This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Out of Many 3rd Edition
Ch. 25 World War II, 1941-1945
The Coming of World War II • During the Depression, production dropped by as much as 40% • FDR and most Americans did not want to concern themselves with foreign conﬂicts • More concerned about ﬁxing their own country • The Shadows of War • War began with Japan seizing Manchuria, then withdrawing from the League of Nations • By 1937 Japan owned much of China and threatened the rest of Asia • Economic hardships, Authoritarian leadership, and German resentment over the Versailles Treaty led to the rise of angry nationalistic movements in Italy and Germans • Hitler began to rebuild Germany’s armies with no protest from Britain or France • 1936—Italy and Germany become allies—Rome-Berlin Axis • 1937—Hitler announced plans to obtain Lebensraum—living / farming for Germans • In return for allowing Hitler to annex part of Czechoslovakia, he agreed to stop advancing—Less than six months later he took the rest of Czechoslovakia • Nov 6, 1938—German stormtroopers kill thousands of Jews—Night of the Broken Glass • Isolationism • 1937—Almost 70% of American polled said they felt involvement in WWI was wrong • 1935/36/37—Neutrality Acts—Allowed President to deny US companies the right to sell arms to hostile nations • Many politicians argued that war would hurt the economy, harm democracy, etc • America First—A group founded to keep the US out of wars, included some famous ppl • Roosevelt Readies for War • Although most people were against it, FDR enlarged the Navy and prepared for war • Sept 1, 1939—Germany invades Poland, then agrees to split it with the Soviet Union
only defend his own nation • July 1940—As part of his campaign.OUT OF MANY CH. Roosevelt promised not to send troops to the war • March 1941—Lend-Lease Act—Allowed Roosevelt to sell or exchange arms with ppl • Hitler set aside his alliance with the Soviets and in June 1941 invaded Russia • This pushed the US closer to intervention • Pearl Harbor • Sept 27. 1941—Japanese dive bombers attack Pearl Harbor (Oahu. which pulled the country out of the Great Depression • Mobilizing for War • War Powers Act—allowed the president to essentially do what he wanted • Reorganize government. Hawaii) killing 2400+ • Dec 8. 1941—US declares war on Japan. France and China • May 1940—1st Peacetime Military draft—1. ch e as .4 million men sent to training camps • FDR still did not want to get involved. the govt poured resources into the war effort. Germany and Italy declare war on the US • Start of WWII for Americans Arsenal of Democracy • Between 1940-1943. seize property owned by foreigners • Award government contracts without competitive bidding • Roosevelt created many new agencies to deal with problems arising from the war • OWI—Ofﬁce of War Information—essentially propaganda created by Roosevelt to make the war popular. also tried to subvert the enemy • FBI used wiretapping extensively and illegally to spy domestically • These activities saw the govt grow massively in size. 1940—Japan formally joins Italy and Germany as a partner in the Axis • The US thought Japan planned to attack in the Phillipines • Dec 7. create new agencies • Abridge civil liberties. far more than the New Deal level • It cost roughly $250 million a day to ﬁght the war j. then pounded the UK in the Battle of Britain • Britain held out against all odds • FDR began to permit the sale of weapons to Britain. 25 • Germany swept through most of Europe.
both parents worked.5 million in 1945 • Even advertisments that promoted female labour stressed it was temporary • WWII still managed to break down many of the stereotypes held about women • Wartime Strikes • Economic gains during the war were uneven.OUT OF MANY CH. there were nearly 4 million government employees • Now. even to draft them • Strikes still grew in size and number The Home Front • Although the war brought prosperity. many small farmers would never return • New Workers • Bracero program—allowed Mexicans to work in jobs previously forbidden • Female labour force grew by over 50%. 25 • At the end of the war. Roosevelt shifted his focus from getting out of the Depression to winning the war • Most New Deal agencies eventually vanished as the US supported the war effort • Economic Conversion • Many felt the US’s ability to win the war would be based on capability of production • The war created the largest economic boom in the history of any country • Defense production made a huge impact in the West • Textiles became a large industry • Army required 520 million pairs of socks. which led to many labour disputes • Many high-ranking authorities including the President tried to break strikes • Many white workers resisted the many African Americans being hired during the war • Blacks usually refused to back down • Antistrike Bill—gave President power to penalize strikers. and other hard conditions • Most Americans were happy and proud to do what they could to help the Allies • Families in Wartime • War rushed many people into marriage • As the number of marriages grew. 230 million pairs of pants • Rural areas decreased in population. ch e as . so to did the number of divorces • Federal govt began creating programs in response to the lack of public housing • Often. long workdays. it also brought food rationing. leaving a growing number of “latchkey” children j. reaching 19.
