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Sampling

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10/24/2014

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# HENNA ROSE A.

GERONIMO

PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Probability sampling is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that gives all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.  Probability sampling is designed to allow extrapolation from a small, highly representative sample, to a larger population.  This statistical inference allows us to describe a population.  Used when you want to answer the ―where‖ and ―how many‖ questions. 1. Simple Random Sampling (SRS) – a simple random sample of size N consists of N individuals from the population chosen in such a way that every set of N individuals has an equal chance of being selected. 2. Stratified Random Sampling – The population is divided into important subgroups (e.g. East and West; Freshmen, Sophomore, Junior, Senior) which are groups of individuals or subjects that are similar in a way that may affect their response – think of stratifying a university’s undergraduate population by race, gender, or nationality. Then separate simple random samples are taken from each subgroup. These subgroups are called strata. This is done to be sure every important subgroup is represented properly in the overall sample which will enhance the efficiency of this design. 3. Cluster Sampling – The population is divided into several subgroups by geographic proximity or closeness of individuals to each other on a list. These subgroups are called clusters. Then some clusters are randomly picked to be in the sample. There may be further random sampling of individuals within the selected clusters. For instance, for an on campus survey, we might randomly pick a few dorms and only include some or all of the students from those dorms in the survey. Cluster sampling differs from Stratified sampling in that: o Cluster sampling is not initially concerned with similarities among the individuals. However, once the clusters are created one may have to account for any possible similarities. o In stratified sampling we create the subgroups based on some criteria – ethnicity, geographic region, and then random sampling of individuals or subjects is done. In Cluster sampling, clusters of individuals or subjects are randomly sampled. 4. Multistage Sampling – Selects successively smaller groups from the population, ending with clusters of individuals. Most opinion polls are done in stages. For example, you may start by splitting your home state into regions. Then stratify within each region by rural, suburban, and urban. From these strata you would randomly select some communities, from which these would be divided by some fixed area (think by city blocks) – i.e. clusters. Finally, within these clusters all individuals would then be sampled. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

The quotas may be based on population proportions. The underlying assumption is that the investigator will select units that are characteristic of the population. They also prefer to use this method in laboratory settings where the choice of experimental subjects (i.) or when you want to answer the ―how‖ and ―why‖ questions. the researcher asks for assistance from the subject to help identify people with a similar trait of interest. 3.is a non-probability sampling technique that is used by researchers to identify potential subjects in studies where subjects are hard to locate. a few select cases (people. Since any preconceptions the researcher may have are reflected in the sample. 1. 2. One advantage of judgement sampling is the reduced cost and time involved in acquiring the sample. For example.Relying on available subjects. although it is extremely risky and comes with many cautions. Researchers use this sampling method if the sample for the study is very rare or is limited to a very small subgroup of the population. human.e.  Used when you want to say something about a discrete phenomena. animal. The critical issue here is objectivity: how much can judgment be relied upon to arrive at a typical sample? Judgement sampling is subject to the researcher's biases and is perhaps even more biased than haphazard sampling. large biases can be introduced if these preconceptions are inaccurate. Statisticians often use this method in exploratory studies like pre-testing of questionnaires and focus groups. Since there are no rules as to how these quotas are to be filled. is one method of sampling. Judgement Sampling . Reliance On Available Subjects/Convenience Sampling . if there are 100 men and 100 women in a population and a sample of 20 are to be drawn to participate in a . This method..This approach is used when a sample is taken based on certain judgements about the overall population. places. It is only justified if the researcher wants to study the characteristics of people passing by the street corner at a certain point in time or if other sampling methods are not possible. quota sampling is really a means for satisfying sample size objectives for certain subpopulations. such as stopping people on a street corner as they pass by. etc. objects. 4.This is one of the most common forms of non-probability sampling. The researcher must also take caution to not use results from a convenience sample to generalize to a wider population. Quota Samping . Snowball Sampling . vegetable) reflects the investigator's pre-existing beliefs about the population. This type of sampling technique works like chain referral. After observing the initial subject. sometimes referred to as a convenience sample. Sampling is done until a specific number of units (quotas) for various sub-populations have been selected. does not allow the researcher to have any control over the representativeness of the sample.Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.

Thus. As with all other non-probability sampling methods. This results in selection bias. it differs in how the units are selected. Quota sampling is somewhat similar to stratified sampling in that similar units are grouped together. Such strong assumptions are rarely valid.cola taste challenge.g. . it is necessary to assume that persons selected are similar to those not selected. quota sampling is often used by market researchers (particularly for telephone surveys) instead of stratified sampling. because it is relatively inexpensive and easy to administer and has the desirable property of satisfying population proportions. However. the units are selected randomly while in quota sampling it is usually left up to the interviewer to decide who is sampled. it disguises potentially significant bias. judgement sampling) because it forces the inclusion of members of different sub-populations. Quota sampling can be considered preferable to other forms of nonprobability sampling (e. you may want to divide the sample evenly between the sexes—10 men and 10 women.. In probability sampling. However. in order to make inferences about the population.

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