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WRITTEN CASE DISCUSSION GUIDES
Cases can be an asset in teaching marketing research methods as they involve the student in the decision making and analysis processes. High levels of student involvement are positively correlated with student learning and concept retention. • Some instructors prepare for case discussion by developing detailed answers for case questions. In this section, we have provided you with answers to the questions that conclude each case. • Other instructors prefer to prepare lists of questions rather than answers, with the order of the questions designed to build the student's understanding of the complex issues revealed by the case. As the students answer the questions the class delves more deeply into text concepts. • Still other instructors prepare anticipated student answers and plan the tangents to which those answers will lead. Lecture material is planned for the tangents. One guideline has served case users well: be prepared to take advantage of student learning opportunities to which an unexpected student answer may quite naturally lead.
Case: AgriComp Abstract: AgriComp, a supplier of computer systems for farmers, has surveyed it dealers on whether to change its procedure for settling warranty claim disputes. Currently local dealers handle warranty services for customers via local repair followed by a reimbursement claim to Agri Comp. Denied claims follow an internal company appeal process. Dealers have been complaining about the fairness of the appeal process and in a recent survey were asked to respond to an alternative process, an impartial mediator. The student is asked to review survey results and determine whether the costly external mediator process would be worth implementing to keep the dealers happy. This case offers a chance for students to deal with the data before it's crosstabulated. Nothing very fancy is required, but the students will need to recognize that a crosstabulation is in order (or at the very least that some separate tabulations are needed). The dealer preferences are different for those who have used the existing appeals process than for those who haven't. The more they've used the process, the less they perceive a need for change. If the data are tabulated in the aggregate, this trend is not apparent.
1. Jody wonders just how important the process is to the dealers? Was there widespread discontent or had he just heard from a few malcontents at the dealers' meeting?
You can start with a question like "How do the dealers feel?" and follow it up with "Do all of the dealers feel that way?" This will normally bring out a cross tabulation or something like the series of MINITAB dotplots given below. Then you should turn the discussion to how best to summarize or display the conclusions. Either some sort of crosstabulation (using appropriate percentages instead of counts) or plots like those below will work. The main point is to be sure students don't simply declare a "significant" lack of independence and let it go at that. They
Written and Video Cases
should have to say something about what kind of dependence they find, not just assert the absence of independence. The more the dealers have used the existing appeals process, the less they agree with the statement that it should be replaced, so it appears that Jody was hearing from some malcontents. The cross-tabulation of responses by number of uses is given on the next page. The corresponding chi-squared is 82.16 on 12 degrees of freedom, so something is clearly going on. Students may offer a variety of summaries of just what is going on, and you should prompt them for such summaries if all they offer is chi-squared. The general trend is illustrated by such diagrams as the dotplots given on the page following the crosstabulation.
Crosstabulation (count) of REP by USE REP 1 2 3 4 5 USE 0 1 2 3 +------+------+------+------+ | 12 | 12 | 4 | 6 |34 +------+------+------+------+ | 6 | 27 | 18 | 12 |63 +------+------+------+------+ | 8 | 18 | 16 | 18 |60 +------+------+------+------+ | 4 | 9 | 8 | 52 |73 +------+------+------+------+ | 1 | 12 | 12 | 37 |62 +------+------+------+------+ 31 78 58 125 292 USE (percent) 0 1 2 3 +------+------+------+------+ | 38.7 | 15.3 | 6.9 | 4.8 |34 +------+------+------+------+ | 19.4 | 34.6 | 31.0 | 9.6 |63 +------+------+------+------+ | 25.8 | 23.1 | 27.6 | 14.4 |60 +------+------+------+------+ | 12.9 | 11.5 | 13.8 | 41.6 |73 +------+------+------+------+ | 3.2 | 15.5 | 20.7 | 29.6 |62 +------+------+------+------+ 31 78 58 125 292 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
REP 1 2 3 4 5
11.6% 21.6% 20.5% 25.0% 21.2%
Written and Video Cases
Dotplot of REP by USE
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USE 3 (Each dot represents 3 points) . : : : : : : 5
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Written and Video Cases
Case: BBQ Products Cross Over the Lines of Varied Tastes
Abstract: This case asks students to assess measurement and scaling issues in the context of the introduction of a frozen, microwaveable BBQ product line into the southeast by Rich Products, Buffalo, NY. The new line is being introduced with commercials depicting Ruby, a fictitious waitress at Pork-O-Rama who prefers the taste of the new frozen line. This case deals with measurement and scaling issues. The student must select a method to measure attitudes toward the product category and the specific brand. In addition, the student must decide on a measurement method to measure preference among a number of brands in the product category. Student may attack issues such as validity and reliability of the measures. 1. What measurement and scaling issues should be considered when developing a study to measure consumers’ attitudes toward barbecue in general and specifically Rich Products Barbeque? Chapter 14 presents difference methods for measuring attitudes. The student should select a method and defend why they chose that method. Their defense should rest on the issues of validity and reliability. Some additional issues that may be addressed are: A. How will the marketing managers use the attitude measures? If they simply want to determine the overall attitude toward Rich’s barbecues then different approaches are available. However, if they are interested in developing advertising copy, employing segmentation, or altering the product, then the measurement device must collect information on the salient attributes. In essence, the student must decide whether they want to collect formative or reflective indicators of the attitude. B. A fundamental issue for the collection of attitudes for Rich’s product is consumer awareness of the brand. The brand is new; consequently, will people have an attitude toward it? Will the company need to develop concept storyboards, allow consumers to try the product, etc.? C. Another issue is the target market. It would appear that some consumers will have well developed attitudes toward barbecue, but others will not. The question is: Can the same instrument or measurement device be used for both types of consumers? 2. Assume Rich’s wanted to test people’s preferences for their barbecue versus the other leading brands (of which there are five). What would you recommend to measure these preferences? A. The first choice the student will have to make is whether to use a comparative or noncomparative methods. Comparative scaling results in data that must be interpreted in relative terms and has ordinal data properties. An attractive feature of comparative scaling is that relatively small differences among objects being compared can be detected. It must be remembered that the respondent is instructed to directly compare objects; consequently, differences are forced to surface. Comparative scales are, in general, easily understood by respondents but can become time consuming as the number of objects to rate increases – leading to respondent fatigue.
you can discuss sample frames. you could discuss preliminary analysis planning. your students can build the research process model up through data collection. especially on ease of use. Used with Chapter 8. Users Forum. Once students have discussed these issues they should choose a particular method and defend their choice. you could discuss what to do with the 16% of the sample that felt ill-equipped to answer the issue questions and what preliminary analysis would be appropriate to answer the management questions. given the attendance expected (written materials? whole session devoted to the issue?)? Research questions: What issues cause the most concern among the current users of the TeleCenter System software? How many current users see attendance at Users Forum as a viable means to address troublesome issues. if anyone. Used with Chapter 14. you can discuss the appropriate communication methods. technical support access and responsiveness? Investigative questions: What is the current users' evaluation of customer service. as well as various methods for drawing a sample from a sample frame (customer list). nor how many people to expect at the Opryland Hotel event. Used with Chapter 18. you can discuss the types of data being collected as well as reliability and validity issues. 1. Hence. C. Used with Chapter 11. Used with Chapter 15. Case: Calling Up Attendance Abstract: A study by Prince Marketing for TCS Management Group. from a current user's company will attend the Users Forum? Do new users of the software have different concerns than more established users? How many representatives from a single company may come to the Users Forum? What type of respondent (user or manager) is most likely to attend the Forum? Do the different types of respondents have different concerns with TeleCenter System software? 83 . Used with Chapters 4 and 5. Used with Chapter 16 and 17. and effectiveness of software for its intended purpose? Who. you can build the management-research question hierarchy. technical support service. measures customer satisfaction with the current edition of the software and aims to predict attendance at a two-day educational event. The management dilemma facing TCS is how to prepare for the scheduled Users Forum when it doesn't know what specific presentations to build into the program. This case has numerous tie-ins to various chapters. and screening for qualified respondents. small differences among objects may not surface. • • • Management questions: What topics should be addressed in the presentations or materials distributed at the Users Forum? How should solutions be delivered. which markets TeleCenter System software. software-generated reports. This question gets the student in the habit of formulating the management-research question hierarchy (Chapter 4) as the beginning step of a research project. With noncomparative scaling the respondent is not instructed to compare the object being rated against either another object or some specified standard. you could discuss why a rating scale is appropriate to evaluate customer service and likely attendance. such as ease of use. The advanced student may want to discuss other potential analysis for the data such as multidimensional scaling approaches.Written and Video Cases B. Used with Chapter 13.
Hopefully we can cross-tabulate this information against classification variables such as industry of the firm and years of software use that would be readily available from the customer database the TCS provided to Prince Marketing. their likely attendance could still be important to the prediction of attendees overall. gives the telephone interviewer the ability to enter the responses in process. If some of these new users did identify software installation. TCS would want to frequencies on the attitudinal-scale variables. one must exclude personal interviewing as a collection method. And we would want to cross-tabulate such variables by whether the respondent definitely would be. but we know that Prince Marketing collected information relative to investigative questions using a 7point rating scale. 3.Written and Video Cases • Measurement questions: We don't have the actual instrument. might be. as well as their interest in more information about attending the Users Forum. The obvious choice. you could cross-tabulate a status variable (new user vs. or definitely would not be in attendance at the Users Forum. but also because of the limited number of data variables they were collecting. They could choose any of the three methods (human. so we would want frequencies on the attendance variable. Given the technical skills of the respondents. however. CATI. 2.You could also tie this question back to Chapter 7 and the subject's right to privacy. would likely not be included (counted as missing cases) in the analysis of this issue. Because TCS needs the information is a relatively short amount of time. technical support. the new users who felt ill-equipped to evaluate the software ease of use question (16% of the sample). In data analysis. if TCS had e-mail addresses or Prince felt the response timeframe would be met. such a combination use of the survey is totally inappropriate and contributes to 84 . We also want to be able to predict attendance. Frequencies (or cross-tabulated frequencies) would tell us the most pressing issues. possibly making them available to TCS in real time. CATI. although it can be a two-edged sword. so they could prepare for presentations without waiting for the formal estimate of attendance. permitting Prince to tally the results more quickly. We also know they were able to classify the respondent as a software user or call center manager. 5. as indicated by Exhibit 11-1. From a professional researcher's perspective. From a marketer's perspective. You can use this question to discuss the practice of sugging (sales under the guise of research). selfadministered via computer was a possibility. you have a potential attendee on the phone and you could efficiently use his or her time by telling them about the Users Forum. 4. or use concerns. or computer-delivered). Prince Marketing chose a phone interview because of the ability to control the process and meet their three-week promise. However. Such data exploration actions may very well lead to Users Forum sessions exclusively designed for new users. The issue of incorporating marketing promotion within the context of customer satisfaction research is commonly done. is the telephone interview. The request for a preliminary analysis plan relates well to Exhibits 15-2 (and 15-1) and would be fairly simple for this study. assuming Prince has done a good job of anticipating issues in the design of the data collection instrument or was able to transform the data during data preparation into homogenous groups of responses on issues. established user) against the various issues variables. where "7" was the most positive on the scale. but human-administered definitely gives Prince and TCS the most control.
While they wouldn’t have wanted to craft a creative strategy based solely on secondary data.com. Case: Campbell-Ewald Pumps Awareness into the American Heart Association Abstract: You wouldn’t think that an organization that does as much good as the American Heart Association would have low awareness. 2. This case profiles the research behind the American Heart Association’s first-ever paid advertising campaign. • Individuals that see/hear the ad and understand the message may not have access to a computer. www. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using secondary data in this particular case? The primary reason Campbell-Ewald (C-E) used secondary data during their preparation of the AHA’s pitch for the advertising account was to gain a better understanding of the organization and of heart disease.Written and Video Cases the growing refusal rate among potential respondents. It was the interview of John 85 .org) You might find it useful to use this discussion question as a class exercise. but at the start of the described research program its unaided awareness level was just 16 percent. (http://www. as well as understand what motivated giving to a non-profit organization. • Arguments for using involvement with the online quiz as a means of ad tracking might include: • That getting audience members to the Web site was clearly an important action objective of the ad. Take a position on the tracking of individuals taking the quiz as a measure of direct response of the ad’s effectiveness. • Engaging visitors by involving them in the taking of a quiz is more likely to reveal their understanding of the underlying message of the ad campaign. defend your position. effective use of secondary data collected during exploration is actually expected in marketing research. You can divide your class into pro/con teams and have each come up with the arguments for that position. take the Learn and Live quiz.americanheart. • Arguments for not using involvement with the online quiz as a means of ad tracking might include: • That many individuals that see/hear and understand the message may not be encouraged to visit the Web site…so the communication objective may be met while the action objective may not. www. Such a change in orientation and purpose is a violation of the subject's right to privacy. Since computer access was not a variable in choosing the media for the campaign to exclude this portion of the relevant population when tracking ad results creates error.campbellewald.org 1. If research is accompanied by a sales presentation. they quickly discovered the scope of the potential problem facing AHA. Also. potential respondents have the right to be angry when they agreed to participate only in a survey.americanheart. For a company reliant on contributions. Using secondary data shortened the time they would spend on research. low awareness is a major problem. After watching the ads on your text DVD.
Diagnostic Research was hired to pretest the various creative approaches that evolved from the focus group discussions. Discuss the role of Diagnostic Research in the American Heart Association’s selection of the personal stories creative approach. 3. Rather. It was the qualitative research. • Discuss whether the appropriate sample should have been weighted more toward females than males. Explain why both qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to develop the personal stories campaign? The use of more than one research technique in building an advertising campaign is fairly common in marketing research. research provides the undecided manager with evidence to sway his judgment in one direction or another. however. heart-disease stories that gave C-E their strategic approach to the problem of raising AHA awareness and that. 86 . The DR methodology indicated that all three creative approaches tested would generate appropriate brand recall and message capture. Interviews that followed measured brand recall and the main idea that the audience got from the ad. You might want to discuss whether the mall setting was conducive to either the viewing of the animatic or whether patrons of malls represent an appropriate group from which to draw a sample.Written and Video Cases Paling (primary data) about how people perceived risk. or it substantiates a direction in which the decision-maker might be leaning. If DR has facilities in the mall. the interview with John Paling. The AHA animatic was positioned within a pod of animatics for other products and services. that gave them the insight to develop the approach that won C-E the AHA business. as many such firms do. That meant the C-E might need additional research to correctly select the best creative approach or they would need to use their vast experience to recommend the better approach for AHA to take at this particular time in AHA history. Depending on how much you wish to discuss advertising. DR showed the animatic prepared by C-E to a sample of 1000 adults in a mall setting. first the interview with John Paling that gave C-E its understanding of personal risk. other discussion opportunities include: • Discuss how students would test which of the personal stories ads was most effective. similar to the way the audience would see the real AHA commercial. provided the winning campaign creative approach. compared with other promotional methods. 4. • Discuss what research could be used to determine whether an ad campaign would be more effective in raising awareness and understanding of the AHA. The quantitative data derived from previous AHA surveys and from the DR animatic testing allowed C-E to quantify the risk of each campaign. as well as the focus groups that put a face to real. ultimately. and the secondary data search. then the group from which it draws its sample might suffer from over-testing and thus inject error into the process. This is good time to mention that even great research doesn’t make the decision for the manager.
The construct of respect though similar in various theories. Advise students that operational definitions often serve the same purpose for researchers. remain professional when faced with unpleasant circumstances. onboard services. assumes variations when operationally defined in the research literature and when viewed from the perspective of these three client sectors. Here are some student definitions of respect after reading the case: • Insurance: tailor products for specific customer needs. show concern for safety and on-time schedules. a person should be able to measure or conceptualize the construct. Both terms are inherently similar yet the construct has specificity necessary for measurement and replication of a study. Constructs are not easily observable. listen to customers’ specific needs and match your product accordingly. The nature of this question gets students into the habit of identifying the different types of designs and the steps involved when conducting research. You will find that through brainstorming. provide contractually correct compensation in a timely fashion. measurement scales are essential to further specify meanings. show concern for unfortunate mishaps. steadfast in its success through customer satisfaction principles. The important thing for students to grasp is that through operational definitions. and retail. This question is fitting for discussions concerning concepts and constructs. given the specific purpose of the research. as common jargon does for narrow language groups.Written and Video Cases Case: Campbell-Ewald: R-E-S-P-E-C-T Spells Loyalty Abstract: The case describes a detailed study conducted by Campbell-Ewald. when determining. • Air Travel: strive to meet expectations in check-in. created for the express purpose of testing. boarding. It prepares students to identify the similarities and differences involved with the use of both scientific terms (Chapter 3) and how dictionary meanings differ from those used in testing. 1. air travel. among other things. When such constructs are used in pure research. debarking. • Retail: maintain a polite and cordial demeanor when dealing with the public. establishes through its research that the construct of respect is held in high regard by customers and therefore plays a significant role. This agency. 2. and luggage handling. and generally more complex. the longevity of client relationships. regardless of who is at fault. who sought to substantiate the importance of “respect” when dealing with customers in different business related sectors. provide appropriate reimbursements or compensation to customers when necessary. It allows students to become more familiar with the various methodologies utilized and is an opportune time to explore data 87 . refraining from unethical and dishonest conduct. Thus it is difficult to find agreement among students in this definition during a discussion. The term respect as used in conversation has more individualized experiences attached to it and is idiosyncratic to individual speakers. Map the overall design of the research described here. maintain the individual’s right to privacy when dealing with client information. How would you operationally define the construct of respect? Take the perspective of each of the three client sectors: insurance. students may indicate that the definitions overlap and they may point out difficulties while trying to “operationally” define them.
which further validated their conclusion that “respect truly matters. the focus groups included men and women from both Chicago and Detroit. The Campbell-Ewald clients in the three sectors did not have specific relationship management issues they were researching when they signed on as part of the respect research initiative. However.Written and Video Cases collection techniques and the constraints researchers sometimes encounter when utilizing such techniques. As such. which explores data collection methods. Here you can discuss the implications involved with using an omnibus study and how the process of asking a few questions to a national probability study can prove helpful to a researcher. • The first step involved Campbell-Ewald’s exploratory attempts to discover the reasons for the disconnect between respect bonds and its customers. Campbell-Ewald first utilized Synovate’s omnibus Telenation (nationally representative telephone survey) to ascertain whether the public viewed respect as an issue when they dealt with companies. Among the reasons for CampbellEwald interest was the apparent connection between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty and purchase behavior. This data was used to justify Campbell-Ewald’s belief that respect was a salient issue to customers. four each in the above named sectors. airline and retail) Synovate utilized a sample of 12 focus groups. To better allow for a representative sample. o This is an opportunity to ask students what other exploratory avenues that Campbell-Ewald might have pursued. Campbell-Ewald discovered firms were accustomed to using Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software. Campbell-Ewald’s decision to explore this data may have yielded significant findings. The focus groups were used fairly traditionally in this case to see a more detailed quantitative study. To establish the varying perspectives of respect concerning the different sectors (insurance.” You can ask students their view of how credible the use of an omnibus study data is and why. This stage explored the scope of the research question and seeded the subsequent 4-page questionnaire. which discusses design strategies as well as 11. this question is quite applicable to Chapter 8. o This is also an opportunity to discuss the difference between pure and applied research. The second stage of the researchdata collectionrevealed the use of two levels of primary data. Phil and Steven Covey. relationship experts such as Dr. as a mechanism for tracking satisfaction behavior among customers. Through partnership with Synovate. Feedback from the focus groups was used to design measurement questions for the mail survey sent to Campbell-Ewald’s clients’ customer lists from each sector. • • 88 . and information garnered from existing literature on the dynamics of people relationships. This stage also tapped into feedback from Gartner Group and Accenture. research revealed that investment in technology and software to model likely behavior was not achieving its desired goal. This is an apt time to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using focus groups. Considering the sample used—four each in three sectors—raises questions about accuracy and representative results from two market areas.
