REAL-TIME SYSTEMS II Real-Time Networking Ethernet

Prof. J.-D. Decotignie CSEM Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique SA Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchâtel jean-dominique.decotignie@csem.ch

Outline
„ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „

The good old Ethernet Myths and realities Companion protocols Improvements Switched Ethernet How to improve temporal behaviour Industrial Ethernet Experiments on Switched Ethernet Conclusion

©2006, J.-D. Decotignie

Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 2

IEEE 802 standards
application presentation session transport Network Data link physical
©2006, J.-D. Decotignie

« Vintage Ethernet »
„ „

Logical Link Control 802.2 Bridging 802.1

„

One segment of coaxial cable All nodes are hooked to the same cable A medium access control
„

Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 3

802.3 Ethernet

802.4 token bus

802.5 token ring

802.11 Wireless LAN

802.6 DQDB

802.15 Wireless PAN

802.16 Broadband W

„

Every station may listen what is emitted on the bus (cable segment) Each station may listen to what it emits

©2006, J.-D. Decotignie

„

Packet transmission

Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 4

it sends a jamming sequence et prepares to retry Not done immediately A number is chosen randomly in the backoff interval This number is multiplied by the slot duration (5µs à 100Mbit/s) Starts to transmit after the given duration (if medium is busy) If there is a collision. Decotignie 1-persistent CSMA/CD When transmission is successful. J. m is reset to 0 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 7 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 8 . J.... « slot time » „ Slot time = 512 bit time (4096 @ 1Gbit/s) ©2006.1023 After 16 attempts. Decotignie no „ A number is selected randomly in this interval Waiting time = selected number t .-D. the station waits until it becomes free and does as indicated above „ Maximum of 0. the backoff interval returns to its original value [0. Decotignie Collision detected no no yes #attempts >16 „ After each collision. the backoff window is doubled „ „ „ If the medium is busy. J. Decotignie „ ©2006.1023] after 10 attempts yes End of transmission yes Frame waiting „ In case of success..emission „ Basic principles – retry in case of collision „ „ „ „ „ A station that wants to transmit „ „ Listen the transmission medium If free during a given duration „ „ „ Emits its message While listening what is sensed on the cable If there is a collision. J.1] Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 5 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 6 CSMA/CD for Ethernet Message to transmit yes Build frame Backoff „ In case of collision „ „ no Channel busy yes Differing ON Transmission is stopped after sending the jamming sequence the backoff interval is calculated „ [0.-D. the interval is doubled „ no Calculate backoff & wait END Differing off Maximum interval of [0.2m-1] where m is the number of successive collisions Differing on no start transmission yes Emit jamming Incrment #attempts yes „ Channel free yes Wait interframe silence ©2006.-D.-D.Basic principles . transmission is cancelled ©2006.

6µs) « slot time » = 512 bits (51.Multipoint data communication system with collision detection 1982: 1st version published by Xerox. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 11 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 12 .063.S. -T2 -F. J.220 .-D. J.Collisions „ Parameters (10base5) „ „ „ „ „ Collision zone = 2 x propagation time „ „ This defines the « slot time » Limits the cable length and defines the minimal size of a packet A B A B 50 ohms coaxial cable (thick ethernet) 10 Mbit/s Interframe silence = 96 bit time (9.33ns / m collision Minimum frame size = 512 bits Maximum frame size = 1518 octets Jamming sequence size = 32 to 48 bits ©2006.-D. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 9 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 10 History „ „ Conventions Speed 1 10 100 1000 10G ©2006. Patent #4. J. 1977: U. -FL -X ©2006. Decotignie „ „ „ 1970: ALOHAnet is developped at Hawai University 1976: Bob Metcalfe and David Boggs make a talk at the National Computer Conference 13 déc.-D.2µs) Distance < 2500 m. -FB.-D. Intel and DEC 1985: first 802. J.3 standard Transmission BASE BROAD Medium -2 -5 -36 -T. Decotignie 5 segments of 500 m and 4 repeaters „ „ „ τ = 3. between 2 stations „ Transmission time Propagation time a = τ Tt ©2006.

