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THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 763

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762
Example 12.2. One side of metallic plate is insulated, while the other side absorbs a
where hm, represents wavelength corresponding to maximum spectral blackbody emissive radiant heat flux of 900 W l m 2 . The convectiue heat transfer coefficient between the plate and
oower at a given temperature T. The eqn. (12.20) is valid for entire spectrum of wavelength for ambient air is 10 WIm2.K. The surface emissivity of the plate is 0.8. The surrounding and
blackbody. - ambient air are at 27°C. Determine the temperature of the plate under steady state conditions.
Substituting hmm-as 2897.61Tin eqn. (12.19) to obtain maximum spectral emissive Solution
power at temperature T, Given : qr = 900 W/m2, h, = 10 W/m2.K
C,T'
E = 0.8, T_ = 27°C = 300 K.
To find : The temperature of the plate.
Assumptions :
Using C1 and C, ; - - 1. Steady state conditions.
2. One side of the plate is adiabatic.
3. Constant properties.
Analysis :The radiant heat flux absorbed by the plate, will be dissipated by convection
9,. = hc (T, - TJ + E a (T: - Tm4)
12.6.3. Stefan Boltzmann Law Using the numerical values,
The total emissive power of a blackbody E, may be obtained by integrating Planck's 900 = 10(Ts- 300) + 0.8 x 5.67 x lo-' (Ts4- 3004)
It gives, Ts = 354.8 K. Ans.
distribution eqn. (12.19) over entire wavelength as E, = I:~,,dh
Example 12.3. A central heating radiator has a surface temperature of 70°C and heats
a room maintained at 20°C. Calculate the contribution of convection and radiation to heat
transfer from the radiator.
C ,Td h Use following correlation for determination of natural convection coefficient.
= T4 J"o AT)^ [exp (C2/hT)- 11 Nu, = 0.1 18(GrL Pr)II3
Put AT = X, Tdh = dx, then The properties of fluid i n the room are
p=1.2kglm3, y = 1 . 8 ~ 1 0 ~ k g l m . s , kf=0.026WIm.K.
Pr = 0.71 (J.N.T.U., May 2003)
Solution \

Given :Radiation and convection heat transfer from a radiator into a room.
Ts = 70°C = 343 K
T_ = 20°C = 293 K
Its integration yields to Properties of fluid and correlation.
To find :Natural convection and radiation heat transfer rate.
Assumptions :
(i) Steady state conditions.
" 1 n4
We have T = g0 ( i i )Blackbody behaviour of radiator.
n=l n
(iii)Constant properties and a = 5.67 x Wlm2.K4.
Analysis :The radiation heat transfer rate.
which gives

The convective heat transfer rate is obtained from

where Nu, = 0.1l8(Gr, Pr)lJ3

The constant a is called the Stefan Boltzmann constan,t.

764 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 765

Given that
1 (70 - 2 0 ) ~ ~
where Gr, = p 2 g P(Ts - Tm)L3 = (1.2)2 x 9.81 x x N u , = 0.53(GrDPr)Ii4
p2 293 (1.8 x l2
and air properties at 115°C are
= 7.44 x 109 ~3
Then, NuL = 0.118(7.44 x lo9 L3 x 0 . 7 1 ) =~ 205.35
~~ L k f = 0.03306 W1m.K v = 24.93 x 1 0 d m 2 / s , Pr = 0.687.
The average heat transfer coefficient Solution
Given :A steam pipe exposed to a large room.
Ts = 2OO0C, Tm= 30°C
D = 20 cm = 0.2 m, L = 1m, Q = 1.9193 W/m
The QcOnv = h,(T, - Tm)= 5.34(70 - 20) = 267 W/m2. Air properties and relation for NuD.
A
The total heat transfer rate per unit area is To find :Emissivity of the pipe surface.
qtOtal= 367 + 267 = 634 W/m2. Ans, Assumptions :
( i )Pipe surface is diffuse and gray.
Example 12.4. A hot water radiator of overall dimensions 2 x 1 x 0.2 m is used to heat (ii) Room and air at uniform temperature of 30°C.
the room at 18°C. The surface temperature of radiator is 60°C and its surface is black. The Analysis :The steam pipe dissipates heat to room by convection and radiation, i.e.,
actual surface of the radiator is 2.5 times the area of its envelope for convection for which the
convection coefficient is given by h , = 1.3(AT)II3 W/m2.K. Q = Qconv + Qrad
Q + E 0 (nD) ( T , ~- Tm4)
Calculate the rate of heat loss from the radiator by convection and radiation. - =h
L
(nD) (T, - TJ ...(1)
Solution Calculation of h in natural convection
Given :Radiation and convection heat transfer from a radiator.
Radiator Dimensions : H = 2 m, L = l m , w=0.2m
T, = 60°C = 333 K, Tm = 18°C = 291 K
For convection A, = 2.5 kad
h , = l . ' ( ~ T ) l ' ~. Grashof number
To find :Rate of heat transfer by convection and radiation.
g P(Ts - 7?,)D3 1 (200 - 30) (0.2)~
Assumptions : Gr, =
v
= 9.81x -x
388 (24.93 x 10-y2
= 55.326 x lo6
( i )The radiator as a blackbody.
The Rayleigh number
( i i ) Steady state conditions. Ra, = Gr,, Pr = 55.326 x lo6 x 0.687 = 38.009 x 10"
(iii)Uniform heat transfer coefficient. The Nusselt number
Analysis :The area of the radiator ; NuD = 0.53(GrDPrI1l4= 0.53(38.009 x lO6)lI4 = 41.61
kad = 2{2 x 1 + 2 x 0.2 + 1x 0.21 = 5.2 m2 Convection coefficient,
Radiation heat transfer rate ;
Qrad= Arad0 (Ts4- Tm4)= 5.2 x 5.67 x x (3334- 2914) = 1511.2 W
The convection heat transfer coefficient, Using numerical values in eqn. (1)
h , = 1.3(AT)lI3= 1.3(60 - 18)ll3= 4.51 W/m2.K 1919.3 W/m = (6.88 W/m2.K)(n: x 0.2 m) (200 - 30) (K)
+ E x (5.67 x
-
The convection heat transfer area, W/m2.K4)x (n: x 0.2 m) (4734- 3034) (K4)
A, = 2.5 x Arad= 2.5 x 5.2 = 13 m2 1919.3 - 734.76
E= = 0.798 0.8. Ans.
The convection heat transfer rate ; 1482.94
Qconv= h , x As(T, - TJ = 4.51 x 13 x (60 - 18) = 2462.24 W The emissivity of the pipe surface is 0.8.
The total heat transfer rate from the radiator, Example 12.6. Calculate the following quantities for a n industrial furnace (blackbody)
Q = Qrad+ Qc0, = 1511.2 + 2462.24 = 3973.67 W. Ans. emitting radiation at 2650°C.
Example 12.5.-A pipe carrying steam runs i n a large room and exposed to air at 30°C. ii) Spectral emissive power at A = 1.2 pm,
The pipe surface temperature is 200°C. Diameter of the pipe is 20 cm. If the total heat loss per ( i i ) Wavelength at which the emissive power is maximum,
metre length of the pipe is 1.9193 k W / m , determine the emissivity of the pipe surface. (iii)Maximum spectral emissive power,
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THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES

( i v ) Total emissive power, Solution

( v ) Total emissive power of the furnace, i f it is treated as gray and diffuse body with an
Given :Average solar constant for determination of temperature of sun
emissivity of 0.9.
(Q/A), = 1353 W/m2, D = 1.392 x lo6 km, s = 1.496 x lo8 km
Solution
Given :An industrial furnace as blackbody radiating at
T = 2650°C = 2923 K.
To find :
( i ) E,, at h = 1.2 pm

( i v ) Eb (Total emissive power)

( v )E Eb.
Analysis :(i)The spectral emissive power at h = 1.2 pm :
The Planck's distribution law, eqn. (12.19) Fig. 12.9
To find :The temperature of sun.
Assumptions :
where ( i )The negligible emissive power of earth in comparison of sun.
( i i )Due to large distance, all rays of sun falling on the earth's surface.
Substituting the values, (iii) Sun has spherical surface.
Analysis :The energy radiated by sun (blackbody)
3.742 x l o 8
I% =
( 1 . 2 1 [ex.[
~
1.438 x l o 4
1.2 x 2923
1
- 11
= 2.53 x lo6 W/m2.pm. Ans. Qsun = Asun0 Tkn = n: (DS,J2 0 T,4Un

= n: x (1.392 x lo9 m)2 x 5.67 x 104 ,T

: = 3.45 x 1011,T
: ...( 1 )
The sun is considered as source at a distance s = 1.496 x 1011 m from earth's surface.
(ii) The wavelength at which the emissive power is maximum :
Using Wien's displacement law, eqn. (12.20) Mean area, which receives solar radiation
A = 47ts2 = 4.n x (1.456 x = 2.812 x m2
hm, T = 2897.6 pm.K
The solar flux incidence on the earth is
2897.6
'max = 2923 - - 0.9913 p . Ans. 3.45 x lo1' T'&
q = -Q sun or 1353 = 2.812 x
(iii)Maximum spectral emissive power, by eqn. (12.21) A
Ebhmm= 12.87 x 10-lo T5 W/m2.pm or T,; = 1.102 x 1015 or T,,, = 5762.2 K. Ans.
= 12.87 x 10-lo x (2923)5= 2.746 x lo8 W/m2.p. Ans.
( i v ) Total emissive power Example 12.8. Calculate the equilibrium temperature for a plat% exposed to a solar flux
of 700 W / m 2and convection environment at 25OC, with convection coefficient of 10 W/m2.K. If
the plate is coated with
( a ) White paint : asun= 0.12 ;uplate= 0.9.
= 4.139 x lo6 W/m2. Ans. ( b )Flat black paint : a,,, = 0.96 ;aPlate = 0.95. (N.M.U., Nov. 2000)
( v ) Total emissive power with E = 0.9 Solution
E = & E b = ~ a T 0.9
4 =~ 4 . 1 3 lo6
9 ~ Given :A plate exposed to solar flux and convection environment ;
= 3.725 x lo6 W/m2. Ans. Solar flux = 700 W/m2, T_ = 25°C = 298 K, h = 10 W/m2.K,
Example 12.7. The average solar radiation flux on the earth's atmosphere is 1353 W / m 2 ( a )a,,, = 0.12 ; a,,, = 0.9
and it is known as solar constant. Calculate the temperature of sun (a blackbody), 1.392 x 106 ( b )a,,, = 0.96 ; a,,,,, = 0.95.
k m in diameter, when it has mean distance of 1.496 x l o 8 k m from the earth's atmosphere. T o find :The equilibrium temperature in above two cases.
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THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 769
Assumptions :
The function fo - represents fraction of radiation energy emitted from a blackbody at
1. Steady state conditions. temperature T in the wavelength band from h = 0 to A. A table of computed blackbody radia-
2. Plate surface is gray, opaque and diffused. tion function fo - ;, as a function of hT is given in Table 12.2.
Analysis :Making the energy balance for the plate :
Solar flux on the plate = Convection flux + Radiation flux (Emissive power) TABLE 12.2. Blackbody radiation functions
Considering T is the temperature of plate, then
Qsun
as,, - = h(T - T_) + E (T4- Tm4)
A
( a )When the plate is coated with white paint :
asun= 0.12 ; uplate= 0.9 or = 0.9 (By Kirchhoff 's law)
0.12 x 700 = 10 x (T - 298) + 0.9 x 5.67 x
J
x (T - 2984)
84 = 10 T - 2980 + 5.103 x 104 p- 402.43
or T4 + 195.963 x lo6 T - 67.929 x lo9 = 0
It is a non linear equation and its numerical (Newton Raphson method) solution gives ;
T = 303.40 K or 30.4"C. Ans.
( b )When plate is coated with black paint :
a,,, = 0.96 ; aPl,,,= 0.95
Using these values in eqn. (1);
0.96 x 700 = 10 x (T - 298) + 0.95 x 5.67 x lo4 x (T4- 298*)
672 = 10 T - 2980 + 5.3865 x p - 424.787
or T4 + 18,56,49,308.5 T - 75.6852 x 109= 0
It is a non linear equation and its numerical (Newton Raphson method) solution gives ;
T = 337.65 K or 64.65"C. Ans.

12.6.4. Radiation Function and Band Emission

Eqn. (12.23) gives the total amount of radiant
energy emitted by a blackbody a t temperature T over
wavelength 31. = 0 to 31. = m. There are often situations,
when it is necessary to evaluate the energy over certain
wavelength band, like 0 to h or A1 to 1,.
The radiation energy emitted by a blackbody per
unit area, over a wavelength band from h = 0 to h
(Fig. 12.10) is determined as

The eqn. (12.25) is evaluated numerically by us-

Fig. 12.10. Radiation emission from a
ing eqn. (12.19). But the integration does not have sim- blackbody in spectral band of to
ple closed form solution and therefore, performing in-
tegration is not practical solution. Therefore, a dimensionless quantity fo- ;, called the
blackbody radiation funqtien is used, which is defined as
THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 771
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R,ange Blackbody radiation function
The fraction of radiation energy emitted by a blackbody a t a temperature T over a finite O I hS0.4 f0-,, = 0.1245
wavelength band from h = hl to h = h2 (Fig. 12.11) is evaluated as OShI0.7 ,,
f, - = 0.4914. (Pune Univ., Dec. 1999)
Solution
Given : Solar radiation a t T, = 5800 K, and blackbody radiation functions with
In terms of blackbody radiation function A wavelengths.
To find :Amount of solar radiation in visible spectrum.
Analysis :The total radiation emitted fram the sun in visible spectrum

- 0.12451
= 5.67 x lo4 x (5800)~[0.4914
= 23.54 x lo6 W/m2. Ans.
or fh,-h, =f0-h, -f0-h, ...(12.28) Example 12.11.Determine (a) the wavelength at which the spectral emissive power o f a
tungsten filament at 1400 K is maximum, (b) the spectral emissive power at that wavelength,
where fo - h, and fo - h , are the blackbody radiation func- and (c) the spectral emissive power at 5 pm.
tions corresponding to hlT and h, T, respectively. Solution
Fig. 12.11. Blackbody radiation in
wavelength band 2. = hl to h = h2 Given :For a radiating surface
T, = 1400 K.
Example 12.9.The temperature of a filament of a n incandescent light bulb (a blackbody) To find :
is maintained at 2500 K Calculate the fraction of radiant energy emitted by the filament in the (i)A,, corresponds to peak emissive power,
visible spectrum. Also calculate the wavelength at which the emission from the filament reache8 (ii)Peak spectral emissive power corresponding to h,
a maximum value. (iii)Spectral emissive power a t h = 5 pm.
Solution Assumption :Blackbody radiation and o = 5.67 x lo4 W/m2. K4.
Given :Radiation from a filament of an incandescent light bulb in visible range. Analysis :(i)The wavelength corresponds to maximum emissive power.
T = 2500 K h, T = 2897.6 pm.K
h, = 0.4 gm Lax= 2897'6 - 2.07 p.Ans.
& = 0.76 pm For visible range.
--
1400
To find : (ii) Spectral emissive power a t h = h, can be obtained from eqn. (12.21) ;
( i ) Fraction of radiation energy emitted in visible range. Ebhmax = 12.87 x 10-lo T5
(ii)Wavelength corresponding to maximum emissive power. = 12.87 x 10-lo x (1400Y = 69.23 x loS W/m2.pn. Ans.
Analysis :( i )The blackbody radiation function corresponds to h1T and h, T are (iii) Monochromatic emissive power a t 5 pm.
hT = 5 x 1400 = 7000 ym.K +fo - = 0.808144
hlT = (0.4 pm) x (2500 K ) = 1000 pm.K+ fo-1, = 0.000321
Ebh= o T4. fo- = 5.67 x lo4 x (1400)4x 0.808144
h2T = (0.76 pm) x (2500 K ) = 1900 pm K--+ fo- h , = 0.052111 = 1.76 x 105W/m2.pm. Ans.
fhl - h2 = fO - - fO - hl = 0.052111 - 0.000321 = 0.05179 Example 12.12. A window glass 0.3 cm thick has a monochromatic transmissivity of
' 0.9 in the range of 0.3 pm to 2.5 pm and nearly zero elsewhere. Estimate the total transmissivity
I t indicates that only 5.18% of the radiation energy emitted falls in the visible
range. Ans. of the window for (a) near black solar radiation at 5800 K, and (b) black room radiation at
(ii)Wavelength corresponding to maximum emissive power is obtained by using Wien'~ 300 K.
displacement law Solution
2897.8 Given :Transmission through a glass window
hm,T = 2897.8 gm.K or h, - -pm = 1.16 pm. Ans.
- 2500 Z~ = 0.9, hl = 0.3 pm, h2 = 2.5 pm
Example 12.10. Solar radiation has approximately same spectral distribution as a11 ( a ) T = 5800 K, ( b )T = 300 K.
ideal radiating body at temperature of 5800 K. Determine the amount of solar radiation, which To find : Transmissivity in range of ill = 0.3 pm to A, = 2.5 pm for (i) T = 5800 K, and
is in the visible range of 0.4 pm to 0.7 pm, use following data : (ai)T = 300 K.
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Assumptions : For black surface (sun)

( i ) Blackbody behaviour,
( i i ) Stefan Boltzmann constant, o = 5.67 x 104 W/m2. K4.
transmissivity of a surface is defined as
Energy transmitted through body
Z= =0.4x0.98+0.8x0.02=0.408. Ans.
Energy incident on the body
For a black body ( i i ) Source condition, T,,, = 527°C = 800 K
h,T = 3 pm x 800 K = 2400 pm.K -+ fo - L , = 0.140266
and fIl-, = 1- f 0 - ~ , = 1- 0.140266 = 0.859734
Absorptivity of the surface for source
asource
= ahlfO - A, + ah2fA , -
= 0.4 x 0.140266 + 0.8 x 0.859734 = 0.7439. hs.
= 2.5 x 5800 = 14500 ym.K +fo - A , = 0.96597
= 0.9[0.96597 - 0.032851 = 0.834. Ans.
T = 300 K
h,T = 0.3 x 300 = 90 pm.K -4 fo - A, = 0.000 The radiation emitted by a real body at temperature T is always less than that of black body.
Therefore, the blackbody emission is considered as reference. The emissivity is defined as the
ratio of the radiation energy emitted by a surface to that emitted by a blackbody at the same
temperature. It is a dimensionless quantity, a property of a radiating surface to measure of
Example 12.13. The aluminium paint is used to cover the surface of a body that isl how closely a surface approximates a black surface for which E = 1. It is designated as E and
maintained at 27OC. I n one installation this body is irradiated by the sun, i n another by a varies between 0 and 1.
source at 527OC. Calculate the effective absorptance of the surface for both conditions, assum- The emissivity of real surfaces is not constant. It varies with temperature of surface, a s
- the sun is a blackbody at 5800 K.
ing well as wavelength and direction of emission. Therefore, different emissivities may be defined
Take for a surface, depending upon the effect considered.

