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The senses are the means by which the brain receives info about the environment and the body. 5 senses 1. smell 2. taste 3. sight 4. hearing 5. touch 2 basic group of senses 1. General senses – those with receptors distributed over a large part of the body • Somatic senses – provide sensory info about the body and environment • visceral senses – provide info about various internal organs consists primarily of pain and pressure. 2. Special senses – more specialized in structure and are localized to specific parts of the body e.g. smell, taste, sight, hearing and balance. I. GENERAL SENSES • include the senses of touch, pressure, pain, temp, vibration, itch, and proprioception (the sense of movement and position of the body and limbs. • Receptors - sensory nerve endings or specialized cells capable of responding stimuli by developing action potentials. Types of receptors a. Mechanoreceptors – respond to mechanical stimuli such as bending or stretching of receptors. b. chemoreceptors – respond to chemicals such as odor molecules. c. photoreceptors – respond to light d. thermoreceptors – respond to temperature changes e. nociceptors – respond to stimuli that result in the sensation of pain. • Free nerve endings – the simplest and most common type of receptor nerve endings which are relatively unspecialized neuronal branches similar to dendrites. Distributed to throughout almost all parts of the body. • Receptors for temp are either: a. cold receptors – respond to decreasing temp but stop responding at temp below 12°C b. hot receptors – respond to increasing temp but stop responding at temp above 47°C • Touch receptors – structurally more complex than free nerve endings and many of them are enclosed by capsules a. Merkel’s disks – small, superficial nerve endings involved in detecting light touch and superficial pressure. b. Hair follicle receptors – associated with hairs, are also involved in detecting light touch c.Meissner’s corpuscles – receptors for fine discriminative touch are located just deep to the epidermis d. Ruffini’s end organs – deeper tactile receptors that play an impt role in detecting continuous pressure in the skin. e. Pacinian corpuscles – deepest receptors associated with tendons and joints. These relay info concerning deep pressure, vibration, and position. A. Pain • a sensation characterized by a group of unpleasant perceptual and emotional experiences. • Two types of pain: 1. sharp, well-localized, pricking or cutting pain resulting from rapidly conducted action potentials 2. diffuse, burning, or aching pain resulting from action potentials that are propagated more slowly.
• Each olfactory tracts terminates in an area of the brain called the olfactory cortex located within the temporal and frontal lobes. This feedback plus the temporary decreased sensitivity at the level of receptors results in adaptation into a given odor. • Within the olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex. Neuronal pathways for olfaction • Axons fr olfactory neurons form the olfactory nerves which pass through the foramina of the cribriform plate and enter the olfactory bulb. accomplished by chemical anesthetics that affect the reticular formation. • Olfactory Neurons – bipolar neurons within the olfactory epithelium lining the superior part of the nasal cavity. ==Airborne odorants become dissolved in the mucus on the surface of the epithelium and bond to receptor molecules on the membranes of the specialized cilia. Accdg to the gate control theory. Those neurons in turn synapse with and inhibit neurons in the dorsal horn that give rise to the lateral spinothalamic tract.==Once an odorant has become bound to its receptor. . these action potentials “close the gate” and inhibit action potentials carried to the brain by the lateral spinothalamic tract. Special Senses A. Occurs bec sensory neurons fr the superficial area to which the pain is referred and the neurons fr the deeper. however. that receptor does nto respond to another odor molecule for some time. They perceive intense pain in the amputated structure as if it were still there. Olfaction • The sense of smell. • Each taste bud consists of two types of cell: specialized epithelial cells form the exterior supporting capsule of the taste bud and the interior of each bud consists of about 40 taste cells.