1988 „ Infinite population and always waiting packets Packets are dropped due to buffer overflow Cable lengths are much smaller than the maximum allowed Packet sizes according to a bimodal distribution „ „ In reality „ „ ©2006. J. Decotignie „ Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 13 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 14 Measured performances at 10Mbit/s „ „ What makes a difference between theory and practice „ Mean delay Its standard deviation Calculations are complicated ⇒ simplified asumptions „ Possion arrival law „ In practice. Decotignie Lengths close to min and lengths close to max.-D. J.Ethernet Frame preamble SFD Destination address 6 bytes Source address 6 bytes Type / 802.-D.2 header and data length 2 bytes 46-1500 bytes FCS ESD 4 bytes 1 byte Vintage Ethernet Performances „ „ Difficult to establish in theory A maximum throughput of 37% is often mentionned „ 7 bytes 1 byte „ MAC address „ This is only valid under simplified asumptions and small packets Access delay are minimal in case of low traffic Transmission delay increases linearly with the size of the packets and the number of nodes The delay standard deviation also increases but more slowly „ 24 bits: identification of manufacturer (Organization Unique Indentifier) 24 bits: assigned by the manufacturer or the vendor ©2006. J. J. Decotignie ©2006.-D.-D. it is less smooth „ Source Boggs. Decotignie „ In practice „ „ ©2006. Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 15 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 16 .

RFC 2131-2 IPv6. ©2006. J.-D. RFC 903 DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. ….Problems „ Companion protocols „ „ „ „ „ „ „ ©2006.. …. J. NAT. Decotignie « capture effect » „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Assume 2 stations A and B have a lot of messages to send At a given time. Decotignie ©2006. OSPF. RFC 793 ARP: Address Resolution Protocol.-D. their emissions collide A chooses 1 as a random number and B elects 0 Thus B succeeds at its first attempt As B has more traffic. J.-D. RIP. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 17 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 18 Improvements „ „ „ „ „ „ Parameters „ „ 1987: 1BASE5: 1Mbit/s on twisted pairs with hub 1990: 10 Mbit/s hub 1995: 100 Mbit/s hub hub 1998: 1 Gbit/s 10 Gbit/s Node Node Node Node Node Node 1997: full duplex „ Distances on twisted pairs < 100m. RFC 826 IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol. J. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 19 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 20 . Distances with optical fibers < 40 km (10G) Speed 10 100 1000 10G Interframe space 96 bits 96 bits 96 bits 96 bits Slot time 512 bits 512 bits 4096 bits NA Hub replaced by a bridge (switch) ©2006. it attempts to send the next message right the way This will collide with A second attempt A has to double the backoff interval while B has the initial one B has hence more chance to succeed than A.. And so on Not exact but !!! „ Unbounded transmission time „ „ IP: Internet Protocol RFC 791 TCP: Transport Control Protocol.-D. BGP. RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.

J.Switched Ethernet „ Switched Ethernet (2) „ The original Ethernet operates in a half duplex mode „ With a switch. Decotignie ©2006. there are no longer collisions „ One station transmits or another but not both at the same time (except in case of collision) „ With a hub (repeater). it stores the packet Both directions may be exploited simultaneously Node Node Node Node Node Node „ „ „ ©2006. J.-D.-D. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 21 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 22 Switched Ethernet (3) „ Hubs and switches „ Switch buffers may overflow „ Sometimes misleading „ 80 Mbit/s If two nodes send traffic to a third one ⇒ PAUSE frame switch 160 Mbit/s ??? „ Hub 10/100 is a switch Include a routing module and a switching module Multilayer switches „ 80 Mbit/s „ What about multiple paths between two nodes switch „ switch Spanning tree ©2006. there a pair for each direction „ switch switch switch „ However the behavior must be the same as if all nodes share the same cable (collision domain) This is necessary to detect possible collisions Receives on a port Re-transmit on the port(s) toward the destination(s) of the packet In between.-D. J.-D. Decotignie „ A switch „ „ „ Each link may hence be potentialy exploited at twice the speed The available bandwidth is potentialy higher (multiple domains) That does not mean that all problems are solved ©2006. there are only 2 nodes on a cable (hub + end node) „ „ An end node no longer needs to detect the collisions As in a twisted pair cable. J. Decotignie switch switch switch Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 23 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 24 .