12.7.1. Hemispherical and Total Emissivity

Solution
The emissivity of a surface that is averaged over all directions is called the hemispheri-
Give tion on a aluminium painted cover surface. cal emissivity and the emissivity averaged over all wavelengths is called the total emissivity.
* 27% = 300 K, T, = 5800 K, Tsource= 527°C = 800 K Thus the total hemispherical emissivity E ( T )of a surface is defined as ratio of the radiation
a , . =0.4 for O l h c 3 p m heat flux emitted over all wavelengths into a hemispherical space (all directions) to that which
would have been emitted by a blackbody at same temperature. Mathematically
ty of the surface for
( i ) Solar radiation, and
( i i ) Source radiation.
Anslysis :t i ) For solar radiafio For a given value of emissivity, the emissive power of a real surface a t a temperature T
is determined by
a = 1-0.98 = 0.02
- w = 1- f O - l i
E(T) = E E,(T) = E o T4 ...(12.30)
The total, normal emissivities for some selected materials are shown in Figs. 12.12 and
Thus 98% solar radiation falls below 3 pm and the remaining 2% between h = 3 pm to
h = 00. 12.13. and listed in Table 12.3. The following observations are listed below :
3 1.The emissivity of the metallic surfaces is very small having the values as low as 0.02
The effective absorptivity of the surface
for highly polished gold and silver.
i 2. The presence of oxide layers may improve the emissivity of metallic surfaces.
i
E
3. The non conductors have the large value of emissivity, generally exceeding 0.6.
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THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 779
Consider the spectral emissivity of a real surface is represented by a wiggly line as
shown in Fig. 12.17. It differs from Planck's distribution and it has large variation with wave-
length and consists of several peaks and valleys. Further, the spectral emissivity also varies
with temperature. Thus, its evaluation to average ernissivity becomes very complicated. A
useful simplification is to replace the wiggly line by an average emissivity line as shown by
dashed line in Fig. 12.17. It is the gray body approximation. The effect of apprdximation on
emissive power is shown in Fig. 12.18. A gray surface should emit same radiation as the real
surface. That is

Then the average emissivity for a gray surface can be expressed as

i
= constant ; 0 Ih < hl
EA = = constant ; hl l h < X z
E! = constant ; h2 I h < =
Fig. 12.19. Approximation of actual variation of spectral emissivity
with wavelength by a step function

I Black body E, = E = 1

Thus a gray surface is considered for which the spectral emissivity ck is independent of
the wavelength and thus for a gray surface, the spectral emissivity is equal to total emissivity E
c(T T E;(T) ...(12.40)
Further, for a gray surface, the absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity are also
independent of wavelength. For such a surface ;
E(T)= a(T) ...(12.41)
U
1 2 3 4 5 6 Example 12.14. In an isothermal enclosure at uniform temperature two small surfaces
Wavelength, h, pm -
' A and B are placed. The irradiation to the surface by the enclosure is 6200 W l m 2 . The absorp-
Fig. 12.17.iCom~arisonof the emissivit~of a Fig. 12.18. Comparison of hemispherical spectral tion rates by the surfaces A, and B are 5500 W l m 2and 620 Wlm2. When steady state is estab-
real surfa&, a gray surface and a blackbody emission for black, gray and real surfaces lished, calculate the following :.
a t the same temperature ( i ) What are the heat fluxes to each surfaces ? What are their temperatures ?
If the variation of spectral emissivity is quite large, but it is constant over certain wave- (ii)Absorptivity of both surfaces,
length as shown in Fig.12.19, then E(T)is expressed as step function and eqn. (12.38) is inte- (iii)Emissive power of each surface, and
grated by dividing the spectrum into a number of wavelength bands and assuming the emis-
sivity c(T) remains constant over each wavelength band. Then the average emissivity can be ( i v )Emissivity of each surface.
determined as Solution
Given :Two small body A, and B are placed in an enclosure.
G = 6200 W/m2
G,, = 5500 W/m2
G,, = 620 W/m2.
THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 781
780 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

Analysis :( i )At temperature 5000 K, from Table 12.2.

To find :
( i )Heat flux to each surface and surface temperatures.
(ii)aAand aB The average absorptivity is
(iii)EAand EB ~=a~fo~~l+~2(~-fo~~l)=0.85x0.969+0.15~(1-0.969)=0
(iv) and EB. For flux of 800 W/m2.
Analysis :( i )At steady state, the net heat flux is zero. The enclosure is considered to be The energy absorbed = a G = 0.8283 x 800 = 662.64 W/m2. Ans.
a black body and isothermal, thus T A = TB= T (ii)When surface temperature is 350 K
Irradiation to the surface = Emission from the surface
h,T = 3 ym x 350 K = 1050 ym +fo-hl = 0.00057
6200 = o T4 = 5.67 x 10-8(T)4
From Kirchhoff's law a , = E,, a2= E~
or T = 575 K. Ans.
q* = 0, q* = 0. Ans. Energy radiated = [EI~O-X, + ~2 ( 1- fo+ )I O. T4
= [(0.85 x 0.00057 + 0.15 x ( 1 - 0.00057)] x 5.67 x lop8x (350)4
(ii)Absorptivity of surface, A, a, = - Gd = 5500 = 0.887. Ans,
G 6200 = 128 W/m2. Ans.
Example 12.16. The spectral emissivity as a function of an opaque surface at 800 K is
Absorptivity of surface B, - --
a , = -G,B 620 = 0.1. Ans. approximated by step function and is given below :
G 6200
(iii)Emissive power of each surface E, = 0.3 for O I h I 3 p m
According to Kirchhoff 's law, at thermal equilibrium E~ = s2 = 0.8 for 3 p n I h 5 7 p m
Energy absorbed = Energy emitted E~ = 0.1 for 7 p n S h S m .
.. E, = aAG = 5500 W/m2. Ans. Calculate the average emissiuity of the surface and the emissiue power.
E, = %G = 620 W/m2. Ans. Solution
(iv)Emissivity of each surface Given :Spectral emission from an opaque surface.
According to Kirchhoff's law T = 800 K
= 0.3 for O I h I h , = 3 p m
E~ = 0.8 for 3 p m I h < h 2 = 7 p m
EB = % = 0.1' Ans. E~ = 0.1 for 7 p m l h S w .
Example 12.15. A solar collector surface has an absorptivity of 0.85 for wavelength 0 I To find :
h < 3 pm and a value of 0.15 for wavelength h z 3 pm. (i) Calculate the energy absorbed from the ( i )Average emissivity of the surface, and
source at 5000 K, (ii) If the flux is 800 W / m 2 ,calculate the energy radiated by the body, if its (ii)Emissive power of the surface.
temperature was 350 K. Analysis :( i )Average emissivity of the surface can be determined by integrating it into
steps as

ah, =a2=0.15 for h>3pm

T, = 5000 K.
(ii) T, = 350 K , G = q = 800 W/m2 Here h,T = 3 pm x 800 K = 2400 pm K 4 fO+ = 0.140256
To find : h2T = 7 pm x 800 K = 5600 pm K+ fo-h2-0.701046
( i )Energy absorbed by solar collector surface. Then E = 0.3 x 0.140256 + 0.8 x (0.701046 - 0.140256) + 0.1 x ( 1 - 0.701046)
(ii)Emissive power, if s
Assumptions :
( i )Diffuse, gray surfaces. .67 x lo4 x (500)4
(ii)Kirchhoff s law holds good. = 12.09 x lo3 W/m2. Ans.
-
786 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 787

a=& Example 12.19. A plane ,gray, diffuse and, opaque surface (absorptivity = 0.7) with a
J = &Eb+. (1- E ~ G surface area of 0.5 m2, is maintained a t 500°C and receives radiant energy at a rate of 10,000
Thus
1 Wlm2. Determine per unit time
(ij The energy absorbed.
(ii) The radiant energy emitted.
The total rate of energy leaving the surface = AJ (iii) The total energy leaving the surface per
The total rate of energy incident on the surface = AG unit area.
Thus the net radiant energy leaving the surface (iv) The radiant energy emitted by the sur-
Q=AJ-AG=A(J-G) ...(12.58) face in the wave band 0.2 pm to 4 ym.
(v) The net radiative heat transfer from the
surface.
This equation is not valid for black surface for which E = a = 1 ; p = 0 Solution
For a black surface, J = Eb Given :Plane, gray, diffuse, opaque surface
Q = A(Eb- G) ...(12.60) a = 0.7
Example 12.18. A gray, diffuse opaque surface (a = 0.8) is at 100°C and receives an A,(surface area) = 0.5 m2
irradiation 1000 Wlm2. If the surface area is 0.1 m2. Calculate G = 10000 W/m2
(i) Radiosity of the surface, and Ts = 500°C.
(ii) Net radiative heat transfer rate from the surface. To find :
(iii) Calculate above quantities, if surface is black. (i) Rate of energy absorbed,
Solution (ii) Emitted radiant energy,
Given :A gray, diffuse opaque surface (iii) Total radiant energy leaving the sur-
a = 0.8, G = 1000 W/m2 face per unit area Fig. 12.25. Schematic for energy
T, = 100°C = 373 K, A, = 0.1 m2. (iv) Emitted radiant energy in the wave transactions on the surface
To find : band 0.2 pm-4 pm
(i) Radiosity J, ( v ) Q(net radiative heat transfer rate from the surface).
(ii) Net heat transfer rate, Analysis :(i) Rate of energy absorbed = aAG = 0.7 x 0.5 x 10000 = 3500 W. Ans.
(iiil For black surface J and Q,,. (ii) Rate of radiant energy emitted = A E o T4 (For a gray surface, E = a = 0.7)
Analysis :(i) The radiosity of the surface A E o T4 = 0.5 x 0.7 x 5.67 x x (773)4= 7091 W. Ans.
J = EE, + pG Fig. 12.24. Surface energy (iii) Total energy flux leaving the surface is the sum of the emitted energy flux and the
For a gray, diffuse and opaque surface, a = E balance with radiant energy reflected energy flux J = EE, + pG
T=O, a + p = l where p = 1- a = 1- 0.7 = 0.3
or p=l-a=l-0.8=0.2 :. Radiosity, J = 0.7 x 5.67 x x (773)4+ 0.3 x 10000 = 17182 W/m2. Ans.
.. J = a o T4+ pG = 0.8 x 5.67 x 10*(373)~+ 0.2 x 1000 = 1078 W/m2. Ans. (iv) Rate of radiant energy emitted in the wave band 0.2 pm to 4 ym is given by
(ii) The net heat transfer rate using eqn. (12.'60) EL,-A, = d f o - h , - fo-x,]Eb W/m2
Qnet= A(J - G) = 0.1(1078 - 1000) = 7.8 W/m2. Ans. At h, and A,, T = 773, from Table 12.2
Alternatively using eqn. (12.59)

Qnet = AF(Eb
1- E
J,
- = 0.1 x 0.8
[5.67 x (373)' - 10781 = 7.81 wlmZ.
1 - 0.8 h2T = 4.0 x 773 = 3092 pm.K +fo-h, = 0.294
(iii) For black surface E = a = 1 Ehl-hZ= 0.7 x [0.294 - 01 x 5.67 x lo4 x (773)4= 4166.2 W/m2.
(a) Radiosity J = Eb = o T4 = 5.67 x lo* x (373)4= 1097.5 W/m2. Ans. Rate of radiant energy on surface area As = 0.5 m2 is
( b )The heat transfer rate, eqn. (12.60)
= AEh, = 0.5 x 4166.2 = 2083.13 W. Ans.
Q = A(E, - G) = O.l(l097.5 - 1000) = 9.753 W/m2. Ans.
788 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 789

( v )From an energy balance on the surface ( i )The emissive power

Net radiative heat transfer rate from the surface = Total energy leaving the surface
- Energy reaching the surface
= 0.5 x 17182 - 0.5 ~ 1 0 0 0 0= 3591 W. Ans. where 1, = 2 ym, E, = a, = 1.0, and E, = a, = 0.1
Example 12.20. A specially coated diffuse, opaque surface whose absorptivity is 1 for
0 < 3L < 2 ym and 0.1 for 2 pm < 3L < is exposed to solar radiation i n the outer reach of the
00

atmosphere (Fig. 12.26). The incident solar energy is 1353 W l m 2 . Determine

( i ) The heat flux by radiation from the surface to the surroundings, if the surface is Emissive power of the surface
maintained at 100°C by a coolant. E = [lx 0 + 0.1(1- O ) ] x o Ts4= 0.1 x 5.67 x 104 x (373)4= 109.75 W/m2
( i i ) The equilibrium temperature of the surface, if the coolant flow stops and the surface Energy absorbed/m2 by the surface of solar radiation
is insulated on the side that does not receive solar radiation.
(iii)Compare the values i n parts a and b, if the surface is black.

-
Assume the sun behaves as a blackbody at 5760 K. The sky is at 0 K.
= a1fo-ilG + a, fhl - G = [a,fo-i;, + a2(1- f0-,,)1G
= [ l x 0.9392 + 0.1 x ( 1 - 0.9392)l x 1353 = 1278.96 W/m2
The heat flux from surface to surroundings
q = 109.75 - 1278.96 = - 1169.21 W/m2

Coolant - The -ve sign indicates, that the net heat flux is towards the surface. Ans.
( i i )If coolant flow stops then at thermal equilibrium
Emissive power = Rate of energy absorbed = 1278.96 W/m2

Fig. 12.26. Schematic of a specially coated hurface

4 Now fO-k1 and Eb are unknown both depends on temperature of the surface, which is
also unknown. Thus using iterative method for its solution.
Solution.
The computed yalues for this problem are given in the following table. The emissive
Given : Surface : specially coated power of the surface is denoted by E. In arriving at the values in the table, the principles of
O<h<2pm a, = 1 bisection for finding the roots of eqn. ( i i )have been employed.
2ym<h<m a , = 0.1
G (incident solar energy flux) = 1353 W/m2. Value of T
To find : Too low '
( i )Radiation heat flux from surface to surroundings when Ts = 100°C = 373 K Too high
( i i )~ ~ u i l i b r i utemperature
m of surface T,, if coolant stops, Too low
(iii) Comparison sf values in ( i )and ( i i ) for a black surface. Too high
Analysis : The energy balance on the surface exposed to solar radiation. A little too high
A little too low
Net heat transfer rate from the surface
= Rate of energy leaving the surface - Rate of energy incident on the surface.
. = A[J - GI = A[EE, - EG1 At a temperature of 680 K the emitted energy (1280.3 W/m2)is very nearly equal to the
From Kirchhoff 'slaw E = a and E, = ah, thus absorbed energy (1279 W/m2).Hence, under equilibrium conditions
.. q = Emissive power - Absorbed irradiation T = 680 K. Ans.
(iii)For a black surface we have
qb = Emitted energy - Absorbed energy = 5.67 x x (373.15)4- 1353
when coolant stops, q = 0 , and = - 253.7 W/m2. Am.
Under equilibrium conditions, Eb = G and
790 - ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RAD+ATlUN : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 79 1

Comments. The special surface is much more effective as a solar collector than a black
surface. The special surface transfers 1169.2 W/m2 to the coolant, whereas the black surface
transfers only 253.7 W/m2.The reason for this difference is that the major part of the radiation
from the sun is in the wave band 0-2 pm (94%),and all of it is absorbed by the special surface. T, = 2000 K Brick wall
\
Example 12.21. A diffuse fire brick wall at temperature of 500 K has discontinuous
spectral emissivity as shown i n Fig. 12.27 (a) and is exposed to coal bed at 2000 K.

Coals
I
1 .o I
I Fig. 12.27. ( b ) Schematic
I

Breaking integral into parts

Fig. 12. 27 ( a )
Calculate the total hemispherical emissivity and emissive power of the fire brick wall.
What is the total absorptivity of the wall to the irradiation resulting from emission by the coals.
Solution
Hence, E(TJ = 0.1 x 0 + 0.5 x [0.634 - 01 + 0.8[1- 0.6341 = 0.610. Ans.
Given :Fire brick wall exposed to coal bed
( i i )Total emissive power
T s = 500 K, T, = 2000 K
E(TJ = E(TJ Eb(Ts)= d T S )x o Ts4
EL, = = 0.1 for 0 5 h < 1.5
= 0.610 x 5.67 x lo4 x (500)4= 2161 W/m2. Ans.
Ex, = = 0.5 for 1.5 C: h < 10 (iii)Total absorptivity of wall
Ex, = = 0.8 for 10 l h < w .
To find :
( i )Total hemispherical emissivity of the fire brick wall,
JU
( i i )Total emissive power of the brickwall, Since surface is diffuse and opaque.
(iii)Absorptivity of the wall to irradiation from the coals. Thus eh = a,
Assumptions : Moreover, the spectral distribution of the irradiation approximates that due to emission
( i )Brick wall opaque and diffuse (2 = 0 ) from a blackbody at 2000 K ; G,a Ebh . It follows
( i i ) Spectral distribution of brick wall approximates that due to emission from a blackbody
a t 2000 K.
792 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RAMATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 793

At Tc = 2000 K frem Table 12.2 The spectral distribution of solar radiation on the earth's atmosphere and physical sig-
hlTc = 1.5 x 2000 = 3000 ym.K-+ fO+ = 0.273 nificance of G, and Go are illustrated in Fig. 12.29. The solar radiation travels in atmosphere
about 30 km outside the eadh's surface. As s d a r radiation passes through this atmosphere, it
h2Tc= 10 x 2000 = 20000 ym.K---+ fo-),, = 0.9856 is absorbed and scattered by atmospheric material. The absorption occurs mainly due to pres-
Hence, a(TJ = 0.1 x 0.273 + 0.5[0.9856 - 0.2731 + 0.8[1- 0.98561 = 0.3951. Ans. ence of ozone, water vapours, CO,, NO,, CO, 0, and CH, e t ~The . ozone absorbs complete
ultraviolet radiation at wavelength below 0.3 ym and considerably in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 ym
and some radiation in the visible range. Thus the ozone layer in the upper regions of atmos-
phere guards biological systems on the earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiation. In turn
The sun is our primary source of energy. The energy the ozone layer must be protected from the destructive chemicals commonly used as refriger-
Normal
coming out the sun is called solar energy and it ants, cleaning agents and propellants in the aerosol cans. The carbon dioxide and water va-
4 pour absorb mainly longer wavelength radiation (infrared radiation).
reaches to earth in the form of electromagnetic
waves. The sun is considered as a nuclear reactor, Earth's Go = G, cos 0 As a results of these absorption, the solar energy reaching the earth surface is weak-
atmosphere ened considerably. Its absorption is large as 950 W/m2 on a clear day and much less on cloudy
where the heat being generated due to continuous \ or smoggy days.
fusion reaction of hydrogen atoms to form helium.
The sun experiences very large temperature in its
core region, but its temperature drops to approxi-
mately 5800 K i n its outer region, due to continuous
dissipation of energy by radiation.
The sun is nearly spherical body of diameter
of 1.392 x lo6 km and a mass of 2 x 1030 kg. - It is
located at a mean distance of 1.496 x lo8 km from 12.28. solar radiation reaching the
the earth. The earth has its mean diameter of 1.27 x earth's atmosphere, solar constant G,, a n d
lo4 km and its surface gets only small fraction of e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l solar i r r a d i a t i o n Go
sun's energy, because, the sun subtmds only an an-
gle of 32 minute at the earth's surdce. The intensity of solar radiation reaches outside the
earth's atmosphere is almost constant. The solar constant G, is the rate at which the solar
radiation flux is received on a surface normal to the sun rays just outside the earth's atmos-
phere, when the earth is its mean distance from the sun. The radiation coming from the sun is
equivalent to blackbody radiation. Using the Stefan Boltzmann law, the solar constant can be
calculated as :

where,
G;, I-[ 2

rSU,= radius of sun = 6.9598 x lo8 m.

YT
: = 1353 W/m2 ...(12.61)

rOrbi,= distance between sun and earth = 1.496 x 1Ol1 m.

