the ground. A concrete-rated moisture barrier should be placed below this slab (see 20). There are two basic strategies to remove the moisture – ventilation to the outside. Operable vents should be closed only during extreme weather conditions. which must first be cleared of all organic debris. sc r eened vent that fits in plac e of one c on c r ete bloc k One of var ious plastic or metal vents made to vent through the r i m joist and fasten to wood siding. Pests—Rodents and other large burrowing pests can be kept out of crawl spaces by means of a “rat slab. An 8-in. fungus. Radon—Radon is an odorless radioactive gas that emerges from the ground and is present at very low concentrations in the air we breathe. This gas can build up to dangerous levels when trapped in a crawl space (or basement). Unvented crawl spaces must be insulated at the foundation wall. A Crawl-Space Controls . In some regions.” which is a 1-in. close it up tight. Although present everywhere. and wood. x 16in. humid air contacts cooler surfaces in the crawl space and condenses there. being a small volume with little exterior wall area. C ar e must be taken to install proper flashing Unvented crawl space—In climates with humid summer weather.) black polyethylene. Ventilation—Crawl-space cross ventilation minimizes the buildup of excess moisture under a structure. cast concrete. The insulation can be installed using the same details as for a basement wall (see 15C). air is moved through the crawl space to replace moisture-laden crawl-space air. Termites and other insect pests are most effectively controlled by chemical treatment of the soil before construction begins. to 2-in. which will tend to migrate up to the crawl space in the form of vapor. Vents should supply cross ventilation to all areas of the crawl space. and some have operable doors for closing off the crawl space during winter to conserve heat. Most codes require that net vent area equals 1⁄150 of the under-floor area with a reduction to 1⁄1500 if a vapor barrier covers the ground in the crawl space. Screened vents should be rated for net venting area. the soil under crawl spaces always carries some ground moisture.deep sc r eened vent made to be c ast in plac e in c on c r ete bloc k or c on c r ete foundation wall An 8-in. This strategy is also appropriate in other climates. The best protection against radon buildup is to ventilate the crawl space well and/or effectively seal the ground below the building. Wells allow vents to be placed below finished grade. Access doors can provide a large area of ventilation. crawl-space ventilation is also required to remove radon gas. Care must be taken to seal the space well against air infiltration. or 10-in. Adding a concrete rat slab over the vapor retarder will enhance its effectiveness and durability. It doesn’t add much to the heating or cooling load. radon concentration levels in the earth are higher in some regions.8 Foundations Foundation Walls Moisture—Even with the best drainage. screened vents are available for installing in masonry. This includes sealing the joint between foundation wall and mudsill (see 12A) and sealing the joints of the floor assembly that bears on the mudsill (see 33-34). The net area of venting is related to the under-floor area and to the climatic and groundwater conditions.-thick layer of concrete poured over the ground in a crawl space. where hot. Crawl-space vapor retarders should be 6-mil (min. The best solution in this case is to insulate the crawl space. and heat and cool it as if it were another room. Locating vents near corners and on opposite sides of the crawl space is most effective. Closing the vents for an entire season will increase moisture in the crawl space and can significantly increase the concentration of radon gas.
Foundations Foundation Walls 9 Corner Knoc k out webs of bond bloc ks to for m c hannel for r ebar. Note Almost any size or shape of masonry wall c an be built with basic bloc k t ypes. Va rie 15 5⁄ 8 in. A Concrete-Block Types Floor system P.. 5 5⁄ 8 in.. adjac ent to openings & in c ells c ontaining an c hor bolts B Crawl-Space Foundation Wall Concrete Block C Corner & Vent Opening Concrete-Block Foundation Wall . and sizes. For jointr einfor c ing alter native see 10 B Bac kfill Vertic al r ebar Full mortar base wher e later al loads apply Slope top of footing with mortar. c or ner. Dr ainage see 18A R ebar in bond bea m one c ourse below vents and c ontinuous around c or ners An c hor bolts set in grout for mudsills see 12A Bloc k for vent o mit ted as near as possi ble to c or ner see 8A Footing Vertic al r ebar at c or ner. 7 5⁄ 8 in. All di mensions ar e ac tual.T.. textur es. mudsill see 12A Bond bea m with # 4 r ebar at top c ourse or below vent opening. 9 5⁄ 8 in. In one side a slot loc ks basement windows in plac e.. C onsult NCMA for c onstr u c tion tec hniques and for spec ial bloc ks with spec ial edge c onditions. c olors. and 11 5⁄ 8 in. 7 5⁄ 8 in. and other bloc ks on site to c ontinue bond bea ms to the end of walls and around c or ners. Half Jam Jamb Ja m b bloc ks ar e available in half (shown) and str etc her sizes. Bond or Lintel C ut half. s Stretcher or Regular Standar d widths ar e 3 5⁄ 8 in.
or at the sec ond c ourse if foundation vents ar e loc ated in the top c ourse. width & fun c tion of the wall r equir e it. Vertic al r ebar fro m top c ell to footing. C Concrete-Block Basement Opening within Wall D Concrete-Block Basement Opening at Top of Wall . Hor izontal r ebar may also be loc ated in inter mediate bond bea ms if the height.10 Foundations Foundation Walls Note Hor izontal r ebar should be c ontinuous in a bond bea m at the top c ourse. Sc r een pr events grout fro m enter ing c ells not filled with r ebar. Fill c ells with grout.c ourse bond bea m. Fill c ells with grout.bea m top c ourse with r einfor c ing see 10A Bond or lintel bloc ks with grout and r ebar or r einfor c ed c astc on c r ete lintel Vertic al r ebar at both sides of opening and extended into footing C or ner and half bloc ks at side ja m bs Dou ble r i m joist Ja m b bloc ks with groove to loc k sash ja m bs C ast or for med c on c r ete or mortar sill Vertic al r ebar at both sides of opening and extended into footing Str etc her bloc ks C ast or for med c on c r ete or mortar sill Str etc her bloc ks Bond bloc k Note An c hor bolts ar e not shown for c lar it y. Joint r einfor c ing bet ween top t wo c ourses & at alter nate c ourses below A Concrete-Block Foundation Rebar Placement B Concrete-Block Foundation Joint-Reinforcing Alternative An c hor bolts set in rout for mudsill Bond. Note To r einfor c e a joint. a welded heavy-wir e tr uss may be su bstituted for hor izontal r ebar in many c ases. It is em bedded in the mortar joints bet ween c ourses of masonry. Hor izontal r ebar c ontinuous in top. Fill c ells with grout. Vertic al r ebar fro m top c ell to footing.
Plus 3-in. air spac e Br ic k veneer Br ic k ties see 117B P. mudsill see 12A Weep holes. flashing see 117B & C Bac kfill see 18 Width of foundation wall equals width of veneer Plus 1 in. Mini mu m Foundation width = r equir ement for no. mudsill see 12A Hor izontal r ebar c ontinuous around c or ners at top of wall An c hor bolts set in c on c r ete for mudsills see 12A #4 r ebar at top of wall Vertic al r ebar as r equir ed by loc al c onditions Bac kfill 2500-psi (1-story str u c tur e) or 3000-psi (2-story str u c tur e) c on c r ete Foundation keyed to footing wher e vertic al r ebar is mini mal Footing Dr ainage if r equir ed see 18A Vertic al r ebar tied to footing at all c or ners. or stor ies.T. see 3 C on c r ete. (min. adjac ent to openings and at an c hor bolts For m vent as near as possi ble to c or ner see 8 A Crawl-Space Foundation Wall Concrete B Corner & Vent Opening Concrete Foundation Wall Fr a ming with sheating & moistur e bar r ier 1-in. Plus width r equir ed by no.Foundations Foundation Walls 11 Floor system P. air spac e Br ic k veneer Br ic k ties see 117B P. of stor ies see 3 C on c r ete.T.T.) bear ing for wood str u c tur e.bloc k or c on c r ete foundation wall C Brick-Veneer Foundation Brick below Mudsill D Brick-Veneer Foundation Brick Level with Mudsill . flashing see 117B & C Bac kfill see 18 Fr a ming with sheathing & moistur e bar r ier 1 in.bloc k or c on c r ete foundation wall Width of foundation wall equals width of veneer Plus 1 in. mudsill see 12A Weep holes.
T. C r i b studs plac ed dir ec tly below eac h joist P. stud adjac ent to foundation wall P. steel an c hor bolt at 4 f t. or nail one str ap to mudsill & other to fac e of stud. or 6 f t. (ma x. A pony wall is useful in a stepped foundation wall or in a sloping pier & gr ade. 1⁄ 2 -in.) & 12 in.T. Bend dou ble-str ap an c hor around mudsill & nail at side & top. 2x4 or 2x6 p.bea m foundation. mudsill Foundation wall or gr ade bea m C Crib Wall D Pony Wall . 2x4 mudsill bolted to c ontinuous footing P. Ver if y with loc al c odes.12 Foundations Foundation Walls 1⁄ 2 -in. Plac e mudsill an c hors into fr esh c on c r ete or nail to for m befor e plac ing c on c r ete. O. (ma x.C . A Mudsill with Anchor Bolt B Mudsill with Mudsill Anchor A c r i b wall is an alter native to c olu mns & a bea m support for joists in a c r awl spac e. wood mudsill Sill gasket of c aulk or fi ber glass at heated spac e steel nut with steel washer 2x4 or 2x6 p. The mudsill an c hor allows the abilit y to finish slab to the edge but it is diffic ult to use with ter mite shield.t. Dou ble top plate c ontinuous with mudsill Pony wall r ec eives the sa me exter ior finish as the fr a med wall above.t. wood mudsill Sill gasket of c aulk or fi ber glass at basements or other living spac e C ontinuous ter mite shield in ter mite r egions C on c r ete or c on c r ete. Slab with tur neddown footing see 22 Note Ver if y ac c eptabilit y of mudsill an c hor with loc al building c ode. The pony wall provides a level sur fac e for c onstr u c tion of the first floor. it allows mor e c lear an c e for du c ts and equip ment & avoids the potential problem of c ross-gr ain shr inkage in bea ms.bloc k foundation wall R ebar 7-in.T. Joists R i m joist or bloc king Floor joists Single top plate Note C r i b wall is br ac ed by per i meter foundation wall. min.) fro m end of eac h piec e of mudsill. depth of an c hor bolt into foundAtion wall Note So me c odes r equir e longer bolts for masonry walls.
. Pony wall on top of gr ade bea m makes a level sur fac e for floor c onstr u c tion see 12D Note Pier & gr ade. P.T.bea m systems must be engineer ed. mudsill see 12A C ontinuous r ebar engineer ed & tied to pier r ebar Bac kfill Dr ainpipe if r equir ed see 18A V-shape allows expansive soil to r ise without lif ting foundation.Pier & Grade-Beam Systems Foundations 13 Gr ade bea m c an slope to c onfor m to c ontour.bea m foundation systems ar e partic ular ly suited to expansive soils or steep hillsides. They ar e also useful to avoid da maging near by tr ee roots. Spac ing var ies & depths r ange to 20 f t. to 18 in. Pier & gr ade.T. mudsill see 12A C ontinuous r ebar engineer ed & tied to pier r ebar Bac kfill Dr ainpipe if r equir ed see 18A Foa m c ushion allows expansive soil to r ise without lif ting foundation. Engineer size & t ype of r ebar. Gr ade bea m see 13C C ontinuous pier r ebar tied to gr ade bea m Bac kfill & dr ainage see 18A S mooth top edge of pier to allow soil to expand without lif ting pier. desc ending on soil. C ast c on c r ete pier T ypic al pier dia meters ar e 12 in. B Piers for Grade Beam C Grade Beams Two Types for Expansive Soils . Gr ade bea m see 13C Pier see 13B A Pier & Grade-Beam Systems P.
The weight of the wall and the weight of soil on the footing resist overturning.) and are generally backfilled to at least 4 ft. but they are included here because they are typical extensions of the building components (foundation and basement walls) into the landscape. ver if y thic kness oF c on c r ete or c on c r ete bloc k. Retaining walls—Retaining walls resist lateral loads from the bottom only. and counterforts from the uphill side. Basement walls can be strengthened with pilasters (see wood 16). which allow the wall floor to be designed to span between pilasters in the Slab & soil pr essur e horizontal (as well as Soil on footing pr essur e the vertical) direction. to 9 ft. A basement wall must resist the lateral pressure of the backfill at both the top and bottom of the wall. the connection between the wood floor and the basement wall is especially important (see 33–34). Because the floor must resist the lateral force of the backfill against the basement wall. Pilasters are also useful as beam supports. a mount. When basement wall backfill exceeds 4 ft. A Basement & Retaining Walls .bloc k basement wall see 15A C onnec tion to wood floor: Joists on mudsill see 33A & B Joists flush with mudsill see 33C & D Joists below mudsill see 34 C onnec tion to stud walls see 15D But tr ess see 17C Pilaster see 16A C onnec tion to c on c r ete slab see 21C & D Note For basement walls. The floor system should always be in place before backfilling. and plac ement of r ebar. Buttresses help support retaining walls from the downhill side. and c onnec tion to floor systems with an ar c hitec t or engineer. Technically. Basement walls are therefore usually designed as if they were a beam spanning in the vertical direction. str ength of c on c r ete or grout.14 Foundations Basement Walls C on c r ete basement wall see 15B C on c r ete. with the rebar located at the inside (tension) side of the wall. They rely on friction at the base of the footing and soil pressure at the outside face of the footing to resist sliding. size. Overtur ning for c e of soil Soil pr essur e Weight of soil on footing Soil pr essur e on footing Weight of wall on footing Sliding Forces Overturning Forces Buttresses and counterforts strengthen retaining walls in much the same way that pilasters strengthen basement walls (see 17). freestanding retaining walls are not a part of the building. in height. an engineer should be consulted about this connection. Water proofing see 18C Dr ainage see 18B C ounter fort see 17A & B Basement walls—Basement walls are one story in height (7 ft.
Note Do not use c ontinuous vapor bar r ier on war m side of wall below gr ade. Other rigid insulation. see 18c Walls Parallel Walls Perpendicular C Basement Insulation D Basement Wall/Stud Wall Plan Views . depending on the type. Slab see 21C or D Basement Walls 15 Footing see 4 A Basement Wall Concrete Block B Basement Wall Concrete Heated basements must be insulated at their perimeter walls. Hor izontal r ebar as r equir ed by engineer ing Vertic al r ebar an c hors wall to footing. There are two ways to insulate basement walls—from the exterior or from the interior. Wall finish Insulation 30-lb. sheets. Interior—Interior insulation may be either rigid or batt type. by 8-ft.t. Petroleum-based rigid types must be covered for fire protection when used in an interior location.Foundations Insulation see 15C Floor system Bac kfill and dr ainage see 18B Water proofing see 18C Alter native loc ation for insulation Vertic al r ebar plac ed at tension side of wall r esists bending for c es. felt str ips bet ween untr eated studs & basement wall. Wall finish At tac h stud with c on c r ete nails. Building a stud wall with batt insulation has the advantage of providing a nailing surface for interior finishes. It may be applied either under or over the waterproofing. Note An alternative to this detail is to build the stud wall 1 in. need not be fireprotected. fro m the basement wall. available in 2-ft. extend felt beyond stud or use p. is attached directly to the basement wall with adhesive or mechanical fasteners. This insulation. Bond bea ms as r equir ed by engineer ing Vertic al r ebar an c hors wall to footing. such as rigid mineral fiber. Slab see 21C or D Full mortar joint on roughened footing Footing see 4 Floor system Insulation see 15C Bac kfill and dr ainage see 18B Water proofing see 18C Alter native loc ation for insulation Vertic al r ebar plac ed at tension side of wall r esists bending for c es. studs. The amount of insulation required depends on the climate. or 4-ft. Exterior—Exterior insulation should be a closed-cell rigid insulation (extruded polystyrene or polyisocyanurate) that will not absorb moisture.
felt under bea m at point of c ontac t with c on c r ete or c on c r ete bloc k Shi ms to level bea m 3-in. wood c olu mn Wood c olu mn bears on footing. air spac e bea m 30-lb.t. R ebar in wall. mini mu m bear ing sur fac e for wood bea m C on c r ete or c on c r ete. felt under bea m at point of c ontac t with c on c r ete or c on c r ete bloc k Shi ms to level bea m 3-in. felt under c olu mn at footing or use p.16 Foundations Basement Walls 1⁄ 10 of the distan c e bet ween vertic al supports (other pilasters. pilaster & footing must be engineer ed. or walls) 1⁄ 2 -in. wood C Beam Pocket Concrete or Concrete Block D Wood-Column Beam Support Basement or Crawl-Space Wall . air spac e at end and sides of wood bea m or use p. air spac e Bloc king as r equir ed Bea m with 11⁄ 2 -in. Notc h bea m for mudsill if r equir ed (ma x. If at tac h ment is r equir ed see 6B Note Use la minated wood or steel bea m to mini mize shr inkage. of wall height 1⁄ 12 Top of pilaster Basement wall 1⁄ 2 -in.t.bloc k foundation wall Basement wall basement wall 30-lb. mini mu m bear ing sur fac e for wood bea m Pilaster Note Proportions for pilaster di mensions ar e approxi mate. notc h equals 1⁄ 4 depth of bea m). c or ners. wood or steel For pilaster as a bea m seat see 16B Bac kfill Note Use la minated wood or steel bea m to mini mize shr inkage. dec king see 47C & D or bea m & joist system see 33C At tac h bea m to c olu mn 4x4 wood or p.t. Footing see 4 A Pilaster Concrete or Concrete Block B Pilaster Beam Seat Concrete or Concrete Block 1⁄ 2 -in.t. 1⁄ 2 -in. wood or steel Fr a med wall 1⁄ 2 -in. air spac e Bea m 30-lb. air spac e at end of wood bea m or use p.
R etaining wall 8-in.Foundations Note C ounter fort must be professionally engineer ed. (min.)-thic k c ounter fort wall. Dr ainpipe But tr ess footing r einfor c ed & c ontinuous with wall footing C Buttress Concrete or Concrete Block . stepped Footing Dr ainpipe r etaining wall 8-in. R einfor c ement is r equir ed for tension and shear. C ounter fort r ebar tied to r etaining wall & footing Note C ounter fort must be professionally engineer ed.)-thic k but tr ess wall. C ounter fort r ebar tied to r etaining wall & footing Retaining Walls 17 R etaining wall R einfor c ement r equir ed for tension & shear 8-in. A Concrete Counterfort B Concrete-Block Counterfort Note But tr ess & r etaining wall must be professionally engineer ed. seeped (shown) or sloped But tr ess r ebar r equir ed for shear is tied to r etaining wall & footing.-thic k c ounter fort wall Footing Dr ainpipe Note Footing is lar ge and r einfor c ed bec ause c ounter forT uses its own weight plus weight of soil abOve footing to r esist the hor izontal for c e on the wall. Note Footing is lar ge and r einfor c ed bec ause c ounter fort uses its own weight plus weight of soil above footing to r esist the hor izontal for c e on the wall. (min.
protecting cracks up to 1⁄ 8 in. water vapor may migrate into the basement through the footing and basement wall. it is waterproof. and is extremely elastic. but they eliminate the need for gravel backfill. Water proofing see 18C Asphalt-i mpr egnated protec tion boar d r ec o m mended for so me insulations & water proofings Exter ior or inter ior insulation bac kfill with r iver roc k against wall Filter fabr ic if r equir ed Filter fabr ic if r equir ed 4-in. Often applied over a troweled-on coating of cement plaster that is called parging. and unlike parging. per for ated dr ainpipe with holes or iented down & sloped to daylight or to stor m sewer or dry well Storm Drain A Foundation & Storm Drainage B Basement Drainage Drainage is essential in protecting a basement from groundwater. so a vapor barrier on the warm side of a basement wall is not recommended. A filter fabric incorporated in the material allows water to enter the gap and drop to the bottom of the wall.) r iver roc k around dr ainpipe Slope finish gr ade away fro m building. Membranes—Rubberized or plastic membranes that are mechanically applied or bonded to a moist or dry surface are moderately elastic. Modified portland-cement plaster—Plaster with water-repellent admixtures can look exactly like stucco. It is inelastic. It’s important not to trap this vapor in an insulated wall. or in spray-on form. bitumen-modified urethane is applied with a brush to a dry surface. and thin coats may not be impervious to standing water. More common and more practical is to allow the vapor to enter the space. the elasticity. Slope to daylight or to stor m sewer or dry well. They have minimal elasticity. solid plastic dr ainpipe sloped to daylight or to stor m sewer or dry well Note Stor m & foundation dr ains may be c o m bined if loc al c odes allow. troweled. In selecting a waterproofing material. Foundation Drain Bac kfill with soil around stor m dr ain. Bentonite—A natural clay that swells when moistened to become impervious to water. sprayed. It is applied to a dry surface. in rolls.18 Foundations Drainage & Waterproofing 3 ⁄ 4 -in. (min. consider the method of application. per for ated dr ainpipe with holes or iented down. It is elastic. Although waterproofing and drainage will prevent water from entering the basement. but waterproofing the basement wall from the outside is also vital. and to remove the vapor with ventilation or a dehumidifier. It is usually applied with a brush or a trowel to a moistened surface. Plastic air-gap materials—These drainage materials create a physical gap between the basement wall and the soil. Bitumen-modified urethane—The most recent development in waterproof coatings. and the cost. 4-in. some bituminous coatings may be fiberglass reinforced. Bituminous coatings—Tar or asphalt can be rolled. or brushed on a dry surface. Basement wall Slope top of footing with mortar. Below are common waterproofing and drainage materials. bentonite is available as panels. These systems are expensive. c Waterproofing Principles & Materials . 4-in.
c . whic h ar e usually exposed to the weather.c ement plaster or bitu men. c on c r ete. see 18C Stucco Cap C ontinuous metal c ap with dr ip edge Fasten metal c ap to wall at side to pr event moistur e penetr ation of top flat sur fac e. so they ar e designed for r elative ease of r eplac ement.c . o.c . Ther E is not mu c h point in moistur e bar r iers. C on c r ete. mini mu m. Rowloc k br ic k or paver c ap Masonry ties at 2 f t.bloc k or c on c r ete wall Masonry Cap Weather-r esistant wood seat nailed or sc r ewed to supports P.bloc k or c on c r ete wall An c hor bolts at 2 f t.modified ur ethane. Seal with c lear ac rylic or silic one. top piec e beveled & with dr ip An c hor bolts at 6 f t. o. oc . sin c e they will only tr ap r ainwater against the wood.bloc k or c on c r ete wall One-Piece Wood Cap C on c r ete. o.bloc k or c on c r ete wall Notes These details ar e for the tops of r etaining walls. For stu c c o details see 118−119 Silic one c oating for moistur e protec tion C on c r ete. & r ec essed flush into supports C on c r ete.c . R etainingwall sur fac es shoUld be protec ted fro m moistur e penetr ation to pr event da mage fro m the fr eezethaw c yc le. mini mu m.bloc k or c on c r ete wall Two-Piece Wood Cap Wood-Bench Cap Rounded shape pro motes dr ainage.Foundations Wall Caps 19 Malleable or other lar ge washer Weather-r esistant wood c ap beveled on top for dr ainage Dr ip c ut in underside of c ap An c hor bolts at 6 f t. Wood c aps will ulti mately dec ay. 2x or 4x supports bolted per pendic ular to wall at 2 f t. Stu c c o or wall c ontinuous over c ap. or water proof with modified Portland. C on c r ete.T. o. or per c apac it y of finish seat mater ial Malleable or other lar ge washer Weather-r esistant t wo-piec e wood c ap.bloc k or c on c r ete wall Metal Cap A Concrete & Concrete-Block Wall Caps .
A more substantial concrete-rated barrier is a fiberreinforced bituminous membrane. A Slabs . A more substantial concrete-rated moisture barrier is necessary for Detail B because the moisture barrier is in direct contact with the concrete slab. allows water to escape from concrete in a downward direction during curing. 25A Slab r einfor c ing see 21 Slab with deep footing see 23A. Graded gravels such as pea gravel composed entirely of similar-sized round particles cannot and need not be compacted. Some soils require compaction. and to control ground moisture. Soil must be solid and free of organic material. B & D R adiant-heat slab see 25C Plu m bing through slab see 25B Preparation before pouring a slab is critical to the quality of the slab itself. of gravel is recommended. A minimum of 4 in. and it is easily punctured during slab preparation and pouring. Sand—Sand (shown only in Detail A). layer of sand below slabs. the soil is often treated chemically. The American Concrete Institute recommends a 2-in. and tape the joints in Detail A Su b-soil Detail B a very short period in this situation. sandwiched between two layers of polyethylene. Gravel must be clean and free from organic matter.20 Foundations Slabs Slab/ basement wall see 21C & D Slab footings at bear ing walls & c olu mns see 23 & 24 Expansion joints & c ontrol joints see 21B Slab per i meter insulation see 22B tur ned-down slab footing see 22 & 23C Gar age slab see 24A & B. Overlap joints 12 in. Six-mil polyethylene is common and works well in Detail A. Gravel—Gravel is a leveling device that provides a porous layer for groundwater to drain away from the slab. Crushed and ungraded gravels must be compacted. Moisture barrier—Moisture barriers prevent moisture (and retard vapor) from moving upward into a slab. In termite areas. areas of extreme moisture. Verify compaction and soil treatment practices in your local area. The primary goals in preparing for a slab are to provide adequate and even support. Polyethylene may deteriorate within C on c r ete slab Sand Moistur e bar r ier Gr avel Soil—Soil is the ultimate support of the slab. This produces a stronger slab.
5 lb. The appearance of the slab is affected by the presence of fibers exposed at the surface. Expansion joints are appropriate at the edges of slabs that are not heated (not in the living space) or that. Expansion joints are also used to isolate building elements that penetrate slabs such as structural columns. which automatically occur between sections of a slab poured separately. are expected to change temperature significantly over their lifetimes. Fiber reinforcement—Fiber reinforcement is a recent development in slab reinforcement.4)—adequate for a residential garage. The addition of 1. Control joints—Control joints induce cracking to occur at selected locations. Cold joints. thereby eliminating difficulties with placement of the reinforcing material. The most common size is 6x6 (w1.Foundations Welded wire mesh—Welded wire mesh (WWM) is the most common reinforcement for light-duty slabs.) gr avel Expansion joint if slab pour ed in c old weather 4-in. (min. Rebar—Rebar is stronger than welded wire mesh. Polypropylene fiber reinforcement is mixed with the concrete at the plant and poured integrally with the slab.) gr avel 4-in. can act as control joints. c ontinuous per for ated dr ainpipe sloped to daylight or to stor m sewer C Slab/Basement Wall Well-Drained Soil D Slab/Basement Wall Poorly-Drained Soil . or plumbing (see 25B). o. They also allow slabs to act independently of building elements with which they interface. Slabs 21 A concrete-slab reinforcing B concrete-slab joints Bac kfill & Dr ainage see 18B Water proofing see 18C Basement wall Bac kfill & Dr ainage see 18B Water proofing see 18C Basement wall Bitu minous expansion joint or leave 1-in. One disadvantage to WWM is that the 6-in. (min. spac e bet ween slab & wall to r elieve exc ess hydrostatic pr essur e fro m below slab 4-in. A grid of #3 rebar at 24 in. They are troweled or cut into the surface of a slab to about one-quarter of the slab depth and at 20-ft. Expansion joints—Expansion joints allow slabs to expand and contract slightly with temperature changes.) r einfor c ed slab C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier 6-in.4 x w1.c is also adequate for a residential garage. of fiber per cubic yard of concrete produces flexural strength equal to WWM in a slab. (min. grid is often stepped on and forced to the bottom of the slab as the concrete is poured. (min. c ontinuous per for ated dr ainpipe sloped to daylight or to stor m sewer or dry well 4-in. which requires a stronger slab than a house. for some other reason.) r einfor c ed slab C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier 4-in. intervals. walls.
The position of the insulation will depend pr i mar ily on the foundation t ype. or 12-in. mudsill see 12A or B C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier 4-in.T. (min. Well-Drained Soil B Slab Perimeter Insulation Wall finish: Stu c c o-wr apped insulation or siding stopped at top of insulation with flashing & protec tive c oating over insulation 4-in.) slab c ontinuous with footing C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier C oating protec ts insulation fro m ultr aviolet light and mec hanic al abr asion. C losed.) c o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel 6 in. thic kness var ies.) c o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel Fr a med wall projec ted over insulatION and c oating P. although they may also be insulated at the outside building edge.T. Tur ned-down footings see 22C & D. B & D A Slab with Turned-Down Footing Warm Climate. (min.c ell r igid insulation plac ed at their edges. (min. (min. Slabs with deep footings ar e of ten insulated at the inside fac e of the foundation.T. mudsill see 12A or B 4-in. so slabs must be protec ted fro m heat loss by a c losed. (min. Ter mite shield if r equir ed 4-in. (min.) gr avel P. Slabs integr al with tur ned-down footings ar e insulated at the outside building edge.22 Foundations Slabs 4-in.) r einfor c ed slab c ontinuous with footing P. (min.) slab c ontinuous with footing 4-in. The a mount of insulation r equir ed will depend on the c li mate and on whether the slab is heated. 23C Deep footings see 23A.) fro m soil to mudsill Note Slabs lose heat most r eadily at their per i meters. wher e they ar e exposed to the air.c ell r igid insulation to below frost line R ebar c ontinuous at per i meter Footing below frost line C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier Footing below frost line C Slab with Turned-Down Footing Insulation Outside Framing D Slab with Turned-Down Footing Insulation Flush with Framing .c ell r igid insulation to below frost line. (min.) footing depth R ebar c ontinuous at per i meter Note An uninsulated & exposed per i meter slab is appropr iate only FOR unheated spac es or in very war m c li mates. mudsill see 12A or B C losed.
) see 22B Foundation wall and footing Foundation wall and footing 4-in. (min. Foundation wall and footing Horizontal c losedc ell r igid insulation C losedc ell r igid insulation to below frost line or 2 f t. (min. (min.c ell r igid insulation to below frost line or 2 f t.T.) c o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel 4-in.) c o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel A Slab on Grade/Deep Footing Vertical Interior Insulation B Slab on Grade/Deep Footing Horizontal Interior Insulation Flashing & protec tive c oating over insulation C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier Fr a med wall In ter mite r egions.) c o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel Note R equir ed di mensions & R-value of insulation vary w/ c li matic zone. extend ter mite shield c ontinuously fro m slab to exter ior. 4-in.) r einfor c ed slab Fr a med Wall In ter mite r egions.) c o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier C losed. (min. (min.) r einfor c ed slab C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier 4-in.c ell r igid insulation 4-in. (min.) slab c ontinuous w/ footing P. (min. (min.c ell r igid insulation extended 2 f t. Mudsill See 12A or B Vertic al c losed.) under slab C losed.) r einfor c ed slab C on c r eter ated moistur e bar r ier 4-in.) see 22B C Slab wITH Turned-Down Footing Frost-Protected Shallow Footing D Slab on Grade/Deep Footing Vertical Exterior Insulation . (min. 4-in. (min.Foundations Slabs 23 Fr a med wall In ter mite r egions. extend ter mite shield c ontinuously fro m slab to exter ior. extend ter mite shield c ontinuously fro m slab to exter ior. 4-in. (min.
t. (min. sill Note Depth & flat bear ing sur fac e of footing must be sized to support vertic al loads. sill plate nailed to slab with c on c r ete nails Wood Post R ebar C on c r eter ated moistur e bar r ier 30-lb. 4-in. C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier c ontinuous bet ween slab & footing R einfor c ed slab pour ed around c olu mn loc ks c olu mn in plac e. (min.) gr avel C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier Footing c ontinuous with slab see 22C Gr avel R ebar c ontinuous at per i meter 4-in. Slope dr iveway 4-in.c olu mn c onec tion see 6B Steel c olu mn with steel bear ing plate at bot to m bears on footing. Felt under p.) r einfor c ed slab see 21A R ec essed thr eshold c ast into slab to c ontrol water C aulked expansion joint Slope slab towar d door at 1⁄ 8 in.T. (min.) r einfor c ed slab see 21A R ec essed Thr eshold c ast into slab to c ontrol water C aulked expansion joint Slope dr iveway away fro m building Gar age door Thic ken slab edge at foundation c onnec tion & tie with r ebar.24 Foundations Slabs Gar age door 4-in. (min. P. R ebar Independent c olu mn footing under slab Bearing Wall Steel Column C Integral Slab Footing Wood Post & Bearing Wall D Under-Slab Footing Steel Column . per f t.) gr avel C on c r eter ated moistur e bar r ier Foundation wall Footing A Turned-Down Footing At Garage Door B Deep Footing At Garage Door R ebar C on c r eter ated moistur e bar r ier Wood post Galvanized steel c olu mn base see 6B Note For alter native steel.
c ell r igid insulation (2 in. (min. (min.-thic k fi ber glass wr ap insulation isolates waste pipes fro m slab.bloc k foundation wall 2 in. No c leanouts ar e allowed below slab. Hot Note A stronger c on c r ete mix is r equir ed for a gar age slab than for a slab in living spac es. Hot-pipe insulation is r ec o m mended.) tied to r ebar or wir e mesh 4 in. Set c loset flange at F. f t. min.F.c .) r einfor c ed c on c r ete slab sloped at 1⁄ 8 in. without any joints below the sur fac e. (approx. fro m per i meter Heat sour c e Diagram of Radiant Heat Tubing 4 in. (min. This elastic tu bing is supplied in long rolls & c an c over about 200 sq. 1-in. Mini mize br a zed fit tings below slab. A Garage Slab/Foundation Wall B Plumbing through Slab Per i meter insulation r equir ed see 22B. Note Use T ype K or T ype L c opper supply pipes. to front of gar age C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier Plastic-sleeve pipe insulation isolates water pipes fro m slab.) of gr avel C Radiant-Heat Slab .) r einfor c ed c on c r ete slab Note C ross-linked polyethylene tu bing (PEX) has r eplac ed c opper tu bing As the c onveyor of hot water for r adiant slabs.) to 4 f t.L. o. Tu bing Slab Optional insulation Slab with tur neddown footing or slab with foundation wall see 23B C on c r ete-r ated moistur e bar r ier C losed. (min. C o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel Foundation wall & footing Cold Waste Note Use ABS plastic waste lines. per f t.) above slab 4-in.Foundations Utilities 25 Expansion joint at all edges of unheated gar age slab C on c r ete or c on c r ete. Ver if y loc al r equir ements. and an c hor dir ec tly & sec ur ely to slab. C & D PEX tu bing at 8 in. The addition of insulation below the slab will i mprove the per for man c e of the system.
he floor is the part of the building with which we have most contact. We walk on the floor and, on occasion, dance, wrestle, or lie on it. We can easily tell if the floor is not level, if it is bouncy or squeaky, and this tells us something about the overall quality of the building. The floor carries the loads of our weight, all our furniture, and most of our other possessions. It also acts as a diaphragm to transfer lateral loads (e.g., wind, earthquake, and soil) to the walls, which resist these loads. Floors insulate us from beneath and often hold ductwork, plumbing, and other utilities. So a floor must be carefully designed as a system that integrates with the other systems of a wood-frame building—the foundation, walls, stairs, insulation, and utilities. Once designed, the floor must be carefully built because so many subsequent parts of the construction process depend on a level and solid floor construction.
Su bfloor Joist
Support—Wood floor systems usually span between parallel supports. These supports may be a foundation wall, a stud-bearing wall, or a beam. The first two are covered in Chapters 1 and 3, and beams are a subject of this chapter (see 29-31). Joists—The primary structural members of a floor system are the joists, which span between the supports. The most common materials for joists are solid-sawn lumber (see 35-42) and engineered wood I-joists (see 43-44). Joists are usually placed on 12-in., 16-in., or 24-in. centers, depending on the required span and the sizes of the joists (see 32).
Bea m Foundation
ELEMENTS OF A FLOOR SYSTEM
There are several floor-construction systems, and all of them are composed of variations of the same basic elements: support, joists, and a subfloor.
Subfloor—The planar structural surface attached to the top of the joists is called the subfloor (see 48-51). The subfloor provides the level surface to which the finish floor is applied, and it also acts as a diaphragm to transfer lateral loads to the walls. Subfloors are usually made of plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) but may also be made of other materials. Some subfloors also provide mass for passive-solar heating.
FLOORS AND WALLS
It is essential to coordinate the details of a floor-framing system with those of the wall framing. There are two wall-framing systems from which to choose:
Balloon framing—Balloon framing is a construction system in which the studs are continuous through the floor levels. It is a mostly archaic system, but there are some situations where balloon framing is appropriate. These situations are discussed in the introduction to Chapter 3 (see 65-66). Balloon-framing details that pertain to floors are included in this chapter. Platform framing—Platform framing is the dominant wood-floor construction system in this country. The platform frame floor is so named because the stud-wall structure stops at each level, where the floor structure provides a platform for the construction of the walls of the next level. This chapter concentrates on platform framing, which has two basic variations: joists with structural panels (OSB or plywood), and girders with decking.
TYPES OF FLOOR FRAMING
Throughout the history of the balloon frame and the more recent platform frame, floors have typically been made with joists (2x6, 2x8, 2x10, and 2x12) that are spaced closely (usually 16 or 24 inches on center) to support a subfloor that spans between them.
16 in. or 24 in. spac ing
For 125 years, the joists were all solid-sawn lumber, and the subfloor started as boards, laid diagonally and later became plywood. In the past 35 years or so, solidsawn lumber has been slowly replaced with engineered wood products—wood I-joists and other structural composite lumber (SCL). Engineered wood products are straighter, more dimensionally stable, and generally stronger than their solid-sawn counterparts. In addition, they can be made larger and longer than sawn lumber, so they can span farther. Currently, engineered wood products have overtaken solid-sawn lumber in terms of market share for floor construction, but both materials are still widely used. Subfloors are now typically made with Oriented Strand Board (OSB) instead of the more expensive plywood. Most of the details in this chapter are illustrated with examples showing solid-sawn lumber—primarily because the drawings are more clear using these simple forms. However, the solid-sawn details may be interpreted to be built of engineered products because the basic principles apply to all types of framing material whether solid-sawn, I-joist, or other composite materials. Because I-joists require special treatment in certain conditions, there is a section of the chapter devoted entirely to I-joists (see 43–44). In areas where timber is plentiful, 4x girders with 2-in. tongue-and-groove subfloor decking that spans 4 ft. are often used as a floor system (see 46–47). Lower grades of decking on girders make a very economical floor over crawl spaces, and appearance grades of decking are often used for exposed ceilings. The decking itself does not technically act as a diaphragm to resist lateral loads, so it may require additional diagonal structure, especially at upper levels. Also included in this chapter are porch and deck floors, floor insulation, and vapor barriers.
C r i b & pony walls see 12C & D
Wood- bea m or gir der/post c onnec tions see 31
Bea m spans see 29B
C onnec tions to foundation see 16
Bea m t ypes see 30
T ypic al joist Bea m
Beam Span Comparison
Header or other support
Joist span ( X⁄ 2 + Y⁄ 2 ) Beam type (2) 2x8 built-up beam 8ft. 6.8 7.7 9.7 9.7 10.0 17.4 10ft. 12ft. Beam Span (ft.) 6.1 6.9 9.0 9.0 9.3 16.2 5.3 6.0 8.3 8.5 8.8 15.2 14ft. 4.7 5.3 7.7 8.0 8.3 14.1
2 Y/ X/
ist Jo n Y a Sp
4x8 timber 3 1⁄ 8 in. x in. glue-laminated beam 7 1⁄ 2
ist Jo n X a Sp
31⁄ 2 in. x 71⁄ 2 in. PSL beam (2) 13 ⁄ 4 in. x 71⁄ 2 in. LVL (unusual depth)
Header supports of single joist span
bea m supports 1⁄ 2 of eac h joist y⁄ 2 span, pr x⁄ 2 see table at r ight
4x8 steel beam (W8 x 13 A36)
Note The dr awing above and the table at r ight ar e for unifor m floor loads only. Roof loads, point loads & other loads must be added to floor loads when c alc ulating bea ms & headers
This table assumes a 40-psf live load and a 15-psf dead load. The table is intended only for estimating beam sizes and comparing beam types. For calculation tables, consult the national or regional organizations listed on pp. 228–229.
Ti m ber bea ms ar e available in a var iet y of spec ies & gr ades; Douglas-fir is the strongest. Ac tual widths ar e 31⁄ 2 in. and 51⁄ 2 in.; ac tual heights ar e 51⁄ 2 in., 71⁄ 2 in., etc ., to 131⁄ 2 in.
Solid sawn lu m ber is nailed or s c r ewed together to for m a single bea m. Widths ar e multiples of 11⁄ 2 in. Height follows di mension lu m ber.
Laminated-Strand Lumber (LSL) Beam
Fac tory- made c o mposite bea m used for headers, r i m joist, and light-dut y bea ms. Ac tual widths ar e 13 ⁄ 4 in. and 31⁄ 2 in; ac tual heights r ange fro m 91⁄ 4 in. to 16 in.
A steel plate sandwic hed bet ween t wo piec es of lu m ber adds str ength without su bstantially in c r easing the bea m size. The lu m ber pr events bu c kling of the steel & provides a nailing sur fac e. Widths ar e 3 in. to 31⁄ 2 in. Heights follow di mension lu m ber.
Parallel-Strand Lumber (PSL) Beam
Fac tory-glued long str ands of veneer make very strong bea ms. Ac tual widths r ange fro m 2 3 ⁄ 4 in. to 7 in; heights r ange fro m 91⁄ 4 in. to 18 in. 51⁄ 2 in., 71⁄ 2 in., etc ., to 131⁄ 2 in.
2x4 lu m ber is sandwic hed bet ween t wo ply wood skins. Ply wood is both nailed & glued to 2x4s & at all edges. Ply wood and lu m ber joints must be offset.
Laminated-Veneer Lumber (LVL) Beam
Fac tory-la minated veneers make strong bea ms. Used individually or ganged together. Ac tual width is 1 3⁄ 4 in. (t wo piec es matc h thic kness of 2x4 wall) Heights r ange fro m 51⁄ 2 in. to 24 in.
The strongest of the bea ms for a given size, steel bea ms ar e c o m monly available in var ious sizes fro m 4 in. wide & 4 in. high to 12 in. wide & 36 in. high. They may be pr edr illed for bolting wood plate to top flange or to web. For c onnec tions to steel bea ms see 37.
Laminated Lumber (Glulam) Beam
Fac tory-glued stac k of kiln-dr ied 2x boar ds makes very lar ge, long, and stable bea ms. Ac tual widths ar e 31⁄ 8 in., 51⁄ 8 in., 71⁄ 8 in., etc . Heights ar e multiples of 11⁄ 2 in. to 36 in. and lar ger.
Note Bea ms & joists must be designed as a system. C onnec tions bet ween joists & bea ms ar e si milar for all wood- bea m t ypes. see 36
So me situations & c odes. Splic e will depend on t ype of bea m & t ype of support. Metal Column Metal Lally c olu mn has integr al metal c onnec tor. Splic e bea ms only over vertic al supports unless engineer ed. Built-Up Beam Keep one mem ber c ontinuous over posts. Use 5-ply ply wood. Plywood Gusset Ply wood gussets ar e applied to both sides of splic ed bea ms. r equir e a positive c onnec tion of bea m to post su c h as a ply wood gusset or metal c onnec tor. however. A Wood Beam or Girder/Post Connections . Metal Connector Metal c onnec tors ar e manufac tur ed in many c onfigur ations for most t ypes of wood bea m & post joints.Floors Beams 31 Note Wood bea ms may be splic ed over vertic al supports & of ten may be at tac hed to the support by means of toenailing.
2x10.c.3 20.06-inch I-joist 12 in.2 10.3 12. o. The most common sizes for floors are 2x8. a 10-psf dead load and a deflection of L/360.0 10.6 20.c. see 45A.4 7.5 14.9 8. for information on wood trusses. 2x10.2 10. The table at right compares spans at common oncenter spacings for three typical species and grades of framing lumber at four different sizes of joist (2x6.9 12.1 13.1 10.1 8. see 43 and 44.5 x 2.9 x 2.0 19. o.8 A Joist-Floor Systems .1 16. Both systems are flexible.5 12.2 17. o.). or 24 in.3 15. but sizes are uniform.8 18.2 18.0 14..c 10. 9. 2x8.2 10.4 Joist spacing (ft.0 9. and grade 2x6 hem-fir #2 2x6 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x6 Douglas fir #2 2x8 hem-fir #2 2x8 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x8 Douglas fir #2 2x10 hem-fir #2 2x10 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x10 Douglas fir #2 9.6 16. 24 in. Species of lumber vary considerably from region to region.7 11.4 12. and the materials are universally available. This table assumes a 40-psf live load. and 2x12) and an I-joist at the two largest sizes.) 16 in. The table is for comparison and estimating purposes only.5 17.7 15. 16 in.06-inch I-Joist 2x12 hem-fir #2 2x12 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x12 Douglas fir #2 11.5 14. and 2x12. on spacing required for subflooring and ceiling finishes (usually 12 in. species.0 17.8 21.2 12. For information on wood I-joists.3 14.32 Floors Joist Systems Mid-floor joist/joist c onnec tiOns see 35 Joist/ bea m c onnec tions see 36 Floor/stud wall c onnec tions see 39B Openings in floor see 38B Floor-level c hanges see 41C & D C antilevers see 39A Br idging see 38 Floor/Foundation c onnec tion see 33 & 34 Su bfloor ing & under lay ment see 48 Both dimension-lumber and wood I-joists are common materials for floor structure. Selection of floorjoist size depends on span. Allowable Floor Joist Spans in Feet Joist size.3 9.7 14.8 17. and on depth required for insulation (usually over a crawl space) and/or utilities (over basements and in upper floors).7 13.1 15.7 16..9 20.
Joist Systems Floors 33 Fr a med wall Fr a med wall Su bfloor ing see 48 R i m joist Su bfloor ing see 48 R i m joist Floor joist C o m mon joist P.T. Foundation wall see 7 Note In earthquake or hur r ic ane zones.T. For joist span table see 32. header bolted to wall or at tac hed with powderdr iven fasteners Foundation wall see 7 protec t ends of joists fro m moistur e with 30-lb. sec ur e floor joists to mudsill with fr a ming an c hors.T. mudsill Bloc king bet ween r i m joist & first c o m mon joist adds support for bear ing wall above and r esists rotation of r i m joist. mudsill flush with inside of foundation wall Su bfloor ing Floor joist Top flange joist hanger at eac h joist nailed to and supported by mudsill P.T. mudsill Su bfloor ing see 48 Joist Metal joist hanger at eac h joist or support with ledger or fr a med wall Engineer ed P. P. felt or other moistur e bar r ier Note Wall sheathing aligned with foundation whic h is natur al with this detail but also possi ble with any detail on this page. Mudsill Foundation wall see 7 A Joists on Mudsill Perpendicular to Wall B Joists on Mudsill Parallel to Wall Fr a med wall Fr a med wall 2x8 P. C Joists Flush with Mudsill Perpendicular to Wall with Ledger D Joists Flush with Mudsill Perpendicular to Wall with Hanger .T.
felt moistur e bar r ier bet ween foundation wall & untr eated wood Su bfloor ing Joists per pendic ular to wall Fr a med wall P. 4x ledger bolted to foundation wall Bloc king bet ween joists C on c r ete. Note For detail w/ joists par allel to wall see 33B. felt moistur e bar r ier bet ween foundation wall & untr eated wood Su bfloor ing Joists per pendic ular to wall w/ full bear ing on 2x4 top plate Bloc king bet ween joists Engineer ed P.T.bloc k or c on c r ete foundation wall C Joists below Mudsill Perpendicular to Wall/Stepped Wall Support D Joists below Mudsill Parallel to Wall/All Support Systems .c .bloc k or c on c r ete foundation wall C on c r ete.T. mudsill see 12A Exter ior or inter ior insulation see 15C 30-lb. felt moistur e bar r ier bet ween foundation wall & untr eated wood Su bfloor ing Joists par allel to wall Bloc king bet ween joists helps to r esist later al loads.T.bloc k or c on c r ete foundation wall Joist bolted or nailed to wall C on c r ete. mudsill see 12A Exter ior or inter ior insulation see 15C 30-lb. Fr a med wall P. mudsill see 12A Exter ior or inter ior insulation see 15C 30-lb.T.34 Floors Joist Systems Fr a med wall P. an c hor bolts at 6 f t o. mudsill see 12A Exter ior or inter ior insulation see 15C 30-lb.T. felt moistur e bar r ier bet ween foundation wall & untr eated wood Su bfloor ing Joist w/ full bear ing on 2x4 sill Bloc king bet ween joists P.T. 2x4 sill w/ 1⁄ 2 -in.bloc k or c on c r ete foundation wall Fr a med wall see 15D A Joists below Mudsill Perpendicular to Wall/Ledger Support B Joists below Mudsill Perpendicular to Wall/Framed Wall Support Fr a med wall P. C on c r ete.
Blocked Corner Dou bled joist makeS make a a strong outside c or ner for and c antilevers see 39A XX and dec ks dec see ks XX see 52 Notes: For metal hangers.Joist Systems Floors 35 Nailed Through Joist (?) through Joist The si mplest but the weakest The si mplest but the weakest method is r ec o m mended only method is r ec o m mended only for bloc king. Metal Joist Hanger This is the strongest of the standar d methods. For floor openings see 38B. Notes For metal hangers. Doubled Hanger Dou bled hangers ar e sized to hold t wo piec es of di mension lu m ber. use c onstr u c tion adhesive at metal joist hangers to r edu c e floor squeaking. Hanger manufac tur ers spec if y nail size for eac h hanger t ype. It is r ec o m mended only for short joists. use c o m mon (not box) nails. Eac h approved hanger is r ated in pounds. Nailed with Blocking In this fair ly strong & si mple joint. Hanger manufac tur ers spec if y nail size for eac h hanger t ype. A Joist/Joist Connections Nailed through Joist . nails at r ight angles effec tively loc k per pendic ular joists in plac e. for bloc king. Nail bloc king to main joist. use c o m mon (not box) nails.
