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Title: The Use of Analytical Balance in Determining the Water Content of a Given Hydrated Salt.

Objectives: To determine weight of water in a hydrated salt. Introduction: Most experiment requires measuring substances as starting point. Balances are used to measure weight. There are two types of balances: two-decimal place balances and analytical balances. High accuracy is needed in certain experimental work such as material analysis or those involving small change in material mass. Unknown masses of materials are normally estimated with the use of two-decimal place balances, before they are determined accurately with analytical balances. As the analytical balance is very expensive and sensitive, adequate training has to be acquired by users so that they can use it correctly. In this experiment we will learn to use the balance properly and to evaluate the magnitude of various common errors encountered in weighing and find out the weight of water in a selected hydrate. Apparatus and Materials: Sand, CuSO4 · xH2O salt, Evaporating dish, Analytical balance, Small test tubes, thermometer, electrical heater. Procedure: 1. An electrical evaporating dish was filled with sand to about half-full. The electric heater was turned on and sand was heated slowly until the temperature reached 120 – 125ºC. 2. Small test tubes were heated in the hot sand for 10 minutes to dry them and then cooled down to room temperature. 3. When the test tube were cooled, they were weighed first with two-decimal balance and then with an analytical balance. The weights were recorded. 4. The test tube was filled with CuSO4· xH2O salt to about 0.5 cm depth. The weight was determined.

7. upon heating it slowly converts to bluish white CuSO4. In the laboratory. However the water molecules are often held loosely and can be easily removed by heating the hydrate. there are 2 types of balances: two-decimal place balances and analytical balance.5.0394g 16. the test tube was weighed. . CuSO4· xH2O is dark blue in its hydrated form. In this experiment the hydrates used is CuSO4· xH2O. Reheated for another 10 minutes cooled it and reweighed when cooled. (Eddy.1725g Discussion: In chemistry. in grams. 2001 ) Hydrate salt + Heat → Anhydrous Salt + Water An anhydrous form of the compound will be yielded when the compound are dehydrated through heating. in grams. Hydrates are compounds that incorporate water molecules into their fundamental solid structure. The material is said to be anhydrous and is referred to as an anhydrate when all hydrating water is removed.When it is cooled. to 2 decimal places while analytical balances digitally display a mass reading.8222g 16. The moles of water present are significantly contributive in terms of mass. 2006 ) Water is present in many compounds especially inorganic salts. (Brewer. analytical balance is much more accurate as it is sensitive to ± 0. to 4 decimal places. a defined number of water molecules are associated with each formula unit of the primary material. Results: Materials Test Tube Test Tube + CuSO4· xH2O Test Tube + CuSO4· xH2O after heat for 30 minutes Weight 15. 6. In a hydrate (which usually has a specific crystalline form). By comparing them. Two-decimal place balances digitally display a mass reading. The test tube with CuSO4· xH2O salt was heated in the sand at 120–125℃ for about 30minutes. All the weights were recorded.0001 g. weighing the analytical sample is often the very first step of any quantitative analytical chemical method.

Lastly.CuSO4· xH2O(s) + Heat → CuSO4(s) + xH2O(g) Blue Bluish white In this experiment we need to find the number of moles of water molecules in the hydrate used. beaker. 2001 ) In this experiment. (Sibert. After heating. use a weighing bottle. (Eddy. 2013 ) Conclusion: Analytical balance is very sensitive and able to measure up to ± 0. the dried sample was reweighed. (Eddy. Firstly. hence the empirical formula of the salt is CuSO4· 5H2O . in order to get rid of water completely. The desiccator is a metal container with a tight fitting lid and small amount of drying agent or desiccant inside to remove traces of water from an almost-dry sample.0001 g sensitivity. 2001 ) There are several precautions that needs to be taken care of throughout the experiment to prevent errors and injuries.6497g. X is 5. While measuring using the analytic balance. etc. water vapour formed during heating must be removed by either using a tissue paper. watch glass. this experiment involves heating. The ratio of mole of H2O to CuSO4. Dividing the mass of the water lost by the original mass of hydrate used is equal to the fraction of water in the compound. The weight of dried of CuSO4 is 1. thus pay attention to prevent burning. and then the sample was heated to allow the water to volatilize. Corrosive liquids and solids are always placed in a vapor tight. Do not place the chemical directly on the pan. the reaction of removing water molecules is reversible. cotton wool or using a desiccator. thus. be sure to do it on a draft-free location on a solid bench that is free of vibrations as it will affect its accuracy. A desiccant is a compound that rapidly absorbs water from surrounding. The loss in weight corresponds to the water content. the hydrated salt was weighed at first before heating.1331 and the weight of water in CuSO4· xH2O is 0. pre-weighed container before weighing on an analytical balance. June 2). W. G. E.8222g – 15. (2013 .7828g Weight of CuSO4 = 16. Weight of CuSO4· xH2O = 16.vt. (2006 . June 10 ). Retrieved from The University of South Carolina Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry: http://www.0394g =1. D. Introduction to Analytical Measurements.6497g Number of mole CuSO4 = ( ) = = 7. (CuSO4· xH2O).1331g = 0.7828g – September 6).1331g Weight of water = 1. (2001 .edu/~deddy/chem103/103Hydrate.1725g – 15.latech. CHEMISTRY 103: PERCENT WATER IN A Tech University: http://www. Retrieved from College of Engineering & Science .html Questions and Answers: 1.Reference: Brewer.chem.chem.0394g = 1.htm Sibert.pdf Eddy. Retrieved from http://www.chem. ANALYTICAL BALANCE.4286 X 10-3 mol . Determine the weight of water in the salt and calculate the value x for the salt.

999 ≈7 = 0.03298 mol Mole ratio of CuSO4 = =1 Mole ratio of H2O = = 4.05 18.05 g of water. Determine the empirical formula of the salt.05596 mol = 0.0g Simplest mole ratio The value of x = 7 Empirical formula = Na2SO4 · 7H2O .8588 ≈5 Value of X =5 2. was found to contain 7.Number of mole H2O = ( ) = = 0. A 15. Elements present (X) Mass (x) Molar mass of (X) Number of mole of (X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) =1 = 6.95g 142.3917 mol Na2SO4 7.07g H2O 7.00 g sample of an unstable hydrated salt Na2SO4 • xH2O.