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PRACTICAL CALCULATION TRANSMISSION LINES OF .
AND INTERIOR WIRES FOR PURPOSES OF LIGHT. ROSENTHAL. UNDERGROUND. E. o ASSOCIATE MEMBER.E. W.E. NEW YORK MCGRAW PUBLISHING COMPANY 239 WEST 39TH STREET 1909 .E. A.PEACTICAL CALCULATION OF TBANSMISSION LINES FOR DISTRIBUTION OF DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS BY MEANS OF OVERHEAD.I. POWER. AND TRACTION BY L.
Engineering library COPYRIGHT.A. . BY THE McGKAW PUBLISHING COMPANY NEW YORK Stanbopc Jpresa F. U.S.G1LSON COMPANY BOSTON. H. 1909.
may The author desires to call particular attention to the fallacies of some familiar methods of calculating alternating-current transmisIt will be sion lines which heretofore have been in common use. the most desirable limits of line losses are not discussed. although further accurate investigations of installed lines modify to some extent the present accepted values. alternating-current division presents a new and original method it It is the only method known to for the solution of these problems. The scope of this book has been confined to methods of calculation. racy accord with most of the consistent data published on the subject.. iii of wire factors render apparent 254556 . All sections except the last include the important effects of The section relating to temperature and specific conductivity. accuThe chapter on single-phase railways is in and simplicity. substitute a direct solution for the trial method which was formerly a necessary evil. and the methods outlined in The have been found rapid and comprehensive. THIS little book is offered to the engineering profession with the hope that it may be of practical help in the rapid and accurate Its existence is the outcome of calculation of transmission lines. 28. and 36 that their results are wholly erroneous under certain practical conditions.PREFACE. does not either the determination of the book include Furthermore. direct-current railways is novel in the form of its tables. although the tables many of their important features. the belief that this field Its chief mission is to is in part barren. the author which determines the size of wire directly from the volt and it also possesses unique features of scope. and indicate wires which may be entirely at variance with the specified requirements. istics of alternating-current transmission lines. loss in the line. The arrangement of the formulas.. Hence. but the tables are sufficiently extended to cover all cases There is no discussion of the characterlikely to arise in practice. evident from Tables 11. tables and text has been dictated solely by the needs of the rapid worker.
and the R. but thorough checks by the methods of differences and curve plotting have probably eliminated almost all errors of material influence. December. W. NEW YORK CITY. some discrepancies may have crept L. The preparation of the tables has involved thousands of calculations. However. author would be glad to learn of them.iv PREFACE maximum economy or the the size of conductors for conditions of consideration of alternating-current circuits in series. in. . 1908.
. 7. 13. SKIN EFFECT 27. 1. I. INTRODUCTION RESISTANCE OF RAILS PARALLEL RESISTANCE OF RAILS AND FEEDERS NEGATIVE CONDUCTORS POSITIVE CONDUCTORS RESISTANCE OF CIRCUIT GIVEN ITEMS 16 17 18 18 19 19 EXAMPLES . TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY SOLID AND STRANDED CONDUCTORS 26. 11. 3. DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION FOR LIGHT AND POWER. DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS. II. WIRE SPACING 24. 34 v . . 16 10. FORMULAS AMPERE-FEET EXAMPLES. 6. CHAPTER 9. III. 12. 4. SPECIFIC 25. RANGE OF APPLICATION MAXIMUM ERROR TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS BALANCED LOADS 21.CONTENTS. 15. 23. INTRODUCTION PROPERTIES OF CONDUCTORS CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY PARALLEL RESISTANCE OF WIRES GIVEN ITEMS 5 6 9 10 10 10 11 8. 22. 18. 20. 14. 20 CHAPTER 17. 5. PAGES 6^ : 2. CHAPTER PAR. 16. ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY OVERHEAD WIRES. INTRODUCTION OUTLINE OF METHOD 29 30 31 31 32 33 33 33 33 33 19.
vi PAR. . INTERIOR WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION. 41. 62. CONTENTS ARRANGEMENT OF WIRES FREQUENCY MULTIPLE CIRCUITS CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE VOLT LOSS POWER TRANSMITTED PAGE 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 39 31. INTRODUCTION MAXIMUM ERROR 63 63 64 64 64 64 65 65 TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF CONDUCTORS THICKNESS OF INSULATION CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY CAPACITY EFFECTS 48. 32. 75 75 75 76 INTRODUCTION PROPERTIES OF CONDUCTORS SPACING OF WIRES AMPERE-FEET EXAMPLES 76 CHAPTER 57. 45. 60. IV. ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES. 85 85 85 86 86 86 INTRODUCTION 58. 50. 38. 29. 40. 46. 35. EXAMPLES CHAPTER 52. POWER LOSS 36. 55. DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE PHASE RAILWAYS. 28. 33. 34. POWER-FACTOR WIRE FACTOR GIVEN ITEMS SIZE OF WIRE PER CENT VOLT LOSS CHARGING CURRENT CAPACITY EFFECTS 42. VI. 39. CHAPTER 44. V. EXAMPLES . 30. 43. 49. 61. 47. 54. 56. 51 . . 53. METHOD OF CALCULATION IMPEDANCE OF RAIL PERMEABILITY OF RAIL IMPEDANCE AND WEIGHT OF RAIL IMPEDANCE OF RAIL AND FREQUENCY 59. 37.
86 87 87 87 = . . . vii PAGE .. .. 68. FORMULA FOR RAIL IMPEDANCE POWER-FACTOR OF TRACK. 63.. .... HEIGHT OF TROLLEY EFFECT OF CATENARY CONSTRUCTION IMPEDANCE OF COMPLETE CIRCUIT MULTIPLE TRACKS . 64.. EXAMPLES .-. 69.* . 67. 66.. _ 87 88 88 ...CONTENTS PAR. . 65.
II. and aluminum and aluminum F Properties of copper and aluminum Ampere-feet per volt drop and current-carrying capacity Values of H for copper or aluminum. 22. Values of T l for steel Equivalents of copper of 100 per cent conductivity. PAGE 6 6 .. 20 24 25 26 CHAPTER 11. .. 12. . CHAPTER No. 10. I. Values of 2. .. Values of for overhead copper wires at 25 cycles per second 19. Values of for overhead copper wires at 40 cycles per second 20. . . Error in per cent of volt loss .. 31 32 39 39 50 51 . 9. DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT CURRENT RAILWAYS. Values of Formulas for direct-current railway A for wires and rails III. Values of B for balanced loads.. T 7 8 8 14 15 CHAPTER 7. transmission by overhead wires 15. 60 61 62 ix . 17 . 26. Formulas for direct-current wiring Values of a for copper and aluminum. . . Values of for overhead copper wires at 60 cycles per second. Reactance factors . Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 15 cycles per second. M M M M M M M M M M 52 52 53 54 55 56 57 ... Values of 21. for copper for copper . Values of A for balanced loads 17. . Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 40 cycles per second. Values of c for overhead wires 14. Formulas for a. 4. 27. 5. 6. 20 cent 13.TABLES. Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 25 cycles per second.. 8. circuits . for overhead copper wires at 15 cycles per second 18. 58 59 . Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 125 cycles per second. . Maximum error in per cent of true values at. 3. Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 60 cycles per second. Values of 1. 24. Values of volt loss factors 16. ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY OVERHEAD WIRES. DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION FOR LIGHT AND POWER.. . c. Values of for overhead copper wires at 125 cycles per second 23. 25. . Resistance to direct current of one steel rail .
c.X TABLES CHAPTER No. Values of 32. 33. M for multiple conductor copper cables Values of M for multiple conductor copper cables V. Values of c for cent cables underground cables transmission 63 64 65 71 Formulas for 31.0. INTERIOR WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION. Values a. Values of 35.01 F of A for balanced loads of B for balanced loads by underground ) 72 72 72 73 74 CHAPTER 36. Values of for a. ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES. Values 34. VQ '" = F (1 . IV.. 82 82 83 84 CHAPTER 41. 37. PAGE ' 28. Values of 39. 88 92 93 and calculated values of impedance per mile Formulas for single-phase railway circuits 42. Maximum error in per cent of true values at 20 30. loss Error in per cent of true volt 76 81 Formulas 38. DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS. Error in per cent of true volt loss 29. Values of a and interior wiring b for balanced loads B for balanced loads M for copper wires in interior conduits M for copper wires in molding or on cleats . Test VI. c. Values of 40.. Values of M for single-phase railway circuits .
PART I. UNDERGROUND AND INTERIOR WIRES FOR PURPOSES OF LIGHT. DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION BY MEANS OF OVERHEAD. POWER AND TRACTION .
or 68 Table and length is practically the 3. factor. . The same formula covers and all are concise but comprehensive items of influence are easily included. 1. Introduction. solid conductors of the the same. Properties of Conductors. conditions of installation and operation whether by overhead. The resistance of stranded and 2. underground or interior wires. The tables and will cover almost all the usual and unusual requirements of varied practice. the resistance per mile of No.DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION CHAPTER I. Ohms Ohms S = resistance per 1000 feet = > v * . for copper of 100 per cent and aluminum of same cross section 62 per cent conductivity in Matthiessen's standard scale. The formulas give accurate results. The resistance at any other temperature and conductivity may be found for copper or aluminum from formulas (1) and (2). of 98 per cent conductivity is 1 copper wire . DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION FOR LIGHT AND POWER. at 40 cent. gives properties of wires at 20 fahr. page 8. T = Temperature Table 1. Problems in direct-current transmission and distribution are all relatively simple. page 6. Thus. S resistance per mile = 54/700 X T o ^ ^ Cross section of metal in circular mils. cent.
Values of T for Copper and Aluminum.6 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS Table i. Temperature .
Properties of Copper and Aluminum at 20 Cent. Copper 100 Per Cent. or 68 Fahr. Conductivity in Matthiessen's Standard Scale . .DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION Table 3. Aluminum 62 Per Cent.