They were interested in discovering how customers viewed the issue of respect when dealing with companies. 89 . To build on this.Written and Video Cases • The final data collection phase of the research was a national probability mail survey conducted by Synovate. You can also discuss the characteristics of these studies and the purposes each serve in research. What types of studies were involved in Campbell-Ewald’s respect initiative? There were three study types involved in Campbell-Ewald’s respect initiative. Campbell-Ewald utilized data from Synovate’s Telenation telephone survey. Phil and Steven Covey. • Explanatory study. retail and government) Campbell-Ewald sought to discover. A. which served as a preliminary step in the large quantitative study which followed. namely its “proprietary brand propensity model” called “The Momentum Engine” aided in providing more detailed information in analyzing relationships with sales growth. and information from other existing literature). You can use this time to ask students how they would relate the case to other types of studies. travel. and focus groups to help refine attitudinal statements to be used in later quantitative research. therefore its sample size. It’s sophisticated analytical techniques. Campbell-Ewald desired a more comprehensive feedback. One possible discussion question is: Why did CampbellEwald choose NOT to use the Synovate panel to increase the response rate to the survey." This effort aided in the creation of its five "People Principles. [Campbell-Ewald feared it wouldn’t be representative of the three sectors. which included customers in different sectors (insurance. Campbell-Ewald used secondary data searches to define the construct (including studies published by Gartner Group and Accenture. how respect was viewed in each sector. books by authors such as Dr. you can ask the students to indicate its strengths and weaknesses. The twelve focus groups study completed the exploratory phase of the research and segued into the survey. Here Campbell-Ewald’s research team attempted to isolate the components of respect and examine its relationship to satisfaction and loyalty. With only a small response rate (less than 9%) could Campbell-Ewald have concluded that respect matters to only a small portion of the relevant population and the remainder simply didn’t care? Generally this is a good time to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of mail surveys. • Exploratory study. They aimed to ascertain what caused customers to remain loyal to businesses and in so doing "identify the tenets of strong personal relationships. Given the outlines of each study. which was a significant source in the data collection process." With its extensive clientele. Given its varying client list. • Descriptive Study.] Another might relate to the non-response error inherent in a mail study and how it is handled. based on their five principles. CampbellEwald capitalized on Synovate’s experience in conducting large scale mail surveys.
further reducing their likelihood of response. Continental) in a category rather than all other firms in the sector is really not problematic. Focus Groups: The use of focus groups as a way of developing measurement questions that would clarify the core motivational drivers in categories being studied was a useful way of defining the parameters of respect. participants may be more likely to participate in the survey when they are familiar with the organization or feel some sense of loyalty to it. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the various methodologies? This question is applicable to Parts 2 and 3 of the text where the methods of primary data collection are presented. having the measurement questions apply more to one firm (e. By disguising the survey’s sponsor participants may be less inclined to complete the survey. but steps can be taken to adjust this. disguising the name may have proven helpful. can be problematic when it comes to response rates.Written and Video Cases B. As such. Many might have been unfamiliar with Synovate. though often cost effective in research. At the same time. by sending surveys under Synovate’s letterhead could have increased or decreased response rates. The use of mainly “top customers” as the sample frame. measurement questions could be created that only define how specific “clients” may conceptualize respect and not necessarily be applicable to all member firms in a sector. You can ask the student: • What steps could Synovate take to increase response rates? • How can a researcher minimize nonresponse error? • How effective would incentives be given sample size and cost? Campbell-Ewald’s decision to disguise their clients. Five thousand surveys were distributed. Was the survey too lengthy at four pages? Did that contribute to the low response rate. as this would give respondents the opportunity to give an honest opinion of how they felt Campbell-Ewald’s clients treated them. however it is not always a guarantee that responses will be substantial. Were participants just not interested in the whole issue of respect from the companies they dealt with? The size of the dataset for each sector (200-500 cases) obscures the fact that while the data are sufficient for statistical analysis.. Some participation in any survey is dependent on participants recognizing the value they bring and on the rapport between participant and researcher. and the amount returned (5% – 9 %) opens the discussion to nonresponse bias. 90 . This is an apt time to discuss the pros and cons of using different survey methods and the challenges researchers sometimes encounter. Mail Surveys (Self Administered Surveys): The use of this methodology. Response rates for mail surveys are typically low. begs the question as to how representative that sample may be for pure research. clients being actively involved in this process of creating the measures and the subsequent development of the survey could potentially create some bias.g. representativeness is in question. or how they viewed the issue of respect. Since a communication agency rarely represents more than one firm in a category. Mail surveys are typically inexpensive. However.
Given the length of survey. the omnibus survey should have been a comfortable respite from more product/store/issue specific questions. Analyze the use of the 5-point scale for measurement of respect dimensions. To generate a discussion you can ask students how likely they are to complete open-ended questions on such surveys. C. as a result. How do the methodologies complement each other? The use of the focus groups for ideation and creating measurement questions is a useful way of getting first hand knowledge as to the type of issues that customers were most concerned about in each sector when it came to respect. Though the scale channels a response within a specific context. 91 . With the attitude statements connected to a five-point “strongly agree to strongly disagree” scale. Using feedback from the focus groups. this is an easy way to allow participants to indicate their opinion. Nonmetric scales would have presented severe data analysis problems since they lack the power to extract the information required by the research question. the omnibus can sometimes represent a bundle of questions that have little direct connection. Synovate was able to create and appropriately tailor the measurement questions that participants could relate to. in the event they neither agree or disagree. What other statements would you add to the sample provided in Exhibit C-E-1. and other multivariate analyses in an effort to identify customers with the greatest potential to drive sales growth. Campbell-Ewald’s decision to actively engage its clients in this process further enabled them to seed the survey questions. Using some open-ended questions could have been advantageous. participants responding to a complex construct such as respect may either add to measurement error by responding to statements with which they have no experience or desire to make additional written clarification.Written and Video Cases Telephone Omnibus Survey: An omnibus survey has a very short turn-around while it limits the number of questions contributed by any one sponsor. and why? You can also ask students to suggest statements they would include in the Campbell-Ewald study as opened-ended questions. the incorporation of a 5-point scale complements the attitudinal nature of the investigation. Therefore. Campbell-Ewald and its partners used correlation. multiple regressions. A useful comparison is the evaluation surveys that students complete at the close of each semester. while providing them with a middle ground. This type scale as a measurement tool is a simple and useful way of recording responses. For an undefined construct like respect. This leap from topic to topic can sometimes confuse a participant and. the sponsor may get less than the clarity hoped for. The lower cost and shorter turn-around would have prevented the larger study from being slowed. comparisons between sectors is more efficient for data analysis of attitudes. Additionally. 3. where they rate their professors and the course.
It also did not indicate if criteria were set to choose customers. the case did not indicate as to how customers were chosen as part of the sample to determine if this was done in a randomized manner. or age groups. Campbell-Ewald received names of customers from their clients. Considering that clients provided names mostly from their top customers. across categories Agree Neither Agree nor Strongly Disagree Disagree Is interested in listening to what is important to me as a customer Places their own interests above those of the customer Notifies me in advance of sales and special promotions Rewards me for repeat business Honor commitments/promises they’ve made to me Specific Respect Initiatives. A sample of these statements. Discuss the pros and cons of the sampling plan for the mail survey. the pros and cons of using probability versus nonprobability sampling. their gender. and the fact that five thousand surveys were sent out to each sector with a small return. establishing whether or not this is a representative sample of their customer population is pertinent information. with category Accepts returns without a hassle (retail) Flights take off and land on schedule (airline travel) Handles claims in a timely manner (insurance) 4. However. Synovate distributed five thousand surveys to each sector: insurance. Subsequently. and inevitably raises questions as to the accuracy of the findings. Students may argue that this was the most cost effective method to take.” this potentially limits the ability to make inferences about the general population. such as length of time with a particular client or company. Strongly Agree General Respect Initiatives. These clients provided names mostly from their top customers. air travel and retail. developed from focus group discussions. it is safe to assume that not every customer relevant sampling element is represented.Written and Video Cases Exhibit C-E-1 Sample of Attitudinal Statements Researchers asked participants their degree of agreement with several respect validation statements. This is a good time to discuss with students. Given the nature of the research. appears below. while others may argue that the sample produces much bias and therefore questions the accuracy of the results. with the target population being mostly “top customers. 92 .
The Red Cross must be able to provide 93 . The Red Cross must change how it is perceived by donors who may question whether their donations are being used for the causes for which the Red Cross was perceived to be soliciting funds. Management could also explore if its decision to use a portion of the Liberty Fund as reserve for future disaster was consistent with its mission and previous fundraising strategies. Some may suggest that the dilemma faced by the Red Cross lies in how to better manage and appropriately make use of public donations. It also outlines how this organization sought to address its existing dilemma of changing the public’s perception of the way in which funds are managed and whether public donations were being used appropriately. in so doing. Others may see the dilemma as how to overcome the negative perception that donors may have of the Red Cross’s fund raising activities and regaining public trust. 2.Written and Video Cases Case: Can Research Rescue the Red Cross? Abstract: The American Red Cross. 1. Others might see the dilemma as one of education of the public and how best to do such activities. If you had been McLaughlin or Decker. Exhibit 5-4 and 5-5 are useful as a guide for this discussion: We suggest using the management dilemma facing the Red Cross as the public’s perception of its mismanagement of donations. Management-Research Question Hierarchy). it allows for discussions on the decisions made by researchers when designing samples (Chapters 16 and 17). By describing and discussing the dilemma faced by the Red Cross. to identify management dilemmas and. The case also ties in to Chapter 5 and prepares students for the creation of the managementresearch question hierarchy (Exhibit 5-4. Formulating the Research Question. Both McLaughlin and Decker could benefit from exploring how current funds are pooled and distributed. Create the Management-Research Question hierarchy for the research you think might help the Red Cross make decisions related to public relations efforts and future advertising soliciting donations. students can discuss the types of measurement scales. where students are introduced to the research process and the different types of studies that the Red Cross could have undertaken to avoid their existing dilemma. Used with Chapters 13 and 14. Additionally. how informed donors are of the ways in which the Red Cross manages and distributes donations. the case ties into the data collection methods described in Chapters 11 and 15). This case is quite applicable to Chapters 1 through 4. what research would you want done? You can begin discussions of this question by having students suggest how McLaughlin or Decker might define the dilemma. formulate appropriate research questions that the Red Cross could consider for discovering better ways of funds management. Students may also suggest that the Red Cross needs to find ways to reassure donors that their donations will be distributed appropriately. known for its worldwide efforts in providing disaster relief and assistance to the sick and needy. The case describes the concerns expressed by board members of the Red Cross with regard to how such problems could be prevented in future fundraising efforts. students will be able to use Exhibit 5-6. comes under intense scrutiny and attack for the misappropriation of post September 11 donations. In addition.
how should the Red Cross make donors clearly aware of their policies with regard to how contributions are expended? Should the Red Cross consider revising its policies relating to how donors’ contributions are pooled and distributed? How should the Red Cross change the way it advertises its policies with respect to donation allocation? • What is donor understanding of the existing policies relating to how donations are raised and spent? Should the Red Cross use separate fund-raising activities for each disaster. or should it solicit funds only for the general fund that may be allocated to any disaster where needed? • • • How can the Red Cross better manage the funds it receives from fundraising activities. However. the Red Cross could face a significant decrease in its funding sources.Written and Video Cases services based on the contributions it receives from public donors. If it were to continue to be seen as engaging in activities inconsistent with its mission. redirecting funds to the general fund after that goal for donations is received. considering the gravity of the existing dilemma. This may also place a negative stigma on the nonprofit charitable sector and its future fundraising activities. Some of the options students might generate are: Management Questions Research Questions Investigative Questions All management questions are not equally addressed by research. the Red Cross must regain and maintain its credibility in the public’s eyes. so as to be able to ensure the continued receipt of donations. and communicate this goal to the potential donors? • • • • What practice (specific fund or general fund) is more likely to generate more largesse among donors? What level of trust do donors have that the Red Cross will spend its donations wisely? What are the donation patterns: primarily to specific pleas for help or have donors simply donated to further the general mission of the organization? How is a dollar estimate of a donation need level determined? What is the potential donor’s understanding of this estimation process? Will a dollar donation goal for a particular disaster relief fund discourage donations once that goal is reached? How would potential donors want to learn about progress toward goal achievement? 94 . Therefore. specifically funds raised in excess of the amount needed for a specific disaster? Should the Red Cross utilize a predetermined donation goal.
where they were given the option of contributing to a particular cause. the selection of an appropriate probability sampling technique is indicated. Many donors may have made contributions to the Red Cross via its Web site. Persons who visit the Web site for general information and not for donation purposes could also be targeted as possible sampling units. For example. Also. if they have decided that a stratified sample is appropriate. and that the larger "former non-profit donor population" is the basis for sample unit selection. One debate to expect is the use of ranking versus rating scales. a sample could be drawn from persons who have been previous donors to a particular fund. 5. intercept. If you created a RFP. Students should also be challenged to ask for the appropriate type of survey. The larger question is whether sample units should be stratified in some way. or for specific types of ranking or rating scales. Students should also be encouraged to identify the sample frames available to the Red Cross due to its past fundraising practices. they should also consider sampling procedures for drawing that sample. for example Likert versus paired comparison scale. and provides additional insight as to the contents and assessment of a Request for Proposal. Students will likely offer that numerical and Likert scales meet such criteria. What considerations should influence sampling decisions in any research the Red Cross would do on this issue? Given that the American Red Cross is a national organization and its reputation was at stake. 95 . In Chapter 14. how might such donors be screened to determine whether they have donated previously to the Red Cross general or disaster-specific funds. or Web survey should influence the types of scales used. Make sure that students don’t just focus on Web site contributors as a sample frame when making sampling decisions. what would it contain? Chapter 6 introduces the RFP. The proposal would contain: • Definition of the problem facing the Red Cross (the management dilemma) • Identifying the limitations involved • Providing a description of the policies relating to Red Cross’s fundraising • Guidelines 4. given the large size of a national probability sample of donors. To allow for accuracy and effectively address the issue of the existing policies relating to how donations are raised and spent. as the Red Cross’s population of donors extends beyond Web site contributors. And both also allow for the production of ordinal and interval data. Whether the students choose phone. If a survey is used. Once students have focused on a type of probability sample. Students should be encouraged to brainstorm all the possible subgroups within the donor population. what scales would be most appropriate? You can use this question as a group activity where students can formulate or use the class-generated investigative questions to argue for specific types of measurement questions. simplicity and practicality should be considerations in selecting appropriate scales. the section on Selecting a Measurement Scale along with Exhibits 14-2 and 14-9 provides the context for decision making.Written and Video Cases 3. which is supplemented by the sample on your text DVD.
• How reliable would the feedback be from employee taste testing activities? Stage 3 involved choosing a marketable name for the new pizza concept. which provides indications of changes in eating habits. 1. such as their monthly WASSUP Meetings. premium pizza restaurant chain. You can use this time to discuss: • Why a phone survey and self-administered intercept survey were used. aimed at tracking interest and response rates to a newly introduced NO DOUGH pizza concept. Case: Donatos: Finding the New Pizza Abstract: The case describes a multi-stage study conducted by Donatos.Written and Video Cases suitable for extensive analysis. • The pros and cons of using the self-administered intercept and phone survey using Exhibit 11-5. such as the syndicated data. in restaurant tests. In so doing. such as the self-administered intercept survey and callback phone survey employed by Donatos. Comparison of Communication Approaches as a guide. The case indicates that Donatos has monitored different sources. Here data was collected from employee taste testing. e-mail comments from customers and monitoring of eating trends from different sources. Exhibit 8-2 Descriptors of Research Design. Secondary data was also used during the exploratory stages from sources that documented and monitored eating trends. it also aims to measure customer satisfaction with the new pizza concept. The case also allows students to distinguish between different data collection methods. They have also garnered feedback from comments customers send via e-mail from their Web site. Students will be able to discuss the exploratory steps taken by Donatos. With respect to the likelihood of donors making donations to a particular cause or a general fund. where participants would complete self-administered intercept surveys. the research-based product development phase. involved development of the product prototype. or having them indicate their preference to where their funds should be spent. Donatos was able to discover that there was an existing interest in low-carb eating plans. where employees were asked to provide feedback on existing social and cultural trends. here Donatos tested three different names using a weekend omnibus phone survey. Through this stage. These steps then establish the exploratory stages of their research. The case indicates that their typical new-product development research would routinely take 12-14 months to complete. Here the framework and procedures for research activity are outlined. Therefore. This question provides an appropriate introduction for students to the various descriptors of research design discussed in Chapter 8. NPD Eating Trends. Given • 96 . students can discuss the pros and cons of using this type of data. the Constant Sum or Forced Ranking scales may also be offered and would be appropriate. in addition to the WASSUP meetings held on a monthly basis. • Stage 2 of the study. Map the research design used by Donatos for new product development. call-back phone surveys for customers who were serviced through delivery and concept screen activities where participants were shown photographs of food products and then questioned. The research conducted by Donatos is an attempt to test and subsequently meet the needs of its low-carb diet market. The experimental design also utilized will allow for discussions relating to the taste tests conducted among employees and how Donatos’ decision to exclude its "special ingredients" from the Web site may have affected the yielded responses. an independent.
Second. and create a synthesis of this information to best determine how its decision will affect not only the general public. These meetings not only supplemented reviews done of other sources. Formulating the Research Question for MindWriter) can be used as a guide. 2. • Stage 4. but it provided additional insight into the dynamics of other social and cultural trends. addressed the tracking of response rates where Donatos employed ongoing telephone tracking studies.Written and Video Cases the time constraints that Donatos faced (the possible short-term nature of the low-carb trend). which Donatos could take to solve the existing problem or address concerns about the low-carb diet market. The WASSUP meeting is essential to Donatos. What were its pros and cons? Evaluation of the test market relates well to Chapters 16 and 17. This feedback from the meeting will also be helpful when tailoring research questions. when discussing the intricacies of sampling and Chapter 12 on Experiments and Test Markets. Chapter 4 (Exhibit 4-2. one city is rarely used in a test market as researchers have found distinct eating preferences by geography. unlike the introduction of many new food products. namely the feedback via e-mails and monitoring of eating trends. as it is able to gather useful information about the market from employees. you can ask students to discuss the implications of the findings yielded from the phone survey completed over a weekend period. as through exploring knowledge from different cultures (likes and dislikes). Donatos can benefit from the findings in terms of strategies that were or were not employed or other data collection techniques (personal interviews or mail surveys) and sampling methods. You can have students suggest possible research questions that would be applicable to the study. that being how to address increasing interest in low-carb diets. Donatos may suggest the following examples as research questions: • Should we introduce a new pizza concept to satisfy the low-carb diet market? • Should the crust-free pizza concept be modified? • Should the soy crisp recipe be used or should we introduce another protein rich alternative? 3. in restaurant comment cards and e-mails from customers through its Web site. while the test was conducted over several days in the two stores. no promotion was done to attract customers to the restaurant for the 97 . You can ask students to discuss the usefulness of this stage of the research. First. The WASSUP meetings undertaken by Donatos served as an exploratory step to further identifying the dilemma faced. Some may indicate that for the purposes of future research. Donatos can then establish a central focus and design specific research questions. the final stages of the design. This question also becomes useful when preparing students for data collection in research (Part 4) and discussing ethical implications involved when dealing with participants (Chapter 7). The test market (customer reactions to the product in two stores in one market) used by Donatos raises important reliability questions. Evaluate the test market Donatos used. Evaluate the WASSUP meetings as an exploratory methodology to help define the research question. but also persons of different cultures.