0 0.5 1.O 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
o = 5.67 x lo4 W/m2-K4,Stefan Boltzmann constant. Wavelength, pm
Ts = effective temperature of sun = 5762 K
Fig. 12.29. Spectral d i s t r i b u t i o n o f solar r a d i a t i o n
Due to very small eccentricity in the earth, the distance between the earth and sun
varies throughout the year. Therefore, solar constant also varies from its maximum value of The solar energy reaching the earth's surface is also weakened by scattering or reflection
1399 W/m2on December 21 to a minimum of 1310 W/m2 on June 21 and on any day of year, it when it passes through the atmosphere. The scattering or reflection occurs due to all gaseous
can be calculated as : molecules as well as particulate matter in the atmosphere. The radiation at wavelength
corresponding to violet and blue colours is scattered most. These scattered radiation is
redistributed in all directions and gives bluish colour sky. The same phenomenon is responsible
- for red sunrise and sunset. Early in the morning and late in evening, the sun rays passes
where n is the day of year.
through a larger. thickness of atmosphere. Therefore, the violet and blue colours of light
The extraterrestrial solar irradiation Go incident normal to the outer surface of the experience a large number of scattering and thus do not reach the earth's surface. While the
earth's atmosphere is calculated as colours correspond to longer wavelength such as yellow, orange and red reach the earth's
Go = G, cos 8 (W/m2) ...(12.63)
THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 799
798 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
(iij The collector efficiency is defined a s the fraction solar radiation extracted as useful
T h e surface shown i n Fig. 12.34 a r e assumed to be opaque. T r a n s p a r e n t or energy.
semitransparent material can also be selective with somewhat different designs.
Example 12.22.A flat plate solar collector with no cover has a selective absorber surface G, - 515'65
T=------ 750 = 0.687 68.7%. Ans.
with E = 0.1 a n d a, = 0.95. At a particular time of the day, the absorber surface temperature T,
is 120°C, when the solar irradiation is 750 Wlm2, the effective sky temperature is - 10°C a n d Example 12.23. The white paint on a roof as a selective solar absorber (a, = 0.26).
ambient air temperature T_ is 30°C. Assume the natural convection is given by Consider now a bare roof under a sunlit sky. The solar radiation on the plane of the roof is
q = 0.22(TS - T_)413Wlm2. K. 600 W/m2, the a i r temperatu-re is 35"C, a n d a light breeze produces a convective heat
Calculate the useful heat removal rate (Wlm2) from the collector for these conditions. transfer coefficient of h = 8 W/m2.K. The sky temperature is 18°C. Find the temperature of the
What is the corresponding efficiency of the collector ? roof, if it is painted with either white acrylic paint or a non-selective black paint having E = 0.9.
Solution Solution
Given :A flat plate solar collector with Given :A roof surface with operating condition
its operating conditions. G, = 600 W/m2, T_ = 35°C = 308 K, h = 8 W/m2.K, a, = 0.26
E = 0.1 Tsky = 18°C = 291 K, E = 0.9 for non-selective black or white acrylic paint.

--
a, = 0.95 To find :The surface temperature of roof with

*
T, = 120°C = 393 K (i) White acrylic paint, and
T, = 30°C
Tsky= - 10°C = 263 K
a, = 0.95 \ Air
T, = 30°C
h = 0.22 (T, - T,)~'~
(ii) Non-selective black paint.
Assumptions :
(i) Steady state conditions.
- G, = 750 W/m2
and relation for calculation of h.
To find :
(ii) No heat transfer to interior of roof.
(iii) For non-selective black paint a, = E.
1
qu,, w/m2 Analysis :In steady state condition, the energy balance yields to
(i) Useful heat removal rate per unit Incident (solar + sky radiation) energy on the roof surface = Heat loss by (convection +
area, W/m2. Fig. 12.35. Schematic radiation) from the roof surface
(ii) Efficiency of the collector. For 1m2 surface area
Assumptions : asG, + E o Ts;y= h(Ts - T,) + E 0 Ts4
(i)Steady state conditions. (i) For white acrylic paint a, = 0.26, E = 0.9
(ii) Bottom of the collector is well insulated. 0.26 x 600 + 0.9 x 5.67 x (Z9lI4 = 8 (Ts - 308) + 0.9 x 5.67 x lo-' Ts4
(iii) Diffuse absorber surface. or 5.103 x 1O4TS4 + 8T, - 2986 = 0
(iv) Sky radiation is in approximately same spectral region that of surface emission i.e., or Ts4+ 156.77 x lo6 T, - 5.851 x 1010 = 0
E = asky = 0.1. It is a transcendental equation and its solution by iterative technique converge to
Analysis :(i) The rate of incoming energy on the absorber surface/m2 T, = 312 K = 39°C. Ans.
(ii) For non-selective black paint, a, = E = 0.9 and then above eqn. leads to
EL
A = + %kYG ~ k y Ts4 + 156.77 x lo6 T, - 6.6038 x 101° = 0
= 0.95 x 750 + 0.1 x 5.67 x lo4 x (263j4 = 739.62 W/m2 Its solution converges to
The energy outgoing the absorber surface per unit area Ts = 338K = 65°C. Ans.
-%ut- - q,,,, Example 12.24. An artificial spherical satellite flies around :he earth. Calculate the
A qrad + quse= h(Ts - Tm)+ + quse
+ temperature of the satellite surface, a s s u m i n g ~ h a tthere is no heat sources a n d surface tem-
= 0.22(Ts - T_)4/3+ E o Ts4 + quse perature is uniform all over the surface. The solar radiation reflected from the earth a n d radia-
= 0.22 (120 - 30)*3 + 0.1 x 5.67 x lo4 (393 K)4 + quse tion emitted from the earth should also be ignored.
= 88.73 + 135.25 + q,,, = 223.98 + qUse (i)Ifa,=0.2 and ~ = 0 . 1 ;
In steady state conditions, (ii) If surface of the satellite is gray ;
(iii) Find the ratio a , / & , when the temperature of the satellite surface becomes 30°C.
EL - %Ut

A A The incident solar radiation is 1500 Wlm2.

739.62 = 223.98 +-q,,, or quse= 515.65 W/m2. Ans.
800 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 80 1
Solution
To find :
Given :A satellite around the earth ;
(i) Total energy emitted by the sun.
Gs = 1500 W/m2, ( i i )Emission received by the earth per m2,just outside the earth surface.
To find :Satellite surface temperature if (iii)Total energy received by the earth, if no radiation is blocked by the earth's atmos-
( i ) as = 0.2 and E = 0.1 phere.
( i i ) Surface of the satellite is gray, and ( i v ) Energy received by solar collector.
(iii)a& ratio for T, = 30°C. Assumptions :
Analysis :For steady state conditions, the energy balance ( i )The negligible emissive power of earth in comparison of sun.
Heat gain by incident radiation = Heat lost by emission ( i i )No convection and conduction effects.
a, P\$rojG = EA, CT T,4 9
where P\$roj= projected area of satellite for solar irradiation = nr2 D
,, = 1.4 x 10 m
6
A, = surface area of satellite for emission = 4nr2 D
,,, = 12.8 x 10 m
Therefore,
(i) 0.2 x nr2 x 1500 = 0.1 x 4 x 9 x 5.67 x 104Ts4
or Ts4= 1.3227 x 1010
or T, = 339.13 K = 66.13"C. Ans.
( i i )For gray surface a = E = 0.2
0.2 x nr2 x 1500 = 0.2 x 4nr2 x 5.67 x Ts4 Fig. 12.36
or TS4 = 6.6137 x lo9
Analysis : ( i )Total energy emitted by the sun :
or T, = 285.17 K = 12.17"C. Ans.
(iii)For given temperature T , = 30°C = 303 K Surface area of the sun = 4 n r,: = .rr D& = n (1.4 x l o 9 m)2= 6.1575 x 1018 m2
a, x nr2 x 1500 = E x 4nP x 5.67 x x (303)4 The energy emitted by the sun,
or a, / E = 1.27. Ans. Q = OAT,; = 5.67 x lo4 x 6.1575 x 1018 x (5800)4
Example 12.25. In the process of estimating the emission from the sun, it may be treated = 3.95 x W. Ans.
as blackbody with the surface temperature of 5800 K a t a mean distance of 15 x 1010m from the ( i i )Emission received by 1 m2,just outside the earth's atmosphere :
earth. The diameter of the sun is 1.4 x lo9 m and that of the earth is 12.8 x 106 m.
The sun emits radiation in all direction over a distance of 15 x 1010 m from the earth.
Estimate the following : The orbit area, just out side the earth's atmosphere :
( i ) The total energy emitted by the sun. Aorbit= 4n (rorbJ2= 4n (15 x 1010m)2 = 2.8274 x loz3m2
( i i ) The emission received per m2 just outside the earth's surface. The radiation received per m2 outside the earth's surface
(iii) The total eiiergy received by the earth, i f no radiation is blocked by the earth's
atmosphere. Q - 3.95 x
Gs = ---- = 1397 W/m2. Ans.
( i v ) The energy received by a 1.5 m x 1.5 m, solar collector, whose normal is inclined at Aorbit 2.8274 x
45" to the sun. The energy loss throug?z the atmosphere is 40% and the diffused radiation is 20%
of the direct radiation. (N.M.U., Nov. 1999) (iii)The earth may be assumed as a spherical body and energy received by the earth will
be proportional to the projected area i.e., area of the earth ;
Solution Energy received by the earth = G, x Aearth= 1397 x ( ~ 1 4(12.8
) x lo6rnl2
Given :Average solar constant for determination of temperature of sun = 1.797 x 1017 W. Ans.
TSUn= 5800 K, DSin = 1.4 x l o 9 m, rorbit = 15 x 1010 m, Dearth= 12.8 x lo6 m (iu)Energy received by a solar collector :
A = 1.5 x 1.5 = 2.@5 m2, I\$, = 45", The direct energy blocked by atmosphere = 40%
Energy loss through the atmosphere = 40% Hence, the direct energy reaching the earth surface = 60% = 0.6 G&
Diffuse radiation = 20% of direct radiation. = 0.6 x 1397 = 838.2 W/m2
802 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 803

The diffuse radiation = 0.2 x 838.2 = 167.64 W/m2

_ _ _ I _ _ _ _ _

Rate at which energy leaving the surface due to emission and reflection
The total radiation energy reaching the collector in all directions per unit area per unit time, J (W/m2).
= Projected area of collector (cos Q2) x (838.2 + 197.64) W/m2 Reflection The process of redirection of radiation energy incident on a surface.
= 1.5 x 1.5 cos (45") x (1005.84) = 1600.28 W. Ans. Reflectivity, p The fraction of incident radiation energy reflected by the surface.
Semitransparent It is a medium in which radiation absorption is the volumetric process.
Solar energy It is energy coming out the sun.
12.1 I . SUMMARY
Solar constant Rate at which the solar radiation flux is received on a surface normal to
The radiation refers to t h e energy emitted i n form of electromagnetic waves by the bodies sun's rays just outside the earth's atmosphere, G,(W/m2).
because of their temperature.The radiatiop energy emitted i n wavelength between h = 0.1 and Solid angle, w Ratio of area of spherical surface enclosed by a conical surface with ver-
h = 100 p m is refirred th'ermal radiation. The s u n emits thermal radiation at a n effective tex of the cone at the centre of sphere to square of radius of sphere. It is
surface temperature of 5760 K and bulk of this energy lies between h = 0.1 to 31. = 3 pm, there- measured in straradian (sr).
fore this spectrum is referred a s the solar radiation. The radiation emitted by t h e s u n is in Spectral It refers to a single wavelength (monochromatic) radiation. The quantity
is denoted by subscript h.
r, avelength between h = 0.4 to h = 0.76 pm, is visible to h u m a n eye, therefore, this spectrum is
referred as the visible radiation (light). Spectral distribution It refers to properties variation with wavelength.
Specular It refers to the surface for which the angle of reflected radiation is equal
The glossary of radiation terms and their definition a r e given in Table 12.5.
to the angle of incident radiation.
TABLE 12.5. Glossary of the radiation terms Stefan Boltzmann law The emissive power of the blackbody is directly proportional to fourth
power of the absolute temperature ; E6 = o T4, where o = 5.67 x lo4
W/m2.K4,is Stefan Boltzmann constant, and T is an absolute tempera-
Terms Definition ture in K.
Absorption The process of converting the radiation intercepted by the matter to in- Thermal radiation It is the electromagnetic energy emitted by a matter at a finite tempera-
ture in the spectral region from approximately from 0.1 to 100 ym.
ternal thermal energy.
Absorptivity, a Fraction of the incident radiation absorbed by the surface. Total solar radiation Sum of direct and diffuse solar radiation.
Blackbody An ideal body which absorbs all incident radiation and emits maximum Transmission It is process of the thermal radiation passing through the maftek.
energy. ~ransmissivit~ It is the fraction of radiation energy transmitted by the matter.
Blackbody radiation Fraction of radiation energy emitted by a blackbody at temperature T in Wien's displacement Relation between wavelength,,A and absolute temperature T at
function wavelength band h = 0 to h. law which Ebhreaches a maximum ; h,, T = 2897.6 pm.K.
Diffuse A surface, whose properties are independent of directions.
Directional The property pertains to a particular direction, denoted by 8.
Emission The process 'of radiation production by the surface at a finite tempera- REVIEW QUESTIONS
ture.
Emissive power, E The rate of radiant energy emitted by a surface in all direction per unit
area of the surface. It is measured in W/m2. What is an electromagnetic wave ? How does it differs from a sound wave ?
Emissivity, E Ratio of the emissive power of a surface to the emissive power of the What are the ranges of wavelengths of electromagnetic waves covering ultraviolet, visible,
blackbody at the same temperature. infrared and thermal radiation ?
Gray surface A surface for which the spectral absorptivity and emissivity are inde- What is the speed of energy propagation between two bodies when the space between them is
pendent of the wavelength over the spectral region of the surface irradia- evacuated ?
tion and emission. What do you mean by ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation ?
Green house effect The warming up process due to remission between earth's surface and What is a blackbody ? What are its properties ? Why does a cavity with a small hole behave as
atmosphere. a blackbody ?
Hemispherical The quantity pertains to all directions above the surface. Why are microwave oven suitable for cooking ?
Irradiation The rate at which the radiation is incident on a surface from all direction What are the total and spectral emissive power of a blackbody ?
per unit area of the surface, G(W/m". What do you mean by spectral, terms used in thermal radiation ?
Kirchhoff 's law Relation between emission and absorption properties of a surface at ther- State Planck's distribution law and list down its features.
mal eqbilibrium. What is Wien's displacement law ? Derive an expression for its relation. What is a diffuse body ?
Planck's law It is associated with spectral distribution of emission from a blackbody. State and explain Stefan Boltzmann law. Derive an expression for total emissive power of a
Radiation intensity The rate of radiation energy propagation in a particular direction, per blackbody.
unit area normal to the direction, per unit solid angle about the direc- What is radiation intensity ? How do you distinguish between spectral emissive power and
tion, I (W/m2.sr). spectral radiation intensity ?
81 8 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 819

Consider a geometry as shown in Fig. 13.13. The view factor Fl-2 between surface 1and
2 can be evaluated by following procedure. First identify the end points of the surface as A, B,
C and D. Connect them with tightly stretched string, which are indicated by dashed line.
Hottel has proved that the view factor F1 -,can be expressed in terms of lengths of these
stretched strings which are straight lines as

Two curved surfaces Two infinitely long parallel planes

Fig. 13.13
(L, + L6) - (L3 + L4)
Fl-, = ...(13.11)
2L 1
where L, + L, is sum of lengths of crossed strings and L3 + L, is sum of lengths of uncrossed
strings attached to the end points. Therefore, Hottel cross string method can be expressed as
X (crossed strings) - X (uncrossed strings)
F.2 -J . =
2 x (string on surface i)
Example 13.1. Calculate the view factor Fl - 2 between a small area dAI and a parallel
circular disc A,. The elemental area dA, is located a t the axis of the disc A2, at a distance L.
Solution
The elemental area of the disc d& = 27t r d r
Here pl = P2 (due to symmetry)
Using the relation
FA,-A, 0rFl-2
cos p1 cos P2 dAl dA2
='J J
A1 A l A2 7c s 2
Since the area A, is small, hence assuming it as
alc constant.
Fig. 13.12. The view factor for three very small surfaces
"looking at" the large surfaces (Al << AJ

13.1.3. The Cross String Method L~

where s2 = r2 + L2 and cos2 P = -
L~ + r 2
The view factor between very long surfaces can be determined by a very simple crossed
string method developed by H.C. Hottel in the 1950s, the surfaces of the geometry do not need
to be flat ; they may be convex, concave, or any irregular shape.
and limits for & (or r) are from r = 0 to r = R L a ,A,

Fig. 13.14
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 82 1
820

Substituting in above relation,

, ,
Example 13.4. Calculate the view factor Fl - and F2 - for the following geometries :

Put r2 + L2 = t ; 2 r dr = dt
and limits : t = 0 + L2to R2 + L2
Then the integration :

Fig. 13.17
Example 13.2. Determine the view factor between a small area dAl and a rectangular
surface of dimension a and b, where the rectangular surface is i n horizontal plane and the 1. Sphere of diameter D inside a cubical box of length D.
small area dAl lies i n the vertical plane and below one corner of the rectangle at a height H. 2. Diagonal partition within a long square duct.
(P.U., May 2000) 3. End and side of a circular tuba of equal length and diameter.
Solution ea- Solution
The view factor between two surfaces is given by
c / 7 - Given : Surface geometries.

For element dAl = Al ;

.
cos plcos P2 dA1 dA2
st
-
dA2 dY
To find :The view factors F1- and F2-
Analysis : 1.Sphere within a cube :
By inspection I?1_, = 1
A1 .
cos pl cos P2 dA2 BY reciprocity rule, F 2 4= Si; F13=- 6L2 X I = - - 6 Aos.
.D2

s2 2. Partition within a square duct : \

For given geometry From summation rule, F1-1 + F1-2 + F1-, = 1
H b Where for flat surface, F1-, = 0 r
cos p1 = --, cos p2 =
BY symmetry, F1-2=F1-3 - !
- '

S S .
Hence Fl-, = 0.5 -
and s= , dA2 = d'x dy

'5(1
Fig. 13.15 -A1
b ~ a b ~
By reciprocal theorem, F2-, = A, F,-2 = -y- J2 x 0.5 = 0.71. Ans.
Hb Hab
. Then, F,= n o o (El2 +a212dx dy = . ( H ~ + a212Sody = n(H2 + a2 12 ' Ans. 3. Circular tube :
-,
From Fig. 13.9 with r 3 L = 0.5 and Llrl = 2, Fl = 0.17
- 13.3. A flat surface, 1 is completely enclosed by a second surface, 2 Fig. 13.16.
Example From summation rule, F1-1 + q - 2 + Fl-3 = 1
Determine the view factors F1 F2 - and F2 - 2 .
-27 Where for flat surface, F,-1 = 0
Solution Fl-, = 1-F,-, = 1-0.17 ~ 0 . 8 3

-.
As no part of surface 1 "sees" itself, all the en- A1
By reciprocity rule, F2-1- - F1-2=- nD2'4 .DL x 0.83 = 0.21. h s .
ergy leaving surface 1reaches surface 2, and from the - A2
definition of view factor, Example 13.5. Calculate the view factor F1 F l - , and F2-, for the followinggeometries :
F,, = 1
To determine F2-,, from eqn. (13.5)
A, F2-1 = A1 Fl-2
AI'FI-2 - -A1 Fig. 13.16. A flat surface, 1,com-
F2-, =
A2 A, pletely enclosed by a second surface, 2.
From eqn. (13.6)

F2-I + F2-, = 1 and F2, = 1- F2-, = 1- -

A2 Aos.