Ver if y with loc al c odes. Toenail the joists to the bea m or bloc k bet ween joists. Joists on Ledger A 2x2 or 2x4 ledger nailed to the bea m supports the joists. Bloc king bet ween joists as r equir ed Lapped Joists This c o m mon joint r equir es shif ting the su bfloor layout 11⁄ 2 in. Joists Sc ab nailed to side of joists Spliced Joists But t joists to maintain sa me spac ing for nailing the su bfloor on eac h side of the bea m. on opposite sides of the bea m to allow the su bfloor to bear on the joists. They wor k best if the joists & bea m ar e of si milar spec ies & moistur e c ontent so that one does not shr ink mor e than the other. Note Joist hangers & joists on ledger ar e used wher e ma xi mu m head c lear an c e is r equir ed below the floor.36 Floors Joist Systems Joists Bloc king bet ween joists as r equir ed Note Sc ab must be long enough to qualif y splic e as a single joist so that adequate bear ing on bea m is ac hieved. Note Lapped joists & splic ed joists ar e c o m monly used over a c r awl spac e or other loc ation wher e head c lear an c e below the bea m is not r equir ed. Notc h joists to 1⁄ 4 of depth if r equir ed to fit over the ledger. B Joist/Wood Beam Connections Beam Flush with Joists . A Joist/Wood Beam Connections Beam below Joists Joists Bea m Joist Hangers Align joists on eac h side of bea m to maintain sa me spac ing for su bfloor nailing.
Joists Hung from Double Nailer A Joist/Steel Beam Connections Beam Flush with Joists B Joist/Steel Beam Connections Beam below Joists . Steel bea m Top flange metal hangers nailed to nailing plate Joists Hung from Nailing Plate Joists Note Use only in c onditions without uplif t for c es and wher e s c abs will not inter fer e with c eiling. 1x boar ds s c ab bed to underside of joists keep joists aligned & pr event later al movement of steel bea m. Joists on Steel Beam Fac e mount joist hangers at tac hed to nailers Nailers bolted to both sides of web Note The details shown in 37A & B may be adjusted for use with other t ypes of joists & gir ders disc ussed in the following sec tions. Nailing plates bolted to lower bea m flange Splic ed joists see 36A Steel bea m Steel bea m Bloc king bet ween joists as r equir ed 2x nailing plate bolted to upper bea m flange Joists Lapped joists see 36A Steel bea m Joists Bearing on Steel Flange 2x nailing plate bolted to upper bea m flange Joists on Nailing Plate Note Allowable hanger loads may be r edu c ed due to nailing li mitations. Bloc king bet ween joists as r equir ed 2x nailing plate bolted to upper bea m flange Joist Provide spac e bet ween str ap & bea m to allow for joist shr inkage.Joist Systems Floors 37 2x2 wood str aps nailed to joists over steel bea m maintain joist align ment.
B Openings in Joist‑Floor System . 5⁄ 4 x3 or 5⁄ 4 x4 or 2x2 or 1x4 boar ds ar e nailed in a c ross pat ter n bet ween joists. Cross Bridging Note For deep joists with long spans (over 10 f t. Metal Bridging Metal piec es should not tou c h eac h other.). su c h as for the stairways & c hi mneys. Piec es should not tou c h eac h other. loc al c odes may r equir e br idging to pr event rotation & to distr i bute the loading. dou ble the joists at the sides & ends of the opening may suffic e. A Bridging Joists Dou ble header joists at ends of openings Bloc king Small Openings Openings that fit bet ween t wo joists for laundry c hutes or heating du c ts ar e si mply made by nailing bloc king bet ween the joists. Per pendic ular joist c onnec tions see 35 Dou ble tr i m mer joists at sides of opening Large Openings In openings that ar e wider than the joist spac ing. Wider openings should be engineer ed. For openings up to thr ee joist spac es wide. the floor str u c tur e around the opening must be str engthened.38 Floors Joist Systems Block Bridging Solid bloc king fro m sa me mater ial as joists is stagger ed for ease of nailing.
bear ing walls see 42A & B Partition walls see 42c & D Platform framing—Platform framing. out fro m mudsill to provide soffit nailing. The wall framing may be one of two types. Joist/exter iorwall c onnec tions see 40. The other factor to consider is whether edge nailing is required for the ceiling. The ground floor and all upper floors can be constructed using the same system. Joist/joist c onnec tions see 35 A Floor Cantilevers Parallel & Perpendicular to Joist System Joist/roof c onnec tions (if at tic floor) see 132 Joist floor-system connections to exterior walls are straightforward. if the floor structure must work with the walls to resist lateral roof loads or if extra care is required to make the insulation and vapor barrier continuous from floor to floor.Joist Systems Floors 39 Dou ble side joists for t wic e the distan c e of the c antilever. the most common system in use today. takes advantage of standard materials and framing methods. Balloon framing—Balloon framing is rarely used because it is harder to erect and requires very long studs. C or ner joint see 35 Mudsill (first-floor fr a ming) or dou ble top plate (upper-floor fr a ming) supports c antilever ed joists. Extend c antilever ed joists t wic e as far into the building as the length of the c antilever. C antilever ed walls see 73C R i m bloc king may be set 1-in. It may be the system of choice. however. B) Joist floor-system connections to interior walls depend on whether the walls are load-bearing walls or partition walls. Joist/inter ior-wall c onnec tions: Load. Dou ble joists at sides of c antilever. (see 41A. 41A & B B Joist/Stud-Wall Connections .
C Joists at Exterior Wall Joists Parallel to Wall with Blocking D Joists at Exterior Wall Doubled Rim Joists Parallel to Wall .40 Floors Joist Systems Exter ior finish Exter ior finish Stud wall Stud wall Inter ior finish Finish floor Su bfloor R i m joist (or r i m bloc king) Insulation & vapor bar r ier see 63A & B Floor joist Inter ior finish Finish floor Su bfloor R i m joist Insulation & vapor bar r ier see 63A & B Floor joist 2x4 bloc king for nailing c eiling Stud wall Finish c eiling Stud wall Finish c eiling A Joists at Exterior Wall Joists Perpendicular to Wall B Joists at Exterior Wall Joist Parallel to Wall Exter ior finish Stud wall Inter ior finish Finish floor Su bfloor Exter ior finish Stud wall Inter ior finish Finish floor Su bfloor R i m joist Floor joist R i m joist R igid insulation Stud wall Finish c eiling Bloc king at sa me spac ing as joists adds str u c tur al support & provides c eiling nailing. Insulation & vapor bar r ier see 63A & B Floor joist Stud wall Finish c eiling Sec ond r i m joist adds str u c tur al support & provides c eiling nailing.
mini mu m stud length 14 in. Sole plate Lower-floor system Vertic al supports as r equir ed by loading Note To mini mize floor su bsiden c e due to c ross-gr ain shr inkage use kiln-dr ied lu m ber. fro m joist layout. Stud wall bet ween floor systems. Finish floor Upper-floor system Fir ebloc k and / or wall nailing bloc k as r equir ed Let-in ledger for joist bear ing C ontinuous studs Lower-floor system Inter ior finish Note Stud layout must be offset 11⁄ 2 in. C Level Change Platform Framing D Level Change Balloon Framing .Joist Systems Floors 41 Exter ior finish Stud wall c ontinuous through floor Inter ior finish Fir ebloc k and/or wall nailing bloc k as r equir ed Finish floor Exter ior finish Stud wall c ontinuous through floor Inter ior finish Fir ebloc k and/or wall nailing bloc k as r equir ed Finish floor Su bfloor Joist sc r ewed to studs Insulation see 63C & D Su bfloor Bloc king Floor-joist spac ing c oor dinates with wall fr a ming. C ontinuous studs avoid the c ross-gr ain shr inking of plates in detail see 41C . Stud wall C intinuous lef t-in ledger Finish c eiling Insulate befor e c avit y is c over ed by bloc king see 63C & D Finish c eiling Vapor bar r ier behind joist see 63C & D A Joists at Balloon-Framed Wall Joists Perpendicular to Wall B Joists at Balloon-Framed Wall Joists Parallel to Wall Sole plate Upper-floor system Single top plate avoids c rossgr ain shr inkage of dou ble plate.
but bearing walls must have their loads distributed to Bear ing stud wall Finish floor Su bfloor Joist Bloc king at 16 in. A Joists at Bearing Wall Joists Parallel to Wall B Joists at Bearing Wall Joists Perpendicular to Wall Finish floor Su bfloor Joist C eiling Bloc king at 16 in. or partition walls. Bear ing stud wall (or bea m) below. studs aligned with bloc king & studs above. Bear ing stud wall. o. or 24 in.c . aligned with studs above & below. or through the floor system with extra framing. which do not support any loads from above. bet ween joists Partition wall Finish floor Su bfloor Dou ble joists below partition wall Finish floor Su bfloor Joist Bloc king Oversized 2x bloc king provides c ontinuous nailing for c eiling.c . but the framing in bearing walls will generally be more substantial.42 Floors Joist Systems Interior walls are either bearings walls. studs aligned with joists & studs below Finish floor Su bfloor Joist Bloc k if joist is splic ed over bear ing wall see 36A Bear ing stud wall (or bea m) below. Note Bloc king c an be eli minated if bear ing wall aligns with joist. o. Both types of wall may require extra framing where they attach to floor systems. which carry loads from the roof or from floors above. or 24 in. Both types of wall can be fastened directly to the subfloor. studs aligned with joists (bear ing wall is not r equir ed if joists ar e engineer ed to support top bear ing wall). Partition wall Finish floor Su bfloor Separ ated dou ble joists allow wir ing & plu m bing to enter wall fro m below. C eiling C eiling C Joists at Partition Wall Joists Parallel to Wall D Joists at Partition Wall Alternative Details .
backer blocks are made of plywood or OSB. they are the floor-framing system of choice when long spans are required. I-joists can be reinforced by attaching sections of 2x framing lumber called squash blocks to their sides or by fastening LSL blocking panels between them (see 44C). wood I-joists are easily cut and joined on site. with most of the wood located at the top and bottom of the joist where the bending stresses are greatest. Laminated strand lumber (LSL) rim joists and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beams are sized to integrate with the joists. Thic kness of bac ker bloc ks & web stiffeners see 43B Widths: 11⁄ 2 in. I-joists are straighter and more precise than dimension lumber and therefore make a flatter. When other framing members need to be attached to the side of an I-joist. 11⁄ 2 -in. For this reason. is made of plywood or OSB. But the thin web also means I-joists do not have as much strength to resist vertical crushing forces. and sheathing.Joist Systems Floors 43 Bot to m flange Top flange Web Note Round or r ec tangular holes for utilities may be c ut in web. Called flanges. The system is completed with span-rated tongue-and-groove sheathing nailed to the joists and reinforced with construction adhesive. and so forth for I-joist systems can offset the construction time gained by not having to sort for defects. and in other conditions as required by manufacturers’ specifications and local codes. Wood I-joists are designed to be part of a system composed of engineered beams. the lar ger the hole c an be. but their primary purpose is to provide a planar. Their spanning capacity is only slightly greater than that of dimension lumber. thick nailing surface rather than to resist vertical loads (see 44D). web stiffeners. Ver if y hole size and loc ation with manufac tur er.. quieter floor. these stiffeners occur at connectors for deep joists. I-joists are about 50% lighter than lumber joists. Like web stiffeners. deep and 60 ft. the top and bottom are generally made of laminated or solid wood. When vertical loads are extreme. 31⁄ 2 in. composite beams may be substituted for I-joists. long). A Wood I-Joists Wood I-joists are designed to work efficiently. joists. but because they can be manufactured much deeper and longer than lumber joists (up to 30 in. Wood bea m or joist Metal I-joist hanger I-joist I-Joist/Wood Ply wood or OS B bac ker bloc k both sides flush with flange Metal I-Joist hanger designed to support bot to m & top c hor d later ally I-Joist/I-Joist B Wood I-Joist Connections Because the web is thin.. the web often must be reinforced with plywood or OSB web stiffeners. The production and fastening of backer blocks. backer blocks are added to the webs of the I-joists. In cases of extreme loading. . Like dimension lumber. 2 in. the web. the slender central part of the joist.-dia meter round holes may be c ut almost any wher e in the web. The farther fro m the support. Nailed to the web.
Mudsill Su bfloor ing P. mudsill or top plate of stud wall Note LSL r i m joists ar e sized to c or r espond with the depth of wood I-joists. Wood I-joist Joist hanger Wood I-joist Note Ver if y br idging r equir ement for tall joists. Do not use sawn-lu m ber r i m.T.44 Floors Joist Systems La minated str and lu m ber (LSL) r i m joist Su bfloor ing P. A Wood I-Joists at Rim Joist Joists on Mudsill or Top Plate B Wood I-Joists at Rim Joist Joists Flush with Mudsill LSL bloc king panel bet ween I-joists for heavy loads Bear ing wall Wood I-joist bloc king bet ween c ut I-joists Su bfloor ing Su bfloor ing Wood I-joists 2x squash bloc ks at both sides of I-joist for heavy loads Bear ing wall below Bear ing wall below Bac ker bloc ks on both sides of I-joist at loc ations wher e c onnec tions (su c h as hangers) ar e made to I-joist C Wood I-Joists for Loads Squash Blocks & Blocking Panels D Wood I-Joist Connections Blocking & Backer Blocks .T.
Joist Systems Floors 45 Metal plate Top c hor d Web Bot to m c hor d Top Chord Bearing Bottom Chord Bearing Four-by-two wood floor trusses are made up of small members (usually 2x4s) that are connected so that they act like a single large member. Composite trusses are generally more heavy duty than their all-wood cousins illustrated in 45A above. They are made with double 2x chords. The largest composite trusses are capable of spanning over 100 ft. to 16 in. floor openings. floor trusses are practical for long spans and simple plans. The tubing is pressed flat at the ends and connected to the wood chords with a metal pin. which sandwich the webs.. in diameter can be accommodated. Round ducts from 5 in. they are difficult to alter. depending on the depth of the truss. Like wood floor trusses. and other departures from the simple span should always be engineered by the manufacturer. A Wood floor Trusses Pin c onnec tion Wood c hor d Steel tu bing web Wood c hor d Top Chord Bearing Bottom Chord Bearing Wood top and bottom chords are linked with steel tubing webs in the composite truss. which can be run through the open webs without altering the truss. composite trusses easily accommodate ducts and other utilities. Floor trusses are custom manufactured for each job. Bearing walls. Unlike wood trusses with metal plates (see 45A above). but difficult for complicated buildings. the webs of the composite truss are entirely free to rotate (on the pins) and therefore allow the truss to return to its original shape when the load is removed. The lightest-duty composite trusses are made with single 2x4 chords oriented flat and dadoed to receive the webs. Like all trusses. and cannot be altered at the site. B Composite Floor Trusses . Once engineered and installed. to 24 in. composite trusses are most practical for simple plans with long spans. The open web allows for utilities to run through the floor without altering the truss. The parallel top and bottom chords and the webs are made of lumber held together at the intersections with toothed metal plates. with spans up to about 30 ft. Like I-joists. Truss depths vary from 10 in.
girder systems are often used in conjunction with an girder spans Size. This table assumes a 40-psf live load. 4 x 8 Douglas-fir #2 @48 in. species. a girder system may be supported on posts or may bear on a wall or a beam like a joist system. They are most common in the Northwest.3 14. girders may be supported directly on posts.c. combination subfloor-underlayment are required (see 48). 4 x 10 Douglas-fir #2 @48 in. can carry a greater load for a given span and therefore can be spaced at wider intervals than joists. centers. o. o.c. Girders are typically placed on 48-in. The table is for estimating purposes only. so long-spanning subfloor materials such as 2-in.c. Span (ft. and ductwork difficult.46 Floors Girder Systems Exposed c eiling dec king c onnec tions see 47C & D Visual gr ades of dr ied T&G dec king used for exposed c eilings see 49A C o m bination su bfloor-under lay ment see 48 Utilit y-gr ade 2x T&G dec king as su bfloor see 49A C onnec tions to foundation walls see 47A & B Gir der/post c onnec tions see 31 Girder systems may be designed with either dimension or laminated lumber. grade.) 8. 4 x 12 Douglas-fir #2 @48 in. A Girder-Floor Systems . and a deflection of L/ 360.c. o. T&G decking or 11⁄ 8-in. These exposed ceilings can make wiring. No. Over a basement.6 exposed T&G decking ceiling. 2 Douglas-fir is most prevalent in regions where girder systems are most frequently used. At upper floor levels. Girder floor systems are similar to joist floor systems except that girders. a 10-psf dead load. When used over crawl spaces. where dimension timber is plentiful.4 17. plumbing. o. which are wider than joists. and spacing 4 x 6 Douglas-fir #2 @48 in.6 11.
mudsill A Girders on Mudsill Girders Perpendicular to Wall B Girders Flush with Mudsill Girders Perpendicular to Wall Fr a med Wall Under lay ment & finish floor see 48 2x T&G dec king exposed below for c eiling Exposed or wr apped gir der Bloc king applied bet ween and to sides of gir ders supports wall finish. Use ply wood under lay ment or other method to tr ansfer later al loads. 4x gir der with futur e bat t insulation see 61 ½-in.mil vapor bar r ier see 61 4x gir der with futur e bat t insulation see 61 2x dec king spans 4 f t.mil vapor bar r ier see 61 2x dec king spans 4 f t. Fr a med wall Under lay ment & finish floor see 48 4. Dust filtr ation fro m upper to lower floor & sound tr ans mission bet ween floors may oc c ur with this detail.Girder Systems Floors 47 Fr a med wall Under lay ment & finish floor see 48 4. felt at tac hed to end of gir der P. but this is advisable only with very dry dec king.T. air spac e or 30-lb. Fr a med Wall Under lay ment & finish floor see 48 2x T&G dec king exposed below for c eiling Exposed or wr apped gir der Bloc king supports finish mater ial Fill spac e with insulation see 63 Finish wall Fill spac e with insulation see 63 Finish wall Note 2x T&G dec king may be sanded to make finish floor.t. mudsill Foundation wall see 7 Foundation wall see 7 R i m joist P.t. C Girders with Exposed Decking 2nd Floor: Girders Perpendicular to Wall D Girders with Exposed Decking 2nd Floor: Girders Parallel to Wall . 4x4 post bear ing on footing P. Note Dec king does not provide str u c tur al diaphr ag m r equir ed at upper floors.
11⁄ 8 in. 5⁄ 8 3 ⁄4 Maximum span 16 in. Underlayment is typically plywood. It can also be used to fur up floors to match an adjacent finish floor of a different thickness. Underlayment—Underlayment is not structural but provides a smooth surface necessary for some finish floors. The procedure may be successfully avoided in dry climates. which is a grade of T&G plywood that is plugged and sanded to a smooth underlayment-grade surface. at edges and 12 in. in. 16 in. Values are for panels that are continuous over two or more spans. in. o. 20 in. module. Panels that are sized 1⁄ 8 in. Tec hnic al infor mation A Subflooring & Underlayment Plywood & Non-Veneered Panels . subflooring is typically tongueand-groove (T&G) plywood. particleboard. non-veneered panels such as oriented strand board (OSB) or T&G plywood combination subfloor/underlayment. with the long dimension of the panel perpendicular to supports.48 Floors Subflooring Subflooring—Subflooring is the structural skin of a floor system. waferboard. 24 in. 48 in. nar rower & shorter than full size The values in this table are based on information from the APA—The Engineered Wood Association and the International Building Code (IBC). smaller in each direction are available to allow a space without compromising the 4-ft. 3⁄4 in. or hardboard. It spans between the joists and acts as a diaphragm to transfer horizontal loads to the walls of a structure. For joist systems. between the edges of panels to allow for expansion. Spacing and nailing—Most plywood manufacturers specify a space of 1⁄ 8 in. Check with local contractors for accepted local practice. Sur fac e gr ain of ply wood su bfloor panels is per pendic ular to supports Stagger end joints of all su bfloor panels. Joist or gir der Edge bloc king is r equir ed if su bfloor panels ar e not T&G & under lay ment is not used. 24 in. to 5 ⁄ 8 in. to 3⁄4 in. in the panel field. particleboard 1⁄ 2 5⁄ 8 Thickness in. Panel gr ade APA —The Engineer ed Wood Assoc iation Thic kness Exposur e r ating Mill nu m ber subflooring spans Subfloor type Plywood sheathing or combination subfloor underlayment Non-venneered panels: OSB. In girder systems. Verify span with panel rating. the subflooring is typically T&G decking (see 49A). Span r ating roof / floor Panel is 1⁄ 8 in.c. Offset joints of su bfloor & under lay ment panels. Verify attachment methods with the specifications of the manufacturer. A typical plywood grade stamp is shown below. Glues and panel adhesives can minimize squeaks and reduce the nailing requirements for panel floor systems. in. to 7⁄ 8 in. A common rule of thumb is to nail panels 6 in. by 8-ft. o.c.
Floors Subflooring 49 Typical T&G Decking Sections Stagger joints over gir ders. in most floor situations. thick glass-fiber–reinforced cement board over the surface of the typical wood subfloor. Gir der A Subflooring T&G Decking C on c r ete su bfloor/ c o m mon joist see 50D C on c r ete su bfloor/ foundation see 50A. 3x8. Most spec ies will span 4 f t. The structure under the concrete must be lowered in order to accommodate the extra thickness of the concrete. R efer to Wester n Wood Produ c ts Use Book for span infor mation. B & C A small part of the subfloor may need to be concrete to support tiles or for a passive-solar mass floor at a south edge. for r esidential floor loads. to 3 in. the complications of adjusting the structure to accommodate a thick concrete subfloor may be avoided by using a 7⁄16 in. 2x6 V-Joint is most c o m monly used on upper floors to make exposed c eilings below. Use plywood that is rated to carry the load of wet concrete. In the case of a tiled floor. 3x and 4x la minated is used mostly at roofs to make exposed c eilings below. & 4x8 sizes. Dec king is end matc hed for r ando m-length applic ation & is available pr efinished in 3x6. 2x8 utilit y is used pr i mar ily as su bfloor over c r awl spac es or basements & is of ten installed gr een.). typically 21⁄4 in. C on c r ete su bfloor/header joist see 51A & B Note: For thin. (min. usually 3⁄4 in. It spans up to 14 f t. 4x6. Check with the tile manufacturer for recommendations. but also as floor ing. It will span 4 f t.mass floors see 51C & D A Subflooring Concrete . Note Glue dec king to gir ders with c onstr u c tion adhesive to mini mize floor squeak.
T. Spac er bloc ks at 16 in. A Concrete Subfloor at Exterior Full-Depth Joists below Mudsill B Concrete Subfloor at Exterior Full-Depth Joists/Alternative 2x6 fr a med wall R i m joist Fur r ing sa me thi c kness as wood su bfloor Fur r ing Finish floor C on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in. dec r ease span and/or spac ing to support c on c r ete su bfloor P. Moistur e bar r ier bet ween untr eated joists & foundation Insulation P. Ply wood base. 30-lb.c . C ut or sized-down joist. felt or other moistur e bar r ier Joists c ut or sized down to ac c o m modate depth of c on c r ete su bfloor Note For c ondition at exter ior wall see 50A & B. o.T. mudsill Note: For 2x4 wall. C Concrete Subfloor at Exterior Cut-Down Joists on Mudsill D Concrete Subfloor at Interior Edge Parallel to Joists/2 Details . felt or other moistur e bar r ier Insulation Joists bear on ledge in foundation wall or on ledger or pony wall see 12D Moistur e bar r ier bet ween untr eated wood & foundation P. header joist. level and thic kness vary with finish mater ial. header joist r ipped to bear on foundation wall. mudsill Insulation Note Dec r ease span and/or spac ing of sized-down joists supporting c on c r ete. 30-lb. Finish floor Note For c ondition at exter ior wall see 50C . Ply wood base.50 Floors Subflooring Fr a med wall Fur r ing sa me thi c kness as wood su bfloor P. Ply wood or other wood su bfloor T ypic al joists C on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in. ply wood base 30-lb. level and thic kness vary with finish mater ial. felt or other moistur e bar r ier Lower ed joists may need to be sized deeper than t ypic al full-depth joist to support c on c r ete su bfloor.T. level and thic kness vary with finish mater ial. mudsill 2x6 fr a med wall Fur r ing sa me thic kness as wood su bfloor Dou ble r i m joists Finish floor C on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in.T. mudsill Finish floor C on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in. ply wood base. 30-lb. felt or other moistur e bar r ier Joists hung fro m P. plac e insulation bet ween dou ble r i m joist & P.T.T.
Plate serves as sc r eed & allows utilities to pass through floor system at wall. ply wood base C ut-down joist C on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in.T. Ply wood or other wood su bfloor Finish floor Finish floor C on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in. Ply wood base joist on joist hanger 30-lb. c on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in. felt or other moistur e bar r ier Joist Bloc king Str u c tur e below as r equir ed Note If the c on c r ete is to be exposed. The stud wall may then be shot to c on c r ete. 3-in.mass su bfloor is at upper story) Note This detail is used to provide mass to a lar ge ar ea of floor for solar gain.Floors Subflooring 51 Note For c ondition at exter ior wall see 50a or b. ply wood base 30-lb. felt or other moistur e bar r ier Joist P. c on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in.T. see 24c C Thin-Mass Subfloor At Exterior Wall D Thin-Mass Subfloor At Interior Wall . ply wood base 30-lb. Stud wall fr a med af ter c on c r ete is finished Dou ble 2x P.T. felt or other moistur e bar r ier Finish floor C on c r ete su bfloor on ¾ -in. mudsill (or top plate if thin. the dou ble plate may be o mIt ted for ease of troweling. ply wood base Vertic al support as r equir ed 30-lb. plate serves as sc r eed 3-in. felt or other moistur e bar r ier Notc hed joist Bloc king Bea m or stud-wall support as r equir ed Joist on joist hanger Dou ble header joist Single header joist nailed to dou ble header joist Vertic al support as r equir ed A Concrete Subfloor at Interior Edge Perpendicular to Joists B Concrete Subfloor at Interior Edge Perpendicular to Joists: Alternative Details Stud wall fr a med af ter c on c r ete is finished Dou ble 2x P.
and the floor (roof) surface must be sloped away from the building (see 56A). The framing for waterproof decks over living spaces needs proper ventilation (see 205A). and those that are open and allow water to pass through. Porch and deck floors must be constructed differently from interior floors in order to withstand the weather. Waterproof porch—A waterproof porch or deck floor can be treated like a flat roof. Exter ior wall Siding Spac e allows water to pass. and they extend the building to include the out-of-doors. This connection can be accomplished by keeping the porch/ deck structure away from the exterior wall and attaching it only at intervals with spaced connectors (see 54B & C). Because of constant exposure to the weather. flashing (or the roofing material itself) must be tucked under the siding to catch water running down the side of the building. The connection between porch and deck floors and the building itself is especially critical in keeping moisture out of the main structure. They provide a transition between indoors and out.52 Floors Porches & Decks Porches and decks are traditional and useful additions to wood-frame structures. the parts that connect it to the main structure are exposed to the weather. Alternatively. yet need to penetrate the skin of the wall. allowing people to pause upon entering or leaving. Waterproof Porch/Deck Floor Open Porch/Deck Floor Open porch—In an open porch or deck floor. As shown in the drawing below. this connection must be detailed in such a way that it can be repaired or replaced. Exter ior wall Siding Flashing Water proof floor Slope Por c h/dec k str u c tur e Porch Deck The floors of porches and decks can be grouped into two major types: those that are waterproof and thus act as a roof protecting the area below. Por c h/dec k str u c tur e C onnec tors at intervals see 54B & C Exter ior wall Siding Flashing Por c h/dec k str u c tur e C ontinuous ledger see 55a A Porches & Decks . a continuous ledger may be bolted to the wall and flashed (see 55A & B).
however. joints that are exposed to the weather will shrink and swell. as shown in Poor Good the drawing at right. Stains will outlast paints. Joints made with screws or bolts will therefore outlast those made with nails. and rotting. Because the decking does not absorb water. Special porch and deck paints are available for use where exposure to the weather is not severe. This material holds up in exposed conditions. Consequently. always use connectors with the longer-lasting hot-dip galvanized finish. so it requires closer joist spacing. Stainless steel screws are also available and will give the longest life. dry decking boards should be installed with the bark side up so that the boards will shed water if they cup. twisting. it has a relatively large exposed surface to collect and absorb moisture. Weather-resistant woods like cedar or redwood are also appropriate. and is extremely consistent and stable. the boards will cup in the wrong direction when they get wet. Therefore. Virtually all the material required to make a new porch or deck is now available in pressure-treated lumber.Porches & Decks Floors 53 Porches and decks are exposed directly to the weather in ways that the main part of the structure is not. Fasteners such as nails and deck screws should be galvanized. Most references suggest installing flatgrain wood decking (and rail caps) with the bark side down because boards will cup in the right direction to shed water as they season. especially when moisture is added to the mix. use joist hangers or angle clips. the wood used in porches and decks is much more susceptible to expansion and contraction. It is disposable (no toxins). Painting—Sealers and preservatives will extend the life of porches and decks. which should not be adversely affected by exposure to the weather. A Porch & Deck Construction . if dry (seasoned) decking is installed with the bark side down. Wood decking—Because decking is oriented horizontally. causing nails to withdraw and joints to weaken. make the area of contact as small as possible and allow for air circulation around the joint. This moisture will tend to make the decking cup. Where wood must touch another surface. thermal expansion is more of a concern than warping or cupping. Avoid doubling up members in exposed situations. Also. consider the use of weather-resistant wood species for use with galvanized hangers. Seasoned Wet Synthetic decking—There is a new generation of synthetic decking made of reclaimed hardwood and recycled plastic. Weather resistance—Elements of porches and decks that are likely to get wet should be constructed of weather-resistant materials. Even pressure-treated lumber can rot in this situation. The decking requires no sealers or preservatives and is manufactured with a nonskid surface. A special strategy for building porches and decks is therefore appropriate. Joist hangers are made of galvanized steel. It can be fastened to framing with conventional methods and is available in standard sizes from 1x6 to 2x8. is not harmed by rot or insects. when combined with pressuretreated lumber. Therefore. Unseasoned (wet) Seasoned (dry) Wet However. For joist connections. It is better to use a single large timber where extra strength is required. Framing—Areas between adjacent wood members collect moisture and are especially prone to rot. Connectors—At least once a year. Special attention should be given to end grain and to areas likely to hold moisture. Galvanized steel deteriorates relatively quickly. The decking is not as stiff as sawn lumber. checking.
the dec king must be installed over insec t sc r eening.T. gap below wood siding. Open dec king laid diagonally ac ross joist system ac ts as a diaphr ag m. C Open Deck/Wood Wall 2nd Floor : Horizontal Siding or Shingles . 2x or 4x bloc k with sloped top Lag bolt(s) in pr edr illed bloc k 90-lb. 2x or 4x bloc k with sloped top Lag bolt(s) in pr edr illed bloc k Header joist 90-lb. then install dec k. In snow c ountry. In this c ase.T. Install spac er bloc ks si multaneously with siding & flashing. felt gasket on flashing at lag bolt Bloc king for lag bolt Inter ior floor str u c tur e Fr a med wall B Open Deck/Wood Wall 1st Floor : Horizontal Siding or Shingles Notes Flashing extends 8-in. mudsill Maintain 1-in. adjust dec k level and flashing height to ac c ount for snow buildup.T. felt gasket on flashing at lag bold P. mudsill Foundation wall see 7 A Open Deck/Foundation Wall Sheathing Hor izontal siding or shingles Flashing tu c ked under top piec e or siding & lapped over first c ontinuous piec e of siding below Open dec king Pl. Details show level of dec k slightly below level of finish floor. header joist bolted to foundation wall Foundation wall see 7 bloc king for lag bolt P.54 Floors Porches & Decks Sheathing Sheathing Siding Hor izontal siding or shingles Flashing tu c ked under top piec e of siding & extended below lowest piec e of siding Open dec king Open dec king P. Dec k joist P. mini mu m past both sides of bloc k spac ers.T.T. Spac ed dec king is of ten used for the floor of a sc r eened por c h. whic h may eli minate the need for br ac ing por c h supports.
Porches & Decks Sheathing Siding stopped above dec king Floors 55 Sheathing Siding Flashing tu c ked 1 in. or other vertic al support C Open Deck/Open Railing D Open Deck/solid Railing . wood post. under siding and behind header joist Stud wall. ledger bolted to fr a ming Joist hanger Flashing behind ledger with dr ip over siding Fr a med wall Inter ior floor str u c tur e Fr a med wall Inter ior floor str u c tur e A Open Deck/Wood Wall Open r ailing bolted to joists or as extension of vertic al support see 59a B Open Deck/Wood Wall Alternative Detail Solid r ailing of studs & siding see 55a Open dec king Open dec king Dec k joist supported by joist hanger on header joist Dec k joist supported by joist hanger on header joist Header joist bolted to studs Header joist s c r ewed or bolted to vertic al supports Flashing tu c ked 1 in. or other vertic al support skirting Dr ip Stud wall. wood post.T. galvanized hollow spac ers filled with silic one c aulk C ontinuous flashing fro m under siding to ker f in joists Open dec king Ker f in dec k joists for flashing dr ip P. under siding and wr apped over ledger Open dec king Header joist Dec k joist Ledger nailed to sheathing Lag bolts with washers ¾ -in.
See 57D Note Alter native flashing detail below will provide a for m for edge of c on c r ete. bitu minous. Edge flashing with dr ip extends 4 in. R i m joist deeper than dec k joists to for m dr ip Stud wall. or other vertic al support B Lightweight-Concrete Porch Deck . Notes Water proofing c an be protec ted fro m abr asion by addition of wood or c on c r ete-paver sur fac e. see 57a. Ply wood su bfloor Header joist bolted to fr a ming Edge flashing with dr ip extends 4 in. Slip sheet as r equir ed with so me c oatings. per f t. slope c on c r ete to sc uppers fro m all dir ec tions. wood post. by r ipping joists or adding fur r ing str ips. R i m joist deeper than dec k joists to for m dr ip Stud wall. Note If r ail is solid. under water proof mem br ane. per f t. or other water proof mem br ane or c oating. wher e a level sur fac e is r equir ed below. b & c Slope may be ac hieved by sloping joists or. At tac h ment of r ailings see 58 & 59 Header joist bolted to fr a ming mini mizes movement. wood post. Slope 1⁄ 4 in. or other vertic al support A Waterproof Decks General Characteristics Water proof mem br ane c ontinuous fro m under siding to outer edge of c on c r ete R einfor c ed light weight.c on c r ete dec k Slope 1⁄ 4 in. extend c oating fro m under siding to edge of dec k. under water proofing.56 Floors Porches & Decks C ant str ips at inside c or ners as r equir ed by water proof c oating Elasto mer ic .
Sc upper through solid rail see 57d Section Downspout C Concrete-Paver Deck Solid Rail Shown D Scupper . Br ass or galvanized sc r ews c ountersunk fro m underside of sleepers. o. 1x4 c edar. Slope of dec k sur fac e Edge flashing with dr ip Note Du c kboar d dec ks ar e gener ally held in plac e by gr avit y. Low point in dec k floor Siding for ms dr ip over wall opening Extend flashing dr ip beyond siding Sc upper Note This detail is not r ec o m mended in ar eas of sever e fr eezing weather. apart 3 ⁄ 16 in. P.) past wall. per f t.c .T. or ac c or ding to spanning c apac it y of sur fac e boar ds. or ient in dir ec tion of dec k slope. A Duckboard Deck Open Rail Shown B Duckboard Deck Detail Water proof mem br ane c ontinuous fro m under siding to s c upper through wall C on c r ete pagers set on 30-lb. 1x3 or 1x4 weather-r esistant sleepers at 12 in. R ec essed sleepers at edges against wall allow water passage. Through-wall flashing Sc upper Over flow opening Dr ip Downspout Parts of a Scupper Through-wall flashing extends 4 in. (min. or 90-lb. They should not be used in ar eas of extr emely high winds. or other weatherr esistant boar ds spac ed 3 ⁄ 16 in.Porches & Decks Floors 57 Open r ail (shown) or solid r ail & s c upper see 58 & 57d Water proof mem br ane c ontinuous fro m under siding to flashing at edge of dec k Du c kboar ds see 57b Slope 1⁄ 4 in. felt C edar sleeper provides gut ter at solid r ail & r etains pavers at open r ail & allows for expansion of pavers.
Care should be taken to provide adequate drainage from any surface below the deck. (Avoid directing water to walkways in climates with freezing temperatures. that the porch floor framing itself must be solidly constructed. Open deck with solid railing—Open decks surrounded by a solid railing are simple to drain since water will pass through the floor surface (see 55D). R ailing/ wall c onnec tion see 105a R ailing see dr awing at lef t C ontinuous r ailing stud notc hed over r i m joist & nailed to joist system r esists overtur ning. For short railing spans (up to 8 ft. This means. A Solid Railing at Porch or Deck . and the floor should pitch toward the opening from all directions. of course. This opening can be a flashed hole in the wall. or it can be a gap in the wall that accommodates a stairway or walk. supported at both ends.) The opening should be located away from the main structure of the building. Longer railings or railings with one or both ends unsupported must be designed to resist lateral forces by means of a series of vertical supports firmly secured to the porch or deck floor framing (see the drawing below). or a corner. or scupper. Dou ble top plate. a wall. may be stiffened further by r ail c ap. Wall/dec k c onnec tion is sa me as r ailing/dec k c onnec tion see dr awings at lef t Sc upper see 57d The same results may be achieved in a porch or deck built over a living space by using a balloon frame system with porch-rail studs continuous through to the wall below. Bloc king for siding nailing Bloc king for su bfloor nailing Note Provide bloc king bet ween joist at r ailing stud if r ailing is par allel to joist system. Sole plate nailed to si mple dec k c onstr u c tion Waterproof deck with solid railing—Waterproof decks surrounded by a solid railing must be sloped to an opening in the railing. as shown here. long) supported at both ends by a column. solid railings are relatively simple to design and construct to resist overturning due to lateral force. a second opening or overflow should be provided to guarantee that water won’t build up if the primary drain clogs. In some cases.58 Floors Porches & Decks Because they make continuous contact with the porch or deck floor. the simplest framing (see the drawing below) will suffice because the top edge may be made stiff enough to span between the two rigid ends.
Be sure to provide adequate drainage from the surface below the deck.Porches & Decks Floors 59 Open railings are connected to the floor of a porch or deck only intermittently. Open r ailing bet ween supports Vertic al support bolted to outside of joist system Tr aditional por c h r ailing see 60c Por c h flashing see 56 Rim joist Open deck with open railing—Open decks surrounded by an open railing are relatively simple to drain. since the railing does not have to penetrate the waterproof surface. However the railing is attached to the porch. One logical place to locate this connection is at the inside edge of the rim joist (see the drawing below). When the vertical support does not coincide with a rigid part of the structure. a rigid connection must be made with the floor system of the porch or deck. no special connections are required. Pressure-treated joists will contribute to the floor’s longevity. R ailing/ wall c onnec tion see 105a Open r ailing bet ween supports Vertic al support bolted to inside of joist system Rim joist Por c h floor str u c tur e Supports ar e mor e r igid if c ontinuous to footing. Drainage may be distributed around all open edges. its rigidity depends ultimately on the solid construction of the porch framing. and metal hangers and clips will add rigidity. It is through these supports that open railings gain their rigidity. This is usually the most practical choice for waterproof decks. as shown below. Waterproof deck with open railing—Waterproof decks surrounded by an open railing should be sloped away from the wall(s) of the building. Por c h floor str u c tur e Balusters may also be at tac hed to the joist to stiffen the r ailing even mor e. Block between joist bays when the railing is parallel to the joist system. where the vertical supports occur. or it can be collected in a scupper. When the end of the railing is supported at a wall or a column. Another logical place to secure the railing to the porch floor is at the outside of the rim joist (see the drawing below). A Open Railing at Porch or Deck . however.
fur r ing Flash over siding below if r equir ed A Traditional Wood Porch Floor Characteristics B Traditional Wood Porch Connection to Main Structure Open r ailing see 59 C ontinuous c olu mn in por c h r ailing Tr i m Solid r ailing studs c ontinuous fro m top to base of r ail Sheathing Siding Tr i m as r equir ed or 1x4 T&G floor sloped 1⁄ 4 in. the connection between the porch floor and the main structure should be flashed for the same reason as for all open porch and deck floors. above por c h floor Tr i m as r equir ed 5 ⁄ 4 x4 or 1x4 T&G floor sloped 1⁄ 4 in. away fro m building 5 ⁄ 4 x4 Tr i m as r equir ed Skirting Fur r ing joist allows nailing & r eplac ement of floor ing without r emoval of siding. felt c ontinuous behind flashing 3 in. To avoid this problem.60 Floors Porches & Decks A wood porch with an open railing and a tongueand-groove wood floor has been a tradition throughout the United States for the entire history of wood-frame construction and is still in demand. per f t. per f t. The tongue-and-groove wood porch was traditionally built without flashing.T. it is also not truly open like the spaced decking of open porch or deck floors. away fro m building 5 ⁄ 4 x4 Pr essur e-tr eated joist nailed to fur r ing joist through flashing C Traditional Wood Porch Open Railing D Traditional Wood Porch Closed Railing . But for a longer lasting porch. Weatherresistant species or wood that has been pressure-treated will provide the most maintenance-free porch.T. Moisture is likely to get trapped in the tongue-and-groove joint between floor boards and cause decay. Fr a med wall Sheathing Siding 30-lb. away fro m building Air spac e below siding & at end of floor ing Dr ip Joists par allel to main building stud wall or foundation wall P. the floors of these porches are often painted annually. A tongue-and-groove porch floor is actually a hybrid between a waterproof deck and an open deck because although it is not waterproof. per f t. Flashing c ontinuous over fur r ing joist Joist or 1x4 T&G floor sloped 1⁄ 4 in. ply wood bloc king at bolts C ontinuous P.
and it also will not trap rainwater during construction. Support fi ber glass. a wire or plastic mesh or wood lath can first be stapled to the underside of the joists. as shown in the drawing below.c . need only be insulated at their perimeter. A vapor retarder placed on the subfloor is more continuous than one on the top side of the batts. Floor insulation at foundation see 62 Floors over other unheated ar eas see Notes on this page Floor insulation—Building codes in most climates require at least R-11 for floors over unheated spaces. or with wood lath or wir e at 12 in. support insulation. and effective. To support the batts. such as upper floors that are located over a heated space. not throughout the entire floor. easy. Floor insulation at upper floors see 63 Heated c r awl spac es see 15c Spr ing wir es pushed into plac e at 24 in. Vapor r etar der c an go on top of su bfloor if unfac ed bat t insulation is below. For more on vapor retarders and airinfiltration barriers. A Floor Insulation . or vapor r etar der c an be integr al with or on top side of insulation. When conditions do require a vapor retarder or when an air-infiltration barrier (AVB) is desired. or plastic mesh can be draped very loosely over the joists.Floors Insulation 61 Roof insulation see 197 Wall insulation see 120 Por c h & dec k floors over heated spac e see 197 When crawl-space floor insulation must be installed from below. A floor over a heated basement or crawl space (see 8) would not require a vapor retarder. The batts are easiest to install if weather and other considerations permit them to be dropped in from above.bat t insulation with wir e or plastic mesh. spring wires are cheap.c . Perimeter insulation—Floors whose perimeter completes the thermal envelope. C & D and 63). a 4-mil air/ vapor barrier may be placed on the warm side of the insulation. o. Floors over unheated c r awl spac e (see Notes on this page) Slab insulation see 22b Floor insulation over open areas that are exposed to varmints and house pets should be covered from below with solid sheathing (see 88A). Floor vapor retarders in any position are likely to accumulate multiple nail penetrations and should be coordinated with the finish floor. Vapor retarder—A vapor retarder is not always required in the floor structure over a crawl space because the temperature differential between the interior space and the crawl space is not always enough to cause condensation. o. The continuity of insulation and air/vapor barriers at this location requires serious consideration (see 62B. Installation—Floors over vented crawl spaces and other unheated areas are typically insulated with fiberglass batts because the ample depth of the floor structure can accommodate this cost-effective but relatively bulky type of insulation. see 120.
T. Su bfloor Unfac ed fi ber glass bat t insulation fills joist c avities. moistur e bar r ier & siding Fr a med wall with futur e wall insulation. mudsill Foundation wall A Floor Insulation at Foundation Uninsulated Basement or Crawl Space B Floor Insulation at Foundation Heated Basement/Joist on Mudsill Fr a med 2x6 wall c antilever ed 2 in. moistur e bar r ier & siding Fr a med wall with futur e wall insulation. vapor r etar der. see 121b Foundation wall C Floor Insulation at Foundation Heated Basement/Joist Flush with Mudsill D Floor Insulation at Foundation Heated Basement/Joists Flush with Mudsill .62 Floors Insulation Fr a med wall with futur e wall insulation. mudsill with sill gasket Joist hung fro m mudsill see 33d Foundation wall Note Insulation is not c ontinuous so this detail not r ec o m mended for extr eme c li mates unless walls ar e super insulated. see 61 Joist on mudsill see 33a & b Insulated fr a med wall see 15c & d P. vapor r etar der. vapor r etar der.bat t insulation fills joist or gir der c avities. with futur e wall insulation.T. moistur e bar r ier & siding Su bfloor Vapor r etar der on top of su bfloor c an be sealed to wall vapor r etar der at bot to m plate. b & c 2x8 P. vapor r etar der. moistur e bar r ier & siding Su bfloor Su bfloor P. mudsill with sill gasket R igid insulation sealed at edges Joists on fr a med wall see 34b Insulated fr a med wall see 15c & d R igid insulation with protec tion above gr ade see 15a. see 61 R igid insulation sealed at edges Unfac ed fi ber glass.T.T. mudsill with sill gasket Foundation wall P.
this detail does not provide the later al str u c tur al str ength of alter native detail. see 63c Note: Bec ause the joists do not penetr ate the wall c avitiy. C ontinuous header joist sc r ewed to wall Vapor r etar der at war m side of insulation C ontinuous let-in ledger Note: Bec ause joists per pendic ular to the wall penetr ate the wall c avit y. vapor r etar der. moistur e bar r ier & siding Su bfloor Bat t insulation or spr ayed-in-plac e foa m insulation in c avities bet ween joists. 2x4 or 2x6 fr a med wall with futur e wall insulation. R i m joist or bloc king as r equir ed by joist bear ing Su bfloor Joist with 11⁄ 2 -in. vapor r etar der. to allow for r igid insulation at per i meter. Insulate wall behind joist befor e joist is installed. bear ing (min. moistur e bar r ier & siding Fir e/nailing bloc k su bfloor Vapor r etar der c ontinuous behind joist. However. seal to wall vapor r etar der above & below. Bloc king as r equir ed Fr a med wall 63 Fr a med wall with futur e wall insulation. For alter native detail see 63b. vapor r etar der. see 63d C Upper-Floor Insulation Balloon Framing/Joists Perpendicular to Wall D Upper-Floor Insulation Balloon Frame: Alternative Detail . moistur e bar r ier & siding Fir e/nailing bloc ks Su bfloor Wall c an be insulated at ti me of insulation of walls above & below only if nailing bloc k is installed in c oor dination with insulation.) or joist hanger C ontinuous vapor r etar der wr aps outside floor fr a ming & extends to inter ior of plates to be sealed to wall vapor r etar der. it is diffic ult to get a tight seal against air infiltr ation for alter native detail. bloc king & su bfloor Plac e vapor r etar der on war m side of insulation Bloc king wher e joists ar e par allel to wall Fr a med wall Note Bec ause joists per pendic ular to the wall penetr ate the wall c avit y. moistur e bar r ier & siding Shif t floor fr a ming 11⁄ 2 in.Floors Insulation Fr a med wall with futur e wall insulation. A Upper-Floor Insulation Platform Framing B Upper-Floor Insulation Platform Frame: Alternative Detail 2x4 or 2x6 fr a med wall with futur e wall insulation. vapor r etar der. it is diffic ult to get a tight seal against air infiltr ation. it is possi ble to provide a good seal against air infiltr ation.