.8 Table 4. TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS Ampere-Feet per Volt Drop and Current-Carrying Capacity.
degrees centigrade. factors of respective wires.. (4)f = Diameter of wire in inches. S 2 = Circular mils in T T 2 = Temperature l} (6) respective wires. . formulas (5) reduce to those below. final. Amperes per wire d =H \~r ..* rise Formula (4) may be solved for C to find the temperature under given conditions. . Handbook No.. The size of wires is sometimes determined by their currentcarrying capacity. Table 1. page 208. T2 * Where all the wires have the same temperature and conductivity. page 6. For longer lines it is usually advisable to calculate the loss and then note that the wire has sufficient carrying capacity. especially in interior work where the runs are short. page 8. 5.'s " t Based on formulas in Foster's Electrical Engineers' Pocketbook. page 192. XVII. The parallel resistance at any temperature for a number of wires of any conductivity is given by the following formulas: 4. page 6.. rise in H= C = Temperature Heat factor. = 54 700 X T S + S 2 410 350 ' .DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 9 current per wire for lead-covered underground cables is based on tests for a temperature rise from 70 fahr. initial to 150 fahr. Parallel Resistance of Wires." 1908. Table 1. . - 2 r ^ l In formulas Sit and T. Ohms resistance per 1000 feet = T 1 i i n u> T + T + 12 1 * Ohms resistance per mile = (5) "/ . * Standard Underground Cable Co. while for shorter stretches it is often better to select a wire of proper current capacity and then find by calculation whether the loss is within the specified limit. Ohms resistance per 1000 feet resistance per mile (5) Ohms X T S + + S. Table T = Temperature factor at final temperature.
size of each wire is noted from Table 3.000. Thus in direct-current distribution it may signify the generator. or the volt loss from Given Items. which is the same as the length of one wire. and the method of procedure will be clear from the arrangement of the table. to feeder or to sub-feeder. Ampere-Feet. 1. The size of wire may be determined from the volt drop. the resistance per mile at 30 cent. 4 copper wires of 97 per cent conductivity 18 10. 00 trolley wire of 97 per cent conductivity in parallel with one 1. mined from the ampere-feet per of wires volt may be readily deterdrop as given by formula (7).000cir. 6. then the voltage transmission. corresponding to the required circular mils.069 Similarly.674 0.000.10 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS Thus. storage battery. of one No. starts. is the dis. Formulas. X + 1. V or V is expressed as a whole number. and one No.740 require the determinaloss. of one No. It should be carefully noted that percent loss. so that problems involving voltage at source and watts at load may be solved without preliminary approximation. at load or source must also be given. which in direct-current systems is always equal to the per cent power loss.100 1. divided by 1000. or from the cent volt per drop. The size 7. The problem may from the volt tion of the size of wire the given size of wire. I.500 5. rotary converter.110 = Q 078Q ohm 41.700 133. and the tance from source to load. connection to main. Formulas for the complete solution of direct- current problems are given on page 14.0758 ohm. page 7. the parallel resistance per 1000 feet at 40 cent. columns 4 or 8. equal to the values in Table 3. The value of a is found in Table 6. or simply a certain point of the circuit. current and distance of If power in watts is specified. The term " source " is used in this book to designate the point from which the circuit. page 15. or the part of circuit under consideration. and that the length of transmission.000 = 1. are conductor metal In either case the other required items and temperature. In formula (14). r is the resistance per foot of one wire. .350 105. The per cent volt drop is expressed in terms of power as well as current. mil aluminum feeder of 62 per cent conductivity is 54.
= Distance from = Drop in volts. From (9). _ 23 X 200 X 1000 = 9.DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION The wire having Table 4. In case of distributed loads. respectively. 200 amperes. Examples in practice may take innumerable of procedure in any case will be clear but the method forms. The following problems 8. Ampere-feet per volt drop / I = (7) v = Amperes. 3 amperes 50 25 ft. page 14. are typical and serve to illustrate the simplicity of the calculations for direct-current distribution.000 Volt drop. cir. a = 23.2 volts..0. more convenient. copper circuit of 97 per cent conductivity is for a distance of 1000 feet with a loss of 10 volts at 40 GIVEN ITEMS. as in interior lighting work. formula is (8). Example i. 11 a corresponding value is then noted from page 8. I. I = 1000 feet. = 6 X + 3 X 50 + X 100 = 500 ampere-feet. in feet. 500. page 15. multiplied by Thus if 6 amperes are to be transits respective distance. source to load. For other conductivities or temperatures. the mitted 25 II ft. II is sum of the products given by each load. I = From v = 10 volts. 200 10 = 23 X X 1000 = 46Q 000 ci] Use 500. from the table of formulas on page 14. and 2 amperes 100 2 ft. Examples. Size of each wire. REQUIRED ITEMS.. /.000 . Table 6. From (8). mil wires. A to deliver 200 amperes cent. The values in Table 4 are for copper and aluminum of 100 per cent and 62 per cent conductivity. . at 20 cent..
w = + 1430= 26. From Table 6. GIVEN ITEMS. it is seen that the wire should have weatherproof insulation or else be increased to 250.000 X 211.0000207 X 2 (200) X 1000 = 1840 watts.4 per cent. A motor is to take 25 kw.5 volts.12 Watt loss. mils.11 From p (14).110. 1. V From Table "' = From 2L9 X 0. From (19). for which (11).1 volts.000 cir.9 X 239 5. 0000 Per cent volt drop.5. and r = 0. page 15. 9. 7 =5per cent. Size of each wire. 1430 watts. - ' 1 ~~ U.0000207 ohm. 31. T = 1.430 watts. From Table 4. page 8.000 watts. From v= 0.9 volts. e = 110 volts. cir.9 = 104.054 X 110 = 5. From (8).600 X 240 X (HO) = 2 - 7 = 5. e= 110 . . S= 211.9. w= 25. = 2 X X 0.600 . page 72. mils. REQUIRED ITEMS.5 X 240 = Use No.000 (15). Volts at load. p = Wattloss.2 per cent.01 25. at a distance of 240 per cent of the 110 volts generated.Uo4 Watts at generator. Example feet with a circuit is 2. (19). while the to consist of copper wires of 98 per cent conductivity loss of 5 with a temperature of 30 cent. v = 0. TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS From Tables 1 and 3. From (13). the voltage at the load at any value. s= 21. Z = 240 feet.05 X 110= 5. wires. 054 X 25 QOQ = From (14). From 25. say 100. a = 21. Volt drop. cent the per drop and per cent power loss are found to be the By assuming same.
and 40 amperes at 150 feet.5 X 500 = 106. the required size of each wire is No.5 volts.000 cir. Example 4. Per cent volt drop.6 X 500 X 550 _ 1. 1.From (9). from the source.000. . = 23 6 ' ^ 1. 7 = 500 From amperes. page 8. copper and No. mils of aluminum wire of 62 per cent conductivity at 30 cent. Ampere-feet per volt drop cent. From (8).2\j 2.UUU.6:5= 213. Find the combined resistance of 1500 feet of Example 5. v = 03 ^ X 6.000. Copper mains of 98 per cent conductivity are to deliver 500 amperes to a point 550 feet from a rotary converter with a loss of 3 per cent of the voltage at load. mils.5 volts. Volts at load. 13 amperes The load on a feeder is to consist of 20 at 50 feet. Use 1.02 1. Size of each wire. Z = 550 feet.4 volts.000 cir. in parallel with the same length of 1.010>000 cir cir. V=3 - per cent.000 Volt drop. (18). mils of 98 per cent copper wire at 20 cent.750 watts. 25 amperes at 100 feet. 20 X 50 + 25 X 2 100 X 40 X 150 4.95 per cent. 000 for aluminum. 7 = -5A = . e =220 volts. From Table page 15. Calculate the required size of a uniform circuit of 100 per cent conductivity for a total loss of 2 volts at 20 From (7). a= 23.DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION Example 3. a = 23. REQUIRED ITEMS. Calculate the From Table for size of wire of 98 per cent conductivity and at 50 cent. if 220 volts are generated. GIVEN ITEMS. t.674 . 500.6. 6. e = 220 . From (5) and Table 1. From (16).UUU 2^ X * 55 = 6. From (19). Watts at load. From (13). w = 213.
Required Items.TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS Formulas For Direct-Current Wiring. .
.DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION Table 6. 15 Values of a For Copper and Aluminum. Temperature in degrees.
Table The corresponding value for any number of rails is copper. circuit. the formulas on page 14 may be used. by the number. page 24. 9. the track rails are not used for the return current. or. However. for various values of relative resistance of steel to Resistance of Rails. T1} Table 7. or by dividThe resistance at any other ing the resistance. the recent character of bonding has made the calculations more reliable by giving a higher and more permanent value to the conductivity of the grounded side. while the equivalent section of copper is equal to the tabular value divided by 7\. found by multiplying the equivalent copper section. the greater per cent loss allowed in the line and the variable nature of the loads. page 17. 9.CHAPTER II. the values may be found for one rail for any other condition of relative resistance and temperature by means Equivalent of the following formulas: cir. In electric railways such as the open conduit and the double trolley systems. Besides this. DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS. moving and and Due to the track rails the calculations of railway feeders working conductors are somewhat complex and uncertain. rails for track Electric railways almost always use the the return of current. Introduction. gives the equivalent copper section and the resistance of third rails or track rails at 20 cent. Where the feeders and working conductors form a complete copper 10. and the calculations for their circuits are therefore simpler and more definite. other differ- ences between circuits for railways and those for power and lighting purposes are the higher voltage employed on the trolley.000 T X l X Pounds per yard Relative resistance 10 . temperature is found by multiplying the value in the table by the temperature factor of resistance for steel. mils of 100 per cent copper = 125..
28 T\ X Relative resistance X Pounds per yard (22) Table 7.2 is l T = Temperature 1. Table Values of T for Steel.0468 ohm. page 17. of two 65-lb. cent .28 X 7. 65 X 0.DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS 17 Ohms resistance per 1000 feet T X t Relative resistance 12. Temperature. factor of steel.2 = 2 2.05 X 13. deg. As an example.1 X Pounds (21) per yard Ohms resistance per mile 2. track rails having a relative resistance of 13. the total resistance per mile at 30 cent.
The size of rails is fixed by conditions other than electrical conductivity and usually give a Electrototal resistance much below that of the positive side.000 cir. while third rails usually range from 60 to 100 pounds per yard. Positive Conductors.000. may require that negative feeders be connected to the rails at certain points. rails of an apparent relative example of the determination of the size of resistance in parallel 2.05 12. As an negative feeder. of feeders 14 (including bonding). The additional resistance of bonds rnay be included by increasing the true relative resistance of the rail to an apparent value. mil aluminum feeder of 62 per cent conductivity is = 833^000 1. while for systems using trolley wires. in exactly like the determination of negative feeders paragraph 12.000 ductivity. Trolley wires vary in size from Nos.18 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS copper feeder of 97 per cent conductivity and one 500.069 500. or 1.000 of 62 per cent conductivity. suppose that S in formula (25) on page 26 should come out 2.000-cir. this is equivalent to 773. Based on Table mils of copper of 100 per cent con8. mils of aluminum mils of copper of 97 per cent conductivity. The positive conductors consist of 13. page 20. the total section of positive conductors is calculated from formula is the method (25). . mils for the negative side of a circuit for which the track is to consist of two 70-lb. is found by subtracting the equivalent copper section of the rails from the total circular mils required. but otherwise the rails generally lytic conditions have ample conductivity without any copper reinforcement. The track rails and negative feeders carry the return current. The size of the auxiliary feeder is given by the difference between the total circular mils required and that of the trolley wire. The section of negative conductors may be based on a maxi- mum feeder The size of the negative allowable drop in the return. to 0000. auxiliary feeders in parallel with trolleys or third rails.000 cir.674 Negative Conductors.000 1.000 cir.000 X cir. Then for a third-rail system.000. 625. The required with the track should have 2. The drop in the positive conductors is found by subtracting the calculated negative drop from the total that is allowed.000 1. X 2 500. or 750.210. page 25.