Ability to reach customers who otherwise would be inaccessible. Failure to do this may not encourage customers to want to participate. Requires less supervision and manpower as test was conducted on site. Delivery customers may provide useful responses. however. this would be typical in most Donatos restaurants. Given that interviewers are needed to facilitate the survey. As a class activity. 98 . Eliminates the need for higher-cost product-testing facilities. Allows for feedback from a wide range of customers.Written and Video Cases purpose of purchasing the NO DOUGH pizza. the ideal situation for a true experiment would be test products prepared under controlled conditions. these may include the following: In restaurant testsPros: • • • • Cons: • Reduced research cost by virtue of having its own current customers as testers. Call-back phone surveyPros: • • • • Cons: • • • • Donatos cannot guarantee that customers will be willing to take the time to participate in a call-back phone survey. The case indicates that 16-17 year old employees were preparing the NO DOUGH pizzas that were used during the test market. Most test markets. given that the call must be initiated by them. use actual market conditions which limits the availability of control. thus non-response error could be very large. A discussion of the type of experiment being conducted is appropriate here. There are some advantages as well as disadvantages that this test market brings to the study. This might be indicative of a sample of customers who did not match the profile of the potential customer: those individuals following a low-carb diet. Customer-initiated calls creates a self-selection sample which might not be indicative of the desired sample unit. The study did not indicate some form of incentive for customers upon making the call. As the test market continued over time. The ability to capitalize on a greater speed of data collection. Third. Customers can remain anonymous if they choose to express negative views about the taste of the pizza. a screening question about whether a customer came to Donatos specifically to purchase the NO DOUGH pizza could have been used to distinguish these desired sample units from those who were likely not the primary target market segment for the low-carb pizza. Donatos may incur additional costs with this type of instrument. you can ask students to suggest possible pros and cons of the test market and instrument used. Walk-in customers may not be representative of the target market for low-carb pizza as pizza was not at the time considered a low-carb option.
such as the Likert or Numerical scales. Which of the four types of studies are presented in this case. You can have students debate the usefulness of rating scales. as an initial guide. It also presents other prospects where Vicale 99 . where the likes and dislikes of a product can be easily rated. Some may argue that utilizing ranking or pairedcomparison scales would be most effective. This case relates well to Chapter 1. Case: HeroBuilders. It also exposes students to the mechanisms involved in exploratory studies and the benefits associated with its use (Chapters 5 & 9). This can serve as a preface to discussions relating to ranking and rating scales. The most appropriate study. a numerical scale or Likert scale would be the most appropriate measurement scales. Sample Rating Scales. Both would allow participants the opportunity to indicate their “liking” or “preference” attitude toward the product. You can begin by discussing the usefulness of Vicale’s exploratory findings and ask students to suggest other types of exploration they would pursue before launching such a business. and how the application of different types of studies aids in furthering effective research strategies. and. Here the researcher attempts to gain additional insight as to the viability of marketing an action figure. 1. Owing to the increased demands for the creation of “hero dolls. This type of study gives the researcher the opportunity to explore the commercial market of action figure dolls to determine the pros and cons of such a venture. where students will be introduced to the role of research in marketing. You can also have them rate and/or rank their suggestions. is the simplicity involved in administering them.” research was conducted to ascertain the viability of marketing action figure dolls to the then competitive commercial environment. using Exhibit 14-2. Another important advantage to the use of these scales.com. as presented in this case. how he benefited from completing this stage of his research. is an exploratory one.Written and Video Cases 4.com Abstract: This case describes a study conducted by the president of HeroBuilders. while the numerical scale provides the flexibility of using both ordinal and interval data for the purposes of analysis. as Donatos could provide other types of pizzas or different low-carb ingredients and ask customers to make comparisons and choose their preferences. “Intention to purchase” is another dimension that can be easily measured by the Likert or numerical scale. To begin the discussion you can have students brainstorm the different types of pizzas Donatos would sell and have them compare the types of ingredients/toppings that would most appeal to low-carb eaters. For the in-restaurant tests. whose entrepreneurial zeal led to the creation of an e-commerce toy company. The Likert scale would allow Donatos to compare a customer’s preference to others. What measurement scales would you have used on the survey used as part of the inrestaurant product tests? You can begin by discussing the different types of rating and ranking scales that may be appropriate for the in-restaurant tests. You can ask students to create a list of the information needs they would prepare before starting an e-commerce business to sell dolls made in the image of modern day heroes.
or if location was a factor in his consideration. In addition. Research process detailed: The case indicates that Vicale explored the e-commerce business to sell dolls by reviewing the Internet sites of other companies involved in the marketing of action figure dolls. where he further discovered the extent of the action figure market. it would therefore be difficult to determine if high standards of ethics were applied. High ethical standards applied: Given that Vicale conducted his research independently provided him much flexibility in executing this study. and identifying the companies involved in the production of action figure dolls.com prior to launching its hero and villain action figures presents some limitations based on the criteria listed in the Exhibit. 100 . what process was used. Vicale also explored retail stores that marketed action figure dolls. Evaluate the research that HeroBuilders. Uncertain of the potential of starting an action figure business. The case indicates that his initial survey of the market primarily involved only hero action figures. which raises questions as to the objectivity of his results and whether his personal bias did not play a role in its reliability. nor was there evidence of an observation checklist used in his discovery trips to retail toy stores. Here he benefited from knowing that an extensive action figure market did exist. where he consulted with a lawyer to determine the legal implications involved with marketing dolls in the image of living heroes or political figures. to further determine the possibility of products gaining distribution. he sought legal advice to determine the implications of creating prototypes of political figures. he failed to indicate the scope of the research with regard to the creation of villain action figures.com conducted prior to launching its hero and villain action figures using the criteria in Exhibit 1-6.Written and Video Cases chose to conduct qualitative research. It was not clear if considerable thought was given to how the research would be executed. This is a good time to discuss the inconsistencies that might be introduced in research studies—even exploratory ones—if the researcher doesn’t have a mechanism for collecting comparable data. he visited the action figure sections of toy or general merchandise stores. The assessment of the retail environment (toy stores) that he explored did not make clear how he chose the types of stores visited. However. he also looked at the retail environment. There was no indication of an interview guide or a questionnaire used to guide data collection. for example. If you use this case during discussions of Chapters 5 and 9. You might ask students to develop a list of questions that Vicale might have used when. Vicale conducted the research himself. The research conducted by HeroBuilders. 2. Purpose clearly defined: The purpose of the research was clearly defined. Here Vicale aimed to explore the potential of the action figure business. Research design thoroughly planned: The research design’s plan also lacked important detail. you can also use this question as a preface to discussions of other data collection methods.
Students should be asked to detail what limitations Vicale might have encountered. 3. given that the research process was highly subjective as it was carried out by the owner of the company.com are marketed. it may have been worthwhile to perform a broader survey to establish other marketing factors (e. However. a majority of the responses that Vicale received regarding the creation of the product came from “friends and acquaintances. which indicates that the mode of analysis (not revealed) applied to the data received may have been favorable.. or the failure to check out different types of stores that also might be used for distribution. or his obvious potential bias toward the idea of producing such dolls. but also how the general market of doll buyers felt about villain dolls. how much persons would be willing to pay for a such a doll. However.com proceeded with the e-commerce business of making action figure dolls. and many studies possess flaws. In addition to conducting research on the marketability of dolls in the image of heroes. an across-the-board study of the costs involved in such a venture could have been beneficial. 101 . other than toy stores. As outlined. or how they would like to learn about the doll). some researchers may be limited by cost and time factors that consequently affect the usefulness of their research. Despite the apparent profit motive involved. They should be able to list such limitations as a limited sample of stores that this busy executive might have visited.” As such. it may also prove helpful to explore how the general market would respond to dolls patterned after villains such as Osama Bin Laden and Saddam Hussein. Some students know instinctively that not all research employs every criteria listed. although not crippling to the result. one may question the conclusions drawn from this study. to evaluate long-term implications.com? The decision made by Vicale. Despite the numerous requests for villain dolls. considering the competitive nature of the existing market. this introduction could be damaging to the sale of dolls depicted in a “hero like image. coupled with the limitations evident in the research process and design. HeroBuilders. was apparently given much thought. would you have included in your research plan for HeroBuilders.g. What issues other than those Vicale chose to evaluate. Moreover.Written and Video Cases The case did not indicate whether Vicale encountered limitations during his exploratory research. to capitalize on the action figure business with the incorporation of his modern day hero concept.” Considering the delicate nature of 911 issues. this market should be further explored prior to the introduction of such dolls. their primary motivation for purchasing such a figure and for whom they would be purchasing the doll. Vicale could have also taken his research of the retail market a step further by exploring the cost/profit factors with individual stores and Web sites that marketed action figures and toys. patriotic Americans may find it distasteful that villain images such as those introduced by HeroBuilders.
If Penton saw this as a value enhancing service for advertisers. B. but you might use this opportunity to discuss that research can be proactive—actually preceding the development of a problem. to determine the long-term viability of a reader and advertiser service. The discussion questions guide the student through the research process. Students won't have too much difficulty in identifying the management dilemma. discontinued or modified? Rather than three alternatives. As such. which is causing a smaller number of inquiries and thus a smaller number of sales leads for Penton advertisers. Penton may have only looked at maintaining or discontinuing the reader service card. A. a post-card sized device used by readers to request additional information from a particular advertiser. Research Question: Should the reader service card program be maintained. Penton clearly had the ability to track reader service card activity (a research activity in its own right). it is helpful if you can project the graphic on the screen in front of the class. We suggest using Exhibit 5-4 for this discussion. communication study undertaken by the research department of Penton Media. the reader service card program has a cost associated with each issue (card printing. 1. the reader service card. and card handling and forwarding) that needs to be offset by perceived value on the part of the advertiser.Written and Video Cases Case: Inquiring Minds Want to Know—Now! Abstract: This case describes a multi-stage. Management question: What should be done to ensure that advertisers and readers alike are getting the information they need and want? C. the case may be used throughout the course—especially through Chapter 15—simply by assigning different discussion questions as exercises during different points in the course. a publisher of business trade magazines. Students are usually quick to point out that advertisers don't always track the success of their advertising (not as true an observation for business-to-business advertising as it is for consumer advertising) because not all advertising asks for a specific action. shouldn't they have been tracking the change in rate of response card return at the very least? Penton also should have been tracking advertisers' continued interest in the reader service card program--after all. Nothing in the questionnaire indicates that they were exploring other unspecified options. The management dilemma is a declining number of reader service cards returned. D. Investigative questions: What means do advertisers offer to obtain information about advertisers' products and services? What influences a trade magazine reader in their choice of response method? What types of information are most frequently sought? What is the time frame in which information is needed? Do purchasing agents have different needs than supervisors? How many advertisers offer Web access to information? How many readers use company Web sites for information? Are readers changing their methods of response in the last 5 years? 5-10 years? Do shifts in response methods parallel the decline in reader service card returns? Does a reader's 102 . return postage. But in the case of advertising designed to generate leads.
age. and the names are drawn from the magazine's subscriber lists (the sample frame). Subject's rights are much bigger issues here. • Subject's right to confidentiality. Penton offered an inducement--a drawing for a handheld color TVto participate. And students might want to discuss why they didn't draw a sample of advertisers to participate in a parallel study. which affects their right of confidentiality. 3. But to obtain that entry right. The importance of data preparation and why certain returned surveys may not be used.7 million) as the sample frame. You can also discuss the sampling plan for the stage 2 study of ad content. 2. modification or replacement. This small deception is unlikely to offend or distort data from a reader responding to the survey. the respondent must provide their contact information ("To ensure a correct entry in the random drawing for the held-held color TV. believing that the magazine has used information extracted from reader service cards and subscriber records in ways that the reader never intended. gender. but that is not likely to alter the information that respondents are willing to share. In terms of sample size. The effect of error as it is introduced by the quality of the sample frame. The cover letter states that the study is being conducted to help "companies better understand and respond to your request for information. so they have the right to choose. The sampling plan called for using the subscriber database (1. the discarded instruments were not completed by purchase decision-makers. most of the sponsor's rights are covered.Written and Video Cases E. • Students may want to discuss the right of privacy. • Subject's right of informed consent (implied): The cover letter invites readers to participate. sending out 4000 surveys to obtain the 710 completed surveys of which 676 were considered useable (came from purchasing decision-makers). Using Exhibit 7-1 is appropriate for this exercise." While it doesn't clearly state the reader service card is being considered for elimination. any reader who has been reading the magazine for any length of time will know that the reader service card is one response option likely to be evaluated. Penton mailed 4000 magazine subscribers and received 676 usable out of 710 completed surveys. Penton chose a stratified sample in order to check response patterns in different subsets (42 in all) of the business-to-business market. or job experience affect their choice of information retrieval method? To what degree do advertisers value the reader service card program? Measurement questions: see instrument in text."). • Avoiding Subject Deception: Subjects are all subscribers to Penton's trade magazines. In Penton's case. You can use this opportunity to discuss several sampling issues: The effect of such stratification on sample size. Since Penton is conducting this research internally. please make any necessary changes to your mailing label. • • • • 103 . The case clearly specifies that they used a stratified disproportionate random sample. the only qualified respondent from the viewpoint of the advertisers. The effects of self-selection within a mail survey on the quality of the data (and non-response error).
This would lead us to believe that as Penton did not data mine for this information. This did show a change in advertiser behavior. The easiest way to conduct this exercise is for the students. The mail survey was pretested in two ways: by phone. and the strengths of the personal interview communication methodology. merchandise. What was missing at this stage was an indication of change in respondent inquiry behavior. armed with the issues list from their text. Penton had started their project with exploratory research that revealed that advertisers perceived they were getting fewer viable sales leads with the advertising in 1998 than they were in earlier years. with several teams dealing with a question-level critique and others dealing with the instrument as a whole.Written and Video Cases 4. and then by mail. which involved an inducement to participatea hand-held. • • 5. to critique the data collection instrument as an out-of-class assignment. color television giveaway. when they might inject ethical issues. Stage 3 involved a mail survey of subscribers. or you might divide the class up into teams." This is the perfect time to discuss the limitations of a survey for collecting the nuances of attitudes. • Why a mail survey was preliminarily tested by a means other than that chosen for the survey itself. This is a perfect time to discuss: • Various types of pretesting using Appendix 15b on pretesting. Penton could have been conducting monitoring research with their advertisers or might have been receiving increasing complaints or comments in normal dealings with them. 1992 (648) and 1997 (690). that it was not tracking the ads that generated response card inquiries. • Why the mail survey was tested twice. and what typical inducements are used: money. Having the response cards in their possession. You could have them critique the whole instrument. Stage 4 involved 40 personal interviews "to gain a deeper understanding of their behavior and attitudes. it would have been quite easy to do a tally on a periodic basis for each issue's reader service cards. 104 . • Stage 2 involved an observation study of 1330 past advertising placed in Penton magazines in two years. The following checklist might be used for such a critique. and coupons for discounts are common. • When such inducements might cause error.
Interesting Is the question of proper scope and coverage? Issue 2: Incomplete or unfocused Issue 3: Multiple Questions Issue 4: Precision Can the respondent answer adequately? Issue 5: Time for thought Issue 6: Participation at expense of accuracy Issue 7: Presumed knowledge Issue 8: Recall and memory decay Issue 9: Balance (general vs. The layout of the scaled response strategy is clear. and questions clearly delineate (bold text) the time frame of the intention or actual behavior. It appears the researcher was very thorough in this regard. students should compare their investigative questions developed in Discussion Question 1 to identify whether the boundaries of information request methodologies have been adequately covered. 105 . specific) Issue 10: Objectivity Will the respondents answer willingly? Issue 11: Sensitive information Issue 12: Shared vocabulary Issue 13: Unsupported Assumptions Issue 14: Frame of Reference Issue 15: Biased Wording Issue 16: Personalization Issue 17: Adequate Answers Issue 18: Objective of the Study Issue 19: Thoroughness of Prior Thought Issue 20: Communication Skill Issue 21: Respondent Motivation Instrument Level Critique Introduction and screening Instructions Order/question sequencing Transitions between sections Conclusion and disposition of instrument On an instrument level. students should look at the layout of the instrument in terms of structure.Written and Video Cases Question Level Critique Should this question be asked? Issue 1: Purposeful vs. Although the layout has been modified to fit the page format of the text.
to return the completed survey in the postage-paid envelope and thanking them for their participation. Students should be asked about the abrupt change between the core target questions and the classification questions. the students should discuss the end of the survey. Both a conclusion and disposition instructions should follow the last question.).Written and Video Cases Students should be asked to address the instrument's scope: Does it include all necessary questions? Are questions included that seem extraneous? Students might observe that the instrument scope goes farther than might be technically necessary by asking the desired information response that advertiser's could provide. Students should be able to determine if the correct concept and construct has been measured in each question (increase/decrease in activity for question 4. free-response) are appropriate. it doesn't tell them to discontinue. again. Concerning instructions and transitions. use/expected use of Internet in question 7. This instrument loses that opportunity by its abrupt transition. in order to gain full participation in these questions used for measuring association. Others might ask why the respondent is not asked directly how they would feel about eliminating the reader service card. for repeating response scales. It wouldn't hurt to repeat the request to correct the address label to insure an adequate entry for the television drawing. for example. The purpose of a better transition between the target questions and the classification questions is to indicate why or how the personal information will be used. ask your students if they feel the chosen response strategies (multiple choice-single response. probing for reasons for chosen method of response would be necessary if the survey was done by phone. Some students. This is the opportune time to ask whether the communication method (mail) would have required a different order or instructions if the survey had been done by phone. ask your students if any operational definitions are missing. At the question level. and why or why not. While early placement of the screening question (1) would serve a purpose in a telephone survey. You might ask them to come up with operational definitions for those terms they feel the respondent might not know or which might cause confusion. The information that is captured with the respondent's identity will provide other crucial association variables. if a respondent were to check the 4th column in question 4 for every option. This question (3) fulfills the "what's in it for me?" query that most respondents ask prior to participating in a survey. telling the respondent. Finally. offering skip directions. Also. As a result. checklist. an interviewer instruction sheet. to allow the respondent to skip question 6b. in this instrument it serves as classification data and could better be placed in the end. may not know what "fax-on-demand" is. it might be better placed earlier in the instrument. Additionally. etc. Skip directions also could have been offered in question 6a. 106 .
Written and Video Cases 6.75%. 710 of the original 4000 responded. You might want to ask students to prepare both tabular and graphic depictions of the data and compare the results. therefore they are not interested in preserving one method vs. another. Could those who responded have some ulterior motive for wanting to keep the reader service card? You should also raise the concern about weighting the responses based on the disproportionate stratified sample that was drawn. Does this create or solve a limitation? 8. You can also use this question to compare textual presentation (as is used by the case) with tabular and graphical formats. 4b. one statistic will stand out as revealing to the student: between 69-71% responded by mail during the last year when they didn't have an immediate need. ask this question to determine what should be done with those original 42 subsets of interest. the numerical codes for each likely response. Q 1 2 3 4a #V 7 45 16 15 Data Nominal Nominal Ordinal Ordinal Q 4b 5a 5b 6a 1 #V 15 1 Data Ordina l Nomin al Nomin al Nomin al Q 6b 7a 7b 8 #V 1 8 8 1 Data Nominal Nominal Nominal Nominal Q 9 10 11 #V 1 1 1 Data Nominal Ratio Ratio 7.3% of the original sample. 10. 17. The limitation of most concern is the non-response error. Finally. and what might have been used as the factor of incidence for this study. Have your students code the survey for analysis. This is also a great opportunity for discussing the coding of free response questions as questions 2. This is a perfect time to discuss sources of error in this survey. This might explain why advertisers don't perceive reader service card respondents as good sales leadsthese inquires may be primarily from potential purchasers whose need is not clearly defined or whose purchase is too far into the future to connect with that early reader service card inquiry. 107 . 7b. Without a direct question about eliminating the reader service card any recommendation is problematic given the data presented. This question asks the student to build a preliminary analysis plan then fulfill it. Is this enough to make a "continue the reader service card' recommendation? See below. identifying the number of variables. The 494 respondents translates to only 12. and 11 use the free response strategy. One could hypothesize that those who did not respond feel that they have sufficient ways to reach advertisers about their products or services. Every survey has limitations based on scope and methodology. It also allows you to discuss whether it is the researcher's role to provide a recommendation or merely to report the findings. and the variable labels. However. 5a. 5b. That same 71% who had used a reader service card in the past year looks very different when you look at the total original mailing.
• Management dilemma: This is research based on an opportunity rather than a problem. Some students might suggest an experiment at this point. The discussion questions guide the student through the research process. one group gets ads tied to a reader service card while a second group gets ads not tied to a reader service card. and this one has some very obvious flaws that will be revealed during the discussion of the seven discussion questions. With the comprehensive data set available on the DVD. Case: Mastering Teacher Leadership Abstract: A multi-stage. Other students might suggest tracking the returned reader service card use during the next several months (another descriptive study). Create a split run of an upcoming issue. You can also tie this case back to the concerns in Chapter 1 about research being done by those untrained in research. should the device be eliminated. Ask your students if a decision could be made based on the information provided. more time before making a decision on the issue at hand) of this experiment during the discussion. and only then. that it should have been advertisers. Not all research projects are well designed. Master of Education degree coursework. this case can also be used for the data analysis chapters.Written and Video Cases 9. the case may be used throughout the course—especially through Case 15—simply by assigning different discussion questions as exercises during different points in the course. Those in charge of this project were all highly educated. As such. • Research question: Should Wittenberg offer a Master of Arts degree in Education? 108 . • Management question: What should be Wittenberg's role in meeting teacher certification requirements? The survey straddles the issue of professional development coursework vs. Others could argue that the appropriate sample for the original study was incorrect. This is a good case to use to discuss whether questionable data helps reduce the risk of poor decision making. by projecting the graphic on the screen in front of the class. shorter production runs. sampling and survey instrument demonstrate. communication study of teachers by Wittenberg University's Department of Education to determine the viability of starting a Master of Education program for Ohio-certified teachers working within school districts serving a five-county area. Penton obviously thought there was some risk to this decision or they wouldn't have undertaken such a comprehensive study. But they were clearly not trained in marketing research methods as the research design. We suggest using Exhibit 5-4 for this discussion. This is an opportunity to discuss the risk associated with decision making in the absence of perfect information and the value of a decision. Be sure to bring out additional cost (two different ads created for each advertiser. so the symptom which starts this research is the passage of a law by the State of Ohio that requires teachers to obtain a Master of Education degree prior to their second licensure renewal between years 5 and 7. and they had been schooled in their doctoral programs to do research for their dissertations. then. 1. if advertisers thought the reader service card was no longer of value.
