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Paper 2 – Section B No Questions

BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012


Student`s Tips

1.(a) Describe the structure of plasma membrane using the fluid mosaic model. 6 [6 marks] marks P1: Plasma membrane is composed of phospholipid and protein 1 P2: Various types of proteins are dispersed throughout and inserted into the phospholipid bilayer. P3: Phospholipid bilayer are not rigid or static but form a dynamic flexible structure P4: Phospholipid molecule has polar head (hydrophilic) and non polar tail (hydrophobic) P5: Contains cholesterol which links the fatty acids together and P6: Helps to stabilized and strengthen the plasma membrane and make it more flexible. P7: Various type of proteins (eg: pore protein and carrier protein) either partially attached or wholly embedded in the membrane. P8: The protein molecules float about in the phospholipid bilayer to form a mosaic pattern that is always changing (‘fluid’ characteristic) (b) Explain simple diffusion in alveolus . F1: Concentration/partial pressure of oxygen in blood capillaries is lower than the concentration/partial pressure of oxygen in alveolus. E1: Oxygen diffuses from alveolus to blood capillaries because of the concentration gradient. F2: Concentration/partial pressure of carbon dioxide is higher inside the blood capillaries compared to concentration/partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolus. E2: Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood capillaries into the alveoli because of the concentration gradient. Using example, explain the movement of substances across the plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion and active transport Facilitated diffusion 1



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[4mar ks] 1



1 [6mar ks





BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012
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P1: Most water-soluble molecules / molecules that is not soluble in lipids eg ,ions,nucleic acids,amino acids and glucose. P2: Combine with a specific carrier protein that binds the molecule. P3: The carrier protein changes shape to allow the molecules to pass through P4: Energy is not needed/it follows the concentration gradient Active transport P1: The transport of molecules or ions against the concentration gradient P2: use carrier protein that binds the molecule or ion at the active site and ATP / energy at another active site. P3: Then carrier protein changes its shape when the phosphate group from the ATP molecules bind to it, allowing the molecules or ion to pass through. Compare and contrast between passive transport and active transport. Similarities: Both involved the movement of substance from one region to another: Differences Passive transport The movement of substances follows the concentration gradient. Cellular energy is not required. The process continues until a dynamic equilibrium is reached. Can take place in living cells or non-living physical condition Active transport The movement of substances is against the concentration gradient. Cellular energy (ATP) is required. The process results in the accumulation of / elimination of substances from the cell. Can only take place in living cells. [1] [1] [max 3] [1] 1 1 1


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No 2.

BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012

Essay Questions Diagram 2 shows a part of a digestive system.



Diagram 2 Explain the role of organ P and Q in the digestion of carbohydrate, protein and lipid [10 marks] P1: P is a liver P2: which produces bile P3: bile is transported to the duodenum P4: to provide an alkali medium P5: for the action of pancreatic enzymes on digestion of starch, polypeptide and lipids P6 : to emulsify lipids into tiny droplets of lipids P7: to increase the surface area for enzymatic action P8: Q is a pancreas P9: which produces pancreatic amylase to hydrolize starch into maltose P10: trypsin to hydrolize polypeptide into peptide 1 P11: lipase to hydrolize lipids into fatty acids and glycerol 1 1 1 1 1

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No 3. (a)

BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012
Marks Student’s

Essay Questions

Diagram 3.1 Diagram 3.1 shows stage A and Stage B in a cell division process. Compare the behavior of chromosomes in stage A and stage B. [4 marks] Answer: Simililarities: S1 – Each chromosomes consist of 2 sister chromatids attached at centromere. S2 – Each chromosomes attached to the spindle fibre at the centromere S3 – Each contromere does not divide. Difference: D1 – Chromosomes align at metaphase plate/equator in stage A while homologous chromosomes align at metaphase plate/equator in stage B. 1(b) Diagram 3.2 shows normal skin cells are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) rays.

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Diagram 3.2 Based on diagram 3.2, explain the effect of ultraviolet (UV) rays on normal skin cells. [6 marks]


[10 marks] P1 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE Answer: BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P1 . without control and regulation P4 – to produce cancer cell P5 – to form abnormal mass of cell called tumour P6 – lead to skin cancer (c) 1 1 1 1 1 1 If meiosis does not occur properly.The individual has trisomy no 21 / instead of two chromosomes no 21 P10.When this ovum fertilized with sperm that has one chromosome no 21 P8.the mechanism of cell cycle will be severely disrupted P3 – Cell divides by mitosis repeatedly. The zygote that is formed later would become abnormal.During anaphase I or anaphase II of meiosis P4.non-disjunction occurs P3. the gametes formed will have an abnormal number of chromosomes.DNA molecule/gene is damaged P2 .In Down’s syndrome.Zygote has cell with 47 chromosomes instead of normal 46 chromosomes.The gametes produced would have either extra or lack of chromosomes.Causing one of gamete/ovum have extra 1 chromosome 21 / have 2 chromosome no 21 P7. 2 homologous chromosome no 21 fail to separate P6. TOTAL MARKS 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 .Will produced zygote with three chromosomes no 21 P9.When the chromosomes or the sister chromatids do not separate P2. P5. Explain the above passage in Down’s syndrome.