• Superficial pain – highly localized as a result of the simultaneous stimulation of pain receptors and tactile receptors which help to localize the source of the pain stimuli • Deep or visceral pain – not highly localized because of the absence of tactile receptors in the deeper structures. ==The odorants must first be dissolved in fluid in order to reach the olfactory receptors. • GATE CONTROL THEORY Sensory axons fr tactile receptors in the skin have collateral branches that synapse with neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. There they synapse with interneurons that relay action potentials to the brain through the olfactory tracts. It occurs in response to airborne molecules called odorants that entre the nasal cavity. Taste • Taste buds – sensory structures tat detect taste stimuli. visceral area where the pain stimulation originates converge onto the same ascending neurons in the spinal cord. feedback loops occur that tend to inhibit transmission of action potentials resulting fr prolonged exposure to a given odorant. B. Rubbing the skin in the area of an injury stimulates the tactile receptors which send action potential along the sensory axons to the spinal cord. Oval structures located on the surface of certain papillae which are enlargements on the surface of the tongue. • Taste hairs – hairlike process in each taste cell that extend into a tiny opening in the surrounding stratified epithelium called taste pore. • Local anesthesia – action potentials fr pain receptors in local areas of the body can be suppresses by chemical anesthetics injected near a sensory receptor or nerve and result in reduced pain sensation. • The dendrites of the olfactory neurons extend to the epithelial surface of the nasal cavity and their ends are modified into bulbous enlargements that possess long specialized cilia which lie in a thin mucous film on the epithelial surface. II. • General anesthesia – pain sensation can be suppressed if loss of consciousness is produced. • Referred pain – a painful sensation perceived to originate in a region of the body that is not the source of the pain stimulus. • Phantom pain – occurs in people who have had appendages amputated.
fluid-filled sphere. • Axons fr these 3 CN synapse in the gustatory portion of the brainstem nuclei. tears serve to lubricate the eye and cleanse it and it contains an enzyme that helps combat eye infxn. c. extrinsic eye muscles – movement of each eyeball is accomplished by six skeletal m2. 5 basic types of taste sensation: sour. salty. protects the internal structure and provides attachment sites for the extrinsic eye m2. Eyebrows – protect the eyes by preventing perspiration which can irritate the eyes. posterior compartment which makes up about 5/6 of the eye and a much smaller compartment which makes up about 1/6 of the eye. Two m2. • small portion of the sclera can be seen as the “white eye” b. Eyelids – with their associated lashes protect the eyes fr foreign objects by closing and then opening quite rapidly (blink reflex) – which normally occurs 20 times per min. the accessory structures. middle or vascular tunic – choroid. Blinking also helps to eyes lubricated by spreading tears over the surface of the eyes. Vision • Visual system includes the eyes. e. Four quadrants of the eyeballs: superior. Conjunctiva – a thin. Axons of neurons in these brainstem nuclei synapse in the thalamus and axons fr the neurons in the thalamus project to the taste area in the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex. 2. .• Dissolved molecules or ions bind to receptors on the taste hairs and initiate action potentials that are carried by sensory neurons to the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex. ciliary body and iris c. the superior and inferior oblique m2 are located at the angle to the long axis of the eyeball. Fibrous Tunic a. Accessory structures a. Anatomy of the Eye • The eyeball is a hollow. transparent mucous membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelids and the anterior surface of the eye. anterior sixth of the eye that permits light to enter the eye. and lateral rectus m2. cornea – the transparent. b. sclera – the firm. All are able to detect all five but each taste bud is usually most sensitive to one class of taste stimuli Neuronal Pathways to taste • Taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of tongue are carried by the facial nerve (CN VII) • Taste sensations from the posterior third of the tongue are carried by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) • Vagus nerve (CN X) carries some taste sensations fr the root of the tongue. canaliculi open into a lacrimal sac. an enlargement of the nasolacrimal duct which opens into the nasal cavity. inner or nervous tunic – retina 2. outer or fibrous tunic – sclera and cornea b. and the sensory neurons that project to the cerebral cortex where action potentials conveying visual info are interpreted. Lacrimal apparatus – consists of a lacrimal gland situated in the superior lateral corner of the orbit and a nasolacrimal duct and assoc structures in the inferior medial corner of the orbit. fr running down the forehead and into them. It also bends or refracts the entering light. lacrimal gland – produce tears which pass over the anterior surface of the eye. outer connective tissue layer of the posterior 5/6 of the fibrous tunic • helps maintain the shape of the eye.1. C. medial. Conjunctivitis – inflammation of the conjunctiva d. lacrimal canaliculi – small ducts in the medial angle of the eye that collects excess tears. white. 1. • 3 layers/tunics of the wall of the eye: a. sweet and umami. bitter. • The sphere has a larger. inferior.