You also might ask students to apply the five criteria for evaluation (purpose. First. especially Exhibits 5-1 and 5-2. • Student teacher evaluation forms collected during the 1990s provided teacher attitudes about quality of Wittenberg's undergraduate teacher preparation. and content of competitive schools' Master of Arts in Education programs? How many teachers might leave the profession (or Ohio) rather than comply with the new standards? Measurement questions: see survey. 3. This question can be used with material from Chapter 5. Each teacher received a survey. And you could ask students to construct query statements to do an electronic search for likely secondary data during this exploratory phase of research. especially Clark County? When would teachers be likely to take courses? How far will they drive to take courses? What is the price. sample. 2. You may use the tabular Exhibit 16-1 for this discussion. Finally. Students should then be asked to define the type of sample WittCPD obtained. format. you can ask students to summarize the exploratory findings. or any other classification variable that was pertinent to the study based on the new teacher certification standards. Information WittCPD collected and profiled in the case came from the following sources: • Web sites and catalogs provided competitor information on number. authority. years of teaching experience. Then you might ask what information drawn from a secondary source is profiled within the case. and content of Master of Arts Programs in Education. so in essence WittCPD allowed each teacher to self-select themselves into the sample rather than designing a sampling plan. Some will argue that the results are a simple random probability sample because every teacher had an equal chance of being 109 . This question is designed to reveal the purpose and methodology for the exploratory data stage of most research projects.Written and Video Cases • • Investigative questions: Here are some questions your students should generate. structure. and how and where/from whom might that information have been collected. area of expertise. students should evaluate the sample frame. This is a good place to discuss census vs. • The Ohio Board of Regents and the Ohio Department of Education provided documents detailing the new teacher certification standards. WittCPD obtained a mailing list of all 1600 teachers in the county likely from the various school boards. How many teachers will need to obtain a Master of Arts degree to become re-certified within the next five years? What do teachers seek in professional development programs in general and what would they seek in a masters program? How many teachers will pursue a Masters degree? How likely would these teachers be to attend Wittenberg? How many teachers are currently enrolled in Masters programs? Why did they choose the programs they did? How many teachers are in the market area. scope. • The school boards representing the various school districts in the market area provided turnover and hiring information. There is no mention in the case that this sample frame grouped the teachers by age. You might first ask students to detail which information from their list of investigative questions (Q 1 above) might be extracted from a secondary source. structure. audience and format) to each element of secondary data and its source.
Ask your students to "pretest" the length of the instrument and determine whether the cover letter was sufficient to encourage participation in an instrument of that length. Clearly WittCPD is concerned about the market's perception of price as being too expensive. multiple choicesingle response. The cover letter clearly states the two-fold purpose of the study. especially if one purpose of the early questions is to build interest and motivation to respond to the target questions. But clearer instructions (check one only) could have been provided for Question 13. it would make sense to have classification questions early. The ranking questions do possess sufficient directions. This question uses the chapters on measurement. No transition appears between classification and target questions. Most of those plan-to-be teachers would have not yet enrolled in an undergraduate program. The actual layout of the instrument took 3 pages. Some students may argue that WittCPD used "current teachers" as a surrogate for teachers who will really be affected by the new standards. But. and what is left is no better than a non-probability convenience sample at worst. accuracy. In ranking questions. If WittCPD had used Question 3 to screen respondents that would have no interest in a Masters because they already possessed one. which on receipt might have appeared excessive. B. or a purposive judgment sample at best. as the absence of branching or skip directions indicates. With reference to response strategy appropriateness. It might have helped if the teacher had been asked to put all 7 elements on a ranking question without including the other to muddy the understanding. and checklist strategies are all appropriate for the data they wanted. scaling. but the survey does have a conclusion and disposition directions.g. but it could have been written from a different perspectivethe teachers'. and instrument structure. Question 9 would be more informative as a rating scale than a checklist. the letter could have alluded to the new state requirements and Wittenberg's assessing their role in helping area teachers comply. A. If so. If we look at one measure of sample quality. this was not done. Several of the students will challenge the use of classification data at the beginning of the instrument. Students might raise the issue of whether discounting cost as an issue (Questions 5 and 6) the designer further elevated the issue. 110 . Teachers who will be affected will be first certified in or after 2002. 4. Others will argue that WittCPD started out taking a census but didn't follow through. but responses offer the construct apply). Question 6 asks about enroll. numerical ranking. the very large non-response error makes us question this sample's accuracy. Given the space. We don't know how troublesome each checked item might be. Changing constructs within a question are troublesome (e. Students should assess the length of the instrument.Written and Video Cases included in the sample. three is an acceptable level.
Because they started with a geographic variable (address).wittenberg. mapping data using Geographic Information System (GIS) software is possible. and referencing it with the location of teachers with similar patterns. too.html. This is good preparation for analysis of their own data. Using the GIS block codes for those people. Obviously some subsets of the sample (those without Masters degree. if they decide to move forward. You might assign students to check for current status of the project at: http://www5.edu/academics/educ/masters. Of course.Written and Video Cases 5. 111 . Because various service divisions of the City of Springfield have done several GIS projects with the University. and because respondents have been asked to provide their names and addresses if they want more information. Data coding can be part of this exercise. ignoring CASE). There might be enough information from the various school boards to determine if the sample is representative or if the frequencies of some subgroups need to be weighted more than others in looking at the total data set. but that some are not relevant to the data type provided. Students will see the real-life application when analyzing a real data set. Exhibit C-WittCPD-1 provides the actual code sheet for the survey. So a plot of those who have no degree and show a high level of interest by giving they name and address would be possible. even one with some questionable data. GIS codes for every address in the county are readily available. Without this your students must guess at the variables in the dataset. and to demonstrate that a researcher can crank out any statistic they desire. and will point out the problems with preliminary analysis plans. The preliminary analysis plan should start with descriptive statistics: frequencies with crosstabluations against the variables in Questions 1-3. those with few years of service) would be of more interest than others. The student's preliminary plan should detail how missing data will be handled with internal coding. at least to the point of identifying the number of variables related to each question in the instrument. as most of the data is nominal or ordinal. 7. This is a good exercise for interpreting hypothesis statistics. might give WittCPD information that could be used for promoting the new program. savvy students could go to the data set and count the number of variables (76. 6.
____ Other (V=Q5) =1 definitely would apply =2 might apply =3 would not apply 112 . or currently enrolled in Ph. internal code: 1=checked. Highest level of education obtained.A. program Ph.S.A. 5.A. which college or university are you attending? __________________________________________________________________________ 4. Counting this year./B. and"2" being of next most importance.A./M. 2=no checked) Art (V=Q2_1SUB) Business/Economics (V=Q2_2SUB) English (V=Q2_3UB) Music (V=Q2_6UB) PE/Health (V=Q2_7UB) =3 Social Studies(V=Q2_8SUB) =4 Languages (V=Q2_4UB) Science (V=Q2_9SUB) =5 Mathematics (V=Q2_5UB) Other __________________ =6__________________________________________ 3./M. program. how likely would you be to apply to a Masters degree program in education at Wittenberg./B.S. Currently in M. Check all that apply.D.S. 2=not checked) ____ Reputation (V=Q4_1) ____ Schedule Flexibility (V=Q4_2) ____ Cost (V=Q4_3) ____ Quality of Instruction (V=Q4_4) ____ Closeness to home (V=Q4_5) ____ Other (V=Q4_8) ____ Class Size (V=Q4_6) ____ Individual Attention (V=Q4_7) B. plus additional graduate work If you are currently enrolled in a graduate program.xls 1. (V=Q3. Please select one from the list below.A.S.Written and Video Cases Exhibit C-WittCPD-1: Variable and Value Codes for WittMasters. plus graduate work M./B. Professional Responsibility and Subject Field.S. If costs were kept competitive.D. B. 2=not checked) Less than a B.A. M. how many years have you taught? (V=Q1) =1 0-5 years =2 6-10 years =3 11-15 years =4 16-19 years =5 20 or more years 2. Grade Level (V=Q2GRADE) Preschool to Grade three Grade four to Grade eight Grade nine to 12 Special Education Administration Other: =1 =2 Subject Area (internal code 1=checked. etc.) (Value codes internal code: 1=checked.S./M. Which of the following qualities are most important to you in a graduate program? (Please rank the top three qualities with "1" being of most importance.
Please check the two most important reasons for your lack of interest in graduate education at Wittenberg? (Value code is actual rank) ____ Cost (V=Q8_1) ____ Family Responsibilities (V=Q8_2) ____ Time to complete the degree (V=Q8_3) ____ Professional Commitments (V=Q8_4) ____ Live too far away (V=Q8_5) ____ Too near retirement (V=Q8_6) ____ Lack of information (V=Q8_7) ____ Already have a master's degree (V=Q8_8) ____ Enrolled in master's program (V=Q8_9) Other: (V=Q8_10)_______________________________________________________________ 9. etc. Please indicate the three most important reasons for your interest in graduate education at Wittenberg. how likely would you be to enroll in graduate courses at Wittenberg to enhance skills without pursuing a Masters degree? (V=Q6) =1 definitely would apply =2 might apply =3 would not apply 7. If costs were kept competitive. (Value code: 1=checked. "2" being your area of next strongest interest. 2=not checked) __ Enhancing subject matter knowledge (V=Q10_1) __ Teaching Arts (V=Q10_8) __ Using Technology in the classroom (V=Q10_2) __ Teaching Social Studies (V=Q10_9) __ Child development (V=Q10_3) __ Teaching English/Language Arts (V=Q10_10) __ Teaching reading/writing (V=Q10_4) __ Teaching Math (V=Q10_11) __ Specific learning disabilities (V=Q10_5) __ Teaching Science (V=Q10_12) __ Teacher Leadership Development (V=Q10_6) __ Urban Social Backgrounds (V=Q10_13) __ Developing social skills in students (V=Q10_7) __ Moral and Character Development (V=Q10_14) Other: (V=Q10_15)_______________________________________________________________ 113 . etc. (Value code is actual rank) __Professional requirements (V=Q7_1) __Professional advancement (V=Q7_2) __Personal satisfaction (V=Q7_3) __ Future requirement (V=Q7_4) __ Career change (V=Q7_5) ____ Increased employability (V=Q7_6) ____ Additional money (V=Q7_7) ____ Keep certification (V=Q7_8) ____ Upgrade certification (V=Q7_9) ____ Improving skills (V=Q7_10) Other: (V=Q7_11)________________________________________________________________ 8. 2=not checked) ____ Child/Elder Care (V=Q9_1) ____ Financial Need (V=Q9_2) ____ Family Commitments (V=Q9_3) ____ Travel (V=Q9_4) ____ Employment Schedule (V=Q9_5) Other: (V=Q9_1)_______________________________________________________________ 10. with "1" being your are of strongest interest. What professional development areas most interest you? Please rank the top three professional development areas that interest you. Please indicate from the list below which of the following might be anticipated as an obstacle to your enrolling in a masters level or graduate classes at Wittenberg? (Value code: 1=checked.Written and Video Cases 6. "2" your next most important reason. with "1" being your most important reason.
6:00 p.) Fall (Aug. . Name: __________________________________________________________________________ _ Address: __________________________________________________________________________ Thank you for your time and assistance.m.10:00 p.April) (V=Q12_2) Summer (May . .Dec. . . 114 .m. To assess the representativeness of the test cities in relation to the rollout plan. Which day and time scheduling option below most appeals to you? (Value codes: 1=checked.m.m.m. . . 2=not checked) (V=Q13_1) (V=Q13_2) (V=Q13_3) (V=Q13_4) (V=Q13_5) (V=Q13_6) Fall through Spring: Day (8:00 a. This case requires the student to assess the representativeness of the ten test cities in which the new catfish sandwich is being served in relation to three states in which this product will be rolled out.10:00 p.m. It asks the student to assume they are the new-product development team and assesses the research design described.) Fall through Spring: Saturday Summer Day (8:00 a.) If you would like to receive more information about graduate programming in education at TC.) Summer Evening: (6:00 p.m.m.4:00 p. We have compiled some preliminary data on each of the test cities as shown in the accompanying table.Written and Video Cases 11. How far would you have to drive to attend TC? (V=Q11) =1 under 10 minutes =4 31-45 minutes =2 10-20 minutes =5 46-60 minutes =3 21-30 minutes =6 more than 60 minutes 12. When during the year would you be able to take graduate courses (Check all that apply. . please put your name and mailing address below. There are a wide variety of sources that students can make use of. Case: McDonald’s Tests Catfish Sandwich Abstract: This case describes the test marketing for McDonald's catfish sandwich in the Southeastern USA. the student will have to collect secondary data on each of the test cities and the three states.) (V=Q12_1) Spring (Jan.) Fall through Spring: Evening (6:00 p. This was abstracted from the 1992 Rand McNally Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide.4:00 p.m.m. Please return the survey in the postage-paid envelope by March 20.) Fall through Spring: Late Afternoon (4:00 p.July) (V=Q12_3) 13.
172 70.100 11.298 8.229 21.284 12. Income 18. Used with Chapter 18.937 1.337 162.498 203.228 492.000 231.906 32.029 12. Given the extensive data set provided on your DVD.526 16. with Chapters 19-22 you discuss appropriate analytical techniques and interpretation of data.536 23.222 109.588 12.641 610. MS Tupelo.992 12.799 30.466 48.685 45. Used with Chapter 14.894 5. Used with Chapter 13.906 Case: NCRCC: Teeing Up a New Strategic Direction Abstract: NCR Country Club offers 36 holes of world-class golf and dining in a newly built clubhouse.226 18.533 1.200 7.178 362. Used with Chapter 8.291 8.000 18.669 14. and preferences in facilities.261 10. TN Chattanooga. you can build the managementresearch question hierarchy. It faces a future with an aging membership and seeks direction for changing operations to attract younger members.H. what to do with spouses' responses when both complete a questionnaire and other issues related to preliminary analysis planning. you can discuss the types of data being collected as well as reliability and validity issues.400 19.300 62.205 81. especially young families.326 528.714 372.350 617. AK Columbus. you could discuss coding the instrument.629 626.178 16.824 18.069 285. of H. multi-stage communication study of current members by McMahon Group.387 24. you can discuss sample frames. TN Huntsville.949 159.111 12. MS Greenville.200 64. This case has numerous tie-ins to various chapters. Used with Chapter 11. you can discuss the appropriate communication methods.316.390 56. Used with Chapter 4. you could discuss preliminary analysis planning. AL Jonesboro.070 21.789 46.475 R.H 16. as well as various methods for drawing a sample from a sample frame (membership list).McNally City Rating 3A 2AA 2A 3A 3-AA 3A 3A 3A 3A 4B Bowling Green.000 Median H. MS 40. This is also a perfect case to discuss reporting 115 . your students can construct the research process model up through data collection. you could discuss why a rating scale is appropriate to evaluate membership attitudes.Written and Video Cases City/State Population Per Capita Income 10.742 No. and screening for qualified respondents. Used with Chapter 15.800 15. The case describes a largescale. TN Jackson. Used with Chapters 16 and 17.096 23.959 265. MS Greenwood.826 Food Store Sales 105. orientations. KY Memphis.923.100 9. a golfcourse management specialist.769.989 66.323 22.902 38.894 Total Retail Sales 690.
While they had experienced success with attracting associate social membersthose using the dining facilities only they had not been successful attracting younger members with children. restrooms. wishes. especially those with children? Research question: Which new facilities (spa. add more social activities for adults. tennis. The research design does address the current members' likes.Written and Video Cases results. • Management questions: What facilities and services must we offer to attract younger full members. especially related to golf and dining facilities? Would current social members (users of only the dining facilities) change their current status (pay more) to have fitness. So student effort is not deflected by a questionable research design. or children) should the club pursue in order to attract new. it should become increasingly obvious that by collecting information only from current members. enlarge banquet room. This question gets the student in the habit of formulating the management-research question hierarchy (Chapter 3) as the beginning step of a research project. irrigation & draining) and dining facilities (enlarge bar. younger members with children and serve existing members more effectively? Investigative questions: • • • Your students should come up with some of the following related to current members: How do members perceive the image and personality of the club? What is the current members' evaluation of member service. you could have a discussion about why NCRCC management proceeded with the study given this flaw. A PDF of the NCR Study Codebook is also available from our Website. many of the items included in their list cannot be answered with the current research design. pool or tennis facilities? What facilities or services do younger members want? How often and which facilities do current members use? How satisfied are current members? Your students should come up with some of the following related to prospective members: How do non-members perceive the image and personality of the club? What facilities or services do prospective members want? Among "lost prospective members". what were their reasons for not joining? Do younger lost prospects' reasons for not joining differ from older lost prospects' reasons? Do the reasons of younger lost prospects without children differ from the reasons of those with children? • 2. Depending on where you use this case within the course. families. paddle tennis. pool. either as social or golf members. short-game. as the case provides a typical data table presented in the client report. The management dilemma facing NCR was an aging membership and a membership campaign that failed to attract younger members. fitness. A sample findings page and the codebook are included here. dislikes. As the students develop the investigative question list. and level of satisfaction. students 116 . bowling) or changes to existing golf facilities (driving. 1.
Given management's interest in the under-46-with-children subset. operating hours/days/months of new facilities. This actually makes the non-response error larger than it might originally appear. Sampling strategy should generate some lively discussion. Some will suggest that. Your students should be encouraged to discuss which of the different probability samples would have been appropriate for McMahon to use. and whether membership could include a bundle of several but not all facilities at different membership dues rates. 3. Some observant students will note that the questionnaire is designed to be scanned as a means of data entry. The data in the case suggests that they did not take this approach. Some students will argue that by hiring McMahon Group that NCRCC did have access to the attitudes of those who joined other country clubs. so that the options might be included in the 117 . While the club's dining (37 th Hole and Member Dining Room) and banquet facilities are open year round. They may also argue that McMahon Group did a focus group with nonmembers and the results may have indicated some similar concerns and attitudes between non-members and the under-46 members. a strong case can be made for a disproportionate. stratified. as the decision would affect all members. then one household's opinion could be double-counted. The fact that the case gives the confidence level and confidence interval for data interpretation clearly implies a probability sample. the transitions. the clean appearance. Others will note the opportunity for members to voice opinions not specifically requested by the core target questions and bemoan the coding problems associated with tallying such responses. Others will be concerned with duplication. timeframe of disruption to current operations caused by construction. types of disruptions to current operations to be expected. so a separate sample of non-members/prospective members was not needed. If both members and their spouses were sent questionnaires and both responded.Written and Video Cases should be focused on whether the measurement questions adequately address the scope of the information needed to make the change/build decision facing club management. and students should be asked to offer reasons why. under 46 year old professionals with children). timeframe members might need to make a membership status change decision. Others will wonder why a pretest wasn't done to generate likely answers to the third of these free-response questions. that a census was the appropriate approach. Students should positively evaluate the instructions. Their largest concern will be with the non-response error.g. Students should readily generate the following list: costand its impact on annual dues and monthly fees. the golf courses are not. probability sample. It is appropriate to ask the students to debate using only current members—and paying attention to the opinions expressed by those current members with children—or doing a companion study among nonmembers within the geographic market area that met a desired profile (e. The case does not provide information about the process of pulling the sample from the membership list. The discussion should focus on the scope of questions. and the consistency of scaling design. 4. First is the issue of not including any prospective members in the sampling design. You might find it valuable to remind your students that southwestern Ohio has an optimal golfing season of April through early November. Respondents were chosen only from the membership list (sampling frame). location of facilities on club groundswhat will members have to give up/be willing to give up.