Fig. 13.18
822 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 823

1. A black body inside a black enclosure. Example 13.7. Calculate the shape factor of a conical hole.
2. A tube whose section is equilateral triangle. Solution
3. Radiation exchange between a hemisphere and a plane surface. Analysis :Considering an imaginary flat plane cov-
2
Solution ers the hole, hence by summation rule
F , - , + F l - 2 = 1 and F 2 - 1 + F 2 - 2 = 1
Given : Surface geometries.
To find :The view factor. But F2- = 0, hence F2 = 1.-, T
Analysis : 1.A black body inside a black enclosure :
By inspection, F2-,= 1
By summation rule, F1- + F1- = 1
By reciprocity relation,
AIF1- 2 = A2F2-1
F1-l= 1-Fld2 tan a = (Dl2h)
i
A2 A2
By reciprocity rule, AzF2 - 1 = AIF1 - 2 Therefore, F1- = 1- - -,
A1 F2 = 1- - A1 Fig. 13.20

= I - (nI4) D~ = 1- -D (where L = Wcos a )

n D L/2 2L
2. A tube of equilateral triangle :
n ~ tan2
' a
From summation rule, F1-1+F1-2 + F 1 - 3 = Fl-, = 1- = 1 - sin a. Ans.
Where for flat surface, F14= 0, F2-2 = 0, F3-3 = 0 n~~ sin a
and F 2 - , + F 2 - , = 1 or F2-,= 1 - F 2 - , cos2 a
By symmetry, F1-2=F1-3 Example 13.8. Calculate the shape factor for cylindrical cavity as shown in Fig. 13.21
with respect to itself: I

Hence A1~ F l - =0.5

Fl-,=0.5 or F 2 - l = 2 Solution

T
2
Hence F2-,=I-0.5=0.5. Ans. Assuming cylindrical surface 1and plane surface 2
3. The radiation heat exchange between a hemisphere surface 1 and a flat surface 2.
From summation rule, F1- + F1- = 1 ,
F1-,= l - F 1 - 2
From summation rule, Fl- + Fl - 2 = 1 and F2 + F, -, -,
=1
or
and F2-1 + F2-, = 1
But for flat surface, -,
F2 = 0, hence F2- = 1 But for flat surface, F2-2 = 0
By reciprocity rule, h F 2 - 1 =A1F1-2 From surface 2 to surface 1, F 2 4= 1
A2F2-1 = -
nR2 = 0.5 By reciprocity rule, A2F2-l=AlFl-2
To flat surface hemisphere, F1- = -A, 2nR2
I I

Flat surface of hemisphere,

Fig. 13.21
Example 13.6. Calculate the view factor between two opposite sides of a hollow cube,
if view factor between two adjacent sides of it is 0.2. (P. U., 2000)
L-.
D
Solution Fl-, = 1- ------
D+4L
--4-
D+4L
hs.
Given :The geometry as shown in Fig. 13.19
Example 13.9. Consider a triangular duct of length L a s shown in Fig. 13.22. For given
dimensions, prove that F2- = 0.75 Surface 3

By summation rule, where, ab = ac = x and bc = x/2.

Surface 2
F,-l+F,-2+F,-,+Fl-4+Fl-,+Fl-6= 1 Solution
Flat surface 1, F1-, = 0 Given :The triangular duct.
X
0 +0.2 +F1-,+0.2+0.2+0.2 = 1 A --L, 4=A3=xL
l- 2
Fl-, = 1- 0.8 = 0.2. h s .
The view factor between two opposite faces = 0.2.
,
To prove :View factor F, - = 0.75.
Assumption :Length of duct is sufficiently
Lrface 1
Fig. 13.19 large so negligible energy leaving through open
ends. Fig. 13.22
824 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
- - ---- -
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 825
Analysis :From the summation rule for flat surfaces F, - 2 + F, -,= 1 ( .: ,
F, - = 0) For surface 1 and surface 2 :
F2-l + F2-,= 1 and F3-, + F3-, = 1 A, = 5 mm x 20 mm = 100 mm2
By symmetry F l - 2 = F1-3 A,=7mmx20mm=140mm2

Hence For - 3[ w = 8 m m , L = 7 m m , D=2Omm

8
~=-=-=0.4,
D 20
L 7
y=-=-=0.35
D 20
Hence F2 -,= 1- 0.25 = 0.75. Ans.
-,
From Fig. 13.10 ; F2 = 0.3
Example 13.10. Two rectangular plates are a t right angle in following showngeometries.
-,
Calculate the view factor F, for the given configurations.
'

140
Then F, -,= -
100
x (0.35 - 0.3) = 0.07. Ans.
(c) Assuming surface 5 and surface 6 as
A, = A, + A, and A, = 4 + A,
By additive rule F1 - = F1- + F1-
F1-2 =F1-,-F1-4
By reciprocity rule

(d)
Fig. 13.23 13 7
For F6-, ; X= - = 0.65; y = - = 0.35+F6-, = 0.35
Solution 20 20
8 7
For F6-3;x=-=0.4; y=-=0.35+F6.,=0.3
20 20
13 4
For F 4 - , ; x = % = 0 . 6 5 ; y = - - =0.2 -F4-, =0.367
20
From Fig. 13.10, view factor, F, - = 0.34. Ans. 8 4
For F4-, ;x = - = 0.4; y = - = 0.2 +F4-,= 0.358
( b )Assuming surface 4 as combination of surface 1and surface 3 ; 20 20
A, = A, + A, Then F,-, = 1.4(0.35 - 0.3) = 0.07
By additive rule F2- = F2- + F2- or F2- = F2- - F2- -,
F, = 0.8(0.367 - 0.358) = 0.0072
By reciprocity rule and -,
F, = 0.07 - 0.0072 = 0.063. Ans.
(d)Assuming surface 5 and 6 as
A, = A, + A3
A6=&2+A4
By additive rule F1- = F1 - + F1 - --\$ ,
F1 - = F1 - - F1 -
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 827
826 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

By reciprocal rule
A6 A6
=A6F6-1+F1-6=-
A1
F6-1 * F1-2=
1
F6-l-F1-4

Again by Additive rule

A3 A3
F6-5=F6-1+F6-3~F6-1=F6-5-F6-3 * Fl-2=
-46
(F6-5-F6-3)-F1-,
By reciprocity : F6- = A6
F3- =
6
(F3- + F3-
1
Reciprocity rule
A3
A3F3-, =&3F6-3+F6-3= -F3-6 * F1-2=
A6
, -, = A
Due to symmetry : F3- = F2 A1 F, -,
2

F3-2 = F1-4

Therefore

Therefore, F 1 2= 6 - 6 - 3 - 2 ~2 From Fig.13.8, the view factors F6- 5, and F1 - :,

L 3 w 5
For F 6 - 5 :x = - = - =0.375, y = - = - = 0.625+ F6-5=0.06
D 8 D 8

From Fig. 13.10, the view factor F6- ,, F3 -,and Fl -,can be obtained
Then,

Example 13.12. Fig.13.25 depicts window i n the wall of a room. Find the view factor
- 0.103 FB- A , where A is the window and B is the floor.
Fl-2 = = 0.120. Ans.
Solution
Example 13.11. Calculate the view factor Fl - 2 for the following geometry.
Solution
Given :Geometry as shown in Fig. 13.24

l------B c m 4
Fig. 13.24 (4
Analysis :Assuming surface 5 and surface 6 as Fig. 13.25. Schematic for example 13.12
A5 = Al + A3
&=&+A4
828 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 829

Given :The geometry as shown above. Example 13.13. Consider a n enclosure formed by closing one end o f cylinder, .
L = 6 m , w=2.5m, D = 5 m (diameter = D, Height = L) by a flat surface and other end by a hemispherical dome. Determine
the view factors of all the surfaces of the enclosure, if height is the twice the diameter.
Dl = 4 m, D2 = 1m.
TO find :View factor FB-A=F5-4
Solution
Assumption :Surface 5 as A5 = A, + A2 Given :A geometry as shown in Fig 13.26.
Surface 6 as AG= A, + A,. Surface 1 = flat cylinder end
Analysis : For convenience, divide the floor into two parts, 1 and 2 as shown in Surface 2 = cylindrical surface
Fig. 13.25 (b).The window is represented by 4 and the remaining part of the wall by 3 and we Surface 3 = hemispherical end
need F5- ; using reciprocity and additive rule simultaneously. For 3 surfaces in the enclosure
View factors, = N2 = 9
The view factors to be determine directly
= 112 N(N - 1)= 112 x 3(2) = 3

We can obtain F1 - from Fig. 13.10, now we need F2

F,-6 = F,-3 + F5-4
-,; Here Fl- = 0,
with help of imaginary surface 4.
F4-, + F4-, = 1 - F4-3 = 1
7t
-
Fig. 13.26

D2

F5-6=
1
-{A1F1-3+A2F2-3+A1F1-4+A2F2-41
A5
From law of corresponding corner (symmetry)
4F2-4=Al Fl-3
Again, F3- + F3- = 1 - F3-, = 1 - 0.5 = 0.5
Here it should be noted that fraction of radiation energy emitted by surface and inter-
cepted by hemispherical surface 3 will be exactly same that intercepted by flat imaginary
surface 4. Thus
For F1-3=F1-4 or F4-3
From Fig. 13.10. ,-

From Fig. 13.9 R I -- - --'I2-

L 2D-4. F1- 4 = 0.06
R2 ='Z=- D
L 4
For enclosure summation rule
For surface 1.

For surface 3.

and

..
For surface 2.
Now from eqn. (ii)
(6 x 5) x 0.14 - (6 x 4) x 0.12 - (6 x 1)x 0.06
4F2-4= = 0.48
2
Now from eqn. ( i )

Similarly
I

830 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 831

Therefore, For surface 3. By reciprocity rule

0.1175+F2-,+0.1175=1 or F2-,=0.765 -3 = -]
Therefore, the view factor matrix : AI 900n x 0.883 = 0.526. Ans.
F3-1 = - F1- 3 = 1509.34~
A3
and %F2-3

Example 13.14. Calculate all view factors for coni-

cal geometry shown in Fig. 13.27. By summation rule
Solution F3-, = 1- F 3 - , - F 3 - 2 = 1-0.526-0.0793 = 0.388. Ans.
Given :A conical geometry Example 13.15. Calculate the view factor between two parallel disc in the form of circu-
r, = 30 mm, r2 = 15 mm, H = 30 mm. lar rings as shown in Fig. 13.28 below. These are coaxial, spaced 10 cm apart. The inner and
To find :The view factors outer radii for lower ring are 8 cm and 20 cm, respectively, while that for upper ring are 5 cm
and 10 cm, respectively.
F1-l, F1-2, F1-3> F2-27 F2-37
F2-17

F3-19 F3-2? F3-3 ' Solution

Hollow, A,
Analysis : For given geometry Given :Two parallel, coaxial rings as
A, = nr? = n x (30 mm)2 = 900 n mm2 Lower ring
Fig. 13.27
A,= nr; = TC x (15 mm)2 = 225 n mm2 r, = 8 cm
A3 = a (rl + r2)-/, r2 = 20 cm
Upper ring r3 = 5 cm I
L=lOcm Hollow, A,
r, = 10 cm
.t
I /

For surface 1. (Top surface), For two parallel discs. from Table 13.2 Spacing L = 10 cm.
To find :The view factor F1 - 2.
Assumptions :
(i) The hollow portions of two rings as A, and A,

F,_,=:[X-,/X~
11
- 4 ( R 2 / ~ 1 ) 2= - 2.25-
d 103j
2.25, - 4 - =0.117. Ans.
(ii) Two surface 5 and 6 as
A, = A, + A,
Fig. 13.28. Schematic of parallel,
coaxial circular rings

Alternatively from Fig. 13.9

R, = 1, R, = 0.5
Now by summation rule
F,-,+F,-,+F,-,=
- -,
F, = 0.117

1.0
A6 = Al + A2.
Analysis :Since these two coaxial circular rings are parallel. We may use Fig. 13.9. for
determination of view factor between them.
View factor F5 - between two circular disc :

Surface 1is flat, thus F1-, = 0

.. -,
F, = 1- F, - = 0.883. Ans. View factor F3- :
For surface 2. From reciprocity rule
-41'3 - 2 = A2F2 - 1
View factor F, -
A1
F 2 - I = - Fl-2 = -x 0.117 = 0.468. Ans.
A2 225n
By summation rule View factor F3-
F2-, + F 2 _ , + F 2 - 3 = 1.0
Surface 2 is flat ; F2-2 = 0
.. F2-,= l - F z - , = 1-0.468=0.532. A ~ s .
832 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 833

But A,=A4-A,
Hence the radiation from surface 1 i.e., surface 3 and 4 will deliver energy to surface 4
and 5 ;
=A4F4-2-A3F3-2
or AlFl-2 = A 4 ( F 4 - 6 - F 4 - 5 ) - A 3 (F3-6-F3-5) ...(A)!
Again we have, A2F2- = 4 F3- = A3 [F3- - F3- where,
the surface area, A3 = n ( ~= ~ ( ~ 0 . 0) 5=~0.00785
) m2
the surface area, A, = n(R2) = n(0.12)= 0.0314 m2
the surface area of ring 1,A, = (A4-A3) = 0.0236 m2
Therefore,
Using given relation for calculation of F4- : ,
R4 10cm R6 20cm
B=--=- = 1 andC=--- - =2
H lOcm H lOcm
X = 1+ B2 + C2 = 1+ + (212 = 6
and

Example 13.16. Find the shape factor between two areas 1 and 2 which are i n the form
of circular ring, coaxial and are i n two parallel planes at a distance 10 cm. Area 1 has inner Using given relation for calculation of F, :
radius of 5 cm and outer radius of 10 cm. Area 2 has inner radius of 8 c m and outer radius of R4 10cm
B=--=-- R, 8cm
- 1 and C = - = - = 0.8
20 cm. Use following formula for calculating the shape factor between two circular areas lo- H 10cm H lOcm
cated coaxially i n two parallel planes is given by

where,
Rl
B=,,C= R2
,andX=(1+B2+C2) Using given relation for calculation of F3 :-,
11 11
R3 5cm R, 20cm
where, RI and R2 are the radii of the circular planes and H is the distance between them. B=-=- = 0.5 and C = - - =2
(P.U., Nov. 1992) H lOcm H lOcm
Solution
Given :Two circular parallel surfaces located coaxially ;
R3 = 5 cm, R4 = 10 cm, H = 10 cm
Using given relation for calculation of F3- :
R 5 = 8 c m , R6=20cm.
R, 5cm
To find :The shape factor between the B=-=- = 0.5 and C = -
R5 = -
8cm = 0.8
two parallel surfaces. 10 cm H lOcm H 10cm
Assumptions :A4 = A, + A3
A, = A5 + 4
Analysis :Using the property relations
for shape factor Substituting the values in eqn. (A) ;
F3-6=F3 -5+F3-2 -,
0.0236 x F, = 0.0314 x (0.764 - 0.27) - 0.00785 x (0.7917 - 0.3553)
or F3-2 = F 3 - 6 - F 3 - 5 or -,
F, = 0.5121. Ans.
F2-4=F2-3+F2-l Example 13.17. Two concentric cylinders have inner and outer radii 5 c m and 10 em,
or F2-1=F2-4-F2-3 respectively and length 20 cm. Calculate the all possible view factors.
F4-6=F4-5 +F4-2 20 cm Solution
Applying the reciprocal theorem
Given :Two concentric cylinders as shown below :
A1Fl-2 =A2F2-1=4(F2-4-F2-3) To find :All possible view factors.
Fig. 13.29
834 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 835
Analysis :For parallel cylinders from Fig. 13.11. 42
13.2. BLACKBODY RADIATION EXCHANGE
L 20
For surface 2. - - -
r2 - 10 = 2 The radiation may leave a surface due to reflection and emission and on reaching on the sec-
ond surface, there may be reflection as well as absorption. For a blackbody radiation, there is
and no reflection (p = 0). Hence energy leaves a surface as a result of emission, while it absorbs all
incident energy.
-,
F2 = 0.43 and
Considering the radiation exchange between two blackbodies having surface area A,
For surface 1. By reciprocity -~=20cm + and 4.
Fig. 13.30 The rate of energy leaves the surface 1and absorbed by surface 2
Q1-2 = A1 Fl-2 Ebl = Al F1- 0 TI4 ...(13.11~)
Similarly, the energy leaves the surface 2 and reaches the surface 1
Q2-1 = 4 F s 1 Eb2 = A2 F2-1 0 Tz4
...(13.11b)
The net radiation exchange between the two surfaces
By summation rule - A1 F 1-2 0 (T; - T24)= 4 F2-1 Q (TI4- T24)
Qnet - ...(13.12)
Since by reciprocity relation A, F1, = A2 F2-l,
Fz-1+F2-2+F2-3+F2-4=
Consider an enclosure consists of N black surfaces maintained a t specified tempera-
By symmetry F2 -,= F2-, tures. The radiation heat transfer from any surface i of the enclosure is sum of radiation heat
1 transfers from surface i to each surface of the enclosure.
Then, F2- 3 = F2- = - (1- 0.43 - 0.34) = 0.115
2 N N
By summation rule
F 1 4 + Fl-, + F1-3 + F1-4= 1
Convex surface 1, thus Fl = 0 -, Example 13.18. Two black discs of diameter 50 cm are placed parallel to each other
By symmetry F1- = F, - concentrically a t a distance of 1m. The discs are maintained at 727OC and 227"C, respectively.
Calculate the heat transfer between the discs per hour, when no other surface is present except
1
.. 0.86+2Fl-,=I or F1-3=-[1-0.86]=0.07 the discs.
2
Solution
For surface 3. By reciprocity : A3 F3- = AIF1-
Given :Two parallel discs of 50 cm diameter and 1m apart.
r, = r2 = 25 cm = 0.25 m

T, = 727°C = 1000 K
T2 = 227°C = 500 K.
To find : Heat transfer rate when no other surface is present
For surface 4. Due to symmetry between the discs. I
F 3 -3 . = F 4 - j , j = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . Analysis :When no other surface is present except two parallel Fig. 13.31
By summation rule discs. Fig. 13.31. The view factor between the two parallel plates, from
Fig. 13.9
F 3 - 1 + F 3 - 2+ F 3 - 3 + F 3 - 4 = 1
L 1
Flat surface 3, thus F3- = 0 -=-
rl 0.25
r2
= 4.0 and -
L
-
0'25 0.25 ;---t F,
=-
1
-,= 0.06
:. 0 . 1 8 7 + 0 . 6 1 3 + O + F 3 - 4 = 1 or
View factor matrix The heat transfer rate,
Q=F~-~AO(T,~-T,~)
1 2 F1-3 Fl-4 = 0.06 x (d4) x (0.5)~x 5.67 x lo4 (1000~
- 5004)
F2-1 F2-2 F2-3 F2-4 - = 626.24 W = 2.254 x lo6 Jlh = 2254.46 kJk. Ans.
F3-1 F3-2 F3-3 F3-4
F4-1 F4-2 F4-3 F4-4 Example 13.19. A 5 cm diameter sphere a t 600°C is placed near a n infinite wall a t
100%. Both surface are black. Calculate the net radiant heat transfer between the two bodies.
836 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 837

