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**Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013
**

Name: JOSH, LRT Class: SCIENCE STREAM PHYSICS CLASS IC Number: 940901 – 14 – **** SPM Registration Number: WP043 A000

Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Introduction A parabola is a two-dimensional, mirror-symmetrical curve, which is approximately Ushaped when oriented as shown in the diagram, but which can be in any orientation in its plane. It fits any of several superficially different mathematical descriptions which can all be proved to define curves of exactly the same shape. One description of a parabola involves a point (the focus) and a line (the directrix). The focus does not lie on the directrix. The locus of points in that plane that are equidistant from both the directrix and the focus is the parabola. Another description of a parabola is as a conic section, created from the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane which is parallel to another plane which is tangential to the conical surface. A third description is algebraic. A parabola is a graph of a quadratic function, such as or ( ) , where a, b and c is real number.

Conic Sections

The line perpendicular to the directrix and passing through the focus (that is, the line that splits the parabola through the middle) is called the "axis of symmetry". The point on the axis of symmetry that intersects the parabola is called the "vertex", and it is the point where the curvature is greatest. The distance between the vertex and the focus, measured along the axis of symmetry, is the "focal length". The "latus rectum" is the chord of the parabola which is parallel to the directrix and passes through the focus. Parabolas can open up, Parabola Components down, left, right, or in some other arbitrary direction. Any parabola can be repositioned and rescaled to fit exactly on any other parabola — that is, all parabolas are geometrically similar. Parabolas have the property that, if they are made of material that reflects light, then light which enters a parabola travelling parallel to its axis of symmetry is reflected to its focus, regardless of where on the parabola the reflection occurs. Conversely, light that originates from a point source at the focus is reflected ("collimated") into a parallel beam, leaving the parabola parallel to the axis of symmetry. The same effects occur with sound and other forms of energy. This reflective property is the basis of many practical uses of parabolas. The parabola has many important applications, from a parabolic antenna or parabolic microphone to automobile headlight reflectors to the design of ballistic missiles. They are frequently used in physics, engineering, and many other areas. Strictly, the adjective parabolic should be applied only to things that are shaped as a parabola, which is a two-dimensional shape. However, as shown in the last paragraph, the same adjective is commonly used for three-dimensional objects, such as parabolic reflectors, which are really paraboloids. Sometimes, the noun parabola is also used to refer to these objects. Though not perfectly correct, this usage is generally understood.

2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. All rights reserved.

Page 1 of 19

The focus–directrix property of the parabola and other conics is due to Pappus. Apollonius (262 BC to 190 BC) named the parabola. The idea that a parabolic reflector could produce an image was already well known before the invention of the reflecting telescope. Galileo showed that the path of a projectile follows a parabola.L.Additional Mathematics Project Work W.K. does not meet the requirements imposed by compass and straightedge construction. It means "application". Thus. All rights reserved. Designs were proposed in the early to mid-seventeenth century by many mathematicians including René Descartes. Parabolic mirrors are used in most modern reflecting telescopes and in satellite dishes and radar receivers. The earliest known work on conic sections was by Menaechmus in the fourth century BC. Human should continue apply the knowledge of parabolas to lead us into a more modern society. Pappus (290 to 350) considered the focus and directrix of the parabola. was computed by Archimedes via the method of exhaustion in the third century BC. He was trying to dublicate the cube by finding the side of the cube that has an area double the cube. referring to "application of areas" concept. Galileo (1564 to 1642) showed that projectiles falling under uniform gravity follow parabolic paths. Instead. He discovered a way to solve the problem of doubling the cube using parabolae. in his The Quadrature of the Parabola. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. 2013 The parabola was explored by Menaechmus (380 BC to 320 BC). When Isaac Newton built the first reflecting telescope in 1668 he skipped using a parabolic mirror because of the difficulty of fabrication. Pascal (1623 to 1662) considered the parabola as a projection of a circle. Menaechmus solved it by finding the intersection of the two parabolas and . that has a Parabola Compass connection with this curve. parabola is important in our daily applications. (The solution.P. who discovered many properties of conic sections. as Apollonius had proved. who was a pupil of Plato and Eudoxus. Marin Mersenne and James Gregory. opting for a spherical mirror.) The area enclosed by a parabola and a line segment. Euclid (325 BC to 265 BC) wrote about the parabola. Gregory (1638 to 1675) and Newton (1643 tp 1727) considered the properties of a parabola. Page 2 of 19 . The name "parabola" is due to Apollonius. the so-called "parabola segment". a consequence of uniform acceleration due to gravity. however.

P. 2013 Part 1 1.L.K.1 Photos related to parabola McDonald’s Sign Board Satellite Antenna Leeds Grand Mosque Bellagio's Fountains 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. All rights reserved. Page 3 of 19 .Additional Mathematics Project Work W.

2013 Equations 𝑥 ±4 𝑎𝑦 About 𝑦-axis 𝑥 4𝑎𝑦 𝑦 ±4 𝑎𝑥 About 𝑥-axis 𝑦 4𝑎𝑥 Vertex (0.2 Mind Map of Parabolas Additional Mathematics Project Work W. (𝑦 − 𝑘) ±4𝑎(𝑥 − ℎ) (𝑥 − ℎ) ±4𝑎 (𝑦 − 𝑘) Where (ℎ. focus. 𝑘) is the vertex. All rights reserved. 𝑎 is the key of solution to the vertex. 1.P. Page 4 of 19 .L. directrix and latus rectum.K.0) 𝑥 −4𝑎𝑦 𝑦 −4𝑎𝑥 When the vertex is not at origin.2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted.

0) Roots = ± 𝑥 As the vertex are not at origin. ) (0.3 Determination equation of parabola 𝑦 From question. equation of ( − ℎ) (ℎ. − − 0 4 4 / ( − 0) 0 The equation of the parabolic dome is − 0.P.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. 0) and ( . Page 5 of 19 .L. −4 (0 − 0) 0 0 −4 . 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. 0) ( − 0) −4 ( − ) is chosen. ) ( . 2013 1. the information we have are: Vertex = (0. All rights reserved.K.

− 4 4 − 0 0/ ( − ℎ) ( − ) 4( − ) − 4 −4 ( −4 . Vertex: ( . 0) Roots: − 0. 0) Roots: ± original 2. 2013 Generation of different parabolas 0 No 1. − 0) Roots: − 0. Vertex: (0.K. All rights reserved.P. − 0) Roots: ± inverted 3. Vertex: ( . Shape Information Equation Vertex: (0. Page 6 of 19 . 0 shifted + inverted − − − 4 0 − . − ( − ) 0 − ) /( − 0) 00 0 − (− 4 4 ( − ) 0) ( − ) − 0 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. 0 shifted 5 units right 4.L.

Additional Mathematics Project Work W.− ) or ( . So − Magnitude gradient | | − − − 4 (− − − − 4 4 4 4 ) 0 − 4 ( 4 4 4 4 ) 0 − The maximum distance from horizontal and vertical axes that the bird can walk without slipping downwards is up to the coordinates (− .4 Determination the maximum distance / coordinates of point 𝑦 From question. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. Page 7 of 19 . All rights reserved.− ).K.L.P. the information we have are: The bird can keep it balance up to a maximum gradient with magnitude of 2 𝑥 − 𝑜 − Gradient of curve 4 0 . 2013 1.

Additional Mathematics Project Work W.5 Determination the budget of construction 𝑦 From question. Page 8 of 19 . the method involve are integration of curve to find bounded area along x-axis and area of triangle. 2013 1. ) The construction cost for the required partition is RM 100 per meter square 𝑜 𝑥 To calculate the required area. 0∫ . the information we have are: ( .K.L.− [ 4 Construction cost. All rights reserved.P. 4 00 0 ] 4 0/ ] 1 [ ( )( )] [ The budget required to construct the shaded partition is RM 16533.33 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted.

Page 9 of 19 .Additional Mathematics Project Work W. 2013 1.K.L.6 Determination of capacity of the air conditioning From question. the information we have are: Temperature to keep constant 4 000 00 ⁄ℎ 0 ℎ 00 − 4 0 − 4 ∫ 0 ( 0 0 ) ( 00) ⁄ℎ 00 ∫ ( − 4 ) 000 ⁄ℎ 0 ℎ 0 0 0 ⁄ℎ 000 ℎ 4 ℎ The capacity of air conditioner required is 4 ℎ 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. All rights reserved.P.

When stirring.1 Observations When a cylindrical beaker is filled with water until half full and circular motion of stirring process begins. At the same time. the circular motion of glass rod will form a spiral depth. spiral movement of water forms various parabolas with different heights. the water level near to the wall of beaker is increases to maintain the volume of water in the beaker which is constant.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. the higher the displace of water level near the wall of beaker. So. The vertical cross-sectional of water level forms a parabola as it goes deeper. Page 10 of 19 . Through observations. Cylindrical beaker Spiral Movement 2D Spiral Water Movement 3D 2.L. as the spiral motion of water goes deeper. which will increase in vertical downwards depth which reached the bottom of cylindrical beaker. the observations are as below: 1. So. 2013 Part 2 2. All rights reserved. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted.P. height of spiral motion ( ℎ ) increases toward bottom of cylinder beaker while the water level at the center is displaced more results increase in water level near the wall of the beaker.K. 4. Direction of water moving to the wall of beaker ℎ𝑠𝑝𝑖𝑟𝑎𝑙 3.

2013 2. the information we have are: ( ℎ ℎ ℎ 0ℎ) ( ℎ ℎ ( ℎ ( ℎ [ ( ) 0ℎ) ℎ 0ℎ) 0) 0] ( ) ℎ ( ) The rate of change of volume.2 Determine From question. Page 11 of 19 . All rights reserved.Additional Mathematics Project Work W.L. is 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted.P.K.

1 Find Given and form a progression and distance between each cable is 0 4 When When When When 0 .L. . there are having same . All rights reserved. (0 ) ( 0) ( ) ( 0) Progression of are . 2013 Part 3 3. 0. AP should have same ( 4 − ) − Since. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. 0. it should be an AP. . it should not be an GP. AP (Arithmetic progression) or GP (Geometric progression) GP should have same ( 4 ) 4 Since.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. Identify type of progression. Page 12 of 19 .K.P. there are having different r. .

K.2 Find the cost of 19th cable from a progression 4 4 ( ) Length of 1 meter cable is cost RM 100 Thus. ( ) ( − ) 3. ( − ) .P.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. 2013 Formula of AP. length of 19th cable length is and cost 00 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. Page 13 of 19 . All rights reserved.L.

4 ( ) √( − ) ± Since.K. All rights reserved.L. 2013 3.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. So. Page 14 of 19 . 4 4 4 Where is the value of ( ) 4 4 The 34th cable needed to be repaired. only the cable on the right side of the origin needs to be repaired.P.3 Determine the term of an value ( ) Given length of cable is 4 is the value of y. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted.

At highest point of the trajectory: 𝑣𝑦 0 but 𝑣𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 . [Decreasing towards maximum point and increasing towards same level of initial point] 3. the motion should be constant acceleration (due to GRAVITY). At Fx. The components are vertical (y-axis) and horizontal (x-axis). All rights reserved. At Fy. This motion – Projectile is a 2D motion due to exist of 2 components in the action of kinetic projectiles. Therefore. is when a particle is projected under gravity at a velocity u at an angle θ to the horizontal (neglecting air resistance) it follows the curve of a parabola. physical defining. Projectile. 4. Diagram below is Oblique Projectile: What we can saw in the diagram is: 1. The 𝒗𝒚 is changing. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. 𝑎 −𝑔.L. 2013 Further Exploration Topics Chosen: Parabola in Physics In physics the equations involving variety of sections including graphing. The 𝒗𝒙 is constant. I gonna to explore about the object falling or release in a parabolic motion which known as projectile motion. because there is no any force [horizontal] acting on it. This time. object falling and so on. Acceleration is constant and vertically downwards. the motion should be constant velocity (due to linear).P. 2. because the height of motion per second is different. gravity.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. Page 15 of 19 .K.

Page 16 of 19 .K.P. 3. 2013 Projectile Equations and Formula: 𝑢 𝑎 −𝑔 𝐻 𝜃 Symbol define: 1. − Since. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. information’s needed is: a. final velocity of ( ) − 0 0. All rights reserved. 4.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. To calculate Y component. b. the gravity is equal to acceleration and it is always towards to the earth.L. → used to calculate MAXIMUM height for component Y. ( ) . maximum point is reached. − c. 5. 6. 2. ℎ ℎ Given that. Since. Therefore the equation is derived as: − .

To calculate FULL TIME of an object projectile. Instantaneous Given that. b. Given that.K. f. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. It is important to applied in scientific field and kept as knowledge towards future. − 0 − → calculate time of HALF projectile for component Y. R which is the total distance from start point X to end point. you can find out any range. information’s needed is: a. To calculate X component.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. Instantaneous horizontal displacement at any time is ( ) c. speed required in order to project object from starting to its destination. 2013 d. can calculate at any time by using the formula below: − ( ) − → calculate any time of projectile for component Y. just simply take answer of 〈 〉 → calculate time of FULL projectile.L. angle. ( ) ( )( ) ( ) So. Page 17 of 19 . Therefore. Since. an object is projected from a starting time and end with a ending time. height.P. To find Range. by knowing the method to gain the projectile equation. All rights reserved. e.

graphs of parabola show many information which tends to make our world getting more modern one day. Go deeply. All rights reserved. learning parabolas is actually fun and interesting.P.Additional Mathematics Project Work W.K.Galileo Galilei which found that all objects thrown form a parabolic path. physics and architecture field. Human design a parabolic satellite station to transmit their data to stay connected with peoples around the world. So. building and also drawing in the art block. Thus.L. design of bridge. Besides. Galileo is responsible for the modern concepts of velocity and acceleration to explain projectile motion that is studied today: A projectile which is carried by a uniform horizontal motion compounded with a naturally accelerated vertical motion describes a path which is a semi-parabola. 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. it also applied in architecture and arts. 2013 Conclusion Parabolas have widely used sports. He deduced this by the simple observation of watching objects being thrown. no matter what. speed and direction they may create another record for the next competitions. the knowledge of parabolas is the key for everything especially in engineering field. Sportsman uses the physics theory to determine what the best angle. Page 18 of 19 . would like to thanks to this great man which involve in my further explore of parabola in physics .

± ∑∏∐⋃⋂ . Doing. and flying technology a great inventor. Found out the answer.Additional Mathematics Project Work W. For this. 2013 Reflection ∭ −⏞ ± √ ⇒ − ⃡ * + → ← ∯ ∑ ∐ ∫ ∐ ⋂ ………… ………… ………… a complicated math equation combined with few equation and finally had derived into this level. deriving. trying. seeking the solutions. solving. ∬∭∬ .L. weeks of time to complete this project. Page 19 of 19 . guide and the most ∑ important – understanding. the important is to be improved and to maximize the human brain. I had try all the best to answer the questions by finding the method. rockets. I finally knew that why I am learning 4 ℎ…. finally ask for the pro. the power to solve all the questions that is naturally unsolved.P. trying to applying on the questions. ‖ √ √ ⃡ ‖. . a historical future person that can change the world.finally you are the success one! 2013 © LRT DOCUMENTS Copyrighted. The nature of forest blossom with tears and cheers……… ( ) ∑( ) Understand the solutions. we may able to find out the ℎ that is still in the ―Unsolved list‖ in the log book written by Qian Xuesen.K. On the . the Aerodynamics Scientist who had develop missiles. continuous……… Overnight. of single I had use about → | -. And…. . blow out with a feeling. With this learning. discover person. All rights reserved.

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