. Resistance of Circuit. the application of the formulas . The total resistance of the circuit obtained by adding the resistance of the grounded side and the overhead.DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS 19 The temperature is included in the calculation of the circular by means of A in Table 10. the required section of 1 copper of 97 per mils. is page 20. Thus the resistance per mile at cent. Thus if S comes out 1. The per cent volt loss has also been given in terms of power. the value of S in formula (25) is divided by the given conductivity. settled and then the formulas are applied successively to the separate loads. page 24. Where there are no negative feeders. 16. where the feeder system is uniform throughout.will be clear from the following typical examples. as cent conductivity ' ooo 000 1 . mils mils of 100 per cent copper. the resistance of the trolleys is given in Table 3. be for a maximum drop with a very severe condition of loading or for a much smaller drop with a distributed loading of an average In either case the loads and their positions are first value.000 cir. The determination of the proper loading on 15. For convenience in calculation the formulas have been expressed in terms of. page 26. these problems occur in a great many different forms. or.462 ohm. or 1. may be noted from Table 14. Examples. which to base the feeder systems is usually more difficult than In general the requirement will the calculation of the feeders. page 7. 00 trolley of 100 per cent conductivity is 2^2 + o 411 = o. using the total of the loads at their center of gravity.97 8. one determination is made. Although^ in practice. For conductivities other than 100 per cent. rails of an apparent relative resistance of 14 (including bonding) and a 20 No. current. or by considering their combined effect where the feeder system is uniform throughout the area of loading. the resist- ance of the rails may be taken directly from Table 9. Given Items. of a single-track road having two 60-lb. In case the feeder system is known the total loss is easily calculated by considering the loads separately.030. and if no positive feeders are used. so that no preliminary approximation is necessary when the voltage is known only at the source. is 0.000.000 cir.
20 Table 8. Conductivity in Matthiessen's Standard Scale. . TRANSMISSION CALCULA TIONS Equivalents of Copper of 100 Per Cent Conductivity.
rails having Example 8. line voltage at successive cars having a relative resistance of 14 (including bonding).3). side In the above typical problem. 00 trolley of 96 per cent conductivity? .000 1. determine the which take 100 amperes each at respective locations of 500.738 X Q 01962 ohm< 2 Hence the total resistance per 1000 feet of road is 0.4. A single-track road with two 75-lb.6 Line volts Additional drop = 0. From (23) and Tables and 3.000 = 530 .500 . = 525.545. 21 mils.3 .5 and 2.02357 ohm.02357 X 100X2.000 = 534. From Tables 7 and 9.02357 X 300 X 1 .7 Line volts Additional drop = 0.000 to an increase of 100 per cent. the resistance of the grounded is but 20 per cent of the resistance of the overhead. track rails per cent conductivity.5 miles from a If the minimum line e. 0145 X i.7 . 1. is. 00 trolleys of 97 per cent conductivity in parallel with one 500.7 volts.000 cir.m.100 1.4.02357 X 200 X 1 . is to be 400 volts at 50 cent. 2000.4. and two No. what size copper feeder of 97 per cent conductivity should be in parallel with a No.000.00395 ohm.DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS in the negative feeder from 500.7 volts.7.000 to 1.09 = 0. = 545.3.6 volts. if the circuit consists of four Example 7. Car 2d Car 3d Car 4th Car = 0. the resistance of the overhead Resistance per 1000 feet 10350 133. and 5000 feet from a power station generating 550 volts.01962 = 0. is to supply four cars with 150 amperes each when located at 0.f.7 volts.3.7 Line volts Total drop Line volts = 4.11 = 500.7 Additional drop = 0.8. the resistance of the tracks Resistance per 1000 feet = 1 - is. relative a relative resistance of 13 plus 10 per cent for bonding (apparent resistance = 14. equal For a temperature of 40 cent.. mil aluminum feeder of 62 80-lb. 3000. = 4. = 4.00395 1st + 0. .534. cir.0.10.5 = 550 .. 1. = 10.02357 X 400 X0. substation generating 550 volts. = 530.
22 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS (22) From and Table 7. is page 20. is to be 25 per cent of the 600 volts at Each track rail is to weigh 80 Ib. page 24.5 volts.28 Total drop in track = 0.97 373. mils Based on Table copper in trolley 8. From Table 9. Distance from either substation to cars = f = 4 miles. page 26 = 54. 150 71.41. resistance per mile of two-track rails = Drop in track 0. page 26.3= 78.O of 100 per cent copper. and from Table 10.0 + 1.5 (including bonding) required to start two cars taking 1000 amperes at a point midway between substations 8 miles apart.5 volts.000 = 362.5 + 2.3 volts.5 +W = cir. Total allowable drop = 600 X 0.000 cir.03565 X 500 Allowable drop in third rail = From (25).100 X 150(0.7 volts.25 = 150 volts.5= 108.700.0 + 1. Required section of 97 per cent copper in feeder = 5^2. lOo. Find the size of a third rail of relative resistance 7.96= - 128.000 cir. From s= 61.700 A from x 500 XJ = = 71. mils. Table 10. the drop at 20 cent.000 mils.000 128.0477 ohm. mils.100 X 0.8 + 1.220 .8 + 1. Required section of 100 per cent copper in feeder - 490. . the equivalent section of 100 per cent 133. in which s= 54.5) 1<14 ' 41.0477 X 150 X 14 3 = 0. Resistance per mile of two rails = 2. 490>000 ci . Current from each substation = ^-^ = 500 amperes. (25). Allowable drop in overhead = 150 . if rotaries. X 75 X 2 (0. page 17. in which IL is the sum of products of each load multiplied by its distance from source. Example 9. 0. per yard and to have a relative resistance of 13 (including bonding).0713 = 003565 ohm X 4 = 0.
= 1.280.0387 = 0. in track Drop Allowable positive drop = 65 . V= From Watt drop in per cent of volts at load is 148. 148.5 and 8. (41). this section corresponds to an 85-lb.25.01 600 7 = loss. mils of 100 per cent copper. voltage = = = (40).700 watts.823.7^-0.150.280.9 volts.03565 + 0.DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS 23 From Table rail.130.3 600 volts.000 X 4. From (35). From Tables 7 and 9. if there are to be eight 100-lb. Since the average loss is to be 5 per cent. mils. 9. From above.8 per cent. mils. (37). drop in per cent of volts at substation is 24. the maximum is 10 per cent or 65 volts. third rails having relative resistances (including bonding) of 12. third-rail section =1. 5 = 57.000 of 100 per cent copper. total drop at cars 148.000 = 1.000 cir.000-s-0.07435 X 500 X 4 148. mils.9= 39.07435 ohm.05 = Required section of 100 per cent copper feeder 5.05-5-8 =0. .0548 X 1.000 of section 97 Required per cent copper feeder = - cir. respectively. cir. gravity of 7 load = f = 2 miles from either sub- From Tables and 9.7-r-0. page 24. From From From 0.130.1 = 5. 2 8 Example 10.97 = 1.7 volts.165.07435 ohm. mils 4-*- 1. track rails and four 70-lb.000 cir. 600 amperes per mile loss of between two substations 6 miles apart with an average 5 per cent of the 650 volts generated. of 62 per cent aluminum feeder section Required = l. resistance per mile of four tracks = 0.01 X 451.0 per cent.62 = 1.00719 ohm. required for a uniformly distributed load of Calculate the size of positive feeders at 30 cent. (28).07435 X (500) X = 148.7= 451. Center of station.1 volts.3 = 33.090. Total load per substation ^ = fiOO V fi = 1800 amperes.00719 X 1800 X 2 = 25. Then from above and Table 9.000 cir.0.000 4. From (25).000-4-0. p = 0.150.400 X 1800 X 2-4-39. = 0. Total resistance per mile= R = 0. The result is equivalent to the total load concentrated at a point one-quarter the distance between substations from either one.130. = X R = 0.
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. Required Items. Railway Circuits. 25 C.DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS Formulas for D.
Temperature degrees. . in Values of A for Wires and Rails.26 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS Table 10.
UNDERGROUND AND INTERIOR WIRES FOR PURPOSES OF LIGHT. POWER AND TRACTION 27 .PART II. ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY MEANS OF OVERHEAD.
ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY OVERHEAD WIRES 17. for copper wires on 36-inch centers and a true volt loss of 10 per cent of the generated volts. length of accuracy over a sufficiently wide range of conditions to cover almost air practical cases. The methods in common use for calcu- lating alternating-current transmission lines from the volt loss This condition results from are either indirect or inaccurate. The errors of these approximations in terms of the actual volt loss are shown in Table 11. power received. Methods of the indirect class require that the size wire be known. or in Figs. and it is evident then. Several other methods in common use assume that the line loss equals the projection of the impedance volts on the vector of delivered voltage. load power-factor. The wire. the size of and power-factor at generator when given the line. that both methods may lead to erroneous results. Approximations of the second class may be sufficiently close under certain conditions but give wholly erroneous results for other practical cases.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION CHAPTER III. essential feature^pLthe desirable loss directly determine for method is that it should any system and frequency. The following method accomplishes this result with commercial power volt loss. 1 and 2 AB = AC. Introduction. 29 The . larger wires or greater spacings exceed those shown in Table 11. voltage at generator or load and distance between wires. and hence are trial methods. One familiar method of calculating alternating-current lines assumes that the impedance volts equals the line loss. it is impossible to devise an exact formula for any alternating-current system which will directly indicate the size of wire required for the transmission of a given amount of power the fact that with a given volt loss. The errors for leading power-factors.
either from the equation of The vector diagram from which the fundamental equation was Then M derived is shown in Fig. power-factor and wire spacing were frequency. . The remaining formulas are simple derivations or from well known relations. is denoted by M and called the All other variables that determine the size of wire Fig.30 first TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS assumption gives wires which are too large. the percentages for the first assumption and decreased would be shown greatly case. while the other assumption gives wires too small. By stating the errors of calculated the 11 in terms of Table values. wherein. size grouped into one term. Outline of Method. the equation took the form shown in the table of formulas opposite the size of wire. 1 for lagging current and in Fig. load of wire. in second the similarly increased All items which depend on the 18. 2 for leading current. 2 were grouped into the second member of the equation of M. after introducing the proper transmission factors. which wire factor.
(f> Q AD= DB = 19. Power-factor angle at source. Error in Per Cent of True Volt Loss. A. Volts at load. of Application. Table n. Reactance volts. Size of Wire. Resistance volts. volts. The formulas apply for all volt than 20 per cent of the generated voltage or 25 per cent of the voltage at load.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 01 = OA = Current at load. 31 OB <p Volts at source. standard frequencies and for power-factors near 100 per cent for the largest wires were omitted in order to the values of M confine the in maximum page 32. AC= OB . Power-factor angle of line. . possible error within the limits prescribed Table 12. and for a sufficient range of wire At high sizes to cover the usual and unusual cases in practice.G.W. AB= Impedance Range losses less = = = Power-factor angle of load.OA = Volt loss.
spac- errors in the calculations are shown in Table These errors occur near per cent and 20 per cent volt losses but gradually reduce to zero near 10 per cent loss. After the wire lated. Thus for an error of 2 per cent with a true volt loss of 5 per cent. M M and d. frequency.9 per cent. since this is about the mean value in practice. Calculated Items. . Maximum Errors in Per Cent of True Values at 20 Cent. It will be observed that any value of is found between the section letters a and b. M the remaining calculations are negligible.1 and no less than 4. The point where the should be correct was arbitrarily fixed at 10 per cent volt loss. each column in the tables of maximum of three sections. In practical problems the calculated value of is most often between the section letters c and d. depending upon the and ing power-factor. or c size of wire. the calculated value would be no greater than 5. It should be observed that the values in Table 12 are expressed in per cent of the true result. b and c. the actual per cent drop is calcuIn order to minimize its error and that of the remaining has been divided into a items. and therefore the errors of The maximum 12 below. Table 12.32 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS formula for reduces to a zero error near 10 per cent loss. M is determined.
Accurate formulas cannot be given for ,the two-phase three-wire system where the size of the common wire is different from the others. However, the result may be .approximated by calculating for three equal wires and then making the proper allowance for the larger cross section of the common lead. (See In the three-phase four- wire system Example 16, page 44.) the neutral wire carries no current when the system is balanced,
and hence the
results are exactly similar to those for the three-
phase system with three wires. 22. Balanced Loads. A balanced load is assumed in all the In practice such is often not the case, although formulas. the variation from a balanced condition is usually small. The effect of unbalancing is to alter the voltage in proportion to the amount of unbalancing. The other items are also affected, but seldom is the discrepancy of any practical importance. All results have been calculated for a 23. Temperature. varies temperature of 20 cent, or 68 fahr. The value of directly with the temperature, but it also depends to a lesser degree on other conditions. However, as the error of commission is much less than the error of omission, the values of A in Table 16, page 52, have been calculated for various temperatures. The calculations have been made 24. Specific Conductivity. for a specific conductivity of 100 per cent for copper and 62 per The value of varies inversely with the cent for aluminum. specific conductivity but also depends somewhat upon other conditions. However, sufficiently accurate results are obtained by including the proper conductivity of the conductor by the
Wires smaller than No. have been considered solid, while the larger sizes have been taken stranded. However, since the inductance of a stranded
method shown in Table 16. 25. Solid and Stranded Conductors.
of a solid wire of the
cross section of
metal and one of the same diameter, the discrepancy in the
any ordinary variation from the assumed conditions
not appreciable. 26. Skin Effect.
toward the center of wires carrying alternating currents, the
and the frequency. In the usual transmission wire the effect is negligible, and even in the
largest sizes shown for. the higher frequencies the maximum additional resistance is less than 5 per cent, which value decreases very rapidly with the size of wire.
Wire Spacing. - Inductance increases directly with the distance from center to center of the wires. However, the effect on the impedance of the line for large variations in the spacing
order to cover
not great, even at the higher commercial frequencies. In all cases in practice, the wire factor has been In calculated for three different spacings at each frequency.
sufficiently accurate for spacings less
general the results for wires on 18 and 60-inch centers will be than 27 inches and greater than 48 inches, respectively, while the values for 36 inches will
But, where greater accuracy desired for spacings other than shown, the values of may be readily interpolated from the tables.
cover spacings from 27 to 48 inches.
three-phase systems with three wires that the conductors are For other placed at the three corners of an equilateral triangle. arrangements, with the wires properly transposed, little error is
introduced by taking the distance from center to center of the wires as the average of the distances between wires 1 and 2, In the two-phase four-wire system the 2 and 3, and 1 and 3.
same phase should be used. tables have been calculated for The 29. Frequency. standard frequencies. The values for 15 cycles per second
distance between wires of the
necessary for the design of single-phase railway systems, while 25, 40, 60, and 125 cycles per second cover the remaining systems Howof transmission for purposes of light, power, and traction.
where an odd frequency is to be employed, the required may be interpolated from the tables. Where circuits are in parallel from 30. Multiple Circuits. the source to receiver, the load should be proportioned between them and each line calculated separately.
The current-carrying capaCurrent-carrying Capacity. in Table 4, page 8, for both is shown wire amperes per
copper and aluminum. The values in the table are based on a temperature rise of 40 cent, or 72 fahr., but the currentcarrying capacity for any temperature elevation may be found from formula (4), page 9. In general, overhead transmission lines are of sufficient length
insure the necessary current-carrying capacity when the conditions of volt loss are met. However, it is desirable to note from Table 4 that such is the case, after each determination of
Transmission Voltage. The voltage is taken between either at or the load source. The term "source" designates wires,
the generator, the secondary terminals of step-up or step-down transformers, or a certain point of the circuit from which the calculation is made. In general the voltage at the source is
given, although in some cases of transmission to a single center of distribution, the voltage at the load is specified. The formulas have been stated in terms of both voltages in order to cover all
cases without any preliminary approximation. For convenience the voltage has been expressed in kilovolts, thousands of volts. In a two-phase four-wire system the voltage between the wires
same phase is specified. With lagging current the voltage
at the load
than the voltage at the generator.
voltage at load
With leading current the
of the power-factor angles
when the sum
and line is less than 90 degrees, but it gradually becomes greater than the voltage at the generator as their sum increases above 90 degrees. In an alternating-current system the volt 33. Volt Loss. loss in the line is the difference between the voltages at the generator and at the load. The line loss is always less than the impedance volts and almost always greater than the projection of the impedance volts on the vector of delivered volts. It may be greater or less than the resistance volts. (See Figs. 1 and 2,
be expressed in terms of the volts However, either may be obtained from the other by means of the simple equations shown below the table of formulas on page 50. For convenience in calculations the cent loss is a whole number. as per expressed
page 30.) The per cent volt
at load or source.
Power Transmitted. The power transmitted is always at the and is specified load, usually expressed as true power in kilowatts or as apparent power in kilo volt-amperes. Where
is given in amperes the equivalent value of kilowatts be obtained from equations (59) or (60) solved for W. The may values of B in Table 17, page 52, serve to make the formula
effects in the line are included. load power-factors sufficient to cover all practical cases likely . The power-factor at 'the source is lower than the powerfactor of the load when the volt loss. M lead to 75 per cent lag. this being the 35. and is greater when the reverse An exception to this statement may occur when capacity is true. M. (See Example 20. depends upon the and on the power-factor angles of the impedance load and line. have been calculated from 95 per cent The values of given. while in the two-phase three-wire system. The power loss in any system depends only upon the current and resistance. page 68. For balanced loads in one-phase. P. The values have been calculated for copper and aluminum at all standard frequencies. page 48. V. Wire Factor. The power-factor at the source depends upon the power-factor M at the load. as the value of varies greatly with it. the power-factor is less leading at the source than at the load. the current in the common lead is In the two-phase 1. page 37. V. and Example 25. is a larger percentage than the power loss. 69.) The wire factor. The power-factor at the load should be known accurately. and it is higher at the source when the reverse is true. Power Loss.) Lagging current at the always accompanied by lagging current at the source. page 69. page 48.36 for TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS amperes per wire applicable to all systems of trans- mission.41 times that in each of the other wires. be greater or less than the per cent volt loss. For current leading at the load. giving a range sufficient to cover almost all practical cases of transmission. The per cent power loss may wires. and Example 25. for a range of sizes and of the wires. three-wire system / represents the amperes in each of the outer same as the current per phase. This statement may be modified by capacity the source. the per cent power loss and the per cent volt loss. (See Example 20.) The power at the source is the sum of the power at load and the power loss in line. when the power-factor at the source is less than the power-factor of the load. two-phase four-wire or threephase circuits the current is the same in each wire. is load effects in the line. It is less than the per cent volt loss. and even may become lagging at (See Example 24. The power-factor of the load is always 36. for all frequencies except 125 cycles per second. Power-Factor.
power-factor of load. and Tables 23 to 27 for aluminum. page 51. 38. The remaining . and the size of wire is found in Table 3. for copper. . Those values which. under certain conditions. The corresponding value of per cent volt loss in terms of the volts at load or source. for the given system of transmission. although in some instances it is fixed by the condition of per cent power loss. wire spacing. Formulas are given for both methods of procedure. given the per cent power loss. is either the line loss the size of wire The given problem may be of two kinds. page 51. Per Cent Volt Loss. the corresponding value of V or V is easily found by interpolation. is specified cases the additional items to be given are system of transmission. from the per cent volt loss. of or and the size wire is noted from Tables 18 formula (46) (47). either method is the required size It is desirable to calculate the 40. The size of wire is generally determined 39. per cent volt loss after the size of wire is determined.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 37 Tables 18 to 22 give the results to arise in transmission design. When the per cent volt loss is given. or In both specified and the line loss is required. page 52. From Table 15. and the size of wire is required. conductor metal. either formula for any required item may be used. R is calculated from formula (48) or (49). of transmission. depending upon whether the voltage is given is then calculated from The value of at the load or source. frequency. Size of Wire. respectively. calculations are clearly outlined in the table of When the voltages at the load and source formulas on page 50. and the voltage between wires at the source of load. The value of M whether between the section letters a and noted from the proper table. is then Where the calcuobtained in the column headed by V or V lated value does not appear in the table. or VQ is found. b and c. become known. temperature and specific conductivity. V M to 27. and then located in Table 15. distance power delivered. the value of A is taken from Table 16. b. of each conductor. page 7. opposite the required value of M. When The wire found by opposite the required resistance per mile. Given Items. temperature. or c d. might lead to errors greater than previously specified have been omitted. is The value of V" or F and " is calculated from formula (50) or (51). in the column headed by the same section letters as noted above for M.
KQ is t . page 772...* The true power-factor of the load is then replaced by an apparent value determined as follows: . In all systems the power loss and the power-factor at generator.. by finding and Example K 25. Charging Current. (45) for the reactance factor. Distance from source to load. Distance between center of wires. in miles. Diameter of wire in same unit as D. Frequency in cycles per second. .000122 2 log.000141 EJL E = / = L = D = d = Kilovolts between wires at source. 1908. or commercial high frequency. page 48. Proceedings of A. Capacity influences the voltage loss. EJL D of a three-phase three-wire -j- The charging current per wire circuit is 0. corresponding to page 69.38 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS The total charging current for a 41. page 14. is noted from Table 14. Capacity Effects.E.'. used in the table of M volt loss and power loss. 39. The value of t corresponding to K '. 42. (44) After if has been calculated.E.) (45) WQ * Method of H.I. and substituted in formula The true power-factor at source then obtained from Table (See Example 20. the effect of capacity may be easily included in the calculations by assuming that the same result is produced by substituting for the distributed capacity of the line one-half its total at each end. the corresponding apparent power-factor is taken from Table 14. The true power-factor at the source is obtained by the follow' using the apparent ing method: Formula (61) is solved for ' power-factor of load for K.. single-phase circuit or for each phase of a two-phase four-wire circuit is 0. . June.. and this value is for the determination of the size of wire. except those of unusual length capacity may be entirely neglected without any disturbing error. However. page 39-. Fender.
Table 13.per second. Kilovolts between wires at load. Kilovolts between wires at source. Kilowatts at source. Cir. page 39. = = = W= W= Frequency in cycles . . Distance from source to load.W. 39 = E = EQ =s / = L = = c Capacity factor. Kilowatts at load.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION In formulas (44) and (45) above. Reactance factor for true power-factor of load. Values of c for Overhead Wires. Reactance factor for apparent power-factor at source.G. Mils or A. Table 14. in miles. Table 13. Reactance factor for true power-factor at source. Reactance factor for apparent power factor of load.
' 15 per cent.153) = - 28.] Per cent power loss. and is to be supplied with Example n. for which M f = 0.0 kv. Kilowatts at source. use No. Size of each wire.] From 33 (1 (53).] . From Table From Table 16. 0. From (1 [21. From (47). 7 = L = 40 miles. 15. volt loss.. M= From Table (o (33) X10. T/ __ Per cent From 0. [5000 volts. A = 0. [3870 kw. REQUIRED ITEMS.40 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS has been inclosed in brackets after values. [15.000 volts generated.3 per cent.9 2 X 3200 X 40 2 - 18. the temperature 20 cent. volts. 7. X 0. V = 10. W = 3200 kw.] (57).494 (51).. - 0. . A the wires are to be of 100 per cent conductivity. page 51.200. page 51.2 X 3200 X 40 = n6 c _^\ From Table 15. K = page 52. From Table page R = 0.0 kv. GIVEN ITEMS.9. 00. at 15 cycles per second and 80 per cent lagging power-factor over 40 miles of single-phase copper The loss is to be 15 per line with its wires on 60-inch centers. page 53. E = VoUloss.21) = 3870 kw. EQ = 33 kv. many of the calculated transformer substation of an electric railway 3200 kw. [28.3 per cent. W = 3200 + 0.0 per cent.411 ohm.] From v (54).494 d).. V = Kttovolts at load.80 lag. = 1000 (33 - 28) 5000 3. cent of the 33. 15.
. to receive 50 kw.153) 0. 2 (1 7= 4. Size of each wire. for which M 10 = 0. . No.820. The line is to be single-phase and of copper conductors of 100 per cent conductivity on 18inch centers.10 kv.0393 X 50 X = 445/5 \ From Table page 51. REQUIRED ITEMS.000 16. 5 per cent. X 4. E = Per cent power loss. K= 0. [4.518 ohm. [670. L = 10. page page 52. = (1 + 0. v/ .21) (1 - 0. 15.0393 X 50 X 10 No.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION Watt loss.905 X 15. page 8.905 (b - c). 33 (1 4.] From Table 17.80 = 0. 51. R= 0.0393.820. 2. at 95 per cent lagging power-factor and 125 cycles per second with a loss of 5 per cent of the 2000 volts at load at a temperature of 30 cent. 41 From (58). [2. watts. = 0..] Kilovolts at source. page B= 1.] From Table page 7.10 kv. From Table current.8.000 feet distant is Example 12. + 0. T7=50kw. [0.0475) = 3. 0. From (50). A = 0. use volt loss.000 watts. From (60).75 per cent. From Table From Table #=2kv. V = 4. 00 conductors will safely carry this Power-factor at source. 52.000 Amperes per wire.75 per cent.000.95 lag. P= 1000 (3870-3200) = 670.8 0. ^ From Table Per cent 22. 7= feet. From (2) 2 (46). GIVEN ITEMS. From (52). 0.] A lighting transformer 10. From (61).
wires of 100 per cent copper and temperature of 20 From Table From Table 16. L = 5000 feet. System: 1-phase. 18-inch spacing. 1907. [26.95 26. page M= - d). v= Example 14. K= Assume cent. page 52. 2 (1 + 0. V= 5. = X ^_ = 0. (From Electric Journal.38X0. 2.40 per cent. 0.42 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS From (55).11 - 2. E= Volt loss. From 50 (1 (57).] Kilovolts at source. page 51.. page A= 1.) GIVEN ITEMS.3 amperes.) ..4 kw. From (52).11 kv.40 per cent. 1000 (2. 60 #=2kv.0379 X 2 X 5_ 4 9(Hc _ ^ (2) From Table 15.0282) = 51.11 kv. Wires = No. page 231. Ex. 1. 56. Per cent volt loss.] (From "Alternating Currents by Franklin and Esty. [51. [2.] wire.0379. 4. From (50).00) = 110 volts. / From Table 2 17.] From (54). From (59). REQUIRED ITEMS.95 lag.000.3 amperes. (61). [5. _ 1. 1907. From Example 13. 52. cycles.] Power-factor at source. page 321.054) = 2. " [110 volts. W Amperes per = + 0.4 kw. 75 r/ . TF=75kw. A = 0.38 (c 21. Kilowatts at source.
85 lag.936 Per cent volt loss. 6.75 per cent. V = 15. - d}. 7 = 5 miles. A= 0.4. page 52.. Size of each wire.2 per second and 100 per cent power-factor is to be delivered over 5 miles of aluminum line of 4 wires with 36 inches between conductors of the same phase.4-..0716 M. ()' xa.2 From Table page 51.104.. page 52. V= 13.1 X 1000 X 30 1. 15. K = System: 1-phase. use No. 2 X13.] page 51.5 per cent of the 6600 volts generated.104 X 750 X 5 . L = 30 miles. A load of 750 kw. E = L = 6.. From Table 16.0. 0.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION GIVEN ITEMS. 7= -^=15 per cent. # =23kv. From (50). E = 20 kv. From Table 21. at 30 cent. 15.00.5 per cent.200. page (c 56. . X 1000 X 30 __+ Anff ^ ~7207" [15. K= 0. with a loss of 7. page 51. 1. Size of each wire. 43 TF=1000kw. of 2-phase power at 25 cycles X 0. Assume temperature of 20 cent. GIVEN ITEMS. A = F '= REQUIRED ITEMS. From (47). for which M= 0. and copper of 100 per cent conductivity. REQUIRED ITEMS From (46). From Table From Table 16. (20) 0.936 From Table Example 15.5 per cent. 7.. W= 750 kw. 60 cycles. T/" _ 0. 15. 18-inch spacing.6 kv.1.
at 40 cycles per second and 98 per cent lagging power-factor with a loss of 10 per cent of the 20. 3. (1 - 0. F = E = Per cent power 8. = 5 X = 61. V= K = 0.500. - 0. = 817 kw. GIVEN ITEMS. 7 + 75Q 0.07 kv. kv. . From K = Example 16. [8.] is A two-phase three-wire line 30 miles long to deliver 2000 kw.6) 15. 0. From Table page (c 58. page = ^~ = U.104 (6.10 per cent.06) X X 5 =88Qpercent (57).138.] Kilovolts at load.] 7.6 (1 loss.000 volts at load. use No. 4. C/O page V= 9.06 amperes. 10 per cent. aluminum conductors (61). [61. From (51). [6. 82 per cent>] Kilowatts at source. 15.837 ohm. From (53).755 - d). p = 0. From (1 W = 750 Amperes per wire.00.8 amperes.9 6.755X0. volt loss.44 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS 23.0889). for which M Per cent = 0.0889) 17. 'A 51.06 kv.0816) = 1. W= 2000 From Table From Table 16..] From Table ' page B = 0.98 lag. 0. [1. [816 kw. kw.00.0816) = 6. No. Power-factor at source.. page 51. From (55). [8 . From Table 750 page R= 0. 52. tivity on 36-inch centers Calculate the size of copper wires of 98 per cent conducfor a temperature of 50 cent. E= 20 L= 30 52. 6.] will easily From Table page 8.104X75X5 = 2 6 ?6 (c _ ^ (6.1.16 per cent. y From Table 0. carry this current.837 X 0. miles. From (59). (1 + 0.
and 50 miles away are supplied from a No. use three No. larger) per Approximate per cent volt loss in common lead With a common lead one number W. Gauge (26 = 10. in each outer wire. in the above case with No. common lead. 00.9 amperes. at 98 per cent lagging power-factor. larger in the A.138 X 2 2000 X 30 _ Q R4 / ^ (20) From Table 15. . From (50). page 51.500. per 000 for the cent. In common wire. 00 outer wires and No. 000. 45 From (46). /= 51 X 1. For No. page 52.5 Therefore.41 times that in each Since the volt loss in the of the outer wires.466 (c . Approximate total per cent volt loss wire. 1) is 2000 kw. page 55.50 per cent.50 + 5.138 From Table the 20. or increase = 0.41 = 71. _ 0. 00 wires.84 per cent. 00. Amperes per From Table 17. = 4. at 95 per cent lagging power-factor. 25-cycle threephase aluminum line with wires on 60-inch centers. X 2000 X 30 common lead to No. than cent each outer wire.03 = 9. Two substations located respectively at 40 Example 17.000 and the temperature 30 cent. while the other (No. M= 0.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION REQUIRED ITEMS. The total load at the nearer substation (No.d). B = From (59). 2) takes 1000 kw.26 4. common lead is Per cent volt loss in outer wire = -: = 4. M Per cent T/// volt loss. the generator voltage being 33. 7= 10. 1. Size of each wire.466 X 0.841.53 0.
E = 2: W= 1000 kw. A= 0.104.81 per cent. W= 5000 kw. From E= 30. at a temperature of 20 cent. L = 40 miles 0. 33 kv.26 per cent. E =30. For No.E. (c .104 VQ _ 0.. (1 drop from No.95 = 0. . 1 : W= 2000 kw.457 lag.46 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS GIVEN ITEMS. over 40 miles of No. From Table page 52. d). 0. 9ft A (33) From Table Per cent above. 1.655 X : 0. M= 0. A three-phase load of 5000 kw.690 (c d) 10 miles.000 volts to a receiver having 95 per cent lagging power-factor.9) From Table 15. . .6 (30.E.1 X 5000 X 40 _ n A n .. Per cent volt loss.I. volt 15. . . KilovoltsatNo.* 100 per cent conductivity on 48-inch centers. } * Problem of H.. V = 1 6. 0. L= 40 miles. For No. No. Kilovolts at No. K= 0.0626) = 30. page 771.98 lag. Proceedings of A. Fender. K = 0. REQUIRED ITEMS. Per cent T/ // volt drop to REQUIRED ITEMS. (c By interpolation from Table 19.0.0081) kv. GIVEN ITEMS. 00 copper wires of Example 18. #= 33 2. to No.9 kv. 1908. T/// _ 0. V = (53). from From T/ (51). page 52. 2. M= L= d).457 X "" 0.9 (1 -0. From (51). page From Table 16. From (50). E= 30 kv.690 X : X 2 2000 X 40 _ - .100.95 lag. page 1. and 25 cycles at is to be delivered 30. M K= 0.9 kv.104 X 2 1000 X 10 _ n 71 / ^ = 30. A = 0. VQ _ 0. 54. 51. June.. . page 51.655 16. From (53)..
[33. 00 wires have ample current- carrying capacity. 7 = ' 578 X 500 = 101.] Kilovolts at source. Size of each wire.94 lag.113) (52).000 X 65 . 51. [101. at 60 cycles 19. GIVEN ITEMS. From (59).3 per cent. TV = 10.] From (54). 15. A = 0. From Table From Table 16.3 per cent. Power-factor at source.411 ohm. v 30 (1 + = 33.9. lead. EQ = Volt loss.] From Table 4. . From (61).] 52. Per cent power From Table page R = From (55). From 0.000 kw.101) = 5505 kw. K= 0.578. 7. [3400 volts. [5505 kw.9 X 10. From Table page B = 0. F = 65 miles. - 30.108 (47).4 amperes.98 15 per cent. 47 page 51. page page 52. (1 + 0. V = 11. temperature 40 cent.000 volts generated. Kilowatts at source.4 kv. and second 98 per cent leading power-factor is to be delivered per over 65 miles of three aluminum wires on 60-inch centers. No. From (57).4 loss. [11. 2 M== (44) X 10. = Example o. E = L = 44 kv. [0.108. . page 8.4 amperes. 17. REQUIRED ITEMS. WQ = Amperes per 5000 wire.4 kv. .] A three-phase load of 10.000 kw.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION From Table 15. with a loss of 15 per cent of the 44.0) = 3400 3.94 lag. From 0. W= 10. = 1000 (33. volts.] 0.
316 M 6).] 0.2 kv. T - 15-8 per cent. volt loss. 3.90 page 52.316 X 0. From Table (a - page 61. . c is approximately 0.) From Table 14. From (51).2. 0000 and 8. (From Table 13. page 39. K = (1 + 0.100.48 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS 26. 16.49. F = 17.173) 0. June.00005. the reactance factor corresponding to 90 per cent lagging power-factor = 0.E. J = 71.7 per cent. with a voltage loss of 18. page 39. From Table page 7. W= 7500 kw. (44)* From Table From (56). [0. page 774.98= 1.] A three-phase load of 7500 kw.200.000 X 65 _ 1 1 A . |yj^ 51.7 per cent of the volts at load. Power-factor at source.108 X 10.I. size of wire Apparent power-factor of load.. Include the effect of capacity and assume a temperature of 20 cent. A- 0. 0000.3 per cent. From Table page V= REQUIRED ITEMS.. GIVEN ITEMS. Per cent T. From (61). lag. L= From Table From (63). R= [17. K= 0. Per cent power loss.23) (1 - 0. Assuming that the required will be between Nos. at 90 per Example 20. for which M = 0. 1908. Proceedings of A. the voltage at the source being 71. use No. V = 15.4 per cent.* cent lagging power-factor and 60 cycles per second is to be delivered over 140 miles of three copper wires of 100 per cent conductivity on 96-inch centers.00. 140 miles. page 51. 11. Fender.994 lead.E.417 ohm. * Based on Problem of H. V= 18. 15.. _ 0.
1 (47).] .0 kv.91.00005 X(71. page 56.600 X 0. Page 51.98 lag. ? m 0. E= Per cent power - 0. Kilowatts at source.167) 0.2 (1 - 0.46. the apparent powerfactor of load. From Table 14. for to be 0.2 (1 (53). R= 0. 49 (44).ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION From . [8500 kw.600 (c d). 59. page From (45). From (1 (57). = 0. [0.411 ohm.] Power-factor at generator (not including capacity). W K '= = 7500 + 0.98 lag. Z page 39.. page 38. From 71. (71. From Table page 7.96 = 0.7 per cent.2) 2 8500 X 60 X 140 n 91 From Table 14. [17.2)' From Table 15. use No. 00. 0.F = 16. 0. interpolation From Table Per cent T7 T : which M is found by volt loss. K'.158)] 2 60 X 140 = Q 2g 7500 By interpolation in Table 14.96 lag Size of each wire. From (51).2 per cent. page 39. [59.133) = 8500 kw.133) (1 ' - 0. the true power-factor at load. (1 From (61). = Q 4Q _ Q. From (55). X 7500 X 140 21. page 38.1 X 7500 X 140 _ 10 A ( .] loss. 39. ). + 0. From 0.] Kilovolts at load.3 kv.167) = 3.QOQQ5[71. K (corresponding to = 0.
C.50 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS Formulas for A. Transmission by Overhead Wires. Required Items. .
V .ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION Table 15. 51 Values of Volt Loss Factors.
52 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS Table 16 Values of A for Balanced Loads. .
s.- U O 10 op * t^- ITN Npmrom 5? 25 S S i 5*2 ^" s *~ 8 SIS ' ^ So - O> S S i - fSJ o 8 S <u gl^^SS X _ _ O c* oo eg S eg eg r^ TT K S =:? m hM o- s n oo 5 a S 1 i S Us S S 3 I S iJ ~oo r^ S _ ?g O N rg ^ O eg * - S (N oo f^ eg 5 eg s I ** ^ -= ts rg ^ " 00 o^^i .*.*. s - ? s-~.. *. S SIS 58$ i CO 5 5 1 8 -. OOO 3 H CO Tfi 10 10 D.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 53 -S a S a S S K S 3s = ss: .- S M ^ I .-.^ 8 8.-.00 .
2 - 8 mNO - ^. ^.. 25 i S . * I C?) S a * = S 1 g g 3 S i 2 SS. 8 S S 8: !* S s. _ w rr\ . (sj (N f^\ r>. rg rg I S - s a o w *v rOTrirCD 2 R sa Pv] .9 a S S S so co ro 0^ oo oo ^ S ^ ^ S IS m S I N S S ^ "- I 5 1 S S-S 2 c^ ^ g cA Ji 8 S 8 S ..54 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS s 8 S S S o 8 8 S g 8 S $ s 8 SS. 2. -_ (VI (VJ s s s T> s- 5 g - 2 o s *5 ~ O i-l CM CO .
| o o o o o . -iTsO^ ro vooo - OO r% i 5 S .-. ! 3 S-S S= **.1-9 1 S i I & % 13 o s o a <^ t^ o> r>. 1 5 S S S S G 8 S _ _ (s) rs) & 1 1 I S R . s s K s . t^ oo oo in rN<Nit^f^ S g 2 * ^ S m * S S S S cgr-l <0 ^ fVJ S a-S S 5 S i S .ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 55 S S t3 1 5 5 S 5 1 1 3 S i S *.*. S8 J5 >o >o >e> S u-i ON r^ . 3-9 1-8 i S S 2 - o % S g. .0 S P ^i <u .
2!2- I ^S ^ "'l-s^ SS S I . S 1 o m < \o O O I 5 5 5 J i -?s in i =~ vO I -. rs M t<v 8 ^ S : S O O S I -S S o Hi O <~3 O rH C4 CO ^ lOCO^OO . ON iT% ITS. a . T _ U"\ r>. R -. ^. * ' o * xr ^ tn 2 o vo S ES I 5 S -. CN ~.i i K 00 - ~- *^ ^ ~ S cs s s * oo o "* S ! o > oo t> Us S T o. *.56 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS I g O g CS s & s O rs CO CO g a & s NO .
ALTERNA TING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 57 .
58 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS O (N GO _ 5 (VI ? 2 2 2 s in S g g ^ | ggg SR88. od tfl 8 S a o S S g 5 g S g 31 SISi .^ss.a . ! 2 m M -i-> gigs S S g^.S m .3 .S i i rQK^S ^CMiTiS I 6 i-S i^ -T ^ g i t? s s I IT O * M oo <^ r^ "~> * ^ rr\ ro CM ?J OO 00 <N ^ O O^Ov-^-OO <>&CMr^ US I r^ gS O O 2 2 a 8 S OO T^ SSS-K CM r^ ^ t^ GO fM CO I . o o . 2 s 2 s 8 S <S s I l-i 5.
O X s S S ? s s s i s 9 S [i it^o^K^^OOOiA^-mr-afA ?5 I I ^ S oo 2i o S fs N u*% N o-* cvi u^ f^ ~ ^ 1*% ^- r^ u^ rCoo o o .s. S S vO S rA 5? i -1 oo -2 N 2 tr\ t^ 21 co s KJ O S I 10 (S .2. S S 8 8 1 5 1 5 S rN 1- 3 Ra.ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 59 U^ NO O S 8 t*. - 3 O a S ^T i s 1 K s SI r^O^OO^ - ** E ^ t> oo ^* oo - I a s ^* o = 2 *S = 8 K 8 S S S S S S 1 2-S S S S 5-SS 1 I a S S i .3-2 -S 3 B 2 s S i 5 5 s I j OJ 2-S S Sa B5!!-IS 2 H ctf ^ i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .?. .
60 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS i * 9 S 9 S 9 9 < S S 1 S 1 S'S-i s-s g S. CO 0> : s i i - NO m r* r-^ a O^ m 5 >O OO - s S 2 I O O 1 * ^T (N 5Q * ir% ? O * gj S ON i S E mo*N~* T NO OO CN! O m ?.s 2 s g.* a S N rATro ~ * g ... < 81 ..g i 1 a S O NO S-S S NO ^ S O ON S O I lolS A f u in to * <X O? A r^ f S "* ? "A t^ SinooS __ O fO m <s ro oo O r^ooONON NO m o ..S-S 2 S 1 S S-S -o^ 1 5 s S a . | . t>t rv -a I m ?5 O a pg CN| S? -^ S in o NO t^ S oo S SS ..
ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 61 .
62 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS .
44. Assuming Resistance Drop = Volt Loss.CHAPTER CABLES. in consequence of which inductance effects are considerably reduced. The The error of the common assumption that the resistance drop equals the volt loss is indicated in Table 28 below for insulation inch thickness. As the conductors in underground cables are almost always copper. the results have been calculated for that metal alone. calculations for underground cables are very similar to those for overhead lines. The calculations for 15 cycles per second have been omitted. Error in Per Cent of True Volt Loss. IV. However. with commercial thickness of insulation such effects are not entirely eliminated for the larger wires at the higher frequencies. difference may be ascertained by comparing the values of M. ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND The Introduction. of Table 28.at 100 per cent power-factor in Tables 34 and 35 with the resistance per mile of the same wires in Table 3. . The main difference in results is due to the proximity of the wires.
even less without subdivision of the wire factors into sections. Maximum Error in Per Cent of True Values.85 to 5. but the error in general is much reduced. are approximate.15 per cent. Under ordinary conditions the error is immeasurably small. at 20 Cent. Thus for a true volt loss of 5 per cent the extreme range of the calculated result is about 4.TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS than 20 per cent of the generated volts or 25 per cent of the As in the case of overhead lines the formulas voltage at load. but it gradually reduces to a zero error near 10 per cent loss. Table 29. The maximum error in the calculation for the per cent volt loss is about 5 per cent near per cent and 20 per cent volt losses. The maximum errors of the formulas under the most severe conditions are shown in the following table. .
tion of volt loss. page 38. but for any other value. 65 determined only by the volt is In most cases the size of cable is loss. .00084.5 = 0. or A. is 0. No.W. The specific inductive capacity was assumed to be 2. Circular Mils. The capacity factor. 00 and a conductors cable having specific inductive phase capacity of 3. c.TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES and three-conductor cables.G. yet the closeness of the conductors comparatively and the high values insulation sometimes make of the specific inductive capacity of the it advisable to determine the capaloss The city values. capable of carrying the required current without undue heating. Values of c for Underground Cables. short length. Although underground lines are of Capacity Effects.5. but in some problems the it is Hence current-carrying capacity may be the ruling factor.5. for underground cables is to be taken from Table 30 below. c in Table 30 should be multiThus c for a threeplied by the ratio of the given value to 2. Table 30.0007X3 2. advisable to note from Table 4 that the calculated wire 50. method power of including capacity in the calculaand the power-factor at source is exactly like that given for overhead lines in paragraph 42.
0. page on of formulas the the page 71 trating application 21. page 7.456.104) Watt loss. # =6.8005 _ (6.. From (75).6)^X9 = 10 per cent. GIVEN ITEMS. A = 9. volts. R = loss. From (77). From Table page 72. 31.448. Kilowatts at source. The meaning 800 kw. page 72. 0. M= 0.98= 0. X 800 X Q. From (76). page 72. Power-factor at source.0. From (1 (80). copper of 100 per cent conductivity and a temperature of 40 cent. E = 5. = 6.98 lag.000. From Table From Table 32.448 X 0. to deliver TF=800kw.215 From Table Per cent 35.6kv. (6.000 watts.66 source in is TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS specified..215 2 X .6) 31. p = 1000 (883 33. . = 83. K = = 0. B = 1. A one-phase underground cable 5 miles long is Example of the 35.6 (1 . From (79). volt loss.95 kv. for which M = 0. = 883 kw.411 ohm. 1Y" REQUIRED ITEMS. at 98 per cent lagging power-factor and 60 second with a loss of 10 per cent of the 6600 generated cycles per with volts. term "source" is specified are Following typical examples illusparagraph 32. 7 = L = 5 miles. v From Table Volt loss. 5. page 72.84 per cent. 00. 800) Amperes per wire.215.104) - 0. K = Q (1 + 0. .975.0984) 0. use No. From 9. TF = 800 (1 + 0. /// - 0.0984) (72).60 (73). Size of each wire. From (70). v= - 650 0. VQ = Kilovolts at load. From (66).95) From Table 3. From Per cent power = 1000 (6. 5 page 74.
