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DU TRNG M (DU NHN) TRONG TING ANH STRESS IN ENGLISH

A. DU NHN L G? - T c 2 m tit (c thnh 2 ting) tr ln s c mt m tit c nhn, c to r hn m cn li (c nh thm du sc trong ting Vit). Du trng m c nh trn v trc m tit c nhn trong phin m quc t. m tit khng c nhn s c nh c du huyn (hoc du nng) trong ting Vit. Vd: apply / pla/ ; enter / ent(r)/ - T c 4 m tit tr ln thng c du nhn ph, t di v trc m nhn ph (c nh thanh ngang trong ting Vit) Vd: photographic /,ftrfk / Ch : trong bi tp trng m ch cp n du nhn chnh. Trong ting Anh c 4 nguyn m n yu, khng c nhn: // , /u/ (ngn), / / (ngn), / i / (kh di) *Ch : / i / ng cui mt t; /i:/ l di Vd: apply / pla/ ; enter / ent(r)/; pathetic / petk / ; photography / ftrfi / ; C. DU NHN VI T N (KHNG C PH T): 1) T c 2 m tit: (2-syllable words) a) i vi ng t / tnh t (Verb / adjective) : - Nu m u l yu (, u, ) th nhn m th 2. Vd: arrive / rav /; apply / pla/ - Nu m sau l yu (, u, , i) th nhn m th 1. Vd: lovely /lvli / ; open / pn / - Khng c nhn m cui l // . Vd: borrow /br / ; follow /fl / * Ch : trong t even /i:vn/, m // trong /vn/ b lc b b) i vi danh t (noun): - Khng c nhn m tit c nguyn m yu v ngn, m nhn m tit cn li. Vd: money /mni / ; product / prdkt / ; larynx /lrks / (thanh qun) Vd: estate / 'stet / (in trang, ng cp); balloon / blu:n /; design / dzan / 2) T c 3 m tit: (3-syllable words) a) i vi ng t (Verb) : - Nu m cui mnh th c nhn: entertain / ent(r)ten /; resurrect /,rezrekt / (lm sng li) - Nu m cui yu th khng c nhn, v du nhn s nm m 2 nu m 2 mnh. Vd: encounter / nkant / (gp phi) ; determine / dt:mn / (quyt nh) - Nu c m 2 v 3 u yu th nhn m 1: parody / prdi / b) i vi danh t (noun): - Nu m cui yu hoc l /u/ th khng c nhn. Nu m ngay trc (m 2) l mnh th c nhn: Vd: mimosa / mmz / (hoa trinh n); disaster / dz:st /; Vd: potato / ptet / ; synopsis / snpss / (bn tm tt sch, phim, kch) - Nu c m 2 v 3 u yu, th du nhn ri trn m 1: Vd: quantity / kwntti / (lng, s lng) ; quality / kwlti / (cht lng); emperor / emp()r / (hong ); custody / kstdi / (quyn nui tr, s gim h, s tm giam) - Mc d m cui mnh, nhng du nhn vn thng ri trn m 1 (m cui thng c du nhn ph) Vd: intellect / ntlekt / (tr tu, tr nng, ngi ti tr); alkali / lk,la / (cht kim) Vd: marigold / mr,ld / (hoa cc vn th); stalactite / stlktat / (thch nh) B. NGUYN TC C BN V CNG QUAN TRNG:

c) i vi tnh t (adjective): - Ging danh t, nu m 2 v 3 yu th nhn m 1: Vd: insolent / nslnt / (v l, hn); derelict / derlkt / (v ch, khng c dng v ang b h hi) - Ging danh t, mc d m cui di nhng thng nhn m 1: Vd: opportune / ptju:n / (ng lc, phi lc); anthropoid / nr,pd / (rt ging ngi) D. DU NHN VI T PHC: T phc c chia lm 2 nhm: - T c kt hp vi ph t (tin t, hu t). Vd: unpleasant, goodness - T ghp. Vd: ice-cream 1) Hu t (suffixes) /sfksiz / : c thm vo sau t gc a) Hu t mang du nhn ngay trn n: -ee : refugee /,refjdi: / (ngi t nn); evacuee / ,vkjui: / (ngi s tn); -eer : mountaineer / ,mantn / (ngi leo ni) ; volunteer / ,vlnt / (tnh nguyn, xung phong) -ese : Portuguese / ,p:ti:z / (ngi B o Nha) ; journalese /,d:nli:z/ (vn phong ca nh bo) -ette : cigarette / ,sret / (iu thuc) ; launderette /,l:ndret / (tim git i t ng) -esque : picturesque /,pktresk / (p, hp dn) b) Hu t khng nh hng n du nhn ca t gc: -able : comfort /kmft / ; comfortable /kmftbl / -age : anchor /k/ ; anchorage / krd / -al : refuse / rfju:z / ; refusal / rfju:zl / -en : wide / wad / ; widen / wad()n / -ful : wonder /wnd / ; wonderful /wndf l / -ing : amaze / mez / ; amazing / mez / -ish : devil /devl / ; devilish / dev()l / (adj) gian c, nham him, gian t (*Ch : ch p dng i vi tnh t; i vi ng t th nhn m ngay trc -ish. Vd: replenish / rplen / (lm y li, cung cp thm) ; demolish / dml / (c ph hu (1 to nh, cng trnh kin trc)) -like : bird / b:d / ; birdlike / b:dlak / (ging nh chim) -less : power /pa / ; powerless / pals / (adj) khng quyn hnh/sc mnh, bt lc -ly : hurried / hrid / ; hurriedly /hridli / -ment (noun) : punish / pn / ; punishment /pnmnt / (s trng pht) -ness : lazy / lezi / ; laziness /lezins/ -ous : poison /pz()n / cht c ; poisonous / pz()ns/ (adj) c, c nc c -fy : glory /l:ri / ; glorify / l:rfa/ (v) tn vinh, ca tng, t ln -wise : other / / ; otherwise /,waz / (adv) nu khng, mt cch khc -y (adj or noun) : fun / fn / ; funny / fni/ c) Hu t nh hng n du nhn ca t gc: + Nhng hu t sau c du nhn ng m cui ca t gc (nhn ngay trc hu t):
-eous : advantage / dv:ntd / ; advantageous /,dvnteds / (adj) c li, thun li -graphy : photo / ft / ; photography / ftrfi / (n) nhip nh -ial : proverb / prv:b / (n) tc ng ; proverbial / prv:bil / (adj) thuc v thnh ng, ni ting -ic : climate /klamt / (n) kh hu ; climatic /klamtk / (adj) -ion : perfect /p:fkt / (adj) hon ho ; perfection /pfekn / (n) **Ch : television / tel,v()n / -ious : injure / nd / (v) lm b thng ; injurious / ndris / (adj) gy tn thng, c hi, bt cng -ty : tranquil / trkwl / (adj) yn tnh ; tranquillity / trkwlti / (n) -ive : reflex / ri:fleks / (n) s phn nh, phn x, ci bng ; reflexive / rfleksv / (adj) phn thn, phn x

2) Tin t (prefixes) /pri:fksiz / : c thm vo trc t gc Vd: in- , un-, im- , ir- , il- , de- , pro-, under- , over- ,

*Quy tc: khng c nhn trn tin t, m nhn theo du nhn ca t gc (khng thay i du nhn ca t gc) 3) T ghp (compound words) : /kmpand / : c th c du gch ni hoc khng - Danh t ghp bi 2 danh t nhn t th 1 Vd: typewriter / tap,rat / ; suitcase / su:t,kes / ; car-ferry / k: feri / : ph ch xe hi; sunrise / sn,raz/ - a s cc loi t ghp khc cng thng c nhn t th 1. - Mt s t ghp nhn t th 2: + Tnh t kp: Tnh t kt hp vi danh t thm ed (adj + N-ed): Bad-tempered : nng tnh Half-timbered : mt na lm bng g Heavy-handed: nng tay, p bc, vng v + Tnh t kp: Trng t kt hp vi ng t thm ed/V3 (adv + V-ed/V3) Well-chosen: c chn k Well-built : vm v Well-behaved : l +Tnh t kp: s kt hp vi danh t (number + noun) Three-wheeler : 3 bnh (xe) Second-class : loi 2 (km hn loi 1) Five-finger : 5 ngn tay +Trng t kp: Head-first : North-East : hng ng Bc Downstream: xui dng +ng t kp: trng t kt hp ng t (Adv + V) Downgrade : ging chc, h im, nh gi thp Back-pedal : p ngc, li v sau, lt lng Ill-treat : ngc i 4) Du nhn c th b thay i trong mt s trng hp: bad-tempered but a bad-tempered teacher half-timbered but a half-timbered house heavy-handed but a heavy-handed sentence - Mt s t c 2 cch nhn: Controversy / kntrv:si / /kntrvsi / : s tranh ci, s tranh lun, cuc lun chin Ice-cream or ice-cream Kilometer / kl,mi:t / /klmt/ Formidable / f:mdbl / /fmdbl / : d di, gh gm, kh hon thnh, kh gii quyt 5) Mt s t c hnh thc Noun / Adj v Verb ging nhau nhng du nhn khc nhau: N / A : nhn m 1 V: nhn m 2 Abstract bstrkt A : tru tng, N: bi tm tt) bstrkt (V: tru tng ho, tm tt Conduct kndkt (N: hnh kim, cch ch o) kndkt (V: dn ng, ch o, n ) Contract kntrkt (N: hp ng) kntrkt (V: k hp ng, mc bnh) Contrast kntra:st (N: s tng phn) kntra:st (V: tng phn) Desert dezt (N: sa mc) d'z :t (V: b ri)

Escort Export Import Insult Object Perfect Permit Present Produce Protest Rebel Record Subject chu)

esk:t (N: i/ngi h tng, thp tng) sk:t (V: h tng, thp tng) eksp:t (N: s xut khu) ksp:t (V: xut khu) mp:t (N: s nhp khu) mp:t (V: nhp khu) nslt (N: s/li s nhc) nslt (V: s nhc) bdkt (N: vt th, vt, mc tiu) bdekt (V: phn i, chng li, ght) p:fkt (A: hon ho, hon chnh) pfekt (V: hon thin) p:mt (N: giy php, s cho php) pmt (V: cho php, tha nhn) preznt (N: mn qu, hin ti, A: hin ti, c mt) przent (V: a ra, np, trnh by, gii thiu, tng) prdju:s (N: sn phm, kt qu, thnh qu) prdju:s (V: sn xut, gy ra, em li prtest (N: s phn i/khng, cam oan) prtest (V: phn i, khng ngh, cam oan) rebl (N: ni lon, ngi ni lon) rbel (V: dy lon, ni lon, chng i) rek:d (N: h s, l lch, k lc, a ht; A: thng li, bi thu) rk:d (V: ghi li, thu li) sbdkt (N: ch , vn , mn hc, thn dn; A: l thuc) sbdekt (V: chinh phc, bt phi

Ngun: English Phonetics and Phonology (A practical course) Peter Roach, Cambridge University Press