64 walls Introduction .
so numerous decisions need to be made in the course of designing a wall system for a wood-frame building. in 2x6 walls unless noted otherwise. however. the drywall also has to be 1⁄ 8 in. as shown in 73A). o. Thicker insulation costs more too. and finish materials. balloon framing has been almost completely superseded by the more labor-efficient and fire-resistant platform frame construction. A 2x6 wall with studs spaced 24 in. the sheathing has to be 1⁄ 2 in. Examples include parapet walls and eave (side) walls WALL THICKNESS Should the walls be framed with 2x4s or 2x6s? The 2x6 wall has become increasingly popular in recent years.c. lumber grades. thicker than sheathing on a standard 2x4 wall). thick (1⁄ 8 in. 3 Introduction walls 65 FRAMING STYLE Should the walls be built using platform framing or balloon framing? Balloon framing. in 2x4 walls and 24 in. and heating).c. To incorporate all of this within a 4-in. primarily because it provides more space for insulation and allows for other minor energy-saving advantages (such as the ability to run electricity in a notched base.chapter walls T he walls of a building serve several important functions: They define the spaces within the building to provide privacy and zoning. Stud spacing of 2x4 and 2x6 walls may vary with loading. Framing the exterior walls with 2x6s and interior walls Par apet Roof load Roof Floor . On the outside. however.c. These advantages all come at some cost. and they enclose the building itself. thicker to span the 24-in. and the lateral structure that stiffens the building. Walls provide the vertical structure that supports the upper floors and roof of the building. o.-deep wood-framed panel is quite an achievement. So. where a variation of the balloon frame system is useful. keeping the weather out and the heat or cold in. with studs extending only between floors. There are two preliminary decisions to make that establish the framework for the remaining decisions. There are still situations. (the maximum spacing allowed by codes) uses about 20% more material for studs and plates than a 2x4 wall with studs with a code-allowed spacing of 16 in. Walls also encase the mechanical systems (electrical wiring. o. was developed in the 1840s and is the antecedent of the framed wall. plumbing. with studs continuous from mudsill to top plate and continuous between floors. Inside. overall. with 2x4s is a typical combination when the energyefficient 2x6 wall is selected. or 6-in. One such situation is where the continuity of studs longer than the normal ceiling height is essential to the strength of a wall. In recent years.c. spacing between 2x6 studs. in this book. studs are assumed to be 16 in. o. but one that costs more. 2x6 framing makes a superior wall.
thus saving energy. it is time to consider how to brace the building to resist the forces of wind. Studs called “trimmer studs” in one locality are called “jack studs” in another. Advanced framing of walls is discussed in this chapter (see 74–76). . Standard framed walls. however. header design. and the names for the components that frame wall openings (see 68A) are the least cast in stone. wide require a 4x4 header and up to 6 ft. SIZING HEADERS Headers are structural members over openings in walls for windows or doors. How these various details are assembled into a complete wall system depends on local climate.” Consult local builders and architects for common usage. Header size depends on wood species and grade. or should the building be braced with structural sheathing and/or shear walls? This question is best answered in the context of the design of the building as a whole.66 walls that must resist the lateral thrust of a vaulted roof (as in a 11⁄ 2-story building). ABOUT THE DRAWINGS Construction terms vary regionally. a 4x6 header. the 4x header (see 68B): For a single-story building with a 30-lb. along with some suggestions for their appropriate use. Following is a rule of thumb for sizing a common header type. The greatest impact on framing efficiency can be made in the walls because wall construction has evolved in such a way that the typical wall is overbuilt. and the bottom plate may go by either “bottom plate” or “sole plate. contain numerous extraneous and oversized elements. considering the other materials that complete the wall system. The elimination and downsizing of wall members not only saves lumber. and roughopening span. live load on the roof and 2x4 bearing walls. Will diagonal bracing be adequate. loading. For example. tradition. For clarity. the span in feet of the rough opening should equal the depth (nominal) in inches of a 4x header. This could be important with continuous stucco siding that spans two floors without a control joint. How is the wall to be insulated? Where are the openings in the wall for doors and windows? Will there be an air-infiltration barrier? What material will be used for the exterior finish? The details relating to these issues are addressed in this chapter. earthquakes. Floors and roofs are constructed reasonably efficiently because the design challenge has been to span horizontally with an economy of materials. or in a multiple-story hybrid building system where the floors in the balloonframed part would not shrink equally with the floors in the platform-framed part. it also lowers the effect of thermal bridging. and eccentric loading. insulation is not generally shown in the exterior walls except in the insulation section (120–125). DESIGNING A WALL SYSTEM Once the stud size and spacing and the framing system have been selected. ADVANCED FRAMING Advanced framing minimizes the amount of structural material that is required to hold up the building. wide. Another reason for using balloon framing is to minimize the effects of shrinkage that occurs across the grain of joists in a platform-framed building. codes. openings up to 4 ft. Balloon-framed gable-end walls also provide increased stability in high-wind areas (see 160). and the talent of the designer.
.c . 71 Bloc king. all 2x6 walls ar e shown with studs at 24 in. o. unlabeled walls may be either 2x4 or 2x6.walls Openings see 68a Framing 67 Headers see 68.. 69. fir estopping see 73a & b C antilever ed walls see 73c & d R esour c e-effic ient advan c ed fr a ming see 74 Note In this c hapter all 2x4 walls ar e shown with studs at 16 in. o. bac king. A Wall Framing .c . 70a & c Intersec ting walls see 70a & b R ake walls see 72 C onnec tions with roof & c eiling see 132-134 Later al br ac ing see 77 C onnec tions with floors see 40-42 C or ners see 70a & d.
6 f t. (min. 10 1⁄ 2 in. B 4x Header 2x4 Bearing Wall C Typical Double 2x Header 2x4 Bearing Wall Window header t yp. door Header Tri m mer stud King stud C o m mon studs Header Tri m mer stud King stud sill Door rough opening Su bfloor Cripple studs Door rough opening Sole plate Window rough opening A Openings in a Stud Wall Dou ble top plate Dou ble top plate Cripple studs at sa me spac ing as c o m mon studs Cripple studs at sa me spac ing as c o m mon studs 4x header at sa me width as studs Dou ble 2x header with 1⁄ 2 -in. 8 in. aligns with door header.) Cripple studs T yp. ply wood spac er Tri m mer stud Tri m mer stud King stud King stud Note Header builds to thic kness of wall & provides nailing at all sur fac es. Window rough opening . or 3 ⁄ 8 -in. for 6 f t.68 walls Framing Dou ble top plate Lap dou ble top plate 4 f t.
King stud C Flat 2x4 Header 2x4 Partition Wall D Open-Box Plywood Header 2x4 Bearing Wall . o. to avoid split ting fr a ming Tri m mer stud Tri m mer stud King stud Note This header. Cripple studs at sa me spac ing as c o m mon studs Cripple studs at sa me spac ing as c o m mon Dou ble flat 2x4 header 1⁄ 2 -in. A. whic h was developed by N.) nailed to one side of fr a ming with 8d c o m mon nails at 3 in.c . B. stagger ed 1⁄ 2 in. (see R esour c es).H. ply wood or wood lath shi ms at inside sur fac es (or rigid insulation) Dou ble LVL or single LSL header at sa me width as 2x4 wall Tri m mer stud Tri m mer stud King stud Note LSL is not as strong as dou ble LVL. King stud A 2x10 Header 2x4 Bearing Wall B Double LVL or LSL Header 2x4 Bearing Wall Dou ble top plate Top plate must be c ontinuous ac ross opening.walls Framing 69 Dou ble top plate Dou ble top plate Dou ble (or single) 2x10 header with 2x4 sc ab bed to bot to m (eli minates the need for c ripple studs in an 8-f t. c an be sized to span up to 8 f t. CDX ply wood (min. wall) Cripple studs at sa me spac inig as c o m mong studs 1⁄ 2 -in.
o. 2x header at outside of wall 2-in.70 walls Framing Dou ble top plate Dou ble top plate over laps at c or ners to loc k t wo walls together. Tri m mer stud King stud C Insulated Double 2x Header 2x6 Bearing Wall/Alternative Detail D 2x4 Corner At Sole Plate . insulation spac e 2x3 spac er Sole plate Note This detail wor ks for both inside & outside c or ners. spac e at inside of header for insulation 2x4 or 2x6 header plate Tri m mer stud 2x4 studs at 16 in. or 4-in.c . Notc h c ripple studs for 2x header. Built-up header of 2x’s with 2x3 spac er bet ween 21⁄ 2 -in. t ypic al King stud A Insulated Header 2x4 or 2x6 Exterior Wall B 2x4 Corner At Double Top Plate Dou ble top plate Cripple stud at sa me spac ing as c o m mon studs C or ner studs built up with 2x4 bloc king bet ween provides nailing at inside c or ner.
c . or 2x4 studs at 16 in. t ypic al A 2x4 or 2x6 Corner At Double Top Plate B Intersecting 2x Walls At Double Top Plate Extr a stud added perpendic ular to c or ner stud provides nailing at inside c or ner & allows spac e for 4-in. t ypic al end stud of intersec tion wall C 2x4 or 2x6 Corner At Sole Plate D Intersecting 2x Walls At Double Top Plate/Alternative Detail .-thic k insulation at c or ner. top plate of intersec ting wall over laps c ontinuous top plate of pri mary wall c ontinuous top plate of pri mary wall c o m mon studs in pri mary wall 2x6 or 2x8 bac ker stud provides nailing and allows spac e for insulation Sole plate 2x4 or 2x6 studs at 16 in. o.c . o. o.walls Top plate of intersec ting wall over laps c ontinuous top plate of pri mary wall. Framing 71 Dou ble top plate over laps at c or ners.c .c . or 24 in. provides nailing & allows spac e for insulation End stud of intersec ting wall 2x6 studs at 24 in. o. loc king t wo walls together C ontinuous top plate of pri mary wall C o m mon studs in pri mary wall Bloc king at 16 in.
C eiling joist Over lapping dou ble top plate A Rake Wall Notes B single top plate sloped to matc h pitc h of roof fir ebloc king as r equir ed stud c ontinuous fro m sole plate Rake Wall Platform Framing Flashing Siding Stud wall c ontinuous fro m below top sur fac e of sloped top plate flush with inside c or ner of dou ble top plate Fir ebloc k/nailing bloc k as r equir ed Sheathing and Roofing Roof joists or r af ters.72 walls Framing R ake-wall studs aligned with wall studs below ar e toenailed to top plate & to r af ter (shown with dashed lines for c larit y) A wall that extends to a sloped roof or ceiling is called a rake wall and may be built one of two ways: Platform framing—Platform framing is commonly the method of choice when a horizontal structural element such as a floor or ceiling ties the structure together at the level of the top plate or when the top plate itself is short enough to provide the necessary lateral strength (see 72B). Balloon framing—Balloon framing allows for ease of construction and economy of material and stabilizes a tall wall because the studs are continuous from sole plate to roof (see 72C). Balloon framing can also be employed to stiffen a wall that projects above the roof such as a parapet or railing (see 72D). for c onnec tions see 41a & b Note Tie c or ner together with sheathing or metal str aps. Balloon framing is greatly preferred in general from a structural perspective where lateral forces are extreme. see 156. such as in high-wind areas. For details of rake walls with truss-framed roofs. Fir ebloc k/nailing bloc k as r equir ed Stud wall C Rake Wall Balloon Framing D Parapet Wall Framing Roof Joists Shown Perpendicular to Wall .
16d toenails or metal fr a ming angles advisable at top & bot to m C antilever ed wall is supported by nailing through ply wood to dou bled studs in pri mary wall. bet ween floors & bet ween the top floor & the at tic in balloon-fr a me buildings (the plates in platfor m-fr a me buildings auto matic ally provide fir ebloc king bet ween floors).walls Fir estopping r etar ds the spr ead of fir e in wall c avities & may also serve as bloc king. When possi ble. C ontinuous studs Notc hing base of 2x6 wall allows elec tric al wir es to r un without c o mpr essing insulation at c enter of wall (not allowed in 2x4 wall). bloc king is applied flat to allow insulation at exterior walls. Fir estopping is usually 2x fr a ming lu m ber but c an also be other materials su c h as layers of ply wood or gypsu m wallboar d when approved by loc al c odes. x. balustr ades & other ac c essories that ar e at tac hed to the finsh sur fac e of the wall. C Cantilevered Walls D Cantilevered-Wall Framing Detail at Base . Building line Sole plate of c antilever ed wall Floor-system fr a ming 2 f m a t. see 73b Framing 73 Fir estopping may be stagger ed for base of nailing. 6 a . Wher e loads ar e not gr eat. apart or if they will support heavy snow loads. C or ner nailing stud at tac hed af ter c antilever ed wall is nailed Dou bled studs at opening in pri mary wall. m ft x. in tall walls every 10 f t. Dou ble studs at opening in pri mary wall Roof C antilever ed ply wood walls Fr a ming detail see 73d Note C antilever ed walls should be engineer ed if they projec t mor e than 2 f t. vertic ally.. bet ween wall c avities & c on c ealed horizontal spac es su c h as soffits & drop c eilings. tri m. It provides a solid nailing sur fac e for c hanges in material su c h as wainsc oting & it also supports c abinets. A Blocking & Notching B Firestopping It is oc c asionally diffic ult or i mpossi ble to c antilever the floor fr a ming to support a projec tion fro m the building. Studs of c antilever ed wall Extend sheathing down to lap floor-system fr a ming. plu m bing fixtur es. Bloc king supports piping & other utilities within the wall c avit y. but fir estopping is usually r equir ed at stairs alongside the stringers. Note C odes vary. towel bars. if they ar e mor e than 6 f t. it is possi ble to support the projec tion with c antilever ed walls.
more volume in the wall can be occupied by insulation. which increases thermal performance of the overall assembly. The goal when designing an energy-efficient header is to allow for the most insulation while providing for nailing at both the exterior and interior of the opening. thus lowering the effect of thermal bridging. Advanced framing alone can increase the thermal performance of framed walls by only about 7%. A Advanced Wall Framing . but. Details of advanced framing are illustrated on 75–76. it should be considered for every framed building. given that it uses less material than standard framing and also helps to conserve a precious resource. By limiting the amount of framing.74 walls Framing Roof str u c tur e aligned over studs allows for single top plate R edu c ed fr a ming in str u c tur al headers wher e they ar e r equir ed see 76 Single top plate Intersec ting walls see 75b & d Balloon-fr a med r ake walls see 72c Joists aligned over studs allows for single top plate Eli minate str u c tur al headers at openings wher e they ar e not r equir ed Studs aligned bet ween floors R i m joist used as header eli minating str u c tur al headers in openings below. Standar d wall fr a ming see 67 Superinsulated c or ner see 75a & c Advanced framing—Advanced framing minimizes the amount of framing that extends from the interior to the exterior of a wall.
t ypic al Studs of pri mary wall A Superinsulated 2x6 Corner Outside Corner Only at Top Plate B Intersecting 2x Walls At Top Plate Bac kup c lips at inside c or ners of gypsu m wallboar d eli minate need for extr a stud. Single top plate of intersec ting wall Bac k-up c lips for gypsu m wallboar d on intersec ting wall leave wall c avit y bet ween sutds c lear for insulation. C o m mon studs in pri mary wall End stud of intersec ting wall C ontinuous sole plate of pri mary wall Note Bac kup c lips c an also be used in 2x4 walls. Sole plate Sole plate of intersec ting wall C Superinsulated 2x6 Corner Outside Corner Only at Sole Plate D Intersecting 2x Walls At Sole Plate . allowing for full thic kness of insulation. Bac k-up c lips leave c avit y bet ween studs c lear for insulation.c . 2x6 studs at 24 in.walls Framing 75 Single top plate C ontinuous single top plate of pri mary wall Metal str ap tie t wo walls together Metal str ap ties t wo walls together. o.
the header itself occupies space that could otherwise be filled with insulation. the header does not usually have to fill the entire width of the wall. The headers illustrated on this page provide both structure and space for insulation.76 walls Framing Sheathing Sheathing Bat t insulation as in t ypic al wall Dou ble 2x header for heavy loading see 76 Bat t insulation for t ypic al wall c o mpr esed against header 21⁄ 2 in. of rigid insulation 2x header adequate for most openings see 76c King stud or tri m mer stud for heavy loads King stud When a structural header is required over an opening in an exterior wall. The elimination of the trimmer studs that usually support a header at its ends also allows for more insulation in the wall. Because a deep (tall) header is more effective structurally than a wide one. The box header (see 69D) also provides space for insulation because it uses sheathing as structure. In fact.) A Superinsulated Headers General Shingle top plate Single top plate Header sized for light loads let into 2x6 king stud and nailed Built-up header see 70c King stud Manufac tur ed metal br ac ket supports header at end eli minating need for tri m mer stud. the taller and thinner the header. The header can usually be supported by the king stud as illustrated in the two examples below. King stud B Superinsulated Header Relatively Heavy Loads C Superinsulated Header Relatively Light Loads . the more space there will be for insulation. (Backing may need to be added to the king studs when wide casings are used.
there are two good methods of bracing the building for lateral stability: the let-in wood brace (see 77B) and the kerfed-in metal brace (see 77C). specially designed shear walls are commonly required to withstand these forces (see 82–87). all t ypes must be installed at 45 to 60 fro m the horizontal. Braces may be located anywhere along a wall. and the bracing effect will be transferred to the rest of the wall through the continuous top and bottom plates. it is also possible to successfully brace a building at locations other than the corners. OSB. A good structural engineer will be able to design walls of just about any configuration to resist lateral forces. Bot to m of br ac e is let in & fastened sec ur ely to stud. stronger sheathing. Top of br ac e is let into top plate & fastened sec ur ely. Increased nailing. and other methods can also augment bracing. A Lateral Bracing Notes Bot to m of br ac e fits in ker f in sole plate. Note Let-in br ac es should be made of str u c tur ally sound 1x4 or 1x6 lu m ber.” and indeed. If this were not true. sur fac e mounted t ypes (without ker f) must be installed in opposing dir ec tions in an “ x” or “ v” c onfigur ation. The old-fashioned method of bracing with diagonal blocking between studs is not recommended because the nails may withdraw under tension and the many joints tend to open up as the blocking shrinks. Bracing is often referred to as “corner bracing. ˚ ˚ B Let-In Wood Brace Top of br ac e is nailed sec ur ely in ker f at top plate. ˚ ˚ C Kerfed-In Metal Brace . They should be fro m top plate to sole plate & 45 to 60 fro m the horizontal. When neither structural panels nor shear walls are required. Note Metal br ac ing set in a saw ker f & nailed to eac h stud is engineer ed to equal the c ode r equir ements of a 1x4 wood let-in br ac e. the International Residential Code begins its discussion of every allowed wall bracing method with the phrase “located at each end…” While it is true that the corners are the most effective location for a limited amount of wall bracing.Lateral Bracing walls 77 Most wood buildings are sheathed with plywood. The methods shown here are located at a corner only for clarity of illustration. Notc h stud & nail or staple br ac e & eac h stud. there would be no corner windows. such as in areas subject to hurricanes or earthquakes. Ker f stud & nail br ac e at eac h stud. Where lateral forces on walls are extreme. or other structural panels that provide the necessary lateral stability when fastened directly to the stud frame (see 78–80).
OSB and plywood both have a strength axis along the length of the panel because of the orientation of wood fibers. panel laps ri m joist & ties fr a ming to foundation in high-wind or earthquake r egions. but the use of plywood. depending on c eiling height 1⁄ 8 -in. The panel’s shear strength—its ability to resist lateral forces—is not affected by its orientation. structural sheathing may require engineering. if engineered to provide lateral resistance. Field nailing 12 in. Panels may be installed either vertically or horizontally. Horizontal OSB and plywood panels provide a stronger backing for siding than do panels with a vertical orientation. B Structural Sheathing Multiple-Story Building . panel with filler strip at ri m joist. o.78 walls Sheathing Structural sheathing performs two functions—it provides lateral bracing. but this axis is only important in relation to its bending strength between studs. Nails or other approved fasteners should be sized and spaced according to the following schedule.c. str u c tur al sheathing must be professionally engineer ed as br ac ing.c. o. OSB is currently the most common structural sheathing. Horizontally applied panels. spac ing bet ween all panel edges 9-f t. Verify with manufacturer and local codes.c. must have blocking between studs for nailing. Vertically applied sheathing does not usually require blocking because all panel edges are aligned with framing members. and it forms a structural backing for siding materials. Note In c ertain c ases. size & spac ing of nails and/or tie-downs should be spec ified. panel on sec ond story. Nail size 6d 8d Panel edge nailing 6 in. gypsum board (which also contributes fire resistance) and other panel products is also widespread. A Structural Sheathing Notes Panel nailng sc hedule see 78a 8-f t.c. The capacity of panel products such as OSB and plywood to span between studs is related to thickness. Panel thickness 3⁄ 8 1⁄ 2 in. su c h as when most of a wall is c over ed with doors & windows. o. or shear walls (see 82) may be required. or 9-f t. T ype of sheathing. o. In earthquake or hurricane zones or where walls are very tall or penetrated by many openings. Alter native 8-f t. The following chart applies generally: Stud spacing 16 in. or less over 1⁄ 2 in. Panel thickness 1⁄ 2 in. in. 24 in.
sheathing is r ec o m mended for studs at 16 in. Mudsill details see 12a & b A Structural Sheathing/Single-Story Building Distance from Mudsill to Top Plate over 8 Ft. vertic al panel c ut to extend fro m top of fr a ming to mudsill. 8-f t. In high-wind or high-risk seis mic zones. Leave 1⁄ 8 -in. & 1⁄ 2 -in.walls Sheathing 79 Note In r egions not su bjec t to high risk of hurri c ane or earthquake. Bloc king behind panel joints is r equir ed when horizontal panels ar e engineer ed for later al br ac ing. Panel nailing sc hedule see 78a Upper edge of panel aligns with lower top plate. Panel nailing sc hedule see 78a Leave 1⁄ 8 -in. or less & the su bfloor sits dir ec tly on the mudsill.c . panel thic kness & siding material. sheathing panels may pan bet ween studs without bloc king depending on stud spac ing. or Less . Verif y span r ating on panels. see 22 B Structural Sheathing/Single-Story Building Distance from Mudsill to Top Plate 8 Ft. spac e bet ween all panel edges. see 79a Mudsill details see 12a & b Note: This detail is appropriate only if studs ar e pr ec ut at 90 3 ⁄ 4 in. When not engineer ed as br ac ing. Stagger vertic al joints bet ween str u c tur al panels. or if a slab foundation is used. vertic al panel to ri m joist with filler strip below is adequate. horizontal panels without bloc king & with filler strips at base may be ac c eptable. In other r egions. 3 ⁄ 8 -in. sheathing for studs at 24 in. spac e at all panel edges.c . use 9-f t. o. see 33c & d. Note Horizontal panels shown in this detail may be r eplac ed with vertic al panels. o.
a single panel of plywood or composite board siding provides both structural and weathering functions. Precut studs (from 881⁄ 2 in.80 walls Sheathing Top of wall see 80 b & c Single-panel siding C or ner see 112 Base details see 80 b & c Stud wall In single-wall construction. (min. panel C ontinuous moistur e barrier fro m top of panel to below mudsill C ontinuous moistur e barrier fro mo top of panel to below mudsill Bot to m of panel laps foundation 1⁄ 2 in. see 20. to 923⁄ 8 in. Bot to m of panel at or below bot to m plate Flashing see 105b Joist. Panel Typical C Single-Wall Construction 8-Ft. This is an inexpensive. panels with taller studs and/or different subfloor connections (see 80C). Taller (9-ft.mudsill foundation system.). A Single-Wall Construction Structural Sheathing Roof system Top of panel fastened to top plate Roof system Top of panel fastened to top plate Stud wall Stud wall 8 f t. or slab foundation.) panels are also available. see 33c & d. (min. and 10-ft.below.) allow 8-ft. low-quality type of construction most appropriate for garages and sheds. panels to cover the framing on the exterior if the subfloor sits directly on the mudsill (see 80B) or if there is a slab floor. B Single-Wall Construction 8-Ft. panel 8 f t. but also used for residential construction. Panel with Water Table . Adding trim to the base allows the use of 8-ft. usually over a moisture barrier. Panels are installed vertically.). Wood water table laps foundation 1⁄ 2 in.
Siding must be nailed through nonstructural sheathings directly into the studs beneath them. and between garages and living space. it has severe limitations for the attachment of siding materials. x 8f t. 9f t.. panels provide water-r esistant non-str u c tur al sheathing. Sheathing panels may span bet ween studs without bloc king sin c e siding must be nailed to studs in any c ase. Horizontal 2f t. Water-resistant gypsum board applied to the exterior of framed walls can also serve as an underlayment for various siding materials. foam plastic. In this application.walls Sheathing 81 Tongue-andGroove edge helps keep 2-f t. so any siding material applied over it must be connected through the gypsum to the framing behind or to furring strips or another sheathing material applied over or under the gypsum. A Gypsum Sheathing B NonStructural Sheathing .-wide panels may be applied vertically or horizontally (if covered with a moisture barrier) and must be nailed at 4 in. Full-size panels (4f t. ends and 8 in. The panels do not have to be blocked at edges. Type-X gypsum wallboard applied directly to the studs will satisfy most codes. Many sheet materials that can be used for sheathing do not provide adequate lateral bracing. In addition to providing a base for a moisture barrier and siding. to 11⁄ 2 in.) c an provide str u c tur al sheathing and/or fir e r esistan c e. 4-ft. Insulative sheathings range in thickness from 1⁄ 2 in. While gypsum sheathing can provide fire protection. between attached dwellings. water resistance. elsewhere. with less-expensive nonstructural sheathing elsewhere. o. Fire-protective sheathings are often required at walls on or near property lines. at the 4-ft. Verify that the permeability of the sheathing is coordinated with the permeability of the vapor retarder (see 88A). x 8f t. or 10f t. and structural strength. Gypsum board can also satisfy code requirements for shear strength. and rigid fiberglass boards. o. such nonstructural sheathings may also provide insulation or fire protection. They include fiberboards. The need for lateral bracing is often satisfied by applying plywood or other structural panels to the corners of a building. Stagger vertic al joints bet ween panels. panels in plane of wall.c.c. R-values vary. It is not a nailing base.
The relatively light weight of wood-frame buildings works to their advantage in the case of earthquakes. minimum code requirements for let-in bracing or structural sheathing will sufficiently stiffen the walls of a light wood-frame building to resist the typical lateral loads of wind or eccentric loading. so lateral resisting systems must be designed for the eventuality of forces in all directions. these two forces act differently on buildings. The diagrams on these pages use wind forces to illustrate how lateral forces follow a continuous path through diaphragm and shear walls.) Load tr ansfers to top of shear wall dicted. and these usually involve calculations by an engineer to design diaphragms coupled with shear walls. and (3) the shear walls at opposite ends of the diaphragm transfer the loads down to the foundation. The stiffened walls act like the sides of a shoe box working in concert with the lid to maintain the overall shape of the box. Simply stated. but in reality. wind forces act on the top of a building and earthquake forces act on the bottom. but works against them in the case of high winds.) For c e of wind 2. framing members. In more extreme conditions such as zones with a high risk of earthquakes or severe winds. A diaphragm acts as a horizontal beam to collect lateral forces and transfer these forces to the shear walls. and a structural perimeter.) Load tr ansfers to foundation Top of shear wall holds edges of diaphr ag m fir mly in plac e. For simplicity. A Shear Walls . Horizontal rigidit y pr events deflec tion. For small simple buildings in these zones. strapping. the diagram shows a wind acting in a single direction perpendicular to the building wall. and the structural perimeter is composed of rim joists and/or blocking (see 32). But it is common to have conditions where even these increased code requirements are not adequate. In these cases. codes typically require increased nailing. the direction of lateral forces cannot be pre1. Diaphragm—A diaphragm is a horizontal structure such as a floor or roof composed of sheathing.82 walls Shear Walls In most cases. The lateral force follows a continuous path through the structure: (1) the force of wind on the windward wall is transferred through studs to the top (and base) of the wall. more extreme measures must be taken to resist lateral loads. In the case of a roof. and anchoring. and the structural perimeter is composed of end rafters (or trusses) and frieze blocks (see 129). as well as extra framing members. 3. The following diagram summarizes how diaphragms and shear walls work together to resist lateral forces. Although these structural elements are designed essentially the same to resist the forces of wind or earthquakes. In the case of a floor. the framing members are joists. (2) the diaphragm collects the loads from the top of the windward wall and transfers them to the top of the shear walls at either side. Such conditions generally involve a building in which numerous wall openings reduce the ability of the wall to resist the lateral forces. the framing members are common rafters (or trusses). lateral bracing measures beyond standard structural sheathing or let-in bracing must be taken.
Connections—Because shear walls involve a large number and variety of components and connections. shear walls should be longer (or stronger. Later al for c es fro m diaphr ag m Deflec ted shape of the wall will be in tension while the opposite edge is in compression. it is especially important to pay close attention to manufacturers’ instructions for the installation of connectors. Distribution—Shear walls are generally located within each (principal) exterior wall of a building. more framing members at their edges. They act like regular braced or structurally sheathed walls to resist the action of lateral forces except that they are much stronger. Horizontal forces can slide the wall off the foundation if adequate shear connections are not provided. Shear walls act as beams cantilevered from the foundation (or upper floor) to resist forces parallel to them. however. An c hor bolts. and/or nailing pr event sliding Horizontal forces applied to the top of a shear wall can cause overturning unless the bottom corners are adequately tied (with hold-downs) to resist uplift (see 85 & 86A). For earthquake resistance. A shear wall is only as strong as its weakest connection.Shear Walls walls 83 Shear walls—Shear walls are extremely strong framed walls that connect the horizontal diaphragm to the foundation. for wind resistance. it is critical that each connection be designed and constructed to resist the forces that pass through it. Shear walls need not extend to c or ners. and/or by framing anchors at upper floors (see 85). one edge Later al for c es fro m diaphr ag m Deflec ted shape Leewar d edge under c o mpr ession Hold-down an c hor ed to foundation c ounter ac ts tension on windwar d edge to pr event overtur ning. shear walls must resist both sliding and overturning. Longer shear walls are inherently better because they have a longer base to resist sliding and because the hold-downs are farther apart to resist overturning. Their greater strength comes from increased nailing. and more substantial anchoring. shear walls should generally be balanced on all four sides of the building. Sliding forces are resisted by anchor bolts. connections may be called upon to resist vertical and horizontal forces in several directions. fr a ming an c hors. They are connected at their base to the foundation (or to another shear wall) and at their top to a diaphragm. see 85B) at the short walls in order to resist the larger wind forces imposed on the long walls. A Shear Walls . When designing and building to resist extreme conditions. but may also be located strategically at interior walls. thicker sheathing. Depending on their location. by nailing. While the force is applied. Shear walls should be loc ated near or at the peri meter of the building Plan Shear walls should be distri buted evenly around the building’s peri meter. At their base.
In a building with more than one floor. shear walls cannot be placed where there are openings in the wall. for a wall 8 ft. Therefore. Forces acting in a north-south direction.5:1 or less. The practical effect of this limitation is a minimum shear wall width of approximately 2 ft. for example. and thus may not r equir e shear walls. Shear walls c onnec t to floor diaphr ag m. Because they connect diaphragm to the foundation. see 86c & d Dr ag str ut ties shear wall to diaphr ag m. It is not unusual to have a two-story wood-frame building with engineered shear walls on the ground floor and standard code-prescribed sheathing on the upper floor. the need for shear walls is greater on floors nearest the ground. see 86b Shear walls c onnec t to roof diaphr ag m at eave and r ake. there may need to be several shear wall segments in order to provide ample resistance to lateral forces. When the wind blows on a diagonal (as it usually does).84 walls Shear Walls Note For gar age portal fr a me. shear walls in all four walls will be in play. Openings in wall li mit shear wall loc ation and size. can be resisted by shear walls located in the east and west walls of the building (and vice versa). Shear walls are most effective when they are wide relative to their height and their base anchors are far apart. they can theoretically be resisted by shear walls in each of the four walls of a simple building. The calculation of shear wall values is fairly complicated—involving different factors for earthquake or wind forces—and is thus usually performed by a licensed engineer. Shear walls an c hor ed to foundation at base c or ners. codes have specified that shear walls must have a height-to-width ratio of 3. A Shear Walls in Context . see 87b Shear walls at upper floors an c hor ed to lower shear walls see 87a Lar ge walls on upper levels may use standar d c ode-pr esc ri bed sheathing to provide later al r esistan c e. in walls with many openings. see 87c . S mall projec tions may be stabilized by floor and roof diaphr ag ms. This is because the lower floors are required to resist the forces from upper floors in addition to their own. Because lateral forces such as wind are assumed to act perpendicularly to the walls of a building. Shear walls on upper levels c an be offset fro m those at lower levels to ac c o m modate openings. tall. For this reason. see 86a Shear walls ac t c ollec tively to r esist later al for c es in a single plane.
B Shear Wall Design Considerations 3.. Increased nailing acts to increase wall strength (see 78A). Chord strength—At the boundaries of the shear wall where stress is greatest. Sheathing on both sides of the shear wall will double its capacity. A Components of a Shear Wall Sheathing strength—The strength of the rated sheathing must match the required capacity of the shear wall.e. An c hor bolts pr event sliding. More nailing is required at the edges of panels than in the field of the panel. Splices in struts should be avoided if possible.5:1. A minimum of two studs is required by most codes (see 85A). single sole plate and double top plate) is usually sufficient as struts. struts are at the boundary of shear walls where stresses are greatest.5 w . Once the lateral forces have been determined. Bloc king as r equir ed pr events bu c kling of panel edges. Anchor bolts—To prevent sliding. framing anchors and nailing are used to prevent sliding. Typical framing (i. There are a variety of types and capacities of hold-downs. At framed floors. there are seven basic considerations that need to be taken into account when designing a shear wall: Proportion—Most codes specify a maximum height-to-width ratio of 3.Shear Walls walls 85 Shear wall dou ble top plate ac ts as a str ut. w Hold-downs—Extreme forces at the lower corners of shear walls necessitate metal holddowns to connect the shear-wall chord to the foundation or to lower shear walls (see 85A & 86A). wide. Dou ble studs at edges ac t as c hor ds that stiffen edge and provide thic k an c hor age for hold-downs at base. anchor bolts are used to connect the base of a shear wall to the foundation. Nailing—Size and spacing of nails must be specified. All panel edges must be blocked to prevent buckling of the panel. Hold-downs also resist sliding but are not generally considered in engineering calculations. chords must be stronger than standard studs. This generally means that shear walls cannot be less than 2 ft. Hold-downs at base c onnec t to foundation or other shear walls to pr event overtur ning. Strut strength—Like chords.
or Fr a ming an c hor ties diaphr ag m to shear wall str ut. Dou ble top plate ac ting as a shear wall str ut Dou ble top plate ac ting as a shear wall str ut C Shear Wall/Roof Diaphragm At Eave D Shear Wall/Roof Diaphragm At Rake . Shear wall sheathing laps end r af ter. Spec ial an c hor bolt em bedded in foundation and/or c arried through floor str u c tur e per manufac tur er’s instr u c tions Dou ble top plate ac ting as a shear wall str ut A Shear Wall Hold-Downs Ply wood roof diaphr ag m Spec ified nailing at diaphr ag m edge Frieze bloc k Alter native frieze bloc k loc ation B Shear Wall/Floor Diaphragm Ply wood roof diaphr ag m Lookout see 145a Spec ified nailing at diaphr ag m edge End r af ter Shear wall sheathing laps frieze bloc k. or Metal hold-down bolted or sc r ewed to c hor d Sole plate Foundation wall or floor str u c tur e Fr a ming an c hor ties diaphr ag m to shear wall str ut. or Fr a ming an c hor ties diaphr ag m to shear wall str ut.86 walls Shear Walls Dou ble stud or 4x c hor d Ply wood floor diaphr ag m Spec ified nailing at diaphr ag m edge R i m joist or bloc king Shear wall sheathing laps ri m joist.
to the shear walls below. The columns effectively cantilever up from the panel. A drag strut consists of a long metal strap firmly attached to the diaphragm above the shear wall. Floor diaphr ag m Hold-downs at foundation Shear wall When shear walls are required on upper floors. their edges may be tied to the diaphragm with a combination of twist straps (for uplift) and framing anchors (for horizontal shear). A shear panel below the window opening is strapped to stiff single-piece or built-up columns at the corners. If upper and lower shear walls align. A Shear Wall/Shear Wall Tie between Floors B Drag Strut Door header Stiff header Stiff c olu mn Shear panel Shear walls Str aps tie c olu mns to panel & header. Garages with wide doors and limited walls are typical of buildings requiring shear walls. These conditions are so typical that several companies have developed proprietary premanufactured walls specifically for garages. If the shear walls do not align. The shear walls are strapped to the door header and work in conjunction with it. Engineers can design reinforced windows so the window can extend virtually from wall to wall in small buildings and building extensions. they must be tied. The drag strut extends into the diaphragm in a line parallel to the shear wall to pull or “drag” the force from the diaphragm to the shear wall. through the floor diaphragm. stiffening the entire wall. Garage shear walls are also commonly site-built. Drag struts are sometimes required to tie the diaphragm to the shear walls. their corners may be tied with hold-downs (see 86A) with the lower hold-downs inverted. C Garage Portal Frame D Reinforced Window .Shear Walls walls 87 Hold-downs T wist str aps and fr a ming an c hors Diaphr ag m Dr ag str ut ties mar ginal portion of diaphr ag m to shear wall. especially if the diaphragm is not bounded by shear walls at each end.
-wide rolls.88 walls Moisture & Air Barriers Once the walls are framed and sheathed. Coordinating these components is critical to avoid trapping water vapor in the wall cavity.3–1. A vapor retarder (formerly known as a vapor barrier) is a membrane on the warm side of the wall (usually the interior) that retards the passage of water vapor from the warm inside air into the cooler wall. A moisture barrier acting also as an air infiltration barrier under the siding must retard the passage of air and be impermeable to water. where it could condense (see 120).7 1. should not be placed on the exterior in a cool climate. Building wraps can provide better protecOver lap 4 in. B Moisture & Air Infiltration Barriers Installation . They are very lightweight and come in rolls up to 12 ft. thereby letting the wall breathe.0 0. and these joints are taped. a vapor retarder (to control water vapor). wide. edge of sheathing. 0 0.4–1. story building to be covered in one pass. which has a very low permeability. For example. meet these specifications and are the most prevalent barriers. at tion against air infiltration than felt and vertic al joints. An air barrier limits the infiltration of air through the wall. felt and bitumen-impregnated paper (which come in 3-ft. Either a moisture barrier or a vapor retarder may be detailed to seal the wall against air infiltration. allowing a singleOver lap 2 in. at horizontal joints. thereby becoming an air barrier as well (see 120). kraft paper because the wide rolls require Align bot to m of edge of moistur e barrier with bot to m fewer joints. Polyolefin membranes. they must be protected from moisture. The principle to follow is that the permeability (the degree to which water vapor will pass through a material) must be higher for materials on the cool side of the wall (usually the outside) than for materials on the warm side of the wall (usually the inside). Vapor & Air Barriers Notes A moisture barrier under the siding is a sensible second line of defense to prevent water from reaching the frame of the building. foil-faced rigid insulation. Material Permeability (perms per STM-E96) Foil-faced insulation 4-mil PVC Extruded polystyrene 1⁄ 2-in. but allow vapor to pass. This involves the installation of a moisture barrier.2 0. and insulation. A moisture barrier (also called a weather barrier or water-resistive barrier) is a membrane directly under the siding that prevents any water penetrating the siding from reaching the sheathing or the framing.8 5. The moisture barrier must be coordinated with an air barrier (to control air infiltration). The chart below rates the permeability of common materials. felt 1⁄ 2-in. Many products such as 15-lb.6 20 88-107 CDX plywood OSB Kraft paper 15-lb. 1⁄ 2-in. gypsum board Building or house wraps A Moisture. commonly called building or house wraps. An effective moisture barrier stops liquid water but lets water vapor through.08 0. see spec ific siding t ype for details. to 4 in. as shown here) have been used historically and are suitable for this purpose.
) R epeat step 2. A Window/Door Rough-Opening Wrap MOISTUR E BAR R IER CUT AND TEMPOR AR ILY R AISED AT HEAD OF ROUGH OPENING. it will lap wall moistur e barrier. Leave outer edges unstapled for futur e integr ation with wall moistur e barrier. PLASTIC OR SHEET.METAL SILL PAN PROVIDES ALTER NATIVE MOISTUR E PROTECTION IN SEVER E CONDITIONS. see 93.) Staple moistur e barrier to sill & fold 6 in. 2. 95A MOISTUR E BAR R IER CONTINUOUS AROUND SIDES OF ROUGH OPENING. THIS FLAP OF BAR R IER WILL LATER BE LAPPED OVER HEAD FLASHING OR NAILING FLANGE. Do not staple lower edge. many builders pr efer to use thin moistur e barriers that will not build up with the folds & with sever al layers. The method shown her e is adequate for li mited exposur e situations bec ause all layers over lap to dir ec t water away fro m the str u c tur al fr a me of the building. down. FLEXI BLE PEEL-AND-STICK FLASHING MEMBR ANE PROTECTS THE SEALS TO BASE OF ROUGH OPENING AND LAPS OVER AND SEALS TO THE MOISTUR E BAr R IER. For the method shown her e. 3. to eac h side. above & below rough opening.) Staple moistur e barrier to ja m bs of rough opening & fold 6 in. 94. extending 6 in. and mor e extr eme methods (see 89B) should be employed wher e exposur e is sever e. but for top of rough opening. FASTEN PAN ONLY THROUGH SIDES AND FACE FLANGES AND LAP SIDES WITH PEEL-AND-STICK FLASHING. FOR C ING WATER TO THE EXTER IOR. over sheathing & 6 in. Si mpler methods may be employed wher e exposur e to r ain is not likely to oc c ur. WOOD STOP at INSIDE OF ROUGH SILL FOR MS BAR R IER.Moisture & Air Barriers walls 89 Sheathing Rough fr a ming 1. B Window/Door Rough-Opening Wrap Alternative Details for Severe Exposure to Rain . Note It is extr emely i mportant to wr ap rough openings with a moistur e barrier to protec t the fr a ming bec ause this is wher e leaks ar e most likely to oc c ur.
Sill with drip edge Optional apron applied af ter window is installed. and usually need less maintenance than the traditional prototypes. Sizes and details vary with the manufacturer. metal. include casement. Older windows have a wooden sash that holds the glass. The sides and top of the frame are called jambs. Sill Sill see below C asing Ja m b Traditional Window Modern windows derive from the traditional wooden window shown above. classified by their method of operation. Several popular types. Sill A Window Terminology . which is usually divided into small panes by muntin bars. At the bottom of the frame is a wood sill. Each of these types is made in wood. hopper. Side ja m b extends below sill to support window on fr a ming.90 walls Windows Head ja m b C asing at tac hes to exterior fr a me of building. and fixed windows are generally made in larger sizes than the hinged types. This sash is hinged or slides within a wooden frame that is fixed to an opening in the wall. Sash Ja m b Side ja m b Sash Stop C asing Head Jamb Ja m b exender adjusts ja m b width to wall thic kness. double-hung. These components and their terminology have been handed down to the modern window. Sash Stop Side Jamb Ja m b extender Stool applied af ter window installed Sash C asing dies on top of sill. but modern windows are better insulated and better sealed. sliding. vinyl. sloped to shed water. awning. Today’s window is made in a factory and is shipped ready to install in a rough opening. and fixed. Double-hung. sliding. fiberglass. or a combination of these materials. Optional trim packages are available with most.
if used. as follows: Header—Size the header so that loads from above do not bear on the window itself. Fiberglass does not deteriorate in the weather like wood and does not expand with heat like vinyl. It is a relatively good insulator and is so durable that manufacturers offer lifetime warranties. Window wrap—Wrap the framing at the rough opening with a moisture barrier to protect it from any leaks around the edges of windows and doors. The ubiquitous storefront windows are available in polished aluminum. add under the window a continuous metal or plastic pan that drains to the exterior (see 89B). while their insulative properties are relatively high. One disadvantage of vinyl windows is the limited range of available colors. must be sealed to the window unit. Insulation—Place batt or spray foam insulation around the edges of the installed window to reduce both heat loss and air infiltration. and only very light colors such as white and tan are available because dark colors tend to absorb heat. Wood windows clad with aluminum and vinyl were developed to minimize maintenance. Sill pan—At windows exposed to severe weather. They are available in all typical operating types. The vinyl cannot be painted. But energy codes and the popularity of vinyl windows have virtually eliminated aluminum windows from the residential market except in very mild climates. aluminum windows were the most common low-cost window. Along with the excellent thermal properties of wood. the aesthetic appeal of the wood window is its strongest asset. anodized bronze. see 68-70 Insulation fills in void bet ween window ja m b & rough opening to insulate bet ter & to r etar d air infiltr ation. so periodically refinishing the exterior surfaces is necessary. Sash Support window on fr a ming ac c or ding to manufac tur er’s spec ifi c ations. Metal windows—Until recently. . Vinyl windows are not available with exterior casings. Wood is susceptible to deterioration from the weather. Shim and support—Shim the window at the sill and affix the shims to the framing so that the window is level and rests firmly on the framing. see 89 All windows require a coordinated installation in wood-frame walls. Air barrier—An air barrier. The major disadvantages of wood windows are the initial high cost and the ongoing need for maintenance. Fiberglass windows have factory-applied finishes. Every effort should be made to protect all-wood windows from rain by locating them under overhangs. ranging from light to very dark. natural look. and a spectrum of baked-enamel colors. or the vapor/air barrier may be sealed to the jamb’s inside edge at the wall’s inside surface. The cladding decreases their need for maintenance yet retains the aesthetic advantages of wood on the interior. Vinyl windows—Made of extruded PVC that is either screwed or heat-welded at mitered corners. and can be painted. causing warping.walls Wood windows—Wood windows (see 92–95) are pleasing for their warm.barrier wr ap protec ts fr a ming fro m water leaks around window. Moistur e. Aluminum is still available for commercial applications. The moisture/air barrier may be sealed to the window nailing flange at the wall’s outside surface. restricting operation. Windows 91 Sheathing Exterior wall finish Flashing see 103b & c C asing Header supplies str u c tur e to wall above window opening. but decorative casings are often added (see 93B). but they are currently quite expensive. vinyl windows (see 93B and 94B) have come to dominate the window market. Their cost and expected maintenance are low. Fiberglass windows—Newly developed fiberglass windows have none of the disadvantages of competing materials.
This is the traditional way that windows have been fastened to wood buildings. Some manufacturers also recommend blocking and nailing the units through the jamb. The nail holes are typically filled. A Wood Windows Attachment through Casing . The backband is mitered at the corners and dies on the sill. depending on the profile of the backband. It is of ten used with shingle siding. In this case. When attaching a window through the casing. Backband Typical Backband Profiles Header Sheathing Siding Flashing at head Drip C asing nail (fill nail hole) Bric kmold Ur ethane-foa m or bat t insulation Sash Header Sheathing Siding Flashing with drip (optional) Wooden drip mold C asing nail C asing Ur ethane-foa m or bat t insulation Sash Brickmold Casing Note Tr aditional bric kmold c asing has deep profile to allow various widths or siding to but t against it. the nails can be covered by the stops. Shim the sill and/or the extensions of the side jambs below the sill. Header Sheathing Siding Flashing at head Drip Bac kband Bac kband nail C asing nail C asing Ur ethane-foa m or bat t insulation Sash Note Bac kband c overs the c asing nail in thin. C over bac kband nails with siding or fill nail holes. It may also be used in c onjun c tion with flashing. Dripmold at Head Note Wooden drip mold c an take the plac e of flashing drip at the head of windows & doors.92 walls Windows Unclad wood windows are attached to the building through the casing. It is also possible to cover the nails with a dripmold or with a backband that may be nailed from the side or the face. flat c asing & allows various widths of siding to but t against it. and the casings painted. it is important to support the weight of the window unit from below.
Ur ethane-foa m or bat t insulation Metal. or apply apron on top of siding. Windows with nailing fins c an be used both with & without c asings. or Vinyl Windows Attachment through Nailing Fin . Sec ondary flashing or drip in c asing at head Nail through fin into fr a ming. vinyl. Header Sheathing Siding Moistur e barrier laps nailing fin at head (fin laps moistur e barrier at sides & sill).walls Windows 93 Header see 68-70 Sheathing Window wr ap see 89 Siding Flashing if exposed to weather see 103b & c C asing see 92 Moder n windows ar e usually manufac tur ed with nailing fins that ac t as flashing & provide nailing for at tac hing the window to the building. or wood ja m b & sash (c lad wood shown) C aulk see 106 C asing see 92 Nailing Fin without Casing Header Sheathing Siding Flashing with drip at head Side Jamb Stool is applied af ter window is at tac hed to building. Flashing with drip Nail through fin into fr a ming. Fit siding into groove plowed into underside of sill. Ur ethane-foa m or bat t insulation Metal. Metal. vinyl. Head Jamb Siding Sheathing Window wr ap see 89 Note: C aulk bet ween nailing fin & moistur e barrier. Support sill of wide windows on fr a ming & at tac h through shi ms fro m below. Dec or ative c asing r ab beted over nailing fin Moistur e barrier laps nailing fin at head (fin laps moistur e barrier at sides & sill). or wood ja m b & sash (c lad wood shown) Window wr ap see 89 Sill Sheathing Nailing Fin with Casing A Unclad Wood Windows Attachment through Casing B Wood.
see 103b & c Flashing if exposed to weather see 103b & c Head Jamb Head Jamb Ja m b extender with c asing or interior finish wr apped to window Sheathing Window wr ap see 89 Siding Nailing fin at tac hed to fr a me of building Sheathing Window wr ap see 89 Siding & optional c asing C aulk at ja m b see 106 Nailing fin at tac hed to fr a me of building Ja m b extender with c asing or interior finish wr apped to window C aulk at ja m b see 106 Side Jamb Side Jamb Siding Shi m window to bot to m of rough opening for leveling & support.94 walls Windows Header see 68-70 Sheathing Window wr ap see 89 Siding Nailing fin at tac hed to fr a me of building Header see 68-70 Sheathing Window wr ap see 89 Siding & optional c asing Nailing fin at tac hed to fr a me of building Flashing at head is r ec o m mended if window is exposed to weather. Nailing fin at tac hed to fr a me of building Window wr ap see 89 Sheathing Siding Nailing fin at tac hed to fr a me of building Sheathing Window wr ap see 89 Siding Sill Sill A Clad Wood Windows Attachment through Nailing Fin B Vinyl & Fiberglass Windows .