-D. Decotignie ©2006. J.1D (MAC bridges) „ „ every 16ms +/-8 A way to isolate traffic among a group of nodes Uses the « type/length » field Add a LAN identifier (12 bits) and a priority field (3 bits) „ VLAN – IEEE 802.-D. reservation. Decotignie Very useful to filter the traffic coming from outside IGMP snooping „ !!! This is not to be confused with QoS at network level such as IntServ or DiffServ Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 25 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 26 How to improve QoS in Ethernet ? „ Add another MAC „ „ „ „ Access time „ „ Modify the MAC Add another MAC on top of CSMA/CD „ Pure TDMA. J. « real-time » and « management » on each egress Packets arriving in a ingress port are inserted in the queue corresponding to the priority at the egress port (FIFO order within a priority level) When the output link is free. J. token.-D. dating.-D. „ „ Adapt the traffic Use of switches Clock synchronization algorithms A number of such proposals Nearly all MAC types have been suggested The MAC used in many fieldbussses has been used Generaly speaking. rather inefficient „ Pure TDMA @ 1Gbit/s ⇒ 4% utilization „ Synchronisation.1p) Self learning „ „ Most switches only implement « best effort ».1Q „ „ „ Not only for Ethernet 8 traffic priorities „ „ „ „ „ Quality of service – IEEE 802. the oldest packet of the highest priority is transmitted „ This may cause priority inversions which are quite long (1500 bytes) „ Switches may learn on which ports the nodes are reachable Multicast raises a problem „ Packets that have no priority field or those that enter through selected ports may be forced at a given priority level „ ©2006. master/slave.Complementaty aspects „ Quality of service management „ Auto negociation „ According 802.1D (includes 802. etc. Decotignie ©2006. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 27 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 28 . J. consistency „ ©2006.

-D. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 29 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 30 Clock synchronization „ Current contenders „ „ Using messages to synchronize and provide simultaneous sampling is not possible (unless exception) Accuracy γ of synchronization depends on the uncertainty ε in the transmission delay „ Non standard hardware „ „ „ „ „ EtherCAT SynqNet SERCOS III PowerDNA ? Standard hardware. J. J. compatible with regular 802.Traffic adaptation „ Use of switches „ „ Avoid bursts due to non real-time traffic „ „ smoothing (limit traffic instantaneous intensity by delaying part of it) shaping (periodic emissions by blocks) Reduces drop rate and jitter Increases mean delay ©2006. Decotignie Avoids collisions Queues in switches may however overflow switch 160 Mbit/s ??? 80 Mbit/s „ This only adds statistical guarantees „ „ 80 Mbit/s „ Increases mean delays and increases jitter ©2006.-D.-D. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 31 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 32 . Decotignie Ethernet Powerlink FTT-Ethernet TTP over Ethernet „ And a number of academic proposals ©2006.3 nodes „ „ „ „ „ „ γ ≥ ε (1 – 1/n) where n is the number of participating nodes Standard hardware but not compatible with regular 802.3 nodes „ „ „ PROFINET JetSync EtherNet/IP (+CIP) Modbus-TCP Real-Time Publish-Subscribe ©2006. J.-D. J.