000 Japanese people to camps • Japanese Americans were given one week to close up their homes and businesses before being transported to one of the ten internment camps • Korematsu v. etc j. many Americans feared that the Japanese would remain loyal to their homeland • Media and cartoons began to make racist statements. 25 • • • • During the war the number of juvenile delinquents rose dramatically 1944—Ofﬁce of Education began a “back-to-school” campaign to reduce dropouts Schools became the center of the community war effort New economic prosperity led to a huge increase in public health. ch e as . calling them “Japs” etc • 1942—Roosevelt authorised the removal of approx.OUT OF MANY CH. 1943—Sailors chased Mexican Americans wearing zoot suits through Los Angeles. but also for their civil rights • Roosevelt supported advances that would not disrupt the war effort • Black movements planned a huge rally to take place in Washington • Roosevelt met with black leaders. which led to an order banning discrimination • Many other racial equality movements gained ground during the war • Some whites wanted to keep blacks out of the best jobs and neighbourhoods • Riots and other race-based uprisings were widespread • Zoot-suit Riots • June 4. rise in life expectancy • The Internment of Japanese Americans • After Pearl Harbor.” complete with personal sacriﬁce. Security • 1988—US Congress gave $20. Americans were prosperous and enjoyed themselves • Popular culture developed and was able to bridge racial divisions • Pop culture began to depict a “good war.000 and a public apology to the surviving victims • Civil Rights and Race Riots • African Americans fought not only for victory. stripping them and beating them • Sailors saw these suits as wasteful and unpatriotic • Zoot-suiters only made up about 10% of Mexican American youth • Eventually Los Angeles made wearing a zoot-suit in public a criminal offence • Popular Culture and “The Good War” • Even with the war on. 110. US—Supreme Court upheld the legality of the internments—Nat.
MacArthur • GI = Government Issue—vast majority of draftees • Wanted to ﬁght for democracy and hoped to return soon to families. 25 • Movie stars called on people to buy war bonds and made combat ﬁlms • Comics and other popular forms of media began promoting the war • Americans associated with the war with phrases such as “Loose Lips Sink Ships” Men and Woman in Uniform • Only 34% of the army saw combat • Severe military regime uprooted men from their lives and reshaped them • Creating the Armed Forces • With the exception of the Marine Corps. eg. but still assisted at home and abroad • Many women were discriminated against—no lesbians. no “homosexual tendencies” etc • Racial segregation was also widespread among women • Old Practices and New Horizons • 1944—~10% of the army’s troops were black • Many black divisions earned distinction in battle • Many minorities consider their time in the army to be an “Americanizing” experience • WWII brought together people from across the country and formed bonds btwn them • Overseas Occupation • American GIs overseas were at times rowdy and somewhat oppressive j. ch e as . etc • Women Enter the Military • Women originally served as nurses and clerical workers • WAC = Women’s Army Corps —Waves = Womens divison of the navy • As a group.OUT OF MANY CH. this was lowered to 18 • US army was the best-educated in the world • Eisenhower was more of a “fair” general than the old-school ofﬁcers. these women were better educated and more skilled than soldiers • Women were banned from combat. the military was not prepared for a large war • Oct 16. 1940—All men ages 21-36 eligible for military service • Once the US joined the war.
the Allies were on the defensive (read: getting slapped around) Just 2 hrs after Pearl Harbour. but eventually stopped the Germans • Feb. and decided to attack Stalingrad • Soviets lost more people in these battles than the US did in the entire war • Intense ﬁghting decimated the Soviets. it featured tanks and planes • WWII had huge improvements in communications. 1943—German Sixth Army surrendered • Final German offensive against the Soviets came at Kursk. beaten. and instead of soldiers. etc • Hitler used these methods to create terror among the defeated Europeans • RAF fought the Luftwaffe to a stalemate. killed. GIs treated Japanese prisoners very badly The World at War For 1st year of the war. who got his ass kicked in N. the Soviets launched a counterattack • 1st time the German war machine had been stopped • Hitler turned south. etc • As retaliation. 25 • American soldiers had an unusually high standard of living—made other troops jealous • “Liberating” US soldiers in France were often drunk and raped and pillaged • Prisoners of War • In German POW camps. Americans were treated well. the Japanese hit the main US base in the Philippines Allies still had several important advantages: Skilled workforce with the ability to accelerate production Soviets could endure huge losses without surrendering j. conditions for POWs were terrible • Starved.OUT OF MANY CH. the only option was to defend Germany ch e as . six weeks later than planned • Hitler had to help Mussolini. eg 2-way radio transmission. Hitler could not invade Britain • Invasion of Russia did not happen until June 22. Africa and Greece • Although the Nazis beat the Soviet army. Russians were starved and killed • In the Paciﬁc. Ukraine—July 1943 • Largest land battle in history—2 million troops + and 6000 tanks • After another German defeat. • • • • • • Soviets Halt Nazi Drive • WWII was more mobile than WWI. the civilians rallied and cut of supply lines • When the winter set in. diseased.
1944 with the Normandy invasion (D-Day) • At Omaha Beach. but instead pushed North • Germans at Arnhem cut the Allied armies to pieces—6000 Americans captured j. capable of hitting speciﬁc targets • Americans bombed during the day. the King dismissed Mussolini • Civilians rose up against their Nazi captors. the RAF launched raids on cities • Hamburg and Dresden were each practically levelled • These attacks lowered German morale and gave the Allies an upper hand • The Allied Invasion of Europe • After the Allies stormed southern Italy in 1943. the Americans were far more productive and the momentum had shifted • German troops were still on foot. African Army and most of the German Afrika Corps • Operation Torch—British and US troops secured a position in the Mediterranean • May 1943 • Churchill and Roosevelt would only accept an unconditional surrender • Critics argued that this would only prolong the war • B-17 Flying Fortress—believed to be the mightiest bomber ever built • Described as a “humane” weapon. British preferred at night • In an attempt to break German resistance.OUT OF MANY CH. ch e as . the Nazis prepared the defense perfectly. 1942—British stop a major offensive under Gen. the Allies prepared for Operation Overlord • Wanted to retake the continent by pushing through France • Began on June 6. killing thousands of troops • As the Allies pushed towards Paris. such as in the Warsaw Jewish ghetto • Partisan resistance helped weaken Nazis and pave the way for Allied attacks • As Stalin kept pushing for a second front. while Allied troops had jeeps • Oct 23-24. the Germans retreated quickly • August 25—Charles de Gaulle proclaimed president of the French Republic • The High Cost of European Victory • Allies chose not to move into Berlin. 25 • Soviets began to recover from their losses with the help of the US’s lend-lease program • Their victories turned the tide of the war—Hitler was suddenly vulnerable • The Allied Offensive • 1942—Although the Nazis controlled most of the world. Rommel (The Desert Fox) at El Alamein • Destroyed the Italian N.
ch e as . but when the German defeat seemed imminent. and could not transport necessary supplies • US did not the Soviets to take any territory after the war was over • This led to the use of their secret weapon: the atomic bomb The Last Stages of War • During the war.000. he began planning for peace • Wanted to make sure another world war never happened • The Holocaust • During the war. the German defense seemed hopeless May 8th. 25 • • • • • Battle of the Bulge—Germans suprised Allies. the US regained control of the Paciﬁc • After Guam was captured. Roosevelt focused on military strategy.000 Gypsies. 1945—Germans surrendered By this time Hitler had already committed suicide • The War in Asia and the Paciﬁc • After Pearl Harbour. and 60. 1945—Roosevelt met for the last time with Churchill and Stalin j. 250.OUT OF MANY CH. and homosexuals • US government did not release this information until after the war • US army would not waste resources rescuing civilians unless it was part of an objective • The Holocaust claimed more than 6. the Americans could reach Tokyo and other cities • Japan had no signiﬁcant air force or navy. Hitler systematically murdered Jews. the Japanese continued their early victories • Japanese empire proved to be cruel and the conquered people did not like them • Midway Island—Americans defeated Japanese and ended the threat to the US coast • Japanese felt that high casualties on both sides would eventually wear down the US • Americans devised plans to recapture many of the small islands in the Paciﬁc • Battle of Leyte Gulf—largest naval battle in history—US tried to recapture Philippines • Under MacArthur.000 Jews.000 gays • The Yalta Conference • Feb. driving them back 50 miles Bloodiest campaign involving Americans since the battle of Gettysburg By the time the Allies took the Ruhr valley. Gypsies.
1945—The ﬁrst atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima • Aug 9. cooperation among the Allies was difﬁcult • Truman had no intentions of making concessoins to the Soviets • Once Truman found out about the atomic bomb. he realised that at the end of the war nothing would keep the Allies together • 1944—Roosevelt won an unprecedented fourth term in ofﬁce • April 12. he knew he did not need the Soviets • Truman warned the Japanese to surrender immediately. 1945—A second atomic bomb destroys Nagasaki • The decision to drop the bomb remains one of the most controversial aspects of the war • Atomic power strengthened the US’s diplomatic power j. 25 Russia wanted: the Baltic states and part of Poland as a buffer zone Britain wanted: to reclaim its empire in Asia The US wanted: to hold several Paciﬁc islands to keep an eye on Japan Although Roosevelt claimed the meeting was a success. 1945—Japan refused to surrender • Aug 6. 1945—Roosevelt died of a stroke • His death cast a large shadow over the peace process • • • • • The Atomic Bomb • After Roosevelt’s death. or face “complete destruction” • Aug 3. ch e as .OUT OF MANY CH.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?