A sample findings page is provided in Exhibit C-NCR 1-1. The full dataset is provided with this case to encourage the student to crunch numbers to their heart's content. You may import this Excel97 file from your DVD into SPSS or other data analysis package. Otherwise. 6. Each frequency page refers to a particular data table in a separate section. across the parking lot from its current location and near the short-game practice area. along with their extensive consulting experience with golf clubs. who must make the decision. McMahon is a consulting company with years of experience working with golf courses around the country. This case is perfect for determining a preliminary data analysis plan. in all likelihood served the purpose of generating such ideas. but the opportunity to actually get help arriving at a recommendation given those findings. The club did decide to build a fitness facility with an outdoor pool in an area where a grounds-keeper cottage was originally located. NCRCC should have asked for a formal oral presentation of results plus an extensive report of written findings. encourage your students to refer to their investigative questions to determine adequacy of scope and response strategy. in addressing question content. The companion table to Exhibit C-NCR 1-1 is provided in Exhibit C-NCR 1-2. their ages. The second of the free-response questions should generate some discussion of why no ranking scale relating to the considered changes/additions to facilities was used. While they ask age and presence of children under 21. or their fitness/activityrelated interests. McMahon re-coded the values after data entry to work more effectively with the order approach of SPSS. The codebook is located in Exhibit C-NCR 1-3. accessed from their DVD. They may find out by visiting the club's Web site. the students may be interested in what happened. we have no way of knowing the number of children. After they reach their own conclusions. Current plans call for the fitness center's construction to move the putting practice area to the far side of the current driving range. The McMahon Group NCRCC report gives no indication that subsets of specific groups are weighted when calculating overall percentages. Have your students give special attention to the classification questions. 5. not only a forum to discuss the findings. for doing statistical testing to determine patterns in the responses.Written and Video Cases target questions. etc. Those holding social memberships may upgrade to an associate status (fitness & dining) for a one-time $2000 fee plus an increase in annual dues. for determining what type of coding (and re-coding) is optimal. The actual written report contains dozens of charts and data tables (tables are similar to the one provided with the case). As a result. It also contains frequency responses to every question. The facility is expected to be open in summer of 2001. Students should be reminded that McMahon did do focus groups and that these. This would give the Board of Directors. You will note that the value codes do not correspond to the numbers on the questionnaire scales. Those currently holding a golf membership will experience only an increase in annual dues. The fitness facility will be served by the existing parking facility. 118 .
One third of respondents in this younger age group feel the club is currently a full service country club. and 8% feel it should be just a golf club. Full Service Country Club with limited activities for children Adult Golf and Dining Club Golf Club Primarily for Adults Current 6% 22% 63% 9% Should Be 22% 31% 39% 8% The majority of respondents (63%) feel the club currently is a golf and dining club primarily for adults. Responses varied considerably by age group and membership status.Written and Video Cases EXHIBIT C-NCRCC 1-1: Sample Frequency Findings Page Question 2: Which of the following best represents what you feel (1) is currently and (2) should be the primary purpose of NCR Country Club? Primary Purpose Family Oriented. yet 75% feel it should be. Reference: Table 2 119 . only 5% feel the club currently is family oriented and full service. either adult or family oriented. 53% of the respondents feel the club should be a full-service country club. Among respondents under age 46. 37% feel the club currently is a full service country club and 62% feel it should be full service. but 48% feel it should be. Only 28% of the respondents perceive the current purpose of the club to be a fullservice country club. 27% feel the club is currently a full service country club and 42% feel it should be. Among Associate members. 39% feel it should be a golf and dining club. Full Service Country Club with activities for children Adult Oriented. Among retired NCR employees. however. In the future.
unimportant=4. neutral=3. unimportant=4. 120 . missing=99. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. missing=99. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. golf=4 family-full=1. very important=1important=2. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. unimportant=4. unimportant=4. very unimportant=5. very important=1important=2. missing=99. neutral=3. golf and dining=3. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. neutral=3. missing=99. golf and dining=3. adult-full=2. adult-full=2. missing=99. very unimportant=5. golf=5 very important=1important=2. very important=1important=2. dissatisfied=5.Written and Video Cases EXHIBIT C-NCRCC 1-2: Sample Table Findings Page Table 2: GENERAL . neutral=3. unimportant=4. very unimportant=5.Q2: Which of the following best represents what you feel concerning the primary purpose of NCR Country Club? AGE Tota l % 6 22 63 9 779 % 22 31 39 8 753 Under 46 % 5 28 57 10 146 % 48 27 17 8 144 46-55 % 6 22 57 16 180 % 18 36 39 6 171 56-65 % 7 22 65 6 199 % 12 32 49 7 198 over 65 % 6 19 70 5 233 % 14 28 46 11 219 GENDER male % 7 20 64 10 407 % 21 27 42 9 387 fem ale % 6 24 62 7 311 % 21 36 37 6 302 MEMBER MBR % 6 21 62 10 468 % 21 27 43 9 458 SPO % 6 24 63 6 311 % 22 36 35 7 295 CHILDREN at home yes no % 5 29 53 13 175 % 49 27 15 8 168 % 6 20 66 8 566 % 13 31 47 9 553 MEMBER TENURE 1990prior % 6 22 64 8 462 % 15 28 46 11 441 19911994 % 7 22 56 15 89 % 28 32 31 9 87 1995now % 6 22 63 8 203 % 32 38 28 3 199 MEMBERSHIP STATUS NCR empl % 3 24 60 13 181 % 26 29 34 11 174 RET/ RIFd % 5 18 69 8 308 % 14 28 47 10 287 Assoc MBR % 10 27 57 6 237 % 26 36 34 5 239 MEMBERSHIP CLASS Fam Sing Oth ily le er % % % 4 8 8 22 23 23 64 61 62 9 9 8 371 % 23 27 42 7 354 208 % 16 22 46 16 198 183 % 24 44 29 3 185 Currently Family-Full Ser Adult-Full Serv Golf & Dining Golf TOTAL COUNT Should Be Family-Full Ser Adult-Full Serv Golf & Dining Golf TOTAL COUNT Exhibit C-NCRCC 1-3: NCRCC Study Codebook Q# 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Variable X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 Variable Label Overall satisfaction currently should be meet new friends location-home location-work club social functions friend members parents members exclusivity Value Codes very satisfied=1. missing=99. missing=99. very important=1important=2. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. missing=99 family-full=1. very important=1important=2. unimportant=4. unimportant=4. very unimportant=5.
very important=1important=2. agree=2. neutral=3. satisfied=2. neutral=3. very unimportant=5. unimportant=4. neutral=3. missing=99. 121 . neutral=3. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. missing=99. neutral=3. satisfied=2. unimportant=4. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. missing=99. unimportant=4. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. missing=99. very important=1important=2. missing=99. unimportant=4. very important=1important=2. very satisfied=1. unimportant=4. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. missing=99. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. very satisfied=1. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. unimportant=4. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. unimportant=4. neutral=3. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. strongly disagree=5. neutral=3. very important=1important=2. unimportant=4. neutral=3. yes=1. very unimportant=5. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. very unimportant=5. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. strongly agree=1. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. neutral=3. neutral=3. very unimportant=5. very unimportant=5. satisfied=2. missing=99. unimportant=4. neutral=3. missing=99. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. unimportant=4. disgree=4. very dissatisfied=5. very unimportant=5. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. very satisfied=1. very important=1important=2. disgree=4. yes=1. very important=1important=2. very unimportant=5. missing=99.Written and Video Cases Exhibit C-NCRCC 1-3: NCRCC Study Codebook Q# 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 8A 8B 8C 9 9 9 Variable X11 X12 X13 X14 X15 X16 X17 X18 X19 X20 X21 X22 X23 X24 X25 X26 X27 X28 X29 X30 X31 X32 X33 X34 X35 X36 X37 X38 X39 X40 X41 X42 X43 X44 Variable Label NCR affiliation competitive initiation fee private parties reputation of club dining golf 36 holes of golf top 100 course board communication board representativeness club committee effectiveness management effectiveness management responsiveness service level golf dining club social functions private parties childrens activities family activities golf dining club social functions private parties childrens activities family activities good value sufficient activities internet access Web site awareness email notification upcoming events activities and stories club business Value Codes very important=1important=2. neutral=3. no=2. very satisfied=1. very unimportant=5. very dissatisfied=5. strongly agree=1. missing=99. very satisfied=1. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. missing=99. unimportant=4. dissatisfied=4. very important=1important=2. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. satisfied=2. missing=99. neutral=3. no=2. neutral=3. no=2. very satisfied=1. unimportant=4. missing=99. satisfied=2. neutral=3. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. agree=2. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. missing=99. yes=1. missing=99. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. missing=99. very important=1important=2. very unimportant=5. very unimportant=5. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. missing=99. very important=1important=2. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. strongly disagree=5. unimportant=4. very important=1important=2. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. unimportant=4. missing=99. very important=1important=2. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. missing=99. missing=99. satisfied=2. missing=99. missing=99.
dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. missing=99. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. neutral=3. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. neutral=3. missing=99. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. missing=99.Written and Video Cases Exhibit C-NCRCC 1-3: NCRCC Study Codebook Q# 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 Variable X45 X46 X47 X48 X49 X50 X51 X52 X53 X54 X55 X56 X57 X58 X59 X60 X61 X62 X63 X64 X65 X66 X67 X68 X69 X70 X71 X72 X73 X74 X75 X76 X77 X78 Variable Label newsletter appearance newsletter timeliness club communication in general course layout overall course condition course landscaping condition of tees condition of fairways condition of greens condition of bunkers irrigation drainage cart paths restrooms availability restrooms condition drinking water availability beverage card availability course layout overall course condition course landscaping condition of tees condition of fairways condition of greens condition of bunkers irrigation drainage cart paths restrooms availability restrooms condition drinking water availability beverage card availability interior appearance shop cleanliness merchandise selection Value Codes very satisfied=1. neutral=3. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. very satisfied=1. missing=99. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. missing=99. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. satisfied=2. neutral=3. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. missing=99. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. missing=99. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. satisfied=2. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. missing=99. neutral=3. missing=99. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. satisfied=2. missing=99. missing=99. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. missing=99. missing=99. 122 . missing=99. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. neutral=3. neutral=3. neutral=3. neutral=3. neutral=3. missing=99. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. missing=99.
satisfied=2. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. fine as is=3. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. missing=4 excessive=1. 123 . missing=99. satisfied=2. neutral=3. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99 excessive=1. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. missing=99. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. not quite enough=4. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. not quite enough=4. somewhat excessive=2. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. missing=99. satisfied=2. missing=99. neutral=3. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. fine as is=3. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4.Written and Video Cases Exhibit C-NCRCC 1-3: NCRCC Study Codebook Q# 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 Variable X79 X80 X81 X82 X83 X84 X85 X86 X87 X88 X89 X90 X91 X92 X93 X94 X95 X96 X97 X98 X99 X100 X101 X102 X103 X104 X105 X106 X107 X108 X109 X110 X111 X112 Variable Label pro shop service pro shop prices pro lessons bag drop service bag storage and club cleaning cart service cart cleanliness practice range-condition practice range-size range ball condition speed of play tournaments-quality tournaments-value for price tournament format adult golf programs junior golf programs reservation system halfway house-hours of operation halfway house-service halfway house-menu variety open member play guest use junior play scheduled events non-member outings-Mondays non-member outings-other support caddy program staff appearance-37th speed of service-37th friendliness of wait staff-37th professionalism of wait staff-37th staff appearance-DR speed of service-DR friendliness of wait staff-DR Value Codes very satisfied=1. not quite enough=4. missing=99. neutral=3. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. not quite enough=4. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. very satisfied=1. not enough=5. fine as is=3. dissatisfied=4. excessive=1. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. fine as is=3. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. satisfied=2. neutral=3. missing=99. missing=99. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. neutral=3. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. missing=99. missing=99. missing=99. missing=99. missing=99. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. agree=2. missing=99. somewhat excessive=2. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. somewhat excessive=2. satisfied=2. neutral=3. not enough=5. missing=99. neutral=3. neutral=3. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. somewhat excessive=2. not quite enough=4. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. missing=99. very satisfied=1. not enough=5. dissatisfied=4. missing=2 excessive=1. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. missing=99. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. not quite enough=4. not enough=5. satisfied=2. missing=5 strongly agree=1. missing=99. very satisfied=1. missing=99. satisfied=2. fine as is=3. not enough=5. missing=99. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. somewhat excessive=2. somewhat excessive=2. disgree=4. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. not enough=5. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. missing=1 excessive=1. very dissatisfied=5. fine as is=3. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. missing=99. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. strongly disagree=5. missing=3 excessive=1.
satisfied=2. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. very unimportant=5. satisfied=2. unimportant=4. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. neutral=3. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. satisfied=2. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. missing=99. neutral=3. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. very important=1important=2. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. neutral=3. satisfied=2. missing=99. missing=99. very satisfied=1. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. very satisfied=1. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. unimportant=4. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. very satisfied=1. missing=99. dissatisfied=4.Written and Video Cases Exhibit C-NCRCC 1-3: NCRCC Study Codebook Q# 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 Variable X113 X114 X115 X116 X117 X118 X119 X120 X121 X122 X123 X124 X125 X126 X127 X128 X129 X130 X131 X132 X133 X134 X135 X136 X137 X138 X139 X140 X141 X142 X143 X144 X145 X146 Variable Label professionalism of wait staff-DR staff appearance-PP speed of service-PP friendliness of wait staff-PP professionalism of wait staff-PP food quality-37th food quality-37th menu to meal consistency-37th menu variety-37th ambiance-37th wine list-37th value for price-37th food quality-DR food presentation-DR meal to meal consistency-DR menu variety-DR ambiance-DR wine list-DR value for price-DR food quality-PP food presentation-PP meal to meal consistency-PP menu variety-PP ambiance-PP wine list-PP value for price-PP party planning assistance-PP party follow-up-PP casual adult dining casual family dining formal dining outdoor dining mens grill womens grill Value Codes very satisfied=1. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. very important=1important=2. unimportant=4. missing=99. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. satisfied=2. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. neutral=3. neutral=3. satisfied=2. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. missing=99. dissatisfied=4. very unimportant=5. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. very unimportant=5. satisfied=2. neutral=3. missing=99. very unimportant=5. very dissatisfied=5. very important=1important=2. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. neutral=3. neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. very satisfied=1. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. very dissatisfied=5. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. missing=99. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. very unimportant=5. missing=99. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. neutral=3. neutral=3. neutral=3. missing=99. very satisfied=1. neutral=3. missing=99. very satisfied=1. missing=99. missing=99. very satisfied=1. missing=99. unimportant=4. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. very dissatisfied=5. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. missing=99. very satisfied=1. satisfied=2. missing=99. neutral=3. unimportant=4. missing=99. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. very satisfied=1. unimportant=4. satisfied=2. 124 . neutral=3. dissatisfied=4. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. very important=1important=2. very dissatisfied=5. missing=99. satisfied=2. satisfied=2. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. neutral=3. neutral=3. very dissatisfied=5. neutral=3. very satisfied=1. dissatisfied=4. missing=99. very satisfied=1.
40%=7. missing=99. missing=99. very unimportant=5. missing=99. neutral=3. missing=99. no=2. disgree=4. missing=99. neutral=3. neutral=3. very important=1important=2. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. missing=99. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. much higher=5. neutral=3. missing=99. strongly agree=1. somewhat higher=4. unimportant=4. neutral=3. agree=2. strongly disagree=1. very unimportant=5. missing=99. very important=1important=2. yes=1. missing=99. much lower=1. agree=2. about the same=3. very important=1important=2. somewhat higher=4. 50% or more=8. missing=99. strongly disagree=5. somewhat higher=4. 5%=2. missing=99. unimportant=4. very important=1important=2. strongly agree=1. very unimportant=5. disgree=4. disgree=4. unimportant=4. much lower=1. unimportant=4. neutral=3. unimportant=4. very important=1important=2. about the same=3. unimportant=4. missing=99. no=2. very unimportant=5. missing=99. about the same=3. yes=1. very important=1important=2. unimportant=4. missing=99. much higher=5. no=2. somewhat lower=2. unimportant=4. neutral=3. somewhat lower=2. about the same=3. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. missing=99. much lower=1. missing=99. agree=2. very important=1important=2. missing=99. very important=1important=2. 15%=4. very unimportant=5.30%=6. missing=99. unimportant=4. much lower=1. somewhat higher=4. strongly agree=1. yes=1. unimportant=4. missing=99. neutral=3. disgree=4. much higher=5. much higher=5. missing=99. missing=99. somewhat higher=4. agree=2. agree=2. neutral=3. nothing=1. very unimportant=5. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. no=2. unimportant=4. neutral=3. about the same=3. very important=1important=2. missing=99. strongly disagree=5. 20%=5. somewhat lower=2. somewhat lower=2. about the same=3. very unimportant=5. no=2. somewhat higher=4. very important=1important=2. unimportant=4. much higher=5. disgree=4. missing=99. very unimportant=5. very unimportant=5. unimportant=4. yes=1. yes=1. neutral=3.Written and Video Cases Exhibit C-NCRCC 1-3: NCRCC Study Codebook Q# 16 16 16 16 16 16 Variable X147 X148 X149 X150 X151 X152 Variable Label lunch dinner private parties social events wine cocktails non-smoking members dining room 37th hole members bar/lounge private function rooms locker rooms add a swimming pool add tennis courts add health/fitness facility add paddle tennis courts add bowling alley add spa facilities provide more social activities provide more family activities provide more childrens activities add year-round driving range enlarge bar/lounge area enlarge banquet room provide better pedestrian access improve golf driving range improve golf short game practice area modify north course modify south course higher dues dues increase eliminate outings-other days half Monday and all other days eliminate all outings Value Codes much lower=1. very unimportant=5. strongly disagree=5. missing=99. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. neutral=3. unimportant=4. much lower=1. strongly agree=1. missing=99. very unimportant=5. missing=99. neutral=3. neutral=3. 10%=3. very unimportant=5. very unimportant=5. very important=1important=2. neutral=3. very unimportant=5. much higher=5. unimportant=4. neutral=3. 17A X153 17B X154 17B X155 17B X156 17B X157 17B X158 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 X159 X160 X161 X162 X163 X164 X165 X166 X167 X168 X169 X170 X171 X172 X173 X174 X175 20A X176 20B X177 21A X178 21B X179 21C X180 125 . unimportant=4. somewhat lower=2. missing=99. strongly disagree=5. very important=1important=2. strongly agree=1. very unimportant=5. neutral=3. very important=1important=2. unimportant=4. missing=99. somewhat lower=2. very important=1important=2.
1971-1980=2.5 then 1=family golf. 1995-present=6 yes=1. 5=non-resident NCR-employee=1. yes=1.2. NCR-ret/RIFd=2. 9-11 mo=2. 46=55=3. 3=social. 56-65=4. no=2. 8-15 miles=3. 5=66-75. 2=female 126 . 4-7 miles=2.3. yes=1. 4=56-65. no=2. neutral=3. spouse=2 COMPUTE. disgree=4. over 65=5. yes=1. missing=99. 1970 or before=1. 6=over 75 if x185=1. agree=2. no=2. 4-7 miles=2. yes=1. strongly disagree=5.2. strongly agree=1.2. no=2. 1986-1990=4. Not applicable-retired=5. Associate member=3. 2=36-45. social=3. single golf=2. 6-8 mo=3. male=1. 4=corporate. agree=2. 0-3 miles=1. 4=corporate. more than 15 miles. 3=46-55. no=2.9 then 1=male. no=2. less than 6 mo=4 MBR=1.Written and Video Cases Exhibit C-NCRCC 1-3: NCRCC Study Codebook Q# 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 Variable X181 X182 X183 X184 X185 X186 X187 X188 X189 X190 X191 X192 X193 X194 X195 X196 X197 member dummy status age gender Variable Label one course always open bundle all fees and charges membership class membership status gender age home from club business from club membership tenure children in home another golf/country club membership swim/tennis club membership fitness/health club membership city/dining club membership fraternal club membership none reside in area Value Codes strongly agree=1. 5=nonresident if x186=1. no=2.5 then 1=under 36. strongly disagree=5. female=2 under 46=2. total=1 if x183=1.4. yes=1. family golf=1. yes=1.3. disgree=4. neutral=3. more than 15 miles=4 0-3 miles=1. 2=single golf. 1981-1985=3. year round=1.4. 8-15 miles=3. missing=99. 1991-1994=5.