This causes opsin to change shape and retinal loses its attachment to the opsin molecule. Ech color results fr stimulation by a certain wavelength of light o Three major types of color-sensitive opsin exist: that sensitive to blue. • Two major features of the posterior region of the retina: o Macula lutea – small. Retinal then completely detaches fr opsin. anterior to the lens. yellow spot near the center of the posterior retina. • Rods – 20 times more common than cones. Three types: blue. c. Contains only cone cells. • Contains smooth m2 called ciliary m2. It is attached to the anterior margin of the ciliary body. o When light strikes a rod cell retinal changes shape.2. • Contractile structure consisting mainly of smooth m2 that surrounds and opening called pupil. b. * fovea centralis – small pit in the center of the macula lutea. biconvex transparent disc. 2. green or red • The outer segments of rod and cone cells are modified by numerous folding of the cell membrane to form discs. • The black color absorbs light so that it is not reflected inside the eye.2. • It consists of a. The part of the retina where light is normally most focused when the eye is looking directly at an object.3. Very sensitive to light and can function in very dim light but they do not provide color vision. • Lens – a flexible. a. Rod cells contain a photosensitive pigment called rhodopsin which is made up of the colorless protein opsin in loose chemical combination with a yellow pigment called retinal. keeps light fr reflecting back into the eye. Nervous Tunic • The innermost tunic and it covers the posterior 5/6 of the eye. A very thin structure consisting of a vascular network and many melanin-containing pigment cells. o Night blindness – difficulty in seeing especially in dim light that may be due to Vitamin A deficiency. . ciliary body – continuous with the anterior margin of the choroid. sensory retina – contains numerous interneurons and photoreceptor cells called rods and cones which respond to light. • The rod and cone cells synapse with bipolar cells of the sensory retina. Vascular Tunic • Middle tunic of the eye. Iris – the colored part of the eye. sympathetic stimulation causes radial smooth m2 of the iris to contract resulting in dilation. choroid – the posterior portion of the vascular tunic assoc with the sclera. b. • Light passes through the pupil and the iris regulates the diameter of the pupil which controls the amt of light entering the eye • Parasympathetic stimulation causes the circular m2 of the iris to contract resulting to constriction. • Cones – require much more light and they do provide color vision. so that it appears black in color. the reflection would interfere with vision. that sensitive to red and that sensitive to green. • The bipolar and horizontal cells synapse with ganglion cells whose axons converge at the posterior of the eye to form the optic nerve. If light was reflected inside the eye. It is the layer containing the most of the blood vessel of the eye. which attach to the perimeter of the lens by suspensory ligaments. outer pigmented retina – with the choroid. Retinal degeneration or detachment may also cause night blindness Cone cells contain slightly different photosensitive pigments which are sensitive to colored light. the change is rhodopsin’s shape stimulates a response in the rod cell that results in vision. These and the horizontal cells of the retina modify he output of the rod and cone cells.