vitamins.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE No 4 Questions BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Marks Student`s Tips Table 1 shows a breakfast menu for an adult. E2 : Bread / banana contains carbohydrate to be digested to Glucose E3 : oxidized and to release energy / cell respiration E4 : fried eggs / fresh milk contains protein for growth / replace damage tissue / cells E5 : amino acids are used in the synthesis of plasma protein / example of a plasma protein : fibrinogen / albumin / globulin. lipids. mineral salts. BREAKFAST MENU Bread Fried eggs Jam Margarine Fresh milk Banana 2 slices 2 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 glass 2 Table 1 (a) Does the breakfast menu in Table 1 provide a balanced diet for an adult? Give your reasons. roughage and water in the correct quantity and proportion. protein. E6 : Banana contains fibre to prevent constipation E7 : Margarine / fried egg contains fat / lipid to be oxidize for Energy E8 : fats are used as components of plasma membrane 6 . [10 marks] F : the breakfast menu is a balanced diet for an adult E1 : the breakfast menu consists of all the seven classes of food in the correct quantity and proportion // the breakfast menu consists of carbohydrates .

contain harmful chemicals 7 . Causes coronary thrombosis / cardiovascular diseases / narrowing of blood arteries // obesity Deamination increases and produces toxic amounts of nitrogenous waste products / urea / uric acid // kidney failure / gout Food preservatives / Chemicals can be carcinogenic / cause colouring / additives cancer . E10 : milk contain water E11 : to maintain body temperature / any function of water to human body. Describe the effects of consuming the meat-based fast food for long periods . flavouring and food colouring. ANALYSIS OF CONTENT IN A FAST FOOD  Excess of mineral salt  Excess of fat  Excess of protein  Insufficient fibre  Presence of food preservatives.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 E9 : Bread / milk / jam contains vitamins / mineral salt is used as cofactor // to regulate health. (b) Table 2 shows the result of an analysis of meat-base fast food. Table 2 A teenager frequently consumes meat-based fast food for a long time. [10 marks] Reasoning I Excess of salt in food increases the blood osmotic pressure Excess of oil / fat / lipids increases cholesterol content in blood Excess of protein prolongs digestion / not used by the body Justification (J) (long term effect) Causes salt poisoning // formation of stones in the kidney / urinary tracts // arteriosclerosis // hypertension.

In recent times.Gastritis . breakfast.Obesity .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE Insufficient roughage / fibre in food BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Causes constipation / faeces hard and small / evacuation of faeces causes pain // intestinal diseases.Anorexia nervosa .Bulimia [6 marks] 6 Obesity (max 3) P1: excessive storage of energy in the form of fat P2: causes: a lack of balanced between intake and energy expenditure P3: taking excessive fatty food and high sugar content 8 . it is also important that we 8ractice good eating habit. we hear of increasing cases of eating disorders among modern community. lunch & dinner (any example) Eating disorder (max 2) P1: taking improper quantity of food. type and time P2: overeating or eating too little food in one meal P3: taking excessive fatty food & rich in sugar (any example) 4 (a)(i) (a)(i) Describe following health problem related to eating habit (choose two only) . No 5. Explain meaning of Good Eating Habit and Eating Disorder [4 marks] Good eating habit (max 2) P1: taking food in correct quantity at the correct time P2: refrain from overeating or eating too little P3: normal person should take in three meals a day. Questions Marks Student’s tips Instead of taking a balanced diet.

X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P4: lead to cardiovascular disease. hypertension & diabetes mellitus (minimum 2 example) P5: preventive. nutrition program & restoration of body mass Bulimia (max 3) P1: excessive food intake & purging to counteract the effects of the binge P2: victims engage in consuming huge amount of food within a short period of time P3: followed immediately by self-induced vomiting / purging through laxative abuse P4: repeated purging results in serious to the digestive tract P5: lead to imbalance of mineral ions / liver failure / kidney 9 . endocrine system or reproductive system fail P5: treatment. patient undergo good eating habit counselling Gastritis (max 3) P1: epithelial lining of stomach become inflamed P2: causes improper eating time / empty stomach during eating time P3: acidic gastric juice acting on the epithelial lining of stomach P4: mucus / protective layer in the stomach disrupted P5: treatment involves taking medication such as antacids to reduce / neutralise stomach acids Anorexia nervosa (max 3) P1: experience an intense fear of gaining weight P2: intentionally deprive them self of food to achieve severe loss in body weight P3: lose both fat & muscle that they become extremely loss weight P4: lead to organ failure / heart.

Explain the benefit of recommended diet. minerals. approved stabiliser and colouring. 17 years old boy take this snack as his daily diet.2 Proteins 7% 32% per 100 g 1.1 g 1. fibre and water are not shown) Gordon’s diet Recommended diet Lipids Carbohydrates 25% 68% 14% 54% Diagram 5. preservatives.5 g 0.2 g Does the Gordon eating habit is good or bad. plan a daily diet for Gordon.6 g 6. 10 .8 g 0.2 g 15. salt.2 g 1. 10 Keledek Chips Ingredients: Keledek. fats. (Vitamins. Contents Energy Fats Unsaturated fats Saturated fats Sugar Starch Protein Salt Minimum weight : 350 g Diagram 5.3 g 2.5 g 2. vesawi oil.8 g per keledek chips 332 KJ 3. Explain your answer using examples. Based on the recommended diet. Gordon.1 shows the label on a packet of snack food. Answer: Response : (max 1) [F] Gordon’s diet is bad.1 Diagram 5.1 g 0.5 g 6.2 shows the analysis of Gordon’s diet and the recommended diet.5 g 0.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE damage / cardiovascular problem BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P6: victim should undergo eating habit counselling for mind / emotional relief b Diagram 5.8 g 0.100 KJ 10. sugar. flavouring.

