Given :Radiation and convection heat transfer from a radiator into a room.
Ts = 70°C = 343 K
T_ = 20°C = 293 K
Its integration yields to Properties of fluid and correlation.
To find :Natural convection and radiation heat transfer rate.
Assumptions :
(i) Steady state conditions.
" 1 n4
We have T = g0 ( i i )Blackbody behaviour of radiator.
n=l n
(iii)Constant properties and a = 5.67 x Wlm2.K4.
Analysis :The radiation heat transfer rate.
which gives
Given that
1 (70  2 0 ) ~ ~
where Gr, = p 2 g P(Ts  Tm)L3 = (1.2)2 x 9.81 x x N u , = 0.53(GrDPr)Ii4
p2 293 (1.8 x l2
and air properties at 115°C are
= 7.44 x 109 ~3
Then, NuL = 0.118(7.44 x lo9 L3 x 0 . 7 1 ) =~ 205.35
~~ L k f = 0.03306 W1m.K v = 24.93 x 1 0 d m 2 / s , Pr = 0.687.
The average heat transfer coefficient Solution
Given :A steam pipe exposed to a large room.
Ts = 2OO0C, Tm= 30°C
D = 20 cm = 0.2 m, L = 1m, Q = 1.9193 W/m
The QcOnv = h,(T,  Tm)= 5.34(70  20) = 267 W/m2. Air properties and relation for NuD.
A
The total heat transfer rate per unit area is To find :Emissivity of the pipe surface.
qtOtal= 367 + 267 = 634 W/m2. Ans, Assumptions :
( i )Pipe surface is diffuse and gray.
Example 12.4. A hot water radiator of overall dimensions 2 x 1 x 0.2 m is used to heat (ii) Room and air at uniform temperature of 30°C.
the room at 18°C. The surface temperature of radiator is 60°C and its surface is black. The Analysis :The steam pipe dissipates heat to room by convection and radiation, i.e.,
actual surface of the radiator is 2.5 times the area of its envelope for convection for which the
convection coefficient is given by h , = 1.3(AT)II3 W/m2.K. Q = Qconv + Qrad
Q + E 0 (nD) ( T , ~ Tm4)
Calculate the rate of heat loss from the radiator by convection and radiation.  =h
L
(nD) (T,  TJ ...(1)
Solution Calculation of h in natural convection
Given :Radiation and convection heat transfer from a radiator.
Radiator Dimensions : H = 2 m, L = l m , w=0.2m
T, = 60°C = 333 K, Tm = 18°C = 291 K
For convection A, = 2.5 kad
h , = l . ' ( ~ T ) l ' ~. Grashof number
To find :Rate of heat transfer by convection and radiation.
g P(Ts  7?,)D3 1 (200  30) (0.2)~
Assumptions : Gr, =
v
= 9.81x x
388 (24.93 x 10y2
= 55.326 x lo6
( i )The radiator as a blackbody.
The Rayleigh number
( i i ) Steady state conditions. Ra, = Gr,, Pr = 55.326 x lo6 x 0.687 = 38.009 x 10"
(iii)Uniform heat transfer coefficient. The Nusselt number
Analysis :The area of the radiator ; NuD = 0.53(GrDPrI1l4= 0.53(38.009 x lO6)lI4 = 41.61
kad = 2{2 x 1 + 2 x 0.2 + 1x 0.21 = 5.2 m2 Convection coefficient,
Radiation heat transfer rate ;
Qrad= Arad0 (Ts4 Tm4)= 5.2 x 5.67 x x (3334 2914) = 1511.2 W
The convection heat transfer coefficient, Using numerical values in eqn. (1)
h , = 1.3(AT)lI3= 1.3(60  18)ll3= 4.51 W/m2.K 1919.3 W/m = (6.88 W/m2.K)(n: x 0.2 m) (200  30) (K)
+ E x (5.67 x

The convection heat transfer area, W/m2.K4)x (n: x 0.2 m) (4734 3034) (K4)
A, = 2.5 x Arad= 2.5 x 5.2 = 13 m2 1919.3  734.76
E= = 0.798 0.8. Ans.
The convection heat transfer rate ; 1482.94
Qconv= h , x As(T,  TJ = 4.51 x 13 x (60  18) = 2462.24 W The emissivity of the pipe surface is 0.8.
The total heat transfer rate from the radiator, Example 12.6. Calculate the following quantities for a n industrial furnace (blackbody)
Q = Qrad+ Qc0, = 1511.2 + 2462.24 = 3973.67 W. Ans. emitting radiation at 2650°C.
Example 12.5.A pipe carrying steam runs i n a large room and exposed to air at 30°C. ii) Spectral emissive power at A = 1.2 pm,
The pipe surface temperature is 200°C. Diameter of the pipe is 20 cm. If the total heat loss per ( i i ) Wavelength at which the emissive power is maximum,
metre length of the pipe is 1.9193 k W / m , determine the emissivity of the pipe surface. (iii)Maximum spectral emissive power,
766 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER 767
THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES
 0.12451
= 5.67 x lo4 x (5800)~[0.4914
= 23.54 x lo6 W/m2. Ans.
or fh,h, =f0h, f0h, ...(12.28) Example 12.11.Determine (a) the wavelength at which the spectral emissive power o f a
tungsten filament at 1400 K is maximum, (b) the spectral emissive power at that wavelength,
where fo  h, and fo  h , are the blackbody radiation func and (c) the spectral emissive power at 5 pm.
tions corresponding to hlT and h, T, respectively. Solution
Fig. 12.11. Blackbody radiation in
wavelength band 2. = hl to h = h2 Given :For a radiating surface
T, = 1400 K.
Example 12.9.The temperature of a filament of a n incandescent light bulb (a blackbody) To find :
is maintained at 2500 K Calculate the fraction of radiant energy emitted by the filament in the (i)A,, corresponds to peak emissive power,
visible spectrum. Also calculate the wavelength at which the emission from the filament reache8 (ii)Peak spectral emissive power corresponding to h,
a maximum value. (iii)Spectral emissive power a t h = 5 pm.
Solution Assumption :Blackbody radiation and o = 5.67 x lo4 W/m2. K4.
Given :Radiation from a filament of an incandescent light bulb in visible range. Analysis :(i)The wavelength corresponds to maximum emissive power.
T = 2500 K h, T = 2897.6 pm.K
h, = 0.4 gm Lax= 2897'6  2.07 p.Ans.
& = 0.76 pm For visible range.

1400
To find : (ii) Spectral emissive power a t h = h, can be obtained from eqn. (12.21) ;
( i ) Fraction of radiation energy emitted in visible range. Ebhmax = 12.87 x 10lo T5
(ii)Wavelength corresponding to maximum emissive power. = 12.87 x 10lo x (1400Y = 69.23 x loS W/m2.pn. Ans.
Analysis :( i )The blackbody radiation function corresponds to h1T and h, T are (iii) Monochromatic emissive power a t 5 pm.
hT = 5 x 1400 = 7000 ym.K +fo  = 0.808144
hlT = (0.4 pm) x (2500 K ) = 1000 pm.K+ fo1, = 0.000321
Ebh= o T4. fo = 5.67 x lo4 x (1400)4x 0.808144
h2T = (0.76 pm) x (2500 K ) = 1900 pm K+ fo h , = 0.052111 = 1.76 x 105W/m2.pm. Ans.
fhl  h2 = fO   fO  hl = 0.052111  0.000321 = 0.05179 Example 12.12. A window glass 0.3 cm thick has a monochromatic transmissivity of
' 0.9 in the range of 0.3 pm to 2.5 pm and nearly zero elsewhere. Estimate the total transmissivity
I t indicates that only 5.18% of the radiation energy emitted falls in the visible
range. Ans. of the window for (a) near black solar radiation at 5800 K, and (b) black room radiation at
(ii)Wavelength corresponding to maximum emissive power is obtained by using Wien'~ 300 K.
displacement law Solution
2897.8 Given :Transmission through a glass window
hm,T = 2897.8 gm.K or h,  pm = 1.16 pm. Ans.
 2500 Z~ = 0.9, hl = 0.3 pm, h2 = 2.5 pm
Example 12.10. Solar radiation has approximately same spectral distribution as a11 ( a ) T = 5800 K, ( b )T = 300 K.
ideal radiating body at temperature of 5800 K. Determine the amount of solar radiation, which To find : Transmissivity in range of ill = 0.3 pm to A, = 2.5 pm for (i) T = 5800 K, and
is in the visible range of 0.4 pm to 0.7 pm, use following data : (ai)T = 300 K.
772 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 773
i
= constant ; 0 Ih < hl
EA = = constant ; hl l h < X z
E! = constant ; h2 I h < =
Fig. 12.19. Approximation of actual variation of spectral emissivity
with wavelength by a step function
I Black body E, = E = 1
Thus a gray surface is considered for which the spectral emissivity ck is independent of
the wavelength and thus for a gray surface, the spectral emissivity is equal to total emissivity E
c(T T E;(T) ...(12.40)
Further, for a gray surface, the absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity are also
independent of wavelength. For such a surface ;
E(T)= a(T) ...(12.41)
U
1 2 3 4 5 6 Example 12.14. In an isothermal enclosure at uniform temperature two small surfaces
Wavelength, h, pm 
' A and B are placed. The irradiation to the surface by the enclosure is 6200 W l m 2 . The absorp
Fig. 12.17.iCom~arisonof the emissivit~of a Fig. 12.18. Comparison of hemispherical spectral tion rates by the surfaces A, and B are 5500 W l m 2and 620 Wlm2. When steady state is estab
real surfa&, a gray surface and a blackbody emission for black, gray and real surfaces lished, calculate the following :.
a t the same temperature ( i ) What are the heat fluxes to each surfaces ? What are their temperatures ?
If the variation of spectral emissivity is quite large, but it is constant over certain wave (ii)Absorptivity of both surfaces,
length as shown in Fig.12.19, then E(T)is expressed as step function and eqn. (12.38) is inte (iii)Emissive power of each surface, and
grated by dividing the spectrum into a number of wavelength bands and assuming the emis
sivity c(T) remains constant over each wavelength band. Then the average emissivity can be ( i v )Emissivity of each surface.
determined as Solution
Given :Two small body A, and B are placed in an enclosure.
G = 6200 W/m2
G,, = 5500 W/m2
G,, = 620 W/m2.
THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 781
780 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
a=& Example 12.19. A plane ,gray, diffuse and, opaque surface (absorptivity = 0.7) with a
J = &Eb+. (1 E ~ G surface area of 0.5 m2, is maintained a t 500°C and receives radiant energy at a rate of 10,000
Thus
1 Wlm2. Determine per unit time
(ij The energy absorbed.
(ii) The radiant energy emitted.
The total rate of energy leaving the surface = AJ (iii) The total energy leaving the surface per
The total rate of energy incident on the surface = AG unit area.
Thus the net radiant energy leaving the surface (iv) The radiant energy emitted by the sur
Q=AJAG=A(JG) ...(12.58) face in the wave band 0.2 pm to 4 ym.
(v) The net radiative heat transfer from the
surface.
This equation is not valid for black surface for which E = a = 1 ; p = 0 Solution
For a black surface, J = Eb Given :Plane, gray, diffuse, opaque surface
Q = A(Eb G) ...(12.60) a = 0.7
Example 12.18. A gray, diffuse opaque surface (a = 0.8) is at 100°C and receives an A,(surface area) = 0.5 m2
irradiation 1000 Wlm2. If the surface area is 0.1 m2. Calculate G = 10000 W/m2
(i) Radiosity of the surface, and Ts = 500°C.
(ii) Net radiative heat transfer rate from the surface. To find :
(iii) Calculate above quantities, if surface is black. (i) Rate of energy absorbed,
Solution (ii) Emitted radiant energy,
Given :A gray, diffuse opaque surface (iii) Total radiant energy leaving the sur
a = 0.8, G = 1000 W/m2 face per unit area Fig. 12.25. Schematic for energy
T, = 100°C = 373 K, A, = 0.1 m2. (iv) Emitted radiant energy in the wave transactions on the surface
To find : band 0.2 pm4 pm
(i) Radiosity J, ( v ) Q(net radiative heat transfer rate from the surface).
(ii) Net heat transfer rate, Analysis :(i) Rate of energy absorbed = aAG = 0.7 x 0.5 x 10000 = 3500 W. Ans.
(iiil For black surface J and Q,,. (ii) Rate of radiant energy emitted = A E o T4 (For a gray surface, E = a = 0.7)
Analysis :(i) The radiosity of the surface A E o T4 = 0.5 x 0.7 x 5.67 x x (773)4= 7091 W. Ans.
J = EE, + pG Fig. 12.24. Surface energy (iii) Total energy flux leaving the surface is the sum of the emitted energy flux and the
For a gray, diffuse and opaque surface, a = E balance with radiant energy reflected energy flux J = EE, + pG
T=O, a + p = l where p = 1 a = 1 0.7 = 0.3
or p=la=l0.8=0.2 :. Radiosity, J = 0.7 x 5.67 x x (773)4+ 0.3 x 10000 = 17182 W/m2. Ans.
.. J = a o T4+ pG = 0.8 x 5.67 x 10*(373)~+ 0.2 x 1000 = 1078 W/m2. Ans. (iv) Rate of radiant energy emitted in the wave band 0.2 pm to 4 ym is given by
(ii) The net heat transfer rate using eqn. (12.'60) EL,A, = d f o  h ,  fox,]Eb W/m2
Qnet= A(J  G) = 0.1(1078  1000) = 7.8 W/m2. Ans. At h, and A,, T = 773, from Table 12.2
Alternatively using eqn. (12.59)
Qnet = AF(Eb
1 E
J,
 = 0.1 x 0.8
[5.67 x (373)'  10781 = 7.81 wlmZ.
1  0.8 h2T = 4.0 x 773 = 3092 pm.K +foh, = 0.294
(iii) For black surface E = a = 1 EhlhZ= 0.7 x [0.294  01 x 5.67 x lo4 x (773)4= 4166.2 W/m2.
(a) Radiosity J = Eb = o T4 = 5.67 x lo* x (373)4= 1097.5 W/m2. Ans. Rate of radiant energy on surface area As = 0.5 m2 is
( b )The heat transfer rate, eqn. (12.60)
= AEh, = 0.5 x 4166.2 = 2083.13 W. Ans.
Q = A(E,  G) = O.l(l097.5  1000) = 9.753 W/m2. Ans.
788 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RADIATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 789