• Neurons fr the thalamus from the fibers of the optic radiations which project to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain. Chambers of the Eye • Three chambers of the eye: Anterior chamber. posterior chamber. they converge. Fine adjustments in focus are accomplished by changing the shape of the lens. the suspensory ligaments of the ciliary body maintain elastic pressure in the perimeter of the lens. • If the surface is convex. Also fxns to refract light. pass through the two tunics and exit the eye as the optic nerve. they converge. 3. • The anterior and posterior chambers are filled with aqueous humor which helps maintain pressure within the eye. transparent substance. 3. lens and vitreous humor. refracts light and provides nutrients to the inner surface of the eye. • Focal point – crossing point Focusing – causing the light to converge. AS the light rays converge. • Additional convergence occurs as light passes through the aqueous humor. • Accommodation – the lens is more rounded and the it enables the eye to focus on objects closer than 20 feet on the retina. • Visual cortex – the area of the brain where vision is perceived. Functions of the complete eye 3. Neuronal Pathways for Vision • The optic nerve leaves the eye at the optic disc and exits the orbit through the optic foramen to enter the cranial cavity. • Vitreous Chamber – filled with jelly-like substance called the vitreous humor. This is also the spot at which axons fr the retina meet. the route of the ganglionic axons is through the two optic tracts. This keeps the eye inflated • Glaucoma – blockage of the flow of aqueous humor fr the eye through the venous ring causing increase pressure in the eye. the light rays are refracted. • Superior colliculi – the center for visual reflexes. denser. • When the ciliary m2 are relaxed. • The shape of the cornea and its distance fr the retina are fixed however so that no adjustment in focus can be made by the cornea. Focusing of Images on the brain • The cornea is a convex structure and as light pass fr the air through the cornea.4. keeping it relatively flat and allowing for distant vision.o Optic disc – a white spot medial to the macula lutea through which a number of blood vessels enter the eye and spread over the surface of the retina. Can lead to blindness bec the fluid compresses the eye thereby restricting blood flow. the light rays are bent so that they diverge as they pass through the lens. • Blind spot – the optic disc contain no photoreceptor cells and does not respond to light. • The greatest contrast in media density is between the air and the cornea. • Iris – separates the anterior fr the posterior chamber. • IF the surface of the lens is concave. • Vitreous humor – helps maintain pressure within the eye and holds the lens and the retina in place.3. . • Aqueous humor – produced by the ciliary body as a blood infiltrate and is returned to the circulation through a venous ring that surrounds the cornea. they finally reach a point where they cross. Light refraction • As light passes fr the air to some other.1. 2. Most of the optic tract axons terminate in the thalamus.2. • Two optic nerves connect to each other at the optic chiasm • Beyond the optic chiasm. 3. and vitreous or postremal chamber • Anterior and posterior chambers are located between the cornea and the lens.
dampen its vibrations and make hearing difficult 1. middle.2 Middle Ear two covered openings.• Visual field – the image seen by each eye • Depth perception – requires both eyes and occurs where the two visual fields overlap • Each eye sees a slightly different view of the same object. Hearing and Balance • The organs of hearing and balance are divided into three parts: external. Contains three auditory ossicles (ear bones): o malleus – attached to the medial surface of the tympanic membrane o incus – connects the malleus to the stapes o stapes – the base of the stapes is seated in the oval window and is surrounded by a flexible ligament As vibrations are transmitted fr the malleus to the stapes. Hearing cochlea – shaped like a snail shell and contains a bony core shaped like a screw. Two unblocked openings into the middle ear: o One opens into the mastoid air cells in the mastoid process of the temporal bone o Auditory tube or Eustachian tube – opens into the pharynx and enables air pressure to be equalized bet the outside air and the middle air cavity. the force of the vibration is amplified about 20-fold bec the area of the tympanic membrane is about 20 times that of the oval window. D. and inner ear. . The threads of this screw is called spiral lamina. Lined with hair and ceruminous glands which produce cerumen (a modified sebum commonly called earwax) that help prevent foreign objects fr reaching the delicate eardrum tympanic membrane or ear drum – a thin membrane that separates the external ear fr the middle ear. Sound waves reaching the tympanic membrane cause it to vibrate. The brain then processes the two images into a three-dimensional view of the object. The Ear and its Functions 1. external acoustic meatus – passageway that leads to the eardrum. 1. the oval window and round window on the medial side of the middle ear connect the middle ear with the inner ear. Unequal pressure bet the middle ear and the outside environment can distort the tympani membrane. vestibule and semicircular canals 2.1 External Ear auricle – the fleshy part of the external ear on the outside of the head.3 Inner Ear consists of interconnecting tunnels and chambers within the temporal bone called bony labyrinth Membranous labyrinth – smaller set of membranous tunnels and chambers inside the bony labyrinth o endolymph – clear fluid inside the membranous labyrinth Perilymph – the fluid in the space between the membranous and bony labyrinth 3 regions of the bony labyrinth: cochlea. Collects sound waves and directs them twd the external acoustic meatus which transmits them to the eardrum. o External ear – the part extending fr the outside of the head to the eardrum o Middle ear – an air-filled chamber medial to the eardrum o Inner ear – a set of fluid-filled chambers medial to the middle ear 1.