Decotignie „ Source: EtherCat the Ethernet fieldbus. J.-D. dec. 2004 „ Synchronisation based on distributed synchronized clocks „ „ Quite performing „ „ Compliant with IEEE 802. Ethernet cable Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 35 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 36 ... J. J. Decotignie ©2006.-D. J.) Dedicated hardware (except for the master) ©2006.EtherCat „ EtherCat – Architecture & protocols General topology with 65535 nodes / segment „ Wide choice of cable from twisted pair to optical fibers Claim accuracy to microseconds 100 axes in 100µs.-D.-D. Decotignie ©2006. there is a sync manager „ „ Drawbacks Targeted to inputs and outputs which is not sufficent in many cases „ Incompatible with Ethernet „ Requires specialized hardware „ Restrictive topology „ That informs of the reception of new data That manages the data read and write order „ Ensures that data has been updated ©2006.3u Fast Ethernet „ „ „ „ Integration with CANopen and SERCOS profiles for compatibility with legacy Node to node communication only via master Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 33 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 34 EtherCat – Principles „ EtherCat .. Decotignie EtherCat technical introduction and overview.analysis „ Master sends an Ethernet frame „ Advantages Very fast (is this useful ?) „ Standard hardware for the master „ Compatible with legacy CAN Open or SERCOS „ That contains one or more EtherCat datagrams „ „ „ Contains data for the outputs and has room for the input data Nodes read and update part of the frame on the fly Location in datagram is independent from the physical localization „ „ Inside each slave. UDP. 1000 points E/S in 30 µs All protocols based on IP are supported (TCP.

jitter is not controlled Only statistical guarantees ©2006..-D. 250 and n x 250µs) jitter <1µs (or 50µs for the low performance class) IP based protocols are supported (TCP..1p priorities Synchronisation according to IEEE 1588 IP based protocols are supported (TCP.) Implementation on dedicated hardware ©2006. UDP.3u Fast Ethernet „ „ „ „ Integration with CIP for compatibility with DeviceNet and ControlNet Node to node communication along a producer/consumer model ©2006. Decotignie „ „ Line or ring topology „ Medium redundancy capability „ So-called « guaranteed and deterministic communication » „ „ Cycle time from 31.analysis „ SERCOS III „ Advantages „ „ „ „ „ Up to 254 nodes on a single segment „ Standard hardware Most of the used protocols are standard Can be mixed with « pure » Ethernet nodes Compatibility with DeviceNet and ControlNet Synchronisation based on IEEE 1588 Cycle time is not constant.) Implementation on standard 802.-D. 125.. J.-D.25µs (62. Decotignie Source ODVA Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 37 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 38 Ethernet IP . J..3 „ „ „ Compliant with IEEE 802. Decotignie ©2006. J..Ethernet IP with time synchronization „ Ethernet IP No limit in node number „ Topology according to Ethernet It is possible to use 802.-D. J. UDP.5.3u Fast Ethernet (fiber and copper) „ „ Using priorities in switches Filtering external traffic „ „ Integration SERCOS profiles Possibility of real-time node to node communication Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 39 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 40 ..3 hardware „ No modification to 802. Decotignie „ Drawbacks „ „ „ Compliant with IEEE 802.

J.cycle „ Ring Real-time channel present in each cycle to „ „ Primary channel Secondary channel Master p1 p2 Synchronize the slaves with the master Exchange data and commands between the master and the slaves „ „ processing processing p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p2 „ In each cycle (real-time) On request (service channel) Slave 1 Slave 2 Slave 3 „ Exchange data between slaves Base on IP Permet to exchange data between master and slaves „ „ Line Master Primary channel Secondary channel p1 p2 IP channel for on demand transfers (optionnal) „ „ Operator display data. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 43 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 44 . …) ©2006. J. J. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 41 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 42 SERCOS III – cycle „ „ „ SERCOS III .-D.-D. J. Decotignie processing processing processing p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p2 „ „ Slave 1 Slave 2 Slave 3 Exchange between slaves Transparent communication with standard Ethernet nodes (PC.-D.-D. duration) MDT H M D S R T AT H M D S R T RT channel cycle MDT H M D S R T RT channel IP channel cycle AT H M D S R T RT channel MDT H M D S R T ©2006. Decotignie IP channel MDT H M D S R T Advantages „ „ „ „ „ „ Efficient / possibility of line topology hotplug Redundancy capability A node may be hooked to a regular Ethernet network (one port must be left open) Guranteed cycle time and reduced jitter Uses regular IP frames (no encapsulation) Protected by patents Requires non standard hardware Real-time behavior impossible in presence of non compliant nodes Requires a bridge to regular Ethernet „ Drawbacks „ „ „ „ ©2006. files.SERCOS III .Topology „ SERCOS .analysis „ Up to 4 Master Data Telegrams Up to 4 AT Device Telegrams A number of IP messages (max. configurations. … ©2006.