Solution ce Area A, = nrI2 = n x (0.05)2= 0.00785 m2

@@I
Given :A hot sphere near a wall
Area A2 = d r , + r2)d(r2 - r1)2+ H'
T, = 600°C = 873 K, T2 = 100°C = 373 K
D = 5 cm = 0.05 m = 60.05 + 0.1) x J(0.1- 0.05)~+ (0.2)' = 0.09715 m2
To find :Net radiant heat transfer. 1 Then 0'00785 x (0.804) = 0.065. Ans.
Analysis :The net radiation heat exchange F2- = 0.09715
(ii) Net radiation heat transfer from heater to shield
Q1-2=AlFl-2 E b l - A 2 F 2 - 1 Eb2
Qnet= A, F1 - a (TI4- T24)
=A1F1-, (Ebl-Eb2)=AlF1-2d(T14-T24)
m
= 0.00785 x 0.804 x 5.67 x lo4 x (14734- 3734) = 1678 W. Ans.
Since the sphere is half covered by an infinite wall thus half of the
radiation emitted by sphere will fall on infinite wall i.e., Example 13.21. A jet of liquid metal a t 2000°C pours from a crucible. It is 3 mm in
Fig. 13.32
-,
F, = 0.5 diameter. A long cylindrical radiation shield, 5 cm diameter, surrounds the jet through a n
angle of 330°7but there is a 30" slit in it. The jet and the shield radiate as black bodies. The slit
and A, = n D2 = n x 0 . 0 5 ~= 7.853 x m2 in a room is a t 30°C, and the shield has a temperature of 700" C. Calculate the net heat trans-
Then Q, - 2 = 7.853 x x 0.5 x 5.67 x lo4 x (8734- 3734) = 125 W. Ans. fer :from the jet to the room through the slit ;from the jet to the shield ;and from the inside of
Example 13.20. A heater as shown in Fig. 13.33 radiates heat partially conical shield the shield to the room.
that surrounds it. Solution
(i) Determine view factor from shield to heater. Given :A jet of liquid metal is surrounded by radiation shield.
(ii) If heater and shield are black and are at temperatures 1200°C and 10O0C, respec- T, = 2000°C = 2273 K, Dl = 3 mm
tively, what is the net heat transfer rate from heater to shield ? T, = 30°C = 303 K, D 2=5cm
Solution T2 = 700°C = 973 K Qskield = 330"
Given :A heater a t the base of a conical Qslit = 30".
shield as shown in Fig 13.33. To find :Net radiation heat transfer from
r, = 0.05 m, r2 = 0.1 m (i) Jet to room Qnet -,,
H = 0.2 m (ii) Jet to shield, %et - 2,
T, = 1200" C = 1473 K (iii) Shield to room, Q,, - ,
T2 = 100" C = 373 K
Both surfaces are black.
To find :
_
Analysis :The view factors :
(a) F, - : From jet to room, by inspection

+lo cm+
(i) View factor F,I-&,
Fig. 13.33. Heat transfer from a disc (b) F1 - : From jet to shield, by inspection
(ii) Radiation heat transfer from heater to
heater to its radiation shield
shield.
Analysis :(i) The view factor, by reciprocity (i) Radiation heat transfer from jet to room
AlFl-2 =AzF2-1
-
A1
-
Qnet 1- =A1 F1-- a (T; - TW4)
= fx x (0.003 m x 1m)l x (0.08333) (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)
F2-,= A, Fl-2
= 1188.2 Wlm. Ans.
and F,-, + q - 2 + F1-3 =1
(ii) Radiation heat transfer from jet to shield

-
or F1-2=1-F1-3 :
' F1-,g0
For two parallel discs 1and 3, from Fig. 13.9 ; Qnet 1-2 =A,F,-, a(T;-T;)
= (n x 0.003) x (0.9167) x (5.67 x lo4) (2273*- 9734)
L - -0.2
- -
r, 0.05 = 4.0 and -
r2 = -
L 0.2
0.1 = 0.5 F1 -,= 0.196 = 12637 W/m. Ans.
(iii) Radiation heat transfer rate from shield to room
Then, Fl-, = 1- 0.196 = 0.804
Qnet2-ee=A2 2' - - a (T,4 - T 2 )
838
-
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 839

Here F2- ,: View factor from shield to room Thus,

Aslit 'slit - 1 = A1 1' - w

= 16500 W. Ans.
(ii) When ceiling height in increased to 4.5 m, neither view factor F, - nor F, will -,
change, thus the heat transfer rate from floor to window and ceiling, walls will remain same.

13.3. RADIATION FROM CAVITIES

Reconsider examples 13.7, 13.8 solved for radiation view factor of conical and cylindrical cavi-
(
Qnet 2-- = n X 0.05 X %)
360 x (0.08545) x (5.67 x 10") x (973' - 303')
ties, respectively. The radiative heat transfer from such cavities can be estimated by using
view factor Fl - obtained.
= 618 Wlm. Ans. Now we go for formulation of some standard relation for such cavities as shown in
Example 13.22. A n outlet shoe store with a display window i n the front is shown, with Fig. 13.35.
dimensions, i n Fig. 13.34. The store is to be heated by making the floor a black radiant heating Let us consider cavity as surface 1 and opening as surface 2. For any of following
panel at 45' C. The glass window acts as a black plane at 10' C and the other walls and the geometries, all the energy emitted from cavity (surface A,) does not coming out the opening.
ceiling act as black planes at 25' C.Find the net heat given up by the floor. What difference But a part of radiation emitted from the surface falls on its other part, of which a portion is
results, i f the ceiling height is raised to 4.5 m, the other dimensions remaining unchanged ? absorbed and remainder is reflected back.
Solution
Given :The display window of a
shoe store. We designate floor as sur-
face 1,window as surface 2, and other
walls and ceiling as surface 3, then data
T, = 45 + 273 = 318 K -
(a) Spherical cavity (b) Cylindrical cavity (c) Conical cavity
Fig. 13.35. Radiations from cavities
Rate of emission from a cavity surface = Al o c1T4 ; of this energy, a part falling on Al
Fig. 13.34. Geometry for example 13.22 and absorbed by it = A, o E, T: (a, F1- ,) = Al o E, T4 el F1 -
To find :
( i )Net heat given up by floor, ,
where F1 - is view factor of the cavity surface with respect to itself and a, = E, from Kirchhoff
'S law.
(ii)Difference in heat radiation by floor, if ceiling height is increased to 4.5 m.
Analysis :( i ) Since all surfaces are black, thus various emissive powers are Now the reflected radiation from the surface A, = (1- cl) A, o el TI4F1- of this reflected
radiation, a part again falls on cavity surface and absorbed = (1- E,) A, o el T: F1 - 12
Ehl = oT14 = 5.67 x lo4 x (318)' = 579.8 W/m2
Then again reflected = (1- E,) A, o E, T: F1 - 12 (1- E,)
Eb2= oTZ4= 5.67 x x (283)4= 363.7 W/m2
Again absorbed = (1- E,) Al 0 TI4F1 - 13 (1 - el) E,
Eb3= dI'34= 5.67 x lo4 x (298)4= 447.14 W/m2.
The view factors :The geometrical arrangement for floor and window is very similar to Again reflected = (1- A, o E, T t F1 - 13 (1- and so on.
example 13.12. Net rate of radiation coming out the surface Q
,
F, - = 0 and F1 = 0.058 -, = Total emission rate - Total absorption rate
For an enclosure of floor, window, wall and ceiling
F l - l + F l - 2 + F 1 - 3 = l ~ F 1 - 3 =1 - F l - 2 = 1 - 0 . 0 5 8 = 0 . 9 4 2
For complete enclosure
Heat radiated by floor = Heat absorbed by window and ceiling
840 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 84 1

Integrating to obtain the area of sector of sphere

...(13.14) As = So d A = S
30 30

0
2 ~ p df3
n sin ~

For a cylindrical cavity

F,-, = 1 - s i n a

F ~ -D ~+
4L
=~L
[see example 13.71

[see example 13.81 Area of cavity

= 2nR2
r
- COS P
1: = 2nR2 [ I - 0.86601 = 0.268 nR2 m2 = 0.00842 m2

A, = Area of sphere - Area of sector of sphere

= 4nR2 - As = 4nR2- 0.268 nR2
For hemispherical cavity I?, - = 1 - -
A2
= 3.732 nR2 = 0.1172 m2
A1
Area of opening, A, = nr2 = n x (0.05)2= 0.00785 m2
If we mark cavity as surface 2 and sphere inner surface as cavity 1then
Example 13.23. A spherical cavity of radius 10 c m is made i n a large flat metal plate. F,-, + F,-2 = 1
The cavity has circular opening to the atmosphere. The radius of circular opening is 5 cm. The F 2 - I + F 2 - 2= 1+F2-, = 0 since flat
surface of the cavity is at 227" C. There is no heat conduction through the metal plate and there F 2 4= 1
is no convection in the cavity. If the emissivity of the cavity surface is 0.8. Calculate the net
radiative heat loss to the surroundings. Assume atmospheric temperature as 27" C. By reciprocity, I?, -
A2
= - F2
A1
-, = 0.00785
0.1172 x 1 = 0.067
Solution
Given :A spherical cavity in a metal plate.
and ,
F,- = 1- 0.067 = 0.933.
The rate of radiant heat loss through cavity
T,= 227" C = 500 K
Tm= 27" C = 300 K
E = 0.8, R = 10 cm
opening radius, rl = 5 cm. 1- 0.933
= 0.1172 x 5.67 x lo4 x 0.8 (500' - 300') x
o.933 (1- o.8)
To find :Net radiative heat loss to surround-
ings. = 23.863 W. Ans.
Analysis :Considering
Example 13.24. Fig. 13.37 shows a cavity having surface temperature of 900°C and
A = area of sphere Fig. 13.36 emissivity as 0.6. Find the rate of emission from the cavity to the surroundings.
A.. = area of sector of sphere cut (P.U., May 1994)
by opening A-B-C. Solution
A, = area of cavity
A, = area of opening )c-5 cm 4 Opening of

1. Area of sector of sphere :

Consider a circular differential strip of thickness dr at radius r from vertical centre of
sphere. It substends an angle of dp at the centre.
Here r = R sin p
dr = R dp (since chord is very small)
Area of element
dA=2nrdr=2nRsinb.Rdp ...( i )
= 2nR2 sin P dB Fig. 13.37
Semi (half) angle substended by sector A-B-C
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 843
842 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
Assumptions :
Given :A cavity as shown in Fig. 13.38. 1. Interior surfaces as blackbodies.
T, = 900°C = 1173 K. 2. Negligible heat convection.
E = 0.6. 3. No heat exchange to the surroundings from bottom and sides.
To find :The heat transfer rate from cavity to surroundings Analysis :The heat loss to the surroundings ;
Analysis :The radiation heat transfer rate from a cavity is given by Q=Ql-3 +Q2-3=A1Fl-30(T14-T34)+A2F2-3~(T24-T34)
The shape factor can be obtained as
From Fig. 13.9, with r 2 / L= 0.37511.5 = 0.25 and Llr, = 1.510.375 = 4, F, - = 0.06
From summation rule, F2-l + F 2 4 + F 2 - 3 = 1
Here we need view factor F1 -, (cavity surface to cavity surface) where for flat surface, F2-, = 0
F2-, = 1 - F , - , = 1-0.06=0.94

By reciprocal theorem, Fl-, = - x~~ 14 x 0.94 = (0.75)~14 x 0.94 =

A1 F 2 - l = -
A9 nDL 0.75 x 1.5

where area of opening A2 = xr12 = li x (0.025)2= 0.00196 m2 By symmetry, F,-, = F l - 3 = 0.118

Area of cavity A, = Area of hemisphere Ash + Area of frustum of the cone Af Hence, Q = (5.67 x 1O4W1m2 . K4) ((71 x 0.75 m x 1.5 m) x (0.118) [(1773)4- (300)4]
+ W4) x (0.75 m)2 x (0.06)[(2073)*- (300)4]}
= 354612.4 W = 354.6 kW. Ans.
Alternatively :It can also determined by using eqn. 13.14.

0.00196
Then F, - = 1- = 0.9268 Here el = 1.
0.0268
, - T24).Ans.
and Q = 0.0268 x 6.67 x lo4 [
x 0.6 x (1173)4
1- 0.9268
I
1- 0.9268 (1- 0.6)
= 200.61 W. Ans.
Therefore, Q = A, o (TI4- T2'9 (1- F1- = Al CY F1 - (TI4

13.4. RADIATION HEAT EXCHANGE BETWEEN DIFFUSE, GRAY SURFACES

Example 13.25. A furnace cavity, which i n form of a hollow cylinder of 75 cm i n diam-
eter and 150 c m long, is open at one end to the surroundings at 27OC. The side and bottom of the In the preceding section, the heat exchange between blackbodies has been discussed. The analy-
furnace are approximated as blackbodies, and are heated electrically, well insulated and are sis was simpler, because blackbodies do not reflect any amount of incident radiation. But in
maintained at temperatures of 1500°C and 1800°C respectively. practical applications, most of enclosures have nonblack surfaces, which allow multiple sur-
How much power is required to maintain the furnace conditions ? face reflections. Therefore, the analysis of radiation heat transfer for such enclosures becomes
very complicated. The analysis of radiation exchange in such enclosures may be simplified by
Solution making certain assumptions. These assumptions are
Given :A furnace cavity in the form of a hol- 1. Each surface in an enclosure is opaque, d i f u s e and gray.
low cylindrical cavity
D = 75 cm = 0.75 m,
L = 150 cm = 1.5 m
7- Side A, at T, = 1500°C 2. Each surface of the enclosure is isothermal.
3. Each surface of the enclosure is characterised by uniform radiosity and irradiation.

T, = 1500°C = 1773 K
T, = 1800°C = 2073 K
T3 = 27°C = 300 K.
i Bottom, A, T, = 1800°C 13.4.1. The Net Radiation Exchange by a Surface
Consider a surface with the following properties during radiation exchange :
E = emissivity of the surface.
TQfind :Power required to maintain the pre- Eb = emissive power of the black surface, W/m2.
scribed cbnditions. Fig. 13.38 p = reflectivity of the surface.
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 849
848

By reciprocity rule ;
A3F3-1 =A1F1-3 and A 3 F 3 - 2 = A 2 F 2 - 3
Therefore, Al Fl - (J1- J3)- A2F2- (J3- J2)= 0 ...(13.35)
JI-J3 - J3-J2 The total resistance of the network
Hence, 1 - 1

wall, T, The net radiation heat exchange

.
.. ---
Since Q12 = - Q21
or for a reradiating surface, net heat transfer is zero, therefore, its temperature can be calculated
as
JR= EbR= 0 TR4 ...(13.41)
~ u r n i n bfuel bed, TI Example 13.26. A spherical liquid oxygen tank 0.3 m i n diameter is enclosed concentri-
(a) A fuel bed, water tubes and refractory (b) Thermal network cally i n a spherical container of 0.4 m diameter and the space i n between is evacuated. The tank
walls make an enclosure in a boiler surface is at - 183OC and has a n emissivity of 0.2. The container surface is at 15OC and has a n
, emissivity of O.25. Determine the net radiant heat transfer rate and rate o* f evaworation of liquid
L

oxygen i f its latent heat is 220 k J l k g .

A typical Solution
three-body Given :A spherical oxygen tank with el = 0.2, E~ = 0.25, hfg= 220 kJkg.
configuration
To find :Net radiation heat transfer and rate of evaporation of oxygen.
3

(c) Schematic
Fig. 13.42. Three surface enclosure with one surface reradiating
The equivalent thermal network for three surface enclosure with a reradiating surface
is shown in Fig. 13.42(b).It is simple series parallel arrangement and the total resistances can
be expressed as : Evacuated space
-, -,
The resistances lIAIFl and 1/A2F2 for the reradiating surface are in series, therefore, Fig. 13.43
its total resistance is
Assumptions :
1. Surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray.
2. Space between two concentric spheres is evacuated.
Further, the resistance Rs1 is in parallel with resistance 11AlF,-2, therefore, its equiva- 3. No conduction and convection heat transfer.
lent resistance Analysis :The net radiation heat exchange between two concentric ca expressed
A, O(T; - T ~ ~ )
Q=
-+
El ( ):;
--I -

where, Al = .n dl2= .n x (0.3)~= 0.2827 m2

850 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 851 .

and A~ =
*2
( = )0.4
2
= 0.5625

Therefore, !& = 3830 = 2.82. Ans.

Q, 1359
The rate of evaporation of oxygen,
16.33 Example 13.28. A cubical room 4 m by 4 m by 4 m is heated through the ceiling by
,j.\$=-- -Q = 7.423 x kg/s = 0.267 kglh. Ans. maintaining it at uniform temperature of 350 K, while walls and the floor are at 300 K. Assum-
hfg 220 x lo3
ing that the all surfaces have a n emissivity of 0.8, determine the rate of heat loss from ceiling by
Example 13.27. Two parallel, infinite gray surfaces are maintained at temperature of Solution
127" C and 227" C respectively. If the temperature of the hot surface is increased to 327" C. By Given : A cubical room with sides of 4 m
what factor is the net radiation exchange per unit area increased ? Assume the emissivities of each
colder and hotter surfaces to be 0.9 and 0.7, respectively. (N.M.U., May 1997)
L=H=w=4m Floor
Solution walls
T, = 350 K
Given :Two parallel infinite surfaces with T2 = 300 K,
T, = 327°C = 600 K, E, = 0.9, E, = 0.7.
E, = s2 = 0.8.

To find :Heat loss from ceiling to room.

Assumptions :
1. Surfaces are diffused and gray. Fig. 13.45
2. Heat is transferred by radiation only.
Analysis :Considering ceiling as surface 1 and other surfaces of room as surface 2.
The surface area, A, = (4 m x 4 m)= 16 m2
The surface area, A2 = 5 surface x (4 m x 4 m) = 80 m2
The net radiation heat exchange between two surfaces can be calculated by electrical
analogy ;
The calculation of resistances

Fig. 13.44. Two parallel infinite gray surfaces

To find :Net radiation heat transfer.
Assumptions :
Fig. 13.45 (a) Radiation network
1. Surfaces are diffused and gray.
2. Heat is transferred by radiation only.
Analysis :The net radiation heat exchange between two parallel plates can be expressed
as ;

Since all energy leaving the ceiling will be absorbed by room walls and floor,
Hence, q - 2 =1

and
852 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 853

Example 13.29. A cubical room 4 m by 4 m by 4 m is heated through the floor by main-

taining it at uniform temperature of 350 K, while side walls are well insulated. The heat loss
takes place through the ceiling at 300 K. Assuming that the all surfaces have a n emissivity of
0.8, determine the rate of heat loss by radiation through the ceiling.
Solution
Given :A cubical room with sides of 4 m each
L=H=w=4m
T, = 350 K Example 13.30. Two parallel discs 50 m m i n diameter are spaced 40 cm apart with one
T2 = 300 K disc located directly above the other disc. One disc is maintained at 500°C and other at 227°C.
= c2 = 0.8. The emissivities of the discs are 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The disc are located i n a very large
To find :Heat loss by radiation through ceiling. room whose walls maintained at 67OC. Determine the rate of heat loss by radiation from the
Assumptions : ,Ceiling inside surfaces of each disc.
1. Surfaces are diffused and gray. Solution
2. Heat is transferred by radiation only. Given :Two parallel discs spaced at 40 cm apart, located in
Analysis :Considering floor as surface 1,ceil-
ing as surface 2 and walls of room as surface 3.
0 a large room with
Dl = 50 cm = 0.5 m
@ Floor
The surface area, D, = 0.5 m
A, = (4 m x 4 m) = 16 m2 E, = 0.2, Tl = 500°C = 773 K
The surface area, L 4m = 0.4, T2 = 227°C = 500 K
I I
A2=(4mx4m)=16m2 L = 40 cm = 0.4 m, T3 = 67°C = 340 K
(a) Schematic
The surface area, To find :The heat loss by radiation from each disc to room
7a11. Fig. 13.47 (a) Schematic
The net radiation heat exchange be- Assumptions :
tween two surfaces can be calculated by Q, = 0 1. Steady state conditions.
electrical analogy ; ;&,u & 2. Diffuse and gray surfaces.
The calculation of resistances

R2 = Rl = -
l - - ~1-0.8
A,
~
16~0.8
QI-
Eb,

R1 RI-2 '32
- Q2
3. All surfaces are opaque.
4. Room has reradiating surfaces.
Analysis :The thermal network is shown in Fig. 13.47 ( b ) ;
= 0.0156 (b) Radiation network
T J3 = Eb3
Since all energy leaving the floor Fig. 13.46
will not reach the ceiling and hence the
-,
view factor F, and F1 - are to be determined from Fig. 13.8 for shape factor,
hence -,
F, = 0.2
By summation rule, F, ,+ F1
- - + F1- =1
R1 Rl-2 '32
But F1-,=O Fig. 13.47 ( b ) Radiation network
Hence F,-, = 1 - F l - , = 1 - 0 . 2 = 0 . 8
Area of each disc, Al = A2 = (d4) Dl2 = ( d 4 ) x (0.5 m)2 = 0.1963 m2
and
854 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 855

The shape factor from Fig. 13.9 approximates a blackbody and is maintained at a temperature of 400 K. Calculate the net rate
Llr, = 40125 = 1.6 and r,/L = 25/40 = 0.625 of radiation heat transfer at each surface during steady state conditions.
Hence, FlV2= F2-I = 0.24 Solution
By summation rule, F1- = 1- Fl - = 1- 0.24 = 0.76 Given :A furnace as three surface enclosure
By summation rule, -, -,
F2 = 1- F2 = 1- 0.24 = 0.76 ro=H=lm
The various resistances ; = 0.4, Tl = 700 K
E~ = 0.8, T2 = 500 K
E~ = 1, T3 = 400 K.
To find :Net rate of heat transfer at each surface i.e., Q1, Q2 and Q3.
Schematic :

1 - 1
- = 6.703 m-2
Rl-3= All?,-, 0.1963~016
R2-3 =R1-3
The emissive powers, Ebl = CT T14 = 5.67 x lo-" (773)4= 20244.22 W/m2
Eb2= CT T24 = 5.67 x x (500)4= 3543.75 W/m2
J3 = Eb3 = B T =~ ~
5.67 x lo-" (340)4 = 757.7 W/m2
I
Applying Kirchhoff's law of electrical current at each node i.e., summation of incoming
Fig. 13.48
currents to each node is equal to zero. C

Assumptions :
Ehl-J1 + J2-J1 + Eh3-J1
Node, 1, for J1 : =0 ( i )The surface 1 and 2 are opaque, diffuse and gray.
R1 %-2 R1-3
(ii) Steady state conditions without convection effects.
Analysis :The radiosity for surface 1 and surface 2 can be determined by writing the
tbl R1 J2 energy equation on node 1and 2 and setting it to zero.
Node 2, for J2: Eb2-J2 J1-J2 iEb3-J2 =O
R2 Rl- 2 R2 - 3 Eb,
3543.75 - J 2 J1- J2 757.7 - J2
+ -------- +

=0
7.64 21.22 6.703
Solution, leads to simultaneous equations as
Eb2
- 0.2454 J, + 0.0471 J2+ 1106.82 = 0
JI
Rl-2 '32
0.0471 J, - 0.3272 J2+ 576.88 = 0
Fig. 13.47 ( c )
The solution to these equations are rhere, Ebl = B T14 = 5.67 x x 7004 = 13614 W/m2
Jl = 4986.426 W/m2,J2= 2480.87 W/m2 Eb2= B T24= 5.67 x x 5004 = 3544 W/m2
The heat loss from hot disc at 500°C Eb3= J3= 0 T34 = 5.67 x x 4004 = 1452 W/m2
Ehl - J1 -
-
20244.22 - 4986.426 = 749 W. Ans. Al=A2=n:ro2=n:~12=3.141m2
Q1 =
R1 20.37 The view factor F1 - can be obtained from Fig. 13.9 as
-,
Fl = 0.38
The view factor F1 - can be obtained from summation rule
Example 13.31. Consider a cylindrical furnace, whose radius is 1 m and equal to its Fl~l+Fl~2+Fl~3=1+Fl~3=l-O-0.38=0.62
height. The base and top surface of the furnace have emissivities 0.4, and 0.8, respectively, and
Since the surface 1is flat and thus F1 - = 0.
are maintained at uniform temperatures of 700 K and 500 K. The curved cylindrical surface
856 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 857

The radiation resistances To find :

( i )Qnet - if open
Case (a) Both sides are open
(ii)Qnet 1- 2, if connected by an insulated dif- to black surroundings
fuse reflector
(iii) Temperature of reflector. Yood Case (b) A reflecting shield is Yo
placed on both side o
m
Assumptions :

I
II Il

enclosure. 1

a 2. Diffuse, gray and opaque surfaces.

Fig. 13.49
3. Medium separating the surface does not
Substituting the numerical values in eqns. (i)and ( i i )
4. Negligible convection inside the enclosure.
Analysis : ( i )When two infinite long parallel plates are spaced at a distance L and are
open. The view factor from Fig. 13.8

Solving these two equations with two unknowns, we get

The net rate of radiation heat transfer for top surface 1 and base surface 2 are
In addition, surface 3 may represent reflector or surroundings, then for an enclosure
F 1 4 +F1-,+ F1-3= 1
Fl-, = 1- Fl-,= 1- 0.2 = 0.8 F1-,= 01
By symmetry F2-, = Fl-, = 0.8
The heat transfer is towards bottom surface side.
The net rate of heat transfer at cylindrical surface

J3- Jl +--J3- J 2 - 1452 - 11418 + 1452 - 4562

Q3 = R1-a R2 - 3 0.5137 0.5137 Fig. 13.49 (a)Radiation n e t w o r k for case (i)
= - 25455 W. Ans.
The nodal equations for node 1and 2 are :
Example 13.32. Two very long strips 1 m wide and 2.40 m apart face each other, as
shown i n Fig. 13.49 (a) Find Q,,, - 2 w l m ) if the surroundings are black and at 250 K. node 1
(b) Find &,, I - (W/ m), if they are connected by a n insulated diffuse reflector between the
edges on both sides. Also evaluate the temperature of the reflector i n part (b).
Solution node 2
Given :Two very long strips parallel to each other
Where for 1m2 area
858 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

& ~ 3

Fig. 13.49 ( 6 ) Radiation network for case (id

In this case, the surface 3 is adiabatic, thus all the heat leaving the surface 1 will be
transferred to surface 2.
Jl-J2 JI-J3
Thus Qnet 1-2 -
Rl-2 Rl-3

Since the surface 3 is reradiating, thus we can also obtain Qnet by relation

Simplification leads to A ~ ( T ; -'I'Z4)

Qnet 1-2 = 1- E 1-E
Jl - 0.14 J2- 0.56 x 221.5 = 435.6 1 1-- +2
- J, + 10.0 J2- 4.0 x 221.5 = 2296.5
Jl - 0.14 J2= 559.6
- Jl + 10.0J2= 3182.5 - 1x 5.67 x lo-' x [4004 - 30o4I
- = 198.4 Wlm. Ans.
Its solution leads to --1-- 0.3 1 1- 0.5
+ -I +d.5
Jl = 612.1 W/m2, J2= 379.5 W/m2 0.3
Thus the net heat flow from plane 1to plane 2 is 125 125
J1- J2 _ 612.1- 379.5 (iii)Temperature of reflector or reradiating surface
Qnet 1- 2 - = 46.52 Wlrn. Ans.
Rl-2 5 Q3 = 0 J3= Eb3
(ii) When two parallel strips are connected by an insulated diffuse reflector (a radiation Thus 5.67 x 104 Tz4= 822.6
shield) between the edges of both sides. T, = 347 K. Ans.
Then Q3 = 0 Example 13.33.A paint baking oven consists of a long triangular duct i n which a heated
and node1 equations surface is maintained at 1200 K and another surface is insulated. Painted panels, which are
maintained at 500 K, occupy the third surface. The triangle of width of 1 m on a side, and
node 1 heated and insulated surfaces have a n emissivity of 0.8. The emissivity of the panels is 0.4.
During steady state operation, at what rate must energy be supplied to the heated side per unit
length of the duct to maintained its temperature at 1200 K ? What is the temperature of insu-
node 2 lated surface ? (N.M.U., Nov. 1994)
Solution
node 3 Given :A paint baking oven with
Tl = 1200 K, T2 = 500 K, w=lm,
-,
The resistances R,, R2, Rl -,, R, and R2- remain unchanged, because the surround-
= 0.8, E~ = 0.4.
ings is replaced by radiation shield,
The solution of these simultaneous equation leads to To find :
1. The heat supplied rate to duct.
Jl = 987.7 W/m2, J2= 657.4 W!m2, J3= 822.6 W/m2
2. Temperature of the insulated surface.
860 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 861

Assumptions : 2. The temperature of insulated surface may be calculated by obtaining J3.

1. Steady state conditions.
Q1-2 -
-- Ebl - J 1
2. All surface are opaque, diffuse and gray.
L R1
3. Convection effects are negligible.
Analysis :The schematic and radiation network are shown below :

Insulated

Q1-

R2
- Q2
-
1 3
--
J 1 - J3 - J3 - J 3
R2-3
= 0.4, 108327.2 - J3 - J3- 59018
T, = 500 K 2 2
(a) Schematic (b) Radiation network J3= 83683 W/m2 = 5.67 x x T34
Fig. 13.50 T3 = 1102.2 K. Ans.
1. The shape factor : Example 13.34.A heater of 1 m diameter is covered by a hemisphere of 4 m diameter.
The surface of hemisphere is maintained at 400 K. The ernissivity of the surface is 0.8. The
From symmetry, F,, = F1-3 = F2-3 = 0.5
heater surface is maintained at 1000 K. The remaining base area is open to surroundings at
The area of wall : A, = 4 = w . L, where L is the duct length. 300 K. The surroundings may be considered black. The emissivity of heater surface is also 0.8.
The various resistances : Determine the heat exchange from heater to the hemisphere and to the surroundings.
Solution
Given :A heater (1)is covered by a hemisphere (2)
T, = 1000 K, E, = 0.8, Dl = 1 m
T2 = 400 K, c2 = 0.8, D2 = 4 m
T, = 300 K, E~ = 1.
To find :
( i )Heat exchange with hemisphere, and
( i i )Heat exchange with surroundings.
R2-3 = R1-3
The emissive powers, Ebl = 0T14 = 5.67 x 104 x (1200)4= 117573 W/m2
Eb2= 0T24= 5.67 x 104 x (500)4= 3543.75 W/m2
The resistance R2-3and RIS are in series, thus its total series resistance is
Rsl = 2 + 2 = 4 m-l
This total series resistance Rsl and R,-, are in parallel to each other, thus

(a) (b)
Re, = 1.333 m-l Fig. 13.51. Schematic and radiation network
The heat transfer rate from heated surface to painted panel
Assumptions :
(1) Heater and hemispherical surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray.
(2) Steady state conditions.
= 36982.87 W/m = 36.982 kW/m. Ans. (3) Assuming circular disc heater, facing towards hemisphere.
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 863
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
862
1451.51- J2 J1- J2 459.27 - J2
0.0099
+- 1.273+

0.085
=0
Analysis :The thermal network is shown in Fig. 13.51 ( b ) :
The areas are : Simplification leads to
n n 226764.37 - 4.99 J, + J2= 0
Area of circular heater, A, = -4 D12 = x = 0.7853 mZ 163.45 - J, + 0.7884 = 0
n n Its solution leads to
Area of hemisphere, A - - DZ2= - x (4)2= 25.132 m2
2- 2 2 J, = 5.39 x lo4 W/m2,J2= 42556 W/m2
7c n ( i )Now net rate of radiation from heater to hemisphere
Area of opening of hemisphere, A3 = (D: - Dl2) = - 4 (42- 12)= 11.78 m2

View factors. If circular heater faces hemisphere, then Ebl - J1 - 56700 - 5.39 x lo4
= 8796.7 W. A n s .
F1-,= 1, F1-l=O, F1...3=0 R1 0.3183
(ii)Net rate of heat radiation from heater to surroundings
F,-1 + Fz-2 + F2-3 = 1

There will be negligible radiation from surroundings to heater surface, thus Comment. Heater does not radiate heat directly (F13 = 01, but the heat transfer to
hemisphere is transferred to surroundings.
Example 13.35. A short cylinder enclosure is formed with three surfaces, a circular
plane surface 1 of radius 20 cm maintained at 2000 K and having emissivity of 0.8, another
circular plane surface 2 of same size as surface 1 having emissivity of 0.5 and maintained at
500 K. The surface 1 and 2 are parallel to each other and the distance between them is 5 cm. The
Applying Network theorem (Kirchhoff 's law) at each node (1)and (2) third surface is reradiating, which forms an enclosure. Draw an equivalent circuit and com-
pute all resistances. Also find, (i) temperature attained by reradiating surface a&.(ii) net heat
*
transfer rate between surface 1 and 2 due to radiation.
Use the following expression for finding the shape factor between two circular discs,
coaxial and parallel areas :

where Ebl = o T," = 5.67 x 10" x (1000)4 = 56700 W/m2

Eb2= o T; = 5.67 x 10' x (400)4 = 1451.51 W/m2 where, B = -r1, C = - r2 a n d X = ( l + B 2 + C 2 )
Eb3= o T34= 5.67 x 10" x (300)4 = 459.27 W/m2 H H
where, r, and r2 are the radii of the circular planes and H is the distance between them.
(P.U., Nov. 1992)
Solution
Given :A short circular cylinder consists of a two parallel plane and a reradiating lat-
eral surface with
rl = r2 = 20 cm = 0.2 m, H = 5 cm = 0.05 m
TI = 2000 K, T2 = 500 K
&I = 0.8, e2 = 0.5.
To find :
1. To draw an equivalent electric circuit.
2. Net heat transfer rate between two parallel surfaces.
Using value in eqn. ( i )and (ii) 3. Temperature, T3 attained by reradiating surface.
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
864 RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES '
865
Assumptions : 1 The resistance R14 and R2-3are in series, thus its total series,
1.Steady state conditions. Rsl = 36.17+ 36.17= 72.34m-2
2. All surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray. This total series resistance Rsl and Rld2are in parallel to each other, thus
3. Convection effects are negligible.
Analysis :1.The schematic and thermal network are shown below :

Re, = 8.94 m-2

The heat transfer rate between two surfaces,

= 907200 - 3543'75 = 47849 w = 47.849 kw. Ans.

E b l -Eb2
Q1-2 =
R1 + Re, + R2 1.989+ 8.94+ 7.957
3. The temperature of reradiating surface may be calculated by obtaining J,.
Ebl - J l
Q1-2 =
R1
(a) Schematic (b) Radiation network

Fig. 13.52

2.The shape factor : or J2= (47849W) x (7.957m-2) + (3543.75W/m2)= 384278.24W/m2

Using given relation : Jl-J ,
3 J -J2L
%-3 R 2 -3
812028.34- J3 - J3- 384278.24
36.17 36.17
or J3= 598153.3W/m2 = 5.67 x lo4 x TS4
From symmetry, F1, = F2-, = 0.78 or T3 = 1802.2 K. Ans.
and by summation rule, Fl-2 + F14 = 1 or F19 = 1 - 0.78 = 0.22
BY symmetry, F,, = FIS = 0.22 13.6. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER I N THREE SURFACE ENCLOSURE
The area of surfaces : A, = A2 = n r12= (n)x (0.2)~ = 0.12566
Now we consider an enclosure consisting of three opaque, diffuse and gray surfaces as shown
The varidus resistances : ia Fig. 13.53

R23 = R13
The emissive powers, Ebl = o T," = 5.67 x lo4 x (2000)*= 907200 W/m2
*b2 = 0T,' = 5.67 x lo4 x (500)' = 3543.75w/m2
Fig. 13.53. Three surface enclosure and equivalent radiation network
866 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 867

Surface 1 , 2 and 3 have surface area A,, A2 and A3, emissivities E ~ , and e3, and uniform
For surface 2 Eb2-J2 + J1-J2 + J ~ - J 2 + = O~
J ~ - J
temperatures TI, T2 and T,, respectively. The triangular circuit for three bodies radiation 1-E2 1 1 1
network is not so easy to analysis as in line circuit for two surface radiation problem. The basic
approach is to apply energy conservation on each radiosity node in the circuit. The three equa-
tions for determination of three unknowns J,, J, and J3are obtained and net heat transfer at Eb3-J3 +Jl-J3J2-J3 J4-J3 =0
For surface 3 + +

each node is set to zero. That is 1- 1 1 1

- - -
AtnodeJ,: Ebl-Jl J2-J1
1 J3-J1
+
1 + -0 ...L13.42 (a)] ~ 3 ~ A3F3-1
3 A3F3-2 A3F3-4
- - - =o
ElA A1F1-2 A1F1-3 For surface 4 q, + J1-J4 + J2-J4
1
+ J3-J4
1

At node J, : J1-J2 + J3-J2 +Ebz-J, =O ...[l3.42 (b)]

1 1- c2
where, Ebl = a TI4 = 5.67 x lo4 x (400)4= 1451.52 W/m2
AlFl- 2 -3 ~ 2 ~ 2
Eb2= o TZ4= 5.67 x lo4 x (500)4= 3543.75 W/m2
Eb3= o T34= 5.67 x x (600)4= 7348.32 W/m2
The view factors
We assume diagonally imaginary surface 5 as shown in Fig. 13.54
These three equations are solved simultaneously for determination of J1, J2 and J3.
Then net rate of heat transfer at each surfacb can be determined from eqn. (13.25). . F5-, =F5,=F5,=F5-, = 0.5
The solution of set of equations can be simplified, if one or more surfaces are special in A5 F5-I = & x 0.5 = -
some way. For an example, for a black or reradiating surface J = Eb = a Pand Q = 0 for such a F1-5 = - f1i = 0.7071
A1
surface at thermal equilibrium. If net rate of radiation heat transfer is specified at a surface
F,-, + F,-, + F,, = 1 +F,, = 1- F,, = 0.2928
instead of the temperature, then the term (Eb
l --E should be replaced by Q.J, F,, = F,-, = 0.2928
A1 F,-, = 0.2928, F2-, = 0.2928
F, = (BYsymmetry)
A2
Example 13.36. A long square duct has its three surfaces 1, 2, and 3 maintained a t FZ4 = F13 = 1- F1-2 - F1, = 1- 0.2928 - 0.2928 = 0.4142
uniform temperatures of 400 K, 500 K and 600 K, respectively, their respective emissivities are Areas : A, = A , = A -, = A , = A
0.9. 1.0 and 0.1. The surface 4 is subjected to a uniform heat flux of 5000 W l m2 and emissivity Solution of above simultaneous equations gives
of 0.8. Determine the net radiative heat fluxes from surfaces 1, 2, and 3 and temperature of
surface 4. Assume all surfaces are gray and diffuse. J, = 1843.1 W/m2, J3= 4555.2 W/m2, J4= 8342.1 W/m2
J, = Eb2= 3543.75 W/m2 (since black = 1)
Solution The heat fluxes :
Given :A long square duct
T, = 400 K E, = 0.9
T2 = 500 K

?
; -fin&?
TO
T e U 6 0 0K
P - B L . ' a " , w 4 z y l.
.4
+-q;%
ii L F P o 0
6% =OF,
-
--
-
1- 0.9
(1451.2 - 1843.1) = - 3527.1 W/m2. Ans.
Since surface 2 is black, its surface resistance will be zero, the emissive power equals
(i) Radiation heat f+ux\$:, ?!d I the heat flux.
(ii) Radiation heam@ q2,1fS;P" A=
(iii) Radiation heat flux q\$' - +' y3 q2 = F2-, (Eb2- J1) + FZ3 (Eb2- J3)+ F2, (Eb2- 5 4 )
= 0.2928 (3543.75 - 1843.1) + 0.2928 (3543.75 - 4555.2)
(iv) Temperature of surface\$.= + 0.4142 [13543.75 - 8342.11 = 1785.6 W/m2.Ans. -
Analysis : The energy bala&e n2-

E ~ , - ~ ; JA + J ~ - J I =0
For surface 1 :
2-Jl
I - F , A ~+-r- 1
+ J3-Jl 1
868 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 869