1. • • • Management questions: What should be done to improve the overall appeal and effectiveness of the Web site to frequent users? How can KBB encourage car shoppers and car buyers to continuously return to the site? What steps can KBB take to ensure continued increases in revenue? Research questions: Should the design of the Web site be modified to include more available hot-links to users? Should the current KBB logo be changed to a hot-link. This case can serve as a preface for students as a preliminary step to starting a research project. It prepares them to build the management-research question hierarchy (Chapter 4) and Exhibit 4-1 can be used as a guide throughout this process. This question can be used as a group exercise where students take segments of the model and relate them to the design of the case. Employing NetConversions TrueUsability assessment methodology. you can assign a group to look at data collection method used by NetC and another to look at sampling from the script overlay technique used. Using the research process model (Exhibit 4-1). Increased traffic to its Web site. You can also have students review the research process stages and compare them to the steps taken by NetC. taking users to the home page or should it remain as a graphic on each page? Should KBB shorten the length of its pages and increase partner links? Investigative questions: How effective are the available partner links in assisting customers? in generating revenue? How do current customers view the available hotlinks in terms of ease of use and user friendliness? How long must customers wait before each hot-link loads? How likely are customers to scroll through a page to find the information they seek regardless of the page length? Are customers not returning to the site because of information that the site fails to provide? What aspects of the site encourage users to return? What is the overall satisfaction with the KBB Website? 2. The management dilemma facing KBB is how to redesign its Web site so as to encourage continued use of the site by car buyers. You can also use Chapter 16 to discuss the sampling method used by NetC throughout its Hill Climbing mode of analysis. For example. is a major source of revenue for KBB. KBB aims at enhancing its Web site in an effort to encourage car buyers to return to the site and generate revenue. Therefore making changes to their site as effective as possible for users is another dilemma faced. where students will begin to identify the make up of a research design from the data collection stages through to the analysis. Develop the Management Research Question hierarchy through investigative questions for this project. Not all research will incorporate every step listed in the 127 .Written and Video Cases Case: NetConversions Influences Kelley Blue Book Abstract: The case describes a study conducted by NetConversions for Kelley Blue Book (KBB). as stated. describe and evaluate the research design of this project. This case also ties in to Chapter 8. a publisher of detailed costs as well as other data on cars.
Based on NetC’s findings KBB implemented changes to its Web site (including additional drop down boxes. Every visitor during the randomly chosen time blocks became part of the sample and page-views. True Usability. Here NetC generated a random sample of visitors. hours were used as the time block). NetC uses an algorithm to generate a random sample of visitors to the tested Web site. Some studies will incorporate activities such as pilot testing to test weaknesses in a study’s design. The results from Hill Climbing indicated significant changes for KBB to make. The second phase of the study. For the Kelley Blue Book Web site test. KBB could have been conducting internal research that may have pointed to decreased revenue due to reduced traffic to its Web site. A scrolling analysis was another tool used by NetC. You can discuss the reasons why many of the recommended changes from the Hill Climbing method were utilized. Hill Climbing. This included a click density analysis. scrolling and clicking behaviors of those visitors were tracked. the algorithm selected one of approximately every 1000 visitors and exposed them to the Web 128 .Written and Video Cases research process model in Exhibit 4-1. NetConversions used probability sampling. KBB may have also been receiving complaints from its partners that customers experienced difficulty using the site or that the site was not effective. KBB saw an increase in its revenue. Net Conversions randomly chose specific time blocks (either hours or days depending on the history of visitors to site being evaluated—for the KKB site. Having set a desired sample size. Describe and evaluate the sampling design for this project With both True Usability and Hill Climbing. the latter. • NetConverions utilized its TrueUsability methodology. For the first phase. The Hill Climbing process. the shortening of several pages as well as the creation of pop-up windows). where a script overlay technique was used as a way of comparing page designs with a test group. You can also ask students to identify some of the weaknesses in the design of the study. Identifying the need to make changes to its Web site to encourage customers to return commenced the exploratory stages of the KBB project. an algorithm to randomly select site visitors. did however utilize a more structured form of sampling technique. The first used time sampling. which tracked the movement of each visitor to the site. where the usefulness of a shorter page rather than a longer page was determined based on the visitor’s scroll through screens on the site. You can ask students what other options NetC might have used other than time sampling to generate a probability sample. used for testing individual changes to a Web site. and how NetC could have benefited from employing different methods. Both True Usability and Hill Climbing used probability sampling. • • • • 3. time sampling was used. which involved different subsets of analysis as a way of tracking how visitors used the site. Though students may question this stage of the research.
through exploration of the different stages of the study. climb stairs. Such individuals may be able to undertake some amount of physical activity. Students may debate the use of the characteristics ODO utilized to define a person with a disability. rich with discussions and will get students in the habit of thinking like researchers. The definition created by ODO was evidently geared towards disabilities that physically limited individuals. Ask students to discuss the implications of such a definition on the findings. How did ODO operationalize the definition of an adult with a disability? What arguments could you make that the definition was too inclusive or too narrow? ODO narrowly defined the characteristics of a disability. 129 . However. The driving force behind this research was the apprehension that the hospitality industry (airlines. students will be able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different data collection mechanisms given the nature and purpose of the research. while exploring varying data collection methodologies such as on-line surveys and phone interviews (Chapter 11). and why the ODO study chose a hybrid method to allow for a representative sample.. and if this sample would be a true reflection of the disabled population’s view of the travel industry. This definition excludes many individuals who are disabled and who travel on a regular basis. This included permanence of the disability and exclusion of persons with mental or emotional disorders. reach. as they operationally define concepts (Chapter 3). You can use this question as an opportunity to ask students how they would define an adult with a disability. Ask students whether or not a random sample was the best sample methodology or if stratified sampling might have been advantageous given different reasons for visiting the KBB site. This case is applicable to various chapters. Additionally. 1.g. It inevitably excludes persons with severe conditions where their disability may not be visible. hotels. As such. You can ask students why ODO chose to limit persons with disabilities to these conditions (e. students will be able to formulate management. it served to place considerable focus on persons with only physically limiting disabilities including those who are blind or deaf. an advocacy group that addresses disability related issues and challenges. As such. cruise lines and restaurants) failed to acknowledge and fully accommodate the disability travel market. This definition was influenced by the 2000 US Census. Ask students to consider persons with mild to moderate symptoms of Parkinson’s disease or those who may be autistic. for an adult to be categorized as being disabled that person must be blind. Their aim through this research is to show that the disability travel market has not been entirely explored and that it is financially viable. the purpose of the study and the assumption that persons who are physically impaired are less likely to travel due to the industry’s failure to provide adequate accommodations). Case: Open Doors: Extending Hospitality to Travelers with Disabilities Abstract: This case describes a multistage study conducted by Open Doors Organization (ODO). lift or carry things. research and investigative questions. they are still classified as being disabled yet provide economic impact to the travel industry.Written and Video Cases site design change. Based on the study. critically analyze various aspects of a research design (Chapter 8). deaf or have a condition that prevented them from being able to walk.
Written and Video Cases
2. Analyze the research design’s various components. Identify any potential problems and explain the ramifications of these design issues. Identify potential strengths of the design. This question prepares students to explore the various facets of the research design. You can use Chapter 6 as a guide to analyzing the steps ODO employed during its research. ODO performed an exploratory study starting with 13 participants in focus groups where their intent was to understand the language of disabled persons. Representative organizations were requested to augment questionnaire design, and teams finalized the questionnaire with a focus on airline and hotel operations. Their goal was to: Estimate the economic impact of the disability community on the travel industry. Measure the travel behaviors of adults with disabilities, such as how often they traveled, the amount of money they spent, who they traveled with, and the sources of information they relied on. Determine how well airlines, cruise lines, restaurants and hotels, met the needs of adults with disabilities. Quantify what services and products would encourage adults with disabilities to travel more. Their data collection method included a dual-modality survey (via telephone and online) conducted with 534 online participants completing surveys and 503 interviews carried out via telephone. This type of methodology allowed for a more representative sample, as it gave persons who are limited by sight, the ability to participate through phone interviews, while accommodating others with speech impediments through the online survey. This approach potentially excludes persons who are deaf and without access to a computer. There are also persons who are disabled who may be in assisted living or other residential location often not equipped with a computer. Though these persons may have some amount of supervision, due to their disability, they may travel on holidays to see family and would therefore be useful to this study. However, these persons may not be reached based on the chosen methodology. As such, the result may not be a true representation of how often this disabled population travel, with whom, as well as the sources of information they relied on. ODO conducted its own focus groups with the assistance of a consultant, using participants who were all disabled, so as to be able to appropriately identify the issues faced by disabled persons and create an understanding of the language common to this group. This research environment (lab conditions) strengthened the design of the study as it gave more credibility to study’s methodology and research findings. The purpose of the study conducted by ODO is descriptive in nature, as they aimed to ascertain: What services and products would encourage adults with disabilities to travel How often they traveled How well their needs are met by airlines, cruise lines, hotels and restaurants Who they traveled with
Written and Video Cases
How much they spent when they traveled
For the purpose of this study, ODO chose to narrow the scope of the research. ODO chose to focus on the airline and hotel industry, giving less attention to restaurants and cruises. Students may argue that the decision to not focus on the cruise line industry creates the assumption that this may not be an economically viable arena, where disability issues are concerned. However, cruising may be a market that disabled persons would want to explore and could prove financially viable for persons interested in the study’s findings. While students may comment that the narrowing of the scope of the study limited feedback from persons who visit restaurants regularly, and are less likely to fly (consider quadriplegics), you should point out that it is common practice in research to narrow a study depending on time and budget considerations. Students could be asked to hypothesize about a follow-up study for restaurants and cruises (in fact, ODO is currently studying those aspects of the hospitality industry that it could not include in its first round study).
3. What is a hybrid (dual-modality) methodology? What are the pros and cons of the hybrid methodology used in this study? A. A hybrid or dual-modality method is a technique used by researchers, where two data collection procedures are incorporated (in this case) to allow for more representative sampling. Here ODO utilized an online survey, which was supplemented by phone interviews. Ask students to consider persons with disabilities who may still be excluded from the sample drawn because of the methodology chosen and discuss the implications.
The phone interviews and online survey allowed for a more representative sample. The method used accommodated persons with visual impairments via phone interviews as well as those with hearing or speech impediments via online surveys. The method allowed for more flexibility with different scaling methods, where Harris Interactive used both a proprietary and propensity weighting process. This gave them the ability to appropriately gauge questions given the method in which participants took part in the study. Attitudinal and behavioral questions were used to weight online participants, as they were thought to be better informed. The hybrid method used in this study would also provide a more comprehensive analysis of the research findings.
CONS: Given the varying details involved in the study, this can be a very costly and time consuming method Requires persons equipped with specialized experience and skill, particularly given the nature and sensitivity of the target group The dual method used may yield differential results as phone interviews allow the participant to clarify questions that are ambiguous as the questions are being administered. Online participants do not have this advantage, therefore they respond to the questions within a frame of reference that may include misunderstanding of the question’s intent.
Written and Video Cases
4. Francie Turk had no prior experience with researching Americans with disabilities. Assume you have similar background, what would you have done in the exploratory phase of this project to become familiar with the frustrations and hurdles that adults with disabilities face when traveling? Compare your research process with what ODO did. What could ODO have gained from incorporating your methods? The case indicates that little research had been carried out by companies on the disability travel market. This suggests that only limited secondary data may have existed; however, the study did not make clear to what extent the available data was used. An exploration of prior studies done by companies is a good first step in providing further insight into the issues faced by disabled travelers. Travel industry lobbying organizations and member associations may have sponsored such studies. It may have been secondary data that encouraged ODO to focus first on the hotel and airline segments of the travel industry, or the existence of studies in these divisions of the industry might have led ODO to believe that these industries would initially be more receptive. To gain first hand knowledge of the hurdles faced by disabled travelers, a participant observation is an option. Here participants could be observed in the natural setting. The ODO study utilized focus groups made up of persons with disabilities in their own organization, which added realism to their initial efforts. Given their network, it would have been possible to extend this phase of the study to enhance the depth and richness of exploratory information. (Reference techniques in Chapter 9.) Unstructured personal interviews could also be used as a tool to understand and become more familiar with hurdles faced by disabled travelers. Though the focus groups did utilize actual disabled individuals, IDIs could reveal problems or issues persons would not feel comfortable revealing in a group setting. 5. Brainstorm lists of potential hotel, restaurant, and rental car accommodations to be evaluated for adults with disabilities and create your own paired comparison question. During a phone interview, how quickly could you cover this question? What are the pros and cons to using this measurement scale in the phone survey in comparison to using it in the online survey? This is an opportune time to discuss different ranking scales used in research. This can be done as a group exercise, where students can brainstorm potential accommodations and create paired comparison questions a group.
Written and Video Cases
Using accommodations that restaurants may provide, here is an example: For each pair of accommodation listed, place a check beside the one you would most prefer if you had to choose between the two, when visiting your favorite restaurant. ___ menu in brail ___ accessible lavatory ___convenient parking ___menu in brail ___server proficient in ASL ___menu in brail ___ accessible lavatory ___ convenient parking ___ server proficient in ASL ___ convenient parking ___accessible lavatory ___server proficient in ASL
During a phone interview, this question could be covered in a short period of time, but this would be dependent on the respondent, the amount of thought given to the question, and/or the relevance of each accommodation listed. There are disadvantages to using this measurement scale in a phone survey, compared to using it in an online survey: PROS: Interviewer is able to clarify questions that the respondent may have, or explain areas that may be confusing. Administering the survey online does not allow this. Paired-comparison scales have the potential of being lengthy. Participants who complete this online may loose interest and fail to complete but have visual cues. An interviewer is better able to gauge the time and detect when respondents are becoming restless and find ways to prevent this. CONS: This measurement scale in a phone survey may take a longer time to yield results, while if it were done online there would be a shorter turnaround of results Using this scale via the phone limits the ability to use graphics to enhance the survey's appeal. Using this measure online would allow for the use of graphical displays to further simplify the survey or entertain participants
What are the management, research and investigative questions driving the next Adults with Disabilities: Travel and Hospitality Study? Using student teams to brainstorm these questions is a good way to familiarize the student with the management-research question hierarchy. Management question: How can ODO determine if a boost in customer satisfaction and travel business is as a result of improved training and accommodations made by firms?
134 . which can motivate a discussion of the gain in degrees of freedom resulting from using regression on the complete data set.4. At first glance. you can introduce the notion of dummy variables as intercept shifters and interactive terms as slope shifters. This case can be a natural transition for regression models with dummy variables. General Comments The key to this case is doing background graphical analysis of your data before performing summary statistics. Once the students see that two distinct lines need to be modeled.04 and the simple regression model of LATE on BILL gives an estimated slope coefficient of -0. The student is asked to recommend a slogan to the marketing department based on an analysis of the results. A simple scatterplot of LATE against BILL gives a completely different story. these two groups show up clearly on a scatterplot. there appears to be no relationship between the size of the bill and the number of days the payment is late. The relationship between BILL and LATE is positive for residential accounts and negative for commercial accounts. Some students will attempt to split the data into two samples.01 with a t ratio of -0. The case indicates that half of the bills are from residential customers and half are from commercial accounts. The correlation between LATE and BILL is -0. He suspects that the amount of time is determined by the size of the delinquent account and draws a sample of accounts to determine if he is correct.Written and Video Cases Research questions: Can increased online reservations made by disabled persons be used to gauge improvement in the travel business? Is improved training and accommodations provided by firms a useful link to customer relationship management? Is an increase in travel by the disabled population indicative of a boost in customer satisfaction with the travel business? Investigative questions: How significant are the existing improvements in the travel business? How does the growth in travel compare to prior changes made by firms? What types of accommodations and training have been made and are these changes significant? Is the increase in customer satisfaction as a result of enhanced training or the accommodations made by firms? Case: Overdue Bills Abstract: A collection agency accountant is evaluating the time it takes to collect delinquent accounts so that an advertising slogan can be developed.
* * *** * residential . you might ask for a show of hands of who believes that the variables LATE and BILL are unrelated. Rather.** * * ** *** * * ** 70+ *** ** * * * ** *** * * * * * * * * * **** * * * * 35+ ** ** ***** ** * . or perhaps assemble a group of people. You might just ask. how? Scatterplot of LATE versus BILL LATE 105+ * commercial . Your students may discover that the variable BILL is repeated and reordered for the residential and commercial groups. Does the size of the bill somehow relate to the number of days the payment is late? If so. Discussion Questions 1. Pick one person. "Well. If this happens. but it is 31 for the residential customers.Written and Video Cases To address the issue of the money-back guarantee. students can calculate regression lines of LATE on BILL and use the line to find the bill sizes that meet the 60-day guideline. Everyone in the class may discover the key.5 for the commercial customers.--*-------**+---------+---------+---------+---------+ 50 100 150 200 250 300 BILL Suggestions for Discussion It is probably best not to ask the last question above. Does your answer to either of the above questions depend upon whether the customer is a residential or commercial customer? If so. what did you do to account for the differences in the residential and commercial customers?" Typical Results and Approaches The mean number of late days for the group as a whole is 50. What recommendation do you have about the feasibility of the 60-day money-back guarantee? 2. and 68. how? 3. Then ask who believes that they are related. for each category and ask the groups to lead the class discussion for the day. the mean and standard deviation for BILL are $174 and $78 for both 135 . since this leads directly to the answer. there is still a good chance that different students took different approaches to solve the problem.
Used with Chapter 16 and 17. your students can build the research process model up through data collection.013 BILL RESIDENTIAL: LATE = 2. This case has numerous tie-ins to various chapters. training. Used with Chapter 14. you can have students develop an internal proposal for the study designed. quantitative ones. Used with Chapter 6.002 0.0. and why the personal. Used with Chapters 5 and 9. as well as qualitative studies vs. you can discuss the appropriate communication methods.17 BILL COMMERCIAL: LATE = 102 .7 3.19 BILL N 96 48 48 t-ratio -0. Used with Chapter 13. you can discuss the place of non-probability sampling in business research.957 s 23.3 -31. you can build the managementresearch question hierarchy.5 3. The regression equations for the overall sample and the residential and commercial subsamples are: POOLED: LATE = 52 . This question gets the student in the habit of formulating the management-research question hierarchy (Chapter 5) as the beginning step of a research project.933 0.8 R2 0. Used with Chapter 11. as well as the use of syndicated D. rather than the less formal method Ramada selected. This is also a perfect case to use to discuss multi-stage studies. RFS needed to prevent this industry trend in declining service among mid-tier hotels from influencing Ramada customers' perceived and actual service level.4 25.K. 1. you can discuss the types of exploratory and qualitative research used. you could discuss how an interview script might have been used. Used with Chapter 8. Shifflet research and the data mining necessary to identify that the service problem surfacing in other mid-tier hotels had not yet affected Ramada. Used with Chapter 4.2 Case: Ramada Demonstrates its Personal Best™ Abstract: This case describes syndicated research in the hospitality industry that revealed trends in customer satisfaction and Ramada's proprietary research leading to the development of the Personal Best™ employee hiring.0. and motivation might RFS develop and implement chain-wide that would prevent declining service among Ramada's customers? Research question: What characteristics are indicative of workers capable of delivering exceptional customer service? Which employee characteristics should be used in hiring Ramada workers? Which approaches to training are exceptional-service firms using? Which of these can be adapted to Ramada's franchisees? What employee motivational programs can sustain exceptional customer service? Investigative questions: Students should be able to use their personal experience to help them identify some of the following as investigative questions: What skills and • • • 136 . face-to-face interview was selected. you can discuss the types of data being collected as well as reliability and validity issues. Management questions: What programs in hiring.Written and Video Cases the commercial and residential accounts. training and motivation program.2 + 0. • Management dilemma: Customers frequenting mid-tier hotels noted declining service levels.
It is from this best-practice exploration via expert interviews that Ramada identified the three areas of possible change. and employee motivation programs. but rather a stable trend in perceived customer service. Research Proposal: RFS is a management company that serves the various 900 Ramada franchisees. would have been a major step in the research process. Finally. RFS also subscribed to Shifflet's study of customer perceptions' of hospitality service. B. 137 . as the financing for such programs comes from them. would be willing to participate in such a study. Southwest Airlines. This led to the exploratory study of three super-stars in hospitality service. RFS also conferred with American Hotel and Motel Education Institute for additional information on hiring and motivation practices being used in the industry. a seeming competitor. and of the necessity of following through on research-revealed program initiatives. as well as the fact that Disney does not compete directly with Ramada in the mid-tier segment of the industry.Written and Video Cases characteristics are present in Ramada's current superior customer service personnel? What training approaches are used by RFS franchisees? Which should be retained or serve as models? Which should be discarded or modified? What do current employees consider "exceptional" or "superior" customer service? To what degree do they feel they personally are responsible for superior customer service? What motivation programs have been used by franchisees with what success? How do employees view motivation programs? Within such programs. training. and TGI Friday. and rewards? 2. the managementresearch question hierarchy is fully integrated with the exploratory research described above. C. The management dilemma would have led Ramada to review its own service scores from prior Shifflet studies. duration. First they used the case-study design to delve into the successful practices of Disney. This in turn led to the question of what others in the hospitality industry were doing to deliver exceptional service that RFS might also do. But a less obvious answer might be that they didn't need Disney's cooperation to study it as a best-practice model. Management-research question hierarchy & Exploration: Clearly. So a proposal designed to convince franchisees of the necessity of research. what do they like and dislike about the structure. Each such study revealed special processes and features of these processes that these exceptional-service companies had developed. A. An obvious answer is that Disney theme parks depend on a variety of hotel partners to provide services to Disney visitors. As a result. the discovery of a three-pronged approach to exceptional service led to the research questions' focus on hiring. any major programs must be authorized by the franchisees themselves. Exploration's role: RFS used a series of primary and secondary exploration techniques. Students may want to discuss why Disney. Ask your students to classify the Shifflet study and hypothesize about how RFS discovered that it wasn't experiencing the downward trend of the industry.
While interviewers drafted a detailed report of observations. This is a perfect case for discussing the value of a census vs. Data preparation and analysis took almost as long. F. 138 . especially when an unstructured instrument is used. students may have trouble describing the sampling plan. including study instruments that can experience significant modifications over time. G. As long as the interviewers are well trained. A multi-stage design is used in the RFS project. RFS did not use a structured interview instrument. nonprobability sampling techniques. respectively. unstructured response strategies. This is an opportunity to discuss structured vs. An important part of this study is the recognition by RFS for the need to track results of their new program. After their exploration phase. Research Reporting: Their annual franchisee meeting afforded RFS the opportunity to present the information from the research and make the recommendation of the Personal Best™ program. or give us their full cooperation when they do. E. Students may suggest that RFS may have summarized data and refined the interviewing process within the 6-month collection process. This assumption can lead to a discussion of the error issues associated with studies that take a long time. to identify characteristics used in the hiring and training of self-motivated workers. it doesn't bode well for the success of the research process. This is an opportunity to discuss the idea that every new program or program modification introduced by a business has repercussions or results that make excellent data for tracking or monitoring research. This is a good time to discuss coding of interview data. Then they used 24 of their own staffers to visit 900 franchised properties in a six-month period.Written and Video Cases D. a sample. It is also a good case for discussing probability vs. The party-like environment could also have indicated the importance that management placed on the employee's participation. where they did a series of formal and informal interviews with managers and employees. Party-like Atmosphere: This has the potential for a very interesting discussion of the science of research vs. the need for participant motivation. Research Design: Due to the lack of structure afforded by the party-like atmosphere of the research. Data Collection: The primary data collection portion of the RFS study took six months. If we can't get selected respondents to participate. making them more open about sharing their ideas. as well as recorded suggestions and attitudes of employees. Coding in this instance would be like coding thousands of free-response questions. RFS outsourced research to Predictive Index. the more festive atmosphere may have the effect of reducing employee anxiety of sharing their ideas—and often criticism—with the corporate office.
the student should recognize that there are two basic issues that need to be investigated: retailer and consumer satisfaction with the new display. as well as the difference between pre-experimental and true experimental designs. Also. For each test site there should be a sample of test and control stores. etc.Written and Video Cases 3. As such. 139 . There are many different designs that could answer the question.) A typical design might include weekly visits by an auditing team for a three-month period. Case: Starbucks. and flexibility of self-paced learning). traffic. One possible design is a controlled store test. Store audits should be used to monitor any inventory control problems and movement over the test period. These interviews would probably be scheduled at the end of the test period. and Visa Launch the Starbucks Card Duetto Visa Abstract: The case describes a study conducted by Starbucks Coffee Company. 1.g. This case introduces the student to the necessity of testing a new display against a control. Design an experiment to test the new display for Raid. This is a good place to introduce the factors influencing validity. To assess consumer satisfaction with the display. and motivation (numerous every-day-experience prizes.3. shorter timeframe to earn rewards) programs known as Ramada's Personal Best™. Starbucks Coffee Company. size. training (use of interactive CDs.. volume. Preliminary findings from the study indicated that the dual function card concept yielded success. The problem facing the student is what type of design should be used. Be sure your design will test for both customer and retailer satisfaction with design. who partnered with Bank One and Visa in an effort to test the viability of a “dual function card” concept.) within different geographic regions. Bank One. In designing an experiment to test the new display for Raid. in-store intercepts could be used for a sample of shoppers that choose a Raid product. Case: Retailers Unhappy with Displays from Manufacturer Abstract: This case asks the student to design an experiment to test a new display design for Raid. following the release of survey results by a retail advisory board that revealed 60% dissatisfaction with current racking systems provided to retailers by manufacturers. a leading specialty coffee company. aimed to take their customers’ satisfaction experience to another level. The case specifies exactly what information needs to be collected. research was conducted to explore how receptive customers would be to the marrying of their existing pre-paid stored-value card with that of a major credit card. The test stores will have a prototype of the new display and the control stores will have the current display. The research results are reflected in the hiring (characteristics of self-motivated employees discovered by Predictive Index used as hiring screens). (Also the researchers might schedule interviews with key retailer personnel at the end of the study period to assess other perceptions/problems with current and test displays. the student should assess the merits of a laboratory versus field study. Students should be encouraged to relate their designs using the symbols in Exhibit 14. who pioneered the study. humorous approach. The sample of stores should be matched on relevant characteristics (e.
At this early stage of the research. This type of study is beneficial to the research being conducted. the findings of this study would be pertinent information to assist Starbucks and its affiliates in determining the strengths and/or weaknesses of the study’s design. If the product did not function as Starbucks desired. • • Product functionality study: This study was carried out at the concept testing stage of the research. -5. What types of research were done at each stage? Discuss the strengths of each different type given the stage of the project. all of which provided further insight and understanding as to the nature and complexities of their target market.Written and Video Cases This case relates well to various chapters. as even if you don’t assign the video your students may discover it on the DVD and use it as a means to prepare for discussion. Owing to the information the study served to provide. 1. and Chapters 13 and 14 allows students to explore different measurements and measurement scales used in research. you can build the managementresearch question hierarchy. Starbucks conducted three types of studies. through the use of an online survey. -6 display the management-research question hierarchy and provide students with detailed steps. as well as measuring how much customers understood the dual. Exhibits 5-4. Exhibit 4-2 provides an example. The case can also be used with Chapter 11 to discuss data collection methodologies such as surveys and interviews. Used with Chapter 16. We suggest that you assign the video case as it enriches the students’ understanding of the full scope of the research. This case is also a video case. you can discuss basic sampling concepts. if findings were to reveal that the dual-card concept was not appealing to its target market. as the introductory stage of the research project. this would essentially aid in determining what areas of the “dual-function” card needed refining or restructuring in addition to its marketability or lack thereof. product functionality. stepping from the management dilemma up through the process. We suggest that you review the video case analysis as well as the answers to the questions below.function aspect of the card. as it sought to reveal how appealing the concept was. A predictive mechanism was incorporated at this stage. and therefore encourage customers to apply for the card. Product optimization study: This study was also conducted at the concept testing stage of the research and also utilized an online survey. They also sought to discover which features had the greatest potential to increase sales. product optimization and a brand tracking study. as the yielded results would determine which features to include that would prove more beneficial. This would assist 140 . Here Starbucks aimed to determine how certain features from the dual-function card would impact the customer’s decision to apply for the card. The purpose was to understand which of the two credit card concepts customers preferred (the dual-function or two separate cards). or that it would hurt more that enhance the image of Starbucks because of its partnering with other companies. this information would give researchers the opportunity to adjust or change strategies. Used with Chapters 4 and 5. Being able to determine who would not only apply for the card but also use it would help Starbuck gauge their profit margin based on the features that appealed most to customers. This concept testing stage of the research gives Starbucks the ability to experiment with other types of features the card provided.
they could benefit from knowing some of the salient customer concerns. • Management questions: What steps can Starbucks take to increase customers’ understanding of the purpose of the dual function of the card? What should be done to encourage customers to apply for the card and use it? What types of features should be included to encourage customers to apply for the card? What measures should Starbucks put in place to ensure that its partners maintained the high standards of customer satisfaction that it was dedicated to delivering to its customers? Research Questions: Should Starbucks utilize the “surprise and delight” and monthly reward features the card offers as a means of testing its appeal? Should the “give back to the community” component of the card be used to gauge sales lift and determine how likely customers were to apply for the card? Should the dual card concept be modified? Investigative Questions: How will customers benefit from the features the card offers? How easy will the transition be from the old Starbucks card to the new dual function card? How receptive are customers to the existing features of the current Starbucks card and what kind of problems do customers encounter with this card? • • 141 . that also allows them to give back to society. and why or why not. whether they applied for the card. Build the management-research question hierarchy for this project. or if they have applied for the card. which was performed at the “measuring return on marketing investment” stage of the study. 2. rather than on a particular dilemma. the purpose was to evaluate feedback after the launch of the product. were committed to delivering the exceptional customer service that its customers were accustomed to receiving. If they chose to conduct future studies. what are the reasons for not using it.Written and Video Cases • in uncovering what issues were salient to customers. why they chose not to apply for the card. and. This study was completed via an on-line survey and measured how aware participants were of the promotional materials. At this step Starbucks reviewed and compared the findings based on its set goals and criteria for success. in so doing. and so would enjoy the convenience of a dual function card. Bank One and Visa. The issue being dealt with is how receptive customers would be to the dual function card. They were also concerned about how well customers understood the dual card concept and their willingness to apply for and use the card. The issue facing Starbucks and its partners is more dealing with capitalizing on an opportunity. At this final stage. The “giving back to the community” feature that the card presented could appeal to customers who see this as a necessity. decide what would more likely encourage customers to be use the card. Starbucks was also interested in ensuring that its partners. It strengthens the research as it has the potential of providing feedback that could benefit Starbucks. how they achieved it and whether their stated goals were accomplished. This type of study at this stage of the project facilitates an assessment of their success. Brand tracking study: This is an important step of the research. in terms of areas in which their initial objectives were not realized.
Given the confusion and apprehension that existed. You can use Exhibit 11-2. Selecting a Communication Data Collection Method. however it presents drawbacks that could possibly affect the findings. as a springboard to guide students to the types of data collection methodologies that would be appropriate for this research. Given the fact that Starbucks had partnered with Visa and Bank One. The online survey gives them the ability to be creative with visual aids so as to further entice customers. Starbucks also had concerns about customers choosing to use other cards that offered enticing rewards such as hotel stays or airline miles. Here Starbucks has the ability to utilize visual stimuli. Comparison of Communication Approaches. the online survey could prove advantageous.Written and Video Cases • How does Starbucks anticipate mitigating some of the confusion that may evolve with the use of the dual function card? Measurement Questions: The actual instruments were not included. where Starbucks sought to determine whether customers valued the instant rewards feature of the card. to enhance its presentation of the features it anticipated using to appeal to customers. Given that Starbucks came in direct contact with its target market on a daily basis. benefit. Here they aimed to determine if there were any negative connotations associated with past credit card experiences. some amount of confusion was still evident as many found the concept difficult to grasp. What are the pros and cons of choosing this survey method? Starbucks utilized focus groups and online surveys at different points of the research. and brand fit aided in the timely execution of the survey. it has potential drawbacks. Discuss the choice of an online survey to assess Starbucks’ three objectives of functionality. the use of an online survey to test functionality. Functionality: The use of an online survey to assess functionality of the product may not be as effective given the feedback yielded from the focus groups. Though the online survey allowed for timely completion and flexibility. Benefits: To assess benefits. and benefits. Based on the results from the focus groups. Here you can have students explore other types of data collection methods that Starbuck could have used. brand fit. if customers’ previous experiences with credit card companies were not favorable. The use of the online 142 . the online survey served an important purpose as it allowed respondents to remain anonymous given the nature of Starbucks’ objective where "brand fit" was concerned. The online survey gave then the opportunity to voice concerns while maintaining their confidentiality. which could have potentially yielded additional feedback from respondents. why was a more impersonal mechanism as the on-line survey chosen? Given the large target market that Starbucks and its associates appealed to. an intercept study or phone interview could have provided more direct human contact where respondents would have the opportunity to clarify their concerns or questions. Starbucks’ aim was to ensure that customers understood the dual function purpose of the card. You can ask students to explore why a phone interview was not carried out or why an intercept study was not chosen where customers could be asked to complete a short survey while they waited to be serviced (consider service response times with this question). and Exhibit 11-5. 3. then this could affect their interest in the card. Brand fit: In terms of brand fit.
In this regard an intercept study. however. whether they were approved or not. The team received significant feedback from visitors to their Web site and this would be an opportune time to secure and store these e-mail addresses. there may be persons who are interested in the dual card concept. or may have applied for the Duetto Card. possess and use the Starbucks pre-paid card. In addition. you can also refer to Chapter 15. the Duetto Card team could consider maintaining a database of all persons who applied for the card. but were not approved. The elderly population is one such group who may appreciate the convenience of the card and the ability to give back. and for constructing measurement question. 5. 4. A listing of such customers can serve as a useful sample frame and should be maintained for future research purposes. What measurement questions would you use to assess the effectiveness of the Starbucks Duetto Visa in a future customer survey? This question will allow students to discuss the different type of scales that can be used when designing surveys. but do not have access to computers or may not be Web savvy. Prior to the launching of the product. Starbucks could also maintain a database of persons who have applied for. To assess effectiveness of the Starbucks Duetto Visa. The Duetto Card team turned to Greenfield Online to recruit a panel for one of its online surveys. which can be extremely costly.Written and Video Cases survey does. How might you build a sample frame of appropriate respondents for future online or phone surveys? For future online or phone surveys. using the Exhibit as a guide. mail or phone survey may prove more advantageous in securing depth information. For supplemental listings. This can be a very effective tool that calls for skill and expertise. so as to be able to use this group as part of future studies. here are some suggested measurement questions: Do you find the Duetto Visa card as a more useful card compared to the Starbucks pre-paid card? Has the Duetto Visa Card enhanced your customer satisfaction experience? Do you find it more convenient to be able to make purchases with one primary card rather than two? How would you rate the level of customer satisfaction experience you have received from Bank One? How would you rate the “surprise and delight” component of the card? How often do you use the Duetto Card to make purchases at Starbucks? How often do you use the Duetto Card to make purchases outside of Starbucks? Have you used the card to make contributions to the community on a regular basis? 143 . Here you can discuss Exhibit 14-1 Sample Rating Scales (Chapter 14). a press release was delivered from the Duetto team encouraging Web site visitors to share their views of the new card. Some of these customers may have opted to not apply for the Duetto Card. present drawbacks despite of its many pluses. and have students brainstorm measurement questions and choose appropriate measurement scales.
State Farm was able to identify the intersections...... right-turn only or left-turn only lanes) 144 .......... and police report....... traffic count............... You could ask students to mentally approach an intersection in their experience that is the site of numerous accidents or near accidents.....................Question 3 • Chapter 16 Discuss sampling design... traffic volume........g. Some of the concepts the case reveals: intersection.............Written and Video Cases Case: State Farm: Dangerous Intersections Abstract: State Farm positions itself as a full-service insurance company......... intersecting roads........ General Comments This case was written for discussing the data mining process.......... which is the perfect opportunity to stress the importance of operational definitions for both concepts and constructs... and traffic pattern......... Its Dangerous Intersections initiative was a tactic designed to strengthen this position...Question 3 Questions for Discussion 1........................ But while the obvious discussion with this case is on data-mining (Chapter 5)....Question 2 • Chapter 8 Discuss research design. Some of the constructs the case reveals: accident severity............... This is a good place to start the discussion...... and the success or failure of the use of data mining. as the transportation engineers preferred different concepts to be included in the formation of the construct......... By data mining its extensive claims database and relating that to traffic information.. 5 • Chapter 3 Discuss hypotheses. 2.Question 2...Question 4 • Chapter 3 Discuss concepts and constructs....... You can use this case to discuss various hypothesis types.................... This question helps the student distinguish between a concept and a construct.......... accident fault..... internal incident report... dangerous intersection. highway access and egress ramps...... It then offered capital for improvements to the cities where the most dangerous intersections were located.... What might be the causes of such accidents? You might have them complete the sentence: “A dangerous intersection is one…” Some causes are hinted in the case footnotes: • …with confusing traffic signals • …with impeded visibility of the intersection Other possibilities are • …where the approach speed is high • …that has a long delay between traffic signal changes • …with numerous directional signs • …where drivers are forced into quick lane changes by unannounced restrictedpurpose traffic lanes (e... this case has numerous tie-ins to various chapters and research concepts: • Chapter 1 Discuss manager-researcher conflicts...... In the case the transportation engineers raise questions about the variables that State Farm used to define the construct: dangerous intersection..... Students may also want to challenge State Farm’s definition of an intersection. dangerous intersection. why firms use such processes..
etc. correlational. and geographic variables related to weather. Using the actual dollars of property damage and the dollar payout for personal injury awards might be suggested. • First. Students should be encouraged to identify these. This question is also the perfect opportunity to discuss the issue of comparability of data if State Farm changes its methodology in subsequent years to include such data as described above. then you can start your discussion with either part of research design. traffic engineers strongly criticized their methodology.Written and Video Cases Once your students generate the list. it chose to study all accidents within this reduced pool of accidents. or explanatory hypothesis. You might ask students what other scales might be possible for this study. if we use “a dangerous intersection is one where the approach speed is high. State Farm also chose to exclude certain variables in its own database. • Third.” you might get the following: • a dangerous intersection will have a higher approach speed than a safe intersection (relational) • the level of danger of an intersection increases as approach speed increases (correlational) • a decrease in approach speed will reduce the accident rate of the dangerous intersection (explanatory) 3. now ask them how the hypothesis could be changed to be a relational. A lively discussion can result from those who do not wish to debate severity of accidents based on payout and those that argue that the nature of State Farm’s business make this a natural and likely occurrence. If you assume that state Farm has a very large database of accidents (cases) with numerous details (variables) about each accident. You can also use this question to discuss scaling of danger—from 0 to X+Y. such as police reports. It chose not to collect additional and available data from public records. including gender. 145 . State Farm data-mined its own data warehouse of incident reports. etc.) that might have helped to explain the accident. You should also ask for reasons why State Farm chose to exclude data from its own database (gender. State Farm used a multi-stage sampling design when choosing incident reports. For sampling. have them identify the type of each hypothesis. traffic counts or intersection volume. driving record. State Farm made both sampling and data collection design decisions in designing its study. For example. it chose only incident reports of accidents where State Farm drivers were at fault. it chose incident reports of accidents at or related to intersecting roads. For this choice. age. You should ask students to evaluate the persuasiveness of the State Farm arguments for not using data from public records. For data collection design. age. You’ve set them up to generate descriptive hypotheses. • Second.
Consider dividing the class into groups with one taking the “Yes. Also. Many different results and emphases are possible in this case and the discussions can be revealing as the students' differing assumptions come to light. Students get to consider how to design and administer a survey in this case. Case: Sturgel Division Abstract: This case profiles Martha. The community pressure for immediate corrections poses a very different problem. 5.000 grants for follow-up studies should help bring the engineers closer to State Farm. and act on them to improve intersection safety. the manager of the Information Services division of Sturgel. We won’t know the result of their deliberations until the results are released in 2003. If a survey is deemed appropriate. do they change the types of accidents that will be considered? Would the inclusion potentially ignore truly dangerous intersections because traffic volume is below some volume threshold? As the case states. Asking students for their ideas to alleviate these conflicts should reveal the importance of manager involvement in research planning—something State Farm did not do. the student is asked to design the survey. “If State Farm adds traffic volume measures. exclude traffic counts. The $100. ask. they didn’t have the data to compare results to some external standards as State Farm did. Both knowledge gap and job status/internal coalition conflicts exist here. This question is an opportunity to discuss the researcher-management conflicts and how important "buy-in" is to research success. It needs traffic engineers to embrace the study results. She is trying to determine whether a survey of users should be conducted annually to assess the quality of service provided to the other divisions of the company. they are forced to focus on the basic processes of obtaining the data. You might ask students what conflicts are obvious and how they would address each. include traffic counts” and the other defending the position “No. and a spokesperson for each group presents these arguments. neither of which the traffic engineer now has.Written and Video Cases 4. You might also ask students if they can see similar situations in their own experience.000 grants offered by State Farm might be a mere pittance compared to the cost of the necessary solution. To that end. if the value of decrease in future claims is to exceed the millions State Farm is investing in the dangerous intersection initiative. the $20. Since no data are provided. While the specific city’s traffic engineers might have data-mined their own records.” After they develop their arguments. Traffic engineers have been handed a problem—a hot potato—for which the solution may take money and significant time. traffic engineers don’t necessarily see themselves as researchers. State Farm is currently struggling with this issue. where research results were delivered without preparation or request on the part of the manager. State Farm has a public relations problem with the traffic engineers. 146 . This question wraps back around to the issue of construct definition: what is a dangerous intersection. with the results used to make policy and procedural changes in her division.