1 boiled egg and fruit juice Or P1: Lunch. 1 bowl of plain rice. chicken/beef stew and fruit juice E1: should take 3 meals a day with variety of food to satisfy the body’s nutrient requirement // Take meal that content 7 classes of food in correct proportion at correct time E2: food manufacturers are provide nutritional labelling about the total calories per serving and nutrient contents // this plan daily diet content enough calories with correct proportion for student/teenage E3: when buying food. fried chicken/fish.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE Explanations (max 5) P1: Keledek chips is not good for daily diet BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P2: high content of lipid / 11% lipid contents more than recommended E1: lead to obesity / cardiovascular disease / hypertension (any one) P3: high content of carbohydrate / 14% carbohydrate contents more than recommended E2: lead to obesity / diabetes mellitus / cardiovascular disease P4: lack of protein content / 25% protein content less than recommended E4: lead low body defence / muscle lose / disruption of the function organ (liver/kidney failure) P5: (others choice) low fibre / low vitamin / high mineral (with explanation) Plan daily diet (max 4) [any P1 with any 3E] P1: Breakfast. he must consider the nutrient contents. freshness & total calories contents // Better he prepare own meals to ensure the freshness. nutrients content & total energy E4: nutritional information obtained from these sources will help reduce health problem related to poor eating habit // self prepare meal better preventive of health problem E5: self prepare meal. plain water Or P1: Dinner. 1 bowl of plain rice. vegetable soup. 2 slices of toast. control the additives content which may have 11 .

Describe the principles of food processing that may help your friend in deciding a suitable food processing method The processing must be able to : P1: keep the food for a longer duration. P6: to increase its commercial value P7: to improve the taste. TOTAL MARKS 20 6 Technological Development in Food Processing Your friend intends to process a local food item to be exported as light snacks to overseas market. and at the same time he can make some profits. appearance and texture of the processed food P8: Enhance the freshness of the food P9: The food additives must not be a health risk P10: the method is not too technical the method is not too expensive [10 marks ] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 adverse effect on health E6: student may come out with function of each food classes for maximum 2 marks. He wants some guidance on food processing so that his processed snacks can appeal to the overseas consumers. P2: ensure the food is preserved in its original form P3: maintain the original taste of the food P4: preserve the nutrient content of the food P5: ensure the lifespan of the food is extended.

10M 1. uses food additive Explanation(P) P4:give long term side effect/examples//reduce the nutrient/vitamin in the food.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE (b) BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Diagram 6 shows various processed food on a supermarket shelf.1 1.1 13 . Able to explain the good and bad of food processing Sample answer Good(G) G1 .1 1.1 1. justify the impact of food processing on human being. to preserve food Explanation(P) P1: Avoid wastage of food/prevent food spoilage/can be stored(for future use) G2: to increase its commercial value/uses of food additives G3:to diversify the uses of food substances P2: improve the taste/appearance/texture of food/to preserve the freshness P3: to increase the variety of product//any example Max 5 marks Sample answer Bad(B) B1 .1 B2: too much sugar P5: increases the risk of diabetes 1.1 1. DIAGRAM 6 Based on Biology knowledge.

Requires light D3. Involves photolysis of water D4. Based on the statement. P1: In winter . [6 marks] F: In temperate countries light intensity / temperature changes throughout the year. Materials required is water/ chlorophyll D5.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE B3: food colouring/yellow dye/tetrazine B4:too much salt BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P6: causes allergy reaction 1. plants are grown in greenhouses. Produces oxygen and water Dark reaction Occurs in stroma Does not require light Involves reduction/fixation of carbon dioxide Materials required is carbon dioxide /hydrogen atoms/ ATP Produces glucose (b) In countries with four seasons. explain why this method is carried out to ensure the production of crops throughout the year. [4 marks] Light reaction D1. temperature is very low P2: In autumn. Occurs in granum D2.1 B5: Sodium nitrate P8:causes nausea/athma(to certain people) Any 3B with respective P Max 5 marks 7 (a) Photosynthesis occurs in two stages which are the light reaction and dark reaction. the plants shed their leaves // Light intensity/ temperature is low P3: Rate of photosynthesis is very low 14 . Describe the differences between the light reaction and dark reaction.1 P7:increase the risk of high blood pressure 1.

) photosynthetic enzymes are inactive. the light intensity/temperature are optimum for photosynthesis. P6: In the greenhouse. the rate of photosynthesis increase (rapidly) P3: Light intensity / Temperature also increases 15 . the rate of photosynthesis is very low P1: The light intensity / temperature is (very) low P2: ( At low temperature. F2: From 0600 to 1200 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P4: In spring and summer. P5: So the rate of photosynthesis is maximum / highest. [10 marks] F1: From 0000 to 0600. P7: So the rate of photosynthesis is maintained at maximum level throughout the year (regardless of changes in light intensity or temperature). P8: The plants are able to increase yields / increase the crops production throughout the years. Rate of photosynthesis 0000 0600 1200 Diagram 6 1800 2300 Time/ hour Based on the graph. explain the changes in the rate of photosynthesis in the plant throughout the day. (c) Graph in Diagram 6 shows the changes in the rate of photosynthesis throughout the day in a tropical country. light intensity/concentration of carbon dioxide / temperature are maintained at optimum level (for photosynthesis ) throughout the year.