35. W = 3000 From Table 31. Size of each wire. # =11 kv. GIVEN ITEMS. yo REQUIRED ITEMS. over 6 miles of underground cable of 97 per cent conductivity with a loss of 5 per cent of the 11. V = 14. L= ' 10. // . K= 0.000 volts generated..8. and 25 cycles Example 23. .97 Q. VJ" = 4. # = 2. page 72.0432 X 150 X 10 1on From Table 31. 32. From Table From Table page 74. L= From Table page 72.85 lag. W= 150 kw. 1 Example 22.000 feet. M= A= 0. page 72. From (70).89 kv. per second is to be delivered to a receiver having a lagging powerfactor of 95 per cent. 6 miles. 32. 0. temperature 20 cent. E= 2.896 X 0.000 feet long. . From (ID* (66).2 (1 - 0. at 85 per cent lagging power-factor and 125 cycles per second. delivers 150 kw. GIVEN ITEMS.2 kv. REQUIRED ITEMS. A = 5L122 = 0.8 0. Jf- X 4. A three-phase load of 3000 kw. 7 = K = 5 per cent.0432.103 X 3000 X 6 . 0. kw.103.896.95 lag. Kilovolts at load. = 0. Q 0423 \) page 72.0 per cent.14) = 1.. copper conductors of 98 per cent conductivity and 10.TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES 67 A one-phase underground cable with No. From (72). The generator voltage is 2200 and the temperature is assumed 50 cent. Per cent volt loss.
95= 0. R From (75). to a per cent leading power-factor receiver 3 miles from the generator.045) 0. it is 174 amperes. kw.68 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS From Table Per cent 34.95] 2 ^ page 72. 0.103 [11 (1 0. From (69).. 7.048) (1 - 0.95 lead.109) = 6. IF- L= M= A = 5 miles. 95 and 60 cycles per second.518 ohm. page 72. ' 578 3QQQ 11 (1 - = 0. .5 3. From Table page 7. From Table 32.045) 0. v _ # = 0. R= 0.475 X 0.50 per cent.045) 0. REQUIRED ITEMS. v VQ = 4. #=6kv. at 6000 delivers 2500 98 per cent conductivity volts. the temperature of the wires being 40 cent. 6 (1 + 0. I = 4. K= 0. X 3000 X p _ 0.110. Per cent volt loss. page 74. (73). From (71). -^ = (J.475.258 X 0.95. From Table >< 33. cent Amperes per wire.. 0. for which M = 0. From Table heat.103 X 2 3000 X 6 = 4 30 (H) page 72. volt loss.11 (6) X 2 1500 X 5 _ 1Q 9 cent Kilovolts at source. K = Example 24. = 10 X 4. conductors of three-phase cable with No. From (79). 3.95 8. page 73. 1500 kw. = 0.9o 0. (1 + 0.65 kv. 0000. A GIVEN ITEMS. page seen that the cable will not over- Power-factor at source. From (80). Per cent power loss. From Table 35. 31. use No. V '" = 0-280 X From Table Volt loss. X 11 Per cent power From Table page 6 = 495 volts.280. From (70). B = 0.578.258 ohm. From loss.
page 39.= 0. this current is slightly in excess of the safe current-carrying capacity of the cable. Power-factor at source.5 per cent of the generated voltage. 6.5 per cent. W= 400 From Table From Table kw..11 . page 72.518 X . L=8 31. 1 and 6. From Table 1500 page 72. it will be found that the current in the above case is leading at the source.95 From Table 4.TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES 69 From (74). B= 0. lag. .578. EQ = page 72. from which necessary to construct a vector diagram similar to Fig.107 REQUIRED ITEMS. the reactance factor for 95 per cent of conductors lagging power-factor = 0. 7 = 7. Example 25. Include capacity effects and assume wires of 97 per cent conductivity and a temperature of 30 cent. Assuming that the required size Apparent power-factor of load. 2. g There is d+0.6 kv.^~.95 7 "'= A . = 0. X 1500 2 X -5 = 2 ^ cent (6) (0.95) 33. From Table 14. 6. From (78).132) 0. three-phase load of 400 kw. will be between Nos. page 65). c= 0. GIVEN ITEMS. at 95 per cent lagging power-factor and 125 cycles per second is to be transmitted 8 miles with a loss of 7.0006 (from Table 30. 32. A 6600. 7 = 0.33. 0. From (80). page 8.. miles. K =0.95 a Q97a 1 + 0.95.109 rent at the source no indication from the above result whether the curIt then becomes is leading or lagging.97 0.578 6 X X 0. Amperes per wire. page 30.
page 39.0006 [6. (70). . loss. use No. From (76). Power-factor at source (not including capacity).6) 2 125 ~~ X 8 _ ft 91 From Table 14. R= 0. for which approximately. W = 400 (1 +0.87 per cent. page From (45). From v "' - 0-925 X 0. K (corresponding to = 0.107 (6. 2 cable.27. By power Size of each wire.925. From Table 14. X 400 X 8 From Table 35. 31.107 (66). From 0.98 lag. From K '= Q (1 + 0. = 0. 7 = 7. Per cent power From Table page 7. 39. t = ~ n 97 0. (1 t ' 0. = 0. Kilowatts at source.824 ohm. the apparent factor of load.97 lag.6) X 2 400 X 8 _7 97 From Table From (75).081) = 432 kw.70 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS (44).97 0. M = 0. Per cent volt loss.0727) 0. page ). From 0. the 'true power-factor at load. page 74.97 lag. 3. (80).075)] 125 X 8 97 ~400~~ interpolation in Table 14. K'.081) 39. page 38.6 (1 - 2 0.0006 (6. page 72.
TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES Formulas for A. Transmission 71 by Underground Cables. . Required Items. C.
72 Table TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS 31. FO . Values of F '" = F (i-o.oi F ).
TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES 73 .
74 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS .
) the assumptions of than the true values. Properties of Conductors. the effects of in Table 37. Table 4. However. 1 and 2. while M 75 . gives the values of 54. Interior wiring involves short runs of con52. or 68 fahr. page 8. ductors. preliminary approximation. have been The values of 53. for wires with a thickness of insulation of inch. on account of the smaller wires usually employed.CHAPTER V. The formulas for interior wiring calculations are similar to The the preceding ones for alternating-current transmission. error is due to the (See Figs. calculated for wires of 100 per cent Matthiessen's Standard at a temperature of 20 cent. for wires in conduits and on 3-inch centers. The error at 20 cent. in is considerably less than stated in paragraph 45 for underground conductors. The power-factor angles of the load and line. voltage and distance have been changed in order All the required items are expressed terms of the current per wire and the per cent volt loss is also given in terms of the power at load so that problems involving watts at load and voltage at source may be solved without to facilitate calculation. units of power. gives the National Electric Code Standard for current-carrying capacity of interior wires. page 30. page 76. Table 39. The ordinary error of the calculation of the that the resistance drop equals the indicated in Table 36. Introduction. volt loss is common assumption It is apparent that results based on Table 36 may be much greater or much less even at power-factors near unity. Spacing of Wires. therefore the conductors are often determined by their current-carrying capacity rather than by conditions of maximum drop. for It is generally advisable to note the required size of wire both conditions. M temperature and conductivity are introduced by means of a and b page 82. INTERIOR WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION. page 83.
multi-conductor cables or twisted wires. the ampere-feet and Table 36. given by multiplied by its distance I. duplex cables.W. Table 40 is for wires in molding.76 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS is Table 40. tributed lamps is by use of formula (84) on page 8L The term II is is equal to the sum of the products / each load. Any slight variation from either of these spacings will not appreciably alter the results. page 84. A. . Size of Wire. even for the largest wires at the highest commercial frequency.G. or for open work such as wires on cleats or knobs. Table 39 is to be used for wires in conduit. Ampere-Feet. A simple method of dealing with dis55. Assuming Resistance Drop = Volt Loss. calculated for conductors on 3-inch centers. Error in Per Cent of True Volt Loss.
27. a = 928 X 0. / = 25 amperes. 5.27 xsx 200 = 70voltg 100 Volts at load. 1. -^ y \j * / REQUIRED ITEMS. a = 963 v= = X 150 feet. No. I 20 amperes. 934 x 2 20 X 150 0. From Table Example 0. K = 0. Per cent power loss. REQUIRED ITEMS. e = From (86). From (85). delivers 25 amperes at 98 per cent lagging power-factor from a trans- former which gives 100 volts at 125 cycles per second. Size of each wire.97 = 900. 95 per cent lag is to be supplied with 20 amperes at 60 cycles per second over a single-phase copper cable 150 feet long. page 82. e = From Table From Table 39.000627. 934. Volt loss. for copper GIVEN ITEMS. 1. page 83. page 7.98 = lag. - 7 = 93 volts. 39.WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 77 A group of lamps having a power-factor of Example 26. use No. I = 200 feet. GIVEN ITEMS.623. Calculate the size of wire for 2 volts drop at 30 of 97 per cent conductivity.623. From Table 3. M 100 volts. 37. Per cent volt loss. r = 0. 8 27. single-phase M = conductors of 97 per cent conductivity and 200 feet long.97 = K = 0. From Table 37. b = = 222. . /= 2 volts. cent. From (84). page 83. page 82. for which a cable with At 40 cent. 0.95 lag. From (89).
05 X 120 = 6 volts. - 0. use No. 1= 200 7 = K= 5 per cent.78 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS From (90). w= 2000 watts. From (96).90 lag. e = 120 volts. REQUIRED ITEMS. (in which 2000 120 (1 1.05) 0. a = 1000 X 0.01 X 200 980 X 20 X (120) m 3 40 2 . feet.98 . w= From 25 X 93 1 X X 2280 watts. 2280== 173 watts.980.00 (92). 0. M= 19. From Watt (94).000). From (87). ' 200 = ? From Table page 82.000627 X Watts at load. and copper of 98 per cent conductivity. A 60-cycle step-down transformer with 120 volts at its secondary terminals is connected to a load of 2000 watts at 90 per cent lagging power-factor over 200 feet of singlephase circuit on cleats. B from Table 38. 98QX6 =1.076 Power-factor at source. GIVEN ITEMS. page 72.90 Size of each wire. loss. page 84.000.51. 7 ///= 4 -8v= 0. v '" = L2Q X 0. volt loss. page 82. page 82. 222 X X^25 38. Determine the size of wire for 5 per cent drop at 20 cent. .5 X 200 From Table Per cent 40. From Table 31.20. p _ 0. 8. From (84). = From (95). Example 28. p= 0. 98 B= 1. for which M= 1. From (98). From Table 37.