How should it be administered? As she is evaluating internal operations that are continuous. 3. Exhibit 11-2 is a natural starting point for this discussion. that's useful information. You can use it to bring up the need for nonparametric techniques. There really isn't much of any relationship or difference to be found in the data. You may need to remind them that a simple survey is more likely to be answered than a more complicated one. as you discuss the students' ideas for developing their measurement instruments.Written and Video Cases Questions for Discussion You may pick and choose from the questions listed within the case. but market research just the same. depending on the concepts you wish to cover. time frame between measures. regarding rating and ranking scales. Discussion should focus on number of times to administer the evaluation. or other survey approaches should be developed? Depending on the decisions made in 2 & 3 above. This case offers the students a chance to apply some nonparametric techniques and to criticize the design of a survey instrument. and method of communication. since the PREFER score 147 . In the context of the case. operations management or strategic planning. where survey design and administration play such a large role. Martha is doing internal market research. Case: T-Shirt Designs Abstract: This case focuses on research done by Julio. You can steer this one in a lot of different directions. There are 64 cross-sectional observations. or should she? One basic question should be considered at this stage: Is a survey appropriate for the varied services the IS department provides? Students will use a variety of approaches. The case provides a survey and data set. You also may wish to point out that students may see this kind of problem again in the realm of market research. or in human resources management. Students may wish to expand or modify the exhibit based on the fact that the respondents will be company employees. 1. the instruments designed for measurement may vary considerably. What kind of forms. and most of these can be well defended depending on the students' assumptions about the nature of the services and the firm. Exhibit 11-1 is the basis of most of this discussion. a student looking to raise money to pay off a portion of his student loans. 6 variables. You may wish to return to Exhibits 9-1 and 9-2. Martha would probably be well advised to rely more on repeated use of one survey (focusing on changes from period to period) than on any single administration. to be sure. questionnaires. Exhibit 11-4 Factors influencing Respondent Motivation can be introduced into this phase of the discussion. What kind of survey should Martha run. 2. There's much to criticize in the survey itself. then asks the student to prepare a report recommending one of two prototype t-shirts Julio is considering.
A. Research Question: Which of two prototype T-shirt designs. Some classification questions (degree of ambidextrous mobility. 148 . This may or may not reflect the current enrollment patterns of PU University.75%) were gainfully unemployed. You may wish to focus the students on Exhibit 15-1. For the purpose he intends. Management Dilemma: Julio needs funds to pay back student loans. This raises serious questions about their ability to purchase a non-necessity like a piece of memorabilia 3. Measurement questions: see instrument. party time (red) or traditional (white). 12 Students (18. will sell the best? D. A. and others affecting the success of the T-shirt order (size of shirt usually worn) are clearly missing. How would you judge the quality of the survey instrument? Explain. 15-5. B. C. The results of Julio's non-probability. The soda inducement may affect the type of student who stops at the student union table where Julio is conducting his survey and the seriousness with which they answer the survey. 15-2. 2. and target price the student is willing to pay for the shirt would have given Julio some information that he could have used in marketing the T-shirt. and 15-9. the instrument quality is poor. Additional target questions relating to motivation for purchase. Or you can use it without a lot of structure to see how well students can define their own problem. Evaluate the sampling design.Written and Video Cases is clearly on an ordinal scale. A. 53% of respondents were men and 47% were women. why one design is preferred to another. Investigative Questions: Which prototype shirt is preferred? E. Management Question: What school memorabilia can Julio sell to raise funds? C. the exhibits which detail the development of a measurement instrument. Reconstruct the management-research question hierarchy. Just determining which shirt is preferred will not necessarily reduce Julio's risk of investing in T-shirt printing then being unable to sell the shirts for a profit. GPA) do not have a clear relationship to the research question. strength of affinity for the university. B. 1. convenience sample will be difficult to infer to the population of students at PU University. Julio needs to measure the student's intention to purchase as well as or rather than preference of T-shirt design.
Students should be encouraged to study preference patterns by gender. we've learned something from the survey. Students with any kind of experience in survey design or market research may have quite a few things they don't like about the survey. an advertising marketing agency. The report should discuss the limitations of the sampling and research design. You can emphasize the ones that best fit best your class session purpose. and don't feel strongly about either. Case: USTA: Come Out Swinging Abstract: The case describes a participation research study pioneered by the United States Tennis Association (USTA). The assignment questions above can serve to begin the discussion. Before you leave the discussion. opinions are clearly bi-modal. Prepare a report about the preferences revealed. Interpret the data in reference to Julio's management dilemma. Women are also fairly evenly split. A. the objective of the USTA was to engage the interest of diverse populations in the game of tennis. and age as well as overall. income. at least until you're satisfied that any technical material you want covered has been covered.Written and Video Cases 4. but with more strength of opinion for the traditional shirt. make sure to wrap it up by returning to the original management dilemma. Once the discussion gets into this area. as there are more 5s than 1s. 5. If raising funds is the objective. Histogram of PREFER for Julio's T-Shirts x x x x x x x x x x x x x + 2 x x + 1 x x x + 3 x x x x x x x x x x x + 4 x x x x x + 5 PREFER A. who aimed to change the elitist perception of tennis. it will probably stay there. Employing the research skills of the Taylor Research and Consulting Group and the advertising experience of Vigilante (NY). They also sought to 149 . So you may want to be fairly directive at first. After all. At first glance. Men are evenly split between the two shirts. then Julio may want do more research to reduce his financial risk or he might as well order an even number of both shirts. although the strongest opinions seem to lean toward the more traditional and conservative white shirt.
A USTA Come Out Swinging video case is also included on your text DVD.000. where they played the most. This case works with Chapter 4 where you can build the management-research question hierarchy. The USTA was challenged by the elitist stereotypes attached to the game of tennis. This question gets the student in the habit of formulating the management-research question hierarchy (Chapter 4) as a basis for launching a research project. 1. Create the management-research question hierarchy for USTA. • • • • Management questions: What should be done to change the stereotypes associated with tennis? What methods can the USTA employ to encourage former players to return to the game? How can we entice persons of different ethnic backgrounds and socio-economic status to want to learn and play tennis? How can the USTA recruit and retain players? Research questions: Should USTA change its advertising mechanisms? Should the Tennis Welcome Centers project be expanded? Be more inclusive? Should the tennis introductory programs be modified? Should USTA go into low income neighborhoods to teach the game and recruit tennis players? How should USTA encourage former players to return to the game? Investigative questions: How do persons of different backgrounds perceive the game of tennis? How likely are these individuals to want to learn and play the game if presented with the introductory program? What motivates persons to play other sports and why? Which geographic regions are more likely to have established tennis facilities? How accessible are tennis facilities to various neighborhoods (including low income)? How aware are current and former players of the Tennis Welcome Center program? Measurement questions: The Taylor Research Group yielded data from two different phone surveys: a 5-minute random-digit-dialed phone survey and a 10-15 minute extended phone survey. Used with Chapter 14. it struggled to attract younger and more diverse audiences to learn and play the game while recruiting and retaining current players.Written and Video Cases encourage former tennis players to return to the game while retaining and recruiting new tennis enthusiasts. and Chapter 11 where you can tie in survey data collection methods and why Vigilante felt it important to conduct peer-to-peer intercept interviews. and discuss the steps related to the sample design used for the 2003 Tennis Participation Study. you can discuss various measurement scales used in the research. We encourage you to review the video discussion guide for this case as well as the answers to the discussion questions below. The management dilemma facing the USTA was three fold. The survey questions were comprised of mostly closed ended questions that delved into who had most influenced participants to play tennis. The number of participants from both surveys ranged from 2032 to 66. and who their favorite tennis player was? 150 . and lastly. with Chapter 9 on Qualitative Research. In Chapter 16 your students can identify varying sampling concepts. encouraging former tennis players to return to the game.
Vigilante chose this method. as the team felt the need to obtain more direct feedback from the sample regarding their perception of tennis.Written and Video Cases 2. You can ask students to identify some of the drawbacks to using this method as well as its usefulness. Students may question the quality of feedback yielded from the 5-minute survey that was administered. some in the streets. a survey method. The sample size reflected participants from 17 regional divisions of the USTA. called sections (sample frame). that took place in different settings. What are the pros and cons of using the Street Spies ethnography methodology to guide the choice of creative approach for the ad campaign? This question addresses intercept interviews. • What factors determine sample size. given the number of participants in both phone surveys. and videotaped ethnographic techniques (Chapter 9). The Taylor Group used screening questions and random dialing procedures to identify households that met the parameters described in Discussion Question #2. The sample parameters for the 2003 study included the following: • Household members over 6 years of age • Current tennis players: persons who have played tennis over the past 12 months • Former tennis players: persons who have stopped playing tennis for at least one year • Those who had never played tennis: persons who have never played tennis or tried to play tennis 3. PROS: 151 . others in clubs. 4. Students may debate the appropriateness of the environment in which the data was gathered. • The effects of using such a large sample given that USTA expected a small margin of error. This would then make the sampling process more efficient. simple random sampling. This is an opportune time to discuss the following: • The pros and cons of using a stratified sampling method vs. Due to the study’s replication this would indicate that USTA had an existing data base from which to draw. This process implies that a stratified random sampling technique was employed. The sample was drawn from similar populations used by the USTA in conducting related studies in 2002. The accompanying video actually shows footage from the street ethnographic interviews. The process entailed 30-40 peer-to-peer intercept interviews. You can use Chapter 16 as a guide to discuss with students the sampling techniques used in the study. Discuss the sample design for the 2003 Tennis Participation Study. Define the sample parameters for the 2003 Tennis Participation Study.
age and lifestyle characteristics could potentially bias responses. 5. • Pairing interviewers with respondents who share similar ethnicity. The method of pairing interviewers with participants who shared similarities such as ethnicity. Participants may have felt more comfortable expressing certain views with persons who they feel share some commonalities.Written and Video Cases • • • • • Researchers could obtain direct responses of what would more likely appeal to the target audience. Its also saves on time as participants are only required to provide yes or no responses to questions asked. The survey incorporated the following scales: Single Response Category Scale. Conducting interviews in the natural setting gives the researcher the opportunity to delve further (based on the participants’ responses) into areas the interviewer may not have anticipated. Multiple Choice Single-Response Scale. The use of Vigilante staff members and contract workers as interviewers coupled with the use of a videographer during interviews would provide more channels of information resulting in the ability to review the recorded material for decisionmaking purposes. Multiple Choice Multiple-Response Scale and the Likert Scale. allowed for better rapport building and accessibility to obtain feedback. Multiple Choice. • Interviews conducted in a club setting have inevitable distractions causing participants to feel pressured for immediate responses. • Respondents may decline to participate or may modify their responses because of the presence of a videographer. Gathering feedback from participants who are hurried or otherwise engaged can be problematic. These persons may be disinterested and therefore provide responses not well thought out. Single response Category Scale: Given that the measurement questions were primarily close-ended. A respondent from a particular ethnic group may feel more comfortable telling an interviewer of the same ethnic group that the way in which the game of tennis is marketed does not appeal to him/her. this scale was useful as it forces a response from participants. lifestyle characteristics and age. This method provided a short turnaround of findings at a low cost. Evaluate the measurement scales used in the USTA survey. raising questions about the credibility of the findings. Single-Response: 152 . CONS: • The environment in which the interviews were conducted (in clubs and in the streets) may distort the process of data collection.
Ask students to list some of the drawbacks to completing the surveys via phone. 6. participants may choose to terminate the call out of frustration. Since the survey was conducted via phone it may become lengthy when respondents forget the answers to certain questions. you can have students pretest the length of the survey. As a group activity. Respondents are given a list of answers from which they must select one response. Considering that this is a phone survey. questions of who had most influenced them to play tennis may take time to remember if the participant began playing tennis at a very young age. Multiple Choice. but failed to mention some of the main purposes of the study. as they are able to place a numerical value to reflect their opinions of a particular issue. This scale will also assist the USTA in making comparisons among the responses. Additionally. The “other” option provided allows participants to provide additional responses the survey may not have given. the interviewer is prompted to read the list (of several counties) if the respondent does not know the county in which they reside. requires survey participants to select more than one alternative. Chapter 11 can be used as a preface to this discussion. with students. Like other scales used in this survey. With respect to the structure of the survey you can first address the length of the survey. The survey did provide an appropriate introduction for participants.Written and Video Cases This scale appropriately allows for the “who and where” asked in the questions in the survey. You can also tie in Chapter 11 that deals with Survey Data Collection Methods and have students discuss some of the drawbacks USTA would encounter using a phone survey. There were appropriate transitions between screening and classification 153 . participants may find it difficult to visualize the scale being described to them. if the options provided does not correspond to their answer. Have them identify potential benefits of using Web or mail surveys or other forms of data collection methods that would be beneficial to the USTA study. This question is designed to discuss chapters that speak to instrument structure (Chapter 15) as well as measurement and scaling concerns (Chapters 13 and 14). Evaluate the survey structure and organization. The interviewer may be asked to repeat the responses several times and this may force participants to not want to complete the survey due to its length. if the participant does not know the county they reside in. For example. Questions that ask respondents to list the county they reside in may also raise some questions. Based on the structure of the survey. This can cause participants to become less interested in completing the survey. Multiple-Response Scale: This scale. Since subsequent questions delved into specific questions related to participants and tennis. this could also become time consuming. Had this been a mail survey. similar to the previous one. there could have been some mention of this in the introduction. participants would be better able to visualize their options and possibly save some time in completing the question. This may cause participants to lose interest in the event the list has to be read. and have them consider the timing that would most likely encourage participants to want to continue the exercise. This scale has drawbacks owning to the number of answers participants must choose from. Likert Scale: This scale may perhaps be most favored by participants.
This is especially true for telephone interviews. With the data available. This was an attempt to discover how client exposure to CPG ads impacted sales activities. from sampling through data collection. 1. which provided extensive demographic and lifestyle data necessary to track household purchases. Here you can open the topic of the ethical treatment of participants and how best to debrief subjects when challenged by deception issues. This case prepares students to outline and analyze the various components of a research design. After identifying their existing dilemma. A test group of approximately 2000 households was established based on two metrics. Used with Chapter 7. Consumer Direct was able to track the purchasing behavior of Yahoo visitors. Yahoo chose to expand the scope of its research by partnering with ACNielsen to utilize its Homescan panel (sample frame). the student will be able to map the research design and identify strengths and weaknesses of different designs. discuss methods of data collection and the pros and cons of using a particular technique. you can discuss measurement tools and instrument design. which provided additional metrics for further analysis of purchasing behavior.Written and Video Cases questions. Members from the control group (also panel members) were not exposed to “tracked” ads. This process was replicated when Yahoo also partnered with Dynamic Logic. Describe the research design for Consumer Direct. effectiveness of ad targeting and persuasiveness of the advertising. It may have proved useful to participants if the multiple response scales were grouped or asked simultaneously. The test group was exposed to an advertisement and exposure was removed after a period of time. but were able to view different ads. Purchases were tracked from both groups and the results were compared and analyzed over a two-week period with the use of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) methodology. given the time frame of the ad campaign. Case: Yahoo! : Consumer Direct Marries Purchase Metrics to Banner Ads Abstract: This case describes a multistage study aimed at tracking the efficiency and effectiveness of Internet advertising. you can address the ethical implications involved when dealing with the sometimes intrusive nature of conducting research. Used with Chapter 8. it recruited panel members whose Internet activities were tracked and compared to a control group based on exposure to consumer-packaged-goods (CPG) ads. 154 . Through the use of new metrics that serve to enhance Internet advertising of Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG). comparisons (from both test and control groups) were analyzed for the 52-week pre-ad interval period. Using data from previously tracked Homescan purchasing activities. Used with Chapters 13-1.
In this regard. such as debriefing participants once the research is complete. However. which may have been used in this study. though cost effective. would give more credibility to the results. due to the non-randomized fashion in which panels were used. Owing to the use of control groups. crosssectional research designer. 155 . This would involve explaining to subjects the purpose and goal of the study. which typically provides comparison data for more precise control in research. which may not have been useful in some research areas. a more random sampling procedure. to avoid recreating the wheel. This is an important aspect of this study as it creates the opportunity to discuss the importance of utilizing secondary data in research. but proves applicable to this study. Opting-in (prior consent) eliminates one ethical dilemma. However. it creates the question of how representative is the sample of the general Yahoo visitor population (the population that is exposed to the CPG ads). The use of prior Homescan data creates the assumption that secondary data was used to supplement the analysis of post ad exposure tracking. rather than having panelists “opt-in” to become subjects. Nonetheless. owing to the available data. Students may raise that even with prior consent participants might not fully understand the extent and nature of the research and what the possibilities of their on-line activities being tracked entailed. the study made use of a control group. How has the use of panels affected the research design? The use of ACNielsen’s Homescan panels expanded the scope of the research design as it allowed for the collection of extensive purchase data from households on a global perspective. This sampling method (panels). the researcher can take advantage of previously collected data. You can suggest ways to overcome this dilemma. This is also the perfect time to discuss longitudinal vs. The research design lacks a structured form of sampling plan. While ACNielsen works diligently to build representative panels for their Homescan studies. this case can be used to discuss the use of nonprobability samples. It states that panelists had previously agreed to allow the tracking of their purchases. The case indicates the researchers were unsure initially as to how subjects would feel about their Internet activities being tracked. 3. however they chose the opt-in process so that participants could consent to allow the tracking of the Web site activity. sharing the results and explaining the reasons for the deception. but you can ask students to discuss the appropriateness of tracking Web behavior without such consent. The Nielsen database allowed for the possibility of significant analysis of purchasing activities. an integrated randomized method of choosing subjects is necessary in order to achieve equivalence between both groups (test and control). Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the research design. You can use this time to ask students to discuss the drawbacks of disclosing to customers the full extent of how tracking their activities will be used? Students may suggest that had ACNielsen fully revealed its intentions that participants may have been more hesitant to optin.Written and Video Cases 2. opens the door for bias that potentially affects the findings.
Consumer Direct may have encountered difficulty randomly assigning HomeScan panel participants to particular groups. 156 . based on corresponding increases in the sale of low penetration products.Written and Video Cases 4. to assess the effectiveness of ad targeting and persuasiveness of the advertising.” Another way of putting this to a skeptical observer of the process is that they might be unaware of the extent of just how much is revealed about them by tracking their Internet activity. they could also use this analysis to estimate the effectiveness and persuasiveness of their advertising. The benefits and risks involved in deception (Chapter 7) can be discussed to better prepare students to design ethical but meaningful research. and the exposure of the test group to tracked CPG ads. both ACNielsen and Yahoo were fully aware of the intrusiveness of the data collection method. What analysis would be appropriate for the data collected through Consumer Direct? This question can be used to discuss appropriate analysis techniques (Chapters 18 -22) based on the data collected and the objective of the study. a group time series design may have also been utilized as a way of collecting and analyzing trends in customers’ purchasing behavior. 5. Matching was also employed. The 19. Such tracking allowed Yahoo the ability to match the subjects’ purchasing behavior and extensive demographic data with the Web sites they visited and link all these to their ad exposure. Multiple measurements were collected during the ad campaign period and throughout the pre and post ad exposure stages. 6. so as to ensure that both test and control groups possessed similar characteristics. Here Consumer Direct has utilized different metrics to test effectiveness of ad targeting as well as the persuasiveness of their CPG advertising to determine effects on sales activities. Furthermore. which includes household demographic and lifestyle data. a multiple regression analysis could be employed to make predictions about trends in sales based on the use of particular metrics. The use of participants from the Homescan panel as both test and control groups. This information could serve as potential marketing sites for Consumer Direct to further increase their knowledge of where to target their ads. or increases in the number of households who now purchase a particular item. Given the purpose of this study and the mechanisms it demanded in order to gather useful data.000 participants who opted-in were “obviously unconcerned. Given that sales lift is an important factor in this study. Given that Consumer Direct had access to HomeScan panel data. Define the various measurements collected in Consumer Direct. such as household size and prior purchase behavior. This is why they invited Yahoo members to participate through the opt-in procedure. they could gauge increases in sales based on the amount of persons exposed to a particular advertisement. If researchers could predict the likelihood of persons making a purchase based on exposure to an ad. How have ethical issues influenced the research design? The issue of ethics in research is an important one that should spark interesting discussions among students. implies that a repeated-measures test was utilized.
157 . ignore the complexity of the relationships involved in sales activities and the potentially valuable information that can be obtained through higher-level analysis. However. This is consistent with their statistical exposure at this point in their curriculum. and avoid multivariate tools.Written and Video Cases Students are likely to make a case for the use of a bivariate analysis to compare the brand favorability with likelihood of buying an item. it is worth pointing out that marketing researchers who evaluate two-variable relationships exclusively.
Written and Video Cases 158 .
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