X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P4: Enzyme for photosynthesis become more active. P5: Stomata open wider to allow absorption of more carbon dioxide F3: The rate of photosynthesis is maximum / the highest at 1200 P6: The light intensity maximum / temperature is optimum (for photosynthesis). F4: From 1200 to 1800. the rate of photosynthesis decreases P8: Light intensity / temperature decreases P9: Photosynthetic enzyme are less active P10: Stomatal openings/pores become smaller P11 : Less carbon dioxide is absorbed F5: From 1800 to 2300 . the rate of photosynthesis become very low / stopped / ceased P12 : Light intensity very low / temperature is very low/ no light P13: Photosynthetic enzymes are not active P14: Stomata closed P15: Very little / no carbon dioxide is absorbed No 8(a) Essay Questions Describe the genetic engineering in biotechnology development. Process : P3 : It involves the transfer of a gene or genes on the DNA molecule from a living organism onto the DNA molecule of another organism. Marks Student’s tips 1 1 1 1 16 . [4 marks] Meaning : P1 : Genetic engineering is the gene manipulation and alteration of genetic materials of an organism P2 : to create new combinations of genes./ stomata open fully P7: Enzymes are the most active.

X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE Importance: P3 : in field of agriculture/ medicine (b) BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Human pancreas cell Gene for insulin production Bacterium. explain how bacteria are used in the medical purpose.coli DNA molecule Based on Diagram 9. coli P4 : The bacterium contains a recombinant DNA with human insulin gene P5 : The bacterium is then cultured in a suitable condition and nutrient medium P6 : The bacterium is now capable to produce the human insulin in a large scale / cheaper. [6 marks] P1 : Medical purpose – insulin production is used for curing diabetic patient. P3 : Gene / DNA molecule is then inserted into the DNA molecule / plasmid of a bacterium // E.1.E. P2 : The gene / DNA molecule which involved in insulin production is isolated from human pancreas cell. P7 : The insulin is purified and used to treat diabetic patient 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MAX 6 17 .

P2 : New species of crops that are produced can cause the original species to become extinct. P2 : Ensures that food sources(GMO) are readily available at cheaper cost P3 : Enables the mass production of medical and pharmaceutical products P4 : Can help solve environmental problems such as oil spills by using genetically engineered bacteria. [10 marks] Able to give the (i) Advantages of genetic engineering P1 : Enables the mass production of various types of products through the development of new strains of crops and livestock. P3 :Transgenic crops can colonise and displace the natural plant population P4 : The side effects of eating food from genetically modified organism are still uncertain.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE (c) BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Justify the advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering. 1 Max 9 marks Justification – Genetic engineering have more advantages / benefit to people 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 18 . P5 : Can diagnose and treat the genetic diseases at the early stage 1 P6 : To speed up the process of selective breeding in animal and plant P7 : Useful in gene therapy (ii) Disadvantages of genetic engineering P1 : The introduction of foreign genes in microorganisms leads to the creation of harmful pathogens.

discuss how water molecules from the soil enter the root cells and loss during the process of transpiration.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE No Questions BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Marks Student’ s tips 9 Diagram 9 shows the direction of water flow from the soil to the plant then to the atmosphere. So water moves to the xylem through the cytoplasm and vacuole 1 P2 P3 1 1 1 1 1 P4 P5 P6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 P7 P8 . P1 There is a concentration gradient between soil and epidermal cell // soil water is hypotonic to the epidermal cell so water enter the cell of root hairs / epidermal cells by osmosis this will caused the osmotic pressure of the epidermal cell decrease / hypotonic compare to the adjacent cells water diffuse/ enter the adjacent cells by osmosis so water continuously move inward The movement of water across epidermal cells and cortex is through the cell wall. cytoplasm and vacuole by osmosis (until endodermal cell). Water Water Diagram 9 Based on Diagram 9 above. Endodermal cells have Casparian strip which is impermeable to water.

P1P10 ( Max: 7) P11P15 ( Max: 3) P12 P13 P14 P15 20 . water then move to xylem 1 P10 P11 Water in xylem move upwards to the stem and leaves 1 The movement of water is help by the root pressure and the transpiration pull Cohesive and adhesive properties of water molecules also helped the upwards movement of water along the xylem vessel The force form in the xylem vessel known as capillary action (caused by characteristic of xylem – xylem have long. The capillary action enable the upwards movement of water along the xylem During transpiration. narrow and hollow tubes).X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE of endodermal cells. BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 1 P9 The concentration gradient of water across the cortex and endodermis create a pushing force. water loss to the atmosphere and thus create the transpiration pull.

Greenhouse gases produced by burning of fossil also produced belching from cattle and anaerobic respiration in paddy field. methane. 1 1 P3: P4: 1 1 P5: P6: P7: 1 1 1 21 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE No Questions BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Marks Student’s tips 10. nitrous oxide and water vapour make up the greenhouse gases. Diagram 10 shows an environmental phenomenon. effect of deforestation// decrease CO2 absorption Sunlight enter the Earth’s atmosphere . Diagram 10 a Describe how the phenomenon in diagram above occurs P1: P2: The phenomenon is global warming Carbon dioxide .chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Most of the radiation is absorbed by the Earth.

P1 P2 P3 P4 No roots system Vegetation can rapidly succumb to soil erotion. Accumulated /increased concentration of greenhouse gases trapped the radiated heat. Sendimentation of the rivers. Landslide on steep hills 1 1 1 1 1 P5: Habitat destruction P6 Extinction of flora and fauna 1 TOTAL 20 22 . Warm the atmosphere. One of the most devastating human activities on the environment is deforestation. 1 1 P10. P3: Slow down deforestation for farming or development. P1: Reduce burning of fossil fuels. P2: Use alternative energy sources. Suggest ways to minimize the effects of this phenomenon. P4: Replant trees which have been cut down 1 1 1 1 c Human activities have a widespread impact on the ecosystem.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE b P8: P9: BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 1 Some radiation is radiated back into space. Describe the effect and consequences of deforestation to the ecosystem.

Diagram 11.1) P1: The outer layer is tough and impermeable to bacteria and viruses P2: The continual shedding of dead skin cells makes it difficult for bacteria to grow on the skin P3: Sebum produced forms a protective layer over the skin P4: The sweat secreted contains lysozyme. an enzyme capable of breaking down the cell walls of certain bacteria 1 1 1 1 Phagocytic cell (diagram 11.2 involve in the body defense system.2 Explain how the human organ in diagram 11. BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Diagram 11.2 shows a cell involved in the body defence system.2) P1: The cell performs phagocytosis P2: When the cell encounters any pathogen.1 and the cell in diagram 11.1 (a) Diagram 11.1 shows a human organ and diagram 11.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE 11. [10 Marks] Human skin ( diagram 11. it engulfs the pathogen P3: The pathogen is drawn inside the cell to form phagosome 1 P4: The phagosome combines with the lysosome P5: which releases lysozyme into the phagosome to digest the pathogen 1 1 1 23 .

X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE (b) BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 1 1 P6: The cell releases the digested pathogen out of it Individuals P were given two injections to acquire immunity. 1 P8: The second injection increases the antibody production to a level of immunity 1 P9: So that he can be protected against the disease.3 Concentration of antibodies in the blood (arbitrary unit) Immunity level 1st injection 2nd injection Times / Week Diagram 11.3. The level of antibodies in the blood of individual P is shown in Diagram 11. P10: The second injection is known as booster dose 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 .3 Based on diagram 11. [10 Marks] P1: Individual P is given artificially acquired active immunity P2: which is an injection of vaccine P3: a preparation of weakened / dead or non-virulent forms of pathogen (that is not harmful) P4: The injected vaccine stimulates the lymphocytes P5: to produce antibodies P6: The first injection results in the production of a low level of antibody concentration P7: Not enough to protect the person against the disease. explain the immunity given to individual P.

Lymph carrying products of lipid digestion eventually drains into the thoracic duct P6.1   Lacteals in interstinal villi transport products of lipids About 10% of interstitial fluid returns to the circulatory system via the lymphatic system (a) Based on the statements explain why the lymphatic system is considered complementary to the blood circulatory system P1.1 shows the lymphatic system and blood circulatory system Diagram 12. P5. P3-the lacteals fuse to form larger lymphatic vessels.the thoracic duct merges into the left subclavian vein which is Any 10 25 . P4-and enter the lymphatic system. P2-are first transported into the lacteals in the vilil. the products of lipid which are fatty acids and glycerol.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE No 12 BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Marks Student’s tips Essay Questions Diagram 12.In the small intestine.

the lymphatic system is complementary to the blood circulatory system P14. P8-(90%) tissue fluid/interstitial fluid must be returned to the circulatory system. BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P7. P9-the remaining (10% ) flows into the blunt-ended lymph capillaries.thus. P10-these lymph capillaries drain into a larger lymph vessels P11-which eventually drain back into the blood circulatory system P12-via the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct P13. 26 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE a part of the blood circulatory ensuring that the volume of the blood in the blood vessels is kept constant.thus the lymphatic system complements the circulatory system in transporting the product of digestion.

2 and by using your biological knowledge.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE (b) BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Diagram 12.2 Diagram 12. P6-form activators / thromboplastins P7.2 show stages in blood clotting. in the presence of calcium ions and vitamin K P8-convert prothrombin (inactive plasma protein) into thrombin (active plasma protein) P9-thrombin catalyses the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin 27 . P4.then aggregation of platelets forms plug P5-the clumped platelet.wall of the blood vessel is broken/ damage/injured P2-the connective tissue in the vessel wall is exposed to air P3-platelets stick to the collagen fibers in the connective tissue.thromboplastine. Based on the diagram 12. describe how the mechanism of blood clotting help to prevent infection when a wound occurs. damaged cellsand clotting factors in the plasma. P1.

a blood clot prevent further blood loss P13.prevent bacteria/pathogen/microbe from entering the cell through wound 13 Diagram 13 shows the action of antagonistic in bending of the fore-limb.fibrin form a network that mesh over the wound trapping red blood cells P11-And sealing the wound P12.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P10. describe the function of muscles. tendons and ligaments in enabling the bending of the human fore-limb P1: Biceps muscle is attached to the radius by tendons P2: When biceps muscle contracts P3: A pulling force is produced and is transferred to the tendon P4: Tendon pulls the radius upwards P5: Ligaments hold the humerous to the radius-ulna at the elbow joint P6: Give support and strength to the bones when they are being pulled upwards P7: At the same time the triseps muscle relaxes P8: Triceps muscle is connected to the ulna by tendons P9: When triceps muscle contracts 28 . 8 Diagram 13 (a) Based on diagram.

