Walk This Way Riverside London

Tate Britain to the Design Museum

The history, the evolution and the character of London is inextricably bound up with the River Thames. Massive bridges span the course, linking the north and south halves of the city that the river once divided. Walk This Way is designed to take you along this remarkable waterway as it passes through the centre of London, illuminating some of the majestic buildings that line the banks of the Thames.

architecture + history at your feet

See www.southbanklondon.com for a more detailed profile of the buildings and streets featured in Walk This Way – Riverside London. 1

run softly. representing the highest architecture of their era.ELLIOT (1922) 2 . The river snakes its way through this living metropolis. Grand palaces. it has carried the millions of tonnes of building material that have created the city that now embraces it. the City of Westminster completed their bridge. who were hostile to any new bridges being built. The following century saw an epidemic of bridge-building in London as population explosion and railway expansion demanded ever greater access between north and south. for I speak not loud or long. it has moved the wealth of the world. stare at each other across the waters. despite the obvious need.The Influence of the River Bearing the marks of history The town of Londinium originated as a bridging point for Roman Legions. Bridging the capital A London bridge has spanned the Thames for nearly two thousand years. castles. In 1750. each one retains its own unique appearance and history. And this is the tale that the River told’ RUDYARD KIPLING (1911) ‘Sweet Thames. government and Empire. prompting their rivals. to build their own. renamed and rebuilt into solid. in quick succession. For they were young and the Thames was old. and housing. constructed at the apex of industrial Britain. run softly till I end my song. before evolving into the heart of English trade. the City of London. road and rail. cathedrals. bearing the marks of over a thousand years of history. Huge warehouses and dockyards. resplendent with their individual decorations and built by the finest engineers of the age. While many of these have been repaired. Sweet Thames. The Thames has drowned armies and hosted frost fairs. are reborn for commerce leisure. the real money to be made from the river was by the ferry companies. however.S. ‘Twenty bridges from Tower to Kew… Wanted to know what the River knew.’ T. more than twenty bridges were built over the Thames. Foot. twentieth century constructions. but for much of the city's history. Blackfriars Bridge.

Katharine Docks Tower Bridge Shad Thames Design Museum Westminster Westminster Br 6 We stm ins t Mi 7 St ll S t Jam Richmond Ter Waterloo Station loo ter Wa The Towe r 8 Belve hall White St Southwark Cut 36 Union St ES To ole y Rd t ia S tor Vic aic aR 5 4 Lamb eth Pal ac oad er B r Rd nk e Rd Millba L am Rd b et hR d Lambeth Br be t h Lam 3 M i l l ba n k 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Riverside (RV1) Bus Service Riverside 1 is a bus service linking Covent Garden. providing a cost-effective. Accessibility Information Tate Britain London Eye Royal Festival Hall Somerset House National Theatre Oxo Tower Wharf Tate Modern The Globe Southwark Cathedral Tower of London Design Museum Transport ankme nt 2 General travel information can be obtained on Transport for London’s 24-hour number: 020 7222 1234.tfl. Paul’s Cathedral Shakespeare’s Globe Southwark Bridge Cannon Street Railway Bridge Southwark Cathedral London Bridge Fishmonger’s Hall Adelaide House Hay’s Wharf & St. Waterloo & City and Jubilee* Southwark Jubilee * London Bridge Northern. London Bridge and Tower Gateway.uk Accessible Underground Stations Westminster District. South Bank. www. Waterloo.gov. Olave’s House Billingsgate Market Custom House HMS Belfast Greater London Authority Headquarters Tower of London St. Circle & Jubilee* Waterloo Northern.19 Blackfriars Upper Tha m Temple es St Emban Victoria kment Cannon Street ill rH Towe Tower Hill Blackfriars Br Millennium Foot Br Blackfriars Rail Br wark Ap p St So u t h London B r Canno n Rail Br a St r nd 14 12 13 nd rou er G p p U 15 16 17 18 20 Tower Br 28 29 Tha me sS t 11 te Wa rl o oB r R IVE R T H A ME S 25 26 Lower Thames St Low er 32 Br Tho East S mithfield s Mor ma 21 33 Charing Cross North umberl a nd A ve 22 23 S ou th w B A N K S I D E 24 27 Toole yS t 30 P O O L O F 34 St L O N D O N Embankment Gold en Jub ile eB ridg es 9 S O U T H B A N K ark S t Tow er B r 10 Ka Blackfriars Rd th a r in e ’ s Wa y London Bridge 