2. Extends fr the oval window to the apex of the cochlea The space below is called the scala tympani. Effect of Sound waves on Middle and Inner ear structures 1. Vibration of the tympanic membrane causes the three bones of the middle ear to vibrate. Vibration of the endolymph causes displacement of the basilar membrane. the cell bodies of which are located within the spiral ganglion. 4. o The base is the spiral lamina o One branch of the Y is the vestibular membrane o basilar membrane o Cochlear duct – the space between the membranes If the Y is viewed lying on its right side. 3. the space above the Y is called the scala vestibule. Vibrations of the perilymph in the scala vestibule and of the endolymph in the cochlear duct are transferredto the perilymph of the scala tympani. the cupula Neuronal pathways for equilibrium o Axons forming the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve project to the vestibular nucleus in the brainstem. The stapes vibrates in the oval window. Vibration of the stapes causes the perilymph in the scala vestibule to vibrate. particles composed of protein and calcium carbonate Three semicircular canal – involved in kinetic equilibrium and placed at nearly right angles to one another. Y-shaped membranous complex divides the cochlea into three portions. This nerve joins the vestibular nerve to become the vestibulocochlear nerve which carries action potentials to the brain. 5. Extends fr the apex to the round window. Vinrations in the perilymph of the scala ltympani are transferred to the round window which is flexible and allows movement of the entire fluid column of perilymph Neuronal Pathways for Hearing The cochlear nerves whose cell bodies are located in the cochlear ganglion send axons to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem Neurons in the cochlear nucleus project to other areas of brainstem and to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain Fr the inferior colliculus. Hair cells have no axons of their own but each hair cells is assoc with axon terminals of sensory neuron bodies. The hair tips are embedded within an acellular gelatinous shelf called tectorial membrane which is attached to the spiral lamina. where they synapse . Spiral organ or Organ of Corti – contains specialized sensory cells called hair cells which have hairlike microvilli on their surfaces. fibers project to the thalamus and fr there to the auditory cortex of the cerebrum 3. 6. Sound waves strike the tympani c membrane and cause it to vibrate. Equilibrium Two components: o Static equilibrium – associated with the vestibule and is evaluated in evaluating the position of the head relative to the gravity o Kinetic equilibrium – associated with the the semicircular canals and is involved in evaluating changes in the direction and rate of head movements The vestibule can be divided into two chambers: the utricle and the saccule Each chamber contains specialized patches of epithelium called the maculae Otoliths – ear stones. 8. Axons of the sensory neurons join to form the cochlear nerve. 7. Enables a person to detect movements in essentially any direction o The base of each semicircular canal is expanded into an ampulla o Within each ampulla the epithelium is specialized to form a crista ampullaris o Each crista consists of a ridge of epithelium with a curved gelatinous mass. Vibration of the perilymph passes through the vestibular membrane and causes vibration of endolymph in the cochlear duct.
as well as the cerebellum and cerebral cortex.o Equilibrium is a complex sensation involving several brainstem area. .
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