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Machine Shop Safety

Presented By Hafiz Abdul Hadi Lecturer(Technology Deptt) B.Sc. Mechanical Engineering


Machine Shop Supervisor  Are responsible for ensuring that activities undertaken in their workshops are consistent with the policy of providing a safe and healthful environment for staff and students and for those who provide services to their workshops  In most cases this is a departmental technician, but could be a supervising member.


LF - Responsibilities

Machine Shop Supervisors shall ensure  scheduling the use of machine tools as appropriate  that only qualified persons who are authorized to access the workshop operate machine tools  that tools are in good mechanical and operating condition  that users comply with all safety regulations

Work Shop Supervisor  that users wear personal protective equipment as required  that all injuries and "near misses" are reported to their Chair.  that lockout procedures are enforced  that regular documented safety inspections of the area are conducted 4 .

Work Shop Supervisor  that persons do not work alone with designated machine tools  Arranging for immediate medical attention for injured personnel and reporting of incidents as required  Complying with all policies and procedures set out by the University and/or by the department  Familiar with all emergency response procedures 5 .

LF . guidelines relating to machine tool use and operation  provide the shop supervisor with information regarding their certification and training  provide suggestions on improving safeguarding that may not be already in place 6 . and Staff  observe all safety regulations.Responsibilities  Faculty. standards.

shearing. and forming mechanisms  wear appropriate clothing and personal protective equipment  report immediately any machine tools that exhibit signs of excessive wear or have damaged or misused parts 7 . and cutting. nip points. punching. Staff & Students  report any machine that does not have a safeguard for all points of operation or rotational motion.Faculty.

Faculty. Staff & Students  report any injuries or "near misses" to the supervisor immediately  keep the work area clean  complying with all University/Department safety policies and procedures  taking all necessary and appropriate safety precautions relevant to performance of duties. 8 .

Legal Framework  Training & Instruction  Operator Training  Equipment Manuals 9 .

10 .. use and maintenance of all tools and machines which the worker is required to use  Such training shall include.Training & Instruction  Operator Training  The Supervisor of the machine shop shall be responsible for ensuring that users are trained in the proper inspection.

how they provide protection. and the hazards for which they are intended  how and why to use the safeguards  how and under what circumstances safeguards can be removed and who may remove them 11 .LF – Training & Instruction  Operator Training continued…  a description and identification of the hazards associated with particular machines  the safeguards themselves.

loss of power. chemical spills. missing.LF – Training & Instruction  what to do if a safeguard is damaged. and evacuation alarms  Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)  lockout/tagout 12 . or unable to provide adequate protection  use of personal protective equipment  emergency planning for medical incidents.

LF – Training & Instruction  Equipment Manuals  The supervisor shall maintain a manual of operating instructions for each type of portable electric tool. portable airpowered tool. explosive actuated tool and machine  The manuals shall be readily available for examination by a person who is required to use the tool or machine to which the manual applies 13 .

Projects Review/ Approval Mechanism Scope Procedure 14 .

Projects Review/Approval Mechanism   Scope All projects and activities involving:  Research  Student-related Project/Thesis  Change in Equipment. Process or Materials  New Construction and Renovations  Special Events  Travel (Domestic & International) 15 .

and the equipment.  To evaluate the adequacy of safety procedures.Scope  The purposes of such a review are:  To identify hazards and assess the risks associated with the project or activity. licensing. medical surveillance. and  To determine the need for special training. 16 . etc.Projects Review/Approval Mechanism . the facilities.

Projects Review/Approval Mechanism  Procedure  The investigator should review the Preliminary Risk Assessment to determine if a full risk assessment is necessary. 17 .

then the investigator should review it with the department’s technical officer and/or the Officer for the Faculty of Engineering. 18 .Procedure  If a full risk assessment is necessary. Architecture and Science.PR/AM .

etc. the Chair/Academic Director or Dean will confirm the required control measures The investigator will be advised concerning the acceptability of the protocol and any modifications. required A copy of the completed form will be submitted to the CEHSM 19 . additions.PR/AM .Procedure    Upon receipt of the Risk Assessment Form.

Review of Risk Assessment Form 20 .

Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas Visitors in Laboratories Hazard Warning Signs and Labels 21 .

issuance of personal protective equipment. including ensuring that training. and other requirements have been met  Doors to restricted areas must not be propped open to allow visitor access 22 . paper work completion.Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Visitors in Work Shops  Each workshop supervisor is responsible for the safety of adult visitors to his or her work shop.

Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels  Hazard Categories  General Information  Posting of Hazard Signs & Labels  Rules and Procedures 23 .

Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels  Hazard Categories  Hazard identification signage has four distinct categories: ○ NOTICE – states a policy related to safety of personnel or protection or property but is not for use with a physical hazard. 24 .

if not avoided. may result in minor or moderate injury. if not avoided. WARNING – indicates a potentially hazardous situation that. will result in death or serious injury. if not avoided. will result in death or serious injury. DANGER – indicates an imminently hazardous situation that. 25 .Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas ○ ○ ○ CAUTION –indicates a potentially hazardous situation that.

Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels  General Information  Prominent signs and labels of the following types are generally posted in and adjacent to work shops: ○ emergency phone numbers of emergency personnel/ facilities. supervisors. 26 . showing contents of containers and associated hazards. ○ identity labels. and lab workers.

27 . other safety and first aid equipment. eyewash stations.Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels ○ location signs for safety showers. and exits. and ○ warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual hazards exist.

Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels  Some of the more common hazards found in Work Shops that are required to be or should be identified are: ○ Machine & Equipment ○ Radiation hazards ○ Laser light ○ Chemical hazards ○ Explosive or flammable liquids 28 .

Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels ○ ○ ○ Compressed gas storage Noise hazards UV light 29 .

Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels  Posting of Hazard Signs & Labels  The work shop supervisor is responsible for posting hazard warning signs as necessary and in compliance with the requirements for each type of hazard encountered 30 .

Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels  Rules and Procedures  Signs must be posted only while a hazard exists and must be removed as soon as the source of danger is removed. 31 . his/her alternate. with their emergency telephone numbers.  Hazard warning signs must show the name(s) of the hazard(s) and the investigator.

 Signs that are to be used permanently should be posted in permanent frames  Signs that are to be posted on a temporary bases (less than one month) may be installed in permanent frames or posted with tape on appropriate surfaces.Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels  The investigator named on the hazard sign will determine when visitors can be allowed in the laboratory. 32 .

33 .Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas  Hazard Warning Signs and Labels  The work shop supervisor is responsible for obtaining all hazard and/or labels for the work shop.

General Safety Guidelines Where Mechanical Hazards Occur Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions Requirements for Safeguards Non-Mechanical Hazards Controlling Work Shop Risks Safe Work Shop Practices 34 .

General Safety Guidelines  Where Mechanical Hazards Occur  The Point of Operation  Power Transmission Apparatus  Other Moving Parts 35 .

or forming of stock.GSG – Where Mechanical Hazards Occur  The Point of Operation ○ that point where work is performed on the material. such as cutting. 36 . shaping. boring.

cams. connecting rods. and gears. couplings. spindles. chains. belts.GSG – Where Mechanical Hazards Occur  Power Transmission Apparatus ○ all components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. cranks. pulleys. These components include flywheels. 37 .

rotating. and transverse moving parts. 38 . as well as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine. These can include reciprocating.GSG – Where Mechanical Hazards Occur  Other Moving Parts ○ all parts of the machine which move while the machine is working.

reciprocating arms.General Safety Guidelines  Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions  A wide variety of mechanical motions and actions may present hazards to the worker  These can include the movement of rotating members. cutting teeth. and any parts that impact or shear 39 . meshing gears. moving belts.

GSG – Hazardous Mechanical Motions/Actions  These different types of hazardous mechanical motions and actions are basic to nearly all machines. and recognizing them is the first step toward protecting workers from the danger they present  The basic types of hazardous mechanical motions and actions are: 40 .

reciprocating & transverse  Actions: ○ cutting. punching.GSG – Hazardous Mechanical Motions/Actions  Motions: ○ rotating. & bending 41 . shearing.

GSG – Hazardous Mechanical Motions/Actions  Motions  Rotating motion can be dangerous. even smooth. and through mere skin contact force an arm or hand into a dangerous position. slowly rotating shafts can grip clothing. Injuries due to contact with rotating parts can be severe. 42 .

GSG – HMM/A . cams. nicks. clutches. shaft ends.Motions  Collars. The danger increases when bolts. and projecting keys or set screws are exposed on rotating parts. and horizontal or vertical shafting are some examples of common rotating mechanisms which may be hazardous. spindles. couplings. abrasions. as shown in the next slide… 43 . flywheels.

44 .

Motions  In-running nip point hazards are caused by the rotating parts on machinery  There are three main types of in-running nips. ○ Between parts that rotate in opposite directions ○ Between rotating and tangentially moving parts ○ Between rotating and fixed parts 45 .GSG – HMM/A .