Further E,, = o T,4

9592.1
T44= + T, = 641.3 K. Ans.
5.67x lo-'
Example 13.37. Two sides of a long triangular duct, as shown i n Fig. 13.55 (a), are
made of stainless steel (E = Q.5) and are maintained at 500°C. The third side is of copper (E =
0.15) and has a uniform temperature of 100°C. Calculate the rate of heat transfer to the copper
base per metre of length of the duct.
Solution
Given :A triangular duct as shown in Fig. 13.55 ( a )

4>7'+,
\$0
' v

,
kv
//
s.Lq

P
9s

Copper, el = 0.15, T, = ioo0c

I
Node 1 :

Node 2 :
Fig. 13.55 ( b ) Radiation network
The node1 equations at three nodes are

To find :Net rate of heat transfer to copper Fig. 13.55. ( a )Illustration for
Node 3 :
surface 1 per metre length of duct example 13.37
where J,, J2and J3are unknowns and for per metre depth of the duct
Assumptions :
( i )The duct surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray.
(ii)Negligible convection from surfaces.
Analysis :The view factors for the enclosure surfaces.
From Table 13.1 for kiangular duct

By reciprocity

By summation
Fl-I + F,, + F1, = 1 jF1, = 1 - Fl-, = 0.6

Thus,
1097.5- J1 J2 - J1 +
+- 5.0 J3 - J1 -
11.33 3.33
870 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 871

- -
Simplification leads to three simultaneous equations &1 '3,l &3,2 '2
6.67 J, - 2.268 J2- 3.395 J, = 1097.5 The temperature of radiation shield T,- is unknown. For instance, if all emissivities are
- 2.0 J, + 56 J2- J, = 60732.65 equal : or = e2 = c3, = e3,
- 3.0 J, - J2+ 8.0 J, = 80976.8 Then T34=
( ~ , -4 T ~ ~ )
Solving these equations 2
The heat transfer rate between the plates with a shield becomes
J, = 15767.3 W/m2
Shield
J2= 18434.4 W/m2
J, = 18340 W/m2
- Ebl - J1 -- 1097.5 - 15767.3
qnet - 1 - = - 1295.1 Wlm. Ans.
R1 11.33

The radiation heat transfer rate between the two surfaces can be reduced significantly by
placing a thin sheet of high reflectivity (very low emissivity) material, between them
A,, TI,
Fig. 13.56. Such highly reflective thin sheets are called the radiation shields. The radiation
shields increase the thermal resistance in path of radiation heat transfer and hence reduce the
heat flow rate. Multilayer radiation shields constructed of about 20 sheets per cm thickness
separated by evacuated space are commonly used in cryogenic and space applications.
Consider a radiation shield is placed between two large plates as shown in Fig. 13.57 (a).
,
Let the emissivities of the radiation shield facing plate 1and 2 be E,, and E ~2,, respectively.
--
Since, the radiation shield does not deliver or remove any amount of heat from the system. -
I
a

I
I

I
-
I
a

I
Thus the heat transfer rate between d a t e 1 and radiation shield must be equal to the heat I

transfer rate between the shield and plate 2. Ebl J1 J3,1 Eb3 J3,2 J2 Eb2

(b)
Fig. 13.57. Radiation shield placed between two large parallel plates and radiation network

- (11 2) CY A(T,~- )
Q1-2, one shield - 1 1 -
-+--I
El E2
Thus by inserting a shield, the radiation heat flow rate becomes just half of that would
be experienced without radiation shield. The radiation network with one radiation shield is
shown in Fig. 13.57 ( b ) .All the resistances are in series, and thus the radiation heat transfer
rate is
-
Q1-2, one shield - 1- & 1 l - &
E b l - Eb2
31 - 1-&32 1 1-&2
...(13.46)
I ' A ' A 1

&lAl ' A1F1-3 ' &3,1A3 ' ~ 3 , 2 ~' A3F3-2

3 ' ~ 2 ~ 2
For large parallel plates, A, = A2 = A, = A and F,, = F3-2 = 1,then eqn. (13.46) simplifies
(a) A plane surface 1, close to a (b) Radiation shield between
parallel surface 2 the two surfaces
Fig. 13.56. Radiation shield between two parallel surfaces to reduce radiative heat transfer
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 873
872 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
Solution
where the terms in the second set of parentheses in the denominator represent the additional Given :Two parallel infinite surfaces with and without radiation shield
resistance to radiation heat transfer introduced by shield. If N radiation shields are inserted
T, = 1000 K, T2 = 600 K, el = 0.5, E, = 0.8,
between two large parallel plates, then eqn. (13.47) becomes
&a, I = 0.1, c3, = 0.05.
G A ( T , ~- T , ~ ) To find :
QI-2, N, shield =
1 1 1 1 1. The radiation heat transfer rate without radiation shield.
{+;1,;}+t[; +G-l)+ ......+{-+--I]
EN,^ EN,^
2. The radiation heat transfer rate with radiation shield.
If the emissivities of all the surfaces are equal then above expression reduces to Assumptions :
o A ( T , ~- T ~ ~ )
1. Surfaces are diffused and gray.
QI-2. N. shield = (9 1 2. Heat is transferred by radiation only.
(Nil)\:-1) 4 3. The conduction resistance of radiation shield is negligible.
- -
A radiation shield may have same emissivity on its two faces or the emissivity of one Analysis :The net radiation heat exchange between two parallel plates without radia-
face of shield may differ from that associated with opposite side. If the emissivities associated tion shield can be expressed as ;
with two sides of shield are very low, the heat flow can be reduced drastically. t

Example 13.38. Two parallel plates have emissivity of 0.8and 0.5.A radiation shield
having same emissivity on both sides is placed between them. Calculate the emissivity of the
shield i n order to reduce the radiation losses from the system to one-tenth of that of without
shield. -QI- - 5.67 x lo-' (10004 - 6 0 0 ~ )
= 21934 W/m2. Ans.
A -+ - 1
Solution
Given :Two parallel infinite surfaces with and without radiation shield ;5 8; ( )
When a radiation shield is placed between the parallel plates, then the radiation heat
transfer can be calculated as Q2 = Ebl - Ebz
ZRth
To find :The emissivity of radiation shield. For 1 m2 area of the plates
Assumptions :
1.Surfaces are opaque, diffused and gray. where
2. Heat is transferred by radiation only.
3. The conduction resistance of radiation shield is negligible.
Analysis :The radiation heat exchange ratio between two parallel plates with and with-
out radiation shield can be expressed as ; The heat transfer gain with radiation shield
-L+fl-li
- -
The presence of radiation shield reduces the heat transfer rate
El E3 E2 E3 21934 - 1579.25
= 92.8% (reduction).
Substituting the numerical values ; 21934
Example 13.40. Two large parallel planes with emissivity 0.6are at 900K a n d 300 K. A
radiation shield with one side polished and having emissivity of 0.05,while the emissivity of
The solution gives, E, = 0.094.' Ans. other side is 0.4 is proposed to be used. Which side of the shield to face the hotter plane, if the
J
temperature of shield is to be kept minimum ? Justify your answer. (P.U., May 2001)
Example 13.39.Two large parallel plates at temperature I000K and 600K have emis- I Solution
sivity of 0.5and 0.8respectively. A radiation shield having emissivity 0.1 on one side and 0.05
on the other side is placed between the plates. Calculate the heat transfer rate by radiation per Given :A radiation shield between two large parallel planes.
square metre with and without radiation shield. = E~ = 0.6
T, = 900 K, T2 = 300 K
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 875
874
300 K. The space between the surfaces is evacuated. CalcuLate the heat gain by cryogenic fluid
3' - 0.05
= polished - per unit length of tubes. If a thin radiation shield of 35 m m diameter kg= 0.02) both sides is
&4 = &unpolished= O" inserted midway between the inner and outer surfaces, calculate the percentage change in heat
T3 = Temperature of shield. gain per unit length of the tube. (P.U., Dec. 2001 ; N.M.U., May 1998)
To find :Which side of the shield should face the hotter plane.
Assumptions : Solution
1. Each surface has a uniform radiosity ; the configuration can be considered as a n Given : Concentric tube arrangement with diffuse and gnay surfaces.
enclosure with two surfaces.
2. The surfaces are gray, diffuse and opaque.
3. The medium between the surfaces does not participate in radiation.
Anal.ysis :Arrangement 1 : Let polished surface of the shield face hotter plane, the en-
srgy balance on the radiation shield :

Hot -

Fig. 13.59. Schematic

To find :
1. Heat gain by cryogenic fluid passing through the inner tube.
2. Percentage change in heat gain with radiation shield inserted midway between inner
and outer pipe.
3 6.561 x 1011- T: = 6.526 T34- 5.286 x 10" Fig. 13.58.Schematic Assumptions :
3 7.526 T34= 7.0896 x 10" 1. Space between tubes is evacuated.
3 T3 = 554 K 2. No conduction and convection involve.
Arrangement 2 : Let the polished side of shield face colder side : Energy balance on 3. Infinite long concentric tubes.
shield.
Analysis :1. The radiation exchange without radiation shield can be calculated as

where

6.561 x 10" - TS4 - T~~- 8.1 x lo9 n x 0.02 x 1 x 5.67 x lo-' (774 - 3004)
- Q1 = = - 50 Wlm. Ans.
3.167 20.67 1
x 0.4
or 4.2486 x 1012- 6.526 TS4= T34- 8.1 x lo9
or 7.526 TS4= 4.2567 x 1012 or T3 = 867.2 K i 2. When radiation shield is placed in midway between two tubes,
which is greater than the temperature of shield, when it faces the hotter plane. Therefore, the
radiation shield will be effective, when its polished side will face the hotter plane.
Example 13.41. A cryogenic fluid flows through a long tube of 20 m m diameter, the
outer surface of which is diffuse and gray = 0.02) at 77 K. This tube is concentric with a
larger tube of 50 m m diameter, the inner surface of which is diffuse and gray ( E ~= 0.05) and at
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES
876 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
Analysis :( i ) Heat-gain rate b y liquid nitrogen line per metre length
For 1 m length of tube
Qgain= h D 1 ) ( T t-TI4)
= ~ ( 0 . 0 0 6 3 5(0.2)
) (5.67 x (2304- 804)= 0.624 Wlm. Ans.
+
ER,, = 779.9 + 15.9 + 891.3 121.0 = 1817 m-2 ( i i )Heat transfer rate with shield
T h e heat gain with radiation shield

101 1
T h e percentage reduction i n heat gain
(Q1- Q 2 ) -- (- 0.50 + 0.25) Since A , >7 Al, and E, = 1, t h e n
- = 50%. Ans.
Q1 - 50
Example 13.42. Aphysics experiment uses liquid nitrogen as a coolant. Saturated liquid
nitrogen at 80 K flows through 6.35m m O.D. stainless steel line (E, = 0.2)inside a vacuum
chamber. The chamber walls are at T,=230 K and are at some distance from the line. Determine
the heat gain of the line per unit length. I f a second stainless steel tube, 12.7mm in diameter, is
placed around the line to act as radiation shield, to what rate is the heat gain reduced ? Find
the temperature of the shield.
Solution
T h e radiation shield would cut t h e heat gain by 47%. Ans.
(iii) The temperature of t h e shield, T , :
Qgain,shield = Qnhie~d-charnber= ( x ~ s' s)o (TP - Tt)
) (5.67 x
0.328 W / m = ~ ( 0 . 0 1 2 7(0.2) (2304- T:)
Solving, we find T , = 213 K. Ans.
Example 13.43. A pipe carrying steam having an outside diameter of 20 cm runs in a
large room and is exposed to air at a temperature of 30°C.The pipe surface temperature is
Arrangement-1 Arrangement-2
400°C.Calculate the heat loss to the surroundings per metre length of pipe due to thermal
radiation. The emissivity of the pipe surface is 0.8.
Fig. 13.60
1. What would be the loss of heat due to radiation, i f the pipe is enclosed in a 50 cm
Given : Flow of liquid nitrogen through a pipe diameter brick conduit of emissivity of 0.9 ?
Nitrogen ( 1 ) Dl = 6.35 m m 2. What would be the radiation heat transfer from the pipe, if it is enclosed within a
&I = 0.2 Tl =80 K square conduit of 0.5 m side of emissivity of 0.9 ? (Anna Univ., May 2001)
Chamber (c) : T , = 230 K D2 = 12.7 mm Solution
Shield ( s ) : T,, E, = 0.2 Given :A pipe carrying steam with
To find :
( i )Heat gain by liquid nitrogen line per metre length.
(ii)Reduction i n heat gain with shield.
(iii)Temperature of shield.
Assumptions :
( i )The tube surface of nitrogen line at 80 K.
T, = 30°C = 303 K
(ii)Without shield nitrogen line as small object i n a large enclosure. F1-, = 1, F,, = 1 and
>>' &be'
Fig. 13.61
(iii)Opaque, diffuse and gray surfaces.
878 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 879
1. Brick conduit, D2 = 50 cm = 0.5 m, E, = 0.9
2. Square conduit of side w = 0.5 m, E~ = 0.9.
To find : Dl = 50 mm
1.Net radiation heat transfer from pipe surface. Tl = 1000°C = 1273 K
2. The radiation heat exchange when pipe is enclosed within a 50 cm diameter. brick c2 = 0.6
conduit. T, = 15°C = 288 K
3. The radiation heat exchange, when pipe is enclosed within a square conduit. If reflector is placed
Assumptions : D, = 450 mm.
1. Surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray. To find :Energy supplied to rod per metre, if
2. Space between two concentric pipes is evacuated. 1. Rod is exposed to room, with negligible convection
3. No conduction and convection heat transfer. effects, and
Fig. 13.62
Analysis :1.The net radiation heat exchange from pipe surface to room can be expressed 2. Rod is covered by half circular reflector.
as : Assumptions .
= 0.8 x x x 0.2 x 5.67 x lo4 (6734- 3034)
QiL = E (n Dl) 0 (Ts4- TW4) 1. Rod and room surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray.
= 5606.5 Wlm. Ans. - 2. Steady state conditions. Q
k
v
2. The radiation heat exchange between pipe and a conduit can be calculated as ; 3. Room air does not participate in
radiation. R1 Rl-2 R2
A, o (TS4- T _ ~ )
Q= Analysis : 1. When cylindrical rod is exposed to room Fig. 13.62(a)

When pipe is enclosed within brick conduit :

where R, = surface resistance of rod

R1-2 = A - - I
= 6.366 (F,-, = 1.0. All heat transfer to room)
A1F1-2 n x 0.05 x 1

R2 = 0, negligible transmission to rod from room.

The reduction in heat radiation = 5606.5 - 5414 = 192.5 Wlrn. Ans.
When pipe is enclosed within a square conduit : 5.67 x (1273~- 288') = 16,330 W. Ans.
Then Q1 =
2.728 + 6.366 + 0
2. When half circular reflector is placed around the rod.

The reduction in heat radiation = 5606.5 - 5454.2 = 152.3 Wlrn. Ans.

Example 13.44. A cylindrical rod (E = 0.7) of 50 m m diameter is maintained at 1000°C
by an electric resistance heating and is kept in a room, the walls (E = 0.6) of which are at 15OC.
Determine the energy which must be supplied per metre length of the rod. If an insulated half QL0
circular reflector of 0.45 m diameter. is placed around the rod, determine the energy supplied to Fig. 13.62(b)
the rod per metre length.
Rl = 2.728 R2 = 0.0
Solution Since reflector is half circular so half of the energy radiated by rod falls on it
Given :A cylindrical rod (1)exposed in a room (2).
880 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 881

Resistance to radiation from half reflector to room Assumptions :

1 - 1 1 1. One-dimensional temperature distribution in the cylindrical part of the insulation ;
R2-3 =-- = = 1.591 m-,
71 5.r
A2F2-3 - (D2 - Dl)L F2-3 - (0.45 - 0.05) x 1x 1.0 i.e., the two-dimensional effects at the corners are negligible
2 2 2. Negligible thermal resistance between the water and the inner surface of the insula-
Half of the radiation from the rod reaches the room directly tion, and in the metial cladding.
1 1 3. Steady state conditions.
R1-2 =--A,F1-2 - x x 0.05 x 0.5 =&.732 m-2
/

Analysis : In steady state, an energy balance yields to

Total of series resistances R1-3 and R2-3 Heat transfer rate across the insulation
RS1=12.732 + 1.591 = 14.323 m-, = Heat transfer rate from the cladding to the surroundings
The resistance RSlacts parallel to resistance Rl-2, thus The heat transfer from the cladding is by convection to the surrounding air and by
radiation to the surrounding surfaces.
rl) = (h, + hR)A,(T, - T,)
T1 -IT2
2n k~ 1n(rz
or Re, = 6.74 m-2 In eqn. (I), the left side represents the conduction heat transfer rate across the insula-
Total thermal resistances tion, and the right side represents the sum of the heat transfer rates by convection and radia-
CRth = R, + Re, + R, tion from the metal cladding to the surroundings.
+
= 2.73 + 6.74 0 = 9.47 m-, With A, = 27cr2L,solving for T2, we obtain
The radiation heat transfer rate
o ( T , ~- T , ~ )-
- 5.67 x (1273~- 2 ~ 8 ~ )
Q= = 15,681 W. Ans.
CRth 9.47 where the temperature T, is calculated iteratively.
Example 13.45. Fig. 13.63 shows a hot water heater, 60 cm outside diameter and 1.8 m As the cladding is completely enclosed by second, much larger surface,
high, which is insulated with 25 mm thick fiberglass insulation. The insulation is covered with
q, = radiation heat transfer rate from the cladding
a thin sheet of metal cladding. The water in the boiler is maintained at 80°C. The temperature
of the surrounding air and surfaces is 10°C. The painted metal cladding has an emissivity of = A, E~ o (TZ4- T34)
0.95. To reduce the heat transfer to the surroundings, it is proposed to replace the cladding with
apolished one having an emissivity of 0.1. If the convective heat transfer coefficientis 8 W/m2. "C, and
determine the reduction in the heat transfer rate from the cylindrical surface by replacing the
To estimate the average value of hR, treated as constant in eqn. (2) an upper limit of
T, (= T, ,,) is found by setting hR = 0, i.e., neglecting radiative heat transfer. The lower limit
Solution of T, is T3.

h~ max = o (T2, max + T32)(T2

max + T3)

E2

h~ min
Hot water heater = o (T2, + T3?(T2 + TJ
Fig. 13.63. A hot water boiler with fiberglass insulation and a metal cladding €2

Given : = 5.67 x (283.15, + 283.152)(283.15+ 283.15) = 5.15 W/m2. K

\$ :
r, = 30 cm, r, = 32. , cm, H = 1.8 m, h,,,, = 8 W/m2. "C
T, = 80°C, T, = 10°C, E, = 0.95.
To find :The reduction in heat transfer rate, if a radiation shield, E = 0.1 replaces the
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 883
882 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
The last term in eqn. 13.49 is due to the radiation effect and represents the radiation
As the maximum variation of hR is within 3% of the mean value, the effect of the varia- correction. When the convection coefficient is small, then radiation correction term becomes
tion of h, with T2 can be neglected. most important, if Tm>> T,. The large error in temperature measurement can be reduced
With E, = 0.95, significantly by using
hR = hR,av = 5.295 x 0.95 = 5.03 W/m2. K 1. The low emissivity thermocouple junction. The special coating of low emissivity metal
From eqn. (2) like aluminium, zinc, chromium etc. can be used.
2. Placing the sensor in a radiation shield without interfering the fluid flow.

q2 = (hc + hR)A2(T2 - T,)

= (8 + 5.03) x 2 x n x 0.325 x 1.825 x (289.9 - 283.15) = 327.8 W. Ans.
With E, = 0.1,
h, = 5.295 x 0.1 = 0.5295 W/m2. K
-------------- ----
Tube wall / \
q2 = (8 + 0.5295) x 2 x n x 0.325 x 1.825 x (292.9 - 283.15) = 309.9 W. Ans. Fig. 13.65. Thermocouple w i t h r a d i a t i o n shield
The heat transfer rate is reduced from 327.8 W to 309.9 W, a reduction of 5.5%. If thermocouple sensor is surrounded by a radiation shield as shown in Fig. 13.65. The
radiation shield receives heat by convection on its two sides and it reradiates. Thus the energy
COMBINED CONVECTIVE AND RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER balance for the radiation shield (a small body in compare to enclosure) is
2hc (T- - Ts) = a E, (T,4 - Ts4) ...(13.50)
13.8. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT OF A GAS BY THERMOCOUPLE where, E, = emissivity of the radiation shield.