Assume the sun behaves as a blackbody at 5760 K. The sky is at 0 K.
= a1foilG + a, fhl  G = [a,foi;, + a2(1 f0,,)1G
= [ l x 0.9392 + 0.1 x ( 1  0.9392)l x 1353 = 1278.96 W/m2
The heat flux from surface to surroundings
q = 109.75  1278.96 =  1169.21 W/m2
Coolant  The ve sign indicates, that the net heat flux is towards the surface. Ans.
( i i )If coolant flow stops then at thermal equilibrium
Emissive power = Rate of energy absorbed = 1278.96 W/m2
Comments. The special surface is much more effective as a solar collector than a black
surface. The special surface transfers 1169.2 W/m2 to the coolant, whereas the black surface
transfers only 253.7 W/m2.The reason for this difference is that the major part of the radiation
from the sun is in the wave band 02 pm (94%),and all of it is absorbed by the special surface. T, = 2000 K Brick wall
\
Example 12.21. A diffuse fire brick wall at temperature of 500 K has discontinuous
spectral emissivity as shown i n Fig. 12.27 (a) and is exposed to coal bed at 2000 K.
Coals
I
1 .o I
I Fig. 12.27. ( b ) Schematic
I
Fig. 12. 27 ( a )
Calculate the total hemispherical emissivity and emissive power of the fire brick wall.
What is the total absorptivity of the wall to the irradiation resulting from emission by the coals.
Solution
Hence, E(TJ = 0.1 x 0 + 0.5 x [0.634  01 + 0.8[1 0.6341 = 0.610. Ans.
Given :Fire brick wall exposed to coal bed
( i i )Total emissive power
T s = 500 K, T, = 2000 K
E(TJ = E(TJ Eb(Ts)= d T S )x o Ts4
EL, = = 0.1 for 0 5 h < 1.5
= 0.610 x 5.67 x lo4 x (500)4= 2161 W/m2. Ans.
Ex, = = 0.5 for 1.5 C: h < 10 (iii)Total absorptivity of wall
Ex, = = 0.8 for 10 l h < w .
To find :
( i )Total hemispherical emissivity of the fire brick wall,
JU
( i i )Total emissive power of the brickwall, Since surface is diffuse and opaque.
(iii)Absorptivity of the wall to irradiation from the coals. Thus eh = a,
Assumptions : Moreover, the spectral distribution of the irradiation approximates that due to emission
( i )Brick wall opaque and diffuse (2 = 0 ) from a blackbody at 2000 K ; G,a Ebh . It follows
( i i ) Spectral distribution of brick wall approximates that due to emission from a blackbody
a t 2000 K.
792 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMAL RAMATION : PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES 793
At Tc = 2000 K frem Table 12.2 The spectral distribution of solar radiation on the earth's atmosphere and physical sig
hlTc = 1.5 x 2000 = 3000 ym.K+ fO+ = 0.273 nificance of G, and Go are illustrated in Fig. 12.29. The solar radiation travels in atmosphere
about 30 km outside the eadh's surface. As s d a r radiation passes through this atmosphere, it
h2Tc= 10 x 2000 = 20000 ym.K+ fo),, = 0.9856 is absorbed and scattered by atmospheric material. The absorption occurs mainly due to pres
Hence, a(TJ = 0.1 x 0.273 + 0.5[0.9856  0.2731 + 0.8[1 0.98561 = 0.3951. Ans. ence of ozone, water vapours, CO,, NO,, CO, 0, and CH, e t ~The . ozone absorbs complete
ultraviolet radiation at wavelength below 0.3 ym and considerably in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 ym
and some radiation in the visible range. Thus the ozone layer in the upper regions of atmos
12.10. SOLAR RADIATION
phere guards biological systems on the earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiation. In turn
The sun is our primary source of energy. The energy the ozone layer must be protected from the destructive chemicals commonly used as refriger
Normal
coming out the sun is called solar energy and it ants, cleaning agents and propellants in the aerosol cans. The carbon dioxide and water va
4 pour absorb mainly longer wavelength radiation (infrared radiation).
reaches to earth in the form of electromagnetic
waves. The sun is considered as a nuclear reactor, Earth's Go = G, cos 0 As a results of these absorption, the solar energy reaching the earth surface is weak
atmosphere ened considerably. Its absorption is large as 950 W/m2 on a clear day and much less on cloudy
where the heat being generated due to continuous \ or smoggy days.
fusion reaction of hydrogen atoms to form helium.
The sun experiences very large temperature in its
core region, but its temperature drops to approxi
mately 5800 K i n its outer region, due to continuous
dissipation of energy by radiation.
The sun is nearly spherical body of diameter
of 1.392 x lo6 km and a mass of 2 x 1030 kg.  It is
located at a mean distance of 1.496 x lo8 km from 12.28. solar radiation reaching the
the earth. The earth has its mean diameter of 1.27 x earth's atmosphere, solar constant G,, a n d
lo4 km and its surface gets only small fraction of e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l solar i r r a d i a t i o n Go
sun's energy, because, the sun subtmds only an an
gle of 32 minute at the earth's surdce. The intensity of solar radiation reaches outside the
earth's atmosphere is almost constant. The solar constant G, is the rate at which the solar
radiation flux is received on a surface normal to the sun rays just outside the earth's atmos
phere, when the earth is its mean distance from the sun. The radiation coming from the sun is
equivalent to blackbody radiation. Using the Stefan Boltzmann law, the solar constant can be
calculated as :
where,
G;, I[ 2

a, = 0.95 To find :The surface temperature of roof with
*
T, = 120°C = 393 K (i) White acrylic paint, and
T, = 30°C
Tsky=  10°C = 263 K
a, = 0.95 \ Air
T, = 30°C
h = 0.22 (T,  T,)~'~
(ii) Nonselective black paint.
Assumptions :
(i) Steady state conditions.
 G, = 750 W/m2
and relation for calculation of h.
To find :
(ii) No heat transfer to interior of roof.
(iii) For nonselective black paint a, = E.
1
qu,, w/m2 Analysis :In steady state condition, the energy balance yields to
(i) Useful heat removal rate per unit Incident (solar + sky radiation) energy on the roof surface = Heat loss by (convection +
area, W/m2. Fig. 12.35. Schematic radiation) from the roof surface
(ii) Efficiency of the collector. For 1m2 surface area
Assumptions : asG, + E o Ts;y= h(Ts  T,) + E 0 Ts4
(i)Steady state conditions. (i) For white acrylic paint a, = 0.26, E = 0.9
(ii) Bottom of the collector is well insulated. 0.26 x 600 + 0.9 x 5.67 x (Z9lI4 = 8 (Ts  308) + 0.9 x 5.67 x lo' Ts4
(iii) Diffuse absorber surface. or 5.103 x 1O4TS4 + 8T,  2986 = 0
(iv) Sky radiation is in approximately same spectral region that of surface emission i.e., or Ts4+ 156.77 x lo6 T,  5.851 x 1010 = 0
E = asky = 0.1. It is a transcendental equation and its solution by iterative technique converge to
Analysis :(i) The rate of incoming energy on the absorber surface/m2 T, = 312 K = 39°C. Ans.
(ii) For nonselective black paint, a, = E = 0.9 and then above eqn. leads to
EL
A = + %kYG ~ k y Ts4 + 156.77 x lo6 T,  6.6038 x 101° = 0
= 0.95 x 750 + 0.1 x 5.67 x lo4 x (263j4 = 739.62 W/m2 Its solution converges to
The energy outgoing the absorber surface per unit area Ts = 338K = 65°C. Ans.
%ut  q,,,, Example 12.24. An artificial spherical satellite flies around :he earth. Calculate the
A qrad + quse= h(Ts  Tm)+ + quse
+ temperature of the satellite surface, a s s u m i n g ~ h a tthere is no heat sources a n d surface tem
= 0.22(Ts  T_)4/3+ E o Ts4 + quse perature is uniform all over the surface. The solar radiation reflected from the earth a n d radia
= 0.22 (120  30)*3 + 0.1 x 5.67 x lo4 (393 K)4 + quse tion emitted from the earth should also be ignored.
= 88.73 + 135.25 + q,,, = 223.98 + qUse (i)Ifa,=0.2 and ~ = 0 . 1 ;
In steady state conditions, (ii) If surface of the satellite is gray ;
(iii) Find the ratio a , / & , when the temperature of the satellite surface becomes 30°C.
EL  %Ut
Rate at which energy leaving the surface due to emission and reflection
The total radiation energy reaching the collector in all directions per unit area per unit time, J (W/m2).
= Projected area of collector (cos Q2) x (838.2 + 197.64) W/m2 Reflection The process of redirection of radiation energy incident on a surface.
= 1.5 x 1.5 cos (45") x (1005.84) = 1600.28 W. Ans. Reflectivity, p The fraction of incident radiation energy reflected by the surface.
Semitransparent It is a medium in which radiation absorption is the volumetric process.
Solar energy It is energy coming out the sun.
12.1 I . SUMMARY
Solar constant Rate at which the solar radiation flux is received on a surface normal to
The radiation refers to t h e energy emitted i n form of electromagnetic waves by the bodies sun's rays just outside the earth's atmosphere, G,(W/m2).
because of their temperature.The radiatiop energy emitted i n wavelength between h = 0.1 and Solid angle, w Ratio of area of spherical surface enclosed by a conical surface with ver
h = 100 p m is refirred th'ermal radiation. The s u n emits thermal radiation at a n effective tex of the cone at the centre of sphere to square of radius of sphere. It is
surface temperature of 5760 K and bulk of this energy lies between h = 0.1 to 31. = 3 pm, there measured in straradian (sr).
fore this spectrum is referred a s the solar radiation. The radiation emitted by t h e s u n is in Spectral It refers to a single wavelength (monochromatic) radiation. The quantity
is denoted by subscript h.
r, avelength between h = 0.4 to h = 0.76 pm, is visible to h u m a n eye, therefore, this spectrum is
referred as the visible radiation (light). Spectral distribution It refers to properties variation with wavelength.
Specular It refers to the surface for which the angle of reflected radiation is equal
The glossary of radiation terms and their definition a r e given in Table 12.5.
to the angle of incident radiation.
TABLE 12.5. Glossary of the radiation terms Stefan Boltzmann law The emissive power of the blackbody is directly proportional to fourth
power of the absolute temperature ; E6 = o T4, where o = 5.67 x lo4
W/m2.K4,is Stefan Boltzmann constant, and T is an absolute tempera
Terms Definition ture in K.
Absorption The process of converting the radiation intercepted by the matter to in Thermal radiation It is the electromagnetic energy emitted by a matter at a finite tempera
ture in the spectral region from approximately from 0.1 to 100 ym.
ternal thermal energy.
Absorptivity, a Fraction of the incident radiation absorbed by the surface. Total solar radiation Sum of direct and diffuse solar radiation.
Blackbody An ideal body which absorbs all incident radiation and emits maximum Transmission It is process of the thermal radiation passing through the maftek.
energy. ~ransmissivit~ It is the fraction of radiation energy transmitted by the matter.
Blackbody radiation Fraction of radiation energy emitted by a blackbody at temperature T in Wien's displacement Relation between wavelength,,A and absolute temperature T at
function wavelength band h = 0 to h. law which Ebhreaches a maximum ; h,, T = 2897.6 pm.K.
Diffuse A surface, whose properties are independent of directions.
Directional The property pertains to a particular direction, denoted by 8.
Emission The process 'of radiation production by the surface at a finite tempera REVIEW QUESTIONS
ture.
Emissive power, E The rate of radiant energy emitted by a surface in all direction per unit
area of the surface. It is measured in W/m2. What is an electromagnetic wave ? How does it differs from a sound wave ?
Emissivity, E Ratio of the emissive power of a surface to the emissive power of the What are the ranges of wavelengths of electromagnetic waves covering ultraviolet, visible,
blackbody at the same temperature. infrared and thermal radiation ?
Gray surface A surface for which the spectral absorptivity and emissivity are inde What is the speed of energy propagation between two bodies when the space between them is
pendent of the wavelength over the spectral region of the surface irradia evacuated ?
tion and emission. What do you mean by ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation ?
Green house effect The warming up process due to remission between earth's surface and What is a blackbody ? What are its properties ? Why does a cavity with a small hole behave as
atmosphere. a blackbody ?
Hemispherical The quantity pertains to all directions above the surface. Why are microwave oven suitable for cooking ?
Irradiation The rate at which the radiation is incident on a surface from all direction What are the total and spectral emissive power of a blackbody ?
per unit area of the surface, G(W/m". What do you mean by spectral, terms used in thermal radiation ?
Kirchhoff 's law Relation between emission and absorption properties of a surface at ther State Planck's distribution law and list down its features.
mal eqbilibrium. What is Wien's displacement law ? Derive an expression for its relation. What is a diffuse body ?
Planck's law It is associated with spectral distribution of emission from a blackbody. State and explain Stefan Boltzmann law. Derive an expression for total emissive power of a
Radiation intensity The rate of radiation energy propagation in a particular direction, per blackbody.
unit area normal to the direction, per unit solid angle about the direc What is radiation intensity ? How do you distinguish between spectral emissive power and
tion, I (W/m2.sr). spectral radiation intensity ?
81 8 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 819
Consider a geometry as shown in Fig. 13.13. The view factor Fl2 between surface 1and
2 can be evaluated by following procedure. First identify the end points of the surface as A, B,
C and D. Connect them with tightly stretched string, which are indicated by dashed line.
Hottel has proved that the view factor F1 ,can be expressed in terms of lengths of these
stretched strings which are straight lines as
Fig. 13.14
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 82 1
820
Put r2 + L2 = t ; 2 r dr = dt
and limits : t = 0 + L2to R2 + L2
Then the integration :
Fig. 13.17
Example 13.2. Determine the view factor between a small area dAl and a rectangular
surface of dimension a and b, where the rectangular surface is i n horizontal plane and the 1. Sphere of diameter D inside a cubical box of length D.
small area dAl lies i n the vertical plane and below one corner of the rectangle at a height H. 2. Diagonal partition within a long square duct.
(P.U., May 2000) 3. End and side of a circular tuba of equal length and diameter.
Solution ea Solution
The view factor between two surfaces is given by
c / 7  Given : Surface geometries.
S S .
Hence Fl, = 0.5 
and s= , dA2 = d'x dy
'5(1
Fig. 13.15 A1
b ~ a b ~
By reciprocal theorem, F2, = A, F,2 = y J2 x 0.5 = 0.71. Ans.
Hb Hab
. Then, F,= n o o (El2 +a212dx dy = . ( H ~ + a212Sody = n(H2 + a2 12 ' Ans. 3. Circular tube :
,
From Fig. 13.9 with r 3 L = 0.5 and Llrl = 2, Fl = 0.17
 13.3. A flat surface, 1 is completely enclosed by a second surface, 2 Fig. 13.16.
Example From summation rule, F11 + q  2 + Fl3 = 1
Determine the view factors F1 F2  and F2  2 .
27 Where for flat surface, F,1 = 0
Solution Fl, = 1F,, = 10.17 ~ 0 . 8 3
.
As no part of surface 1 "sees" itself, all the en A1
By reciprocity rule, F21  F12= nD2'4 .DL x 0.83 = 0.21. h s .
ergy leaving surface 1reaches surface 2, and from the  A2
definition of view factor, Example 13.5. Calculate the view factor F1 F l  , and F2, for the followinggeometries :
F,, = 1
To determine F2,, from eqn. (13.5)
A, F21 = A1 Fl2
AI'FI2  A1 Fig. 13.16. A flat surface, 1,com
F2, =
A2 A, pletely enclosed by a second surface, 2.
From eqn. (13.6)
Fig. 13.18
822 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 823
1. A black body inside a black enclosure. Example 13.7. Calculate the shape factor of a conical hole.
2. A tube whose section is equilateral triangle. Solution
3. Radiation exchange between a hemisphere and a plane surface. Analysis :Considering an imaginary flat plane cov
2
Solution ers the hole, hence by summation rule
F ,  , + F l  2 = 1 and F 2  1 + F 2  2 = 1
Given : Surface geometries.
To find :The view factor. But F2 = 0, hence F2 = 1., T
Analysis : 1.A black body inside a black enclosure :
By inspection, F2,= 1
By summation rule, F1 + F1 = 1
By reciprocity relation,
AIF1 2 = A2F21
F1l= 1Fld2 tan a = (Dl2h)
i
A2 A2
By reciprocity rule, AzF2  1 = AIF1  2 Therefore, F1 = 1  ,
A1 F2 = 1  A1 Fig. 13.20
T
2
Hence F2,=I0.5=0.5. Ans. Assuming cylindrical surface 1and plane surface 2
3. The radiation heat exchange between a hemisphere surface 1 and a flat surface 2.
From summation rule, F1 + F1 = 1 ,
F1,= l  F 1  2
From summation rule, Fl + Fl  2 = 1 and F2 + F, , ,
=1
or
and F21 + F2, = 1
But for flat surface, ,
F2 = 0, hence F2 = 1 But for flat surface, F22 = 0
By reciprocity rule, h F 2  1 =A1F12 From surface 2 to surface 1, F 2 4= 1
A2F21 = 
nR2 = 0.5 By reciprocity rule, A2F2l=AlFl2
To flat surface hemisphere, F1 = A, 2nR2
I I
140
Then F, ,= 
100
x (0.35  0.3) = 0.07. Ans.
(c) Assuming surface 5 and surface 6 as
A, = A, + A, and A, = 4 + A,
By additive rule F1  = F1 + F1
F12 =F1,F14
By reciprocity rule
(d)
Fig. 13.23 13 7
For F6, ; X=  = 0.65; y =  = 0.35+F6, = 0.35
Solution 20 20
8 7
For F63;x==0.4; y==0.35+F6.,=0.3
20 20
13 4
For F 4  , ; x = % = 0 . 6 5 ; y =   =0.2 F4, =0.367
20
From Fig. 13.10, view factor, F,  = 0.34. Ans. 8 4
For F4, ;x =  = 0.4; y =  = 0.2 +F4,= 0.358
( b )Assuming surface 4 as combination of surface 1and surface 3 ; 20 20
A, = A, + A, Then F,, = 1.4(0.35  0.3) = 0.07
By additive rule F2 = F2 + F2 or F2 = F2  F2 ,
F, = 0.8(0.367  0.358) = 0.0072
By reciprocity rule and ,
F, = 0.07  0.0072 = 0.063. Ans.
(d)Assuming surface 5 and 6 as
A, = A, + A3
A6=&2+A4
By additive rule F1 = F1  + F1  $ ,
F1  = F1   F1 
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 827
826 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
By reciprocal rule
A6 A6
=A6F61+F16=
A1
F61 * F12=
1
F6lF14
F32 = F14
From Fig. 13.10, the view factor F6 ,, F3 ,and Fl ,can be obtained
Then,
Example 13.12. Fig.13.25 depicts window i n the wall of a room. Find the view factor
 0.103 FB A , where A is the window and B is the floor.
Fl2 = = 0.120. Ans.
Solution
Example 13.11. Calculate the view factor Fl  2 for the following geometry.
Solution
Given :Geometry as shown in Fig. 13.24
lB c m 4
Fig. 13.24 (4
Analysis :Assuming surface 5 and surface 6 as Fig. 13.25. Schematic for example 13.12
A5 = Al + A3
&=&+A4
828 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 829
Given :The geometry as shown above. Example 13.13. Consider a n enclosure formed by closing one end o f cylinder, .
L = 6 m , w=2.5m, D = 5 m (diameter = D, Height = L) by a flat surface and other end by a hemispherical dome. Determine
the view factors of all the surfaces of the enclosure, if height is the twice the diameter.
Dl = 4 m, D2 = 1m.
TO find :View factor FBA=F54
Solution
Assumption :Surface 5 as A5 = A, + A2 Given :A geometry as shown in Fig 13.26.
Surface 6 as AG= A, + A,. Surface 1 = flat cylinder end
Analysis : For convenience, divide the floor into two parts, 1 and 2 as shown in Surface 2 = cylindrical surface
Fig. 13.25 (b).The window is represented by 4 and the remaining part of the wall by 3 and we Surface 3 = hemispherical end
need F5 ; using reciprocity and additive rule simultaneously. For 3 surfaces in the enclosure
View factors, = N2 = 9
The view factors to be determine directly
= 112 N(N  1)= 112 x 3(2) = 3
D2
F56=
1
{A1F13+A2F23+A1F14+A2F241
A5
From law of corresponding corner (symmetry)
4F24=Al Fl3
Again, F3 + F3 = 1  F3, = 1  0.5 = 0.5
Here it should be noted that fraction of radiation energy emitted by surface and inter
cepted by hemispherical surface 3 will be exactly same that intercepted by flat imaginary
surface 4. Thus
For F13=F14 or F43
From Fig. 13.10. ,
For surface 3.
and
..
For surface 2.
Now from eqn. (ii)
(6 x 5) x 0.14  (6 x 4) x 0.12  (6 x 1)x 0.06
4F24= = 0.48
2
Now from eqn. ( i )
Similarly
I
830 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 831
For surface 1. (Top surface), For two parallel discs. from Table 13.2 Spacing L = 10 cm.
To find :The view factor F1  2.
Assumptions :
(i) The hollow portions of two rings as A, and A,
F,_,=:[X,/X~
11
 4 ( R 2 / ~ 1 ) 2=  2.25
d 103j
2.25,  4  =0.117. Ans.
(ii) Two surface 5 and 6 as
A, = A, + A,
Fig. 13.28. Schematic of parallel,
coaxial circular rings
1.0
A6 = Al + A2.
Analysis :Since these two coaxial circular rings are parallel. We may use Fig. 13.9. for
determination of view factor between them.
View factor F5  between two circular disc :
But A,=A4A,
Hence the radiation from surface 1 i.e., surface 3 and 4 will deliver energy to surface 4
and 5 ;
=A4F42A3F32
or AlFl2 = A 4 ( F 4  6  F 4  5 )  A 3 (F36F35) ...(A)!
Again we have, A2F2 = 4 F3 = A3 [F3  F3 where,
the surface area, A3 = n ( ~= ~ ( ~ 0 . 0) 5=~0.00785
) m2
the surface area, A, = n(R2) = n(0.12)= 0.0314 m2
the surface area of ring 1,A, = (A4A3) = 0.0236 m2
Therefore,
Using given relation for calculation of F4 : ,
R4 10cm R6 20cm
B== = 1 andC=  =2
H lOcm H lOcm
X = 1+ B2 + C2 = 1+ + (212 = 6
and
Example 13.16. Find the shape factor between two areas 1 and 2 which are i n the form
of circular ring, coaxial and are i n two parallel planes at a distance 10 cm. Area 1 has inner Using given relation for calculation of F, :
radius of 5 cm and outer radius of 10 cm. Area 2 has inner radius of 8 c m and outer radius of R4 10cm
B== R, 8cm
 1 and C =  =  = 0.8
20 cm. Use following formula for calculating the shape factor between two circular areas lo H 10cm H lOcm
cated coaxially i n two parallel planes is given by
where,
Rl
B=,,C= R2
,andX=(1+B2+C2) Using given relation for calculation of F3 :,
11 11
R3 5cm R, 20cm
where, RI and R2 are the radii of the circular planes and H is the distance between them. B== = 0.5 and C =   =2
(P.U., Nov. 1992) H lOcm H lOcm
Solution
Given :Two circular parallel surfaces located coaxially ;
R3 = 5 cm, R4 = 10 cm, H = 10 cm
Using given relation for calculation of F3 :
R 5 = 8 c m , R6=20cm.
R, 5cm
To find :The shape factor between the B== = 0.5 and C = 
R5 = 
8cm = 0.8
two parallel surfaces. 10 cm H lOcm H 10cm
Assumptions :A4 = A, + A3
A, = A5 + 4
Analysis :Using the property relations
for shape factor Substituting the values in eqn. (A) ;
F36=F3 5+F32 ,
0.0236 x F, = 0.0314 x (0.764  0.27)  0.00785 x (0.7917  0.3553)
or F32 = F 3  6  F 3  5 or ,
F, = 0.5121. Ans.
F24=F23+F2l Example 13.17. Two concentric cylinders have inner and outer radii 5 c m and 10 em,
or F21=F24F23 respectively and length 20 cm. Calculate the all possible view factors.
F46=F45 +F42 20 cm Solution
Applying the reciprocal theorem
Given :Two concentric cylinders as shown below :
A1Fl2 =A2F21=4(F24F23) To find :All possible view factors.
Fig. 13.29
834 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 835
Analysis :For parallel cylinders from Fig. 13.11. 42
13.2. BLACKBODY RADIATION EXCHANGE
L 20
For surface 2.   
r2  10 = 2 The radiation may leave a surface due to reflection and emission and on reaching on the sec
ond surface, there may be reflection as well as absorption. For a blackbody radiation, there is
and no reflection (p = 0). Hence energy leaves a surface as a result of emission, while it absorbs all
incident energy.
,
F2 = 0.43 and
Considering the radiation exchange between two blackbodies having surface area A,
For surface 1. By reciprocity ~=20cm + and 4.
Fig. 13.30 The rate of energy leaves the surface 1and absorbed by surface 2
Q12 = A1 Fl2 Ebl = Al F1 0 TI4 ...(13.11~)
Similarly, the energy leaves the surface 2 and reaches the surface 1
Q21 = 4 F s 1 Eb2 = A2 F21 0 Tz4
...(13.11b)
The net radiation exchange between the two surfaces
By summation rule  A1 F 12 0 (T;  T24)= 4 F21 Q (TI4 T24)
Qnet  ...(13.12)
Since by reciprocity relation A, F1, = A2 F2l,
Fz1+F22+F23+F24=
Consider an enclosure consists of N black surfaces maintained a t specified tempera
By symmetry F2 ,= F2, tures. The radiation heat transfer from any surface i of the enclosure is sum of radiation heat
1 transfers from surface i to each surface of the enclosure.
Then, F2 3 = F2 =  (1 0.43  0.34) = 0.115
2 N N
By summation rule
F 1 4 + Fl, + F13 + F14= 1
Convex surface 1, thus Fl = 0 , Example 13.18. Two black discs of diameter 50 cm are placed parallel to each other
By symmetry F1 = F,  concentrically a t a distance of 1m. The discs are maintained at 727OC and 227"C, respectively.
Calculate the heat transfer between the discs per hour, when no other surface is present except
1
.. 0.86+2Fl,=I or F13=[10.86]=0.07 the discs.
2
Solution
For surface 3. By reciprocity : A3 F3 = AIF1
Given :Two parallel discs of 50 cm diameter and 1m apart.
r, = r2 = 25 cm = 0.25 m
T, = 727°C = 1000 K
T2 = 227°C = 500 K.
To find : Heat transfer rate when no other surface is present
For surface 4. Due to symmetry between the discs. I
F 3 3 . = F 4  j , j = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . Analysis :When no other surface is present except two parallel Fig. 13.31
By summation rule discs. Fig. 13.31. The view factor between the two parallel plates, from
Fig. 13.9
F 3  1 + F 3  2+ F 3  3 + F 3  4 = 1
L 1
Flat surface 3, thus F3 = 0 =
rl 0.25
r2
= 4.0 and 
L

0'25 0.25 ;t F,
=
1
,= 0.06
:. 0 . 1 8 7 + 0 . 6 1 3 + O + F 3  4 = 1 or
View factor matrix The heat transfer rate,
Q=F~~AO(T,~T,~)
1 2 F13 Fl4 = 0.06 x (d4) x (0.5)~x 5.67 x lo4 (1000~
 5004)
F21 F22 F23 F24  = 626.24 W = 2.254 x lo6 Jlh = 2254.46 kJk. Ans.
F31 F32 F33 F34
F41 F42 F43 F44 Example 13.19. A 5 cm diameter sphere a t 600°C is placed near a n infinite wall a t
100%. Both surface are black. Calculate the net radiant heat transfer between the two bodies.
836 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 837
@@I
Given :A hot sphere near a wall
Area A2 = d r , + r2)d(r2  r1)2+ H'
T, = 600°C = 873 K, T2 = 100°C = 373 K
D = 5 cm = 0.05 m = 60.05 + 0.1) x J(0.1 0.05)~+ (0.2)' = 0.09715 m2
To find :Net radiant heat transfer. 1 Then 0'00785 x (0.804) = 0.065. Ans.
Analysis :The net radiation heat exchange F2 = 0.09715
(ii) Net radiation heat transfer from heater to shield
Q12=AlFl2 E b l  A 2 F 2  1 Eb2
Qnet= A, F1  a (TI4 T24)
=A1F1, (EblEb2)=AlF12d(T14T24)
m
= 0.00785 x 0.804 x 5.67 x lo4 x (14734 3734) = 1678 W. Ans.
Since the sphere is half covered by an infinite wall thus half of the
radiation emitted by sphere will fall on infinite wall i.e., Example 13.21. A jet of liquid metal a t 2000°C pours from a crucible. It is 3 mm in
Fig. 13.32
,
F, = 0.5 diameter. A long cylindrical radiation shield, 5 cm diameter, surrounds the jet through a n
angle of 330°7but there is a 30" slit in it. The jet and the shield radiate as black bodies. The slit
and A, = n D2 = n x 0 . 0 5 ~= 7.853 x m2 in a room is a t 30°C, and the shield has a temperature of 700" C. Calculate the net heat trans
Then Q,  2 = 7.853 x x 0.5 x 5.67 x lo4 x (8734 3734) = 125 W. Ans. fer :from the jet to the room through the slit ;from the jet to the shield ;and from the inside of
Example 13.20. A heater as shown in Fig. 13.33 radiates heat partially conical shield the shield to the room.
that surrounds it. Solution
(i) Determine view factor from shield to heater. Given :A jet of liquid metal is surrounded by radiation shield.
(ii) If heater and shield are black and are at temperatures 1200°C and 10O0C, respec T, = 2000°C = 2273 K, Dl = 3 mm
tively, what is the net heat transfer rate from heater to shield ? T, = 30°C = 303 K, D 2=5cm
Solution T2 = 700°C = 973 K Qskield = 330"
Given :A heater a t the base of a conical Qslit = 30".
shield as shown in Fig 13.33. To find :Net radiation heat transfer from
r, = 0.05 m, r2 = 0.1 m (i) Jet to room Qnet ,,
H = 0.2 m (ii) Jet to shield, %et  2,
T, = 1200" C = 1473 K (iii) Shield to room, Q,,  ,
T2 = 100" C = 373 K
Both surfaces are black.
To find :
_
Analysis :The view factors :
(a) F,  : From jet to room, by inspection
+lo cm+
(i) View factor F,I&,
Fig. 13.33. Heat transfer from a disc (b) F1  : From jet to shield, by inspection
(ii) Radiation heat transfer from heater to
heater to its radiation shield
shield.
Analysis :(i) The view factor, by reciprocity (i) Radiation heat transfer from jet to room
AlFl2 =AzF21

A1

Qnet 1 =A1 F1 a (T;  TW4)
= fx x (0.003 m x 1m)l x (0.08333) (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)
F2,= A, Fl2
= 1188.2 Wlm. Ans.
and F,, + q  2 + F13 =1
(ii) Radiation heat transfer from jet to shield

or F12=1F13 :
' F1,g0
For two parallel discs 1and 3, from Fig. 13.9 ; Qnet 12 =A,F,, a(T;T;)
= (n x 0.003) x (0.9167) x (5.67 x lo4) (2273* 9734)
L  0.2
 
r, 0.05 = 4.0 and 
r2 = 
L 0.2
0.1 = 0.5 F1 ,= 0.196 = 12637 W/m. Ans.
(iii) Radiation heat transfer rate from shield to room
Then, Fl, = 1 0.196 = 0.804
Qnet2ee=A2 2'   a (T,4  T 2 )
838

ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 839
= 16500 W. Ans.
(ii) When ceiling height in increased to 4.5 m, neither view factor F,  nor F, will ,
change, thus the heat transfer rate from floor to window and ceiling, walls will remain same.
...(13.14) As = So d A = S
30 30
0
2 ~ p df3
n sin ~
F ~ D ~+
4L
=~L
[see example 13.71
0.00196
Then F,  = 1 = 0.9268 Here el = 1.
0.0268
,  T24).Ans.
and Q = 0.0268 x 6.67 x lo4 [
x 0.6 x (1173)4
1 0.9268
I
1 0.9268 (1 0.6)
= 200.61 W. Ans.
Therefore, Q = A, o (TI4 T2'9 (1 F1 = Al CY F1  (TI4
T, = 1500°C = 1773 K
T, = 1800°C = 2073 K
T3 = 27°C = 300 K.
i Bottom, A, T, = 1800°C 13.4.1. The Net Radiation Exchange by a Surface
Consider a surface with the following properties during radiation exchange :
E = emissivity of the surface.
TQfind :Power required to maintain the pre Eb = emissive power of the black surface, W/m2.
scribed cbnditions. Fig. 13.38 p = reflectivity of the surface.
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 849
848
By reciprocity rule ;
A3F31 =A1F13 and A 3 F 3  2 = A 2 F 2  3
Therefore, Al Fl  (J1 J3) A2F2 (J3 J2)= 0 ...(13.35)
JIJ3  J3J2 The total resistance of the network
Hence, 1  1
Reradiating 
.
.. 
Since Q12 =  Q21
or for a reradiating surface, net heat transfer is zero, therefore, its temperature can be calculated
as
JR= EbR= 0 TR4 ...(13.41)
~ u r n i n bfuel bed, TI Example 13.26. A spherical liquid oxygen tank 0.3 m i n diameter is enclosed concentri
(a) A fuel bed, water tubes and refractory (b) Thermal network cally i n a spherical container of 0.4 m diameter and the space i n between is evacuated. The tank
walls make an enclosure in a boiler surface is at  183OC and has a n emissivity of 0.2. The container surface is at 15OC and has a n
, emissivity of O.25. Determine the net radiant heat transfer rate and rate o* f evaworation of liquid
L
(c) Schematic
Fig. 13.42. Three surface enclosure with one surface reradiating
The equivalent thermal network for three surface enclosure with a reradiating surface
is shown in Fig. 13.42(b).It is simple series parallel arrangement and the total resistances can
be expressed as : Evacuated space
, ,
The resistances lIAIFl and 1/A2F2 for the reradiating surface are in series, therefore, Fig. 13.43
its total resistance is
Assumptions :
1. Surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray.
2. Space between two concentric spheres is evacuated.
Further, the resistance Rs1 is in parallel with resistance 11AlF,2, therefore, its equiva 3. No conduction and convection heat transfer.
lent resistance Analysis :The net radiation heat exchange between two concentric ca expressed
A, O(T;  T ~ ~ )
Q=
+
El ( ):;
I 
Since all energy leaving the ceiling will be absorbed by room walls and floor,
Hence, q  2 =1
and
852 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 853
R2 = Rl = 
l   ~10.8
A,
~
16~0.8
QI
Eb,
R1 RI2 '32
 Q2
3. All surfaces are opaque.
4. Room has reradiating surfaces.
Analysis :The thermal network is shown in Fig. 13.47 ( b ) ;
= 0.0156 (b) Radiation network
T J3 = Eb3
Since all energy leaving the floor Fig. 13.46
will not reach the ceiling and hence the
,
view factor F, and F1  are to be determined from Fig. 13.8 for shape factor,
hence ,
F, = 0.2
By summation rule, F, ,+ F1
  + F1 =1
R1 Rl2 '32
But F1,=O Fig. 13.47 ( b ) Radiation network
Hence F,, = 1  F l  , = 1  0 . 2 = 0 . 8
Area of each disc, Al = A2 = (d4) Dl2 = ( d 4 ) x (0.5 m)2 = 0.1963 m2
and
854 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 855
The shape factor from Fig. 13.9 approximates a blackbody and is maintained at a temperature of 400 K. Calculate the net rate
Llr, = 40125 = 1.6 and r,/L = 25/40 = 0.625 of radiation heat transfer at each surface during steady state conditions.
Hence, FlV2= F2I = 0.24 Solution
By summation rule, F1 = 1 Fl  = 1 0.24 = 0.76 Given :A furnace as three surface enclosure
By summation rule, , ,
F2 = 1 F2 = 1 0.24 = 0.76 ro=H=lm
The various resistances ; = 0.4, Tl = 700 K
E~ = 0.8, T2 = 500 K
E~ = 1, T3 = 400 K.
To find :Net rate of heat transfer at each surface i.e., Q1, Q2 and Q3.
Schematic :
1  1
 = 6.703 m2
Rl3= All?,, 0.1963~016
R23 =R13
The emissive powers, Ebl = CT T14 = 5.67 x lo" (773)4= 20244.22 W/m2
Eb2= CT T24 = 5.67 x x (500)4= 3543.75 W/m2
J3 = Eb3 = B T =~ ~
5.67 x lo" (340)4 = 757.7 W/m2
I
Applying Kirchhoff's law of electrical current at each node i.e., summation of incoming
Fig. 13.48
currents to each node is equal to zero. C
Assumptions :
EhlJ1 + J2J1 + Eh3J1
Node, 1, for J1 : =0 ( i )The surface 1 and 2 are opaque, diffuse and gray.
R1 %2 R13
(ii) Steady state conditions without convection effects.
Analysis :The radiosity for surface 1 and surface 2 can be determined by writing the
tbl R1 J2 energy equation on node 1and 2 and setting it to zero.
Node 2, for J2: Eb2J2 J1J2 iEb3J2 =O
R2 Rl 2 R2  3 Eb,
3543.75  J 2 J1 J2 757.7  J2
+  +
=0
7.64 21.22 6.703
Solution, leads to simultaneous equations as
Eb2
 0.2454 J, + 0.0471 J2+ 1106.82 = 0
JI
Rl2 '32
0.0471 J,  0.3272 J2+ 576.88 = 0
Fig. 13.47 ( c )
The solution to these equations are rhere, Ebl = B T14 = 5.67 x x 7004 = 13614 W/m2
Jl = 4986.426 W/m2,J2= 2480.87 W/m2 Eb2= B T24= 5.67 x x 5004 = 3544 W/m2
The heat loss from hot disc at 500°C Eb3= J3= 0 T34 = 5.67 x x 4004 = 1452 W/m2
Ehl  J1 

20244.22  4986.426 = 749 W. Ans. Al=A2=n:ro2=n:~12=3.141m2
Q1 =
R1 20.37 The view factor F1  can be obtained from Fig. 13.9 as
,
Fl = 0.38
The view factor F1  can be obtained from summation rule
Example 13.31. Consider a cylindrical furnace, whose radius is 1 m and equal to its Fl~l+Fl~2+Fl~3=1+Fl~3=lO0.38=0.62
height. The base and top surface of the furnace have emissivities 0.4, and 0.8, respectively, and
Since the surface 1is flat and thus F1  = 0.
are maintained at uniform temperatures of 700 K and 500 K. The curved cylindrical surface
856 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 857
I
II Il
The net rate of radiation heat transfer for top surface 1 and base surface 2 are
In addition, surface 3 may represent reflector or surroundings, then for an enclosure
F 1 4 +F1,+ F13= 1
Fl, = 1 Fl,= 1 0.2 = 0.8 F1,= 01
By symmetry F2, = Fl, = 0.8
The heat transfer is towards bottom surface side.
The net rate of heat transfer at cylindrical surface
& ~ 3
Since the surface 3 is reradiating, thus we can also obtain Qnet by relation
Insulated
Q1
R2
 Q2
For reradiating surface

1 3

J 1  J3  J3  J 3
R23
= 0.4, 108327.2  J3  J3 59018
T, = 500 K 2 2
(a) Schematic (b) Radiation network J3= 83683 W/m2 = 5.67 x x T34
Fig. 13.50 T3 = 1102.2 K. Ans.
1. The shape factor : Example 13.34.A heater of 1 m diameter is covered by a hemisphere of 4 m diameter.
The surface of hemisphere is maintained at 400 K. The ernissivity of the surface is 0.8. The
From symmetry, F,, = F13 = F23 = 0.5
heater surface is maintained at 1000 K. The remaining base area is open to surroundings at
The area of wall : A, = 4 = w . L, where L is the duct length. 300 K. The surroundings may be considered black. The emissivity of heater surface is also 0.8.
The various resistances : Determine the heat exchange from heater to the hemisphere and to the surroundings.
Solution
Given :A heater (1)is covered by a hemisphere (2)
T, = 1000 K, E, = 0.8, Dl = 1 m
T2 = 400 K, c2 = 0.8, D2 = 4 m
T, = 300 K, E~ = 1.
To find :
( i )Heat exchange with hemisphere, and
( i i )Heat exchange with surroundings.
R23 = R13
The emissive powers, Ebl = 0T14 = 5.67 x 104 x (1200)4= 117573 W/m2
Eb2= 0T24= 5.67 x 104 x (500)4= 3543.75 W/m2
The resistance R23and RIS are in series, thus its total series resistance is
Rsl = 2 + 2 = 4 ml
This total series resistance Rsl and R,, are in parallel to each other, thus
(a) (b)
Re, = 1.333 ml Fig. 13.51. Schematic and radiation network
The heat transfer rate from heated surface to painted panel
Assumptions :
(1) Heater and hemispherical surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray.
(2) Steady state conditions.
= 36982.87 W/m = 36.982 kW/m. Ans. (3) Assuming circular disc heater, facing towards hemisphere.
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 863
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
862
1451.51 J2 J1 J2 459.27  J2
0.0099
+ 1.273+
0.085
=0
Analysis :The thermal network is shown in Fig. 13.51 ( b ) :
The areas are : Simplification leads to
n n 226764.37  4.99 J, + J2= 0
Area of circular heater, A, = 4 D12 = x = 0.7853 mZ 163.45  J, + 0.7884 = 0
n n Its solution leads to
Area of hemisphere, A   DZ2=  x (4)2= 25.132 m2
2 2 2 J, = 5.39 x lo4 W/m2,J2= 42556 W/m2
7c n ( i )Now net rate of radiation from heater to hemisphere
Area of opening of hemisphere, A3 = (D:  Dl2) =  4 (42 12)= 11.78 m2
View factors. If circular heater faces hemisphere, then Ebl  J1  56700  5.39 x lo4
= 8796.7 W. A n s .
F1,= 1, F1l=O, F1...3=0 R1 0.3183
(ii)Net rate of heat radiation from heater to surroundings
F,1 + Fz2 + F23 = 1
There will be negligible radiation from surroundings to heater surface, thus Comment. Heater does not radiate heat directly (F13 = 01, but the heat transfer to
hemisphere is transferred to surroundings.
Example 13.35. A short cylinder enclosure is formed with three surfaces, a circular
plane surface 1 of radius 20 cm maintained at 2000 K and having emissivity of 0.8, another
circular plane surface 2 of same size as surface 1 having emissivity of 0.5 and maintained at
500 K. The surface 1 and 2 are parallel to each other and the distance between them is 5 cm. The
Applying Network theorem (Kirchhoff 's law) at each node (1)and (2) third surface is reradiating, which forms an enclosure. Draw an equivalent circuit and com
pute all resistances. Also find, (i) temperature attained by reradiating surface a&.(ii) net heat
*
transfer rate between surface 1 and 2 due to radiation.
Use the following expression for finding the shape factor between two circular discs,
coaxial and parallel areas :
Fig. 13.52
R23 = R13
The emissive powers, Ebl = o T," = 5.67 x lo4 x (2000)*= 907200 W/m2
*b2 = 0T,' = 5.67 x lo4 x (500)' = 3543.75w/m2
Fig. 13.53. Three surface enclosure and equivalent radiation network
866 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 867
Surface 1 , 2 and 3 have surface area A,, A2 and A3, emissivities E ~ , and e3, and uniform
For surface 2 Eb2J2 + J1J2 + J ~  J 2 + = O~
J ~  J
temperatures TI, T2 and T,, respectively. The triangular circuit for three bodies radiation 1E2 1 1 1
network is not so easy to analysis as in line circuit for two surface radiation problem. The basic
approach is to apply energy conservation on each radiosity node in the circuit. The three equa
tions for determination of three unknowns J,, J, and J3are obtained and net heat transfer at Eb3J3 +JlJ3J2J3 J4J3 =0
For surface 3 + +
?
; fin&?
TO
T e U 6 0 0K
P  B L . ' a " , w 4 z y l.
.4
+q;%
ii L F P o 0
6% =OF,



1 0.9
(1451.2  1843.1) =  3527.1 W/m2. Ans.
Since surface 2 is black, its surface resistance will be zero, the emissive power equals
(i) Radiation heat f+ux$:, ?!d I the heat flux.
(ii) Radiation heam@ q2,1fS;P" A=
(iii) Radiation heat flux q$'  +' y3 q2 = F2, (Eb2 J1) + FZ3 (Eb2 J3)+ F2, (Eb2 5 4 )
= 0.2928 (3543.75  1843.1) + 0.2928 (3543.75  4555.2)
(iv) Temperature of surface$.= + 0.4142 [13543.75  8342.11 = 1785.6 W/m2.Ans. 
Analysis : The energy bala&e n2
E ~ ,  ~ ; JA + J ~  J I =0
For surface 1 :
2Jl
I  F , A ~+r 1
+ J3Jl 1
868 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 869
4>7'+,
$0
' v
,
kv
//
s.Lq
P
9s
Node 2 :
Fig. 13.55 ( b ) Radiation network
The node1 equations at three nodes are
To find :Net rate of heat transfer to copper Fig. 13.55. ( a )Illustration for
Node 3 :
surface 1 per metre length of duct example 13.37
where J,, J2and J3are unknowns and for per metre depth of the duct
Assumptions :
( i )The duct surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray.
(ii)Negligible convection from surfaces.
(iii)Steady state conditions.
Analysis :The view factors for the enclosure surfaces.
From Table 13.1 for kiangular duct
By reciprocity
By summation
FlI + F,, + F1, = 1 jF1, = 1  Fl, = 0.6
Thus,
1097.5 J1 J2  J1 +
+ 5.0 J3  J1 
11.33 3.33
870 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 871
 
Simplification leads to three simultaneous equations &1 '3,l &3,2 '2
6.67 J,  2.268 J2 3.395 J, = 1097.5 The temperature of radiation shield T, is unknown. For instance, if all emissivities are
 2.0 J, + 56 J2 J, = 60732.65 equal : or = e2 = c3, = e3,
 3.0 J,  J2+ 8.0 J, = 80976.8 Then T34=
( ~ , 4 T ~ ~ )
Solving these equations 2
The heat transfer rate between the plates with a shield becomes
J, = 15767.3 W/m2
Shield
J2= 18434.4 W/m2
J, = 18340 W/m2
 Ebl  J1  1097.5  15767.3
qnet  1  =  1295.1 Wlm. Ans.
R1 11.33
I
I
I

I
a
I
Thus the heat transfer rate between d a t e 1 and radiation shield must be equal to the heat I
transfer rate between the shield and plate 2. Ebl J1 J3,1 Eb3 J3,2 J2 Eb2
(b)
Fig. 13.57. Radiation shield placed between two large parallel plates and radiation network
 (11 2) CY A(T,~ )
Q12, one shield  1 1 
+I
El E2
Thus by inserting a shield, the radiation heat flow rate becomes just half of that would
be experienced without radiation shield. The radiation network with one radiation shield is
shown in Fig. 13.57 ( b ) .All the resistances are in series, and thus the radiation heat transfer
rate is

Q12, one shield  1 & 1 l  &
E b l  Eb2
31  1&32 1 1&2
...(13.46)
I ' A ' A 1
Example 13.38. Two parallel plates have emissivity of 0.8and 0.5.A radiation shield
having same emissivity on both sides is placed between them. Calculate the emissivity of the
shield i n order to reduce the radiation losses from the system to onetenth of that of without
shield. QI  5.67 x lo' (10004  6 0 0 ~ )
= 21934 W/m2. Ans.
A +  1
Solution
Given :Two parallel infinite surfaces with and without radiation shield ;5 8; ( )
When a radiation shield is placed between the parallel plates, then the radiation heat
transfer can be calculated as Q2 = Ebl  Ebz
ZRth
To find :The emissivity of radiation shield. For 1 m2 area of the plates
Assumptions :
1.Surfaces are opaque, diffused and gray. where
2. Heat is transferred by radiation only.
3. The conduction resistance of radiation shield is negligible.
Analysis :The radiation heat exchange ratio between two parallel plates with and with
out radiation shield can be expressed as ; The heat transfer gain with radiation shield
L+flli
 
The presence of radiation shield reduces the heat transfer rate
El E3 E2 E3 21934  1579.25
= 92.8% (reduction).
Substituting the numerical values ; 21934
Example 13.40. Two large parallel planes with emissivity 0.6are at 900K a n d 300 K. A
radiation shield with one side polished and having emissivity of 0.05,while the emissivity of
The solution gives, E, = 0.094.' Ans. other side is 0.4 is proposed to be used. Which side of the shield to face the hotter plane, if the
J
temperature of shield is to be kept minimum ? Justify your answer. (P.U., May 2001)
Example 13.39.Two large parallel plates at temperature I000K and 600K have emis I Solution
sivity of 0.5and 0.8respectively. A radiation shield having emissivity 0.1 on one side and 0.05
on the other side is placed between the plates. Calculate the heat transfer rate by radiation per Given :A radiation shield between two large parallel planes.
square metre with and without radiation shield. = E~ = 0.6
T, = 900 K, T2 = 300 K
ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 875
874
300 K. The space between the surfaces is evacuated. CalcuLate the heat gain by cryogenic fluid
3'  0.05
= polished  per unit length of tubes. If a thin radiation shield of 35 m m diameter kg= 0.02) both sides is
&4 = &unpolished= O" inserted midway between the inner and outer surfaces, calculate the percentage change in heat
T3 = Temperature of shield. gain per unit length of the tube. (P.U., Dec. 2001 ; N.M.U., May 1998)
To find :Which side of the shield should face the hotter plane.
Assumptions : Solution
1. Each surface has a uniform radiosity ; the configuration can be considered as a n Given : Concentric tube arrangement with diffuse and gnay surfaces.
enclosure with two surfaces.
2. The surfaces are gray, diffuse and opaque.
3. The medium between the surfaces does not participate in radiation.
Anal.ysis :Arrangement 1 : Let polished surface of the shield face hotter plane, the en
srgy balance on the radiation shield :
Hot 
where
6.561 x 10"  TS4  T~~ 8.1 x lo9 n x 0.02 x 1 x 5.67 x lo' (774  3004)
 Q1 = =  50 Wlm. Ans.
3.167 20.67 1
x 0.4
or 4.2486 x 1012 6.526 TS4= T34 8.1 x lo9
or 7.526 TS4= 4.2567 x 1012 or T3 = 867.2 K i 2. When radiation shield is placed in midway between two tubes,
which is greater than the temperature of shield, when it faces the hotter plane. Therefore, the
radiation shield will be effective, when its polished side will face the hotter plane.
Example 13.41. A cryogenic fluid flows through a long tube of 20 m m diameter, the
outer surface of which is diffuse and gray = 0.02) at 77 K. This tube is concentric with a
larger tube of 50 m m diameter, the inner surface of which is diffuse and gray ( E ~= 0.05) and at
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES
876 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
Analysis :( i ) Heatgain rate b y liquid nitrogen line per metre length
For 1 m length of tube
Qgain= h D 1 ) ( T tTI4)
= ~ ( 0 . 0 0 6 3 5(0.2)
) (5.67 x (2304 804)= 0.624 Wlm. Ans.
+
ER,, = 779.9 + 15.9 + 891.3 121.0 = 1817 m2 ( i i )Heat transfer rate with shield
T h e heat gain with radiation shield
101 1
T h e percentage reduction i n heat gain
(Q1 Q 2 )  ( 0.50 + 0.25) Since A , >7 Al, and E, = 1, t h e n
 = 50%. Ans.
Q1  50
Example 13.42. Aphysics experiment uses liquid nitrogen as a coolant. Saturated liquid
nitrogen at 80 K flows through 6.35m m O.D. stainless steel line (E, = 0.2)inside a vacuum
chamber. The chamber walls are at T,=230 K and are at some distance from the line. Determine
the heat gain of the line per unit length. I f a second stainless steel tube, 12.7mm in diameter, is
placed around the line to act as radiation shield, to what rate is the heat gain reduced ? Find
the temperature of the shield.
Solution
T h e radiation shield would cut t h e heat gain by 47%. Ans.
(iii) The temperature of t h e shield, T , :
Qgain,shield = Qnhie~dcharnber= ( x ~ s' s)o (TP  Tt)
) (5.67 x
0.328 W / m = ~ ( 0 . 0 1 2 7(0.2) (2304 T:)
Solving, we find T , = 213 K. Ans.
Example 13.43. A pipe carrying steam having an outside diameter of 20 cm runs in a
large room and is exposed to air at a temperature of 30°C.The pipe surface temperature is
Arrangement1 Arrangement2
400°C.Calculate the heat loss to the surroundings per metre length of pipe due to thermal
radiation. The emissivity of the pipe surface is 0.8.
Fig. 13.60
1. What would be the loss of heat due to radiation, i f the pipe is enclosed in a 50 cm
Given : Flow of liquid nitrogen through a pipe diameter brick conduit of emissivity of 0.9 ?
Nitrogen ( 1 ) Dl = 6.35 m m 2. What would be the radiation heat transfer from the pipe, if it is enclosed within a
&I = 0.2 Tl =80 K square conduit of 0.5 m side of emissivity of 0.9 ? (Anna Univ., May 2001)
Chamber (c) : T , = 230 K D2 = 12.7 mm Solution
Shield ( s ) : T,, E, = 0.2 Given :A pipe carrying steam with
To find :
( i )Heat gain by liquid nitrogen line per metre length.
(ii)Reduction i n heat gain with shield.
(iii)Temperature of shield.
Assumptions :
( i )The tube surface of nitrogen line at 80 K.
T, = 30°C = 303 K
(ii)Without shield nitrogen line as small object i n a large enclosure. F1, = 1, F,, = 1 and
>>' &be'
Fig. 13.61
(iii)Opaque, diffuse and gray surfaces.
878 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 879
1. Brick conduit, D2 = 50 cm = 0.5 m, E, = 0.9
2. Square conduit of side w = 0.5 m, E~ = 0.9.
To find : Dl = 50 mm
1.Net radiation heat transfer from pipe surface. Tl = 1000°C = 1273 K
2. The radiation heat exchange when pipe is enclosed within a 50 cm diameter. brick c2 = 0.6
conduit. T, = 15°C = 288 K
3. The radiation heat exchange, when pipe is enclosed within a square conduit. If reflector is placed
Assumptions : D, = 450 mm.
1. Surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray. To find :Energy supplied to rod per metre, if
2. Space between two concentric pipes is evacuated. 1. Rod is exposed to room, with negligible convection
3. No conduction and convection heat transfer. effects, and
Fig. 13.62
Analysis :1.The net radiation heat exchange from pipe surface to room can be expressed 2. Rod is covered by half circular reflector.
as : Assumptions .
= 0.8 x x x 0.2 x 5.67 x lo4 (6734 3034)
QiL = E (n Dl) 0 (Ts4 TW4) 1. Rod and room surfaces are opaque, diffuse and gray.
= 5606.5 Wlm. Ans.  2. Steady state conditions. Q
k
v
2. The radiation heat exchange between pipe and a conduit can be calculated as ; 3. Room air does not participate in
radiation. R1 Rl2 R2
A, o (TS4 T _ ~ )
Q= Analysis : 1. When cylindrical rod is exposed to room Fig. 13.62(a)
R12 = A   I
= 6.366 (F,, = 1.0. All heat transfer to room)
A1F12 n x 0.05 x 1
E2
h~ min
Hot water heater = o (T2, + T3?(T2 + TJ
Fig. 13.63. A hot water boiler with fiberglass insulation and a metal cladding €2
The temperature of the flowing fluid through a duct or a pipe is measured by thermocouple as Ts = temperature of the radiation shield.
shown in Fig. 13.64. The thermocouple bead is placed in direct contact of gas, the heat is The energy balance on the thermocouple bead now yields
convected from gas to thermocouple sensor tries to gain steady state. Like use of thermometer, ...(13.51)
h, (Tm T,) = a E, (Ts4 T):
the temperature measured by thermocouple is less than the true gas temperature, because a
part of heat gain by thermocouple sensor is emitted to wall at low temperature. In absence of where T, = temperature recorded by thermocouple.
conduction, the energy balance on the thermocouple bead yields to Example 13.46. A thermocouple is used to measure the temperature of a hot gas flowing
h, (Tm T,) = o E~ (Tc4 TU4) in a tube maintained a t 100°C. The thermocouple indicates a temperature of 500°C. If the
emissivity of thermocouple junction is 0.5 and the convective heat transfer coefficient is
1250 WIm2.K, determine the actual temperature of the gas.
Solution
where, hc = convective heat transfer coefficient, W/m2.K
Given : Tw= 100°C = 373 K, T, = 500°C = 773 K
T, = temperature recorded by thermocouple, K
E, = 0.5, h, = 250 W/m2.K.
T, = wall temperature, K
T_ = gas temperature, K To find :The true gas temperature.
a = 5.67 x W/m2 .K4, the Stefan Boltzmann constant Assumptions :
E~ = emissivity of thermocouple sensor. 1. Steady state conditions.
2. Junction surface is gray and diffuse.
3. Constant properties.
Analysis : The energy balance on thermocouple bead is
hc(Tm T,) = a E, (T:  Tw4)
Example 13.48.A thermocouple is used to measure the temperature ofgas flowing through
 500)("C) = (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)x 0.5 x (7734 3734)
(250 W/m2.K)(Tm
a duct, records 280°C. I f the emissivity of the junction is 0.4 and convection coeficient is
or Tm= 500 + 38 = 538°C. Ans. 150 WIm2.K. Find the true gas temperature. The duct wall temperature is 140°C.
Example 13.47.A thermocouple (E = 0.6) is used to measure the temperature of exhaust What should be the emissivity of the junction i n order to reduce the error by 30%. ?
gas in a large duct. The temperature of the duct wall is at 20°C and temperature measured by Solution
thermocouple is 500°C. Calculate the true temperature of the gas, if the convection coefficient
between gas and thermocouple bead is 200 WIm2.K. Given :Measurement of temperature by a thermocouple
To measure the temperature of the gas more correctly, it is enveloped by a thin radiation (i) T, = 280°C = 553 K, E, = 0.4
shield (E = 0.3). Estimate the error between the thermocouple temperature and gas temperature h, = 150 W/m2.K, Tw= 140°C = 413 K
with the shielded thermocouple arrangement. ( i i )Error to be reduced by 30%.
Solution To find :
Given :Thermocouple without radiation shield : ( i )True temperature of the gas, and
Tw= 20°C = 293 K, T, = 500°C = 773 K (ii)Emissivity of the junction in order to reduce the error by 30%.
E, = 0.6, h, = 200 W/m2.K Analysis :(i) The true gas temperature is determined by eqn. (13.49)
Thermocouple with radiation shield :
Tw= 20°C = 293 K, T, = 500°C = 773 K
E, = 0.3, h, = 200 W/m2.K.
To find :The true gas temperature.
Assumptions :
1. Steady state conditions. The true temperature of gas is 289.74"C (562.74 K). Ans.
2. Junction surface is gray and diffuse. (ii)The error in temperature measurement
= 289.74  280 = 9.74"C
3. Constant properties.
Analysis :The energy balance on thermocouple sensor without radiation shield is Error to be reduced by 30%, thus the remaining error is 70% of 9.74"C
= 0.7 x 9.74 = 6.81B°C
h,(T_  T,) = o ec (Tc4 Tw4)
Using the numerical values, Thus T, = 286.818"C = 559.818 K
(200 W/m2.K)(Tm 773)(K) = (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)x 0.6 x (7734  2934)(K4) T_ = 562.74 K, Tw= 413 K
T_ = 773 + 56.67 = 829.67 K. Ans. 5.67 x lo' E, (559.818~ 4 1 3 ~ )
Then, 562.74 = 559.818 +
The energy balance on thermocouple sensor with radiation shield is 150
2hc (T_  Ts) = CT E, (TW4  Ts4) or E, = 0.11. Ans.
2 x (200 W/m2.K)(829.67 Ts)(K)= (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)x 0.3 x (2934 T,4)
331856  400 Ts = 125.36  1.701 x lo4 Ts4 13.9. GAS RADIATION
Ts4 23515579070 Ts + 1.95 x 1013= 0 Many gases such as 02,N2, H2 and dry air have a symmetrical molecular structure and they
T, = 829.3 K neither emit nor absorb any appreciable amount of thermal radiation, unless they are heated
to very high temperature for their ionization. These gases are non polar and may be considered
Using the shield temperature to calculate the temperature measured by thermocouple.
as transparent to thermal radiation. On the other hand, some polar gases and vapours such as
h, (T_  T,) = CT E, (Ts4 Tc4) CO,, CO, H20, SO,, NH,, and hydrocarbons etc. can emit electromagnetic waves and can also
(200 W/m2.K)(829.67 Tc)(K)= (5.67 x lo4 W/m2.K4)x 0.6 x (829.34 )T: absorb appreciable thermal radiation. The H20 and CO, are most common gases present in
the atmosphere as well as in furnaces, the gas radiation can become an important part of heat
It yields Tc = 827 K
 .Drocess.
exchange
The error between thermocouple temperature and gas temperature is of only 2°C. Ans.
886 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 887
Unlike solids, the gases can emit radiation within a short wavelength band only. Hence elemental surfacedA, located at the centre of the hemisphere's
the intensity of gas radiation at any temperature is less than the blackbody radiation. The base as shown in Fig. 13.67 where L, is mean beam length,
gases absorb the incident radiation slowly, because emission and absorption depend on gas which can be obtained from Table 13.4. For an appropriate
layer thickness, pressure, shape and surface area. Moreover, gaseous radiation is not a surface calculation, the mean beam length for other shapes can be
phenomenon but it is a volumetric phenomenon. determined as
Volume of gas
13.9.1. Absorptivity of the Gases L, = 3.6 x
Surface area of gas
...(13.57) dA