46 .GSG – HMM/A . rolling mills.  This danger is common on machinery with intermeshing gears.Motions  Between parts that rotate in opposite directions  Parts can rotate in opposite directions while their axes are parallel to each other.  In the latter case the stock fed between the rolls produces the nip points.  These parts may be in contact (producing a nip point) or in close proximity to each other.

47 .

48 .Motions  Between rotating and tangentially moving parts  Some examples would be: the point of contact between a power transmission belt and its pulley. a chain and a sprocket.GSG – HMM/A . or a rack and pinion.


GSG – HMM/A - Motions

Between rotating and fixed parts  Nip points can occur between rotating and fixed parts which create a shearing, crushing, or abrading action.  Examples are: spoked handwheels or flywheels, screw conveyors, or the periphery of an abrasive wheel and an incorrectly adjusted work rest.



during the back-andforth or up-and-down motion. 52 . a worker may be struck by or caught between a moving and a stationary part.Motions  Reciprocating motions may be hazardous because.GSG – HMM/A .

53 .

Motions  Transverse motion (movement in a straight.GSG – HMM/A . 54 . continuous line) creates a hazard because a worker may be struck or caught in a pinch(Press tightly between the fingers) or shear point by the moving part.

55 .

reciprocating. or transverse motion  The danger of cutting action exists at the point of operation where finger. or other materials 56 . head. and arm injuries can occur and where flying chips or scrap material can strike the eyes or face  Such hazards are present at the point of operation in cutting wood.Actions  Actions  Cutting action involves rotating.GSG – HMM/A . metal.

circular saws. or milling machines. 57 . boring or drilling machines.GSG – HMM/A .Actions  Typical examples of mechanisms involving cutting hazards include band-saws. turning machines (lathes).

58 .

drawing. The danger of this type of action occurs at the point of operation where stock is inserted.GSG – HMM/A . and withdrawn by hand.Actions Punching action results when power is applied to a slide (ram) for the purpose of blanking. or stamping metal or other materials.  59 . held.  Typical machinery used for punching operations are power presses and iron workers.

60 .

hydraulically. A hazard occurs at the point of operation where stock is actually inserted.  Typical examples of machinery used for shearing operations are mechanically. and withdrawn.  61 . held.GSG – HMM/A . or pneumatically powered shears.Actions Shearing action involves applying power to a slide or knife in order to trim or shear metal or other materials.

62 .

Actions Bending action results when power is applied to a slide in order to draw or stamp metal or other materials.  Equipment that uses bending action includes power presses.GSG – HMM/A . press brakes. and a hazard occurs at the point of operation where stock is inserted.  63 . held. and withdrawn. and tubing benders.

64 .

General Safety Guidelines  Requirements for Safeguards  Safeguards must meet these minimum general requirements: ○ Prevent contact ○ Secure ○ Protect from falling objects ○ Create no new hazards ○ Create no interference ○ Allow safe lubrication 65 .

66 .GSG – Requirements for Safeguards  Prevent Contact  The safeguard must prevent hands. or any other part of a worker's body from making contact with dangerous moving parts. arms. A good safeguarding system eliminates the possibility of the operator or another worker placing their hands near hazardous moving parts.

because a safeguard that can easily be made ineffective is no safeguard at all.GSG – Requirements for Safeguards  Secure  Workers should not be able to easily remove or tamper with the safeguard. 67 . Guards and safety devices should be made of durable material that will withstand the conditions of normal use. They must be firmly secured to the machine.

GSG – Requirements for Safeguards  Protect From Falling Objects  The safeguard should ensure that no objects can fall into moving parts. A small tool which is dropped into a cycling machine could easily become a projectile that could strike and injure someone. 68 .

for instance. The edges of guards. a jagged edge. should be rolled or bolted in such a why that they eliminate sharp edges. 69 . or an unfinished surface which can cause a laceration.GSG – Requirements for Safeguards  Create No New Hazards  A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates a hazard of its own such as a shear point.

Proper safeguarding can actually enhance efficiency since it can relieve the worker's apprehensions about injury. 70 .GSG – Requirements for Safeguards  Create No Interference  Any safeguard which impedes a worker from performing the job quickly and comfortably might soon be overridden or disregarded.

GSG – Requirements for Safeguards  Allow Safe Lubrication  If possible. 71 . will reduce the need for the operator or maintenance worker to enter the hazardous area. one should be able to lubricate the machine without removing the safeguards. Locating oil reservoirs outside the guard. with a line leading to the lubrication point.

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