31 RIV E kment d e re Waterloo East 35 Br R d RT HA M Victoria Emba n Yor kR d Key 1 2 3 4 Vauxhall Bridge Tate Britain Lambeth Bridge St. Thameslink & National Rail* * Jubilee line exit is wheelchair accessible 020 7887 8922 0870 990 8885 020 7921 0971 020 7845 4600 020 7452 3000 020 7401 2255 020 7401 5120 020 7902 1409 020 7367 6700 020 7488 5694 0870 909 9009 RIVE R THA MES Va u xh a ll B ri d Albert Emb ge Map reproduced from Ordnance Survey Landplan 1:5000 mapping with permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office © Crown copyright. Bakerloo. easily recognisable link to over thirty of London’s attractions. Jubilee. Licence Number 398179 1 Vauxhall . Thomas’ Hospital & Florence Nightingale Museum Houses of Parliament Westminster Bridge County Hall London Eye Golden Jubilee Bridges Royal Festival Hall Somerset House Waterloo Bridge Royal National Theatre Oxo Tower Wharf Blackfriars Bridge Blackfriars Rail Bridges Tate Modern Millennium Bridge 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 St. Bankside.

only three of these ‘Nightingale’ wards now remain. architect of Parliament. buried at the neighbouring St. Southwark. Mary Overie. topped by pineapples (introduced to Britain by the Tradescant gardeners. William the Conqueror’s oak-roofed Westminster Hall of 1078 still stands to this day. the National Gallery of British Art was created to house the nineteenth century collection of Sir Henry Tate. For the new Parliament. The royal palace became a parliament in 1512 and was all-but destroyed by fire in 1834. Westminster Bridge Battling against the powerful established interests of the London ferrymen. the colour of the Lords’ benches. with Gothic detailing by Charles Barry. At either end were placed giant obelisks. The lavish interior of the Commons was destroyed by bombing in 1941. while Westminster Bridge is green – the colour of the Commons’ benches – for the same reason. this modern art collection was moved to Tate Modern in Bankside. do contain a museum dedicated to the life and works of this nursing pioneer. Thomas the Martyr. Lambeth Bridge is painted red. commencing an eleven-year project beset by European warfare. retained its collection of work by British artists. Southwark and London bridges). On the piers of this new bridge are bronze statues to represent the Arts and Sciences (the female statue ‘Architecture’ holds a model of St Paul’s Cathedral). the Tate was also constituted as the National Gallery of Modern Foreign Art. now Tate Britain.1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Alexander Binnie 1895–1906 Vauxhall Bridge The original crossing. ‘Regent Bridge’. Closed down by Henry VIII and re-opened by his son. A suspension bridge of three massive iron arches. was designed in stone by John Rennie (engineer of the Waterloo. rebuilt from 1963. Mary’s Church). the death of the bridge’s sponsor. fourteen years over schedule. A W N Pugin 1835–60 2 Sidney Smith 1897 4 Henry Currey 1871 6 Thomas Page 1853–1862 . Parliament (complete with its clock tower containing the ‘Big Ben’ bell) was finished. ferrymen sabotage. In 2000. however. by 1929 it was rusted beyond repair and a new five-span bridge of steel and reinforced concrete was completed in 1932. 5 Houses of Parliament Palace of Westminster The heart of English government. 3 George Humphreys 1929–1932 Lambeth Bridge Approached from the north by Horseferry Road. Edward VI. The new grounds are also decorated with the original hospital’s statues: Edward VI and its seventeenthcentury benefactor. but the Lords was spared and Parliament was rebuilt. a small earthquake and the Thames freezing over. the design is ‘Italianate-hygienic’ allowing sunlight and fresh air to reach each of the seven pavilions. The bridge foundations were laid in 1739. Thomas’ Hospital & Florence Nightingale Museum Lambeth Palace Road Opening in 1106 as the Priory of St. St. Work began on a replacement in 1853: a seven-arch wrought-iron bridge. Charles Barry. the proprietors switched to a cheaper iron design by James Walker. In 1813. the hospital was moved to its present location in 1871. in 1173 it was rededicated to St. two architects were commissioned: Barry for the general arrangements. campaigners for a new bridge were finally permitted a public lottery to raise funds for their ‘Bridge of Fools’. Bequeathed a number of modern paintings in 1917. 700% over budget and minus two architects (Pugin died from nervous exhaustion in 1852 and Barry succumbed to the strain in 1860). Bombed during the Second World War. Even when the bridge finally opened. while the existing gallery. completed by 1816 and replaced ninety years later with a five-arch steel construction. Tate Britain Millbank Built on the site of the massive Millbank Prison. By 1860. this point in the river was once serviced by London’s ferrymen before the construction of Lambeth Bridge. Adjoining Parliament. Constantly extended and expanded throughout the twentieth century (it has recently been upgraded for its Centenary Development). Samuel Clayton. Influenced by Florence Nightingale. and Pugin for the Gothic detailing (including an encircling Latin inscription of the Lord’s Prayer to keep out evil). though the new buildings. the overall appearance of the gallery is a surprisingly unified one. it tended to sway on its foundations and was never fully trusted.

In 2001 a £60 million programme was commenced to renovate and upgrade the capabilities of the ‘People’s Place’. Portland Stone facings and a green roof of weatherexposed copper. engineering and design. match ‘em and dispatch ‘em” department) and is still partially filled with state bureaucracy. In 2000 a £50 million project was started to create two new foot bridges to replace the single dilapidated footbridge. It took twenty-five years to complete (outlasting its architect. the Main Building is a six-storey. Hungerford Bridge 10 Royal Festival Hall Belvedere Road The only permanent legacy of the 1951 Festival Of Britain and the first post-war building to receive a Grade 1 listing. the London Aquarium and two hotels. Before the embankment was reclaimed from the Thames. symmetrical construction. Until 1973. the structure will open up new upstream views over the Palace of Westminster. marriage and death (the “hatch ‘em. while the new bridge of trussed iron girders (steel from 1982) is the only London crossing to combine foot and rail. Running along both banks of the river. insulated from the sound of the nearby railway. the auditorium is built high on the upper floors. each lampstandard alternately bears on its base the initials of the monarch or the date of its creation. while beneath are galleries. who died in 1929). From that height.7 8 9 10 11 11 The Sturgeon Lampstandards George Vulliamy 1870 8 British Airways London Eye Jubilee Gardens Already an established landmark that attracts millions. was abolished in 1986. the building was responsible for recording every birth. As well as delivering a new visual landmark for London. A 1965 redevelopment scheme defines much of the Festival Hall’s outward appearance: a re-cased Portland Stone exterior. Leslie Martin 1948–51 7 Ralph Knott 1911–1933 9 Isambard Kingdom Brunel 1845 11 Originally a suspension footbridge. These cast iron Victorian lamp posts with their globe-like lanterns and encircling sea creatures were created for the illumination and decoration of the Albert Embankment. the great river arches still present at ground level. the Royal Festival Hall is a ‘Modernist’ building of glazed screens. the Hungerford Bridge (named after the north bank market) was bought in 1859 to extend a railway line to the new Charing Cross station. The sections of this 2. shops. William Chambers 1776–86 . Somerset House Victoria Embankment Once the site of the Earl of Somerset’s Renaissance palace. South and Island Blocks added thereafter (the last in 1974). the inspiration for the London Eye came from: “The perfect symmetry of a circle which – from a distance – seems to be transparent. Marks Barfield 2000 Robert Matthew.100 tonne construction were transported down the Thames and raised a massive 135 metres high. and performance areas.000 passengers a day. Somerset House was London’s first purpose-built government office block. The old suspension elements were removed and used in Bristol’s Clifton Bridge. the 800ft riverside frontage was accessible by boat. can view up to 25 miles over the city and beyond. County Hall Belvedere Road Home for the London County Council. becoming newer as you walk east. embodies the passages of time. The capital’s government. while the remainder now houses heritage treasures and fine art: the Courtauld Institute. 15. despite its grand and Classical style. an extended river frontage.” An integration of architecture. known as the Greater London Council from 1965. the Hermitage Rooms and the Gilbert Collection. travelling in the 32 glass observation pods. the creation of the London Eye was a project that brought together engineers from all over Europe on a British design. from Vauxhall Bridge to Tower Bridge. in the ‘Edwardian baroque’ style. Inside. with North. and a new riverside entrance. County Hall now houses Dali Universe. faced with Portland Stone.

after more than a century of planning and fourteen years in the Old Vic. box office. The Tate Gallery acquired the option on the site and. In the 1970’s a developer proposed to demolish the building (now derelict) and build a skyscraper development. Olivier. Paul’s Station changed its name to Blackfriars Station in 1937. forming the Coin Street Community Builders to restore and regenerate the area. Paul’s Railway Bridge. and Cottesloe. it was rebuilt with five cast-iron arches on granite piers. this granite construction was bought by the government. When St. adding retail units. it is still in use today by Thameslink train.12 13 14 15 16 17 12 Giles Gilbert Scott 1937–45 Waterloo Bridge Intended as the Strand Bridge. Chatham and Dover Railway’. the Railway Bridge did likewise. Designed to circumvent strict laws about exterior advertising. For illumination. exhibition space. by 1923 the bridge was deemed beyond repair and closed permanently. With few men available for construction work. resting on piers of Greek columns that (the designs are depicted on the walls of the southern underpass). flooding the upper floors with natural light and housing a café that gazes across the river. The Company also built a tower to bear the illuminated name of their product. the National Theatre company moved into the three theatres of their new building: Lyttelton. Lasdun’s ‘Modernist’ design of reinforced concrete and horizontal lines. Cubitt 1860–69 6 . re-named ‘Waterloo Bridge’ (after Wellington’s recent victory) and opened in 1817. the Wharf was acquired in the 1920’s by a Meat Extract Company. has become a landmark of the South Bank. A W Moore 1928 Lifschutz Davidson 1995 17 13 Giles Gilbert Scott 1947–63 Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron 1995–2000 Denys Lasdun 1969–1976 Stanton Williams 1997–2000 15 J. and a new exterior performance space added: ‘Theatre Square’. One of their tasks was to refurbish the Wharf. labour shortage and V2 rockets notwithstanding. which operated from 1952 until rising oil prices caused its closure in 1981. named after the Station on the north bank. preparation and conversion to transform the building into the new home for its collection of modern art. The second crossing was once St. most of the work was done with female labour and ‘The Ladies Bridge’ was complete by 1945. in 1995. Tate Modern Bankside Tate Modern is now one of the most successful and popular art galleries in the world. a monolithic steel construction of four million bricks and a 325ft chimney. Work for a replacement was delayed almost immediately the outbreak of World War II. The bridge itself had nine elliptical arches of Portland stone. 14 Oxo Tower Wharf Upper Ground Built as a power station. whose great riverside cranes could load directly from Thames barges into the factory. The building was originally Bankside Power Station. restaurants and housing. Royal National Theatre Upper Ground In 1976. Made of wrought-iron. began a process of demolition. Falling into neglect. provoking the local community to protest and eventually prevail. Dominican Monks that had settled in London in 1279. all that remains of the original Blackfriars Railway Bridge are the piers of Romanesque columns and the company insignia on the South Bank: ‘London. Blackfriars Bridge Opening in 1769 as William Pitt Bridge (after the Tory Prime Minister). the unpopular title was soon changed and named after the Black Friars. 16 Western Bridge: Joseph Cubitt & F T Turner 1862–1864 Eastern Bridge: John Wolfe Barry & H M Brunel 1884–1886 Blackfriars Rail Bridges Too weak to support modern trains. the letters that spelt out ‘OXO’ were in fact shapes on stained glass windows. In 1997 work began to develop and renovate the National Theatre’s main entrance. bookshop and foyer performance areas. with a skyline augmented by the massive Olivier and Lyttelton fly-towers. the ‘lightbeam’ was constructed: a two-storey glass roof structure placed on top of the power station. Badly deteriorated a century later. though work still continued. the backstage equipment was upgraded.

Arup 2000–01 Jon Greenfield 1997 22 John Hankshaw 1863–66 19 Christopher Wren 1675–1711 Southwark Underpass: Artist: Richard Kindersley Delivered by Groundwork for CRP 23 William Pont de l’Arche & William Dauncey 1106 . using an innovative and complex structure to achieve a simple form: a shallow suspension bridge that spans the river as an ‘elegant blade’. especially during the summer. drink and revelry continued during the coldest winters until the new London Bridge (with its larger spans) was constructed in 1814. Paul’s Cathedral Ludgate Hill The first church on this site (604 AD) was replaced in 1087 by St. It was widened in 1886-93. designed the bridge to be streamlined. a Gothic cathedral which was obliterated by the Great Fire in 1666. the first church to be built was St. the Millennium Bridge is a combination of art. Ernest George 1912–1922 Southwark Bridge Crossing a very narrow point on the Thames. these festivals of food. is second only in size to St. wife of the future Edward VII. the church was extensively repaired before being confiscated by Henry VIII. the solution was an impressive feat of engineering: an iron bridge of only three spans. constructed from 50. Anthony Caro. the Great War delayed work on the five-span replacement for a decade. Cannon Street Bridge was a five-span construction of shallow plate girders on Greek-style fluted cast-iron piers. the replacement was demolished by the Puritans in 1642 and the site remained empty for the next three centuries. 20 Shakespeare’s Globe Bankside The original Tudor playhouse was financed by a consortium that included William Shakespeare and was the venue of many of his theatrical works. pagan shrine and Saxon monastarium. Southwark Cathedral Borough High Street Already the site of a Roman Villa. built as close as possible to the original site and using contemporary craftsmen’s techniques (including the first thatched roof London has seen since the Great Fire.18 19 20 20 21 23 18 Millennium Bridge Bankside The first completely new pedestrian bridge to be built over the Thames for a hundred years. The three main contributors: engineer. As the bridge opened. Despite the compromise. That lately Ships of mighty Burthen bore The Watermen for want of Rowing Boats Make use of Booths to get their Pence and Groats” ANON 21 Basil Mott. and strengthened in 1981. design and technology. In disrepair by the twentieth century. in 1614 the parishioners pooled their resources and bought the church (now called St. Paul’s. St. Re-named after its north bank railway station. architect and sculptor. American director Sam Wanamaker began the project to create an accurate. Beginning in 1564. Firedamaged in 1212. Work began on the 36-year process of rebuilding in 1675 by young architect Christopher Wren. Used as a heresy court for Mary I and a swineyard in Elizabeth I’s reign. To reduce obstruction. though first proposal was rejected (the original model can be viewed inside) and a second design had to be agreed with the conservative clergy. “Behold the Liquid Thames frozen o’re. Saviour’s) from James I.000 tons of Portland Stone and rising 360ft. This was possible as the numerous arches of the original stone London Bridge slowed the river enough to allow it to freeze over. an unexpected ‘wobble’ was discovered in the structure and the bridge was closed to install a ‘passive dampening solution’. this rail crossing was named after Alexandra of Denmark. Peter’s in Rome. Burnt down in 1613. the Cathedral dominates the north view of the Thames. two of 210ft and a massive central span of 240ft. The new 7 Foster and Partners. when it is floodlit. functioning reconstruction of the Globe. when much of its decoration was removed. Cannon Street Railway Bridge Built as Alexandra Bridge. Having miraculously survived the devastation of the Blitz (in which a third of the Square Mile was destroyed). the largest ever achieved in cast-iron. albeit with a sprinkler system). Wren’s creation is spectacular and the massive dome. Mary Overie (meaning ‘over the river’) in 1106. there were fears that the arches of Southwark Bridge would impede river traffic. and again in 1390’s. The Frost Fairs Underneath the southern end of Southwark Bridge are slate etchings of the famous ‘Frost Fairs’: winter events actually held on the iced-over Thames.

Billingsgate Market Lower Thames Street (former) Henry Roberts 1831–34 H S Goodhart-Rendel 1931–32 London Bridge The first recorded Thames crossing was built by Romans in the first century AD. take the steps leading down labelled ‘Thames Path West’ – this will in fact enable you to head east along the riverside. Viking King. 1272. the arcade is set between flanking pavilions and illuminated by semi-circular windows. After a thousand years of restoration and rebuilding.24 3 25 26 27 4 28 nineteenth century London Bridge approach road threatened the building but by sacrificing some of its smaller chapels. Billingsgate was expanded and rebuilt until its present-day incarnation. Below. stone by stone. a graceful five-arched design from John Rennie (who died in 1921). Rebuilt entirely from 1832-35 as an impressive Greek Revival building. Olave's House & Hay's Wharf Tooley Street Once a nineteenth century warehouse that unloaded the foodstuffs of the Empire straight from the Thames (a loading crane still decorates the building). at 148 feet. For the next thousand years the wooden bridges were occasionally brought down by marauding armies (such as Queen Boudicia and King Canute). the river face is a two storey Portland Stone frontage of seven bays and six giant columns. A Frenchstyle building of yellow brick and Portland Stone. with a vast steel and glass roof covering what is now Hay’s Galleria. when the site was required for the new London Bridge approach road. built at the same time as the Wharf and closed down in 1969. Tait & Partners 1921–25 An ancient fish market on a Saxon quay. supplied from the river. Too narrow for modern traffic the bridge was replaced in 1967-72. Southwark Cathedral now contains a varied mix of architecture: from the original Norman walls to the new Millennium restoration and landscaping. is one of London’s oldest livery companies and still functions today. 28 26 Adelaide House London Bridge Approach One of the first commercial buildings in London to break away from Classical design (despite the black marble columns at the entrance). The Dock was rebuilt in 1982-86 to incorporate shops. while the exterior includes frolicking dolphins and the fish weathervanes. Inside was a massive fish market which. while the old bridge was sold to an American developer and transported. Norwegian Saint and destroyer of London Bridge in 1016. until it was rebuilt in 1823-31. offices and apartments. 24 First Stone Bridge: c. As well as innovative architecture. it also contained other features never before seen by 1920’s London: central ventilation. Note: To reach the river from London Bridge. Olave’s House. labour and commerce. The Norman Conquest prompted a massive stone bridge to be constructed: nineteen arches. Thronged with traders. an internal mail system. could move 400 tonnes of fish daily. a chapel. are five arches of a granite plinth that led from the wharf to the basement warehouses. It was this London Bridge that lasted over six centuries. Adelaide House incorporates a Chicago style with Egyptian finishes in an office block that was. On the south face is St. and the replacement lasted until the 1820’s. Further east along the river was formerly Hay’s Dock. which bears an engraving of Olaf Haraldsson. to Arizona. porters and customers. Saviour’s was saved and became a Cathedral in 1905. The building was partially converted into offices and residential accommodation from 1961 to 1981. Hay’s Wharf was converted into an Art-Deco office block. a drawbridge. Horace Jones 1874–78 John Burnet.1176 25 Fishmongers Hall London Bridge Approach The Fishmonger’s Company. and a rooftop golf course. 27 St. allowing traders to converse about prices in secret. housing rows and the occasional severed head. the tallest in London. once at river level. inspecting every fish sold in London. placed beneath a central pediment. est. Their sixteenth century livery hall was lost to the Great Fire.. The former warehouse displays its name to the river in great gold lettering. while underneath are placed three large bronze reliefs representing capital. several hundred yards east of the present London Bridge. St. inspiring the famous nursery rhyme. the market gave rise to ‘Billingsgate Backslang’. 8 .

building the White Tower in 1097 to secure his hold on the land of the Saxons. repository of the crown jewels and zoo (animals presented to the monarchs were kept here until 1834). the new home of the Greater London Authority will resemble a glass globe with no front or back. although additional construction (like the Waterloo Barracks) would occur well into the nineteenth century. may have been rushed to completion since. Custom House Lower Thames Street A consistent feature of Britain’s maritime economy. Katharine Docks. the walk passes by the Tower Hill Postern. in 1943. William’s successors added stone walls. security has traditionally rested with forty Yeoman Warders (‘Beefeaters’) and eight flightless ravens. From the Postern. a museum and monument to the Crown and the most important piece of military architecture in England. around the Tower and into St. It has also been a treasury. built by Edward I. the lower floors are open public spaces while the immediate surroundings will be developed into a landscaped piazza. 29 31 Greater London Authority Headquarters Tooley Street When completed. which leads from the riverside. and a high security prison with a guest list ranging from Anne Boleyn to Rudolph Hess. At one point. To walk around the Tower. The architect Laing was professionally ruined. an encircling moat and no fewer than twentytwo towers. also built by Edward ‘Longshanks’.S. This particular Custom House. pass through the gates marked ‘Tickets’ (no ticket is required to use the Moat Walkway) and continue heading east. The empty building was converted into a stock market.500-ton battle cruiser was completed in time for the Second World War when. Around this central citadel. and the reconstruction work was undertaken by Sir Robert Smirke: the Portland Stone façade of a six-columned Classical portico (porch). The Tower was virtually complete by the fourteenth century. This underpass is decorated with new enamelled wall panels that incorporate vibrant works of art by Stephen Whatley depicting the history and character of the Tower and the Pool of London. It was William the Conquerer who began the construction. not the City of London. the present Custom House is the fifth incarnation of a building which has stood in the vicinity for over seven hundred years. built just before its predecessor burnt down. William the Conqueror c. record office. Encircling these walls is a path on the site of the fourteenth century moat. This radical shape minimises the building’s surface area and incorporates energy efficient features such as natural ventilation. The long history of the Tower of London includes its use as: an arsenal against foreign enemies.29 30 31 32 In 1982 Billingsgate Market was moved to the Isle of Dogs. observatory. water features and trees overlooking the Thames. becoming a tourist attraction and floating naval museum. Foster and Partners 1999–2002 Tower of London Tower Hill A living record of the past thousand years. H. martyrs and monarchs. it participated in the destruction of the battleship ‘Scharnhorst’. and was rebuilt in replica in 1962-66. ending over 900 years of tradition. Belfast Morgan’s Lane This 11. a fortress against domestic ones. the Belfast moved to the Thames in 1971. Retired after service in the Korean War. the glazed screens of the arcade creating a giant trading floor. the riverside façade collapsed due to inadequate foundations. in 1825. and use of underground water for sanitation and airconditioning. was repeated in the centre. armoury. Moat Walkway Most of Tower Hill was once the Tower Liberty.1190 David Laing 1813–17 30 Royal Navy 1938 9 . the excavated remains of a medieval gate. whose departure will spell the downfall of England. an execution site for traitors. During World War II.M. projecting forward to the Thames. Allowing a high degree of public access. intended to symbolise the transparency of the democratic process. Since Edward IV. the area beyond the walls under the jurisdiction of the Tower. found on the wings of the riverside face. a palace for medieval royalty. an underpass detours from the walk to Tower Hill Tube Station. 32 Note: The western entrance of the Moat Walkway is found adjacent to the ticket booths for the Tower. royal mint. with seating. the East Wing was heavily damaged by bombing.

Shakespeare’s Globe and Pool of London Partnership.com to discover the other titles in the series: Walk This Way – South Bank From the London Eye to the Imperial War Museum Walk This Way – Golden Jubilee Bridges From Soho & Covent Garden to South Bank Walk This Way – Millennium Bridge From St Paul’s Cathedral to Bankside and Borough Walk This Way – A Young Person’s Guide A discovery of the Thames. 34 John Wolfe-Barry.southbanklondon. ‘Cardamom Building’ and ‘Cinnamon Wharf’). which is supported by the London Development Agency. museums and residential apartments. while the layered frontage and glazed screens are utilised by the first floor Blueprint Café which incorporates extensive riverside balconies.com South Bank Employers’ Group 103 Waterloo Road SE1 8UL T: 020 7202 6900 E: mail@southbanklondon. the derelict warehouses were subsequently transformed to incorporate restaurants.com 36 Design Museum Butler’s Wharf The first museum in the world to be devoted to the design of everyday. John at Thames’ (the Templar Knights who once controlled the area). This guide has been made possible thanks to funding from the Cross River Partnership. were completed in two years. retail and residential areas. Katharine Docks: one of London’s new wet docks designed to cope with the massive cargoes from Britain’s burgeoning world trade. St. when it was demolished to build St. Shad Thames was the main thoroughfare to the largest warehouse complex on the river. especially written for young people Thomas Telford 1827–28 Acknowledgements The Walk This Way series has been researched and published by South Bank Employers’ Group. From their completion in 1873. Katharine’s Way The twelfth century priory ‘The Royal Foundation of St. Tate Modern. Katharine Docks St. Waterloo and Blackfriars with a commitment to improving the experience of the area for visitors. Horace Jones 1881–1894 Conran Roche 1989 Photography: Peter Durant/ arcblue. fruit. please see www. From 1969 an ongoing redevelopment scheme has transformed the derelict spaces into new commercial. massproduced. The white painted walls are prominent among the other former warehouses of Butler’s Wharf. Closed in 1972. The Gothic detailing of the bridge was required to suit the neighbouring Tower. these Victorian warehouses unloaded and stored vast quantities of goods from around the world: tea.com Graphic design: Mannion Design Map design: ML Design 10 . the two basins (East Dock and West Dock). a partnership of the major organisations in South Bank. wines and spices (indicated by names such as ‘Spice Quay’. Suffering extensive damage during the Blitz. effectively individual suspension bridges. Tate Britain. even as late as 1930. Despite the enormity of the task. 35 Shad Thames Butlers Wharf A corruption of ‘St. was considered “the world’s greatest concentration of portable wealth”. More Walking Guides If you have enjoyed this guide then please visit www. is a pedestrian walkway and approaching the towers from each river bank are the ‘side-spans’. coffee. Marvels of Victorian engineering. High above the bridge. employees and residents.southbanklondon.33 34 34 36 33 St. Proving very successful. Tower Bridge One of the lowest crossings over the Thames. Katharine’s often stored high-value goods (as the names Ivory House and Marble Quay indicate) and. spanning the towers. entrance lock and giant keyside warehouses. For further information about Walk This Way or the South Bank. The building is itself a clever achievement in design: an extensive restoration of a 1950’s red-brick warehouse that appears to be a stuccoed 1930’s building. Katharine’ endured until 1827. the steam-driven hydraulic machinery of these bascules is still on display after the 1976 conversion to electricity. the surviving warehouses continued to operate until 1968. consumer goods. The distinctive iron walkways used to move goods between the river and warehouses were retained and are still visible today. South Bank Employers’ Group. the requirement to allow 135ft of shipping headroom resulted in the design of twin lifting sections (‘bascules’).

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