8 wires. X 2. with a loss of 2 per cent of the generated volts. v = 02 ~ X 11Q - 2. a = 963 X 0. e = 110 (1 + 0. (98).U^ From Table 37.035) = 116 volts. e - V = 2 per cent. From Table carried 4.WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 79 From Table Amperes 31. 1= 250 feet. lagging power-factor and 60 cycles per second is to be delivered 250 feet over a two-phase four. page 8. 85 per cent Example 29. From 116 (94). volt loss. Calculate the size of wire of 98 per cent conductivity for a temperature of 30 cent. = X 0. it is seen that the current will be safely by No. = 110 volts.50 per cent. From (94) (in which B from Table 38.2 amperes. = 0.85 lag. K=0. e= page 72. 120 (1 - 0.98 = 944.25 M = 944 8 X 250 From Table Per cent 40. Size of each wire. use No. GIVEN ITEMS. REQUIRED ITEMS. From (88).wire circuit on cleats. Volts at load. A load of 1500 watts at 110 volts. page 82. page 82. Volts at source. page 84.90 19. . W= From 1500 watts. ^ JL U. 8.18. From (86). 3.500). V = From (89). From (84).0227) = 113 volts. per wire. for which M = 1.25 volts.
Size of each wire. v=0. use No. From (84). 39. ft100 page 77. page 82. A 125 volt. a K= LOO. 7 = 100 amperes. 125 cycle generator is to supply a of load 100 amperes per wire at 100 per cent powerthree-phase factor over 225 feet of cable. 00. ' . GIVEN ITEMS. From Per cent volt loss.. for which (85). Volts at toad From (89).1100 X 3.80 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS 30. M = 0.163. volts. F = 3 per cent .3. /= 225 feet. = 1110 X 0. . e= 125 . From (98). with a loss of 3 per cent of the generated volts.7 volts.99= 1100.75 From Table 37.3= 121.75_ 100 X 225 From Table Volt toss. REQUIRED ITEMS. From (98). The wires are to have a conductivity of 99 per cent Example and a temperature of 30 cent.03 X 125=3. e = 125 volts. & = -=181.
Required Items.C. 81 . Interior Wiring.WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION Formulas for A.
82 Table 37. TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS Values of a and b for Balanced Loads. . Temperature in Degrees.
8 5 s 2._ 08 5r ** S 3 9 N V o 2 S - S cs 288: 1 to t- I 3 .s CA i^2 SSSi 58 5.8.WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 83 S S .R .s u-v 2^E 2 5-2-2 ---- O as i !z 2 5 s i S 1 s 1 . < So fn ?R <s cs t^ T S o 3 ? in >o !n S :<=> "" S8S5 SS. S i orsu^^ ONOr^ TOOOOO fsAmT oor^o^ -o ix SS3 T*^GO M 3S s l ssss .
. . I I <M o m = 2 2 2 oo <s a a s <NOrit^ TT<N\O-^- r^r^o 552 & S 4 s s = 228 r-rtn a S 55 -.84 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS tApr. O^r^\t> -. ". . <NOO\O ^fo^ * O^OO^T a " 02 O ^ tOCOOOO IM . o^CMf^cs oo- a -IT <sM OO s S 5? S r^O^ S ". S S S -- o ssss 1 OO O ^I^O OOO <NOO "r oo fs. SSS in ^O * o fei s so 1 =3.-.8.
DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS. 57. are similar to those for overhead trans- mission lines except that the former have been expressed in terms amperes in order to facilitate computation. overhead trolley wire suspended from an double or multiple catenary construction. Method of Calculation. Eddy currents and hysteresis losses produce a further increase in the effective resistance. no attempt The table of M has been calculated for 15 and 25-cycle systems with one and two bonded rails per track. thereby increasing the effective resistance of the rail. " " and on isolated Report of Electric Railway Test Commission M calculations published in various places. the installation of auxiliary feeders is the exception rather than the rule. A trolley circuit consists primarily of single. an alternating cur59. and the track rails. and since their position with respect to the trolley wire and rails is of has been much importance but made to include them in the results. rent flowing through a steel rail has a diminishing density toward the center. Introduction. is known only at the Due to skin effect. The properties of the trolley and catenary construction have been calculated and the results have been combined with those for the rails to The formulas on page 92 of obtain the values of the complete circuit. while the trolley wires are taken at 100 per cent conductivity and 20 cent.CHAPTER VI. The value of is based on the 58. The trolley wire may be in parallel with an auxiliary feeder or " by-pass. and they have been found to agree sufficiently well with the experimental results. Impedance of Rail. The rails have a relative resistance of steel to copper of 12." However. resulting in an impedance to alternating current considerably greater than the resistance of the 85 . General laws have been deduced for the grounded portion of the circuit. The per cent volt loss is also given in terms of the kilowatts at load in order to avoid approximation when the voltage source. of wide variation.
However. -"v/i Pounds per yard 'Cycles per second The constant 0. 61. permeability and specific resistance of the rail. changes very slightly with the weight of the rail commonly In any case the impedance has-been found by experiment to vary inversely with the perimeter of the section. on the height of the trolley wire. installed.'s Bulletin. is irregular but an average value of the permeability can be assumed without causing much error in the final result. It is evidently a complex quantity and can be determined only by tests of installed track under normal conditions of operation. No. Thus at 25 cycles per second the impedance is about 1.* * General Electric Co. Formula for Rail Impedance. 62. The impedance of a complete track depends upon the frequency of the system.8 is based on an impedance ratio of 6.6 at 25 cycles per second for a 75-pound bonded rail of a relative resistance of steel to copper of about 12. . Impedance and Weight of Rail. Impedance of Rail and Frequency. perimeter of standard T-rails is approximately proportional to the square root of their weight per yard. of the current. 4392. bonded and installed. with the trolley wire about 20 feet above the track. size. Impedance per mile of one T-rail. at least at lower frequencies. on the shape. from experiments that the impedance of rails varies directly as the square root of the frequency and the inversely as the perimeter. ratio of The resistance to direct current is called the The permeability of a given rail Permeability of Rail. Experiment shows. that the impedance of rails varies directly as the square root of the cycles per second. The method of variation depends upon density 60. The author has developed the following formula and has found that it agrees sufficiently well with tests to serve for purposes of practical calculation. It has been concluded 63. 1904. impedance divided by the impedance ratio. and on the character of bonds and roadbed.86 rail to direct TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS current.3 times the corresponding value at a frequency of 15. The impedance depends on the size and shape of rail and differs in the standard bullhead It section of foreign practice from the T-rail of this country.
but in order to be safe in calculation for either type of overhead construction. page 93. 1908. and almost no effect on the impedance 65. and the reactance of the track and trolley having been calculated. Following a comparison between the calculated impedance * Foster's "Electrical Engineer's Pocketbook. but at the lower frequencies this variation is small for normal current densities. t J. at 65 per cent for 15 cycles and 55 per cent for 25 cycles per second. Table 42. which for single catenary construction has been determined by calculation to be equivalent to about 10 per cent.f In double or multiple catenary construction the proportional part of the current carried by the trolley is somewhat reduced. B. of Catenary Construction. page 627. Tests of the Electric Railway Commission show a weight of rail slight increase of power-factor with the but other experiments indicate practically no change. in other words. .E. that the greater part of the total impedance is due to the trolley.I.* The power-factor of the track has been assumed constant for all rail weights. or. page 795. The ohmic resistance 67. it follows that any error and variation in the assumed value of the track impedance will have a small effect on the final result. Power-Factor of Track. Trolley wires for single-phase in from about 18 to 22 feet above rails. the current. The trolley wire is from a or from two wires arranged supported single catenary wire." 1908. their skin effect prevents them from carrying more than a small part of the current. Effect either horizontally or vertically. This conclusion is is corroborated by tests. May. In almost every case the trolley and catenary wires are electrically connected. since the catenary wires are steel. gives the values of M. Proceedings of A. It will be observed that the effect of varying the rail weight is less pronounced than of varying the size of trolley. the above result has been used.. but any variation within standard limits will have small effect on the impedance of the trolley. the two were combined to obtain the total impedance. 66. Height of Trolley. height systems range The height assumed in the calculations of is 22 feet. Impedance of Complete Circuit.E. M of the track. However. Since the impedance of the overhead system is susceptible of fairly accurate calculation.DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS 87 The power-factor increases with 64. Whitehead.
as their test track is not similar to modern construction. The values of the Electric Railway Test Commission are not included. Rails. Test and Calculated Values of Impedance Per Mile at 25 Cycles Per Second. . Table 41.88 TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS per mile and the published results of tests on installed lines.
the following results are obtained: .DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS 89 From (107) and Table 42. page 93.
trolleys supplies each of three cars with 50 amperes at 85 per cent power-factor when located at 3, 5, and 10 miles away, respectively, the power station
25-cycle single-phase road with four 80-
and two No. 000
voltage being 11,000. Owing to the power-factor at the
cars, the following
slightly in error.
IL = 50
volt loss to
REQUIRED ITEMS. last car. From (103),
(1-0.026) =10.7 kv.
Kilovolts at last car.
A 25-cycle single-phase car starting 8 miles Example 34. from a transformer station generating 6600 volts takes 500 kw. at 80 per cent power-factor from a circuit consisting of two 70Ib. rails and one No. 000 trolley.
TF=500kw.; # =6.6kv.; L= 8 miles; From Table 42, page 93, M = 0.066.
REQUIRED ITEMS. From (104),
K= 0.80 lag.
8.3 per cent.
Kilovolts at load.
Per cent power
R = 0.425 ohm.
DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS
Kilowatts at source.
Power-factor at source.
Two 15-cycle single-phase locomotives start miles from a power station generating 11,000 10 simultaneously Determine the line voltage at the locomotives if each volts. takes 3000 kv.-amp. (kilo volt-amperes) at 75 per cent powerfactor, over a circuit consisting of eight 100-lb. rails
No. 0000 trolley.
L= 10 miles; K = 0.75 lag.
REQUIRED ITEMS. From (104),
_ 0.0115 X
6.1 per cent.
Kilovolts at locomotives.
DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS g jliil sss 8 N" 00 CN fN 9- Ji s ssss siss ssss ssss O iss SSSS sill ssss i 1 i i 1 i m O ssss ssss ssss m si lisl III SS2 ii *\ u"\ r\ c<^ NO oo ^" r*.i^ OO 0000 0000 TrN-oior-^ ss .lsi III 111 glssss ssss ssss 000 0000 0000 ss s s sss ^-^ro^so \ovOvOt~ \pt^ so\ot>. so O* u"N tr\ 1^ sii 00 s I i 8 lifili il BBi \O t^ CS if> Siil issl sisi O^ r^ m i s Ill a I r^ cs rA o s ao ^ >r\ s ro ss o s s m 000 'T tr m 000 -^j- IA g H Oj ss Us SSSS ssss s s 00 ssss ssss ssss i.ssss ssss s ssss sss s s I s S 2^SS8 c^c^tA-^f^r^-^--^ss^^ O *0 s s S S 000 r^ OO 00 xO <N r^rj- f^\\o oo sSii |i|g 0000 sis sooiri sot^r^oo OOOO s s oocNr>.T|- F: ^- s Z2 I S ? S 11^ .
DUE n-rfielMt data Damed below.'48(B399sl6)476 .UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY BERKELEY Return This book is to desk from which borrowed. 1 ? 19497 I LD 21-100m-9.
tea- Engineering library 254556 tJL .
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