Depending on how they are installed. When designing and installing site-built fixed windows. Sloped exterior stop at exposed loc ations Sloped sill with drip at exposed loc ations Apron Siding Sill Sheathing Storm sash made today are usually fitted to aging single-glazed windows. minimum clearance at the top and sides of the glass. This can be useful for historic work or when attempting to make simple inexpensive sash for a microclimate that requires them. Rest the base of the glass on setting blocks spaced one-quarter of the width from each end. the following guidelines are useful: 1. Head Jamb Interior stop for easy glass r eplac ement 2. storm sash are custom fit to the exterior face of the existing window. Allow 1⁄ 8 in. storm sash can either significantly extend the useful life of old windows or actually contribute to their deterioration. Support the sill of wide or heavy windows by shimming it from the framing. B Site-Built Fixed Windows Side Jamb Ja m b Stool Interior stop Gla zing installed with c aulk or gla zing tape Set glass on r esilient set ting bloc ks at sill. Usually made of aluminum. while storms at operable windows can be exchanged for screens during the summer. The storm sash protects the existing window from the weather and also improves the thermal performance of the window.walls Windows 95 Header see 68-70 Sheathing Window wr ap see 89 Siding Flashing if exposed to weather see 103b & c C asing Dou ble or single gla zing installed with c aulk or gla zing tape Where fixed windows are acceptable. the glass is stopped directly into the window frame. 4. A Site-Built Fixed Windows C Storm Sash . a great deal of expense may be saved by custom-building the windows on the job without sash. and caulk or glazing tape seals the glass to the casing just as it would to the sash. Storms located at fixed sash can be left in place year-round. New custom wood windows can be manufactured with single glazing if fitted with storm sash. The storm sash provide the thermal performance required by code at the same time they protect the most precious part of the assembly—the sash itself—from the weather. Many are operable from the interior and are fitted with screens. Glass can be set closer to the interior of the building than shown in 95A by using exterior stop. In this case. Ventilation must be provided for the space by means other than operable windows. A proper installation depends on numerous factors including the climate and the detailing of the original window. Sheathing Siding C aulk at jun c tion of c asing & siding see 106 C asing Gla zing Stop 3.
thick or more (see sill drawing at right). Insulation Head Jamb R ab beted ja m b C asing at tac hed fir mly to fr a ming sill R ab beted ja m b sized to width of wall sheathing (fr a ming interior finish) Traditional Exterior Door Modern doors have been derived from traditional prototypes. steel the most inexpensive. fiberglass (fiberglass skin over a wood frame with a foam core). using shims to make the jamb plumb. or insulated steel.96 walls Doors Head ja m b Header see 68-70 Sheathing wr apped with moistur e barrier Siding side ja m b Flashing if exposed to weather see 103b & c C asing at tac hes to exterior fr a me of building. Wood sills must be thicker than metal for strength. composite. Sills and thresholds are the most variable elements in manufactured prehung doors. doors that swing need to have their jambs fastened directly and securely to the building’s frame. + + Add shi m & sc r ew ja m b to fr a ming behind hinges of heavy doors. Nearly all manufacturers sell their doors prehung (hinged to a jamb and with exterior casing attached). or solid wood). they are better insulated and better sealed. Most exterior doors swing inward to protect them from the weather. Most doors come with an extruded metal sill and integral threshold. Exterior hinged doors are made of wood (plywood. Edge of sill below Side Jamb Edge of c asing Bot to m or r ail of door Su bfloor Finish floor Wood or metal thr eshold with weatherstrip Sill with drip see 100a Siding Sheathing R i m joist Sill Note Finish all edges of exterior doors to pr event swelling. which is installed on top of the subfloor (see 100B). so they work best with finish flooring materials that are 3⁄4 in. It is common practice to attach a prehung door through the casing with long screws through the hinge and jamb into the stud. Wood is the most beautiful. A Exterior Hinged Doors Attachment to Walls . and usually require less maintenance than their ancestors. fiberglass the most durable. The best way to accomplish this is to nail the jamb directly to the supporting stud. Because of the torsional forces exerted by the hinges on the jamb when the door is open.
fiberglass. whether they are wood. there is no lateral loading on the jamb of the door unit. vinyl. As with sliding windows.walls Doors 97 Head ja m b Header see 68-70 Sheathing Door wr ap if exposed to weather see 89 Nailing fin on sheathing & under moistur e barrier Siding side ja m b C aulk see 106 Flashing if exposed to weather see 103b & c Insulate rough-opening c avit y. Sliding doors. Sheathing Wr ap sill unless protec ted fro m weather. Ja m b extender to make ja m b flush with interior wall finish Sheathing Head Jamb sill Sliding Door Door wr ap if exposed to weather see 89 Nailing fin on moistur e barrier Siding C aulk see 106 Insulate rough-opening c avit y. or aluminum. fasten to a building more like a window than like a hinged door. Sliding doors are therefore supported on the sill and can be attached to the building like windows—through the casing or with a nailing fin. most sliding-door manufacturers recommend not fastening the nailing fin at the head because header deflection can impede door operation. see 89 Sill Siding A Sliding Doors Attachment to Walls . Side Jamb Sliding door Fixed door Sc r een door Finish floor Su bfloor c arries weight of door unit. Sliding doors are trimmed to the finish materials of the wall in the same way as swinging doors and windows (see 92–94). Because the weight of a sliding door remains within the plane of the wall. Seal below sill.
Interior doors do not have sills and rarely have a threshold unless the floor material changes at the door.98 walls Doors Head ja m b Header see 68-70 Interior finish C asing Ja m b with applied stop see below side ja m b Head Jamb Interior finish C asing Ja m b with applied stop sized to width of wall 2 interior (fr a ming finish) sill Interior Door + + Because they do not have to be sealed against the weather. interior doors are much simpler than exterior doors. Finish floor Su bfloor Sill A Interior Hinged Doors . Hinged interior doors are usually prehung on a jamb without casings. like the one shown above. Edge of c asing Edge of stop Bot to m r ail of door Under c ut door for c lear an c e & for air flow. Some doors are hinged to a split jamb that will expand to accommodate some variation in wall thickness. thick. The jamb on the hinged side is first nailed to the frame of the building. The doors themselves are typically made of wood or composite wood products. using shims to make it plumb. or a flush plywood veneer over a hollow core or solid core. Interior doors are used primarily for privacy and to control air flow. Side Jamb Add shi m & sc r ew ja m b to fr a ming behind hinges of heavy doors or nail behind stop or hinges of standar d doors. The jambs at the head and opposite side are then shimmed for proper clearance and nailed. and have either panels. They are 13⁄ 8 in.
with a track at the top. and wiring or plumbing can’t be put in this section of wall. with the door and pocket separate and the pocket broken-down for ease of transport. Sill A Pocket Doors. the header of a bypass door should be set higher than normal. shimmed. except that casing trim must be kept above the top of the doors to allow the doors to fold. the less likely the door is to derail. 8 in. Bypass Doors & Bifold Doors . but have a double track and two doors that are not concealed in a pocket in the wall. The pocket is assembled at the site. Interior finish Ja m b C asing projec ts below head ja m b & is fit ted with tri m to c over tr ac k har dwar e. The walls are flimsy at the pocket. Bifold doors—Bifold doors have two hinged halves that fold to one side. slide on a track. Pocket doors can’t be made to seal as tightly as hinged doors. Interior finish C asing Poc ket-door fr a me sized to width of wall Side Jamb Note Standar d width is 4 9 ⁄ 16 in. The heavier and wider the door and the better the quality of the hardware. and attached to the frame of the building. such as sliding closet doors. As with pocket doors. and the head jamb (which much be set higher than 6 ft. The jambs are like those for hinged doors but without stops. gypsu m wallboar d on both sides.c ut door for c lear an c e and for air flow Finish floor Su bfloor Note So me poc ket doors have guides at the base of the poc ket. like pocket doors. Bypass doors—Bypass doors.walls Head ja m b Header set higher than standar d to allow for tr ac k. Adjustable tr ac k har dwar e Doors 99 poc ket fr a me side ja m b Head Jamb Pocket Door sill Pocket doors—Pocket doors slide on a track attached to the head jamb and are sold as a kit. sized for 2x4 wall with 1⁄ 2 -in. Installation notes for bypass doors apply. Next the pocket itself and the opposite jamb are shimmed and nailed. Nylon guides on the floor keep the bottom of the doors in line. and the casing should be designed to cover the track hardware. to allow for the track) is leveled. Edge of c asing Bot to m r ail of door Under.
Tr aditional wood sill with drip slopes at 10 & r equir es that top of ri m joist & c o m mon joists be shaved off for installation. ˚ Note Moistur e barrier (not shown for c larit y) c ontinuous around sides of rough opening & laps sides of sill pan. a galvanized metal door-sill pan fit into the door rough opening will protec t the str u c tur e of a wooden floor system below. Outside edge is flush with ja m b (shown) or c asing. At door loc ations exposed to the weather. Wood sills ar e not c o mpati ble with slab su bfloors. see 89.100 walls Doors C asing (dies on top of sill) Side ja m b Door Wood or metal thr eshold Finish floor Su bfloor Bloc king below edge of su bfloor R i m joist Sheathing Siding C asing Side ja m b Door Integr al metal thr eshold Finish floor Su bfloor R i m joist Sheathing Metal or wood sill suppot or sill supported by c on c r ete walk or terr ac e. C asing to bot to m edge of sill ja m b Door Wood or metal thr eshold Finish floor Su bfloor Bloc king below edge of su bfloor R i m joist Optional su b-sill extends to outside edges of c asings. Flat tened wood sill slopes at 7 & is installed on top of joist system. Bot to m flange of pan laps sheathing & door wr ap. The thr eshold is integr al. Weatherstrip bot to m of door. B Extruded Sills Sole plate Sheathing Plastic or Metal pan fits in door rough opening (use no fasteners through pan). ˚ Extr uded sills of alu minu m or polyc ar bonate ar e the most c o m mon for all moder n doors. Interior flange c oor dinates with sill & finish floor. Extr uded sills may also be used in slab-on-gr ade c onstr u c tion. Notes Adjust profile of sills for outswinging doors. Sill extends to outside edges of door c asings. A Wood Sills C Door-Sill Pan . The sill must be supported at outer edge.
fiberglass. making the design of the jamb opening somewhat flexible. Side Jamb Tr ac k mounts to 2x c asing Note: Verif y side c lear an c e for tr ac k. The advantage of this type of door over a sectional door is the greater design flexibility afforded by the single-piece door. both which can be manual or fitted with automatic openers. They are hinged horizontally— usually in four sections—and roll up overhead. 6 f t.walls Head ja m b C eiling line Door in r aised position side ja m b Door tr ac k Sec tional door Gar age slab Doors 101 Head roo m Door height t yp. sectional and one-piece. and vinyl doors are available in some regions. Bot to m sec tion of gar age door R u b ber or vinyl floor seals (optional) Slab edge at gar age door see 25a Sill A Garage Doors B Sectional Garage Door . One-piece doors—One-piece doors pivot up. There are two operating types. and that it closes to the inside face of the jamb. Residential garage doors have evolved from swinging and sliding types to almost exclusively the overhead variety. They are manufactured primarily with a solidwood frame and plywood or particleboard panels. This exposes the open door to the weather. The door fits within the jamb and extends to the outside of the building when in the open position. Paneled metal. Stop mold Rollers mount to gar age door. Hardware for this type of door is not usually available locally. sill Garage Door Header see 68-70 2x C asing Ja m b sized to wall thic kness Stop mold c overs ja m b/c asing joint & may be fit ted with vinyl or r u b ber seal. or 7 f t. 8 in. The advantages are that a sectional door is totally protected by the structure when in the open position. Head Jamb Gar age door Sectional doors—Sectional doors are by far the more common (see 101B).
which provides the first line of defense against water. It is used wherever there is a horizontal or sloped penetration of the outer building skin or a juncture of dissimilar materials that is likely to be exposed to the weather. A drip is a thin edge or undercut at the bottom of a material placed far enough away from the building surface so that a drop of water forming on it will not touch the wall but will drop away (see 103A). Wall flashing is likely to be in place for the life of the building. stainless steel. Flashing provides a permanent barrier to the water and directs it to the outer surface of the building. but wind-driven rain may make this strategy occasionally unreliable. Two physical properties affect the flow of water on vertical surfaces. aluminum. Common flashing materials include galvanized steel. Except for vertical joints that cannot be flashed effectively. In the case of vertical joints. and lead. It is also important to isolate different metals when flashing to prevent corrosive interaction (galvanic action) between them. especially because walls. gravity. Consult with local sheet-metal shops for appropriate materials for specific applications. Wall flashing. The other property. a well-designed flashing (see 103–105) is always preferable to a bead of sealant. In many cases. Of course. where gravity carries the water down to the ground. Because flashing materials may be affected in different ways by different climates. joists. surface tension. should be taken very seriously. Drips may be made of flashing or may be cut into the building material itself. creates capillary action that results in water migrating in all directions along cracks in and between materials. A Wall Flashing . are not intended to be replaced regularly. 4 Head flashing at windows & doors see 103b & c Abut ting mem bers su c h as bea ms. open r ailings see 105A Door-pan flashing see 100c Wall c onnec tion with por c h or dec k see 52-60 Abut ting walls su c h as solid por c h r ailings see 105B Sealants see 106 Adjoining flat dec k/roof see 56-57 Horizontal joints in material su c h as ply wood edges. can be used to advantage in directing water down the wall of a building. baked enamel steel. the best protection against water penetration of walls is an adequate eave. and building materials. The first property. unlike roofs. copper. material c hanges see 104 Wood wall c ap see 105d Flashing is essential to keeping water away from the structure and the interior of a building.102 walls Flashing Intersec tion with roof see c h. water tables. air pollutants. the negative effects of surface tension can be avoided by the proper use of a drip. the selection of appropriate materials is specific to each job. a sealant may be required to counter the effects of surface tension.
Folded Head Flashing Section B Window/Door Head Flashing C Window/Door Head Flashing At End of Flashing . Paint tends to c log flashing drips. Sur fac e of siding to be applied later. Lower edge of flashing extends past head c asing at level of drip. or.walls Flashing 103 Flashing Note The detail at right is pr eferr ed to the detail at lef t bec ause it is less susc epti ble to physic al da mage. to tri m & fold the flashing on site. Siding Moistur e barrier Head Flashing See 103C Head C asing Rough-opening wr ap see 89 Sheathing Moistur e barrier Head flashing Siding Head c asing Fold horizontal part of flashing down over side of c asing. Fold drip bac k against side of c asing. The best head flashing is solder ed at the end so that the end profile matc hes the side profile. bet ter. Flashing su c h as this should be used only at loc ations with mini mal exposur e. C asing Soldered Head Flashing T wo mor e pr ac tic al solutions ar e to c ut the flashing flush with the c asing. but it also tends to seal the c r ac k bet ween flashing & the material the flashing c overs. A Flashing Drips Tri m flashing longer than head c asing & notc h bac k to c asing at fold in flashing. as shown below.
) over laps at joints. C Horizontal Wall Flashing Corner Details . water table. or other horizontal tri m Siding C ontinuous horizontal flashing with drip & 2-in. (min.104 walls Flashing Siding panel C ontinuous horizontal Z metal flashing with 2-in.) over laps at joints Isometric Bevel (optional) for best dr ainage Moistur e barrier c ontinuous over sheathing or fr a ming Section A Horizontal Wall Flashing Z Metal at Panel Joint B Horizontal Wall Flashing Joint between Dissimilar Materials Step 1 Moistur e barrier on sheathing Step 2 Step 1 Moistur e barrier on sheathing Flashing Step 2 Flashing Water table or other horizontal tri m Water table or other horizontal tri m Outside Corner Inside Corner Note It is pr udent to c over the vertic al end of the flashing with a s mall piec e of moistur e barrier or a dab of sealant to mini mize the potential for leaks. Siding panel Moistur e barrier c ontinuous under horizontal siding joint Sheathing (or stud wall for single-wall c onstr u c tion) C ontinuous moistur e barrier Z metal flashing Siding panels Window or door head c asing. (min.
First. place an adequate gasket. (min. 2 in. and do everything possible to attach the member to the surface of the siding with a minimum number of fasteners. Width of fr a med wall Tri m fastened through siding to furring & wall Siding Moistur e barrier c ontinuous over top of wall Sheathing Wall fr a ming Note This detail has a c ontinuous moistur e barrier over the top of the wall without penetr ations. two things can be done to protect the structure of the wall. Where such a connection is likely to get wet. A trellis could be self-supported.walls Flashing 105 Any horizontal member such as a handrail.T. felt. do not puncture the surface of the siding with the member. or a joist that butts into an exterior wall poses an inherently difficult flashing problem at the top edge of the abutting members. If a horizontal member must be connected to a wall in a location exposed to the weather. A handrail. The moistur e barrier may be r eplac ed with metal flashing. This horizontal joint is best protec ted with a flashing made to fit over the sheathing and moistur e barrier of the fr a med wall. in Drip 6 in . for example. behind the siding at the location of the attachment. Second. such as 30-lb. Sheathing Moistur e barrier 30-lb. the best approach is to avoid the problem by supporting the member independent of the wall. could be supported by a column near the wall but not touching it. This will help seal nails or screws that pass through the siding to the structure of the wall. a trellis. Flashing Detail Wall c ap see 105C b Flashing Abutting Walls c Wood Wall Cap .) felt gasket to seal around nail or sc r ew Siding Nail or sc r ew Horizontal mem ber su c h as handr ail or tr ellis at tac hed to sur fac e of siding A Flashing Abutting Members Wall c ap 2 in. or 90-lb. furring sc r ewed to underside of wood c ap 4 . + Wood c ap with sloped top P.
Sealants—In this country alone. it is recommended that the caulk or sealant not be exposed to the direct sunlight. it is best practice to not rely heavily on the use of sealants to keep water out of buildings. and vinyl have been developed more recently. it is possible to view one of its primary functions as keeping sunlight from causing the deterioration of the moisture barrier. which ultimately protects the walls of the building. If possible. It is important. each is capable of protecting the building for as long as the finish material itself lasts. some situations in wood-frame construction do call for the use of a sealant or caulk. wind-driven rain will occasionally get the building wet. the lifespan of a sealant is limited—manufacturers claim only 20 to 25 years for the longest-lasting sealants. While the siding is still the first line of defense against weather. therefore. the best way to protect both the exterior finish and the building from the weather is with adequate overhangs. But even then. sealants are not really needed—there are 200-year-old wooden buildings still in good condition that were built without the benefit of any sealants. Regardless of their history.106 walls Exterior Finishes Window head see 103b & c Top edge see 107B Top edge see 107B Bot to m edge see 107C Door head see 103B & C Sheathing see 78-81 Top edge see 107B Details of siding t ypes see 108-119 Vertic al edge see 107A Moistur e barriers see 88 Bot to m edge see 107C Outside c or ner see 104C Inside c or ner see 104C Many of today’s common exterior wall finishes have been protecting walls from the weather for hundreds of years. Second. there are more than 200 manufacturers of 20 different types of caulks and sealants. First. Where the moisture barrier stops—at the edges and the openings through the wall—special attention must be paid to the detailing of exterior wall finishes. However. to detail exterior wall finishes carefully at all but the most protected locations. A Exterior Wall Finishes . hardboard. In all instances. Therefore. when applied properly. Others such as plywood. These are mostly cases where the sealant is a second or third line of defense against water intrusion or where it is used to retard the infiltration of air into the building. the appropriate use of sealants for wood-frame buildings is limited for two reasons. However. The introduction of effective moisture barriers under the siding has the potential to prolong the life of walls beyond the life of the siding alone.
A c ontinuous moistur e barrier behind the verti c al joint is c r u c ial. wher e it will be protec ted. dir ec t moistur e away fro m the top edge of the finish material to the fac e of the wall. but will deterior ate in the ultr aviolet light unless plac ed behind the wall finish. Eaves & Other Overhangs A Exterior Wall Finishes At Vertical Edges B Exterior Wall Finishes At Top Edges The bot to m edge of the wall finish is mor e likely to get wet than the top.Exterior Finishes walls 107 A vertic al edge is a likely plac e for water to leak around the exterior wall finish into the str u c tur e of a building. under windows & doors & at other horizontal br eaks). Drip in sills See 90 & 100a Window or door c asing or other vertic al tri m Sealant Wall str u c tur e or Moistur e barrier c ontinuous behind siding & vertic al tri m Drip see 103A Plan Section Siding A sec ond bead of sealant may be useful at outer edge if siding is to be painted. Horizontal Material Change Sills. A sealant c an help deter the moistur e. or Por c h or dec k Foundation or other material Roof C Exterior Wall Finishes At Bottom Edges . Allow water to fall fro m the bot to m edge of the wall finish in a way that avoids c apillary ac tion. At the upper edges of wall finishes (at eaves & r akes.
108 walls Exterior Finishes At inside c or ners. rabbeted. Finish—Horizontal wood siding is usually painted or stained. These materials are much less expensive than siding milled from lumber and are almost indistinguishable from it when painted. A horizontal Siding Wood. Roofing R ake tri m Spac er as thic k as thic kest part of siding Siding Drop Shiplap T&G Bevel Clapboard Horizontal Siding Profiles Elevation Rake Details Section Horizontal wood siding is common in both historic and modern buildings. and 8-in.. Materials—Profiles (see below right) are commonly cut from 4-in. Many profiles are also made from composite hardboard or cementboard. Clear grades are available in cedar and redwood. Siding is joined end to end with miter or scarf joints and sealant over a stud. and pine are the most typical. Application—Boards are typically applied over a moisture barrier and sheathing. Hardboard. Cement Board . Types—Siding joints may be tongue and groove. 6-in. Common profiles (names may vary regionally) are illustrated at bottom right. Clear lumber siding is sometimes treated with a semitransparent stain. R ab bet at bot to m of siding for ms drip at bot to m edge. redwood. boards. But t siding to verti c al c asings & other tri m with sealant see 107A Outside c or ners tri m med with t wo-piec e c or ner boar ds at least as deep as deepest part of siding or Metal c or ners also available for most bevel t ype horizontal siding or So me profiles may be miter ed. or lapped.. and should generally be back-primed before installation. squar e c or ner boar d wider than deepest part of siding for ms sur fac e for siding to but t against. Cedar. The boards cast a horizontal shadow line unique to this type of siding. Tri m at horizontal top edges r ab beted to fit over top edge of siding or Furr ed-out tri m laps over top edge of siding. Boards are facenailed with a single nail near the bottom of each board but above the board below to allow movement.
This air space provides a capillary break and promotes the rapid escape of moisture with a clear path to the base of the wall for water to drain by gravity and by allowing ventilation to remove moisture in the form of water vapor. The inner layer. An outer layer sheds most of the weather. The outer layer is usually made with horizontal wood siding (clapboards). building wrap. Special care should be taken that materials lap properly to shed water. Materials—The inner layer can be made of the same materials as the moisture barrier in most siding systems: tar paper. thick aligned over the studs. Back-priming and endpriming of wood siding materials is very important to prolong the life of the material and of the finish. must be especially carefully detailed and constructed to keep moisture out of the framing. to 1⁄ 2 in. finishes will typically outlast the same finish applied to a standard wall. Finish—Rain screen siding can be finished with any paint or stain designed for use on standard siding. or rigid foam insulation in conjunction with flashing (and tape or sealant). A Rain Screen Siding . A rain screen wall can be understood as two layers of protection with an air space in between. usually 3⁄ 8 in. but can be made of any material that sheds water and is capable of spanning between the vertical furring strips. Because the system breathes and does not trap moisture within the wall. The critical element—one that is not present in (most) other siding systems—is the air space between the two layers. Screening is required at the top and bottom of the wall to keep insects out of the air space. Application—Materials are applied with nails or staples as with standard siding materials. The air space is created by vertical furring strips. called the drainage plane.Exterior Finishes Furring strips stop above horizontal flashing to c onnec t air spac es vertic al furring strips c r eate air spac e bet ween siding and moistur e barrier furr ed out tri m at top of wall maintains gap for ventilation of air spac e walls 109 c ontinuours c orr ugated plastic sc r een/ vent at eave or r ake weather barrier laps horizontal flashing felt paper c overs furring strips c ontinuous c orr ugated plastic sc r een/ vent at base of wall Rain Screen Siding—Rain screen siding strategy recognizes that some moisture will penetrate the wall and provides an easy path for this moisture to escape the wall assembly. and an inner layer takes care of what little moisture gets through.
such as the tongue-and-groove and channel patterns shown below. Where end joints occur. Siding but ts to vertic al c asings & other tri m with sealant. (min. Roofing or overhang R a k e t ri m Spac er as thic k as thic kest part of siding Siding Elevation Section Rake Details c hannel tongue and groove flush (shown) and v-groove boar d and bat ten r everse boar d and bat ten A vertical wood Siding . or Matc hed siding may be tri m med with sec ond layer. one board thick. First piec e may be held away fro m c or ner to allow for moistur e barrier. One group. has its side edges rabbeted or grooved and lies flat on the wall. The thicker patterns in the second group may require careful coordination with casings and trim. Both groups require 5⁄ 8-in. siding is sealed and joined with a scarf joint or a miter joint sloped to the exterior. Vertical wood siding falls into two major groups. see 107A Tri m may be eli minated at horizontal top edges if siding is c ut c ar efully to fit under sills or eaves.110 walls Exterior Finishes Lap inside c or ners.) plywood or OSB sheathing or horizontal nailing strips to strengthen the wall. or Rabbet or bevel on rear side for ms drip at horizontal sur fac es. has square edges and uses a second layer to cover the edges of the first layer. Outside c or ners l a pp ed or Trimmed with lapped battens in boar d & bat ten Bot to m edge projec ts below sheathing to for m drip at foundation. or boar d siding with horizontal bat ten. The other group. including board and batten.
All siding piec es ar e at tac hed through slots that allow for expansion & c ontr ac tion. Vinyl sidings were developed in an attempt to eliminate the maintenance required of wood sidings. Material—There are several shapes available. to 12 in. Because vinyl trim pieces are rather narrow. Vinyl produces extremely toxic gasses when involved in a building fire. Loc ate nails in the c enter of the slot nail loosely so piec es c an move with temper atur e c hanges. Inside c or ners ar e tri m med with dou ble c hannel installed befor e siding & into whic h siding slides. and some also make decorative trim. Spec ial tool pun c hes tabs at c ut top edge of siding tabs loc k into tri m. Installation—Vinyl has little structural strength. The ends of panels are factory-notched to allow for lapping at end joints. and imitation wood colors. Lengths are generally about 12 ft. tops & r akes ar e tri m med with J-shaped c hannels into whic h the siding slides. Most aluminum-siding manufacturers have moved to vinyl. A Vinyl Siding . grays. Starter strip provides c ontinuous an c hor age for bot to m row. . Most imitate horizontal wood bevel patterns. as suggested in the isometric drawing above. so most vinyl sidings must be installed over solid sheathing. The basic piec e hooks over the piec e below & is nailed at the top edge. Outside c or ners ar e a variation of the basi c c hannel & c over the ends of the siding. . but will shatter on sharp impact.. especially when cold. whic h may need to be furr ed depending on loc ation of horizontal c ut in siding.Exterior Finishes walls 111 Vertic al edges (c asings) ar e tri m med with side c hannel installed befor e siding & into whic h siding slides (r ake ri m med with sa me c hannel). Proper nailing with corrosion-resistant nails is essential to allow for expansion and contraction. many architects use vinyl siding in conjunction with wood trim. and widths are 8 in. Siding hooks on piec e below. Color is integral with the material and ranges mostly in the whites. Sides. The vinyl will not dent like metal. eave tri m & under sills) tri m med with under sill tri m into whic h siding slides. but there are some vertical patterns as well. Top edges (soffit tri m. Most manufacturers also make vinyl soffit material. which accommodates expansion and contraction.
Installation—Manufacturers suggest leaving a 1⁄ 8-in.gap at panel edges to allow for expansion. 8 ft. Single-wall construction—Since plywood.. A Plywood Siding . which require blocking and flashing. tall..) below the sheathing to for m a drip. Fasten panels to framing following the manufacturer’s recommendation. The panels are usually installed vertically to avoid horizontal joints. or But t panels and flash with metal Z flashing. it is often applied as the only surface to cover a building. see 104A Vertic al joints bet ween siding panels should always fall over a stud. and 5 ⁄ 8 in. or other horizontal sur fac e. Mudsill Bot to m edges at the base of a wall extend 1⁄ 2 in.112 walls Exterior Finishes Top edges ar e so meti mes lef t without tri m bec ause they c an easily be c ut to a c lean squar e edge that is but ted against a soffit. But t joint c over ed with bat ten Manufac tur ed lap joint Materials—Plywood siding is available in 4-ft. and 10 ft. or tri m may be added. Inside c or ners may be but ted & c aulked or have c or ner boar ds added. eave.-wide panels.. even in a vertical orientation. This is called single-wall construction and has some unique details (see 80 and 113). Typical thicknesses are 3⁄ 8 in. All edges should be treated with water repellent before installation. Textures and patterns can be cut into the face of the plywood to resemble vertical woodsiding patterns. (min. will provide lateral bracing for a building. 9 ft. Horizontal joints bet ween siding panels or bet ween panels & other material should be bloc ked if they do not oc c ur over a plate or floor fr a ming. 1⁄ 2 in. It is wise to plan to have window and door trim because of the difficulty of cutting panels precisely around openings. see detail at right Drip Lap panels to for m a drip edge Outside c or ners have one panel r ab beted if c or ner is not c over ed with c or ner boar ds.
the moisture barrier is applied directly to the framing. Header Ply wood Header Rough opening Saw ker f Header see 68-70 Window or door wr ap see 89 Single-ply siding Step 1 Step 2 See sec tion head flashing Head flash & furring at head Installed window or door with head flash Ply wood furring Window or door c asing see 92-93 Step 3 Flashing a Header Step 4 Section A Single-Wall Plywood Siding . a saw kerf must be cut into the siding at the precise location of the flashing. Mudsill Flashing—Windows and doors that are attached through the casing and need head flashing because of exposure to rain or snow are very difficult to flash. Sealant may be bet ter than nothing in so me situations. As shown in the drawings below. But with single-wall construction. Also. The flashing and siding must be installed simultaneously before the door or window is attached. No sheathing beneath ply wood. so a drip detail is impossible (see right). so ply wood does not for m drip at bot to m edge. the bottom edge of the plywood is flush against the foundation. polyolefin moisture/air infiltration barriers work best (see 88B). making it more difficult to achieve a good seal.Exterior Finishes walls 113 Most of the details for double-wall plywood construction also apply to single-wall construction. The wide-roll.
but may weather differentially.) for thr ee adjac ent c ourses. grades. Preassembled shingles—Shingles are also available mounted to boards. A Wood Shingle Siding . The most typical is a western red cedar shingle 16 in. C or ner boar ds c an also be used as tri m at outside c or ners. see 110 Shingles are popular because they can provide a durable. (min. These shingle boards increase material cost. Edge is tri m med flush with adjac ent shingle on opposite fac e of c or ner. Corner boards are required at corners. low-maintenance siding with a refined natural appearance. 1⁄ 4 -in. Top shingle alter nates fro m row to row. Materials—Shingles are available in a variety of sizes.) above c ourse level of next c ourse Joints bet ween shingles offset 11⁄ 2 in. decrease installation cost. For r ake tri m. Because shingles are relatively small. they endure extremely well. and are most appropriate for large. especially between those places exposed to the rain and those that are protected. C or ner boar ds c an also be used as tri m at inside c or ners. with a wide variety of coursings and patterns. Installation—Shingles are applied over a moisture barrier to a plywood or OSB wall sheathing so at least two layers of shingles always cover the wall. spac e bet ween adjac ent shingles in field (not at c or ners or edges) Dou ble bot to m c ourse projec ts 1⁄ 2 in. Left unfinished. Material costs are relatively moderate but installation costs may be very high. and patterns. below sheathing to for m drip. Stains and bleaching stains will produce more even weathering. Shadow lines are primarily horizontal but are complemented with minor verticals. Shingles ar e tri m med to but t against shingle on opposite fac e. see 115a & b Shingles but t to verti c al tri m. Note Short horizontal edges su c h as aprons may be c over ed with a piec e of tri m fastened to the sloped sur fac e of the shingles. Standard Finish—Enough moisture gets between and behind shingles that paint will not adhere to them reliably. (min. see 110 Inside c or ners ar e woven like outside c or ners. Fasteners 1 in. Outside c or ners ar e woven so alter nate rows have edge of shingle exposed. long. uninterrupted surfaces. coursing allows nail or staple fasteners to be concealed by subsequent courses. they are extremely versatile. Redwood and cypress shingles are also available. Loc ate shingle fasteners very high on last c ourse. With shingles there is less waste than with other wood sidings.114 walls Exterior Finishes C over horizontal edges with tri m fastened to a spac er.
A Shingle Siding at Rake Lapped Trim Spac er The base layer is not exposed & ther efor e c an be a lower-gr ade shingle. 1x tri m laps top edge of shingles. all the tri m piec es. Finish-layer shingle projec ts about 1⁄ 2 in. an alter native c oursing method. Top end is c ut level & fits under shingle (see iso metri c at right). R ip shingles to desir ed width & apply at sa me c oursing as body of wall. leave no spac e bet ween finish layer shingles. will also be equal. c alls for t wo layers applied at the sa me c ourse.Exterior Finishes walls 115 C edar shingles Miter top tri m piec e. Nailing must be exposed for this c oursing. C edar shingles Sec ond piec e over laps first. exc ept for the miter ed top piec es. below base layer to for m a drip. Shingled Trim Dou ble c oursing. B Shingle Siding at Rake Shingled & 1x Trim C Double-Coursed Shingles . 1x Trim Note For pr epainted or pri med shingles. If the c oursing is equal. Equal sized tri m piec es ripped fro m 2x c edar lap at bot to m Elevation Isometric One method of finishing the top edge of a shingle wall is to lap the shingle c ourses with tri m piec es ripped fro m a c edar 2x. Start at bot to m of r ake with boar d ripped to thic kness of but t end of shingles. A pr epainted or pri med shingle c alled sidewall shake is c o m monly used.
Colors vary from cream and yellows to browns and reds. with the most common (and the smallest) being the modular brick (21⁄4 in. At tac h to fr a ming with lookouts. Sheathing Air spac e Bri c k Bac ker rod Sealant Vertic al c asing or tri m of wood or other material Vertic al joints su c h as window & door c asings and at tr ansitions to other materials must be c ar efully c aulked to seal against the weather. by 75⁄ 8 in. with weep holes located at the base of the wall. depending on the clay color and method of firing. A Brick Veneer . it is the most durable exterior finish. Bricks should be selected for their history of durability in a given region. Installation—Bricks are laid in mortar that should be tooled at the joints to compress it for increased resistance to the weather. typically suffices (see 117B). Where it is not subjected to moisture and severe freezing. but reapplication is required every few years. by 35⁄ 8 in. Materials—Bricks come in a wide variety of sizes. Detail as for top of wall. R ake tri m laps bric k. This c an usually be ac c o mplished with the detailing of the roof itself. C or ners see 117a Foundation wall see 117b Window & door openings see 117c Sealant bet ween wood & bric k R ake is usually tri m med with wood suffic iently wide to c over the stepping of bric k c aused by slope. air space between the brick and the wood framing. they must be detailed to allow for ventilation and drainage of the unexposed surface.). It is important to keep this space and the weep holes clean and free of mortar droppings to ensure proper drainage. These bricks. Bac kpri me wood c over ed by or in c ontac t with bric k. Because both brick and mortar are porous (increasingly so as they weather over the years). can follow 8-in. Finish—A number of clear sealers and masonry paints can be applied to the finished masonry to improve weather resistance. when laid in mortar. C aulk the joint as for vertic al joints. A 1-in. below. modules both horizontally and vertically.116 walls Exterior Finishes Bri c k & Siding C or ner see 117a Fasc ia Soffit Top of wall is detailed to keep water off the horizontal sur fac e of the top bric k. Brick veneer covers wood-frame construction across the country. C over the joint bet ween bric k & roof with wood tri m.
C asing pr epri med if wood Brick and Siding Corners A Brick Veneer Corners Masonry ties at 16 in. Felt over laps flashing. air spac e Steel angle lintel Brick Corner Sheathing Air spac e Bric k Sealant Bric kmold Siding Head flashing C asing pr epri med if wood Head Jamb Outside Corner Inside Corner Sheathing 1-in. Felt moistur e barrier laps flashing. vertic ally & horizontally 1-in. o. Sheathing 15-lb. Rowloc k bric k sloped at angle of sill Flashing c ontinuous to bac k of sill Sheathing 15-lb. 1-in. Felt Sill 1-in. Side Jamb Sill pr epri med on underside if wood Sealant bet ween sill and bric k.c . air spac e bet ween bric k & moistur e barrier Sheathing Mudsill 15-lb. Flashing c ontinuous under bot to m bric k Foundation wall see 11c & d Eli minate mortar to provide weep hole at head joints every 6 f t. air spac e B Brick Veneer Wall Construction C Brick Veneer at Window/Door Attachment to Casing & Sill .Exterior Finishes walls 117 Both inside & outside c or ners c an be made si mply with the bric ks themselves. air spac e Sealant bet ween c asing & bric k veneer C aulk bet ween c asing and moistur e barrier.
side. The inner layer performs best if it is thick. use a c or ner bead wher e a sc r eed is r equir ed. plywood is typical.118 walls Exterior Finishes Tr ansition to other materials made with c asing bead at top. or bottom edges Inside c or ners ar e made with c ontinuous stu c c o or T wo c asing beads used to make an expansion joint C asing bead at top. felt bond br eak Moistur e Barrier/Dr ainage Plane Solid sheathing strong enough to r esist pr essur e of stu c c o applic ation at outside c or ners. and the final (color) coat may have a variety of finishes. so stucco is the least appropriate of all the exterior wall finishes for owner-builders to attempt. Applying stucco takes skill. Stucco is not very moisture resistant and must be sealed or painted. Finish—Textures ranging from smooth to rustic are achieved by troweling the final coat. bot to m. with drainage channels. This reinforcing is fastened either to sheathing or directly to the framing (without sheathing). Weep sc r eed at base of wall laps over sheathing to for m drip Or Stu c c o c ontinues to below gr ade or Stucco is made of cement. or r ake edges. Color may be integral in the final coat or may be painted on the surface.) di mensions (or length-to-width r ation of 2. C aulk C ontrol joint oriented horizontally or vertic ally & loc ated over str u c tur al mem bers & diaphr ag ms br eaks stu c c o panels into 18-f t.5 1). it must be rigid enough to remain stiff during the process of applying the stucco—5⁄ 8-in. The outer layer forms a bond Application—The first (scratch) coat has a raked finish. the second (brown) coat has a floated finish. destroying its ability to repel water. sand. A double-layer moisture barrier between the reinforcing and the framing is important because the stucco will bond with the outer layer of barrier. : Self-furring galvanized 17-gauge 11⁄ 2 -in. building to a minimum thickness of 3⁄4 in. It is usually applied in three coats. A Stucco Wall System . and lime. mesh stu c c o wir e (shown) or galvanized expanded metal lath 15-lb. Materials—Reinforcing materials through which the plaster is forced are either stucco wire or metal lath. but high where skilled workers are few. break so that the inner layer will remain intact to protect the framing. When sheathing is used. side. (ma x. wr ap with c ontinuous stu c c o. Cost may be moderate in areas with high use. Also see inside corners.
The insulation is protected from impact by a stucco Application—All systems start with an effective moisture barrier applied to the wall sheathing. Ply wood or OSB sheathing Note For barrier EIFS. standar d rigid insulation is glued dir ec tly to sheathing so ther e is not need for a moistur e barrier or starter tr ac k. This drainage plane can be a separate plastic drainage mat or vertical grooves integrated into the back side of the rigid insulation. Each starts with rigid insulation. The next layer is a drainage plane that provides a clear path for moisture to escape.Exterior Finishes Top or side edges at tr ansition to adjac ent materials sealed with bac ker rod & sealant. The final coat is troweled over the hardened base coat. This moisture resistance. base made of acrylic cement reinforced with fiberglass mesh. which certainly is a strength of the system. it is now assumed that some moisture will penetrate the surface. An acrylic finish coat with integral color provides moisture protection.c ut insulation. synthetic stucco is more flexible than standard stucco and more moisture resistant. side. which is the following layer. reinforced with mesh. and then another layer of base coat. Built-up profiles made with layers of insulation or wir e. Color is integral in the final coat. Materials—There are several manufacturers of watermanaged EIFS. Adjac ent material C asing bead at top. Finish—There are a variety of common troweled finish textures. The base coat of stucco is troweled directly onto the insulation. worked against early versions of its application when imperfect detailing led to moisture being trapped inside the wall behind the impermeable EIFS layer. or r ake edges or Wr apped base c oat with fi ber glass mesh Finish c oat with integr al c olor Base c oat with em bedded fi ber glass mesh R igid insulation with grooved bac k or Standar d rigid insulation on plastic lath dr ainage mat Moistur e barrier lapped to dr ain Starter tr ac k with weeps Both outside & inside c or ners ar e wr apped with c ontinuous stu c c o. so painting is unnecessary. but inspection and repair of sealant joints every few years is highly recommended. A Synthetic Stucco (EIFS) . and therefore a drainage path is provided for this moisture to escape. Called EIFS (Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems). fastened to the framing with nails fitted with large plastic washers designed to prevent crushing of the insulation. With updated water-managed EIFS. walls 119 Bac ker rod & sealant EIFS with wr apped base c oat or c asing bead Synthetic stucco looks like traditional stucco but is really a flexible acrylic coating applied over rigid insulation.
Insulated headers see 76 Walls used to vent roofs & dec ks see 205
Insulation & c ontinuit y of vapor r etar der & air infiltr ation barrier at floors see 60-61
retarder goes on the inside of the wall. But in mixed climates the migration of vapor can reverse in the summer. For this reason, building scientists recommend against using low-permeability materials on the inside of air-conditioned walls. The location of the vapor barrier may be adjusted in upgraded applications provided that two-thirds or more of the insulative value of the wall remains to the cold side of the barrier.
C old side of wall
2 ⁄ 3 of R-value of wall (min.)
Framing for insulation at c or ners see 70, 71, 75
Wall insulation at foundation see 62
Vapor r etar der
1⁄ 3 of R-value of wall (ma x.)
Wall insulation is typically provided by fiberglass batts. Building codes in most climates allow 2x4 walls with 31⁄ 2 in. of insulation (R-11) or 2x6 walls with 51⁄ 2 in. of insulation (R-19).
Vapor retarder—Vapor retarders are installed in conjunction with wall insulation. The purpose of a vapor retarder, a continuous membrane located on the warm side of the insulation, is to prevent vaporized (gaseous) moisture from entering the insulated wall cavity, where it can condense, leading to structural or other damage. Common vapor retarders Vapor C ool migr ation include 4- or 6-mil polyethylene film applied to the inside of framing or specially formulated paint or primer applied to the surface of drywall. Vapor Rigid insulation with taped War m r etar der joints may also be used. Various vapor retarder materials have different rates of permeability (see 88A), and, because moisture can enter a wall assembly from either side, it is wise to use the most permeable material proven to be effective in a given region so as not to trap moisture within the assembly. The vapor retarder should always be located on the warm side of the insulation. In a cold, dry climate the
Air barrier—An air barrier is intended to control the migration of air through the insulated envelope of a building. Standard construction practices allow voids and breaks in the building envelope that can leak up to two times the total air volume of the building per hour—accounting for up to 30% of the total heat loss (or gain) of the building. Upgrading the envelope can cut this air leakage to one-third of an air change per hour and can thus have significant consequences for energy bills in most climates. An effective air barrier combines a continuous membrane with tight seals around openings such as windows where the membrane is penetrated. It may be made of a variety of materials and may be located either inside or outside of the insulation. When inside the insulation, the barrier may be drywall, rigid insulation, or the same film that forms a vapor retarder. Outside the insulation, building wrap, rigid insulation, or sheathing may be used. In each case, joints are taped or overlapped and caulked, and tight seals are made with floor and ceiling air barriers. Windows, doors, electrical, plumbing, and other services that penetrate the membrane are sealed with expansive foam, caulk, and/or special tape. It is important to consider that the reduced ventilation rate due to control of air leakage can lower indoor air quality. The provision of controlled ventilation with simple energy-saving devices such as air-to-air heat exchangers can alleviate this problem.
Unfaced batts—The most common method of insulating walls is to use unfaced batts that are fitted between studs. A vapor retarder is applied to the warm side of the wall in the form of a vapor retarding paint or primer or a 4-mil polyethylene film. Properly detailed, this vapor retarder can serve as the air barrier.
C old side C ontinuous vapor r etar der War m side
Faced batts—Batt insulation is often manufactured with a paper facing that, in cold climates, serves as both vapor retarder and means of attachment. For attachment, the facing material has tabs that are stapled in place between the studs.
Fac ing Tabs
To use the facing as a vapor retarder, it is better to staple the tabs to the face of the studs to make a better seal. However, this interferes with the installation of interior finish materials because the tabs build up unevenly on the face of the studs.
Rigid insulation—In standard construction, rigid insulation is generally used only in extreme situations where wall depth is limited but a code-prescribed R-value is required. Examples of such situations include headers (see 76A & B) and locations where heat ducts, vents, or plumbing must be in exterior walls. In upgraded framing systems, however, rigid insulation is used extensively (see 122A). Spray-foam insulation—It can cost many times as much as competing insulations, but spray-foam insulation can equal the R-value of the best rigid foam, double as a vapor retarder, and fully fill the most awkwardly shaped framing cavity. Except for its high cost, it is a nearly ideal insulating material for mixed climates where warm and cold sides of the envelope reverse during the year.
In climatic zones with extremely cold or hot weather (or high utility rates), there is special incentive to insulate buildings beyond code minimums. A decision to superinsulate affects the construction of walls more than floors or roofs because walls are generally thinner (being constructed of 2x4s or 2x6s rather than 2x10s or 2x12s). Walls are also in direct contact with the ambient air because they do not have a crawl space or attic to intervene as a buffer. The most direct way to increase the insulative capacity of walls is to make them thicker. A 2x4 framed wall upgraded to 2x6, for example, will increase from a combined (batt plus framing) R-value of 9.0 to a value of R-15.1. But increasing wall thickness alone is only effective to a point because a significant part of the wall (about 9% of a wall framed at 24 in. o.c.) is composed of studs, plates, etc., which conduct heat at about three times the rate of insulative batts. When headers and other extra framing are considered, walls often have as much as 20% of their area devoted to framing. The conductance of heat through this framing is called thermal bridging. There are two strategies for decreasing the effects of thermal bridging. The first is to reduce the quantity of framing members and is called advanced framing (see 74). The second strategy is to insulate the framing members that remain so that they do not “bridge” between the cold and warm sides of the wall. Several ways to insulate framing members are discussed on the following pages.
Rigid insulation—Rigid insulation added to the exterior or interior of a framed wall can typically add an R-value of 7 to 14 at the same time that it interrupts thermal bridging (see 122). Strapping—Horizontal nailing strips are attached to the inside of a stud wall. Insulative values of R-25 are easily attainable (see 123). Staggered-stud framing—A double offset stud wall framed on a single, wide plate. Combined insulative values of R-30 are common (see 124). Double wall framing—A duplicate (redundant) wall system with R-values of up to 40 is easily reached (see 125).
R igid insulation Roof or upper floor str u c tur e with insulation and c ontinuous air/ vapor barrier see 197 or 63
Sheathing 2x6 stud wall at 24 in. o.c . with bat t insulation
R igid insulation over sheathing or other later al br ac ing
Bat t insulation in 2x6 stud wall
Vapor r etar der
Furring sa me thic kness as rigid insulation at window & door openings and as r equir ed for nailing of siding
Rigid insulation, with a potential R-value approximately double that of batt insulation, is a very attractive alternative for upgrading the thermal performance of walls. The material is easy to install in large lightweight sheets, has sufficient strength to support most siding and interior finish materials, and can double as an air/ vapor barrier in some cases. Its disadvantages are high cost and potential for toxic offgassing in a fire. Rigid insulation is most effective when used on the exterior of the building because it covers the entire skin of the building continuously without the interruption of floors or interior partitions. It can act as the backing for siding but does not provide the strength to act as structural sheathing. Alternative methods of bracing the building, such as structural sheathing (see 78A) or let-in bracing (see 77B & C), must therefore be used. Hybrid systems, in which structural sheathing is used only at necessary locations with rigid insulation elsewhere, can also provide cost effective insulation upgrades. When applied to the exterior of buildings in cold climates, the low permeability of rigid insulation can trap vapor in the stud cavities, causing structural damage. The reverse can be true in warm climates. It is therefore advisable to carefully coordinate the use of rigid insulation with a high-permeability vapor retarder based on the specific climatic zone and to verify the
Vapor r etar der loc ated at interior fac e of 2x6 stud wall
Floor str u c tur e with insulation and c ontinuous air/ vapor barrier see 61-62
R igid insulation may be c ontinuous over wall or foundation below
practicality of specific types of insulation with local professionals. Used on the interior of a building in a cold climate, rigid insulation can perform three functions at once: insulation, vapor retarder, and air barrier. To accomplish this, a foil-faced insulation board carefully taped at all seams and caulked and/or gasketed at top, bottom, and openings would be used. The use of interior rigid insulation requires deep electrical boxes and the need for extra-wide backing at corners and at the top plate.
Sheathing 2x6 stud wall with bat t insulation
Roof or upper floor str u c tur e with insulation and c ontinuous air/ vapor barrier see 197 or 63
Single 2x6 top plate Str u c tur al sheathing or other br ac ing
Bat t insulation in 2x6 stud wall Str apping for nailing around openings Horizontal 2x3 str apping at 24 in. o.c . nailed to studs
Horizontal bat t insulation bet ween str apping Vapor r etar der loc ated at interior fac e of 2x6 stud wall wiring and plu m bing loc ated within str apping layer
Vapor r etar der Horizontal 2x3 str apping with horizontal insulation
Strapping consists of horizontal nailing strips attached to the inside of a stud wall. The strapping touches the studs only at the intersection between the two, so thermal bridging is virtually eliminated. Strapping is used extensively in energy-efficient buildings. With 2x6 studs and 2x3 strapping, an R-25 value can be achieved. The advantages of the system are that it is simple and straightforward and uses a minimal amount of extra framing materials. With two-thirds of the insulative value in the (2x6) stud cavities, an air/vapor barrier can be located at the inside face of the framed wall, thus eliminating the need to puncture it with services. In addition, the plumbing and electrical work itself is simplified by the creation of horizontal chases on the walls. Strapping must be fastened securely to the studs to prevent rotation, but interior finish panels will ultimately tie the strapping together to keep it in place.
dou ble str apping for base tri m nailing Floor str u c tur e with insulation and c ontinuous air/ vapor barrier see 61-62
Extra strapping is usually required for nailing at corners, at window and door openings, and at the base of the wall (see drawing above). In addition, vertical blocks are required for the attachment of electrical boxes. Strapping may also be applied to the exterior of a building. In this case, the strapping is more easily installed, but the advantage of a horizontal chase interior of the vapor retarder is lost. Furthermore, the strapping insulation must be installed from the exterior, exposed to the weather.