3 hardware ©2006.3 MAC 802. Async Send ©2006. J.-D. WorldFIP) Low efficiency (25µs lost in each transaction) Cannot coexist with regular Ethernet nodes Requires specialy designed routers and hubs Model does not take errors into account Quite sensitive to timing errors (collisions !) „ Drawbacks „ „ „ „ Producer -> consumer „ Idle part (to keep a constant duration to the cycle) Cycle time Slot Start_of _cycle Poll Request Poll Response Poll Request Poll Response Poll Respons e StartOf Async.3u Fast Ethernet „ „ network data link ©2006.) Implementation on regular 802. Decotignie „ So-called « guaranteed and deterministic communication » „ „ „ Sequence SDO transport UDP IP Data Link EPL 802... J.Ethernet Powerlink in short „ Ethernet Powerlink – Model N e t w o r k M a n a g e m e n t Application layer EPL PDO Command SDO Command HTTP / FTP application Up to 240 nodes on a segment „ Topology according to Ethernet + line topology possible Cycle time from 200µs jitter <1µs for precise node synchronisation IAONA real-time class 4 (highest performance one) IP based protocols are supported (TCP.-D.Analysis „ Synchronous part made of slots „ „ „ Advantages „ „ „ Continuous: CN is polled at each cycle Multiplexed: a given CN is polled every n cycles Synchronous exchanges „ „ Sequence of PollRequest followed by PollResponse Response is sent in broadcast (available to all) „ Constant cycle duration (in absence of error) Line topology possible Presence of an application layer Only contains a limited subset of the necessary concepts (cf.-D. Decotignie MN CN „ „ „ Isochronous window Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 47 Asynchronous window Idle Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 48 . UDP. J.-D. Decotignie „ „ Integration with CANopen EN50325-4 for interoperability Node to node communication along a producer/consumer mode physical Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 45 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 46 Ethernet Powerlink – cycle „ Ethernet Powerlink .. J. Decotignie ©2006.3 physical TCP „ Compliant with IEEE 802.

-D.-D.Real-Time Ethernet EPA .-D.3 MAC TCP D4 D5 network data link D6 ©2006. J. Decotignie „ „ „ Based upon IEEE 1588 for clock synchronisation Device capabilities described in XML Conventional client-server communication model „ EPA field device EPA field device ©2006. Decotignie ©2006..3 (all variants) „ „ EPA bridge EPA field device EPA bridge EPA field device EPA bridge EPA field device Level L1 EPA field device ©2006.Ethernet for Plant Automation – in short „ EPA – Topology Distant operation station Operator station Engineering station EPA agent Level L2 Number of nodes only limited by physical considerations „ Topology according to Ethernet (switch and hub) Cycle time in multiples of milliseconds jitter depends on the selected IEEE 1588 class IP based protocols are used (TCP.scheduling macrocycle Periodic transfer phase Tp D1 Non periodic transfer phase Tn D2 D3 application EPA Socket Mapping Entity transport UDP IP EPA Communication Scheduling Management Entity (ECSME) 802. Decotignie EPA field device EPA field device EPA field device Process variables communicated according to IEC 61499 and IEC 61804 (function blocks) EPA microsegment Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 50 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 49 Real-Time Ethernet EPA architecture EPA function blocks AP EPA MIB EPA SM Entity EPA Application access Entity AP non temps réel HTTP / FTP / SNMP / SNTP EPA .-D.3 hardware „ So-called « guaranteed and deterministic communication » „ „ „ Compliant with IEEE 802. J. J.. J. UDP.) Implementation on regular 802..3 physique physical Periodic packet Aperiodic packet Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 52 Non periodic data announciation EndNonperiodic data sending announciation Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 51 . Decotignie 802.