Consider the absorption of thermal radiation by a gas layer as shown in Fig. 13.66, IF is Fig. 13.67. Gas volume of
radiation intensity a t the left face and I,.. propagates in a gas layer is proportional to its thick Hottel's graph.
ness dx, thus
dI,(x) =  m, Ih(x)dx ...(13.52) TABLE 13.4. Mean beam length L, for various gas geometries
where the proportionality constant mh is spectral absorption coeffl Sr. No Geometry Characteristic length Beam length L,
, cient of gas. Integrating both sides, we get ;
Sphere (radiation to surface) Diameter (Dl 0.667 D
Infinite circular cylinder Diameter (D) 0.95 D
(radiation to curved surface)
Semi infinite circular cylinder Diameter (D) 0.65 D
(radiation to base)
The radiation intensity decreases exponentially with thick I . C   L ~
Circular cylinder of equal Diameter (D) 0.60 D
ness of gas layer L. This equat~onis called the Beer's law. Fig. 13.66. Absorption in a height and diameter
The intensity of radiation absorbed from x = 0 to x = L ; gas layer
(radiation to entire surface)
(IlLla = IhO IhL= ILO[(I  exp( mhL)l Infinite parallel planes Spacing between 1.80 L
,
Hence, the spectral absorptivity of gases aG, can be expressed as, (radiation to planes)
Cube (radiation to
the planes (L)
side (L) 0.66 L
a,, ,= 
(ILL)a
Lo
 1 exp ( m,L) any surface)
Arbitrary shape of volume V 3.6 VIA
The quantity [I exp ( m,L)1 represents spectral absorptivity of the gas aG, or accord (radiation to surface area A).
ing to Kirchhoff 's law, the emissivity at the same wavelength is eG,, or aGL = EG,,. It depends
on characteristic coeff~cientm, as well as on thickness dx of the gas layer. The emission from a gas per unit surface area is determined as
For non reflecting gases (p = 0)
where gas emissivity, can be obtained from Hottel's graphs.
E,
TG,, + ~ G , L = O
or ,
T = 1 aG, = exp (
m,x) , ...(13.55) The results for emissivity of water vapour and carbon dioxide are plotted in Figs. 13.68
and 13.69 as a function of gas temperature at a total pressure of 1atm and for different values
Average or effective absorptivity aGover entire wavelength spectrum can be expressed of product of vapour partial pressurep and mean beam length L,. If the total pressure of water
as vapour or carbon dioxide is other than 1atm, then the emissivities from Figs. 13.68 and 13.69
aG = 1 exp ( mL) ,..(13.56) must be multiplied by correction factor CHzoor CCOzfrom Figs. 13.70 and 13.71.
where, m = [mh d i . When both carbon dioxide and water vapour are present in a gas mixture, the effective
emissivity of the mixture can be approximated by adding the emissivities of gas constituents
as
13.9.2. Gaseous Emission and Absorption
Sometimes, it is required to determine the radiant heat flux from a gas to an adjoining
surface. Despite the complications of spectral and directional effects,Hottel made the procedure However, the resulting gas mixture emissivity E, is on higher side, because some of
quite simplified. He evaluated the emissivities of various gases a t different pressures and emission bands of water vapour and carbon dioxide overlap. In particular, the effective gas
temperatures and plotted his results graphically in Figs. 13.68 to 13.71. The Hottel method emissivity cg can be obtained by subtracting a factor A&.
involves the determination of radiation emission from a hemispherical gas volume at T, to an
890 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 891
respectively. When both water vapour and carbon dioxide are present in tLe mixture, then
effective absorptivity of gas mixture can be obtained as
T = 400 K
Fig. 13.72. Factor A& to correct the emissivity of a mixture of water vapour and C02
ag = ~ H , O+ aco,  ...(13.65)
I I I I I where Aa = Ae, and may be obtained from Fig. 13.72.
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.O 1.2
Example 13.49. Determine the emissivity of a gas mixture consisting of N,, H20, and
P H ~+OPT CO, at a temperature of 800 K. The gas mixture is i n a sphere with diameter of 0.4 m, and the
atrn
2
partial pressures of the gases are piv, = 1 atm, PH,O = 0.4 atm, and Pco, = 0.6 atm.
Fig. 13.70. Correction factor for the emissivity of water vapour a t pressures other than 1 atm
Solution
Given :A gas mixture of N,, H,O, CO, in a sphere
T, = 800 K, D = 0.4 m
PN, = 1atm, PH,O = 0.4 atrn
Pco, = 0.6 atm.
To find :Emissivity of the gas mixture.
Analysis :The mean beam length for a spherical mass of gas is obtained from Table 13.4.
Le = (0.667)D = 0.27 m
Appropriate values for parameter to be used for Figs. 13.68 and 13.69
T = 800 K
PH,OL,= 0.108 atrn
Pco, Le = 0.160 atrn
Then emissivities at 1 atrn are
Fig. 13.71. Correction factor for the emissivity of carbon dioxide at pressures other than 1 atm
Nz does not radiate appreciably at 800 K. Since the total pressure is 2 atm, thus correc
tion factor CH,O and Cco, from Figs. 13.70 and 13.71 are
892 ENGINEERING HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN SURFACES 893
F12 = F 1 3 = ......
and value of AE to correct the emission in overlapping wavelength bands, from Fig. 13.72 The rate of radiation heat transfer between two black surfaces is expressed as
A& = 0.014 Q12 = A, Fl, o (TI4 TZ4)(W)
The effective emissivity of the mixture The net radiation heat transfer rate from a surface i of a black enclosure is sum of
~ , ~ ~ = 1 . 6 2 ~ 0 . 1 5 + 1 . 1 2 ~ 0 . 1 2 5  0 . 0 1 4 = 0 . Ans.
369. radiation heat transfers from surface i to each of the surface of enclosure :
Example 13.50.A long cylindrical combustor 40 cm in diameter contains a gas at 1200' ( '
consisting of 0.8 atrn N, and 0.2 atrn CO,. What is the net heat radiated to the walls if the.y rtrv
at 300°C ?
The radiation heat transfer from a cavity surface 1is given by
Solution
Given : Gas radiation in combustor
D = 40 cm, T, = 1200°C = 1473 K
pN2= 0.8 atrn The net rate of radiation heat transfer from a surface is expressed as
p = 1 atm
pco, = 0.2 atrn E,  J
T, = 300°C = 573 K. Q = R (W)
To find : Net gas radiation to walls of combustor. 1E
where R = is the surface resistance, to radiation. The net rate of radiation heat transfer
Analysis :For CO, at 0.2 atm, from Fig. 13.69, Eco, = 0.098 &A
The correction factor for C0, for total pressure pT = 1 atrn from surface 1 to surface 2 can be expressed as
ccoz = 1
Thus E~ = Eco2 x CCO2= 0.098
From eqn. (13.62) to obtain ag at T, = 573 K 1
where Rl, = is the space resistance to radiation. The network method is used to solve
A 1Fl2
the radiation network. The radiation heat transfer between any two opaque, gray, and diffused
surfaces is given by