Sheathing 2x4 studs at 24 in. o.c . with bat t insulation and aligned with outer edge of plate Roof or upper floor str u c tur e with insulation and c ontinuous air/ vapor barrier see 197 or 63
Single top 2x top plate
Ply wood gusset ties stud walls at openings
2x4 studs at 24 in. o.c . with bat t insulation aligned with inner edge of plate & offset fro m outer studs
Vapor r etar der 2x8 or 2x10 plate Stagger ed 2x4 stud walls filled with bat t insulation
Staggered-stud framing is essentially a double stud wall framed on a single wide plate with the studs offset from one another so that there is negligible thermal bridging. The system is appreciated by builders for its minimal deviation from standard frame construction. Staggered-stud framing is substantially the same as platform framing, and subcontractors are sequenced in the same order as standard construction. With this technique, insulative values of R-30 or more can be attained. A 2x8 or 2x10 plate with staggered 2x4 studs at 24 in. o.c. is most common. Because there are effectively two separate walls, this system offers a special opportunity at windows and doors to splay the opening.
Sheathing Ply wood gusset on c ha mfer ed studs Finish wall Window or door with tri m
Vapor r etar der loc ated at interior fac e of inner fr a med wall Single 2x sole plate
Floor str u c tur e with insulation and c ontinuous air/ vapor barrier see 61-62
By increasing the rough-opening size at the “inner wall,” the opening will be more generous from the inside and reflect light better into the room. The disadvantages of the system also stem from its similarity to standard platform frame construction. Unlike strapping systems or double wall systems, staggered-stud systems have the air/vapor barrier located on the inside (warm) face of the wall, with the attendant problems of sealing perforations of the barrier from plumbing and electrical services.
Staggered Stud Framing
The outer framed wall is most commonly used as the bearing wall. but somewhat involved with an exterior bearing wall. and the shear walls are most easily installed and logically located at this (outer wall) location. The cavity can be filled with horizontal batts tied to the exterior wall before the inner wall is positioned or insulation can be blown in afterward through holes predrilled in the top plywood gusset. This system avoids the minor disadvantage of the outer bearing wall system. exposed to the weather. Less common (and not illustrated) is the use of the inner wall as the bearing wall. Ply wood gusset ac ts as fir estop and ties walls at top plate. but has two major disadvantages: it requires support of the outer wall beyond the edge of the foundation and the outer wall and the extra insulation must be installed from the outside of the building. This strategy has two advantages: The insulation and the inner wall can be installed under the roof out of the weather. Ply wood gusset ties stud walls at openings for alter native detail See 124 Bat t insulation Vapor r etar der 2x4 stud wall with bat t insulation C avit y bet ween stud walls filled with bat t insulation Double wall framing is capable of achieving the highest insulation values of all the upgraded framing techniques. It can be accomplished. A Double Wall Framing . The ability to locate an air/vapor barrier at the outside surface of the inner wall contributes significantly to Vapor r etar der loc ated at exterior of inner fr a med wall Wiring and plu m bing loc ated in inner stud wall Floor str u c tur e with insulation and c ontinuous air/ vapor barrier See 61-62 its continuity because plumbing and electrical services can be located within the inner wall without having to penetrate the barrier. Slightly more framing materials and considerably more labor (than strapping or staggered stud) are required for the increased performance. finish detailing at the wall/ceiling joint is complicated if the inner wall is nonstructural. Values of R-40 are common.walls Sheathing 2x4 stud wall with bat t insulation Roof or upper floor str u c tur e with insulation and c ontinuous air/ vapor barrier See 197 or 63 Insulation 125 Shi m so that roof (or upper floor) str u c tur e bears on outer wall. by fastening the barrier to the (outer face of the) inner wall before it is tipped into place. However. and the continuity of the air/vapor barrier is somewhat difficult to achieve at the wall/floor intersection. however. To get the air/vapor barrier into this position is simple with an interior bearing wall.
126 roofs Framing .
and in the United States. 4 IN. Areas of significant rainfall have roofs pitched to shed the rain. variations in weather are extreme. Flat Shed 12 IN. and the space desired beneath the roof. The climate also has a strong influence on roof slope. The main factors affecting the slope of a roof are stylistic considerations. arid climates tend to favor flatter roofs. The slope or pitch of a roof is measured as a proportion of rise to run. the shed roof. This is because the roof plays the most active role of all the parts of a building in protecting against the weather. The second number in the roof-pitch proportion is always 12. but also historical and material influences. A roof that rises 4 in. while warm. 12-in-12 pitc h .) is said to have a 4-in-12 pitch (or 4:12). 4 roofs Framing 127 THE SHAPE OF ROOFS Roof shapes tend to have a regional character that reflects not only climatic variation. All roof forms are derived from four basic roof shapes shown below: the flat roof. SELECTION OF ROOF SLOPE One of the most obvious variations of roof form has to do with the slope or pitch of the roof. Gable Hip 4-in-12 pitc h 12 IN. Some roofs protect primarily against the heat of the sun. the type of roofing material to be used. others must shelter the inhabitants under tons of snow. (12 in. and the hip roof.chapter roofs T he roof is the part of the wood-frame structure that varies most widely across the country. 12 IN. in 1 ft. the gable roof.
Tr uss Roof OTHER CONSIDERATIONS In addition to the choices about pitch. and roofing material. many other decisions contribute to the overall performance of the roof.128 roofs Introduction Dutc h Gable Gable) (Hip + Ga m br el (2 Slopes of Gable) Stick framing— One advantage of stick framing is that the space within the roof structure can become living space or storage. These include selection of sheathing. and insulation and ventilation of the roof assembly. For owner-builders who need not include the cost of labor. half-story living spaces on upper floors. Trusses are made of a number of small members (usually 2x4s) joined in a factory or shop to make one long structural assembly. Stick-framed roofs are usually made with dimension lumber but may also use composite materials such as I-joist rafters (see 151-154). A second advantage is that complex roofs may be stick-framed more economically than truss-framed. For example. and structure discussed above. A shed dormer may be added to a gable roof. gutters and downspouts. Truss framing—Trusses can span much farther than stick-framed roofs. Two different slopes of gable roof can combine to form a gambrel roof. All of these issues are discussed in this chapter. and flashing details. rake. Some of these composite shapes are so common they have their own names. Four common combinations are shown above. A big disadvantage of trusses is that the truss roof is almost impossible to remodel. WHAT TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM? Roofs are constructed either with rafters (stick-framed roofs) or with trusses. leaving large open areas below them or permitting partition walls to be relocated without consideration for the roof structure above. and modern stick-frame roofing remains popular because it is the most flexible roof-framing system and the materials are least expensive. stick framing is especially attractive. Antecedents of the modern stick-framed roof can be seen on ancient roofs around the world. Vaulted (cathedral) ceilings. usually resulting in a cost saving over stickframed roofs on simply shaped buildings. the hip and gable shapes can combine to form a Dutch gable. Stick framing originated before the development of balloon-frame construction in the 19th century. Half Hip Gable) (Hip + Mansar d (2 Slopes of Hip) Stic k-Fr a med Roof Virtually any roof form may be made by combining the four basic shapes with the connections illustrated in this chapter. . and true storage attics are all examples. shape. since trusses should never be cut. and so forth. Trusses go up quickly. underlayment. eave. Only in very simple buildings does the labor savings of a truss system compete with stick framing.
and spacing is usually 16 in.roofs Framing 129 R idge see 131b & c Valleys see 137 Roof openings see 135-136 Roof pitc h c hange see 133b R ake or fas c ia dies on roof see 149d R af ter dies on roof see 149b C ollar ties see 130 C eiling joists see 132 Hips see 138 R af ter/ Eave-wall c onnec tion see 133a. 150a & b Roof abut ting wall str u c tur e see 134. or 24 in. 150c & d Rafter sizes are usually 2x6. 134b Roof sheathing see 162-166 Ab br e viated eave see 141. 150 Roof adjac ent to wall see 134a Pur lins see 130 I-joist r af ter fr a ming see 151-154 Tr uss roofs see 155-159 Flat roof see 139 Shed roof see 130. For a rafter-span table. 144-149 Ab br eviated r ake see 141. 2x8. Rafter sizing depends primarily on span. Species of wood vary from region to region.c. 159b Eave/R ake intersec tion see 140-141 Over hanging r ake see 141. o. 143a Over hanging eave see 141143. A Roof Framing . and sometimes on required insulation depth. see 131A. spacing. 2x10 or 2x12. roof loads.
as shown in the drawing below. The rafters must usually be deep enough to contain adequate insulation. R af ter support at top of r af ter see 131a & 143b R af ters with insulation Simple-span roof—The simplest sloped roof—the shed roof—has rafters that span from one wall to another. see 150c A Stick Framing Terminology . Collar ties are not sufficient by themselves to resist the outward thrust of the rafters. 198-199 R af ter span R af ter span Purlin—A purlin is a horizontal member that supports several rafters—usually at midspan.130 roofs Framing Stick-framed rafters may be supported by the walls of the building. shown in the drawing at right. Horizontal ties—either ceiling joists or collar ties— form a triangle with the rafters. Str u c tur al r idge bea m see 131c R af ter support at eave see 133a R af ters with insulation R af ter span R af ter span R af ter support at eave see 133a & 142 Nonstr u c tur al r idge boar d see 133b C ollar tie R af ter R af ter support at eave see 131a C eiling joist with insulation see 132. where it is supported by the walls. Ceiling joists are generally located on the top plate of the walls but may also be located higher to form a partially vaulted ceiling. Purlins were commonly used to help support the long slender rafters of pioneer houses and barns. which effectively changes the triangulated roof into two simple-span roofs. Today they are also used occasionally to reduce the span of a set of rafters. but the purlins must themselves be supported by the frame of the structure. by a structural ridge beam. These rafters must be strong enough to carry the dead-load weight of the roof itself and subsequent layers of reroofing. In the simple example at right. plus the live-load weight of snow. R af ters Pur lins C eiling joist Pur lin support to str u c tur e below Note The na me “ pur lin” is also given to a mem ber that spans ac ross r af ters to support roof dec king. Structural ridge beam—The horizontal ties that are required in a triangulated roof may be avoided if the rafters are attached at the ridge to a structural ridge beam (or a wall). as shown at right. or by purlins. Each rafter spans only half the distance between the two walls (the gable roof. o. each wall carries part of the roof load. Rafters in triangulated roofs are shallower than those in shed roofs of equal width because they span only half the distance of the shed rafters and because they do not usually contain insulation.c. is the simplest version). Collar ties are usually nailed near the top of the roof between opposing rafters and spaced at 4 ft. Triangulated roof—Common (full-length) rafters are paired and usually joined to a ridge board. The total roof load is transferred to the ends of the rafters. as shown in the drawing below. as shown in the drawing at right.
6 15. For a roof-sheathing span table.3 16.1 14. species.4 23. A Rafter-Span Comparison Table B Rafter/Ridge Nonstructural Ridge Board Roof sheathing R af ters lapped & nailed to eac h other Roof sheathing R af ters at tac hed to eac h other with metal str ap at top or sides of r af ter or with ply wood gussets Bir d’s.c o.9 20.0 23.5 19.c.2 23.5 19.9 20. C Rafter/Ridge Structural Ridge Beam: 4 Alternatives . Bir d’s.c. .2 17.1 21.0 Common Rafters R idge boar d (beyond) Slightly under c ut the plu m b c ut on bar ge or ver ge r af ters if lu m ber is gr een the boar ds will shr ink to meet at c enter line. The table is for estimating purposes only.4 25. 12. .06-inch I-joist 2x12 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x12 Douglas fir #2 11.mouth c ut in r af ters. Note As an alter native.5 11. 24 in. o.8 16.9 16.5 x 2.roofs Roof sheathing R af ters nailed to r idge boar d with 16d nails 2x R idge boar d deeper than plu m b c ut of r af ters Note R ip r idge boar d if inter ior finish meets at r idge. This table compares two species of sawn lumber and one I-joist for use as rafters on a roof with a 30-psf live load.5 11. Framing 131 Allowable rafter Spans in Feet Rafter size. Barge or Verge Rafters Nail into r idge boar d near bot to m of r af ters upper nails may be added af ter lu m ber dr ies.0 9. . see 133a r af ters nailed or bolted to bea m.9 x 2. 16 in. see 163.1 12.mouth c ut in r af ters.3 14. and grade 2x6 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x6 Douglas fir #2 2x8 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x8 Douglas fir #2 2x10 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x10 Douglas fir #2 9.2 11. fur out inner r af ter to align with outer r af ter.06-inch I-joist Joist spacing (ft. o.2 16.6 14. .4 19. Roof sheathing Roof sheathing 2x bloc king nailed to r idge bea m bet ween r af ters R af ters nailed to bea m & to bloc king R af ters lapped & nailed to eac h other & to r idge bea m r af ters ar e c ut to length in plac e. use metal r idge hangers for s mall r af ters up to 7-in-12 pitc h.3 17.1 9. .0 14.4 19. Note R af ters in these details lap at r idge so at the end r af ters.0 11.) 12 in. see 133a r af ters nailed or bolted to bea m .
132 roofs Framing Ceiling joists are very similar to floor joists. C eiling-joist system Join joists to c ontinue str u c tur e to opposing wall see 36a Span of c eiling joists Bear ing wall Bear ing wall Allowable ceiling joist Spans in Feet Joist size.2 15. o.6 20.6 20. Furring perpendicular to the joists.1 24.0 17.9 13. it is important to attach the joists securely to the rafters. usually called strapping.7 13.4 The underside of ceiling joists is often furred down with a layer of 1x lumber to resist plaster or drywall cracking due to movement of the joists.2 Joist spacing (ft. Fur r ing on bot to m of joist to flush out with bot to m of bea m if r eq’d C ontinuous fur r ing nailed to underside of joists li mits c r ac ks along bea m in finish c eiling A Rafters/Ceiling Joists . species.06-inch I-joist 2x12 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x12 Douglas fir #2 11.c 12.4 27. o.06-inch I-joist 12 in.8 26.8 21.1 17.7 22.5 x 2. The drawing below illustrates furring parallel to the joists to resist cracking along a beam that interrupts the continuity of the joists.9 20.7 12. the second-floor joists of a two-story building act as the ceiling joists for the story below.0 17.6 27. The table is for estimating purposes only.7 22. 24 in.c. Ceiling joists are distinguished from floor joists only when there is no floor (except an attic floor) above the joists. Stud wall with sheathing Note C hec k c odes for nailing r equir ements & angle nails through joists into r af ters towar d c enter of building.6 10.7 20.c. In fact.5 14.4 16. Ceiling joists are sized like floor joists.6 24.2 18.mouth c ut see 133a C eiling joists nailed to r af ters r esist out war d thr ust of r af ters.) 16 in. R af ter with bir d’s. o.8 21. The span of the joists depends on spacing and whether the attic above the joists will be used for storage.9 x 2.1 19.0 25.5 17. is also common.2 10. and grade 2x6 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x6 Douglas fir #2 2x8 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x8 Douglas fir #2 2x10 spruce-pine-fir #2 2x10 Douglas fir #2 9. 11. Disc ontinuous c eiling joist hung fro m str u c tur al bea m flush at top for floor above This table is based on a light attic load of 20 psf and a deflection of L/360. For this purpose. R af ter system The joists can function as ties to resist the lateral forces of rafters.
R af ter with bir d’s mouth c ut Roofing & sheathing Low-pitc h r af ter nailed to header Dou ble 2x header Up-slope r af ter on joist hanger Finish c eiling Slope of r af ters c r eates c eiling plane. the wall itself will provide the support. pur lin. Stud wall with sheathing Pitch Changes without Support Below Note For r af ter support at r ake wall. the support will have to be provided by a purlin or a beam (header). If the pitch change does not occur over a wall. both bear on support. or wall Roofing & sheathing Low-pitc h & high-pitc h r af ters lap. If the pitch change occurs over a wall.roofs Framing 133 At walls or beams that support them at the eave. Bloc king pr events rotation of r af ters & allows ventilation of roof. see 134c . Bir d’s mouth c ut Roofing & sheathing R af ter Wherever the pitch of a roof changes from shallow to steep (as in a gambrel roof) or from steep to shallow (as in a shed dormer) the two ends of the rafters must be supported. Vaulted Ceiling A Rafter/Eave Wall Bird’s Mouth Cut B Roof Pitch Change . pur lin. rafters are cut at the point of support with a notch called a bird’s mouth. or wall R af ter with bir d’s mouth c ut C eiling joists see 132 Pitch Changes with Support Below Stud wall with sheathing Flat Ceiling Bloc king pr events rotation of r af ters & allows ventilation of roof. The width of the bird’s mouth is equal to the width of the sheathed stud wall (or unsheathed wall if sheathing is to be applied later). For eave details see 142-143 Eave stud wall Roofing & sheathing Low-pitc h & high-pitc h r af ters lap/ both bear on support. The underside of the rafters should meet the inside corner of the top of the wall. Bea m. Bea m. This is especially important if the ceiling is vaulted and a smooth transition between wall and ceiling is desired (see below).
Step or sidewall flashing see 171 Roofing Roof sheathing C o m mon r af ter End r af ter nailed to studs The end rafters of a gable or a shed roof are supported by the walls under them. The second example is best for supporting lookouts for an exposed or boxed-in rake. see 150d. see 72A. Elements from the three examples may be combined differently for specific situations. Roofing Roof sheathing R ake tr i m see 146-147 End r af ter Balloon or platfor m-fr a med r ake wall see 72b A Roof/Wall Rafters Parallel to Wall Roofing Wall sheathing Flashing Nailing bloc k Roof sheathing Roofing 2x ledger nailed to studs R af ter Roof sheathing Lookouts to support over hang notc hed into r af ter or set on dou ble top plate see 145a Balloon-fr a med r ake wall see 72c Roofing Roof sheathing Exter ior r af ter for boxed-in r ake Sa me as above but with ledger let into studs R af ter laps stud. Of the three drawings below. The framing of the rake should be coordinated with the detailing of the rake. The third example provides nailing for a boxed-in rake or an exposed ceiling. often in conjunction with an unfinished attic. Boxed-in r ake see 147d Inter ior r af ter for inter ior finish Balloon or platfor mfr a med r ake wall see 72b & c B Shed Roof/Wall Rafters Perpendicular to Wall C Rafter/Rake Wall 3 Alternatives .134 roofs Framing Stud wall c ontinuous to below roof Sheathing Siding Bloc king follows pitc h of roof. called rake walls. For rake-wall framing. Note For ventilation. the first example is the simplest method of support and is used with all types of rake. B & C.
as shown in the drawing below. and the rafters at the side of the opening may be single. special framing. For dor mer openings see 135b. framing is relatively easy. or pitch changes must have special support. R idge Dormers are often more than three rafter spaces wide so their structure cannot be calculated by rules of thumb. Obviously.roofs Framing 135 Framing the elements that project through the roof of a building—skylights. Roof sheathing Bloc king R af ter C eiling Per pendic ular header made fro m sa me mater ial as r af ters Rough opening Dor mer wall supported on su bfloor Floor system supporting dor mer wall For details see 134a. For openings in a single roof plane framed entirely with common rafters. Plumb openings require a header deeper than the rafters. Dor mer wall supported on roof fr a ming Headers for simple openings are. chimneys. as shown below. Roof sheathing Plu m b header r ipped fro m mater ial deeper than r af ters Roof sheathing Engineer ed r af ters at side of dor mer opening Rough opening If the dormer has side walls that extend to the floor. For c hi mney openings see 136c . The dormer walls and roof are framed like the walls and roof of the main building. Larger openings should be engineered. the roof structure at the edge of the opening must support the dormer. A Roof Openings General B Dormer Opening . the floor may be used to support the dormer. For skylight openings see 136a & b. in most cases. and special flashing. valleys. Openings that straddle hips. An opening three rafter spaces wide or less can be made by heading off the interrupted rafters and doubling the side rafters. either plumb or perpendicular to the rafters. The opening in the roof may be structured to support all or part of the loads imposed by the dormer. and dormers— begins with a rectangular opening in the framing. it is more efficient if the width and placement of the opening correspond to the rafter spacing. Dou bled c o m mon r af ter at sides of opening Details below Top & bot to m r af ter header (of ten dou bled) If the dormer walls do not extend below ceiling level.
176 R af ter 2x heading Roof rough opening 2x header Insulated stud wall bet ween roof rough opening & c eiling rough opening Dou bled r af ter at sides of opening C eiling joist 2x headers Dou bled c eiling joist at sides of opening C eiling rough opening line of finish c eiling Framing Isometric A Skylight Opening Light Well Roofing Sheathing R af ter Skylight see 175b & c . R af ter Splayed Plu m b 2x header Note Ver if y manufac tur er’s spec s for c lear an c e & at tac h ment of metal flues. 174 Masonry flue with liner 2-in. B Skylight Openings Vaulted Ceiling C Chimney Opening . air spac e bet ween masonry & fr a ming Square Plu m b 2x header Roofing Sheathing R af ter Skylight see 175b & c .136 roofs Framing Roofing Sheathing R af ter 2x Headers Skylight See 175b & c . 176 2x header C hi mney flashing see 173b. 176 2x header Tie masonry to fr a ming with r igid metal str aps.
Jack rafters support the area between the valley rafter and the ridge or header. Jac k r af ter 2x sleeper Jac k r af ter Dou bled c o m mon r af ters Valley r af ter Valley Rafter Supported by Header C o m mon r af ter 2x sleeper C o m mon r af ter Farmer’s Valley A Valley Framing . valley rafters can be supported at the top by a ridge or by a header. In most cases. Top edge of jac k faf ters align with c enter of valley r af ter.roofs The inside corner of two intersecting roof planes is called a valley. the header support system is better when the lower ridge intersects the main roof near or below the center of the rafter span. Then 2x sleepers are installed over the rafters or over the sheathing of the first roof. a simpler “farmer’s valley” or “California valley” may be constructed. valleys are supported by a valley rafter that extends from the outside wall of the building to the ridge or to a header. and jack rafters are attached to the sleepers. The ridge support system is more practical when the ridges of the intersecting roofs are close together. These valley rafters support large loads and should be engineered. Framing 137 R idge R idge Jac k r af ters Valley r af ter Bot to m edge of valley r af ter must be flush with bot to m of jac k r af ters when inter ior sur fac e is to be finished Or It may projec t below jac ks when no inter ior finish is r equir ed. however. or if jac k r af ters ar e fur r ed. This valley is made without a valley rafter. One roof is first built entirely of common rafters without any special valley framing. Where headroom is not required between intersecting roofs. Valley Rafter Supported by Ridge R idge Dou bled header As shown at right.
see below. a hip rafter does not support much roof load. furring may be added to the underside of the jack and common rafters to allow the finish ceiling to clear the hip rafter. unlike a valley rafter. If codes will not permit ripping the hip rafter. the hip rafter will have to be ripped to allow the planes of the finish ceiling to meet (middle drawing at right). but if the inside face of the roof is to be made into a finish ceiling. Sheathing Hip r af ter projec ted below jac k r af ter Jac k r af ter Sheathing Hip r af ter shallower than jac k r af ter Jac k r af ter Finish c eiling Sheathing Hip r af ter Jac k r af ter c ut off at end to allow roof venting A Hip Framing . It is composed of a hip rafter at the corner and jack rafters from the hip to the eave. This is not very logical because. The hip rafter is supported at its lower end by the wall at plate level (or by a post) and at its upper end by the ridge (or by a wall).138 roofs Framing Hip r af ters R idge Dou ble top plate Bir d’s mouth Bir d’s mouth in hip r af ter C o m mon r af ters Jac k r af ters T ypic al sec tions at intersec tion of hip and jac k r af ters. A hip is the outside corner where two planes of a roof meet. The top ends of the jack rafters may be cut off to permit venting at the top of the hip roof (bottom drawing at right). Most codes require that the hip rafter project below the bottom edge of the jack rafters (see the top drawing at right). The extra depth presents no problem in an attic space.
a girder system. A strong fascia board is advisable here. Tapered rigid insulation may be added to the top of the sheathing. A Flat-Roof Framing . as shown below. 2. 3. Blocking and bridging (see 38A) must be considered at the appropriate locations. Bloc king at wall Bloc king Note Follow br idging standar ds for floors. Flat roofs are unlike floors. 6. in order to eliminate standing water. however. Eave details see 142a & d C antile ver ed bea m Insulation & ventilation see 205a Roof Joist Note Use r af ter-span table for flat-foor joist spans. Par apet roof see 72d Roof joist Engineer ed header joist 5. or a truss system. Connections to walls are like those for floors (see 32). see 131a. All methods illustrated should be engineered by a professional. per ft.roofs The framing of a flat roof is more like a floor than it is like a pitched roof. The joists are level or nearly level and support the ceiling below and the live loads above. As for floors. The joists themselves may slope if the ceiling below does not have to be level. as shown in the drawing below. the structure of a flat roof may be a joist system (dimension lumber or I-joists). They might be more properly called “lowslope” roofs because they must slope at least 1⁄4 in. or if the ceiling is furred to level. Trusses may be manufactured with a built-in slope. in that they are not really flat. A third option for framing a cantilevered corner is shown below. 4. The easiest and most direct way to support an overhang at the corner of a flat roof is with a beam below the joists cantilevered from the top of a bearing wall. The joists may be oversize and tapered on top. Engineer ed header joist Framing 139 Roof joist Bloc king 1. This minimal slope may be achieved in several ways: A traditional framing method for a cantilevered corner without a beam is with joists that radiate from a doubled central diagonal joist. Shims may be added to the top of the joists. Sloped rafters can be scabbed alongside level ceiling joists. see 38a. as are the framing details for openings (see 38B) and cantilevers (see 39A). as with all framing using cantilevered joists.
Hip Roof Flat roofs have no r akes. see 144–147. For eave details. for example. There are three basic types of rake (see 141). Rake—The rake is the sloped connection between the roof and the wall. see 72d Shed Roof Gable roofs. boxed. The shape of the roof affects the treatment of the edges. whic h may be ab br eviated. The shape of the roof will suggest certain eave and/or rake shapes (see 140B). Functionally. all eave & r ake t ypes c an be c o m bined. The basic roof shapes are best suited for the following finish treatment at the edges: Shed roofs have both a r ake & an eave. like shed roofs. the eave and rake should help protect the building from the elements. is easier to finish with a soffited eave than is a gable roof. For rake support and rake details.140 roofs Framing Designing the basic shape of the roof and designing the configuration of eaves and rakes are the most critical tasks in roof design. Stylistically. There are four basic types of eave (see 141). Over hanging eaves c an be detailed with a soffit or with exposed r af ters. wher e the t wo r akes meet. ther e is an ab br eviated eave or a par apet. A hip roof. see 143b Hip roofs have only eaves. the selection of eave and rake types should complement both the roof form and the roofing material. Gable Roof Combination Types B Roof Shape & Eave/Rake Selection . The way in which one edge of a R ake Eave A Eaves & Rakes Introduction The basic shape and structure of a roof system need to be coordinated with the finish of the roof at the edges. and vice versa. and certain eave types work best with particular rake types (see 141). Exc ept for soffited eeaves. C onnec tion of eave to r ake see 148 Eave—The eave is the level connection between the roof and the wall. Only shed and gable roof types and their derivatives have a rake. When ther e ar e o over hangs. or exposed with almost equal ease. All eave t ypes exc ept for soffits c an be c o m bined with all r ake t ypes. see 131b & 144c Flat Roof C o m bination roof t ypes usually have both r akes & eaves. They follow the guidelines of the individual roof t ypes. A spec ial detail is r equir ed at the r idge. Eaves are common to all sloped roofs and often to flat roofs. see 142 and 143A & B. soffited. have both eaves & r akes. A spec ial eave detail is r equir ed for the top edge.
For example. R akes Over hanging R akes see 141-147 Eaves Exposed Rake see 146. gable. Not c o m mon. gable. but c ould be built with si mple details. of ten used on gable roofs as well. Very c o m mon for this t ype of eave. In examining the details of the eave and rake. Not c o m mon. hip roofs equally well. the two must be considered as a set. si mple to build. b. Less c o m mon. therefore. a soffited eave on a gable-roofed building is easier to build with an abbreviated rake than with an exposed rake. Very c o m mon. The designer should attempt to match the level edge of the roof (the eave) to the sloped edge (the rake). si mple c onstr u c tion. c Awkwar d to detail & build. but c ould be built with si mple details. 147a. Awkwar d to detail & build. 148 Boxed-In Rake see 147d Abbreviated Rake see 150 Overhanging Eaves see 142 Exposed Eave see 142a Goes with shed. see 148a Boxed-In Eave see 142d Goes with shed. but not elegant. Very c o m mon. gable. because all sloped roof types have eaves. d. b. easier to build see 148 & slightly less c lunky than soffited eave with boxed-in r ake. 147a. There are four basic sloped-roof eave types. and all but the soffited type can make a simple and elegant transition from eave to rake on gable and shed roofs. Soffited Eave see 142b & c Wor ks best on hip (or flat) roofs with no r ake. C o m mon & fair ly si mple c onstr u c tion. c an be built in t wo basic ways. All four types are appropriate for hip roofs. see 150 b a Eave/Rake Combinations . Abbreviated Eave see 143a Goes with shed.roofs Framing 141 roof is finished affects the detailing of the other edges. Awkwar d to detail & build. see 148b C o m mon c o m bination. It is logical to start with the eave. Hip roofs equally well. very si mple c onstr u c tion. Awkwar d to detail & build. but not all have rakes. The eave types and their most appropriate companion rakes are diagrammed below. hip roofs equally well. see 146.
C & 203A Note No gut ter shown. Hang gut ter fro m str ap see 195c or use vertic al fasc ia on plu m b. wher e a fasc ia may appear too bulky.c ut r af ter tail with 2x4 bac king C ontinuous sc r eened vent see 202B. C Soffited Eave Alternative Detail D Boxed-In Eave .c ut r af ters to ac c o m modate standar d gut ters. Exter ior ply wood or other exter ior-gr ade finish Stud wall with sheathing & finish C ontinuous sc r eened vent see 202B. c & 203A Soffited Eave Roofing Roof sheathing R af ter Dou ble su bfasc ia Finish fasc ia 1x4 or 1x6 Solid T&G sheathing or exter ior ply wood Stud wall with sheathing & finish Note This detail wor ks well on steep roofs.142 roofs Framing Roofing Roofing Roof sheathing Alter native fr ieze bloc k with vent loc ation Fr ieze bloc k with s c r eened vent see 202a Roof sheathing Bloc king as r equir ed with spac e for ventilation 2x soffit joist nailed to r af ters C ontinuous su bfasc ia Gut ter See 193-196 Finish fasc ia C ontinuous soffit of exter ior ply wood or other exter ior-r ated finish C ontinuous sc r eened vent See 202B C ontinuous ledger for soffit joists Gut ter see 193-196 C ontinuous fasc ia Alter native fasc ia profile Solid T&G sheathing or exter ior ply wood at exposed portion of eave Stud wall with sheathing & finish Exposed r af ter tail Tr i m Stud wall with sheathing & finish A Exposed Eave B Roofing Roof sheathing Bloc king as r equir ed with spac e for vent if nec essary Level.
C onsider using them if the exposed part of the r af ter is to be a differ ent size than the unexposed part of the r af ter or tr uss. the entir e eave assem bly may be shopbuilt in lengths up to about 16 f t. see 151153.roofs Framing 143 Roofing Roofing Roof sheathing Roof sheathing Flashing with dr ip R af ter Gut ter see 193-196 Tr i m Fasc ia C ontinuous fasc ia C ontinuous sc r eened vent with tr i m see 202b Stud wall with sheathing & finish C ontinuous sc r eened vent Tr i m Bloc king as r equir ed with spac e for ventilation R af ter with insulation see 197a Stud wall with sheathing & finish A Abbreviated Eave B Shed-Roof Eave Top of Rafter at Wall Note Du m my r af ters ar e r elatively short. or if exposed r af ters ar e desir ed when ply wood I-r af ters ar e used for the roof str u c tur e. Roofing R af ter Roof sheathing nailed to top of du m my r af ter tails 2x du m my r af ter tail aligned with r af ter 1x fas c ia Gut ter see 193-196 1x soffit with c ontinuous sc r eened vent 1x6 or 1x8 boar d s c r ewed to du m my tails & top plate Roofing Roof sheathing R af ter Bloc king T&G Sheathing or exter ior ply wood at exposed eave 2x fas c ia Gut ter see 193-196 Du m my r af ter glued & nailed to c o m mon or jack rafter lap equals 11⁄ 2 x over hang . Fr ieze bloc k with sc r eened vent see 202a Abbreviated Eave Exposed Eave C Dummy Rafter Tail . for ab br eviated eaves. so a high gr ade of mater ial may be used.
as shown below. Sheathing c ontinuous to c o m mon r af ter helps support bar ge. for details see 146. the overhang is made with barge rafters. and the fascia may be extended to support the barge rafters at their lower ends (see below). which stand away from the building and need support. Lookouts or brackets may be also used to support an overhanging rake (see 145A & B). Bar ge r af ter Fasc ia helps to support bar ge r af ter at its lower end.144 roofs Framing When an overhang is required at the rake. Stud wall under end c o m mon r af ter A Overhanging Rake Methods of Support C Overhanging Rake Supported by Ridge Board or Beam . C o m mon r af ter Sheathing provides support for bar ge r af ter. Note Ver ge r af ter not shown. The roof sheathing alone may be strong enough to support the barge rafters (see 144B). Bar ge r af ters meet at c enter line of r idge. see 144b R idge boar d or r idge bea m see 131 R idge boar d may be c ut at any angle or shape that allows for at tac h ment of bar ge r af ters without having end exposed below them. The roof sheathing can assist in supporting the barge rafter along its length. or the ridge board or beam can be designed to support the barge rafters at their upper ends (see 144C). There are several ways to support barge rafters. End r af ter (last inter ior r af ter) First c o m mon r af ter Extended r idge boar d or bea m see 144c Bar ge r af ter End r af ter B Overhanging Rake Supported by Sheathing Alter native c ut in r idge boar d allows for boxed-in over hanging r ake.
provides str ength and nailing for boxed-in r ake. bear directly on the wall. or 24 in.roofs Framing 145 If the ridge. Nails Bolt Bolt R idge First c o m mon r af ter End or ver ge r af ter Typical Bracket Attaching the bracket to the inside of the barge rafter avoids problems of weathering. The size and spacing of lookouts depend on rafter spacing and live loading. 4x4 hor izontal notc hed for vertic al leg & diagonal br ac e 4x4 diagonal leg into vertic al and hor izontal legs 2x4 vertic al notc hed for diagonal br ac e. With this detail. Roofing Roof sheathing Bar ge r af ter 2x or 4x lookouts Bar ge r af ter Siding Fas c ia Wall sheathing Bloc k for support at base of br ac ket First c o m mon r af ter The alternative bracket connection to the barge rafter shown below is common on Craftsman-style buildings. and the sheathing together do not provide sufficient support for the barge. see 147d A Overhanging Rake Supported by Lookouts B Overhanging Rake Supported by Brackets . Bar ge r af ter A ladder of lookouts the sa me di mension as r af ters & at 16 in. Lookouts extend from the barge rafter to the first common rafter (or truss) inside the wall. alternatively. o. lookouts may be added. Brackets attached to the face of the wall framing can support the barge rafter by means of triangulation. The lookouts are notched through the end rafter at the top of the wall or. and this contributes to the decay of the bracket and the barge rafter. moisture collects on top of the bracket.c . the fascia.
For alter native detail with tr i m boar d. Note Du m my r akes. 1x6 or 1x8 boar d s c r ewed to bloc king & to end r af ter C Exposed Rake with Verge Rafter Section D Dummy Rake .146 roofs Framing Notc h ver ge r af ter. if lookouts ar e r equir ed. Fr ieze bloc k see 142a & b Fasc ia may be squar e c ut (as shown) and c over ed with bar ge tr i m or it c an be miter ed C or ner of building Lookout see 145a Ver ge r af ter Bar ge r af ter a Exposed Rake with Verge Rafter Framing B Exposed Rake with Verge Rafter Corner Framing Roofing Note C oor dinate flashing & tr i m with gut ter and fasc ia. tr i m miter ed to fr ieze tr i m. see 145a. see 150a Siding tr i m med to ver ge r af ter.c . see 147a & b. may be shop.built in long lengths. see 143c . C o m mon r af ter Wall sheathing Sec tion see 146c End r af ter c ut flush with fr ieze bloc k Ver ge r af ter applied over sheathing & c ontinuous to fas c ia C or ner detail see 146b Notes Exposed roof sheathing must be exter ior-r ated panel or solid (T&G) mater ial. End r af ter stops at fr ieze bloc k. Note Ver ge r af ter may also be fur r ed out. Exter ior-r ated roof sheathing at exposed portion of roof Roofing Roof sheathing fastened to top of bloc king Flashing & tr i m c oor dinated with gut ter & fasc ia 1x r ake projec ts below boxing to for m dr ip. o. like du m my ab br eviated eaves. C o m mon r af ter Lookout beyond Bar ge r af ter Ver ge r af ter c ontinuous to fas c ia End r af ter 1x or weatherr ated c o mposite boxing 2x bloc king at 24 in.
C or ner of building Siding tr i m med to boxing mater ial boxing mater ial on nailing str ips is r ated for exposur e to weather. or miter ed to bar ge r af ter C or ner of walls Lookout see 145a Tr i m boar d (not shown) see 147c Bar ge r af ter End r af ter sa me as c o m mon r af ters C o m mon r af ter Tr i m boar d r ipped to depth of r af ters extends fro m r idge to c or ner bloc k.roofs Framing 147 C o m mon r af ter End r af ter sa me as c o m mon r af ters Wall sheathing Roofing Roof sheathing Flashing & tr i m c oor dinated with gut ter & fasC ia Lookout beyond Bar ge r af ter Fr ieze bloc k see 142a & b Fasc ia squar ec ut (as shown) & c over ed with bar ge tr i m. . see 147c Tr i m at top of siding meets tr i m boar d. Bar ge r af ter projec t below boxing mater ial to for m dr ip. C Exposed Rake with Trim Board Detail at Eave D Boxed-In Rake . A Exposed Rake with Trim Board Corner Framing B Exposed Rake with Trim Board Section End r af ter Fr ieze bloc k Edge of wall sheathing Roofing Flashing & tr i m c oor dinated with gut ter & fasc ia R ake tr i m boar d Roof sheathing C o m mon r af ter End r af ter C or ner tr i m bloc k thic kness equals sheathing plus r ake tr i m boar d (min.). .
the rear side of the soffited space (opposite the fascia) must be finished as well as the end. This situation may occur with an abbreviated rake (see below) or with an overhanging rake (see below and 148B). or with a simpler soffit return. Layer ed gable with ab br eviated r ake (also used with over hanging r ake). this may be accomplished most elegantly with a Greek return. Ver ge r af ter or tr i m boar d laps finish & finish may lap sec ond wall finish below. Bar ge r af ter dies on roof. Soffit r etur n takes the dir ec t approac h to c over both the end & r ear of the soffited spac e. As shown below. requiring only that the end of the soffit space be finished. When the soffit extends beyond the plane of the end wall. gable-wall finish extends to c over end of soffit spac e. As shown in the drawings below. Por k c hop at end Soffit mater ial c overs r ear of soffit spac e. See 149B Por k c hop with ab br e viated r ake (also used with over hanging r ake) ver ge r af ter or tr i m boar d laps por k c hop. Fasc ia miter ed at c or ners follows edge of hip roof & dies into end wall. Fr a ming details See 149C A Soffited Eave/Rake Transition Abbreviated or Overhanging Rake B Soffited Eave/Rake Transition Overhanging Rake . Only when the soffit is terminated at the plane of the end wall is the detailing reasonably direct. C hop c overs end of soffit spac e. .148 roofs Framing The transition from soffited eave to rake can demand some carpentry heroics. Fr a ming details See 149a Gr eek r etur n extends soffit around c or ner of building & c overs it with a s mall hip roof. This detail may be used with boxed-in or with exposed r ake. the end of the soffit space may be finished with a pork chop or with a layered gable—a continuation of the gable-wall finish over the end of the soffit.
fasc ia is supported by r af ters & sheathing. Soffit joist Fasc ia Roofing on main roof Sheathing Fasc ia Section A-A C Soffit Return Framing D Fascia Dies on Roof . C or ner of walls below Fas c ia r etur ns to wall sheathing. Section A Greek Return Framing B Dou ble top plate of wall C o m mon r af ter Rafter Dies on Roof Roofing end r af ter Wall sheathing Sheathing bar ge r af ter C ut on fasc ia is made at pitc h of roof & above level of roofing.roofs Framing 149 Bar ge r af ter r ests on finished roof. Roofing on main roof Sheathing Support r af ter on flashing so that water may pass under it. See 149B Fasc ia Note This situation usually oc c urs when a bar ge (or ver ge) r af ter dies on top of a roof sur fac e. Roofing on main roof Sheathing Elevation Air spac e to pr event dec ay Roofing Sheathing Por k c hop Extend soffit ledger provides support to r ake. Bar ge r af ter Roofing Bar ge tr i m Hips Wall sheathing Air spac e to pr event dec ay End r af ter Elevation Soffit joist Bar ge tr i m Valley Bar ge r af ter Fas c ia C ut r af ter above level of roofing.
End r af ter Siding tr i m med to c ontinuous fur r ing End stud wall Exter ior wall finish Wall sheathing A Abbreviated Rake B Abbreviated Rake/Eave Corner Framing Siding Wall sheathing Flashing Nailing bloc k Roof sheathing Roofing 2x ledger nailed to studs Siding Wall sheathing Nailing bloc k C ontinuous manufac tur ed vent str ip provides venting & flashing. Fur r ing allows ver ge r af ter or tr i m boar d to ac t as dr ip.c ut & c over ed with tr i m or gut ter. see 197˘205. 2x pur lins per pendic ular to r af ters provide 11⁄ 2 -in. air spac e for later al air movement. C Top of Rafter/Wall Shed Roof with Purlins D Top of Rafter/Wall Shed Roof with Continuous Vent Strip . See 201 Note For insulation & ventilation. R af ter Roofing Note For insulation & roof ventilation. Roofing sheathing held bac k fro m wall allows c ontinuous venting fro m r af ter spac es.150 roofs Framing Roofing c o m mon r af ter Roof sheathing Edge flashing End r af ter C o m mon r af ter Ver ge r af ter or tr i m boar d c ontinuous to fasc ia Wall sheathing Fur r ing c ontinuous behind ver ge r af ter See 150a Dou ble top plate Ver ge r af ter or tr i m boar d C or ner of walls below Fas c ia shown miter ed to ver ge. see 197˘205. it may also be squar e. Provide intake & exhaust vents.
roofs Framing 151 I-joist r af ter hips See 153D engineer ed lu m ber r af ters & headers See 153C I-joist r af ter valleys See 153c I-joist r af ter r idges See 153a & b I-joist r af ter at c eiling joist See 152d For other c o m mon I-joist c onnec tions See 43b & 44d. To perform as designed. The general framing principles that apply to roof framing with solid-sawn lumber also hold true for engineered lumber. The drawings in this section therefore emphasize roof framing conditions that are specific to engineered lumber. but they also cost more. engineered lumber as roof framing has not seen the explosive growth that has been the case with floor framing. and most also require the addition of two web stiffeners. This means that roof loads must usually be carried down to the foundation through the core of the building. This mixing of materials is practical for roof construction where differential shrinkage is not usually a significant problem. However. I-joist r af ter at eave See 152a. Despite the many advantages. Virtually every connection must be made with a metal connector. many builders have found ways to combine the advantages of both solid-sawn and engineered lumber on the same building. The cost/benefit ratio for framing roofs with engineered lumber favors its use only for simple gable or shed roof forms. and their appearance is not generally satisfactory if exposed. In these hybrid roofs. however. and solid-sawn lumber is employed for the smaller-scale parts and the more complicated forms. A I-joist Rafters Introduction . Another difference between framing roofs with solid-sawn or engineered lumber is that engineered lumber almost always requires a structural ridge beam. one on each side of the I-joist rafters. b & c I-joist r af ter eave details See 154c The strength. and they are stiffer. engineered lumber is used for the basic forms. precision manufacturing. I-joists used as rafters constitute the bulk of engineered lumber used for roof framing. engineered lumber roof components must be installed completely in accordance with the individual manufacturer’s instructions. and lighter than their solid-sawn counterparts. This adds considerable time and labor cost to the task of roof framing. and long lengths that make engineered lumber appropriate for floor framing (see 43A) also indicate its use for roof framing. stronger. Part of the reason is that roof framing with engineered lumber is hardware intensive.
C eiling joist r esists out war d thr ust of r af ters. A I-joist Rafter at Eave With Beveled Bearing Plate B I-Joist Rafter at Eave With Metal Connector I-Joist r af ter Web stiffener at eac h side r equir ed over bir d’s mouth Note Bloc k all r af ters with I-joist or LSL fr ieze bloc k. Bir d’s mouth in lower c hor d of r af ter must bear entir ely on top plate. Note Extend web stiffeners into eave as r equir ed for str u c tur e Web stiffener at r af ter provides nailing sur fac e for c eiling joists. Note Bloc k all r af ters with I-joist or LSL fr ieze bloc king.152 roofs Framing I-joist r af ter Web stiffener at eac h side per manufac tur er’s spec s for deep r af ters I-Joist R af ter Note Bloc k all I-r af ters with I-joist or LSL fr ieze bloc k. Note Bloc k all r af ters with I-joist or LSL fr ieze bloc k. Web stiffener at eac h side per manufac tur er’s spec s for deep r af ters Dou ble top plate of stud wall Dou ble top plate of stud wall Beveled bear ing plate eli minates need for bir d’s mouth and is pr efer r ed c onnec tion for heavy loads. Var iable-slope metal c onnec tor eli minates need for bir d’s mouth on r af ters up to 12: 12 slope. Dou ble top plate of stud wall C I-Joist Rafter at Eave With Bird’s Mouth D I-Joist Rafter/Ceiling Joist . Extend web stiffeners into eave as r equir ed for str u c tur e. See 130 Dou ble top plate of stud wall I-joist r af ter Note Most I-joist manufac tur ers do not support this detail.
ply wood gussets on both sides. Valley (or hip) r af ter of LVL or LSL B Structural Rafter/Header c LVL or LSL Valley/Hip . LSL. or Dou ble I-joists @ side of dor mer. see 137 & 138. or other roof opening Solid-sawn jac k r af ter for short spans Skewable metal hanger ac c o m modates a r ange of slopes Per pendic ular LSL header on metal hangers I-joist jac k r af ter Plu m b LSL header on metal hangers C o m mon I-joist r af ter Note For position of jac k r af ters r elative to valley or hip r af ters.be veled wood filler plate Str u c tur al r idge bea m Str u c tur al r idge bea m Metal str ap c ontinuous ac ross top of r af ters & top of r idge boar d I-joist r af ter Web stiffener Metal r af ter hanger Roof sheathing Metal str ap I-joist r af ter Web stiffener Metal r af ter hanger Str u c tur al r idge bea m A I-joist Rafter/Structural Ridge Beam Str u c tur al r af ter of LVL. skylight.roofs Framing 153 Roof sheathing R af ters at tac hed to eac h other with 3 ⁄ 4 -in. Dou ble.
mouth c ut at lower flange of r af ter must have full bear ing on plate. Roofing Roof sheathing (Vented) Fr ieze bloc k See 202A Du m my r af ter nailed to web stiffeners I-joist r af ter Du m my r af ter nailed to web stiffeners I-joist r af ter Web stiffener Web stiffener Bir d’s. C eiling joist See 132 Dou ble top plate of stud wall Note Bloc k all r af ters with I-joist or LSL fr ieze bloc k.154 roofs Framing Roofing I-joist r af ter Roofing Roof sheathing Roof sheathing Web stiffener at both sides per manufac tur er’s spec s for deep r af ters Bir d’s. Nailing bloc k for su bfasc ia I-joist r af ter Web stiffeners at both sides per manufac tur er’s spec s Fasc ia & su bfas c ia LSL r i m or bloc king Bir d’s. C eiling joist See 132 Dou ble top plate of stud wall Exter ior finish wall with tr i m Vented soffit See 202B. C & 203A Exter ior wall finish Wall sheathing Wall sheathing A I-joist Rafter Abbreviated Eave Note Du m my r af ter laps I-joist r af ter 11⁄ 2 x distan c e of over hang.mouth c ut at lower flange of r af ter must have full bear ing on plate. Dou ble top plate of stud wall Du m my r af ter Exter ior wall finish Support bloc k under du m my r af ter if r af ter does not bear on dou ble top plate Dou ble top plate of stud wall Wall sheathing Section Parallel to Eave C I-joist Rafter at Exposed Eave Exposed Dummy Rafter .mouth c ut at lower flange of r af ter must have full bear ing on plate. B I-joist Rafter Soffited Eave Roofing Roof sheathing Align top of du m my r af ter and top of I-joist r af ter.
Parallel-Chord Truss Par allel. Five common roof truss types are shown in the drawings below.roofs Tr uss hips See 157A Tr uss valleys See 157B Openings in tr uss roofs See 158 Framing 155 Tr uss eaves See 159 Gable-end tr usses See 156 Tr uss/ wall c onnec tion See 159 Roof trusses. like floor trusses. Scissors Truss The sloping bot to m c hor ds of s c issors tr usses c an in c r ease inter ior volu me.c hor d tr usses ar e for flat roofs. valleys. Attic Truss Provides useable spac e within the tr uss with spans to over 30 f t. these webs cannot be cut for any future remodeling purposes. Mono-Pitch Truss A mono-pitc h tr uss. standar d spans ar e available up to 30 f t.) are possible with simple trusses so that large open rooms may be designed with roof loads bearing only on the perimeter walls. are a framework of small members (usually 2x4s) that are connected so that they act like a single large member. Furthermore. Another disadvantage of roof trusses is that the webs of the truss occupy space that could be available for storage or as a full-size attic. for shed roof buildings. Engineered roof trusses can span much greater distances than the stick-framed rafter-and-tie system. They are always engineered by the manufacturer. ar e possi ble. or dormers are usually less expensive to build if they are framed with rafters. Long spans (over 40 ft. A second advantage of roof trusses is the reduction in roof framing labor. spans about 25 f t. One major disadvantage of roof trusses is the difficulty of adapting them to complex roof forms. Spans up to 40 f t. A Roof Trusses Introduction . Roofs with numerous hips. Trusses are typically set in place by the delivery truck and may be positioned and fastened in a fraction of the time it would take to frame with rafters and ties. whic h c an span about 25 f t. Fink Truss Fink tr usses span over 40 f t. Interior walls may simply be partition walls and may be repositioned without compromising the roof structure. King-Post Truss The si mplest tr uss is a king-post tr uss.
Bar ge r af ter at tac hed to lookouts inter ior finish Dou ble top plate Truss/Gable-End Wall B Dropped Gable-End Truss . o. A gable-end truss can be used with a rake overhang of 12 in. Standar d Tr usses Dou ble top plate of wall Roof sheathing Lookout Bloc king top c hor d of gable-end tr uss exter ior wall finish Dropped gable-end tr uss Lookouts bear on top c hor d of dropped tr uss to support r ake over hang. See detail on r ight Wall sheathing bot to m c hor d of gable-end tr uss Edge of roof C eiling nailer Du m my r af ter at plane of gable wall must be supported by fasc ia.c. The standard gable-end truss is the same size as a standard truss. A dropped gable-end truss (see 156B) is shorter than a standard truss by the depth of the lookouts.156 roofs Framing A gable-end truss transfers the load of the roof to the wall on which it bears through 2x4 struts at 24 in. It can also be used with flat 2x4 lookouts let into the truss above the struts. Standar d Tr usses Dou ble top plate of wall Roofing Roof sheathing Top c hor d or gable-end tr uss Exter ior wall finish Wall sheathing Bot to m c hor d of gable-end tr uss C eiling nailer Gable-end tr uss Inter ior finish Dou ble top plate Edge of roof Truss/Gable-End Wall A Standard Gable-End Truss Roofing Note A dropped gable-end tr uss is shorter than a standar d tr uss by the depth of the lookouts. or less when the barge rafter is supported by the roof sheathing.
A series of progressively shallower trusses with flat tops is used to create the end roof pitch of the hip roof. Simple as this system is. The main-roof trusses do not have to be oversize since the only extra weight they will carry is the dead weight of the jack trusses themselves.roofs There are several ways to frame a hip roof using trusses. The last of these trusses is the girder truss. Dou ble top plates of walls B Valley Framing with Trusses Valley Jack Trusses . The most common method of framing a hip with trusses is called the step-down system. so many builders elect to frame hips (even on a truss roof) with rafters (see 138). many builders still prefer to frame these roof intersections as a farmer’s valley (see 137) with solid-sawn lumber. Framing 157 C o m mon tr uss Step-down tr uss Gir der tr uss jac k tr uss dou ble top plate of wall Line of fasc ia Fr a me c or ners with lu m ber hip & r af ters See 138 A Hip Framing with Trusses Step-Down System Framing a valley with trusses is a simple matter of attaching a series of progressively smaller trusses to the top chords of the trusses of the main roof. Valley jac k tr uss manufac tur ed with bot to m c hor d r ipped to slop of main-roof pitc h C o m mon tr usses Line of valley Line of r idge Intersec ting tr uss without over hang bears on dou ble top plate. None is simple. which carries the weight of short jack trusses or rafters that complete the roof.
Openings up to three truss spaces wide are made by doubling the trusses to either side of the opening and attaching header and mono or other special trusses to the doubled trusses. Small openings less than one truss space wide may be simply framed between trusses as they would be in a rafter-framed roof (see 135–136). Obviously. Header tr uss supported by dou bled tr usses Header tr uss Mono or other spec ial tr usses at tac h to header tr uss. Mono or other spec ial tr usses C o m mon tr usses Dou bled tr usses adjac ent to opening in roof Dou ble top plate A Openings in Truss Roof Headers between Double Trusses .158 roofs Framing Rectangular openings for skylights or chimneys may be constructed in a truss roof. it is most efficient if the width and placement of the opening correspond to truss spacing. Larger openings (more than three truss spaces wide) require specially engineered trusses in place of the doubled trusses.
203a Vented soffit See 202b & c & 203A Fr a med wall with sheathing Fr a med wall with sheathing C Truss with Soffited Eave Cantilevered Truss D Truss with Soffited Eave Overhanging Truss . C ontinuous fas c ia or tr i m with vents See 203b Siding Vented fr ieze bloc k bet ween tr usses See 202a Fr a med wall with sheathing Fr a med wall with sheathing A Truss with Abbreviated Eave B Truss with Overhanging Eave Exposed or Boxed-In Eave Roofing Engineer ed heel tied to web system of tr uss allows deep c eiling insulation See 198-199 Roofing Roof sheathing Top c hor d C ontinuous fasc ia Fasc ia and su bfasc ia Roof sheathing Ventilation c hannel as r equir ed See 201 Top c hor d over hang Vented soffit See 202B & C .roofs Framing 159 Roofing Roof sheathing Roofing Roof sheathing Ventilation c hannel as r equir ed See 201 Top c hor d over hang C ontinuous fasc ia Top c hor d of tr uss Ventilation c hannel as r equir ed See 201 Bloc king allows for ventilation.
Many buildings have been destroyed by winds that catch the underside of the eave and lift it off the building. wind can lift the roof structure from the inside of the building. it is still necessary to reinforce it beyond typical code standards. In the case of a pitched roof. In this case. In areas prone to high winds. To resist the force of high winds on roofs. These measures are illustrated on the following page. High-pitch roofs extend higher into the sky. creating pressures on some surfaces and suction on others. Framing members must be anchored to resist uplift and overturning. they are the most vulnerable to the effects of wind. First. Anchoring strategies—Assuming the building is shaped appropriately to withstand the force of high wind. and fasteners must be increased. The shape of the roof also has a large impact on its durability in a windstorm. Gable roofs present a weak point at the gable end itself. A second way for wind to exert a vertical force on a roof is for the wind to catch a protrusion such as an eave or rake overhang. and present a greater surface area than do low-pitched roofs. they may be produced as a negative pressure (suction) if developed on the leeward side of a building. much as earthquakes do. or less are recommended for high-wind areas unless special measures are taken to anchor them. Some involve design decisions to minimize the impact of high winds in the first place. Design strategies—One basic strategy to increase a roof’s chance of survival in high winds is to keep the roof pitch low. But wind flows in complex shifting patterns around a building. A Roof Framing for High Wind . The wind suddenly enters the structure. pressurizing it and forcing the roof up. others involve strengthening what is built to minimize damage. the design and detailing of roofs is one of the most critical concerns for the longevity of a building. Generally. Wind generally moves horizontally to impose lateral forces on buildings. The width of overhangs at both eave and rake are important considerations for high-wind zones. of roof edges r equir e mor e nails in high-wind zones. Note Ar eas within 4 f t. sheathing must be stronger. this condition theoretically occurs whenever the pitch of the roof is 7-in12 or more. where wind velocity is greater.160 roofs Framing Because roofs are the highest part of a building and are the least weighted down by other parts of the building. and they have low eaves with no tall walls. Pitches between 2:12 and 7:12 are recommended for high-wind areas. hip roofs fare the best because their geometry makes them self-bracing. the force of the wind is localized at the edge of the roof. which is a tall vertical surface. several strategies may be employed. These vertical forces can be created in three ways. This generally occurs as a weak point in the shell of the building such as a window or garage door giving way to the pressure of the wind. Eaves of 8 in. The bracing of buildings to resist lateral wind forces is discussed in Chapter 3 (see 77 & 82). Finally. Thus it can create vertical forces that actually lift the roof off a building.
o. total eave width ma x Note Toenailing (or mor e fr a ming an c hors) tie roof fr a ming to dou ble top plate to r esist shear for c es par allel and per pendic ular to wall. ma x. Bar ge r af ter Bloc king at panel edges Studs c ontinuous to sole plate wall sheathing nailed per c ode Siding C eiling diaphr ag m if r equir ed C eiling diaphr ag m if r equir ed Siding A High-Wind Rake Balloon Frame to Sheathing Roof sheathing nailed per c ode to tr usses Bar ge r af ter B High-Wind Rake Balloon Frame with Lookouts Roofing Roof sheathing Engineer ed roof tr uss or r af ter with c ollar ties Roofing Top c hor d of engineer ed tr uss 8 f t.c .c . o. Bloc king below str ap Dou ble top plate wall sheathing nailed per c ode Siding STUD WALL WITH SHEATHING AND FINISH C High-Wind Rake Platform Frame D High-Wind Eave . o. 2x4 at approxi mately 5 f t. Studs c ontinuous to sole plate Bloc king at panel edges Wall sheathing nailed per c ode Dou ble top plate Sheathing nailed per c ode to lookouts 24 in. ma x. 2x bloc king at 24 in. Bar ge r af ter 2x6 bloc king bet ween lookouts Roofing Framing 161 Dou ble top plate Roofing Roof sheathing nailed per c ode to dou ble top plate Fr a ming an c hor at shear wall 8 in. 2x bloc king 24 in. o. Engineer ed metal str ap ties tr usses to wall below Fr ieze bloc k with sc r eened vent Fr a ming an c hor ties roof fr a ming to wall sheathing to pr event uplilf t Bot to m c hor d of engineer ed tr uss 3 f t.roofs Fr a ming an c hor at eac h lookout 2x6 lookouts at 24 in. nailed to top of bot to m c hor d 8 in. ma x.c .c .
Both roofing materials have the strength to span across open sheathing. also called skip sheathing. Consult with local codes and builders for the accepted practice. but only if used with roofing systems such as metal or tile. solid sheathing is almost always plywood. Alternative methods of providing a roof diaphragm. in the case of panel sheathing such as plywood or OSB. Metal and tile roofing may be applied to either solid or open sheathing. Solid sheathing—Solid sheathing provides a continuous surface at the plane of the roof. solid sheathing at exposed overhangs is often combined with open sheathing on the rest of the roof. etc . Shingle and shake roofs may also be applied to solid sheathing at exposed eaves and rakes and similar locations. Open sheathing—Open sheathing. The structural panels act as a diaphragm to transfer lateral loads at the plane of the roof to the walls. which usually require ventilation on both sides of the roofing material. the sheathing must be rated for exposure to the weather. must be employed. Open sheathing may also be chosen for economic reasons. Roof-sheathing material must be coordinated with the roofing itself. so other methods of providing lateral-load stability. Metal. of course. it acts with the walls to resist horizontal loads. which have the structural capacity to span between sheathing boards. the common practice is to place a moisture barrier over open sheathing to keep out wind-driven rain. since each type of roofing has special requirements. For economic and structural (lateral-load) reasons. This type of sheathing is necessary for composition roofing and built-up roofing. Tongue-and-groove sheathing. or other structural panels (see 163). however. Recommendations—Sheathing recommendations for roofs by roofing types are as follows: Composition and built-up roofing must be applied to solid sheathing because these roofing materials do not have the structural capacity to span between the boards of open sheathing. a different (more expensive) weather-rated grade of plywood or OSB must be used. tile. which have no structural capacity themselves. The everyday sheathing used on the body of a roof is not rated for weather exposure. r ake. por c h. Wood shingle and shake roofing is best applied over open sheathing because the spacing between the open sheathing allows the roofing to breathe from both sides. At exposed roof overhangs. solid sheathing may A Roof Sheathing Introduction . OSB. solid sheathing is often used. prolonging its life. also be constructed of solid-wood tongue-and-groove boards. In very windy areas. such as diagonal bracing. such as diagonal bracing. is composed of boards spaced apart (see 166). so when exposed eaves and/or rakes occur at the perimeter. In some regions. Combinations. but there is no advantage for either in having them breathe from both sides. must be used with open sheathing. and shingle roofing may also be applied to solid sheathing. This type of roof sheathing is used under wood shingles and shakes. It spans the rafters to support the roofing and. When an exposed ceiling is desired. Sheathing must be weather r ated if exposed at eave. The two basic types of sheathing are solid sheathing and open sheathing. are also possible and often appropriate.162 roofs Sheathing Roof sheathing attaches to the surface of the rafters or trusses to form the structural skin of the roof. For example. Solid board sheathing may also be used at these exposed locations. does not act as a diaphragm.
see 48. Recommended fastening—Recommended fastening is 6 in. to 5⁄ 8 7⁄ 8 Notes—Values in the table above are based on APArated panels continuous over two or more spans with the long dimension of the panel perpendicular to supports. or panel edge clips are required at edges between supports. protc t edges of panels against exposur e to weather.. Panel edge c lips bet ween r af ters provide edge support. in the field (6 in.. A Solid Roof Sheathing Plywood & Non-Veneered Panels . Use two clips for spans of 48 in. spac e bet ween the edges of panels to allow for expansion. see 48.). in. o. For a more solid roof. o. or soffit.c. see below Lower edge or panels bear on fasc ia. The system provides a structural diaphragm and is appropriate for all but wood shingle or shake roofing. in. (For the APA rating stamp.c. Sheathing at exposed overhangs must be exterior or exposure 1–rated and must be thick enough to hold a nail or other roof fastener without penetration of the exposed underside. to 3⁄ 8 in. c hec k with loc al c odes & builders for ac c epted pr ac tic e in your ar ea. o. 1⁄ 2 Maximum span 12 in. Roof-sheathing spans APA rating 12 / 0 16 / 0 24 / 0 32 / 16 48 / 24 5 ⁄ 16 5 ⁄ 16 3⁄ 8 Thickness in. Panel installation—Low cost and ease of installation make plywood or OSB panels the sheathing of choice for most modern roofs. Verify span with panel rating. The standard panel size is 4 ft. r ake. Check local codes and with design professionals for higher loading such as greater snow loads or higher dead loads of concrete tiles or other heavy roofing. dead load. in the field for supports at 48 in. to in. tongue-andgroove edges. to in. 16 in. So me may r equir e nailing at fasc ia. or use T&G panels or bloc king. see 169c Stagger end joints of all roof sheathing panels. Note Most manufac tur ers spec if y a 1⁄ 8 -in. by 8 ft. at edges and 12 in. the minimum rated by the APA—The Engineered Wood Association. in.Sheathing roofs 163 APA-r ating sheating-gr ade panels (unsanded) Long panel di mension per pendic ular to supports. Panels sized for this spac ing ar e available. in. live load and 10-lb. lumber blocking. See 142 & 164 Note Use APA exter ior or exposur e at gr ade panel for exposed eave. reduce spans or increase thickness. For APA r ating sta mp. 32 in. For sheathing spans greater than 24 in. 48 in. which requires ventilation. so rafter or truss spacing that falls on these modules is most practical. Care must be taken to protect panel edges from the weather by the use of trim or edge flashing (see 169C).c. 24 in.) Spans are based on a 30-lb. These ratings are minimum. 15 ⁄ 32 23⁄ 32 in. The gap may be o mit ted in very dry c li mates.
Ver if y nailing with manufac tur er’s spec s. or in a c hannel in a r af ter. 4 in. Ver if y with manufac tur er.0 ft. Loc ate joints over supports for appear an c e. in a c onduit through the insulation above the dec king. Batts are often chosen for colder climates. Rigid insulation is usually the most practical because of its thin profile. 5 in.0 ft.5 ft. A Solid Roof Sheathing Exposed T&G Decking . T&G sheathing (decking) is most often used for exposed ceiling applications. It can also be used selectively at exposed eaves or overhanging rakes. live load for Douglasfir or southern pine species. but it is more expensive than batt insulation.) per support Stagger joints over supports. 3 in.164 roofs Sheathing Note Joints may be made at mid-span for so me end. of insulation (rigid or batts) requires adding a second level of structure above the decking to support the roof. where the thickness of either type Exposed T&G decking spans Nominal thickness 2 in. in most cases (see the table at right). Rafters are spaced at wide centers since the decking will span more than 24 in. The table is for comparison and approximating purposes only. This table assumes a 30-lb.5 ft. species. 17. 10. Insulation will vary with climate and with roofing material. For example. T wo nails (min. live-load values. Approximate span 6. the roof may be braced with metal straps applied to the top of the sheathing or with a layer of plywood or OSB over the decking. Insulation for an exposed ceiling must be located above the sheathing. Because this sheathing material does not provide a diaphragm at the plane of the roof. The actual span capacity depends on roof pitch. Exposed dec king at eave See 165 Note Wir ing must be r un exposed on the sur fac e of the c eiling. and end-joint pattern.matc hed dec king. other means of bracing the roof against horizontal loads must usually be employed. Toenailing at midspan is r equir ed for longer spans. 13.
o.Sheathing roofs 165 Roofing R igid insulation over temper atur e.c. fasteners must be sized to penetrate through the insulation but not through the decking. Fur r ing str ips and/or ply wood sheathing over exposed eave Fr ieze bloc k T&G dec king exposed at eave Roofing Fur r ing over r igid insulation nailed to dec king R igid insulation over temper atur e.c ontrolled spac e T&G exposed dec king Vapor bar r ier bet ween insulation & dec king c ontinuous to inside of wall & c aulked around r af ters. or they may be attached directly to the decking between rows of insulation. Wood shingles or shakes—Wood shingles and shakes last longer it they are allowed to breathe from both sides. commonly require furring strips. The addition of vertical furring strips and sheathing over the insulation with vents at the top and bottom of the assembly will satisfy the requirement for ventilation.c ontrolled spac e T&G exposed dec king Vapor bar r ier bet ween insulation & dec king c ontinuous to inside of wall & c aulked around r af ters. so they should be raised on furring strips above the level of the insulation. Unventilated shingles can get too hot and deteriorate prematurely. The furring strips may be nailed through the rigid insulation to the decking. Ceramic or concrete tiles—Ceramic and concrete tiles. felt. Despite the advantages of breathing. to 5 ft. however. For this construction. The furring strips should be spaced according to the length of the tiles (see 187B. thick. Fur r ing str ips over Eave at sa me spac ing as fur r ing over insulation T&G dec king exposed at eave Insulation Fr ieze bloc k Nailing bloc k for finish wall Insulation Nailing bloc k for finish wall Metal or composition roofing may be applied directly over rigid insulation on T&G sheathing. Composition roofing—Composition roofing may also be applied directly if the insulation board is strong enough to withstand the rigors of the roofing process. wooden nailers equal to the thickness of the insulation and parallel to the decking are recommended to provide a stable surface for roof fasteners. Wood or tile roofing requires another layer of material over the insulation. or 30-lb. 188. like shingles. will not honor their warranty unless the shingles are applied to a ventilated roof.. shingles should be installed over solid sheathing and underlayment in areas with extreme wind-driven rain or snow or if the roof pitch is as low as 3-in-12 or 31⁄ 2-in-12. depending on the profile of the metal roofing. The spaces and cracks between the shakes or shingles will usually provide adequate ventilation. it may be more economical to substitute nonrigid insulation. A Exposed T&G Decking at Eave Metal or Composition Roof B Exposed T&G Decking Eave Wood or Tile Roof . Preformed metal roofing—Preformed metal roofing may be applied directly to the insulation over a layer of 15-lb. Most asphalt-shingle manufacturers. and 189). Nailers should be located 3 ft. In some cases. If the insulation is more than 31⁄ 2 in.
This bracing must be engineered in seismic or high-wind zones or for very large roofs. sheathing is usually made with 1x4 or 1x6 boards nailed horizontally to the rafters with a space between the boards. range. to 14-in. In most cases. T wo nails (min. or skip. Wood shingles or shakes require spacing equal to the exposure of the shingles or shakes—usually about 5 in. Check with local codes and with roofers for accepted local practices. Let-in wooden bracing or metal strap bracing applied to the top or bottom surface of the rafters will suffice in most cases. Since this sheathing material does not provide a diaphragm at the plane of the roof. A Open Roof Sheathing . for shingles to 10 in. Open. for shakes.) per boar d at eac h support Spac ing bet ween sheathing boar ds depends on t ype of roofing (see below).166 roofs Sheathing Stagger ed joints over supports R af ter or tr uss spac ing up to 24 in. Note Many roofers pr efer thr ee or four rows of solid sheathing at the eaves for starter c ourses. The roofing material is heavy. Concrete tiles. Preformed metal roofing is lightweight and runs continuously in the direction of the rafters. so 1x6 or 1x8 or 2x4 sheathing is practical. is adequate. may be installed on open sheathing spaced in the 12-in. Note All boar ds must be c ontinuous through t wo or mor e spans. 1x6 sheathing at 24 in. Spacing for open sheathing depends on the type of roofing. Bracing may sometimes be omitted on hip roofs because the shape of the roof provides the bracing. for most 1x4 or 1x6 sheathing Diagonal br ac ing engineer ed in seis mic or high-wind zones (see below). The ability of the sheathing to span between supports depends on the spacing and on the type of roofing applied over it. other means of bracing the roof against horizontal loads must be employed. The sheathing is usually 1x4. o. depending on the type.c.
are replaced much more frequently than walls. Water running down the surface of the roof should always be directed by the flashing across the surface of the roof. This flashing may be made of material with a life span equivalent to the roof itself. which can last as long as the building. The flashing and its fasteners must be compatible with each other and with the roofing material itself. This way. felt or bituminous paint. Although design principles are transferable from one type of roofing to another. (For a discussion of wall flashing materials. only wind-driven rain can force water through the roofing to the waterproof underlayment (see 177). openings. All flashing materials. Flashing materials and details must be coordinated with the roofing material to make a durable and waterproof roof. flashing and fasteners for metal roofs must be compatible with the roofing metal to avoid galvanic corrosion. see 102. Flashing may be isolated from other materials with 30-lb. away from the gaps covered by the flashing. For example. proportions of materials may vary. For example. The basic principle of roof flashing is to have the roofing. Chimney or wall flashing may not be easily changed when the building is reroofed. roof flashing itself is not always replaced at the same time as the roof. Each detail may have local variations to account for such weather-related factors. should be discussed with local sheet-metal contractors or roofers. the details drawn in this section show a thin-profile roofing material such as asphalt or wood shingles. because roofs are constantly exposed to the weather and.roofs Flashing 167 R idge flashing See 203c & d Valley flashing See 170 Skylight flashing See 175b & c . therefore. A Roof Flashing Introduction . Gravity will then work to direct water down the roof. Flashing makes the roof watertight at edges. the flashing. in most cases. which acts as a second line of defense. Some of these special flashings can be found with the details for the particular roofing type. 176 C hi mney flashing See 173b & 174 Pitc h.) Moreover. so it should be made of materials like copper or stainless steel. and bends in the roof where the roofing material cannot perform the job alone. and other materials overlap one another like shingles.c hange flashing See 173a Sidewall & step flashing See 171 Roof jac ks & vents See 175a Level-wall/ roof flashing See 169d Eave flashing & ic e-da m c ontrol See 169a & B R ake flashing See 169c Inside c or ner flashing See 172b Outside c or ner flashing See 172a Hem med edges & fasteners See 168 Flashing is a necessary component of most roofing systems. but flashing for thicker roofing materials such as tile or shake will have different proportions. Valley or pitch-change flashing will be easy to replace at the time of reroofing if the original roof is removed. You may want to use different flashing materials for roofs than for walls.
the turned-up hemmed edge creates an air gap that prevents moisture from migrating between the roofing and flashing by capillary action. Tucked under roofing. which folds back on itself about 1⁄ 2 in. This fold makes the flashing thicker at the edge. Another method of attaching flashing is the cleat. Cleats may also be used to make concealed connections of flashing. Flashing with hem med edge Roofing 1⁄ 8 -in. which is only made more complete by the presence of water adhering by surface tension to the two surfaces. where the hemmed edge not only resists capillary action but also forms a barrier to water running down the flashing and thus keeps it from running onto the roof sheathing. helps control the flow of water on roofs. (approx.168 roofs Flashing Hemmed edges—One very important detail for roof flashing is the hemmed edge.) air gap Roof sheathing & under lay ment A hemmed edge also works when it is horizontal. The hemmed edge can also form a seal on smooth surfaces such as skylight glass. Wall sheathing Siding & moistur e bar r ier lap flashing. (approx. as shown in the drawings on this page.) air gap Roof sheathing & under lay ment A Roof Flashing Hemmed Edges & Fasteners . Flashing with hem med edge 1⁄ 8 -in. Nails are located at the edge of the flashing to avoid punctures in the flashing where it is designed to keep moisture from entering. Turned down and lapped over roofing.) air gap Roofing Roof sheathing & under lay ment (approx. aside from forming a stronger and neater edge when exposed. which. Roofing Flashing with hem med edge Fasteners—Flashing is usually nailed to the structure. Care must be taken to select nails that will not cause galvanic corrosion. the hemmed edge creates an air gap under the flashing that discourages capillary action. Flashing C leat at bot to m edge of flashing Nail C leat at top edge of flashing C on c ealed c leat at bot to m edge of flashing 8 ⁄ 16 -in. a small metal clip usually made of the same material as the flashing itself. as in sidewall flashing (see 171A & B). Cleats fasten flashing to the roof without puncturing the flashing and allow for expansion and contraction of flashing metal without dislodging of fasteners.
but should be c onsider ed a bac kup str ategy bec ause ic e da ms c an be pr evented with adequate insulation and ventilation. (min. Hem med edge tur ned down for best seal. past metal edge. See 189B & c or 191c Note This flashing is used at the top of a roof wher e the roof abuts a vertic al wall. for 3 12 to 4 12 roofs). C Rake Flashing D Level Wall Flashing . : : T ypic al eave flashing profiles with dr ip edge Note This eave flashing is r equir ed by c ode in many ar eas with c old winters. (min. Sheathing Metal eave flashing with dr ip laps fasc ia (& gut ter). Roofing laps flashing Bar ge r af ter Exter ior wall finish held 1 in.) above level of wall finish Roofing R ake flashing laps over bar ge r af ter & under lay ment. (min. Flashing extends 4 in.) beyond inner fac e of insulated wall (36 in. Gut ter See 196 Fasc ia R af ter C ontinuous bitu minous water proofing mem br ane extends 1⁄ 4 in. Standar d metal eave flashing C ontinuous mem br ane extends 24 in. depending on roof mater ial & pitc h. See 197 & 200 A Eave Flashing Standard B Eave Flashing Cold Climate Sheathing Felt under lay ment Wall sheathing Flashing nailed to wall to 3 in. (min.) onto roof. See 168 Roofing Roof sheathing T ypic al r ake flashing profiles with dr ip edge Note Metal & tile roofs have spec ial r ake flashings.) above bend in flashing.roofs Flashing 169 Roofing Felt under lay ment laps over metal eave flashing.
o. collect the runoff of all the slopes above them. (min. Under lay ment Roofing C leat Under lay ment c ontinuous under flashing if r equir ed for roofing Roofing over laps flashing 4 in. wide at top and in c r eased at 1⁄ 8 in. fasten valley flashing to the roof without puncturing the flashing and allow for expansion and contraction of flashing metal without dislodging fasteners (see 168). Roofing Valley flashing with hem med edge Sheathing Note Note: Bitu minous sheet Bitu minous sheet water proofing laps waterflashing proofing in laps valley valley flashing in e loc ations with sever loc ations sever e Seewith sec tion weather.170 roofs Flashing Valleys on roofs. like valleys in the landscape. flashing is wider and is nailed at the outer edges. See sec tion A-A at lower r ight. Without cleats. 1-in. per linear foot of valley. espec ially in ar eas of extr eme c old. Valley r af ter Section A-A A Valley Flashing . Cleats at 2 ft. bitu minous sheet water proofing is lapped over valley flashing at both sides for length of valley. A-A at lower r ight.c. Notes For valley flashing of asphalt shingles. weather. Open valley flashing is the most common and may be used with virtually all roofing materials. Valley flashing extends full length of valley. see 181b.) Valley r af ter A A In loc ations with sever e weather. to 6 in. For roll roofing without flashing. c lear an c e bet ween roofing Roofing Roof sheathing Valley bet ween roofing is wider at eave than at top. Except when using roofing materials that can bend. see 183b & c . 5-in. such as asphalt shingles or roll roofing. valleys are usually flashed with metal flashing. To handle such a concentration of water. An open valley allows the runoff water to flow within the confines of the exposed metal flashing rather than over the roofing material itself. c r i mp in flashing if roof planes disc har ge unequal amounts of r ainwater due to unequal pitc hes or unequal ar eas of watershed. valleys must be carefully flashed. T ypic al valley is 5 in.
(min. Flashing (shown without wall finish) Roofing Sidewall or step flashing A Sidewall & Step Flashing Introduction B Sidewall Flashing Wall sheathing Flashing Finish wall and moistur e bar r ier lap flashing at wall. It may present some reroofing difficulties. one c ourse at a ti me. Step flashing (befor e it is c over ed by next c ourse of roofing) Nail near top edge above pr evious flashing.) up wall and 4 in. Keep siding nails out of flashing to allow vertic al adjust ment when r eroofing. (min. This flashing is best for severe weather conditions. Step flashing is a multiple-piece flashing that is woven in with the courses of roofing material (see 171C). Roof c ourses laid over eac h c ourse of step flashing Flashing Roofing Sheathing Notes Step-flashing piec es ar e 2 in. This type of flashing is adequate for most situations and allows easy reroofing. Wall sheathing Flashing Finish wall and moistur e bar r ier lap flashing at wall. longer than roof c oursing exposur e and ar e installed with the roofing mater ial. C Step Flashing . Maintain gap bet ween siding and roofing to avoid soaking siding. Keep roofing nails out of flashing. Roofing Hem med edge for ms c hannel. (min. Roofing Flashing laps 2 in.roofs Flashing 171 Sidewall flashing is a single-piece flashing installed before the roofing to create a flashing channel against the wall (see 171B).) at sidewalls.) onto roof. Exter ior wall finish and moistur e bar r ier will lap step flashing. Flashing di mensions depend on roofing mater ial and pitc h. Flashing extends 3 in. especially if the type of roofing material is changed.
Solder ed c or ner flashing wr aps level wall flashing. Site. Level wall flashing See 169d Soldered Flashing for Extreme Weather Soldered Flashing for Extreme Weather A Outside Corner Flashing Lapped Flashing for Moderate Weather B Inside Corner Flashing Lapped Flashing for Moderate Weather . Sl ro ope of o f Level wall flashing. notc hed for step or sidewall flashing Bot to m edges of flashings lap roofing. Sl ro ope of o f Level wall flashing laps roofing and step or sidewall flashing.172 roofs Flashing Lap flashing with moistur e bar r ier and wall finish (not shown). Lap flashing with moistur e bar r ier and wall finish (not shown). wall flashing. Lap flashing with moistur e bar r ier and wall finish (not shown). Sl ro ope of o f Sidewall or step flashing See 171 Bot to m edges of solder ed c or ner flashing and level wall flashing lap roofing. Lap flashing with moistur e bar r ier and wall finish (not shown). see 169d. as allowed by siding. Note Roofing (not shown) laps sidewall or step flashing. Note: Roofing (not shown) laps sidewall or step flashing. Sidewall of step flashing laps solder ed c or ner flashing. Sl ro ope of of Note Roofing (not shown) laps sidewall or step flashing. Note Roofing (not shown) laps sidewall or step flashing and solder ed c or ner flashing. Step or sidewall flashing laps wall flashing.bent top edges of step or sidewall flashing lap onto top wall. Lapped Flashing for Moderate Weather Lapped Flashing for Moderate Weather Solder ed c or ner flashing laps sidewall or step flashing. and roofing. Vertic al leg of step or sidewall flashing extends below c or ner.
see 172a. Roofing laps base flashing 4 in.c .) or Alter native outside c or ner flashing at both c or ners. C o m bined with abut ting roof flashing. Sheathing R af ters A Pitch-Change Flashing C r ic ket at top side of c hi mney as for masonry c hi mney. see 169d. Roofing stops above br eak in flashing. or 24 in. Roofing Roofing Sheathing Pitc h. see 135 & 149b. Base flashing wr aps c or ners. Reduced pitchchange flashing can be avoided in favor of a cleaner detail by bending asphalt shingles or by soaking or steaming and bending wood shingles. At tac h lower edge of flashing with c leats to avoid pun c tur ing flashing. tiles and slates can make the transition without flashing. The flashing detail at left applies to both reduced pitch (shown) and increased pitch. see 175-176. o. or Alter native sidewall flashing. Extr a sheathing Fur r ing at 16 in. (min. (min.roofs Flashing 173 Loc ate flashing fasteners at upper edge of flashing.) Note For c lar it y. (min.c hange fr a ming See 133b Length of upper leg of flashing depends on roofing mater ial & slope. extends under shingles at sides 4 in. see 171b. Loc ate roofing fasteners above flashing. or skylights. See 174 Wall sheathing on fr a ming of wood flue Step flashing woven with roofing c ourses (shown befor e it is lapped with moistur e bar r ier & siding). B Chimney Flashing Wood-Framed Flue . Note This flashing is also applic able for any wood-fr a med protr usion through the roof su c h as dor mers. see 171c . wall finish is not shown.) & laps shingles at base 4 in. The pitch change can also be made gradual by adding a strip of sheathing at the bend in the roof (see below) so that stiffer roofing materials such as wood shingles and shakes.
many of the pieces in chimney flashing cannot be folded but must be soldered or welded. (min. a through-pan flashing that extends continuously through the chimney should be considered. Roofing laps base flashing 4 in. Side & Cricket In severe climates. A chimney located in the slope of the roof will require a cricket (also called a saddle). (min. Flue Solder ed c r ic ket wr aps c or ners. See 171c Solder ed c ounter flashing c ontinuous around c or ner laps c r ic ket. The flashing for a masonry chimney is best made of permanent materials such as copper or stainless steel. where it acts as counterflashing. as shown in the drawing below. C hi mney Flashing Through-Pan Flashing A Chimney Flashing Masonry .) & laps step or other side of flashing 4 in. Most crickets may be formed with exterior-grade plywood.) at top edge. a ridged connection Side & Base between chimney and roof that directs water away from the chimney. (min. larger crickets may need to be framed like a typical roof.). extends under shingles at sides 4 in.) and laps shingles at base 4 in. (min.). Solder ed base flashing wr aps c or ners.). It is wrapped down at the edges.174 roofs Flashing Step flashing woven with roofing c ourses See 171c C ounter flashing set in mortar 1 in. It is made of lead or copper and is penetrated only by the flue. The flashing fits to the roof using the same principles as flashing for wood-framed flues (see 173B). laps itself 2 in. The continuous flashing through the chimney does weaken the masonry bond. Because of the complex shapes. (min. (min.). The entire surface of the cricket is flashed. The top edge of this flashing is then lapped with a counterflashing that is set into the mortar joints between masonry units. is set in mortar 2 in. so this flashing should not be used in earthquake or hurricane zones. this c an also be made with t wo piec es—a base flashing with c ounter flashing set in mortar. extends under roofing 6 in. (min. Through-pan flashing prevents water from migrating through the masonry to a level below the flashing. C ounter flashing set in mortar & c ut to slope of c r ic ket Step flashing (not visi ble) woven with roofing c ourses. (min. (min.) at top edge.) and tur ns up against c hi mney 4 in.
Jacks for metal roofs pose special problems.). Some are available with a kit to adapt the flashing to unusual roofing materials or pitches. Jacks are woven in with roofing materials where possible. With these skylights. Rough-opening sizes are specified and usually correspond with standard rafter spacing. Skylights are available in fixed or operable types with screens and/or sun-shade devices. C Skylight Curb Flashing For Use with Manufactured Skylight . see 136A & B. Extends under roofing at top edge 6 in.) & tur ns up against c ur b. Some codes prohibit these skylights because of the requirement for a curb. extends under shingles at sides 4 in. Modern roof jacks are typically fitted with neoprene gaskets sized to seal plumbing vents and other roof penetrations. Flashing laps roofing at bot to m. Most skylights are manufactured with a complete flashing package and instructions for installation in a rough opening in the roof framing. For skylight framing. R af ter for ms side of rough opening. such as a dormer or a chimney (see 174 and 175C).) & laps shingles at base 4 in.) & side edges 4 in. A Roof Jacks and Vents B Skylight Flashing Notes Solder ed top flashing wr aps c or ners.roofs Flashing 175 Neopr ene gasket Roof jac k Roofing laps flashing at sides & top. (min. Site-built curbless skylights are fixed and appear flush with the roof (see 176). the curb must be flashed like any other large penetration of the roofing surface. (min. 2x c ur b fr a med on top of roof sheathing & per pendic ular to the roof S mooth sur fac e wood c ur b sealed & r eady for applic ation of skylight Step flashing woven with roofing c ourses See 171c Solder ed (or folded) base flashing wr aps c or ners. (min. (min. Many fixed skylights require a flashed curb to which the manufactured skylight is attached.
Skylight gla zing To 2x ledger Rough-opening fr a ming sid e p Top om bo Roofing Step flashing (shown) or sidewall flashing Spr ing-fit side tr i m flashing Skylight gla zing tt Glass & flashing lap roofing 3 in. Insulated glass should limit condensation on the glazing. Codes that require curbs preclude the use of these skylights. C lips hold glass at base. The top and side details above right are suitable in such a case. Roofing Roof sheathing Top flashing laps gla zing 3 in. (min.176 roofs Flashing Notc h side flashing her e to allow roofing to over lap. In extremely cold climates. where the lower edge of the skylight does not have to lap the roofing. Skylight gla zing C lips (shown dashed) sc r ewed to fr a ming & with c ushions at glass edge Hem med bot to m flashing notc hed for c lips Roofing Roof sheathing Rough-opening fr a ming Bottom A Curbless Skylight . This condition. there is no need for any caulking of these skylights except at the notch at the top of the side flashing.). Side flashing & glass supported by ledger that slopes less than roof. A site-built curbless skylight is woven in with the roofing. Its bottom edge laps the roofing. will simplify the details on this page because the slope of the skylight can be the same as the roof. often found in attached greenhouses. Roofing & top flashing lap glass & side flashing 3 in. (min.). If built properly. Side flashing with hem med edge for ming gut ter 1x ledger Roof sheathing R af ter Side Tr i m flashing hooks onto c lips & protec ts glass edge.) at base. the side flashing should be thermally isolated from the other flashing to prevent condensation on the flashing itself. (min. Curbless skylights are especially practical at the eave edge of a roof. Ledgers at the sides of the rough opening provide the support at this lower pitch. This means that the skylight itself must be at a slightly lower pitch than the roof. but any condensation that does form can weep out through the clip notches in the bottom flashing. c aulk or solder edge or notc h. and its top edge is lapped by roofing.
local climatic conditions. the materials that cost the most also last the longest. A 4-in-12 roof slope. fire resistance. Slope—The slope of a roof is measured as a proportion of rise to run of the roof. and some metal roofs may be applied to 1-in-12 slopes. shakes (see 186–187A). Many roofing materials require a waterproof underlayment to be installed over solid sheathing before roofing is applied. In the case of wood shakes. insulation (see 197–205). and flashing (see 167–176). Next in the order of expense are asphalt shingles (see 182–183). There are wide variations among roofing manufacturers. Flat roofs (1⁄ 8-in-12 to 1⁄4-in-12) are roofed with a built-up coating or with a single ply membrane (see 178–179). for example. the least expensive roofing is roll roofing (see 180–181). Special measures may be taken to allow asphalt shingles on a 2-in-12 slope and wood shingles or shakes on a 3-in-12 slope. Some roofing materials may be applied over rigid insulation. for every 12 in. Normal-slope roofs (4-in12 to 12-in-12) are the slopes required for most roofing materials. which are now made with lower-grade material than in the past. but in general. 12 in. rises 4 in. Extremely expensive roofs such as slate and standing-seam metal are not discussed in depth in this book. others may not. and tile (see 187B–189). usually 15-lb. The selection of a roofing material must be carefully coordinated with the design and construction of the roof itself. which can be applied quickly.roofs Roofing 177 With the exception of wood roofs. but others require solid sheathing. Durability—As would be expected. Underlayment. Some factors to consider are the type of roof sheathing (see 162–166). Wood shakes and shingles can be chemically treated to resist fire. today’s roofing materials will last longer than ever before. Shake and shingle roofs can last as long under proper conditions but are never put under warranty. is often used to keep the building dry until the permanent roofing is applied. but fiberglass-based asphalt shingles and roll roofing can also be rated in the highest class for fire resistance. felt. For example. the slope of a roof can be matched to the type of roofing. and the slope (pitch) of the roof. Preformed metal and asphalt shingles are usually under a warranty in the 15-year to 30-year range. but are not as resistant as other types of roofing. the underlayment layer is woven in with the roofing courses and is called interlayment (see 186). of run. wood shingles (see 184–185). some roofing materials perform best on open sheathing. Composite materials now take the place of most natural roofing materials. Cost—Considering both labor and materials. followed by preformed metal (see 190). 4 in. Fire resistance—Tile and metal are the most resistant to fire. Some materials such as built-up roofing are designed for lower slopes and may not be applied to normal slopes. s lo 4 12 : pe r oo f A Roofing Introduction . Shallowslope roofs (1-in-12 to 4-in-12) are often roofed with roll roofing. including wood shingle and slate. Other considerations for selecting a roofing material include cost. Concrete-tile roofs typically have a 50-year warranty. durability. and can be installed with less labor.
The slope may be achieved with the framing of the roof (see 139) or with tapered insulation. a flat roof is best selected by a design professional and constructed by a reputable roofing contractor. the single-ply roof is less labor intensive and more elastic than the built-up roof. but. like the built-up roof. roller. Roof sheathing R af ter A Flat Roofing Introduction C Flat Roof Edge at Wall . Water is usually contained at the edges of a flat roof with a curb or a wall and directed to a central drain (see 179B) or scupper at the edge of the roof (see 57D). If the roof is going to be used for a terrace or walkway. their flexibility allows them to be applied without the cant strips required of built-up roofs (see 178B & C). A continuous gutter at the edge of a flat roof can also collect the water. where they may be applied by an untrained person without specialized tools. Exter ior wall finish laps metal flashing. Metal flashing with drop laps roofing mater ial. Built-up roof—A built-up roof is composed of several layers of asphalt-impregnated felt interspersed with coats of hot tar (bitumen) and capped with gravel. This traditional and effective method is in widespread use. or mechanically fastened to the roof. There are several application methods for flat roofs: Wooden c ur b with c ant (slope) to pr event r ight angles in roofing mater ial Metal flashing c ontinuous over c ur b and with dr ip at wall side Roof slope Roofing mater ial c ontinuous over top of c ur b Roof sheathing Sheathing & wall finish R af ter Note This c ur b is gener ally used in c onjun c tion with a sc upper when the roof slopes towar d the outside edge of the building. climate is one factor. The application is technical and should be performed by professional roofers. Liquid-applied roofs are practical for small areas. But the fact that a flat roof is covered with a large continuous waterproof membrane presents some special technical problems. but must slope to drain water or manufacturers will not guarantee their products. Roofing mater ial c ontinuous to above c ant str ip. For these reasons. warranties start at five years. or spray. but most manufacturers recommend 1⁄4 in. The actual slope depends on the application. see 57d. can also cover small areas. Application is technical. C ontinuous wooden c ant str ip pr events r ight angles in roofing mater ial. As with all roofs. Seams are glued with adhesive or heat sealed. the effects of foot traffic must also be considered (see 56 and 57). Liquid-applied roof—Liquid-applied roofing polymerizes from chemicals suspended in volatile solvents to form a watertight elastomeric membrane that adheres to the sheathing. Single-ply roof—A more recent development in roofing. Single-ply roofs are usually applied to large areas. per ft. B Flat Roof Edge with Curb Note Wall fr a ming & sheathing not shown. The selection of an appropriate roofing system for a flat roof can be complicated. using brush. For s c upper. weighted with gravel ballast. such as expansion and contraction. Warranties range from one to five years. The single-ply roof is applied as a membrane and glued. Application is usually in several coats.178 roofs Roofing Flat roofs aren’t actually flat.
squar e (min.) laps sheathing. A Flat Roof Edge with Gravel Stop B Flat Roof Drain . roof sheathing Note This detail is gener ally used when the roof slopes away fro m the edge towar d a c entr al dr ain. See 179b C la mping r ing c la mps dr ain assem bly to roof sheathing. C ast-iron or plastic str ainer Metal flashing 30 in. Roofing mater ial c ontinuous to gr avel stop Roof sheathing Exter ior wall sheathing & finish Roof joist Dr ain assem bly c ontinuous through sheathing to at tac hed dr ainpipe.roofs Roofing 179 Roof slope Metal gr avel-stop flashing sealed to roofing mater ial Roofing mater ial laps flashing & is c la mped by str ainer.
Double-coverage roll roofing may be applied with the courses parallel to the eave or to the rake (see 181A). Roll roofing must be applied over solid sheathing and does not require underlayment. to 90 lb. per square (100 sq. starter str ip with adhesive 3 la -in p .). The rolls may be parallel to the eaves or to the rake. o.180 roofs Roofing Roll roofing is an inexpensive roofing for shallowpitch roofs (1-in-12 to 4-in-12). it cannot adjust to dimensional change. the roof is covered with a double layer of felt. starter str ip at all edges nailed at 4 in. but it makes a more durable roof. to 3 ⁄ 8 -in. (min. Roll roofing weighs 55 lb. A minimum pitch of 2-in-12 is required for the exposednail method. Double-coverage roofing is more expensive than single-coverage roofing. A roll roofing Introduction Solid roof sheathing See 163 & 164 C old-set asphalt adhesive seals roofing to roofing & top lap. 12-in. long rolls are made with a fiberglass or organic felt base that is impregnated with asphalt and covered on the surface with mineral granules similar to asphalt shingles. re R ake flashing See 169c b single-coverage roll roofing Conceded-Nail Method . unlike asphalt shingles. po ro Eave flashing See 169a & b Note Lap all end joints 6 in. wide by 36-ft. & c over ed with adhesive Top edge nailing var ies with manufac tur er. per square. There are two basic types of roll roofing. In this fashion. to 4-in. The rolls are lapped over each other so that the surfaced portion of each roll laps over the smooth portion of the previous course. Double coverage—Double-coverage rolls are half surfaced with mineral granules and half smooth. It is easily nailed in place without using any specialized equipment. lap. ft. fiberglass-base roofing is the longest lasting. The 36-in. single coverage and double coverage. Single coverage—Single-coverage roofing rolls are uniformly surfaced with mineral granules and are applied directly to the roof sheathing with only a 2-in. The smooth part of the roll is called the selvage. to 140 lb. Each course of roofing is sealed to the previous course with either cold asphalt adhesive or hot asphalt. projec tion at eave & r ake n n .c . 33 -i 36 .). Several colors are available. which is sealed with roofing adhesive. The average life expectancy for roll roofing ranges from 10 to 15 years. A disadvantage of all roll roofing is that it can bubble upward when hot because. 12-in. The double layer of felt weighs 110 lb. su ll Fasc ia Note Roofing may also be installed with rolls par allel to r ake or with exposed nailing. The roofing may be applied using the concealed-nail method (see 180B) or the exposed-nail method (not shown). ex -i 1⁄ 4 -in. Single coverage is the least expensive and the least durable of the roll-roofing methods. Fiberglass-base rolls are also more resistant to fire.
l n -i ra e 17 e a c n i m urf s . ll R ake flashing See 169c . projec tion at eave & r ake se 36 -i n .c over age roll roofing Eave flashing See 169a & b Fasc ia Note R idge detail is si milar to hip detail. roll with miner al fac e up extends entir e length of valley nail sparsely at edges. Single (shown) or dou ble. 36-in. fro m c enter line of valley.i ag 19 lv . re n -i su 16 x p o e 1⁄ 4 -in. (min.).c over age roof. 12-in. .roofs Roofing 181 Nails in selvage portion or roll per manufac tur er’s instr u c tions Solid roof sheathing See 163 C old-set asphalt adhesive bet ween selvage & miner al sur fac e portion of eac h c ourse 19-in. selvage starter str ip c ut fro m top of roll & nailed to sheathing per manufac tur er’s instr u c tions Lap all end joints 6 in. fasten edge with roofing adhesive. e n . x 36-in. B Roll-Roofing Valley & Hip (or Ridge) Double or Single Coverage . to 3 ⁄ 8 -in. Lap roll roofing to 3 in. str ip with miner al fac e down extends entir e length of valley. str ip c ut fro m dou ble c over age roofing mater ial miner al-sur fac e portion laps onto selvage portion nailed per manufac tur er’s dir ec tions and c oated with asphalt adhesive as for dou ble. . A Double-Coverage Roll Roofing Roofing tr i m med to but t at c enter line of hip (shown) or r idge 18-in. ro Eave flashing See 169a & b Fasc ia Note Roofing may also be installed with rolls par allel to r ake.
fro m sec ond c ourse & 8 in. Standar d field shingles have 3 taps & weigh 235 lb. They are easily nailed in place. Eave flashing See 169a & b For hip. Fourth c ourse starts with full shingle minus one full tab. Sec ond c ourse starts with full shingle minus 1⁄ 2 tab. Common Shingle Patterns Other less c o m mon pat ter ns ar e also available. lightweight. fro m thir d c ourse. See 169b 15-lb. starter str ip of bitu minous water proofing. and easily cut and bent. use airdriven staples. A Asphalt-Shingle Roofing . or other uneven materials. That is why asphalt shingles are so popular nationwide. some with extra thickness to imitate shakes. Shingles made with fiberglass are more durable and more resistant to fire than those of organic felt. Alter native pat ter ns available with so me thic ker tabs to r esem ble mor e natur al roofs. valley & r idge details. Self-sealing adhesive available on top side of shingles to protec t against wind. They are inexpensive. Asphalt shingles have a fiberglass or organic-felt base that is impregnated with asphalt and covered on the surface with granulated stone or ceramic material. see 183. using no specialized equipment. First c ourse starts with full shingle. waterproof. which gives them color.182 roofs Roofing Composite asphalt shingles are almost the perfect roofing material. R ake flashing See 169c Thir d c ourse starts with full shingle minus one tab. per squar e (100 sq. Standar d field shingles may be c ut into 3 piec es to make hip or r idge shingles. f t. Alter native starting pat ter n (see below for si mpler shingle pat ter n) r emoves 4 in. They are available in a wide range of colors and textures. felt under lay ment lapped over eave flashing See 169a 4 nails per shingle loc ated above slots & indentations Dr ip edge laps under lay ment at r ake. Solid roof sheathing See 163-165 C odes in c old c li mates of ten r equir e a 36-in.). however. with warranties from 15 to 30 years. slate. felt underlayment. starter c ourse with tabs c ut off to be offset 3 in. There is also a range of quality. Asphalt shingles must be applied over a solid sheathing covered with 15-lb. Many roofing contractors.
(min. Hip shingle made fro m 1⁄ 3 of field shingle folded over hip & exposed 5 in.) c enter ed on valley Extr a nail Eave flashing Asphalt-Shingle Valley Extend eac h shingle 12 in. (min. Dir ec tion of pr evailing wind Apply roofing c ement under edge of shingle tr i m med 2 in. roll roofing (min. or sa me as field shingles. Eave flashing Fas c ia Alter nate lap of c ourses fro m eac h side of valley.) beyond c enter line of valley. fro m c enter of valley. roll roofing (min. Eave flashing Fasc ia Dou ble first c ourse of hip shingles. (min.roofs Roofing 183 Tr i m field shingles to c enter line of hip.) beyond c enter line of valley. R idge shingles made fro m 1⁄ 3 of field shingle folded over r idge & exposed 5 in. C Closed-Cut Valley D Asphalt-Shingle Ridge . Fasc ia Dou ble starter shingles Wr ap under lay ment over r idge. Extend field shingles to r idge.) c enter ed on valley Extend shingles 12 in. A Asphalt-Shingle Hip B 36-in. 55 lb. roll roofing (min. or sa me as field shingles. 55 lb.) fro m c enter line of valley. 36-in.) c enter ed on hip Keep nails 6 in. 36-in. 55 lb.
long. Fasc ia Eave flashing See 169a & b C oursing is 4 in.) for thr ee su c c essive c ourses. range. They are sawn on both sides to a taper. but are also available in redwood and cypress. to 10-in. depending on roof pitc h. usually in the 3-in. Roof shingles are made predominantly from clear western red cedar. However. wood shingles will last longer if applied over open sheathing (see 166) because they will be able to breathe and dry out from both sides and therefore be less susceptible to rot and other moisturerelated damage. R ake flashing See 169c For valley & hip details. Furthermore. They must be installed over solid sheathing that is covered with a plastic-coated steel foil. and they continue to be very popular. 18-in. see 185a. however. Use solid sheathing and underlayment. For r idge detail.) spac e bet ween shingles 1⁄ 4 -in. 1-in. shingle size & shingle gr ade. 2 nails per shingle at edge & about 1 in. with the advent of the asphalt shingle. A Wood-Shingle Roofing . to 7 in. wood shingles have been used extensively for roofing. There are several grades of wood shingles. they have recently lost their dominance as a roofing material.). see 185b.184 roofs Roofing For centuries. over hang at r ake Dou ble first c ourse over hangs eave about 1 in. above c ourse line Spac ed roof sheathing c oor dinates with shingle exposur e. their use continues to decline because of cost increases and a drop in the quality of the raw materials. Standard shingles are 16 in. only the highest grade should be used for roofing. In most cases. and have a uniform butt thickness. (min. Chemically treated fire-rated shingles are available. lengths are also available. Widths are random. (min. (min. for low pitch (3-in-12 and 31⁄ 2-in-12) and in areas of severe wind-driven snow. and 24-in. See 166 Offset spac e bet ween shingles 11⁄ 2 in.. Dou ble first c ourse with sides lapped 11⁄ 2 in.
B Wood-Shingle Ridge . Tr i m shingles par allel to valley. Shingles lap valley flashing 6 in. 5-in.roofs Roofing 185 Maintain 6 in.). Eave flashing See 169a & b Selec t widest shingles for valley edges. (min. Tr i m dou ble first c ourse of hip shingles to line of eave. Tr i m field shingles to c enter line of r idge.) c lear an c e bet ween shingles. Metal valley flashing See 170 Alter nate lap dir ec tion of manufac tur ed hip shingles. Fasc ia A Wood-Shingle Valley & Hip Dir ec tion of pr evailing wind Extend field shingles to r idge. exposur e for r idge shingles Dou ble starter shingle Alter nate lap dir ec tion of r idge shingles. (min.
) over hang at eave 18-in. to 10 in. depending on roof pitc h. Spac ed roof sheathing at spac ing equal to c ourse spac ing of shakes See 166 Inter lay ment of 18-in. long and come in heavy or medium thickness.) spac e bet ween shakes Fasc ia Eave flashing See 169a & b Dou ble first c ourse over hangs eave about 2 in. the split side is exposed to the weather because it has small smooth grooves parallel to the grain that channel rainwater down the surface of the shake. The courses of shakes are usually alternated with an interlayment of 30-lb. shake size & gr ade. (3 ⁄ 4 in. not sawn. Standard shakes are 18 in. above c ourse line Inter lay ment spac ing equals c ourse spac ing. (min. see 187a. shakes will last a great deal longer than wood shingles made of the same material. R ake flashing See 169c For shake valley & hip (r idge) detail. Solid sheathing and cold-climate eave flashing (see 169B) are recommended in areas that have wind-driven snow.186 roofs Roofing Wood shakes are popular for their rustic look and their durability. 2 nails per shake at edge & about 2 in. and because they are considerably thicker. Shakes may have split faces and sawn backs or be taper-split with both sides having a split surface. In either case. inter lay ment bet ween layers of dou ble first c ourse 2-in. but they are split to achieve a taper instead of being sawn. C ourse spac ing is 71⁄ 2 in. with gut ter). They are made from the same materials as wood shingles.) for thr ee su c c essive c ourses. (min. Because the weather side of the shake is split. wide 30-lb. Wood shakes may be applied over open sheathing (see 166) or solid sheathing (see 163). or 24 in.. felt Offset spac e bet ween shakes 11⁄ 2 in. A Wood-Shake Roofing . (min. 18-in. felt that retards the penetration of moisture through the relatively large gaps between shakes. inter lay ment under dou ble first c ourse 1⁄ 4 -in.
Most manufacturers recommend installing the tiles on solid sheathing with 30-lb. 30-lb. felt inter lay ment laps valley flashing. Their use is still common in the southern extremes of this country. See 170 Alter nate lap dir ec tion of manufac tur ed hip (shown) or r idge shingles. but most concrete tile-roof systems have a 50-year warranty. Tr i m dou ble first c ourse to line of eave. They are available in a variety of shapes and colors. felt underlayment and pressure-treated nailing battens under each course. This extra weight may require that the roof structure be bolstered in some situations. which is about 21⁄ 2 to 5 times the weight of asphalt shingles. Course spacing is usually about 13 in. per square foot (psf). c lear an c e to c enter line of valley.. which cost less and have better quality control. to eac h side of c enter line of valley. and can be adjusted to make courses equal on each slope of roof. Most tile patterns fall in the range of 16 in. The cost of concrete tiles themselves is high compared to other common roofing materials. Field Tile T ypic al Field Tile Profiles R ake Tile Hip or R idge Tile b Concrete-Tile Roofing Introduction & Types of Tile . wide. Note Wood-shake r idge is si milar to hip. to 13 in. Dou ble first c ourse with alter nate laps.roofs Roofing 187 30-lb. to 101⁄ 2 lb. felt under hip or r idge shakes R egular c oursing shakes tr i m med to c enter line of hip or r idge Metal valley flashing 12 in. long and 9 in. Fasc ia Eave flashing See 169a & b A Wood-Shake Valley & Hip Clay tiles have been used in warm climates for centuries. to 18 in. Tiles weigh from 6 lb. Allow 3 in. but they have recently been superseded by concrete tiles. Concrete tiles are made from high-density concrete coated with a waterproof resin.
188 roofs Roofing 2 non c or rosive nails at top of eac h tile Note Adjust tile c ourse exposur e at eac h roof slope to make c ourses equal. But t hip tiles to bot to m of eac h c ourse of field tiles. 6 in. Eave detail See 189a Note R idge tiles ar e si milar to hip tiles. See 189a Eave detail See 189a A Concrete-Tile Roofing C ut c on c r ete tiles par allel to valley. Tr i m head of bot to m r ake tile so that tile is flush with eave. or fasc ia. see 189c . Nail r ake tiles at side. felt under lay ment over solid sheathing felt lapped 21⁄ 2 in. Manufac tur ed hip tiles c onfor m to slope of roof. nail eac h hip tile at top. Bar ge r af ter Tile c ourses lap about 3 in. but angle differs for steep pitc hes. Valley flashing See 170 C ut first hip of tile to line of eave. at joints par allel to slope. B Concrete-Tile Valley & Hip . Stagger joints bet ween tiles on alter nate c ourses. metal c losur e str ip. R ake tiles lap field tiles. Hip tiles lap eac h other by sa me a mount as field tiles. at hor izontal joints. . 1x2 pr essur e-tr eated or c edar bat tens nailed to fac e of under lay ment 30-lb. First c ourse of tiles with lower edge elevated by starter tile. Top of r ake tiles but t to bot to m of field tiles. See 189b For metal-tr i m med r ake detail.
Fas c ia elevated to maintain pitc h of first tile c ourse.) fur r ing level with top edges of field tiles Flashing with edge tur ned up for ms c hannel under edge of field tiles.) under lay ment Solid roof sheathing See 163-164 R ake tile integr ated with c oursing of field tiles & nailed to fur r ing 3-in (min. felt (min.roofs Roofing 189 30-lb.) head lap C on c r ete roof tile 1x2 c edar or pr essur e-tr eated bat ten at c enters equal to exposur e of tile c ourses. A Concrete-Tile Eave B Concrete-Tile Rake Tile Rake Flashing with edge tur ned up for ms c hannel under edge of field tiles & with dr ip at bar ge r af ter. felt under lay ment Roof sheathing Bar ge r af ter or tr i m boar d Flash over fas c ia. 2x2 (approx. lap flashing with under lay ment. Field tiles 1x2 pr essur e-tr eated or c edar bat ten 30-lb. felt under lay ment Roof sheathing Bar ge r af ter or tr i m boar d C Concrete-Tile Rake Metal Rake . Field tiles 1x2 pr essur e-tr eated or c edar bat ten R af ter or tr uss 30-lb.
metal roofs are best suited to simple shed or gable roofs without extensive valleys and hips. Choose fasteners and flashing that are compatible with the roofing in order to avoid corrosive galvanic action. long-lasting. The rolled metal panels are lightweight. Translucent fiberglass or plastic panels that match the profile of some metal roofing patterns are also available as skylights. to 4 ft. (Vents are best located at the ridge. where proper ventilation of the roofing system does not suffice. Valley (& hip) details See 192a Pitc h c hange See 192c A Preformed Metal Roofing . felt (installed parallel to the roofing panels) will insulate the roofing from moisture-laden air and also provide protection from what little condensation does occur. snow loads & t ype of roofing. apart.190 roofs Roofing Low-cost metal roofs of aluminum or galvanized steel have been used for some time on agricultural and industrial buildings. or more. a fiberboard backing covered with 30-lb. A baked-on or porcelain enamel finish is often warranteed for 20 years. Rolled-metal sheets are typically 2 ft. which are 2x’s spaced 2 ft. so the load on each purlin is great. Because the metal roofing has structural capacity. and the galvanized steel or aluminum over which it is applied will last for another 20 years in most climates. and the design of the purlins that support the roofing is a critical factor. skylights. where they are most easily flashed with the ridge flashing. it is possible to install the roofing over purlins. dormers. wide and are factory-cut to the full length of the roof from eave to ridge.c ut full length fro m eave to r idge R ake detail See 191c Eave detail See 191b Spac ing bet ween sheathing boar ds depends on roof pitc h. which can occur on metal roofs. and extremely simple to install. Small openings such as vents should be kept to a minimum and collected wherever possible into single openings. Care must also be taken to avoid condensation. A wide range of finish colors is available with coordinated flashing and trim metal. R idge detail See 192b Pur lin or Open (skip) roof sheathing See 166 or Solid sheathing with under lay ment See 163-164 Metal roofing fac tory. In cold climates. New panel patterns and new finishes have made metal roofing popular for residential and commercial buildings. and other interruptions of the simple system will be located at an uncut factory edge. to 3 ft. Most metal roofing panels will span 4 ft. Because of the difficulty of field cutting at angles.) The width of the roof itself should be carefully coordinated with the width of roofing panels so that rake trim.
A Metal Roofing Types Profiles Roof sheathing Roof sheathing 30-lb. felt under lay ment C losur e str ip available with so me roofing profiles. Snap-Together Roofing Su bsequent piec e snap-fastens to edge of piec e pr e viously nailed. R af ter or tr uss Bar ge r af ter or ver ge r af ter or r ake tr i m B Metal-Roof Eave C Metal-Roof Rake . Corrugated Roofing Sc r ew (or nail) with neopr ene washer is loc ated on r idge of c or r ugation bec ause valleys ar e not wide or flat enough.) for ming dr ip. Flat-head nail is c over ed so neopr ene washer is unnec essary. (min. Metal roofing Metal roofing over hangs fasc ia 1 in. It’s diffic ult to adjust tension of nail or s c r ew. Fasc ia R ake flashing laps high point of roofing metal & laps bar ge with dr ip at tac h with sc r ews or nails with neopr ene washers. felt under lay ment 30-lb.roofs Roofing 191 Ribbed Roofing Sc r ew (or nail) with neopr ene washer loc ated in flat (valley) part of roofing pro motes tight seal of washer. Sec tions ar e nar rower for this t ype. . Note So me manufac tur ers r ec o m mend neopr ene tape at joints.
T ypic al valley flashing See 170
Hip flashing laps 6 in. (min.) to eac h side of c enter line of hip at tac h with sc r ews or nails with neopr ene washers.
Flashing laps roofing 6 in. (min.)
Metal r idge flashing made fro m sa me mater ial as roofing C losur e flashing at top of metal roofing keeps out insec ts & wind-dr iven r ain flashing laps 30-lb. felt under lay ment.
Roof sheathing R af ter or tr uss
Tr i m flashing to line of eave.
R idge boar d or bea m (or bloc king bet ween tr usses)
Metal-Roof Valley & Hip
Metal-Roof Ridge Flashing
30-lb. felt under lay ment edxtends up beyond end of lower roofing panel. bead of c aulking or sealant at top edge of lower roofing panel for ms a da m against wind-dr iven r ain. top roofing panel nests against lower panel, for ming tight seal. sheathing Lower roofing panel extends 3 in. (min.) beyond intersec tion with top panel.
pitc h- c hange fr a ming see 133b
metal-roof pitch change
Gutters & Downspouts
Snow guar ds See 196b
Note Size gut ter and downspout ac c or ding to r ainfall intensit y & ar ea of roof. C onsult loc al sheet- metal shop for r ules of thu m b in your ar ea. Diverter avoids short gut ter with separ ate downspout at short eave.
Gut ter hanger t ypes See 195c
Gut ter shapes See 195a & b
C onnec t downspout to dr ain pipe or to splash bloc k. See 194 Downspout for every 40 f t. of gut ter
Splash pan protec ts roofing wher e downspout empties on roof.
Note Although gut ters ar e c lose to level for appear an c e a slope of 1⁄ 16 in. per f t. is pr efer r ed for dr ainage.
The collection of rainwater by gutters at the eave of a roof prevents it from falling to the ground, where it can splash back onto the building and cause discoloration and decay, or where it can seep into the ground, causing settling or undermining of the foundation. Gutters also protect people passing under the eaves from a cascade of rainwater. In areas of light rainfall, gutters may be eliminated if adequate overhangs are designed and a rock bed is placed below the eaves to control the water and prevent splashback. Most wood-framed buildings are fitted with siteformed aluminum or galvanized steel gutters with a baked-enamel finish. Continuous straight sections of site-formed gutters are limited only by the need for expansion joints (see 194) and by the ability of workers to carry the sections without buckling them. Very long sections can be manufactured without joints, the most common location of gutter failures.
Vinyl gutters, although more expensive, are popular with owner-builders because they are more durable and can be installed without specialized equipment. Downspouts conduct the water from the gutter to the ground, where it should be collected in a storm drain and carried away from the building to be dispersed on the surface, deposited in a dry well, or directed to a storm sewer system. The problem of water freezing in gutters and downspouts may be solved with heat tapes. Snow sliding off a roof can cause real problems— especially over porches, decks, and garages. The problem of sliding snow may be solved by keeping the snow on the roof with a low-pitched roof or with snow guards that project from the roofing surface to hold the snow mechanically in place (see 196B).
Gutters & Downspouts
Gutters & Downspouts
Miter ed inter ior c or ner Wir e mesh keeps leaves out of gut ter. End c ap Str ainer keeps debr is out of downspout.
Hanger t ypes See 195c
Gut ter with expansion joint every 40 f t. of str aight r un Outlet (drop) Str aps at top & bot to m of downspout and at joints in downspout
Elbows available in 45 , 60 , 75 , or 90 .
˚ ˚ ˚
Downspout for every 40 linear feet of gut ter (approx.)
Note Alu minu m gut ter will expand 1⁄ 8 in. or mor e in a 40-f t. r un & galvanized gut ter will expand 1⁄ 16 in. or mor e in a 40-f t. r un with a 100 F temper atur e c hange.
Shoe (shown) at paved sur fac es or splash or plastic guar d c ap (not shown) at c onnec tion to dr ain pipe
Splash bloc k at loc ations wher e downspout is not c onnec ted to dr ain pipe. Befor e r elying on a splash bloc k, Ver if y lac k of need to c ar ry water to stor m sewer or dry well.
Parts of a Gutter System
Gutters & Downspouts
“K” or Ogee
Ogee is the most c o m mon gut ter shape. Available in site-for med alu minu m or galvanized in a var iet y of sizes, it is also made in unpainted galvanized steel or c opper.
Wooden gut ters ar e used extensively in the northeast. They ar e diffic ult to join at c or ners or for long lengths & ar e prone to dec ay.
Sa me as ogee, exc ept not so c o m mon
Half-round gut ter c annot be site-for med it is available in vinyl or unpainted galvanized steel or c opper.
C on c ealed gut ters of var iable shapes & sizes may be designed to fit behind the fasc ia or within the slope of a roof. These ar e always c usto m made & ar e ther efor e expensive. Upper edge of gut ter is t ypic ally lapped by roofing lower edge c aps fasc ia.
Spike & Ferrule
Br ac ket hangers ar e available for all t ypes of gut ter sc r ew to fasc ia or (with longer sc r ews) to r af ter tails.
Spike & fer r ule hangers ar e used with be veled or ogee gut ters spike to fasc ia or to r af ter tails. The need for expansion joints is gr eatest with this t ype of c onnec tor (ma xi mu m r un without joint is 40 f t.).
Str ap hangers ar e used with metal half-round gut ters nail or sc r ew to roof sheathing or through sheathing to top of r af ter. Un c o m mon, ar c haic .
Gutters & Downspouts
Roofing Roof sheathing Under lay ment laps eave flashing. Eave flashing laps into gut ter. Extension of slope line of roof Notes Fasc ia is shown plu m b for ease of installation of c o m mon gut ters. Squar e- c ut r af ter tails wor k wher e ther e ar e no gut ters or wher e half-round gut ters ar e hung fro m str ap hangers. See 195c Fasc ia is gener ally 2x mater ial for ease of installation of c o m mon gut ters. In so me ar eas, the 2x is used as a su b-fas c ia and c over ed with a higher gr ade 1x fas c ia. Gut ters may be hung fro m a single 1x fasc ia, but spikes must be loc ated at r af ters & fasc ia pr edr illed to pr e vent split ting. Br ac kets should be loc ated near r af ters.
Loc ate gut ter r elative to slope line ac c or ding to loc al pr ac tic e Gut ter 1⁄ 2 in. higher at r ear edge than at front edge Air spac e behind gut ter
Snow guards, or snow clips, are metal protrusions that are integrated with the roofing to prevent snow from sliding off the roof. They are either clipped to the top edge of the roofing material (tiles and slate) or are nailed integral with it (shakes and shingles). Snow guards are used at the rate of 10 to 30 guards per square, depending on roof steepness.
Roofing laps at tac h ment of snow guar d to roof.
Snow guar d projec ts fro m spac e bet ween roofing mater ials.
Insulation & Ventilation roofs 197 C eiling insulation See below Roof insulation See details at r ight Vapor bar r ier & infiltr ation bar r ier at wall/roof See 88 Roof insulation—Roof insulation may be fiberglass batts or rigid insulation. When trusses or shallow rafters restrict the depth of insulation at the edges of the ceiling. With either type. It is therefore important to place a vapor barrier on the warm side of the insulation (see the drawing above right) and. When the rafters do not have adequate depth for batts. others require additional structure and/or an air space for ventilation. The loose-fill type has the advantage of filling tightly around trusses and other interruptions of the attic space and of being able to fill to any depth. air space must be provided above the insulation for ventilating the roof. (min. Rigid insulation is typically used because of its compactness and/or its structural value. Roofing Roof sheathing R af ter Fur r ing if r equir ed for depth 1-in. a 1-in. the roof must be insulated from above. If the rafters are deep enough. The temperature difference between the two sides of a roof or ceiling can cause condensation when warm. batts are the most economical. When the rafters are exposed to the living space below. ventilation channels may be needed (see 201). Baffles may also be required to keep insulation from obstructing roof intake vents or from being blown out of place. Rigid Insulation Roofing Roof sheathing Str u c tur al support for sheathing Vented air spac e if r equir ed R igid insulation Vapor bar r ier Exposed dec k c eiling Exposed r af ter Rigid Insluation with Air Space & Structural Support A Ceiling & Roof Insulation . to ventilate the roof (see 200).) vented air spac e Bat t (shown) or r igid insulation Vapor bar r ier Floor insulation See 61-63 Wall insulation See 120-125 Finish c eiling Exter ior r igid insulation See 121-122 For venting flat roofs See 205a Most heat is potentially lost or gained through the roof. rigid insulation must be fit between the rafters. In both cases. Roofing R igid insulation Exposed dec k c eiling Exposed r af ter Vapor bar r ier Ceiling insulation—Ceiling insulation consists typically of either fiberglass batts placed between ceiling joists before the ceiling is applied or loose-fill insulation blown (or poured) into place in the completed attic space.g. moist interior air hits cold surfaces in the roof assembly.. membrane roofing on flat roofs). the vapor barrier should be located on the warm side of the insulation. so ceilings and roofs are generally more heavily insulated than floors or walls. Building codes in most climates require R-30 in roofs. Some roofing materials may be applied directly to the rigid insulation (e. in most cases.
this strategy would require extralength studs. R-20 R-30 12” R-40 10” 8” Thic kness of R-38 bat t R edu c tion of R-value in bat t insulation due to c o mpr ession A Superinsulated Ceilings . when rafter depth is shallow. Insulation thickness can generally be increased without adding structure or other complications. it may provide thermal protection at the edge of the ceiling without any adjustments to the framing (see 199A). Dropped ceiling—Full insulation thickness at the edge of the building can also be accommodated by dropping the ceiling below the top plate. and extra labor. This strategy may not be feasible when the roof pitch is very low. Raised-heel truss—It is quite common when ordering trusses to specify a truss that has extra depth at the ends to accommodate extra insulation. The rafters need to be tied directly to the joists to counteract the thrust of the rafters (see 199D). extra siding. But for superinsulated buildings. or when the ceiling insulation value is very high. it is usually relatively simple to add insulation to the ceiling of a building. an extra plate. Raised plate—Raising the rafters to the top of the ceiling joists can increase the insulation thickness by the depth of the joists. To maintain a given ceiling height. several strategies have been developed: Rigid insulation—Because rigid insulation can have R-values approximately double that of batt insulation. The insulation value of vaulted roofs is limited only by the thickness of the roof itself (see 204A & B). extra siding. Raised-heel trusses require blocking to prevent rotation. The depth of the joists and rafters combined can be sufficient for superinsulation. In addition. extra framing material for the ceiling.198 roofs Insulation & Ventilation Compared to walls and floors. a balloon-framed ceiling/wall connection (see 41A & B) would allow ceiling joists to act as ties and not be redundant (see 199C). This is called a raised-heel truss. Vaulted ceilings—Vaulted ceilings do not restrict insulation thickness at the edge of the building because the insulation follows the pitch of the roof. Insulation thic kness li mited her e due to roof plane The only complication occurs at the edge of the building where roof structure typically restricts the potential for insulation thickness. The extra cost of this strategy would include an extra rim joist. the compression of insulation in this area is not acceptable. but otherwise are installed just the same as standard trusses (see 199B). When using rafters (not trusses). Gravity holds the insulation in place. the ceiling is where most of the heat is gained or lost from an insulated space. To overcome the problem. and labor. and the only disadvantage is a loss of attic space. so the addition of insulation is especially effective. it is common to compress the insulation in this area and allow for ventilation using vent channels made especially for this purpose (see 201). In standard construction.
Insulation & Ventilation roofs 199 Super insulated c eiling Vent c hannel for blown-in insulation R igid insulation baffle Standar d tr uss or r af ter with tie Super insulated c eiling Vent c hannel for blown-in insulation R aised-heel tr uss See 198 R igid insulation with R-value equal to c entr al portion of main c eiling Bloc king bet ween tr usses to pr event rotation Super insulated wall Super insulated wall A Superinsulated Ceiling Rigid Insulation B Superinsulated Ceiling Raised-Heel Truss Super insulated c eiling Super insulated c eiling R af ter Vent c hannel for blown-in insulation Gusset ties r af ter to c eiling joist Standar d tr uss or r af ter with tie C eiling str u c tur e at tac hed to wall Plate at top of c eiling joists C ontinuous r i m or bloc king C eiling joist Super insulated wall Super insulated wall C Superinsulated Ceiling Dropped Ceiling D Superinsulated Ceiling Raised Plate .
see 197. winter ventilation is necessary in cold climates to prevent escaping heat from melting snow that can refreeze and cause structural or moisture damage. which together create convection currents. A Roof & Attic Venting . called a cold roof (see 204A). The use of fans should be carefully coordinated with the intake and exhaust venting discussed in this section so that the flow of air through the attic is maximized.200 roofs Insulation & Ventilation Venting hips See 138 Through-roof vents See 201 R idge vents See 203c & d Fasc ia vents See 203b Gable vents See 201 Soffit vents See 202b & c . Electric-powered fan ventilators improve summer cooling by moving more air through the attic space to remove the heat that has entered the attic space through the roof. Check with local building officials to verify the acceptance of this type of ventilation. 203a Ventiing an abut ting roof See 150d. The best way to ventilate a roof or attic is with both low (intake) and high (exhaust) vents. A special roof. shakes. and tile) are self-venting if applied over open sheathing. When an ice dam forms. These roof assemblies can provide significant ventilation directly through voids in the roof itself. above the eave line. is designed to ventilate vaulted ceilings in extremely cold climates. Codes recognize this by allowing the ventilation area to be cut in half if vents are placed both high and low.. Some roofing materials (e.g.) In addition. The cold roof prevents the formation of ice dams—formed when snow thawed by escaping heat refreezes at the eave. with the other half located at the eave line. but active ventilation is preferred in some areas for the warm season. (Condensation is reduced primarily by the installation of a vapor barrier. 204 Fr ieze vents See 202a Roofs and attics must be vented to prevent heat buildup in summer and to help minimize condensation in winter. The cold roof prevents ice dams by using ventilation to isolate the snow from the heated space. thawed snow can pond behind it and eventually find its way into the structure. Passive ventilation using convection will suffice for almost every winter venting need. shingles. Most codes allow the net free-ventilating area to be reduced from 1⁄150 to 1⁄ 300 of the area vented if half of the vents are 3 ft.
but they can also be fairly unobtrusive if detailed carefully (see 203C & D). Roof sheathing Thic k c eiling insulation R af ter Exhaust vents—If appropriately sized and balanced with intake vents. Vent channels may be applied to the underside of the roof sheathing in locations where the free flow of air from intake vents may be restricted by insulation. The net venting area of all intake vents together should equal about half of the total area of vents. A Intake & Exhaust Roof Vents . 2. and the through-roof exhaust vent.0 for 1⁄16-in. screen). the cupola. They are usually screened to keep out birds and insects. Gable-end vents should be located across the attic space from one another. see 198 & 199.bloc k intake vent See 202a Intake vents—Intake vents are commonly located either in a frieze block or in a soffit or fascia. The vent channels provide an air space by holding the insulation away from the sheathing.Insulation & Ventilation C ontinuous r idge exhaust vent See 203c & d roofs 201 Fasc ia intake vent See 203b Gable-end exhaust vent Through-roof exhaust vent Soffit intake vent See 202a & c . the gable-end vent. (Another type of ridge vent. they may be emphasized as a design feature of the building.25 for 1⁄ 8-in. such as at the edge of an insulated ceiling. exhaust vents should remove excess moisture in winter. Ridge vents can be awkward looking.) The gable-end vent is a reasonably economical exhaust vent. but is difficult to waterproof against wind-driven rain. The continuous ridge vent is best for preventing summer heat buildup because it is located highest on the roof and theoretically draws ventilation air evenly across the entire underside of the roof surface. The through-roof exhaust vent is available as the “cake pan” type illustrated above or the larger rotating turbine type. available in many sizes. There are three types of exhaust vents: the continuous ridge vent. mesh screen. Through-roof vents are usually shingled into the roof and are useful for areas difficult to vent with a continuous ridge vent or a gable-end vent. and in round. is also an effective ventilator. Vent c hannel c o mpr esses insulation for short distan c e to allow fr ee passage of ventilation air. These channels should be used only for short distances. For alternative solutions to this problem. 203a Fr ieze. rectangular or triangular shapes. so the vent area should be increased to allow for the screen (by a factor of 1. Because the shape of gable-end vents can be visually dominant. They are readily available in metal. vinyl. The screening itself impedes the flow of air. or wood.
Staple sc r een to bac k of fr ieze bloc k.202 roofs Insulation & Ventilation Notc h top of fr ieze bloc k. Fas c ia R af ter tail or top c hor d of tr uss Soffit joist Soffit Soffit nailing ledger Notched Frieze Block C ontinuous sc r eened vent in c ontinuous slot in soffit R ip fr ieze bloc k to allow c ontinuous vent at top. Sc r een tr i m B Soffit Intake Vent Screened Fasc ia R af ter tail or top c hor d of tr uss Ripped Frieze Block Soffit joist Bor e round vent hole(s) near top of fr ieze bloc k. Fold sc r een. Fold sc r een & staple to bac k of fr ieze bloc k. pr ess up to sheathing & staple to bac k of fr ieze bloc k. Soffit nailing ledger Soffit Drilled Frieze Block Sa mped metal or vinyl vent str ip supported by soffit A Frieze-Block Intake Vents Three Types C Soffit Intake Vent Stamped .
Keep sheathing 1 in. Air passage spac e equal to width of str ip vent (min. Keep sheathing 1 in. R idge c ap of sa me mater ial as roofing nailed to sheathing through plastic vent. Fasc ia a Soffit Inake Vent Corrugated Strip b Fascia Intake Vent Starter C ontinuous metal r idge with louvers on underside Nail or s c r ew r idge to roofing. C or r ugated-plastic r idge vent folds over r idge. R idge boar d C Ridge Exhaust Vent Metal D Ridge Exhaust Vent Corrugated Plastic . fro m r idge boar d to allow fr ee air passage. c onfor ming to slope of roof. Roofing Roofing Sheathing Sheathing R af ter R af ter r idge boar d Note Other lar ger metal vents ar e made to allow shingling-over of vent for appear an c e. fro m r idge boar d to allow fr ee air passage. to 11⁄ 2 in.) R af ter tail or top c hor d of tr uss Soffited (shown) or boxed-in or ab br eviated eave See 142d & 143a C ontinuous bac king for vent & soffit C ontinuous c or r ugated plastic str ip vent Fasc ia Sofit Louver ed metal vent also serves as eave flashing.Insulation & Ventilation roofs 203 C ontinuous bac king for fasc ia R af ter rtail or top c hor d of tr uss Roof sheathing held above end of r af ter Spac e bet ween fasc ia & sheathing provides passage for vent air.
204 roofs Insulation & Ventilation Air c hannel c ontinuous to vent(s) at top of roof. The snow will therefore not melt while the ambient temperature remains below freezing. The sleepers must be held away from obstructions such as skylights. 3 1⁄ 2 -in. Instead of isolating the snow from the insulation like a cold roof. c ontinuous s c r eened soffit vent C ontinuous sheathing c over ed with 30-lb. Tr i m The cold roof is a way to protect vaulted ceilings in cold climates from the formation of ice dams. thereby preventing the freeze-thaw cycle caused by heat escaping through the insulation of conventional roofs. but a 11⁄ 2-in. A cold roof is a double-layer roof with the upper layer vented and the lower layer insulated. the warm roof is superior to the cold roof because the cold roof exposes the outer surface of the insulation to ambient air (which can be significantly colder than snow). the insulative value of the snow itself will contribute to the insulation of the building. felt Insulation bet ween r af ters with vapor bar r ier on war m side below Soffit (no venting r equir ed) Note Insulation c an be bat ts w/ vented air spac e or r igid insulation that fills c avit y. and valleys to allow air to flow continuously around them. The entire outer roof surface is thus maintained at the temperature of the ambient air. vents. air space does not. hips. however. A modified cold roof with extra-deep rafters to provide deeper than normal ventilation space but without the double-layer ventilation system can also work. the temperature on the surface of the roof can be maintained at the temperature of the snow. Vents must have ar ea equal to soffit vents and not be sus c epti ble to c logging by snow. the warm roof eliminates the ventilation space because there are no voids within which condensation can form. so may have a higher first cost—especially for owner-builders. The vented layer promotes continuous unrestricted air flow from eave to ridge across the entire area of the roof. This flow of cold air removes any heat that escapes through the insulated layer below. however. In this respect. Roofing Self-sealed mem br ane Sheathing R igid insulation fills r af ter c avit y Roofing 2x4 sleepers aligned with r af ters provide c ontinuous air c hannel for ventilation. The typical cold roof is built with sleepers aligned over rafters and with continuous eave vents and complementary ridge or gable vents. The warm roof also protects vaulted ceilings in cold climates from the formation of ice dams. air space has been found to provide adequate ventilation. the warm roof is less complicated to build and will insulate better. When compared to the cold roof. A Cold Roof B Warm Roof . the warm roof prevents escaping heat from melting the snow by increasing insulation thickness. It is made with expensive materials. A 31⁄ 2-in. so there is no need to ventilate between the insulation and the roof surface. When the ceiling R-value is sufficient (approximately R-50 is recommended). With snow effectively adjacent to the insulation. By using rigid insulation.
Roof vent above snow level Air spac e above insulation Vent in par apet wall See 205b Soffi intake vent See 202b & c . or a series of small vents scattered across the roof. above the intake vent). require ventilation to prevent heat buildup and to minimize condensation. The principles of ventilation are the same for flat roofs as for sloped roofs. like sloped roofs. B Vented Parapet Wall 2x4 or 2x6 Wall C Insulated Wall as Vent 2x4 or 2x6 Wall . Holes dr illed in sole plate and roof sheathing c onnec t air spac e in floor with air spac e in wall. air spac e r equir ed Insulated roof Heated spac e Note It may be useful to be able to vent an insulated roof (or dec k) through a par apet wall in or der to get c ross ventilation. 203a Insulated roof joists Note The vents shown in the illustr ation ar e for r efer en c e only. The net free-ventilating area therefore cannot usually be reduced from 1⁄150 of the area of the roof. Parapet walls can also provide effective ventilation for flat roofs (see 205B). A Flat-Roof Venting C ap flashing Wall vents as r equir ed R igid insulation allows air spac e for ventilation. On a flat roof. air spac e Insulated roof Heated spac e Note Seal c ar efully bet ween fr a ming mem bers and r igid insulation to pr event air infiltr ation. Roof sur fac e 1-in. a low intake vent can rarely be balanced by a high exhaust vent (3 ft. Par apet wall Bloc king allows spac e for air passage C ant str ip Roof sur fac e 1-in. The use of all thr ee t ypes of vents would not be produ c tive sin c e they would tend to short.c ir c uit one another. Flat-roof ventilators are commonly of the continuous strip type. Air spac e in wall vented to soffif or at tic above. but flat roofs have some particular ventilation requirements due to their shape. located at a soffit.Insulation & Ventilation roofs 205 Flat roofs. min.
206 stairs Introduction .
chapter stairs S tairs do not really support or protect a building in the same way as foundations. but this book would be incomplete without them. to 26 in. if the stair has a straight run. a comfortable rise is about 7 in. and maximum is 7 in. Stairs are the vertical connectors of the parts of the building. see 221. Building codes prescribe a range of dimensions for rise and run.) R iser Tr ead unit r ise see lef t Typical Stair Dimensions . and roofs. Minimum unit run is 11 in. The height (rise) and depth (run) of the individual step must be in a comfortable relationship for the average person and must be manageable for people who are infirm or disabled. the building type. walls. variance between the tallest and shortest riser in a flight of stairs. stairs need to be proportioned to the human body for safety. Handr ail 30 in. to 18 in. a minimum width for stairways. Landings must be as deep as the width of the stairway but need not exceed 44 in. and minimum head clearance over stairs. is mor e c o mfortable. which can have 10-in. Generally. for residential stairs. to 34 in. and stairs connect any internal levels. run + twice the rise = 24 in.. except for residential stairs. 5 Introduction stairs 207 STAIR DIMENSIONS More than most other parts of a building. however. Rise and run—Rise and run of stairs are governed by building codes. except for residential stairs. which may vary. Here are two useful rules of thumb for the rise/run relationship: rise + run = 17 in. Most buildings require a few steps just to enter the main floor. the typical requirements are outlined as follows: Stair width—The width of stairways is also defined by building codes. above nosing is r equir ed on at least one side of stairs with 4 or mor e r isers for handr ail c onfigur ation. and the specific code.. 8 in. unit r un see lef t nosing (1 in. Minimum width is usually 36 in. the location of handrails. The numbers vary depending on the location of the stair. Most codes allow only 3⁄ 8-in. Minimum unit rise is typically 4 in. to 11⁄ 2 in. floors. which can have a unit rise of 73⁄4 in. The maximum total rise between floors or landings is typically 12 ft. so rough openings must allow for finished wall surfaces. Headroo m is measur ed vertic ally fro m an i maginary line c onnec ting the nosing of all tr eads mini mu m headroo m r equir ed by c ode is t ypic ally 6 f t. . A well-designed and well-built staircase can contribute immeasurably to the function and beauty of a building. it is important to make each riser of a stair the same height. . Both for safety and for code compliance. deeper treads have shallower risers. For residential stairs. treads. Minimum widths are measured inside finished stairwells. although 7 f t.
The framing of the opening in the floor for this stairway can be atypical because of its L-shape. Winder stairs at the bend in the L (or at the bend in a U-shaped stair) are common. They are usually prefabricated. Straight-run stair—The straight-run stair is the most economical standard stairway from the standpoint of efficiency of floor space taken up by the stairway itself. Virtually any configuration of stairway may be constructed using the standard details of this chapter by merely breaking the stairway into smaller pieces and reassembling them. Their details are idiosyncratic and not included in this book.208 stairs STAIR CONFIGURATION The shape or configuration of a stairway is determined primarily by the circulation patterns of a building and by available space. Several typical configurations that are worthy of note are shown in the drawings that follow. (min. Spiral stairs usually have special code requirements that are somewhat less restrictive than standard stairs. these drawings do not show railings. has a landing about half a flight up. The area of the stairway is increased over a straight-run stair by the area of the landing (less one step). also called a switchback stair. deep at the narrow end (verify with local codes). L-shaped stair—The L-shaped stair is not so common as the straight or U-shaped stair because it lacks the simplicity of the straight-run stair and the efficiency of the U-shaped stair. Up Up Down Down The bottom and top steps are separated horizontally from each other by the entire length of the stairway. be useful in tight spots. This arrangement saves circulation space at each floor level and makes this stair more efficient overall for multistory buildings than the straight-run stair. for clarity. however. The straight-run stair works best in two-story buildings. often of metal or wood kits. 6 in. . as it takes up less floor space than a U-shaped stair and requires less length than a straight-run stair. It can. It is most appropriate for accessing mezzanines and lofts where furniture and other large items may actually be hoisted from floor to floor by means other than the stairway. A framed wall under one side of the floor projecting into the L or a column under the floor at the bend in the L is the most common way to support this floor. but the top step of one flight is adjacent to the bottom step of the next. so that a multistory building with stacked stairways requires circulation space on each floor to get from the top step of one flight to the bottom step of the next. U-shaped stair— The U-shaped stair. and the flights run in opposite directions. should not be allowed to be less than 6 in. but for reasons of safety.) r un at nar rowest point of tr ead Up Down Spiral stair—A spiral stair saves space.
It is often also seen as an access stair to basements and attics. These stairs are site-built in some regions. Tr eads with open r isers See 214a Bot to m of stair See 214c Fr a ming at top of stair See 212a. Freespanning stairs. although the handrail may also contribute to the strength of the stair.stairs STRUCTURE Stairs may be classified into two basic structural types: continuously supported and freespanning. b & c Tr eads with c losed r isers See 216 Freespanning Stair (Shown with Open Risers) Fr a ming at bot to m of stair See 213a & b Fr a ming at top of stair See 212a. may be site-built or prefabricated. The strength of a freespanning stair is usually in the carriages (stringers) that support the treads. like continuously supported stairs. so calculations of spanning capacities are not necessary. Fr a ming at top of stair See 214b 209 Continuously supported stairs—Continuously supported stairs are commonly used as interior stairs. Prefabricated Custom Stair (May be Freespanning or Continuously Supported) . Both sides of the stairway are supported by wall framing. b & c At tac h ment to fr a ming See 213c Continuously Supported Stair (Shown with Closed Risers) Freespanning stairs—Freespanning stairs have the structural capacity to span from the bottom stair to the top stair without intermediate support. but are predominantly prefabricated in others. The freespanning stair is commonly used as an exterior stair between floors or landing levels or in conjunction with porches and decks. Some freespanning stairs have only a single central support.
masonry. Interior stairways may be the showcase of a building and so are often located near the entry and used as a major circulation route. But in some cases. whether simple or complex. . Special attention should be paid to nonskid surfaces for treads exposed to the weather. Some exterior stairs are supported directly on the ground. They may also provide the opportunity to connect more than one floor with natural light. stairs prefabricated in a shop are more practical. Exterior stairs—Exterior stairs (see 222) have the same minimum proportional requirements as interior stairs. The wood-stair details discussed in this chapter can be employed for either interior or exterior stairways. The primary decisions concern whether the risers are open (see 214A) or closed (see 216) and the design of the balustrade (see 218–220) and the handrail (see 221). can be made more solidly and precisely than site-built stairs because they are made in the controlled environment of a shop. pressure-treated wood is often chosen for a wood stair out of doors. although the location will suggest basic detailing differences due to the fact that one is protected from the weather and the other isn’t. and metal are sound choices for stairs exposed to the elements. ADDITIONAL DECISIONS There are several other design decisions to make regarding both interior and exterior stairs.210 stairs INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR STAIRS The basic structure of the stair depends primarily on whether the stairway is to be located inside or outside and whether it is to be protected from the weather or not. but they are generally built less steep. Materials on exterior stairs must also be chosen with the weather in mind. Interior stairs—Interior stairs are usually more refined than exterior stairs. Heavy timber or SITE-BUILT versus PREFABRICATED STAIRS Most stairs are site-built because it is economical and because the process provides a temporary stair for construction. in which case they are usually called steps (see 223–225). Ground-supported steps follow the contours of sloping sites to provide easy access to porches or entrances or as connections between terraces and other landscape elements. Prefabricated stairs (see 213C). Weather-resistant materials such as concrete. The treads need to be deeper and risers shallower outdoors to make the stairs safer when wet or covered with snow or ice.
see 207. Note Width of rough opening depends on width of stair for stair width. so allow for thic kness of wall finish when di mensioning a rough opening. See 207 Dou ble 2x header at top of stair (dashed) position deter mined by method of c ar r iage c onnec tion. C ode r equir ements for width ar e for c lear openings. Joist . For c ar r iage fr a ming at open balustr ade. depending on tr ead & r iser mater ial & thic kness. A Stair Rough Opening Ledger Floor or landing joist C ar r iage Inter mediate c ar r iage for stair over 30 in. The stair fr a ming c an be the sa me in either c ase. wide. Header at end of stair rough opening See 211a & 212 Top of c ar r iage/ floor See 212a.stairs Framing 211 Fr a ming of rough opening in floor See 38b Dou ble header above base of stair. see 213a & b. See 212 . b & c For fr eespanning stair fr a ming. position deter mined by head c lear an c e. This header c an slope in tight situations. b Carriage Framing Continuously Supported Stair . Thr ust bloc k Note The ter m c ar r iage is inter c hangeable with str inger in so me r egions. see 219 Bot to m of c ar r iage/floor See 213a & b c ar r iage fr a ming/ side wall see 212d Note Top of base of stair may ter minate at a floor level or a landing.
C Top of Carriage/Floor Wall Supports Top of Stair D Carriage Framing/Side Wall Continuously Supported Stair . Finish tr ead tr i ms to str inger. bloc king. . Su bfloor See 48-51 t ypic al r ise Header at end of stair rough opening Header at end of stair rough opening T ypic al r ise Ledger. Bloc king behind wall finish 2x spac er nailed to studs C ar r iage nailed to spac er Header at end of stair rough opening T ypic al r ise Ledger or bloc king bet ween c ar r iages at tac h eac h stair c ar r iage to header.212 stairs Framing Bloc king bet ween c ar r iages supports su bfloor. joist hangers at tac h eac h stair c ar r iage to header see 211b for ledger. Stud of supporting wall Gypsu m wallboar d or other finish wall 1x finish str inger Su bfloor See 48-51 Finish r iser tr i ms to str inger. see 212d Ply wood hanger boar d fastened to c ar r iages & to header (and/or wall) A Top of Carriage/Floor Floor Supports Top of Stair B Top of Carriage/Floor Hangerboard Supports Top of Stair Finish floor Nosing of finish floor sa me depth as nosing on stair tr eads R ise fro m finish tr ead to finish floor should equal t ypic al r ise. Note side c ar r iers ar e supported c ontinuously on wall fr a ming. Finish floor nosing of finish floor sa me depth as nosing on stair tr eads r ise fro m finish tr ead to finish floor should equal t ypic al r ise Nosing of finish floor sa me depth as nosing on stair tr eads Finish floor Su bfloor See 48-51 R ise fro m finish tr ead to finish floor should equal t ypic al r ise.
Finish floor Su bfloor See 48-51 Su bfloor See 48-51 Dou ble joist or bloc king to support stair Note Bloc k bet ween floor joists if base of c ar r iage does not fall on tip of joist. to 1-in. Inter ior finish wall Housed str inger of pr efabr ic ated stair 5 ⁄ 8 -in. to meet base molding. Notes Align top nosing flush with finish floor or align top nosing flush with su bfloor for wall-to-wall c ar peting bot to m r iser bears on su bfloor. R ise fro m finish floor to first tr ead equals t ypic al r ise. A Bottom of Carriage/Floor Single Flight B Bottom of Carriage/Floor Intermediate Flight Extend housed str inger see 217b. Loc ate floor header to intersec t with bot to m of c ar r iages.stairs Framing 213 2x thr ust bloc k nailed to su bfloor & notc hed into c ar r iages R ise fro m finish floor to first tr ead equals t ypic al r ise. shi m ac c o m modates thic kness of finish wall Finish floor Su bfloor Header at top of stair rough opening at tac h str inger with 16d nails through shi ms into fr a ming Wall fr a ming Section at Top of Stair Section at Side Wall C Prefabricated Stair . Top nosing of pr efabr ic ated stair t ypic ally has r ab bet on underside to adjust thic kness to that of finish floor. . T ypic al r ise T ypic al r ise Finish floor Header at end of stair rough opening for multiple flights of stairs Joist hanger supports c entr al c ar r iage. Note side c ar r iage may be hung fro m header or at tac hed to wall fr a ming.
Metal br ac ket or Mortised tr ead. Tr ead at tac hed to fr eespanning c ar r iage See 214a Fr eespanning wooden stair c ar r iage T ypic al r ise Header at end of stair rough opening R ise fro m finish floor to first tr ead should equal t ypic al r ise. for at tac h ment to slab See 222b Su bfloor Joist or bloc king under c ar r iage Note A fr eestanding c ar r iage lef t exposed r equir es a c on c ealed or c lean bolted c onnec tion to the floor (or landing) at the top & bot to m of the c ar r iage. Elevation A Treads with Open Risers Finish floor Su bfloor R ise fro m tr ead to finish floor should equal t ypic al r ise. Nail or sc r ew fr eespanning c ar r iage through floor fr a ming. T ypic al r ise Tr ead at tac hed to fr eespanning c ar r iage See 214a Nail or sc r ew fr eespanning c ar r iage through floor fr a ming. Finish floor or slab. Tr ead mortised into c ar r iage .214 stairs Framing Note Tr eads for open-r iser stairs must be able to span full width of stairway. B Top of Carriage/Floor Freespanning Stair C Bottom of Carriage/Floor Freespanning Stair . whic h provides c on c ealed c onnec tion for appear an c e sc r ew tr eads through c ar r iage or glue & toenail fro m underside into c ar r iage. Wooden c leat Metal br ac ket let into end of tr ead so that br ac ket is c on c ealed fro m above (and does not projec t below) . At tac h ment of tr eads to c ar r iage may be with : Wooden c leats sc r ewed to str u c tur al c ar r iage or .
it is possible to firmly anchor the newel post to the surface of the floor by using rail bolts.stairs Framing 215 Finish landings must be at least as deep as the stairway is wide (automatic in the case of an L-shaped stair). See 212a.= dia. and tightened with a special fitting through an access hole in the side of the newel. The access hole must be plugged to make a smooth finish surface on the newel. Adhesive Finish floor Finish floor Lag or bolt newel to floor fr a ming. Plac e one bolt as low as possi ble. B Newel Post C Newel Post Surface Anchored . Set the landing height so that the finish-floor level corresponds to the rise of the stair. b & c Support landing on stud walls. R ail bolt 13 ⁄ 4 in. Plac e bolt as high as pr ac tic al. Note Upper flight of stair is support on landing su bfloor (su bfloor not shown). With solid flooring and/or subflooring. The most effective way to anchor the newel (or the framing of a closed rail) is to pass it through the subfloor and bolt or lag it to the floor framing. dia meter dr illed ac c ess hole 1⁄ 4 -in. min. Extend landing under c ar r iage of upper flight of stairs. Plan 1-in. The bolts are lagged into the floor surface. Fr a me landing as a floor See 32 At tac h c ar r iage of lower flight of stairs to side of landing. slipped into predrilled holes in the newel. A Stair Landing Stairs Newel post (or 4x4 post at base of c losed r ailing) Loc ate bolts at opposite c or ners Lag or bolt newel to stair c ar r iage. Su bfloor ing Floor joist or bloc king Section Floor fr a ming The newel post must be firmly anchored to resist the force of a person swinging around it.
see 217. C ar r iage C ar r iage Ply wood su b-tr ead & su b-r iser glued & sc r ewed to c ar r iage Ply wood su b-tr ead & su b-r iser glued & sc r ewed to c ar r iage C Carpeted Tread & Riser D Carpeted Tread & Riser 2 Alternatives . R iser laps tr ead & is glued & sc r ewed to tr ead For c onditions at side of tr ead/r iser assem bly. C ar r iage c ut for vertic al r iser c ar pet wr aps over nosing to bot to m or r iser. to 11⁄ 2 in. Ply wood su b-tr ead & su b-r iser glued & sc r ewed to c ar r iage A Exposed Finish Tread & Riser 2 Alternatives with No Sub-Tread B Exposed Finish Tread & Riser With Sub-Tread Cha mfer ed edge of tr ead allows c ar pet to wr ap nosing neatly. R iser angled 1 in. tr ead fits into dado in r iser. fro m top to bot to m provides nosing.216 stairs Treads & Risers Pr emanufac tur ed wooden tr ead glued & nailed to c ar r iage 1x r iser glued & nailed to c ar r iage Wood floor ing or other nonstr u c tur al finish applied over su b-tr ead and su b-r iser Nosing projec ts past r iser 1 in. Bloc king glued to r iser str engthens joint. Cha mfer ed edge of tr ead allows c ar pet to wr ap nosing. C ar r iage C ar r iage Nosing projec ts past r iser 1 to 11⁄ 2 in. . or C ar pet wr aps over nosing & r etur ns to top of r iser. r iser fits into dado in tr ead. to 11⁄ 2 in. or In high-qualit y har dwood stairs.
C ar r iage nailed to spac er Spac er nailed to studs A Finish Stringer (Skirt) at Finish Wall Housed str inger is at tac hed dir ec tly to finish wall & provides support for the stairway. A more involved hybrid strategy that limits this disadvantage is to install the risers first from wall to wall. Depth of dado in r iser may not exc eed the thic kness of the shi m behind it. cut out the stringers to fit to the risers. Finish tr eads & r isers ar e loc ked in plac e with glued shi ms installed fro m below. see 216. Disadvantages include the extra labor to build the housed stringer and the fact that it does not provide the framing for a temporary construction stair. and finally install the treads tightly between the stringers. risers. For tr ead & r iser sec tions. see 216. Goodquality prefabricated stairs (see 213C) are also made with housed stringers.Treads & Risers stairs 217 Finish tr eads & r isers but t against the skirt & ar e glued & nailed to c ar r iage on whic h they ar e supported. The advantage of the housed stringer is that joints between treads. For tr ead & r iser sec tions. The housed stringer is a more refined and complicated way than the skirt (see 217A) to provide a finish stringer at the side of a continuously supported stairway. Stud of supporting wall Gypsu m wallboar d or other finish wall The advantage of the skirt over the housed stringer (see 217B) is the ease of construction. Taper ed mortises routed into c ontinuous housed str inger r ec eive ends of tr eads & r isers. B Housed Stringer at Finish Wall . A disadvantage is the potential for minor opening of butt joints at the ends of treads and risers due to minor movement of the structure. Finish str inger fits behind c ar r iage & is applied dir ec tly to finish wall. and finish stringer will not open up with shrinkage or other minor movement of the structure.
Handr ail See 221 Newel post See 215b & c Baluster See sec tion above R iser Tr ead C ur b See sec tion above Finish str inger or housed str inger Ma x. c lear spac e bet ween balusters 4 in. (ver if y with loc al c odes) Baseboar d In an open balustrade with a curb. C ur b c ap mortised for balusters or made of sever al piec es around balusters. just as if the stairway were constructed between two walls.218 stairs Balustrades Baluster c enter ed under handr ail Skirt Finish tr ead tr i ms to skirt. or 6 in. A Open Balustrade With Curb . This simple construction has a similar aesthetic effect as the more technically difficult open balustrade without a curb (see 219). Tr i m Gypsu m wallboar d or other finish wall C ar r iage nailed to spac er Spac er nailed to fr a med wall Section Fr a med-wall di mension depends on width of c ur b. the treads and risers are constructed on carriages and finished on both sides with a skirt. The skirt on the open side of the stairway forms one side of the curb.
(ver if y with loc al c odes) Finish or housed str inger Baseboar d Note The si mplified baluster. Nosing r etur n nailed & glued to end of tr ead Gypsu m wallboar d or other finish wall Section Baluster Note Stair fr a ming at exposed r ail. see detail at top lef t & text below. Balusters dovetailed into end of tr ead Finish skirt boar d Ply wood spac er sa me thic kness as wall finish C ar r iage Fr a med wall supports c ar r iage. the treads may be capped with a finish piece called a nosing return. A Open Balustrade Without Curb . or sliding dovetail (see the detail at top left). In this traditional treatment of the open balustrade. Baluster c enter ed under handr ail Finish tr ead laps skirt. see sec tion through c ar r iage (above r ight). c lear spac e 4 in. Ma x. the balusters rest on the treads. and the ends of the treads are exposed and finished. Handr ail See 221 Newel post See 215b & c R iser Tr ead Finish skirt miter ed to finish r iser Exposed end of tr ead. The exposed ends of the treads may be finished in one of the following two ways.Balustrades stairs 219 R isers t ypic ally miter ed to a finish skirt boar d. which is mitered at the corner and matches the profile of the nosing (see the detail at top left). handr ail & newel c o mponents shown in these dr awings ar e available in fan c y tur ned & tr aditional shapes. mortising. This is the most refined finish treatment and is usually used in conjunction with mortised or sliding dovetail balusters. The balusters may be attached to the treads in four ways: toenailing. doweling. to 6 in. Alternatively. The treads may be cantilevered and rounded or chamfered like the nose of the tread (this will expose end grain).
220 stairs Balustrades R ail c ap See 221 Balustr ade fr a med as t ypic al wall & finished with sa me mater ial as t ypic al wall The closed balustrade is very economical to build because it involves the least finish work of any balustrade system. R iser Tr i m boar ds Tr ead Finish or housed str inger Fr a ming to stiffen base as for newel post See 215b& c Baseboar d A Closed Balustrade Handr ail See 221 Baluster Fr eespanning-stair fr a ming See 214b & c C ar r iage Str u c tur al c ar r iage Ma x. This arrangement allows the balusters themselves to be the structural support for the handrail. if used. B Freespanning-Stair Balustrade . would typically be attached to the side of the structural carriage in the same fashion as the balusters. to 6 in. Spac e 4 in. (ver if y with loc al c ode) Tr ead See 214a Baseboar d if stairway is adjac ent to a wall The freespanning stair usually has a structural carriage to which the balusters may be attached. The balustrade is framed like a standard wall (except that the base must be anchored like a newel post to resist lateral forces (see 215B). The stairway may be finished simply on both sides with finish stringers. A newel post.
The tops and bottoms of handrails should be designed so as to avoid snagging clothing.stairs Handrails 221 Handrails provide stability and security for the young. the old. spac er (min. round rail is the most effective in this regard. the most important design feature of a handrail is its ability to be grasped.) Handr ail Metal br ac ket Bloc king Inter ior finish wall Handr ail Handrail Attached to Wall with Metal Brackets Baluster sc r ewed or nailed to handr ail Handrail on Open Balustrade handr ail lagged to r ail c ap through spac er 11⁄ 2 -in. but are less graspable. as it allows the thumb and fingers to curl around and under the rail. spac e (min.) R ail c ap Handr ail Spac er bet ween balusters Baluster Tr i m Inter ior finish wall Fr a ming of solid r ailing Traditional Handrail on Open Balustrade Handrail on Closed Balustrade A Handrails . the blind. and the infirm. many codes require returning handrails to the wall at both top and bottom. In addition. to 36 in. Other shapes are allowable by code. to 2-in. For this reason. handrails are a safety feature for anyone who uses a stairway—one of the most likely and dangerous places for people to trip and fall. In terms of safety. spac e (min.) Bloc king Inter ior finish wall Handrail Screwed to Wall through Spacer 11⁄ 2 -in. Most codes fall within the range of 29 in. space is required between the handrail and the wall. a 11⁄ 2-in. especially in an emergency. If the handrail is against a wall. The height of the handrail is usually specified by code. The 11⁄ 2-in. above the nosing of the stairs. Handr ail lagged to bloc king through spac er 11⁄ 2 -in.
Exterior stairs made of wood should be built of weather-resistant species such as cedar or redwood or of pressure-treated lumber. Simple connections that minimize joints between boards are less likely to retain moisture. Where joints must occur, it is best to minimize the area of contact between pieces so that moisture will drain and the lumber can breathe. Most exterior wood stairs are freespanning. For long runs of stairs, the continuous unnotched carriage is usually required for strength (see 222B & D). Short runs of freespanning stairs may be strong enough with a notched carriage (see 222C). The notched carriage is, of course, also suitable for wood stairs built between two parallel concrete or masonry walls. Open risers are often employed in exterior wood stairs, but solid risers, common on traditional porches, are useful to stiffen the treads. For wood porches, and decks, see 52–60.
Por c h or dec k floor
T ypic al r un
T ypic al r ise
Por c h or dec k joist
Nail or sc r ew fr eespanning c ar r iage through joist and/or lag with steel angle. Tr ead at tac hed to fr eespanning c ar r iage See 214a Fr eespanning c ar r iage
Exterior Wood Stairs
Exterior Wood Stairs
Unnotched Carriage/Wood Porch
Por c h or dec k floor
Dou ble 2x6 tr ead allows 111⁄ 2 -in. r un dou ble tr ead mini mizes effec t of c upping.
Fr eespanning c ar r iage
Vertic al support at edge of por c h or dec k R i m joist of por c h Header joist at top of stair c ar r iage
2x8 r iser allows 71⁄ 2 -in. r ise.
T ypic al r ise
Steel angle lagged to c on c r ete & to stair c ar r iage Top of c ar r iage at tac hed with joist hangers or nailed to header joist and/or bloc king (not shown)
2 x 12 notc hed c ar r iage allows adequate str u c tur e only for short and mediu m fr eespanning stair r uns.
C on c r ete slab or walk or footing supports base of stair c ar r iage.
Maintain air gap bet ween c ar r iage & sur fac e of c on c r ete.
Exterior Wood Stairs
Notched Carriage/Wood Porch
Exterior Wood Stairs
Freespanning Carriage at Ground
Dry-set brick steps are supported on a bed of compacted gravel and sand on the ground and are laid dry without concrete or mortar. The bricks must be contained at the edges or they will separate. A 2x decayresistant header used as a riser will contain the bricks at each step.
Br ic k (or c on c r ete pagers) 2x pr essur e-tr eated or dec ay-r esistant header r ipped to r iser height & at tac hed at ends to walls or header
The rabbeted riser/side-header joint is nailed from two directions to lock the joint together.
Header at side of step Br ic k step R iser Nail joint through r iser & side header
The sides of the brick steps may also be contained between two masonry or concrete walls.
1 in. (ma x.) sand set ting bed C o mpac ted roc k base or self- c o mpac ting pea gr avel
The sides of the steps may be contained with 2x headers the same height as the riser, as shown below. These side headers may be staked to the ground so that they contain the step at the sides on their own.
Use side headers (shown) or at tac h r isers to walls with metal angles.
Header at side of step staked to ground
A third alternative is to contain the sides of the steps with decay-resistant stringers at the slope of the steps. The risers may be attached directly to the stringers.
Br ic k step
R ab beted c or ner joint See detail at top r ight
Dry-Set Exterior Steps
Dry-set concrete paver steps, like dry-set brick steps, are supported on a bed of compacted gravel on the ground and are laid dry without concrete or mortar. Because of their size, large pavers like the ones shown here are more stable than bricks. For this reason, paver stairs may be constructed without containment at the riser; some paver stairs are even constructed without containment at the sides.
16-in. c on c r ete paver
4 x 4 pr essur e-tr eated r iser at tac hed at ends to c on c r ete or masonry wall or to pr essur e-tr eated str inger. paver projec ts over r iser about 1 in.
1 in. (ma x) sand set ting bed
c o mpac ted roc k base or self- c o mpac ting pea gr avel
Most paver stairs are contained at the sides with walls or stringers, as shown below.
Concrete steps are durable and can be reasonably inexpensive, especially if they are built along with other concrete work. They should be adequately supported on a foundation and should be reinforced. Handrails or handrail supports may be cast into the steps or into the walks, porches, or terraces adjacent to them. The steps may be covered with a masonry or other veneer. The main problem with concrete steps is that they are difficult to repair if anything should go wrong with them. The usual problem is settling due to the extreme weight of the steps themselves and to the fact that they are often constructed on fill. The safest way to avoid settling is to provide for the porch and steps a footing that is below the frost line, with a foundation wall above. This footing and foundation wall system may be an integral part of the foundation of the main structure (see the detail below), or it may be independent of the main structure with an expansion joint adjacent to the main structure that will allow the porch to move slightly without cracking (see 225A & B). Alternatively, concrete steps may be built independent of the main structure and adjacent to a wood porch (see 225C). All methods are expensive but will avoid costly maintenance in the long run. For areas where building on backfill cannot be avoided, a wood porch with a lightweight wood stair that can be easily releveled is the most practical (see 222).
C on c r ete or masonry wall
Footing c ontinuous through steps Foundation wall of main str u c tur e
Pr essur etr eated or dec ayr esistant wood str inger
Stair width is module of paver width.
Paver stairs may also be contained at all edges like brick stairs with 2x risers and side headers (see 223).
Por c h footing & foundation wall
Finished steps See 225
Dry-Set Exterior Steps
Note Elements of the details on this page may be c o m bined in var ious ways to meet the needs of spec ific situations.
Door sill Expansion joint
Slope away fro m building
R einfor c ed stairs & por c h slab made of one c ontinuous c on c r ete pour
C on c r ete sidewalk Thic ken edge or r einfor c ed c on c r ete slab against foundation wall.
Foundation wall of main str u c tur e
C o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel
R einfor c ed footing at bot to m step
Concrete Steps on Gravel
At Concrete Porch
R einfor c ed c on c r ete por c h spans fro m step foundation to building foundation. Expansion joint C on c r ete steps for med & plac ed on bloc k foundation
Wood por c h See 52-60 R einfor c ed c on c r ete steps
C on c r ete sidewalk Expansion joint
Stem wall in c luding sides if r equir ed
C on c r ete sidewalk
R einfor c ed footing below frost line C o mpac ted gr avel or pea gr avel
Foundation wall of main str u c tur e
Stac ked bloc k foundation solid throughout or filled with gr avel
Note C oor dinate wood por c h skirt with edge of c on c r ete stair.
Concrete Steps on Block
At Concrete Porch
Concrete Steps at Wood Porch
On Block or Gravel
C onc rete Continuous structural framing member
Gr avel fill
Blocking (not continuous)
Undistur bed soil
Wood finish material
Plywood or other structural panel
Stucco or gypsum wall board (G.W.B.)
Material buried in another material, e.g., rebar in concrete
Masonry-brick or concrete block
On center WWM Welded wire mesh . Typical W Width # Number O. Finish floor level H Height IN. Maximum Minimum REBAR Reinforcing steel SQ.F. Square foot/feet T & G Tounge and groove TYP. Pounds Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Parallel-strand lumber Pressure treated FT Foot/feet F. MIN. Inch(es) LSL Laminated-strand lumber LVL Laminated-veneer lumber MAX. PSF PSI PSL P.C.T.227 list of abbreviations & And LB.L.FT.
MN 55346 952-881-1098 www.nahb. VA 20190 703-438-6401 www.ashrae.org .arch. Ontario. DC 20006-5292 202-626-7300 www.O.bia. WI 53705-2295 608-231-1361 www.forestprod. Suite 30 Brattleboro. DC 20005 800-368-5242 www. Mary’s Road Champaign. Canada KIP 689 800-463-5091 www. WA 98466 253-565-6600 www.concrete.org Brick Industry Association 11490 Commerce Park Drive. IL 61820 217-333-1801 www.org Building Research Council One East St.eeba.org Environmental Building News–Building Green. GA 30329 800-527-4723 www. Suite 301 Reston.cwc.aia. MI 48333-9094 248-848-3700 www.apawood.edu Canadian Wood Council 99 Bank Street.org American Institute of Architects 1735 New York Avenue NW Washington. Suite 400 Ottawa.org National Association of Home Builders 1201 15th Street NW Washington. 122 Birge Street. VA 20191 703-620-0010 www. Suite 100 Reston.org American Forest & Paper Association 1111 19th Street NW Washington. ACI International P. VT 05301 www.afandpa. Box 9094 Farmington Hills.uiuc.ca Energy Efficient Building Association 6520 Evendale Boulevard. DC 20036 202-463-2700 www.228 resources TRADE AND PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS American Concrete Institute. Suite 112 Eden Prairie.org Forest Stewardship Council 11100 Wildlife Center Drive.fscus.org APA—The Engineered Wood Association 7011 South 19th Tacoma.org American Society of Heating.buildinggreen. Inc.com Forest Products Society 2801 Marshall Court Madison. Refrigerating & Air-Conditioning Engineers 1791 Tullie Circle NE Atlanta.
net Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers’ Association 272 Tuttle Road Cumberland. DC 20036 800-795-1747 www.org Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association 4201 Lafayette Center Drive Chantilly. 2nd ed. 2004. Fundamentals of Residential Construction. Suite 500 Portland. LA 70065 504-443-4464 www. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Green Building Council 1800 Massachusetts Avenue NW. CA: Buccaneer Books. Architectural Graphic Standards. (P.ncma. American Institute of Architects.org FURTHER READING Allen. Fundamentals of Building Construction: Materials and Methods.org Western Wood Products Association 522 SW Fifth Avenue. 1995.nelma. Suite 300 Washington.nrca. Palo Alto.wwpa. Newtown. 4th ed.O. Journal of Light Construction. 63 South Main Street. Architectural Graphic Standards for Residential Construction. CT 06470-5506). Inc. ME 04021 207-829-6901 www. American Institute of Architects. Edward.smacna. VA 20151-1209 703-803-2980 www. . 11th ed. 2007. VA 20171-4662 703-713-1900 www. Suite 600 Rosemont.sfpa. Builderburg Partners Ltd.org U. 2003. Box 5506. Monthly magazine. The Taunton Press. Riechers. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Edward and Thallon.S. New York: John Wiley & Sons. A. Bimonthly magazine.usgbc.229 National Concrete Masonry Association 13750 Sunrise Valley Drive Herndon.org Southern Forest Products Association 2900 Indiana Avenue Kenner.org National Roofing Contractors Association 10255 W. IL 60018-5607 847-299-9070 www. 2006. DC 20005). J. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Higgins Road. F. Allen. Rob. The Full Length Roof Framer. Washington. Fine Homebuilding. (1025 Vermont Avenue NW. OR 97204-2122 503-224-3930 www.
measured in psf. prevent rotation of framing members. Backer block Small plywood or OSB patch added to the web of I-joists where hangers are attached. either with a facing or unfaced. Many of the words have other meanings not defined here for reasons of space. Blocking Framing made of small pieces running perpendicular to or at an angle to studs. A Air-infiltration barrier A continuous layer at the insulated envelope of a building to prevent the entry of air. joists. Beam A large horizontal structural member spanning between two supports. B Backband Trim surrounding window or door casing. Apron Trim below a window sill or stool. Bird’s mouth A notch near the bottom end of a rafter made to form a level attachment with the top of a wall. Bearing capacity The ability of soil to support the load of a building. Blocking may support panel edges. called fly rafter on the East Coast. Backer rod An expansive material used to fill wide gaps behind caulk or sealant.230 glossary This glossary is designed to clarify the concepts presented in the book. Batt insulation Fluffy insulation resembling cotton candy. Balloon framing The nearly archaic method of building with studs continuous from foundation to roof. Balustrade A protective railing at a stairway. Bituminous Containing asphalt or tar. Anchor bolt A metal bolt connecting the wood parts of a building to its foundation. or rafters. Back-up clip A small metal or plastic flange attached to framing for the purpose of supporting gypsum wallboard. Brick mold A deep exterior casing traditionally used with brick. Bearing wall A wall that carries structural loads from above (as opposed to a partition wall which does not). Bridging Bracing at the midspan of long joists or rafters to prevent their rotation. Backing Framing added for the purpose of providing a nailing surface where none exists. and retard the spread of fire. usually for the purpose of increasing depth. usually made of fiberglass. Baluster A single vertical component of a balustrade. porch. . Butt joint A joint in which the ends of two square-cut boards meet. Buttress A compression brace of a masonry or concrete wall. Words are included based on the frequency of their use and their absence from common language. Barge rafter The rafter at the edge of an overhanging gable roof. or balcony made of numerous vertical elements.
. Diaphragm A structural plane acting like a beam between braced walls to resist lateral forces. Collar tie A horizontal tie between opposing rafters in order to prevent their spreading. Diagonal bracing Wood or metal structural member providing triangulation to brace a wall (or roof). Casing The trim at head and jamb of a window or door. part of the structural perimeter of a diaphragm or shear wall. Cold roof An insulated vaulted ceiling with a ventilation space above to isolate snow and prevent its melting. Carriage The structure supporting a site-built stair. Cornerboard Trim boards at exterior corners for shingle or horizontal board siding. Chord The top or bottom component of a truss or I-joist where stresses are greatest. Cleat A concealed or exposed clip used to fasten flashing that does not penetrate the flashing itself. Dimension lumber Milled lumber cut to standard sizes. Dead load The weight of the structure itself. Crib wall A short framed wall within a crawl space providing support for the first-floor structure. Closed cell A type of rigid insulation that cannot be saturated by moisture.231 C Cantilever The portion of a structural member that projects beyond its support. Decking Parallel boards providing the structural surface of a floor or roof. Counterflashing Flashing that laps over another flashing. Clad Covered for protection from the weather. Caulk Pliable viscous material used to fill gaps between materials. Cross-grain shrinkage Shrinkage of wood perpendicular to its length due to moisture loss. Chamfer A bevel on the edge of a board or timber. See also sealant. Control joint A score line in a concrete slab. Concrete-rated The ability to be placed adjacent to concrete without deterioration due to chemical reaction. Crawl space A usually unheated and uninhabitable space between the first floor and the ground. D Dado A rectangular groove cut into a board. also called a jack or a stringer. Cricket A roof flashing above a chimney or other medium-sized object to divert water around it. also. creating a weak point where cracking will likely concentrate. Counterfort A buried tension brace of a masonry or concrete retaining wall. Curb A built-up edge such as to mount a skylight or to provide a base for a balustrade.
Frost line The depth to which the ground freezes in a given locality. Drainage plane The space between siding and moisture barrier in a rain screen wall. F Fascia Trim board at the eave of a roof. Envelope The exterior insulated skin of a building. Flashing A thin metal layer designed to divert water at the surface of a building. Exposure rating Rating that indicates the ability of composite panels such as plywood to withstand exposure to the weather. Duckboard A thin decking laid over a waterproof deck for the purpose of protecting the deck from abrasion. Downspout The pipe that conducts rainwater down from the gutter. Footing The spread portion at the base of a foundation. Fireblock A block installed in a wood frame for the purpose of inhibiting the passage of fire from one section of the frame to another. Finish stringer The finish trim at the side of a stair. Glue-laminated beam A composite beam made of 2x lumber stacked on one another and glued. Edge nailing Nailing at the perimeter of a structural panel or larger structural element. Expansion joint A flexible joint inserted into rigid materials such as concrete or brick to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction. . Framing anchor A metal clip designed to add strength at the connection of framing members. Dormer A small building element that contains a window emerging from a roof. Engineered lumber Structural lumber made of small pieces of wood glued together. Drip A thin edge of material designed to direct the dripping of water away from the surface of a building. Furring Strips of wood applied to a framed structure to adjust the plane of the finish surface. Firestopping See Fireblock. G Gable The triangular end wall of a building that has two equally pitched roofs opposed to each other. Filter fabric An underground textile that separates rock from soil and allows the passage of water. Flat-grain A board with the annual growth rings oriented across its width. designed to collect and distribute storm water. Dry-set Masonry laid without mortar. Dummy A roof element such as an eave or rake that is discontinuous from the principal roof structure. Felt A heavy tar-impregnated paper used as a moisture barrier. Dovetail A locking finish joint shaped like the spread feathers of a bird’s tail. Girder A structural member similar to a beam but larger.232 Glossary Diverter A short flashing integrated with roofing to divert rainwater where a gutter is not practical. E Eave The horizontal lower edge of a roof. also known as downpipe or leader. Frieze block Blocking between rafters at the eave of a roof. Dry well A hole in the ground filled with rocks. End-matched Boards having tongue and grooves at their ends. Drag strut A structural tie connecting a portion of a diaphragm to braced walls that are not directly under it.
Interlayment A loose overlapping underlayment used with shake roofs. sand. or the frame around a window or door. Jamb extender An extension of a window or door frame to make it flush with the interior finish surface. Joint reinforcement A method of placing horizontal reinforcement of masonry within the mortar joints. used as a turning point or resting place. J Jamb The zone at the sides of a window or door. locking reinforcing steel into the system. H Handrail A safety device designed to be grasped by the hand while using a stair.Glossary 233 Grade beam A concrete beam at ground level that supports structure above. Hydrostatic pressure Water pressure in the ground. Joist A relatively small repetitive horizontal structural member set on edge and spaced evenly. K Kerf A shallow sawcut in wood. Hold-down A large steel connector used to anchor the base of sheer walls against overturning. I-joist A composite joist shaped like a steel beam to place most material where the stresses are greatest. Also known as drywall. Lateral bracing The stabilizing of a building to resist horizontal forces. Hip The outside intersection of two planes of a roof. I Ice dam A buildup of ice. notched to receive the ends of treads and risers. Gutter A horizontal trough used to collect rainwater at the eave of a building. Hemmed edge A turned-over edge of a flashing. Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) Composite structural member used primarily for beams and headers. Header joist A joist that supports common joists at the edge of an opening in a floor or roof. Lateral force Any force such as a wind or earthquake that acts horizontally on a building. used to join two or more pieces of wood. Header A structural member over a window or door opening. Laminated strand lumber (LSL) A composite structural member used primarily for rim joists and headers. Kiln-dried Wood dried in a large oven or kiln to 19% or 15% moisture content. caused when snow is melted by heat that escapes through the ceiling then refreezes when it reaches the cold eave. small aggregate. usually at the eave. Gypsum board A panel made of gypsum plaster coated with heavy paper or fiberglass. also known as lag screw. Housed stringer The side of a premanufactured stair. Lap joint A joint in which the ends of two boards are lapped. Joist hanger A metal support used at the end of joists. and water used to fill the cells of concrete block. L Lag bolt A relatively large screw used to make strong connections in wood. also called an eave trough. Head The zone at the top of a window or door. Landing A wide level platform partway up a stairway. Insulating concrete form (ICF) A system in which the formwork for concrete walls is made of rigid insulation that stays in place to provide thermal protection. Gusset A thin wooden plate attached to the surface. Grout A mix of cement. one over the other. .
234 Glossary Lateral load See Lateral force. Platform framing The common method of building with stud height limited to one floor. Live load The weight or force imposed on a structure by things other than the structure itself. Mudsill The first wooden member bolted to a foundation forming the base of a wood frame. M Miter A butt joint made by bisecting the (usually right) angle between two intersecting pieces. or earthquake. occupants. Nailing plate A nailer attached to a hard surface such as metal so other members may be nailed to it. Lookout A cantilevered structural support of a rake. Nosing A rounded cantilevered edge of a stair tread. N Nailer A framing member added to a structure for the purpose of providing nailing for other members. also called a water-resistant barrier. snow. Plate A horizontal element that holds studs in place at the top and bottom of a framed wall. . the female receptor of a tenon in a mortise-and-tenon joint. Load bearing Supporting a weight or force. Ledger A horizontal member attached to a wall for the purpose of supporting other structural members such as joists or rafters. O Oriented strand board (OSB) A composite structural panel made of flakes of wood oriented for strength. Pitch Roof slope expressed as a ratio. Pea gravel A self-compacting fill material composed of pea-size rocks. Pilaster A vertical wall stiffener in masonry construction. Mortise A rectangular cut into wood. Partition wall A nonbearing wall that does not support anything but its own weight. Neoprene A synthetic rubber. Let-in Notching of one or more members so that another member such as a brace or ledger may be added flush with the original member(s). Moisture barrier A membrane designed to prevent the passage of water into a structure or space. Lintel A structural member over a window or door opening in masonry construction. wind. Perimeter insulation Insulation at the edges of a floor where the floor contacts the exterior environment. as in 4:12. P Parallel strand lumber (PSL) A composite structural member used primarily for beams and headers. Moisture content The percent of the weight of wood that is water as compared to its bone-dry weight. Newel post A post at the top or bottom of a stair rail. Permanent wood foundation (PWF) A foundation system that is made almost entirely of preservative treated wood. Nonbearing Not supporting any loads other than its own weight. Plumb Vertical. Parapet The part of an exterior wall that projects above a roof. such as furniture. Nailing fin A continuous metal or plastic flange around the edge of a modern window or door to allow attachment to the wall and to seal the rough opening. Point load A concentrated load such as at a column. Permeability The ability of a material to allow water vapor to pass through it. On walls. Particle board A nonstructural composite panel made of small particles of wood.
R R-value The measure of resistance of a material to the passage of heat. Shingle A thin. Sill gasket A compressible material between mudsill and foundation or slab to inhibit air infiltration into heated spaces. Rise The vertical distance between treads in a stair. Raised-heel truss A truss that is tall at the building edge to accommodate thick ceiling insulation. Run The horizontal distance between risers in a stair. also known as band joist. Roof joist The principal structural element in a flat roof. Purlin A horizontal structural element in a roof. Setting block A small chunk of neoprene at the lower edge of glass that supports the weight of the glass. air. overlapping piece of material that will shed water. Portal frame A rigid frame consisting of two columns and a beam of similar dimensions. hip. Rake The sloped end portion of a roof. S Sash A frame that holds glass in a window unit. Rain screen A siding system that provides a space for drainage between siding and moisture barrier. Sheathing The structural skin applied to the loadbearing surface of a wall. or roof. Rim joist A joist at the perimeter of a floor to which the common joists are attached. . Rat slab A thin concrete layer applied over the ground in crawl spaces. or the sloped exterior base of a door or window. Radon A radioactive odorless gas that emerges from the ground and is present at very low concentrations in all air. Prehung A door manufactured with hinges in a frame. Rafter The principal structural component in a sloped roof. Sill The zone at the bottom edge of a door or window. Rigid insulation Any of a variety of insulative panels that retains its form through its own strength. floor. Sealant A grade of caulk designed to prevent the passage of water. Ridge beam A structural support at the top of rafters. Ridge board A nonstructural board to which rafters are nailed. Pressure-treated Wood injected under pressure with chemicals that retard deterioration. and verge. or other substance. jack. barge. Shake A wood shingle that is split from a bolt. Riser A board that forms the vertical surface between treads in a stair. Screed A straightedge used to level concrete. used for roofing or siding. including many types such as common. valley. Scab A piece of wood on a surface of another piece. Scupper A metal collector of rainwater at the edge of a flat roof to channel the water through a parapet. Roof jack A roof flashing to allow plumbing vents to penetrate the roof surface. Protection board A cushion or shield that protects a moisture barrier from abrasion during backfill. Rabbet A groove along the edge of a piece of wood. Rough opening An opening in framing made to fit a manufactured unit such as a door or window.Glossary 235 Pony wall A framed wall at the perimeter of a building between the foundation and the first floor. Preformed metal Roofing metal manufactured to fit together in the field without special tools. Shear wall A structural wall engineered to resist extreme lateral forces.
sized to fit a mortise in a mortise-and-tenon joint. an air-barrier. . and vapor control. Spray-foam insulation Liquid foam that expands and solidifies to provide insulation. Storm sewer A large municipal drain for rainwater. Strapping A layer of boards applied to the interior of framing to smooth the surface or to increase insulation. Storm drain A drain that carries rainwater runoff. Snow guard A small protrusion integrated with roofing to hold snow on the roof. Squash block A short block with grain oriented vertically. Stick-frame A colloquialism describing light wood frame. Slab-on-grade A concrete slab supported by the ground. Sub-fascia A structural fascia beneath a finish fascia.236 Glossary Sill pan A metal or plastic water barrier to protect framing at the base of a window or door. Slope See Pitch. Spacing The distance between repetitive structural elements such as studs. Thrust block A block that is firmly attached to the floor at the base of a stair to prevent its horizontal movement. Stool A horizontal shelflike trim at the interior base of a window. Span The horizontal distance between the two supports of a structural member such as a beam. allowing heat to escape. including many specialized types such as king. Strap A long piece of wood or metal used to tie one structural piece to another. Stud The principal vertical structural component in a framed wall. Superinsulation Insulation that significantly exceeds code minimums. Stringer See Carriage. used where heavy loads could crush I-joists. joists. Sleeper A framing member laid flat across a series of joists or rafters to support other framing members. trimmer. Sole plate The bottom plate in a stud-wall assembly. Solid sawn lumber Milled lumber cut to standard sizes. joist. Storm sash A glazed unit applied to the exterior of a window as protection against storms and heat loss. Splash pan A metal flashing on a roof surface at the base of a downspout to direct rainwater over the roof. Termite shield A metal barrier to prevent termites from entering a wooden building. T Tenon A rectangular extension of the end of a piece of wood. Thermal bridge A component within an insulated assembly such as a wall or roof that conducts heat well and spans or bridges between the interior and exterior surfaces of the envelope. Threshold The weatherstripped transition between finish floor and sill at the base of a door. Subfloor The structural plane supporting the finish floor. extending between fascia and wall. Splash block A concrete block designed to distribute rainwater at the base of a downspout. or rafter. and cripple studs. Soffit A horizontal surface at the eave. or rafters. Subflooring See Subfloor. Single-wall A type of construction where the sheathing acts as the finish wall. Strut Part of the structural perimeter of a diaphragm or shear wall. Stop A protrusion around a window or door jamb that stops the hinged sash or door at the plane of the wall.
Trimmer joist An extra structural joist parallel to common joists at the edge of an opening in a floor or roof. Twist strap A metal strap with a 90-degree twist allowing surfaces perpendicular to one another to be tied. Web stiffener An extra layer of plywood or OSB laminated to the web of an I-joist for stiffness. Weep hole A small opening at the base of masonry construction to allow moisture to escape. Vent channel A device that compresses insulation at the eave to allow ventilation of the roof assembly. Tread The level plane that forms the steps of a stairway. interchangeable with the term barge rafter. . W Waferboard A composite panel made of flakes of wood. Vapor retarder A membrane or other building element that retards the transmission of water vapor. V Valley The sloped channel formed when two planes of a roof meet at an interior corner.Glossary 237 Toenail A method of nailing diagonally through the end of one piece of lumber into another. Tongue-and-groove An interlocking edge detail running the length of boards. Vertical grain A board with the annual growth rings oriented perpendicular to its width. Top plate The longitudinal uppermost member of a stud wall. U Underlayment A moisture barrier located between roofing and roof sheathing. Turned-down slab A concrete slab with a thickened edge that acts as a footing to support a structure above. Uniform load A load that is evenly distributed over a given area or length. Weatherstripping A seal around doors and windows to reduce air infiltration. usually doubled. Truss An arrangement of structural members forming triangles that works efficiently to span long distances. also called a baffle. Warm roof A vaulted ceiling superinsulated with rigid insulation and with no ventilation space. Vaulted ceiling A sloped ceiling following the roof pitch. Web The structural part of a truss or composite joist that holds the chords in position relative to one another. Verge rafter A rafter attached to the building at the gable end.
use of. 1 insulation of. x–xi of roofing materials. 16 drainage. 116–17 functions of. 21 Beams connections to posts. 18 as a foundation system. 108 moisture control at the edges of. 151–54 Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS -synthetic stucco). 118 synthetic stucco (Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems). 172 C Cast concrete. 151 wood I-joists. 41 rake walls. 8 E Engineered wood products advantages of. 9 as a foundation system. 8. 102. 7. 61 pests.238 index A Advanced framing. outside and inside. 110 vinyl siding. 105 materials for. 100 sliding. 11 concrete block foundation wall for. 204 Concrete and concrete block basement walls. 28. and bifold. 121 Air barriers. 101 interior hinged. 73 Flashing chimneys. use of. 28. 36–37 types of. 98 pocket. 106 horizontal siding. 8 unvented. 72 reasons for using. 114–15 B Balloon framing as a construction system. 200. rodent and insect. 14. 120 Ceilings exposed. 74–76. 173–74 drips. 28 for framing roofs. 9–11 rebar in (see Rebar) slabs (see Slabs) steps. 102. porch and deck Doors exterior hinged. 111 wood shingle siding. 112–13 rain screen siding. 19 Crawl spaces cast concrete foundation wall for. 11 D Decks. x. 16 Brick dry-set exterior steps. 14. connections to. 119 vertical wood siding. 10 pilasters for strengthening walls. 61–62 moisture and ventilation. 15–16 foundation walls. See Concrete and concrete block Caulks and sealants. 39 high-wind roof design. 1 openings in concrete-block foundation walls. 103. 31 floor. 66. 29 joists. bypass. 197 superinsulated. 65–66 upper-floor insulation. 8 radon. 1 frame construction and. 109 stucco. 198 vaulted. 97 Durability foundations and. 16 slabs and walls of. 30 wood column support for. types of. 63 Basements beam support in walls. 27. 161 joist-wall connections. 167 plywood siding. 177 F Firestopping. 223 veneer as exterior finish. 106 . 116–17 veneer for foundation walls. 99 sills. ventilation of. for windows and doors when using. 43–44. See Floors. 88. 224–25 wall caps. 113 roofs corners. 107 plywood siding. 96 garage. 119 Exterior wall finishes brick veneer. 107 horizontal members abutting walls. 164 insulation of.
Walls) trusses. 39–42 systems of. Foundations. 62 footings. positioning in relation to. 104 window/door head. 19 walls. 19. 3. 52. 45 types of framing for. 14–16 (see also Basements) brick-veneer. 39 joist/joist connections. 28. 48–51 supports for. 13 types of. 61–63 joists bridging. 10 retaining. 12 open decks. 170 vertical walls. 12 reinforcing of. connections to. ix durability of. 7. 102. 39 elements of. x. 7. 17 width and height of. connection to. connections and drainage for. 2 Insulation air barriers. 7 mudsills with anchors and anchor bolts. connections to. 169 roof jacks and vents. 3–5 functions of. 151–54 Insulating concrete formwork (ICF). 2. 24–25 doors. 175 sidewall and step. 175–76 wall caps. 11 cast concrete. 56–57 subflooring. 10. 27. 36 wood I-joists. 27 (see also Beams. 168 pitch-change. connection to building for. 12 materials for. 171 valleys. 18 floor insulation at. 3 rebar in. 37 stud walls. x–xi G Garages concrete slabs. 8 (see also Crawl spaces) crib. 173 principles of. 54–55 railings. unvented. 1–2 wall caps. 60 waterproof decks. 27 beams (see Beams) cantilevers. 53 open decks. 28 walls and. 35 mudsills. 18 Frame construction advantages of. 169 skylights. 87 I I-joists used as joists. 58–59 the traditional wood porch. 7 basement. 46–47 insulation. 54 pony. 33–34. 3–5 soil type and. 43–44 porch and deck construction of. 8 . 27 exposed decking. 7 waterproofing. 27. 9–10 crawl-space controls. 28. 103 Floors. 15 crawl spaces. walls. 101 shear walls. connection to building for. 1 insulating concrete formwork (ICF). 38 floor cantilevers. 38 steel beams. 169 hemmed edges and fasteners. 32 types of. 27 wood beams.239 eaves. 2 pier and grade-beam systems. 3. 167 rakes. 47 girders. 5–6 size and types of. 2 drainage. 105 walls. 44 openings in joist-floor systems. connections to. 11 concrete block. 14. 53 materials for. 52. girders with. 3 Foundations concrete slabs (see Slabs) design checklist for. 2 permanent wood foundation (PWF). 7. 27. 43–44 used as rafters. 27–28 Footings concrete slabs (see Slabs) frost line and. 88. 120 basement.
88. 3. 120 caulks and sealants. 10 Roofing materials asphalt shingles. 22–23 spray-foam. 28. 28. 9. 45 types of floor. 75–76 upgrading with rigid insulation. 7. 166. 2 Pests. 18 See also Ventilation J Joists bridging. 161 . 33–34. 44 openings in joist-floor systems. 72 upper-floor insulation. 63 See also Walls Porches. connections to. 165. 132 floor cantilevers. 88–89 waterproofing. 39 joist/joist connections. 166 Roofs eaves and rakes. x. 164–65 superinsulated ceilings. porch and deck L Longevity. 124 strapping. 182–83 clay tile.240 Index floor. 27 wood beams. 121–22 systems of for floor structure. controlling in. 43–44 joist-wall connections. 177 underlayment. 164 solid sheathing on roofs. 187–89 for flat roofs. 8 walls. 121. 8 Rebar in footings. combining and selecting. 61. 187 concrete tile. 166. See Durability R Radon. rodents and insects in crawl spaces. 165. 140–41 flashing chimneys. 168 pitch-change. 169 hemmed edges and fasteners. single. 27. 172 eaves. 70 methods and materials. 121 vapor retarders. 197 exposed ceilings. 173 M Moisture air barriers. 165. 120 walls double wall framing. 198–99 slab perimeters. moisture and air barriers in. 106 concrete slabs. 37 stud walls. 32 trusses. 38 ceiling. 166.and doublecoverage. 186–87 wood shingles. 61–63 rigid in ceilings. 165. 121 staggered-stud framing. 38 steel beams. 88. 180–81 selection of. 35 mudsills. 107 exterior wall finishes to protect against (see Exterior wall finishes) flashing (see Flashing) foundation walls and. 121. 121. 177 wood shakes. 8 Platform framing as a construction system. 198–99 in walls. x. 184–85 wood shingles or shakes. 39–42 P Permanent wood foundation (PWF). 121. 166. 122 roofs and ceilings. connections to. See Floors. porch and deck) drips to control. 190–92 roll. 20 drainage for porch and deck floors (see Floors. 173–74 corners. 103. 177 slope of a roof and. 123 superinsulation for advanced framing. 36 wood I-joists. 178–79 metal. 2. 39 high-wind roof design and. connections to. 125 headers in exterior or bearing. 102. 5–6 in foundation walls. 165. outside and inside. positioning in relation to. 41 rake walls.
197 exposed ceilings. 204 S Shingles asphalt. 137. 200. 141. 140. 160–61 gutters and downspouts. 128 stick-framed rafters. 25 preparation for pouring. 141. 204 flat roofs. 163 recommendations for. 135–36. 3 footing at garage door. 201–3 warm roofs. 162 slope/pitch of. 193–96 insulation. 205 intake and exhaust vents. 160 sheathing exposed tongue and groove decking. 143 dummy rakes. 131 rafter/wall connection for shed roof. skylights. 177 ventilation. 1 steel column. options for supporting. 200 cold roofs. 138. wind considerations and. 169 roof jacks and vents. 127–28. 20 radiant-heat. under-slab footing for. 182–83 wood used for roofing. 25 on grade with deep footing. 139 gable-end trusses. 156 Greek return. 144–45. 128. 167 rakes. 134 rafter-span comparison table. 175–76 valleys. 198–99 roofing materials (see Roofing materials) shape of. 155–59 valleys. 134 roof pitch changes. 166 plywood and non-veneered panels. 142–43 eaves. 147 ceiling joists. 148 parallel or perpendicular walls. See Exterior wall finishes Slabs basement walls and. 184–85 wood used for siding. 22–24 wood post and bearing wall. foundation wall and. chimneys). 129 abbreviated rakes. 132 dummy rafter tails. support and moisture control in. 150 barge rafter dies on roof. 159 exposed rakes. 166. 162 types of. 24 . 171 skylights. 148–49 soffit return. 157 I-joist rafters. 146–47 fascia dies on roof. 146 eaves. 150 rakes. 164 solid sheathing and. 164–65 superinsulated ceilings. 22–23 plumbing through. 24 for garage. 175 sidewall and step. 149 bird’s mouth cut in rafters. wind considerations and. use of. 160–61 eaves with I-joist rafters. 151–54 openings (dormers. 24 with turned-down footing. integral footing for. 143. rafters supported by.Index 241 principles of and materials for. 23 perimeter insulation. 157 for wind. 170 vertical walls. 21 as footing. 149 hips. 127. 149 stick and truss as options for. rafters supported by. soil conditions for. 21 slab-on-grade foundation systems. 152–54 eaves with trusses. 160. 158 overhanging rakes. 25 reinforcing. 141. 149 flat. 133. 133 soffited eave/rake transitions. 160–61 rake walls. 130–31 trusses. 148. 133 boxed-in rakes. 21 expansion and control joints in. 165. 114–15 Siding. 197 ceilings. 169 framing of. 164–65 open.
ceramic or concrete for roofing. 68–70 intersecting walls. 207 interior/exterior. 210 Stucco. 48 T Tiles. 74– 76. 199 roof. 65 insulation double wall framing. 72 rake walls. 102–5 (see also Flashing) foundation (see Foundations. 66. 125 firestopping. 124 strapping. 68 parapets. 110 vinyl siding. 27–28. 213 rough openings. 211 treads with open risers. 2 slab/basement wall and. 73 corners. 70–71 double wall. 20 Stairs balustrades closed. 51 tongue-and-groove decking. 124 systems for. 88. 135 exterior finishes brick veneer. 165. 134 staggered stud. 217 finish treads and risers. 73 headers. 21–22 as slab support. 221 Steps concrete. differences between. 125 headers in exterior or bearing. 118 synthetic stucco (Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems). walls) framing of. 121 blocking and notching. 111 wood shingle siding. 198. 65–66 (see also Balloon framing. 166 Trusses floor. 106 horizontal siding. 214 handrails. 218–19 carpeted treads and risers. 109 stucco. 66 doors in (see Doors) dormers. as element of. 39. 121. 61. 67 advanced framing. 107 plywood siding. 216 framing carriages/stringers. 223 dry-set concrete pavers. with and without curb. 208 dimensions. 215 newel posts. 72. 121 staggered-stud framing. 49 underlayment. 119 vertical wood siding. 128 V Vapor retarders. 224–25 dry-set brick. 114–15 flashing. 70 methods and materials. 120 Ventilation of crawl spaces. 200–205 W Walls basement. skirt vs. 45 raised-heel. 220 open. 224 ground-supported. Platform framing) function of. 112–13 rain screen siding. 216 design of configurations. 19. 71 openings in a stud wall. 220 freespanning. 207. 222 finish stringers. 123 superinsulation for advanced framing. 75–76 . 108 moisture control at the edges of. 121. 27 plywood and non-veneered panels. 48 thin-mass. 14–16 caps. housed. 215 prefabricated. 48 spacing and nailing. 209 exterior wood. 3 foundation systems and type of. 116–17 functions of. 66. 105 crib. 211–14 landings. 49–51 floor system. 8 roof and attic. 210 structural types. 12 designing. 73 cantilevered walls. 118–19 Subflooring concrete.242 Index Soil concrete footings and type of. 121.
83.Index 243 upgrading with rigid insulation. 87 sheathing nonstructural and gypsum. 88–89 partition. 12 retaining. steps for. 82–83 reinforced windows. 95 storm sash. 77 moisture and air barriers. 87 horizontal diaphragms and. 18 Wind. 160–61 Windows attachment to the building. 39–42 lateral bracing. framing to withstand high. 65. 91 . 42 pony. 83–84 drag struts. 81 structural. 92–94 installation. 87 garages. 91 site-built fixed. 85 connections. 121 windows in (see Windows) Waterproofing. 121–22 joists. 17 shear components of. 86–87 distribution/placement of. 90 types. connections to. 78–80 thickness of. 95 terminology. 14.
Pp Taunton Product #077741 . and Railings Look for other Taunton Press books wherever books are sold or visit our website at www. CT 06470-5507 www. P. Major detail categories include: n Footings and Foundations n Beams. erecting a partition wall. or flashing a window. and code revisions. With more than 500 comprehensive drawings and concise explanations to go with them.finehomebuilding.taunton.O. and installation details for new building materials.com Visit www. He has written two other Graphic Guides—to site construction and interior details—which provide the details that today’s designers and builders need to get the job done right. Girders. designs for high wind and earthquake zones. this visual handbook for wood-frame construction delivers completely updated information about the latest materials. and Subflooring n Wall Framing. Joists. building methods.taunton. you’ll find the visual explanation here. and Flashing n Exterior and Interior Stairs. A practicing architect with his own firm. About the author Rob Thallon has been designing and building wood-frame structures for over 40 years. this professionalgrade guide unpacks the details and requirements for frame construction from start to finish. and Sheathing n Roof Framing. Whether you’re setting a foundation. Sheathing. Over 50 new and revised drawings cover energy-efficient construction.com for the most trusted building information online and to learn about Fine Homebuilding magazine and other home-building products from The Taunton Press. advanced framing.com The Taunton Press 63 South Main Street. Box 5507 Newtown. Thallon is also an associate professor of architecture at the University of Oregon.HOUSE & HOME Now in its third edition. Bracing.
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