just the protocol on top of TCP ©2006.com/us) „ Time Critical Control Network Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 53 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 54 Switched Ethernet Ingress port Egress port Switched Ethernet (2) „ Switch fabric Egress port Ingress port „ Ingress port Egress port „ Temporal definitions „ „ „ Egress tmux : multiplexing delay port tqueue: queueing delay Ingress ttrans : packet transmission port delay = tframe + tmux + tqueue + tos tos : operating system delay tframe: frame tx delay „ Let us look at one output port „ Egress port Ingress port Switch fabric Egress port Ingress port Service curve β(t) = C (t-tmux)+ „ + means that the function is equal to 0 for t-tmux < 0 C is the maximum transmission rate on the output port Ingress port Egress port „ „ Ingress port Egress port „ Arrival curve „ 121µs for 1514 bytes @ 100Mbit/s 4 port switch „ „ How to calculate the delay ? „ Sum of arrival curves of all incoming traffic whose destination is that output port One station on each ingress port : α(t) = min [Ct + M.-D.-D.-D. J. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 55 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 56 . Decotignie ©2006. Decotignie To ensure that parameters are compatible and consistent Based on temporal windows Proposed by Yokogawa (www.yokogawa. Decotignie „ P-NET on IP „ „ „ Drawbacks Only client-server „ Single polling cycle „ Difficult to calculate guarantees (even in absence of error) „ Some parts of the standard are quite obscure „ Configuration must be centralized „ „ „ Real-Time publish-subscribe „ „ MODBUS on TCP/IP „ „ Vnet/IP „ „ ©2006.Real-Time Ethernet EPA . rkt + bk] „ „ „ Use of the network calculus M maximum frame size rk long term average rate (Σ rk ≤ C should hold for output) bk burstiness of the traffic (M< bk and rk ≤ C) ©2006.analysis „ Others „ Advantages Support functional blocks „ suitable application layer „ Profinet „ V3 will introduce real-time guarantees PNET is a virtual token MAC Same on IP without any guarantee Just a publish subscribe layer on top of TCP without any guarantee Nothing real-time. J.-D. J. J.

vertical distance between arrival and service curves Maximum delay (FIFO order) = max.-D. Decotignie Backlog estimation Best = ∑ bk + Ct mux k =1 N Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 57 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 58 Switch delay (FIFO order) „ „ Remarks „ Distance at gmax Delay N r ⎞ N b ⎛ k ⎟+t − t switch = ∑ k − g max ⎜ 1 ∑ ⎜ ⎟ mux ⎝ k =1 C ⎠ k =1 C Arrival curve implies traffic shaping „ This can be done using the token bucket algorithm „ „ „ „ Can be approximated C+r1 r1 + r1 tswitch „ Bucket size b Fill rate r Maximum packet size M Bandwidth C N b test = ∑ k + tmux k =1 C 2M „ Backlog is per egress queue „ B 2C+2M β=C(t-tmux)+ ©2006.-D.-D.Switched Ethernet (3) „ Switch backlog (FIFO order) r1 + r1 Case of 2 incoming traffics „ r1 + r 1 C+r1 tswitch „ Inflexion point b −M gk = k C − rk C+r1 tswitch „ Maximum backlog = max.-D. Decotignie ©2006. J. Decotignie Is a way to calculate necessary buffer size ©2006. horizontal deviation between arrival and service curves B 2C+2M β=C(t-tmux)+ 2M B 2C β=C(t-tmux)+ „ Backlog N N k =1 N k =1 B = ∑ bk + ∑ rk g max − C ( g max − tmux ) N ⎞ ⎛ B = ∑ bk − g max ⎜ C rk ⎟ − ∑ ⎟ + Ct mux ⎜ ⎝ k =1 k =1 ⎠ „ tmux gmax t tmux gmax ©2006. J. J. J. Decotignie „ Analysis is valid for one switch „ May be extended tmux Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 59 gmax t Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 60 .