The temperature of the flowing fluid through a duct or a pipe is measured by thermocouple as Ts = temperature of the radiation shield.
shown in Fig. 13.64. The thermocouple bead is placed in direct contact of gas, the heat is The energy balance on the thermocouple bead now yields
convected from gas to thermocouple sensor tries to gain steady state. Like use of thermometer, ...(13.51)
h, (Tm- T,) = a E, (Ts4- T):
the temperature measured by thermocouple is less than the true gas temperature, because a
part of heat gain by thermocouple sensor is emitted to wall at low temperature. In absence of where T, = temperature recorded by thermocouple.
conduction, the energy balance on the thermocouple bead yields to Example 13.46. A thermocouple is used to measure the temperature of a hot gas flowing
h, (Tm- T,) = o E~ (Tc4- TU4) in a tube maintained a t 100°C. The thermocouple indicates a temperature of 500°C. If the
emissivity of thermocouple junction is 0.5 and the convective heat transfer coefficient is
1250 WIm2.K, determine the actual temperature of the gas.
Solution
where, hc = convective heat transfer coefficient, W/m2.K
Given : Tw= 100°C = 373 K, T, = 500°C = 773 K
T, = temperature recorded by thermocouple, K
E, = 0.5, h, = 250 W/m2.K.
T, = wall temperature, K
T_ = gas temperature, K To find :The true gas temperature.
a = 5.67 x W/m2 .K4, the Stefan Boltzmann constant Assumptions :
E~ = emissivity of thermocouple sensor. 1. Steady state conditions.
2. Junction surface is gray and diffuse.
3. Constant properties.
Analysis : The energy balance on thermocouple bead is
hc(Tm- T,) = a E, (T: - Tw4)

"P

RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES

884 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

Example 13.48.A thermocouple is used to measure the temperature ofgas flowing through
- 500)("C) = (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)x 0.5 x (7734- 3734)
(250 W/m2.K)(Tm
a duct, records 280°C. I f the emissivity of the junction is 0.4 and convection coeficient is
or Tm= 500 + 38 = 538°C. Ans. 150 WIm2.K. Find the true gas temperature. The duct wall temperature is 140°C.
Example 13.47.A thermocouple (E = 0.6) is used to measure the temperature of exhaust What should be the emissivity of the junction i n order to reduce the error by 30%. ?
gas in a large duct. The temperature of the duct wall is at 20°C and temperature measured by Solution
thermocouple is 500°C. Calculate the true temperature of the gas, if the convection coefficient
between gas and thermocouple bead is 200 WIm2.K. Given :Measurement of temperature by a thermocouple
To measure the temperature of the gas more correctly, it is enveloped by a thin radiation (i) T, = 280°C = 553 K, E, = 0.4
shield (E = 0.3). Estimate the error between the thermocouple temperature and gas temperature h, = 150 W/m2.K, Tw= 140°C = 413 K
with the shielded thermocouple arrangement. ( i i )Error to be reduced by 30%.
Solution To find :
Given :Thermocouple without radiation shield : ( i )True temperature of the gas, and
Tw= 20°C = 293 K, T, = 500°C = 773 K (ii)Emissivity of the junction in order to reduce the error by 30%.
E, = 0.6, h, = 200 W/m2.K Analysis :(i) The true gas temperature is determined by eqn. (13.49)
Thermocouple with radiation shield :
Tw= 20°C = 293 K, T, = 500°C = 773 K
E, = 0.3, h, = 200 W/m2.K.
To find :The true gas temperature.
Assumptions :
1. Steady state conditions. The true temperature of gas is 289.74"C (562.74 K). Ans.
2. Junction surface is gray and diffuse. (ii)The error in temperature measurement
= 289.74 - 280 = 9.74"C
3. Constant properties.
Analysis :The energy balance on thermocouple sensor without radiation shield is Error to be reduced by 30%, thus the remaining error is 70% of 9.74"C
= 0.7 x 9.74 = 6.81B°C
h,(T_ - T,) = o ec (Tc4- Tw4)
Using the numerical values, Thus T, = 286.818"C = 559.818 K
(200 W/m2.K)(Tm- 773)(K) = (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)x 0.6 x (7734 - 2934)(K4) T_ = 562.74 K, Tw= 413 K
T_ = 773 + 56.67 = 829.67 K. Ans. 5.67 x lo-' E, (559.818~- 4 1 3 ~ )
Then, 562.74 = 559.818 +
The energy balance on thermocouple sensor with radiation shield is 150
2hc (T_ - Ts) = CT E, (TW4 - Ts4) or E, = 0.11. Ans.
2 x (200 W/m2.K)(829.67- Ts)(K)= (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)x 0.3 x (2934- T,4)
331856 - 400 Ts = 125.36 - 1.701 x lo4 Ts4 13.9. GAS RADIATION
Ts4- 23515579070 Ts + 1.95 x 1013= 0 Many gases such as 02,N2, H2 and dry air have a symmetrical molecular structure and they
T, = 829.3 K neither emit nor absorb any appreciable amount of thermal radiation, unless they are heated
to very high temperature for their ionization. These gases are non polar and may be considered
Using the shield temperature to calculate the temperature measured by thermocouple.
as transparent to thermal radiation. On the other hand, some polar gases and vapours such as
h, (T_ - T,) = CT E, (Ts4- Tc4) CO,, CO, H20, SO,, NH,, and hydrocarbons etc. can emit electromagnetic waves and can also
(200 W/m2.K)(829.67- Tc)(K)= (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)x 0.6 x (829.34- )T: absorb appreciable thermal radiation. The H20 and CO, are most common gases present in
the atmosphere as well as in furnaces, the gas radiation can become an important part of heat
It yields Tc = 827 K
- .Drocess.
exchange
The error between thermocouple temperature and gas temperature is of only 2°C. Ans.
886 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 887

Unlike solids, the gases can emit radiation within a short wavelength band only. Hence elemental surfacedA, located at the centre of the hemisphere's
the intensity of gas radiation at any temperature is less than the blackbody radiation. The base as shown in Fig. 13.67 where L, is mean beam length,
gases absorb the incident radiation slowly, because emission and absorption depend on gas which can be obtained from Table 13.4. For an appropriate
layer thickness, pressure, shape and surface area. Moreover, gaseous radiation is not a surface calculation, the mean beam length for other shapes can be
phenomenon but it is a volumetric phenomenon. determined as
Volume of gas
13.9.1. Absorptivity of the Gases L, = 3.6 x
Surface area of gas
...(13.57) dA
-
Consider the absorption of thermal radiation by a gas layer as shown in Fig. 13.66, IF is Fig. 13.67. Gas volume of
radiation intensity a t the left face and I,.-. propagates in a gas layer is proportional to its thick- Hottel's graph.
ness dx, thus
dI,(x) = - m, Ih(x)dx ...(13.52) TABLE 13.4. Mean beam length L, for various gas geometries
where the proportionality constant mh is spectral absorption coeffl- Sr. No Geometry Characteristic length Beam length L,
, cient of gas. Integrating both sides, we get ;
Sphere (radiation to surface) Diameter (Dl 0.667 D
Infinite circular cylinder Diameter (D) 0.95 D
(radiation to curved surface)
Semi infinite circular cylinder Diameter (D) 0.65 D
The radiation intensity decreases exponentially with thick- I . C - - L ~
Circular cylinder of equal Diameter (D) 0.60 D
ness of gas layer L. This equat~onis called the Beer's law. Fig. 13.66. Absorption in a height and diameter
The intensity of radiation absorbed from x = 0 to x = L ; gas layer
(radiation to entire surface)
(IlLla = IhO- IhL= ILO[(I - exp(- mhL)l Infinite parallel planes Spacing between 1.80 L
,
Hence, the spectral absorptivity of gases aG, can be expressed as, (radiation to planes)
the planes (L)
side (L) 0.66 L
a,, ,= -
(ILL)a
Lo
- 1- exp (- m,L) any surface)
Arbitrary shape of volume V 3.6 VIA
The quantity [I- exp (- m,L)1 represents spectral absorptivity of the gas aG, or accord- (radiation to surface area A).
ing to Kirchhoff 's law, the emissivity at the same wavelength is eG,, or aGL = EG,,. It depends
on characteristic coeff~cientm, as well as on thickness dx of the gas layer. The emission from a gas per unit surface area is determined as
For non reflecting gases (p = 0)
where gas emissivity, can be obtained from Hottel's graphs.
E,
TG,, + ~ G , L = O
or ,
T = 1- aG, = exp (-
m,x) , ...(13.55) The results for emissivity of water vapour and carbon dioxide are plotted in Figs. 13.68
and 13.69 as a function of gas temperature at a total pressure of 1atm and for different values
Average or effective absorptivity aGover entire wavelength spectrum can be expressed of product of vapour partial pressurep and mean beam length L,. If the total pressure of water
as vapour or carbon dioxide is other than 1atm, then the emissivities from Figs. 13.68 and 13.69
aG = 1- exp (- mL) ,..(13.56) must be multiplied by correction factor CHzoor CCOzfrom Figs. 13.70 and 13.71.

where, m = [mh d i . When both carbon dioxide and water vapour are present in a gas mixture, the effective
emissivity of the mixture can be approximated by adding the emissivities of gas constituents
as
13.9.2. Gaseous Emission and Absorption
Sometimes, it is required to determine the radiant heat flux from a gas to an adjoining
surface. Despite the complications of spectral and directional effects,Hottel made the procedure However, the resulting gas mixture emissivity E, is on higher side, because some of
quite simplified. He evaluated the emissivities of various gases a t different pressures and emission bands of water vapour and carbon dioxide overlap. In particular, the effective gas
temperatures and plotted his results graphically in Figs. 13.68 to 13.71. The Hottel method emissivity cg can be obtained by subtracting a factor A&.
involves the determination of radiation emission from a hemispherical gas volume at T, to an
890 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 891
respectively. When both water vapour and carbon dioxide are present in tLe mixture, then
effective absorptivity of gas mixture can be obtained as
T = 400 K

pcL + Lp, = 1.52atrn rn

Fig. 13.72. Factor A& to correct the emissivity of a mixture of water vapour and C02

ag = ~ H , O+ aco, - ...(13.65)
I I I I I where Aa = Ae, and may be obtained from Fig. 13.72.
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.O 1.2
Example 13.49. Determine the emissivity of a gas mixture consisting of N,, H20, and
P H ~+OPT CO, at a temperature of 800 K. The gas mixture is i n a sphere with diameter of 0.4 m, and the
atrn
2
partial pressures of the gases are piv, = 1 atm, PH,O = 0.4 atm, and Pco, = 0.6 atm.
Fig. 13.70. Correction factor for the emissivity of water vapour a t pressures other than 1 atm
Solution
Given :A gas mixture of N,, H,O, CO, in a sphere
T, = 800 K, D = 0.4 m
PN, = 1atm, PH,O = 0.4 atrn
Pco, = 0.6 atm.
To find :Emissivity of the gas mixture.
Analysis :The mean beam length for a spherical mass of gas is obtained from Table 13.4.
Le = (0.667)D = 0.27 m
Appropriate values for parameter to be used for Figs. 13.68 and 13.69
T = 800 K
PH,OL,= 0.108 atrn
Pco, Le = 0.160 atrn
Then emissivities at 1 atrn are
Fig. 13.71. Correction factor for the emissivity of carbon dioxide at pressures other than 1 atm
Nz does not radiate appreciably at 800 K. Since the total pressure is 2 atm, thus correc-
tion factor CH,O and Cco, from Figs. 13.70 and 13.71 are
892 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 893

F1-2 = F1-3 = ""..

and value of A& to correct the emission in overlapping wavelength bands, from Fig. 13.72 The rate of radiation heat transfer between two black surfaces is expressed as
AE = 0.014 = A, F1, o (TI4- TZ4)(W)
The effective emissivity of the mixture The net radiation heat transfer rate from a surface i of a black enclosure is sum of
~ , ~ ~ = 1 . 6 2 ~ 0 . 1 5 + 1 . 1 2 ~ 0 . 1 2 5 - 0 . 0 1 4 = 0 .Ans.
369. radiation heat transfers from surface i to each of the surface of enclosure :
Example 13.50.A long cylindrical combustor 40 cm in diameter contains a gas at 1200' ( '
consisting of 0.8 atrn N, and 0.2 atrn CO,. What is the net heat radiated to the walls if they crrv
at 300°C ?
The radiation heat transfer from a cavity surface 1is given by
Solution
Given : Gas radiation in combustor
D = 40 cm, T,- = 1200°C = 1473 K
pNz = 0.8 atrn The net rate of radiation heat transfer from a surface is expressed as
p = 1 atrn
pco, = 0.2 atrn E, - J
Q = -- (W,
T, = 300°C = 573 K. R
To find :Net gas radiation to walls of combustor. 1-E
where R = - is the surface resistance, to radiation. The net rate of radiation heat transfer
Analysis :For CO, at 0.2 atm, from Fig. 13.69, Eco, = 0.098 &4
The correction factor for CO, for total pressure pT = 1 atrn from surface 1to surface 2 can be expressed as
Ccoz = 1
Thus E~ = Ecoz x CCO2= 0.098
From eqn. (13.62) to obtain ag at T, = 573 K 1
where Rl-, = -is the space resistance to radiation. The network method is used to solve
A 1Fl-2
the radiation network. The radiation heat transfer between any two opaque, gray, and diffused
surfaces is given by

Now Qnet = A, okgTg4- agTs4)

= n: x (0.4) x (5.67 x lo-') x [(0.098) x (14.7314- (0.1367) x (573)''I +-+-----"
= 31.82 x lo3 Wlm = 31.82 kW/m. Ans. ~ 1 A l AlF1-2 ~ 2 4
The radiation heat transfer rate between two surfaces can be reduced drastically by
placing thin, high reflectivity (low emissivity) material sheets between these two surfaces,
13.10. SUMMARY called radiation shield. The radiation heat transfer rate between two large parallel planes
separated by N radiation shield is
The view factor from surface 1to surface 2 is designated as Fl-, and is defined as fraction of
radiation leaving the surface 1 and that strikes surface 2, directly. The view factor FlW1repro. - A o ( T , ~- T , ~ )
sents the fraction of radiation leaving surface 1and that strikes itself directly. F,-, = 0 for fltrt Q1-2, N shield -
or convex surfaces while F1-l # 0 for concave surfaces. For view factor the reciprocity rule I*
expressed as
The radiation effect in temperature measurement can be properly accounted by the
A, Fl-, = A, F,-,
For an enclosure, the sum of view factors from surface i to all surfaces of enclo~uruc relation
N
including itself must be equal to unity i.e., F, = 1
1=1
where T_ is actual temperature of fluid, T, is temperature measure by thermocouple, and T, is
or FL-l + F,-, + FLF3+ ...... + F,-N = 1 the temperature of surrounding walls.
It is known as summation rule. The superposition or additive rule states that the vlaw Many gases are transparent to radiation, but water vapour CO,, H20, CO, SO2,NH3 etc.
factor Fl-, is equal to the sum of view factors from surface 1 to the parts of surface 2. The can absorb and emit radiation. The gas radiation is not a surface phenomenon, but is a volu-
symmetry rule states that if two or more surfaces are symmetric about the surface 1, then metric phenomenon.
892 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 893

F1-2 = F 1 3 = ......
and value of AE to correct the emission in overlapping wavelength bands, from Fig. 13.72 The rate of radiation heat transfer between two black surfaces is expressed as
A& = 0.014 Q1-2 = A, Fl-, o (TI4- TZ4)(W)
The effective emissivity of the mixture The net radiation heat transfer rate from a surface i of a black enclosure is sum of
~ , ~ ~ = 1 . 6 2 ~ 0 . 1 5 + 1 . 1 2 ~ 0 . 1 2 5 - 0 . 0 1 4 = 0 . Ans.
369. radiation heat transfers from surface i to each of the surface of enclosure :
Example 13.50.A long cylindrical combustor 40 cm in diameter contains a gas at 1200' ( '
consisting of 0.8 atrn N, and 0.2 atrn CO,. What is the net heat radiated to the walls if the.y rtrv
at 300°C ?
The radiation heat transfer from a cavity surface 1is given by
Solution
Given : Gas radiation in combustor
D = 40 cm, T,- = 1200°C = 1473 K
pN2= 0.8 atrn The net rate of radiation heat transfer from a surface is expressed as
p = 1 atm
pco, = 0.2 atrn E, - J
T, = 300°C = 573 K. Q = R- (W)
To find : Net gas radiation to walls of combustor. 1-E
where R = -is the surface resistance, to radiation. The net rate of radiation heat transfer
Analysis :For CO, at 0.2 atm, from Fig. 13.69, Eco, = 0.098 &A
The correction factor for C0, for total pressure pT = 1 atrn from surface 1 to surface 2 can be expressed as
ccoz = 1
Thus E~ = Eco2 x CCO2= 0.098
From eqn. (13.62) to obtain ag at T, = 573 K 1
where Rl-, = -is the space resistance to radiation. The network method is used to solve
A 1Fl-2
the radiation network. The radiation heat transfer between any two opaque, gray, and diffused
surfaces is given by

Now Qnet = As okgTg4- agTs4)

= 7c x (0.4) x (5.67 x x L(0.098) x (14.73)4- (0.1367) x (579)'l
= 31.82 x lo3 W/m = 31.82 kW/m. Ans. ~ 1 A l' 4F1-2 ' &,A2
The radiation heat transfer rate between two surfaces can be reduced drastically by
placing thin, high reflectivity (low emissivity) material sheets between these two surfaces,
13.10. SUMMARY called radiation shield. The radiation heat transfer rate between two large parallel planes
separated by N radiation shield is
The view factor from surface 1to surface 2 is designated as Fl-, and is defined as fraction of
radiation leaving the surface 1 and that strikes surface 2, directly. The view factor F1-l reprub -- A o ( T , ~- T , ~ )
sents the fraction of radiation leaving surface 1and that strikes itself directly. F,-, = 0 for fltrt Q1-2, N shield
1 1 1
or convex surfaces while F1-l + 0 for concave surfaces. For view factor the reciprocity rulc* tr
expressed as
The radiation effect in temperature measurement can be properly accounted by the
-4, Fl-, = A, F2-,
For an enclosure, the sum of view factors from surface i to all surfaces of enclonttm relation
N
including itself must be equal to unity i.e., F,, = 1
1 = l
where T_ is actual temperature of fluid, T, is temperature measure by thermocouple, and Twis
or F,-1+F,-2+F1-3+...... +F1-,+ the temperature of surrounding walls.
It is known as summation rule. The superposition or additive rule states that the view Many gases are transparent to radiation, but water vapour C02,H20,CO, SO,, NH, etc.
factor F1-, is equal to the sum of view factors from surface 1 to the parts of surface 2. The can absorb and emit radiation. The gas radiation is not a surface phenomenon, but is a volu-
symmetry rule states that if two or more surfaces are symmetric about the surface 1, then metric phenomenon.