phosphate and iron for the building of strong bones . E1-Take a diet rich in proteins.Drinking fluoridated water will also harden the bones . P2: regular exercise P3: balance diet Any 2 (c) [4 marks] Why it is important for us to have a healthy musculoskeletal system? Discuss how to practice ways of maintaining a healthy musculoskeletal [10 marks] Ways to maintain a healthy musculoskeleton F1.Having a balanced diet for every meal. E3-This is important because a bad posture will put undue pressure on our muscles and spine E4. Her doctor has told her that she is suffering from osteoporosis. heart and stomach. 10 marks Any 10 29 .to ensure that our body is always well supported.this will affect the functions of our internal organs such as the lungs . F2-Adopt a good posture while standing /sitting /walking and while performing certain tasks E2.vitamins A.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE P10: Tendons pull the ulna downwards BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P11: At the same time the biseps muscle relaxed (b) A lady aged 50 often experiences aches and pains in her bones. State the symptoms of osteoporosis and suggest the ways to overcome this problem.C and D together with minerals such as calcium . Symptoms: P1: fractures of the vertebrae / wrists / hips P2: loss of height over time P3: stooped posture Any 2 To prevent osteoporosis P1: adequate intake of calcium / phosphorus and vitamin D.

to ensure their survival.Wear proper attire for daily activities.enable to protect the organisms from harm and P3. No 14 (a) Essay Questions State the importance of living organisms to respond to external and internal stimuli. A person ringing a door bell Integrating Centre receptor effector Response Based on diagram 14. regulate the equilibrium of the internal environtment. [6 Marks] P1 The receptor in the sensory organs/ear detects the stimulus. explain the pathway involved in detecting and responding to the stimulus. 1 30 . E7-A woman wearing high heel shoes will cause the spine to curve .Taking appropriate precautions during vigorous activities. Marks Student’s tips 1 1 1 1 14 (b) [4 marks] Diagram 14 shows the pathway of response when a man heard a visitor ringing the door bell. P2. E6-Tight clothes will restrict our movement .Practice correct and safe techniques when exercising E8 to prevent serious injuries to the musculoskeletal system.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE F3. BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 E5-Wear loose and comfortable clothes at all times. P4. F5. Answer: P1 – enable the organism to adjust to environmental changes.

explain the above situation. The brain interprets the information and send out nerve impulse The impulse received by the efferent/motor neuron efferent/motor neuron transfer the impulse to the effector. The effector is the skeletal muscle in the leg Skeletal muscle in the leg will contract and the man will walk to open the door TOTAL MARKS P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 1 1 1 1 1 1 Any 6 10 No 15 (a) Questions Marks Student`s Tip When you suddenly see too many smoke coming from your kitchen . Based on Biology knowledge.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE P2 BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 1 The receptor trigger a nerve impulse in the afferent/sensory neuron The afferent/sensory neuron transfer the impulse to the integrating centre in the brain. [10 marks] P1 : P2 : P3 : P4: P5: the situation known as `fight or flight` situation involved nervous system and endocrine system the hypothalamus sends / transmitt nerve impulse to neurons in adrenal gland (which is in turn ) stimulate the adrenal gland to secrete adrenaline / noradrenaline ( increase heart beat) and breathing rate increase blood pressure increase blood glucose level for metabolic activity P6: P7 : P8: P9: 31 . your heart beat faster and your hands become sweaty.

[10 marks] F : interneurone is not involved P1 – When the part below the knee cap is struck by a reflex hammer. the nerve impulses are transmitted from the afferent neurone to efferent neurone 32 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE P9: BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 (the heart need to contract more) to pump a larger amount of oxygen and glucose to brain / skeleton muscle (because the brain must be highly alert) to mobilize the body into immediate action the skeleton muscle becomes more energizer (to fight off / flee immediately) P11: P12: P13: P14: (b) Diagram 15 shows reflex action in human. P2 – the stretch receptor in the muscle is stimulated. P3 – This generates nerve impulses along the afferent neurone P4 – towards the spinal cord P5 – via the dorsal root P6 – In the spinal cord. explain the reflex action shown above. DIAGRAM 15 Based on the diagram 15.

[2 marks] P1: interstitial fluid and the blood plasma P2: fluid fills the spaces between the cells & inside blood capillaries E1: exchanges nutrients and waste substances with the blood plasma contained in blood capillaries any 1P with E Marks Student’s tips (b) State one physical factor and one chemical factor affecting the internal environment. [6 marks] P1: Physical. Temperature // Blood pressure // Osmotic Pressure E1: T=enzymes active at 37°C // B=exchanges of nutrients & waste product between the cell & internal environment efficient at 120/80 // OP=to keep cytoplasm of the cell is isotonic to the interstitial fluid & blood plasma Max 2: any 1P with correspond 1E P2: Chemical. Explain your answer with example.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P7 – The efferent neurone carries the nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the effector (muscle tissue) P8 – Muscle contracts P9 – jerking the leg forward // knee jerk action No 16. Salt // Sugar // pH value E2: Sa=to keep maintain the osmotic pressure (to prevent hypertension) // Su=to keep maintain blood sugar level (to prevent diabetes mellitus) // pH=to keep maintain blood pH at about neutral pH (to maintain chemical reaction/physiological process at maximum) Max 2: any 1P with correspond 1E (c) Explain the necessity to maintain an optimal internal environment. (a) Questions Homeostasis is the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment for the cells to function optimally. [4 marks] P1: to maintain the rate of nutrients & waste product exchange E1: supply the cells with requirement nutrients at maximum concentration 33 . Describe the meaning of internal environment.

it penetrates the wall of the embryo sac. Diagram 17 shows a longitudinal section of the carpel of a flower during fertilization.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 E2: get rid the waste product that harmful to the cells // carry away waste product P2: to maintain the body metabolism E3: control the physical & chemical factor so that metabolic process at maximum level E4: synthesis of ATP is at maximum level for muscle contraction (any other example) Any 2P + 2E Any explanation on physical & chemical factor is accepted as E TOTAL MARKS 20 No Essay Questions Marks Student’s tips 17.When the pollen tube reaches the embryo sac. Explain Give fact and explanation Diagram 17 Describe how the process of fertilization is carried out (a) [6 marks] P1 . 1 1 34 .

X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE P2 .The tube nucleus degenerates.Double fertilization take place. the ovule become a seed. the ovary becomes a fruit. The other one egg cell to form the male gamete fuses with two polar diploid zygote nuclei to form a triplod nucleus. One male Involves 1 male gamete gamete fuses with the egg cell to only.the male gamete releases enzymes to break down tissues surrounding the female gamete P3 . P4 -Another male gamete / nucleus fuses with the egg cell to form a diploid zygote. which fuses with form the diploid zygote.fertilization involves the fusion of a male gamete and a female gamete to form the diploid zygote P2 .One male gamete / nucleus fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid nucleus. the zygote develops into embryo. the triploid nucleus becomes the endosperm & integuments become the seed coat.the male gamete travels along a tube to the female gamete 1 any 2 1 1 Explain Give fact and explanation Differences between plant and mammal fertilization Plant fertilization Mammal fertilization 1 Involves 2 male gametes. 1 Produce one diploid zygote and one Produce triploid zygote only one 1 any 2 diploid zygote are delivered Male gamete is delivered to the Sperms female reproductive organ in the directly to the ovum pollen tube 35 . BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 1 P3 . 1 1 1 In what ways is fertilization in a plant similar to and different from fertilization (b) in a mammal? [4 marks] Similarities between plant and animal fertilization: P1 .After fertilization. P5 . P6 .

P1 : FSH & LH are produced by the pituitary gland P2 : Oestrogen & Progesteron are produced by ovary 36 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE No 18 (a) BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Marks Essay Questions Diagram 18 below shows the hormones involved in the human menstrual cycle Diagram 18 Based on the diagram 18. explain the relationship between the hormones level with the changes in the endometrium thickness and the follicle development. [10 marks ] Answer : (a) Able to relate between sex hormones with the thickness of endometrium and the development of Graafian follicle.

Oestrogen (Oestrogen is released by ovary // follicle cells of ovary) P6 : Stimulate further growth of follicles P7 : Promote the rebuilding / repair endometrium wall (after menstruation). Explain the methods in birth control that can be used for this couple. Progesterone P12 : Strengthens the endometrium wall // remain the thickness of the endometrium. They decided to limit the number of children by practicing birth control. 1 37 . [10 marks] (b) Able to explain the methods in birth control and how each method could prevent pregnancy.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE No BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Marks Essay Questions FSH ( Follicle-stimulating hormone) FSH is released by ( the anterior lobe of ) the pituitary P3 : causes Graafian follicles in ovary to develop P4 : stimulate ovary tissues / follicle cells to produce oestrogen P5 : Day 0-5/7 th: The low FSH / oestrogen level causes the breakdown of endometrium of uterus and discharge of blood and tissues ( through the vagina). 1 1 1 P8 : Stimulate pituitary gland to produce LH // Inhibits the production of FSH LH (Luteinising hormone) (LH is release by the pituitary) P9 : Causes ovulation ( on day 14 th ) P10 : Stimulates ovary to produce progesterone from corpus luteum P11 : Endometrium is prepared for the implantation. P13 : inhibits the secretion of the FSH and LH to stop the follicle development and ovulation (b) A married couple has 10 children after thirteen years they had lived together.

X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE No Female F1 Tubal ligation P1 both Fallopian tubes are tied and cut P2 sperms cannot fertilize the ovum BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Marks Essay Questions 1 1 F2 Contraseptive pills P1 pill contains oestrogen and progesterone P2 prevent follicle development and ovulation F3 Intrauterine device (IUD) P1 IUD is fitted in the uterus P2 prevent implantation of zygote F4 Presence of Mucus P1 Fertile period // produce mucus P2 avoid sexual intercource F5 Diaphragm P1 cover the cervix P2 prevent sperms from entering the uterus. F2 Condom P1 is placed over erected penis P2 Prevent sperm from entering the vagina F3 Withdrawal method 1 1 1 1 P1 Penis is withdrawn from the vagina before ejaculation P2 Prevent sperm from entering the vagina F4 Rhythm methods P1 Fertile period that is 3 days before and 3 days after ovulation.(F+P1) and P2 = 2mark 1 1 Max 4 38 . Any 3 . Accept any suitable points. P2 avoid sexual intercourse.(F+P1) and P2 = 2 mark Male F1 Vasectomy 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Max 6 1 1 P1 Vas deferens / sperm ducts are tied and cut P2 sperms cannot be transferred out.Any 2.

1.1. P2: The gene is then inserted into the DNA of yeast P3: Modified yeast contains a recombinant DNA with virus gene P4: The yeast is then cultured in a suitable condition and nutrient medium P5: The yeast is now capable to produce the vaccine in a large quantity. describe the meaning of genetic engineering. P6: The vaccine is purified and used to treat hepatitis B patient 6 (a)(ii) Based on Diagram 9. 1 Able to describe the meaning of genetic engineering 1 P1: It involves techniques used to alter characteristics of an organism/ yeast P2:by introducing target genes from another organism/Hepatitis B virus into its DNA/ yeast DNA 1 1 4 39 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE 19 (a)(i) BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 Based on Diagram 19.1 Able to explain how Hepatitis B virus are used in production of vaccines for hepatitis B [6 marks] P1: The gene which involved in vaccine production is isolated from Hepatitis B virus. explain how Hepatitis B virus are used in production of vaccines for hepatitis B 1 1 1 1 1 1 Diagram 19.

X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 P3: This modified DNA is known as recombinant DNA P4: The organism with the recombinant DNA is known as a genetically modified organism (GMO)/ yeast (b) Discuss the good and the bad effects of genetics to mankind the environment. E5 : create crops with better nutrition value e. E4 : increase yield of crops//better livelihood for farmers// help to solve problems of insufficient food. [10 marks] Able to discuss the good and the bad effects of genetics to mankind and the environment Good effect of genetics to mankind and the environment F1: selective breeding E1:used in agriculture to produce offspring that possess desirable characteristics of both parents E2: Example: selection of suitable oil palm plants to produce a Hybrid plant with desirable characteristic or another example F2: genetic engineering E1: involves techniques used to alter characteristics of an organism by introducing target genes from another organism into its DNA E2: produce disease resistant/ pest resistant plants example legumes. peas and beans E3 : Less pesticides are used// less pollution to the environment// better health for consumers. 40 . E8: Enables the mass production of medical and pharmaceutical products// genetically modified bacteria produce insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus// Genetically modified yeast to produce vaccine for hepatitis for prevention of hepatitis diseases. E6: create crops with longer shelf lives e.g tomato// less food wastage E7 : genetically modified livestock /produce meat with less fat / more milk.g tomatoes with higher vitamin A content //help to solve problems of malnutrition.

genetic diseases can be tracked over generations Bad effect of genetic engineering on man and environment F1: Pest resistant genes may be transferred to weeds E1: may be difficult to control growth of weeds. F2: Some transgenic crops may have animal genes E2 : this may not be acceptable to certain groups for religious reasons. F3: Genetically modified foods may be harmful to health E3: may activate human genes to cause cancer. E5 : may not be acceptable because of religious and moral values. sickle cell anemia E10: Can help solve environmental problems such as oil spills by using genetically engineered bacteria. 10 41 . rheumatoid arthritis. F4: Transgenic organisms may affect the survival of other organisms in the ecosystem. E4: may cause the imbalance of nature / ecosystem F5: Gene therapy used for the treatment of genetic disorder has its limitations. F3: DNA fingerprinting E1: used to identification purpose in solving criminal cases // paternity disputes // detect human genetics diseases // confirm the genotypes to animals and plants in agriculture F4: Human genome project E1:Determine the sequence of all the base pairs found in the DNA of the human genome E2: Make maps showing the exact locations of genes for major sections of human chromosomes E3: Produce linkage maps where inherited traits. for example.X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 E9: Gene therapy for treatment of genetic disorders/ diseases Example: muscular dystrophy.

identify the type of variation. 1 P2: it is continuous variation 1 P3: Diagram 20(b) is ( type of fingerprints ). the differences between individuals are slight . with intermediates and can be changed . The differences 1 42 . Explain your answers P1: Diagram 20(a) is height .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 E6 : very costly because require high technology & expertise maximum No Essay Questions Marks Student’s tips 20. Diagram 20(a) and 20(b) shows two different characteristic among human beings Diagram 20 (a) Type of finger prints Curves Right Whorl Loops Diagram 20 (b) Left Loops (a) Based on the characteristic in Diagram 2(a) and in Diagram 2 (b).

Variation within a species causes some individuals to adapt better to environmental conditions P2 . with the better adapted ones increasing in population. P5 – Examples yellow snails better adapted to the sun and high temperature environment. P6 . 1 P1 . P7 . P3 .X-A Plus /PERFECT SCORE and cannot be changed BIOLOGY 4551/2B(T) 2012 1 between individuals are obvious.Over the times. discuss the importance of variation in the survival of a species.So yellow snails will survive and transmit the advantages genes to their offspring. P8 . resulting in a new species.Different phenotypes are selected in different habitat to camouflage them from their predators.Example : Colour in snails ( which is discontinuous variation) enables the snails to survive in different habitat. (ii) P4 . there will be changes in the individual of a particular species.The variety of colour and banding depending on the alleles present. without intermediates (b) P4: It is Discontinuous Variation By using example.This is called “ survival of the fittest” / natural selection 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Any 6 43 .