-D.9% 2.Measurement setup „ Switch buffer size „ 3 different switches „ „ „ Measured by sending bursts of traffic „ „ 3Com office connect Level-One FSW-2108TX Intel Netstructure 470F Intel EEPro/100 3Com 3C985B-SX Increasing burst length until missing frames Using network calculus to derive buffer size „ NIC „ „ Switch Source: J.582 ms test 9. J. Decotignie C (40MB/s) D (32MB/s) E (20MB/s) 4.38 ms 0. J.506ms tobs max.345 ms 0.2% 21.-D.1ms C (40MB/s) D (32MB/s) E (20MB/s) 51514 bytes 41514 bytes 26514 bytes 6515 bytes 5514 bytes 4014 bytes 2014 bytes 1914 bytes 1764 bytes Source: J.3% 11% 9% 7.1ms Ts = 10ms Ts = 1ms Ts = 0.1% 2. J. Loeser 04 ©2006.1 KB tmax 9.2% 11. 8.759 ms 1.357 ms 1.438 ms ©2006. Loeser 04 Packet transmitted from A to B „ CPU usage Node Ts = 10ms Ts = 1ms Ts = 0.5 127. Loeser 04 ©2006.-D.3 ms 0.2% 17.4 293 Source: J. Decotignie buffer bound 111. J. Decotignie # 1514 byte frames 14 87 200 Size [Kbyte] 20.-D.7KB 6.9% Source: J. size frames on UDP Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 61 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 62 Influence of shaping interval „ Buffer bounds and delays „ Bucket size: b=t Ts + M Node Ts = 10ms Ts = 1ms Ts = 0. Decotignie 100M 3Com 100M level-One 1000M Intel „ Delays measured from A to B with min.731 ms 1. Loeser 04 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 63 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 64 .8 KB 15.1ms ©2006.

ISBN 0-470-84476-0 D.4 ms to 9. C. 1988. in Proc. June 2005 „ ©2006. ISBN 2-74407001-7 J.-D.4 ms at 100 Mb/s Requires traffic shaping for a single switch „ Gives the possibility to use up 100% of the bandwidth „ „ „ „ Results valid „ „ „ ©2006. « Ethernet networks ». J. « Ethernet Based Real-Time and Industrial Communications ». Kent.-D.58ms. Loeser. 93 (6). « Low-latency Hard real-time communication over switched Ethernet ». SIGCOMM’88. Wiley. pp. Decotignie With switches that have large enough buffers With traffic shaping Provided all nodes stick to the traffic shaping rules Must be adapted for cascaded switches (traffic shapes) „ „ For FIFO behavior Provided all nodes play the game Is not so good in terms of topology Still suffer from delay variations ©2006. bandwidth on a link 98. Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 65 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 66 The solution ? „ References „ „ For satisfying real-time constraints „ „ „ „ Switched Ethernet Use of message priorities in switches (IEEE 802.Analysis of the experiment „ „ Conclusion „ „ Max..6 Mb/s Experiment used 92 Mb/s ≈ 93% link use „ „ Vintage Ethernet was not so bad Switched Ethernet „ Max. « Networks ». 1. Tanenbaum. Boggs. Proc. 2003. Pearson. Haertig. Catania. Vol.-D. It. pp. Mogul. J. A. Ca. ECRTS 04.. Decotignie ©2006.1Q) Traffic smoothing / shaping IEEE 1588 for clock synchronization „ „ „ „ „ Security: 802. J. “ Measured Capacity of an Ethernet : myths and reality “.-D. J.16-19. J. Decotignie.1x. Aug. SSL Application layer (MMS or similar) Power supply through cable (still expensive) „ G. J. delay from 0. 4th edition. 4e ed. H. IPSec.-D. Decotignie Look at the references given in the paper Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 67 Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 68 . Stanford. of the IEEE. Held.222-234. Proc.

com) „ PROFINET.org) SERCOS (www.ethernet-ip.02.de) Fachhochschule Reutlingen website has a lot of information (www-pdv.ethernet-powerlink.org) some brochures Profinet (www. May 2004 „ „ „ Ethernet IP (www.profibus. J.fh-reutlingen.org) few docs EtherCat (www.sercos.org) specs are online P-Net Ethernet Powerlink (www.ethercat.modbus.-D. « PROFINET CBA Architecture Description and Specification ». Decotignie Real-Time Networks – Ethernet 69 .de/rte) ©2006.Information Sources „ „ „ „ „ Modbus (www. Version 2.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful