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Out of Many 3rd Edition
Ch. 22 World War I, 1914-1920
Becoming a World Power • Early 1900s US had a more vigorous and aggressive foreign policy • “Progressive Diplomacy” led to the US becoming a large world power • Roosevelt: The Big Stick • Roosevelt believed in superiority of Protestant Anglo-Americans • Felt that US must be militarily strong • “Speak softly and carry a big stick” • “Planned” revolt against Columbia after turned down on Panama Canal building • US gets control of Canal Zone & gains immense strategic & commercial advantage. Sends in an “international police” force to keep Europeans out. • 1899: John Hay gets open door trading in China • Roosevelt gets Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating Russo-Japanese war in 1905 • Taft: Dollar Diplomacy • “Substitute dollars for bullets” Taft wanted to limit the military’s involvement • Ended up needing military support in Honduras & Nicaragua • Taft gained more investment opportunities for the US in China • Tried to “neutralize” Chinese industry, but this backﬁred, closed door in China • Wilson: Moralism & Realism • Wilson felt foreign investments & industrial exports were the keys to national prosperity. He intended to remove trade barriers. • Mexican Revolution (1911) brings fear to US investors of democratic leader F. Madero. Madero murdered & militarist government. takes over. • US supports nationalists & invade • Carranza (nationalist) takes over government. • “Pancho” Villa attempts to overthrow government but fails; wants to get US into Mexican war • US attempts to capture him after raids into the US—attempts fail The Great War • Both sides predicted a quick victory • Americans entered the war reluctantly, and played a supportive role
France & Russia) • Archduke Ferdinand of Austria killed & war breaks out • Germany invades Belgium & prepares to invade France • Over 5. 22 • The Guns of August • Two teams: • Triple Alliance (Germany.000. ch e as . Leads to hugely increased war support • Apr 2. due to too many interest groups immigrants.OUT OF MANY CH.000 people • Created more than 100 million pieces of pro-war literature j. Wilson was still unsure how ordinary Americans would react • Selling the War • Committee of Public Information (CPI) formed to promote the war • Employed more than 150. etc • Began to trade ‘solely’ with the allies • British blockade—Germany & US don’t complain • US economic boom from all the trade with the Allies • Preparedness and Peace • Feb 1915 Germans begin sinking all boats around Britain with submarines • May 1915 German U-Boat sinks British Liner Lusitania & kills 128 Americans • Germans temporarily cease their attacks after Wilson threatens to break off relations • US passes National Defense Act to increase army size • Met with much opposition (Women’s World Peace Movement) • Wilson wins next election (1916) on Anti-War Premise • Democrats win using the slogan “He kept us out of War” • Safe for Democracy • More sinking of US ships by U-Boats leads to US entrance into war • US intercepts a German note suggesting an alliance with Mexico against the US.000 people killed over two and a half years in the North of France • American Neutrality • Impossible to stay neutral. Austro-Hungary & Italy) • Triple Entente (Britain. and state legislatures were enthusiastic. religious leaders. 1917: Congress approves declaration of war American Mobilization • Although newspapers.
John Pershing appointed commander of the AEF (American Expeditionary Force). • Standardized tests were given to recruits • Illiteracy was as high as 25% • Racism in the Military • Segregated units for blacks (ie: 369th US Infantry in French Army) • Thousands of black soldiers endured humiliating treatment from white ofﬁcers • Barred from marines & coast guard • August 1917 Houston black infantrymen kill 17 civilians due to racism • Blacks were amazed to ﬁnd that their treatment overseas was better than at home • Americans in Battle • American support began by escorting convoys to safety and attacking UBoats • Gen. he believed in total destruction of the enemy • Spring 1918 AEF soldiers help stop Germans at Chateau-Thierry & Belleau Wood • Germans made it to within 50 miles of Paris • Sept.OUT OF MANY CH. • Much like Ulysses S. 1917 almost 10 million men registered for the draft • Age restrictions were loosened. 24 million had signed up. who saw the potential for positive social change • Selective Service Act: the ‘draft’ is introduced without much resistance • War was popular among most middleclass women gave them a chance to work • Many hoped that through the war they would gain suffrage • “You’re in the Army Now” • June 5. 1918 AEF takes 200 mile front in Meuse-Argonne offensive • War ends November 11. 22 • CPI recruited popular movie stars to make the war attractive • CPI used three main themes in their prowar pitches: • America as a uniﬁed moral community • War was an idealistic crusade for peace and freedom • Displayed the image of a despicable enemy • CPI urged ethnic Americans to lose their ties to the Old World be “unhyphenated” • Fading Opposition to the War • The War effort gained support among progressives and reformers. and by the end of the war. 1918. after Germans begins to fall back j. ch e as . Wanted to be separate from British and French army. 2 million volunteers took part in various armed services. Grant.
22 Over Here • WWI saw the federal government play a huge role in regulating the economy • Although much was temporary. wheat. and higher wages • American Fed. sugar. ch e as . women ﬁlled jobs traditionally held by men who were off ﬁghting j. and other agricultural commodities. a millionaire engineer • Hoover put price controls on pork. Bought by government and sold through dealers • Hoover refused to impose mandatory rationing • Many Americans cut back on wheat and meat.5 billion in payment contracts • Food & Fuel act: President can regulate the production & distribution of food • Food administration led by Herbert Hoover. strict immigration guidelines were eased • Immigration Act of 1917 reduces illiterate Mexican immigration • Must be literate & pay $8 head tax • Suspended for the war’s duration because of labour shortage • The war ended many more radical factions of the US labor movt • Industrial Workers of the World got shut down under the Espionage Act • Marked the beginning of a wave of political repression • Women at Work • During the war. Of Labour increases its membership • Most members were skilled white males • During the war. etc • Graduated Income Tax was lowered to pay off the $30 billion + war cost • Federal Debt jumped from $1 billion in 1915 to $20 billion in 1920 • The Business of War • War increases industrial production & job availability • Most important longlasting economic legacy: shift towards corporations • Radios used in battle immensely this small industry soon gained ground • Radio Corporation of America (RCA) formed (1919) • Labor and the War • Increase in industrial labour due to the war more jobs.OUT OF MANY CH. began growing own veggies. the war started many trends in American life • Organizing the Economy • War Industries Board (WIB) created by Wilson in 1917 • Clearinghouse for industrial mobilization to support the war effort • Handed out $14.
• National Woman’s Party led by Alice Paul radical group of reformers • Picketed the White House and publicly burned some of Wilson’s speeches • Aug 1920 Women are granted the vote nationwide • Prohibition • Drinking was seen as the source of many working-class problems • Women’s Christian Temperance Union major supporter of prohibition • Prohibition granted in 1919 becomes source for increased organized crime • Public Health • Government-educated soldiers in personal health & distributed condoms • Established 5-mile “pure zones” around military bases (no hookers) • 1918 Division of Venereal Diseases created to educate the public. $1 million to the Public Health Service to combat the epidemic.OUT OF MANY CH. but no money to cure it Repression & Reaction • WWI exposed and intensiﬁed many of the deepest social tensions in American life • Bolsheviks accomplished the ﬁrst successful revolution against a capitalist state • Muzzling Dissent: The Espionage and Sedition Acts j. Pursued their goals through moderate action lobbying for constitutional reform.000 Americans in 10 months. give free treatment. 22 • Women in Industrial Service (WIS) created by the Labor Dept • Showed a practical stand by the government to improve womens’ working conditions • Womens’ wages were approximately half of what mens’ were in the same job • Woman Suffrage • Women play a key role in war effort and want their efforts to be appreciated • Some Western areas adopted forms of woman suffrage earlier • Lacked the harsh Catholic / Protestant divisions present in the east • Nat. ch e as . • Children’s Bureau created to report on special problems due to the war • Institutionalized federal aid to protect mothers & children • Led to the Maternity & Infancy Act (1921) • 1918-1919 Huge epidemic of Spanish Inﬂuenza (combination of ﬂu and pneumonia) killed 550. American Woman Suffrage Assoc. supports war effort & increasingly is supported.
1917 mob of Whites in St. United States Supreme Court upheld sedition act convictions of 4 Russians • The Great Migration & Racial Tensions • Postwar economic opportunities create widespread black migration to northern cities. the Bureau of Investigation was created to handle civilian intelligence • The Sedition Act Amendment to the Espionage act • Outlawed any “disloyal. over 60. 1919 Anti-black rioting on Lake Michigan beach in Chicago • African Americans held responsible for the violence • Crisis Journal for the NAACP concluded that an increase in racial hatred was an integral part of wartime intolerance • Sought to end the widespread lynchings • Labour Strife • After the War. United States decided that Supreme Court can restrict freedom of speech • Abrams vs. Racism in the South also contributed to the migration. scurrilous or abusive language…” to the government constitution or the ﬂag • Eugene Debs arrested for publicly declaring his hatred of war • Scheneck vs. Louis.OUT OF MANY CH. 22 • The Espionage Act: June 1917 • Suppression of antiwar sentiment • Up to 20 years & $10. • July 2. “strike wave” hits 3600 strikes in 1919. ch e as .000 participants • Ended when the mayor asked troops to occupy the city An Uneasy Peace • Treaty of Versailles formally ended World War I • Dominated by Britain. News of jobs & urban residential districts spread throughout community groups.000 ﬁne for aiding the enemy or causing insubordination in the armed forces • Postmaster General could exclude any publication he considered treasonous • After the war. but was not limited to the South. France. Italy and the United States j. profane. involving 4 million + people • Return of servicemen creates job security issues • 1919 Seattle a shipyard strike turns into a citywide strike. Illinois kill 200 blacks • July 27.
22 • The Fourteen Points • Wilson’s blueprint for peace Contained three main aspects: • Detailed postwar boundaries in Europe. 1919.OUT OF MANY CH. and open covenants • Also addresses mediating conﬂicting colonial claims • Wilson called for the creation of a League of Nations to enforce the 14 points • The 14 Points reﬂected Wilson’s longheld liberal progressive feelings • The most controversial issue was the League of Nations • Article X in the charter of the League called for collective security to keep peace. free trade. but it didn’t help him politically • Republican Henry Lodge recommended fourteen changes to Wilson’s treaty • Wilson instructs Democrats to vote against the Lodge version of the treaty • Lodge version wins but not ratiﬁed • United States never signed the Versailles Treaty or joined the League of Nations j. addressed splitting up AustroHungary • General principles for international conduct • Includes free seas. • Wilson in Paris • Conference initially accepts the 14 points • Austria. • Germans had no choice but to accept the terms • The Treaty Fight • Wilson had neglected domestic issues & concentrated on foreign policies • Republicans capture majority in House & Senate (1918) • Wilson’s opponents in Senate included: “Irreconcilables” opposed to any form of treaty • Senators who had opposed entry into the war • Racist xenophobes against him as well • Many senators dislike the League of Nations idea • Sept 1919 Wilson goes on a US speaking tour. This violated the American system of declaring war through Congress. ch e as . but it is still imposed on Germany • $33 billion in reparations • Final treaty signed on June 28. Hungary. Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia made out of the beaten powers • Compromise mandate gave British and French control of German and Turkish colonies • Japan controls German China • Wilson opposes war guilt. Poland.
22 • Russian Revolution • Bolsheviks take control of Russian government & negotiate separate peace with Germany. not revolution • Eugene Debs gets 900. j.OUT OF MANY CH. racism. Wilson doesn’t acknowledge the Bolshevik government. restoration. Wilson doesn’t run for reelection. • Marked a huge hostility towards radicalism • Election of 1920 • Americans wanted to retreat from the social tensions and reforms having to do with war. • They are a threat to liberal-capitalism. but he called for a retreat from “Wilson Idealism” • Voters wanted a return to normalcy from the war era. Mitchell Parker was like the ﬁrst Sen. McCarthy.000 votes from jail. • Warren G. Harding wins landslide • Not a suitable president. ch e as . the foundation of America’s moral basis • Aug 1918 US troops sent to Northern Russia to keep the Russian Revolution in control • The Red Scare • Strikes. and other disturbances were increasingly blamed on Bolshevism • 1918 Alien Act Enabled the government to deport anyone found to be a revolutionary. Attorney General A.
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