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# ETABS MODELLING

March 2013

## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Step by step procedure and methodology of how you developing a modelusing ETABS
Step 1: Specify Material Properties for Concrete

1. Poisson ratio is equal to v = 0 (cracked concrete) and v = 0.2 (un-cracked concrete) as (EN1992-1-1,cl.3.1.3) Table 1: Concrete properties (EN 1992, Table 3.1) Property Data for concrete Mass per unit Volume Weight per unit volume Modulus of Elasticity Poissons Ratio (cracked concrete) Coeff. of thermal expansion Charact. ConcCyl. Strength, fck Bending Reinf. Yield stress, fyk Shear Reinf. Yield stress, fyk C16/20 (N/mm2) 2,5E-09 2,5E-05 29000 0 10E-06 16 500 500 C20/25 (N/mm2) 2,5E-09 2,5E-05 30000 0 10E-06 20 500 500 C25/30 (N/mm2) 2,5E-09 2,5E-05 31000 0 10E-06 25 500 500 C30/37 (N/mm2) 2,5E-09 2,5E-05 33000 0 10E-06 30 500 500

## Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Step 2: Add frame section for columns

## Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Step 3: Add frame section for beams Figure 3: Effective width of beams (EN1992-1-1,cl.5.3.2.1)

Interior beam

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Figure 4: Section properties of concrete beams

Notes: 1. Property modification factors are used to reduce moment and torsion stiffness due to crack section. Torsional stiffness of the cracked section should be set equal to 10% of the torsional stiffness of the un-cracked section. 2. Unless a more accurate analysis of the cracked elements is performed, the elastic flexural and shear stiffness properties of concrete and masonry elements may be taken to be equal to one-half of the corresponding stiffness of the un-cracked elements (EN1998-1-1,cl. 4.3.1(7)). 3. These modification factor only affect the analysis properties, they do not affect the design properties.

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## Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Step 5: Define Response Spectrum function according to EC8

1. 2. 3. 4.

Peak ground acceleration agR=0,25g, Type C or D for building within category of importance I and II, Define two response spectrum cases if the factor q is different in each direction, Modify the existing values of elastic response spectrum case in order to change it into the design response spectrum. Figure 7: Response Spectrum to EC8

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## Figure 8: Design spectrum for elastic analysis data

PERIOD T 0.0000 0.0667 0.1333 0.2000 0.6000 0.8333 1.0667 1.3000 1.5333 1.7667 2.0000 3.3333 4.6667 6.0000 7.3333 8.6667 10.0000

g ACCELERATION Sd(T) Soil Type 0.0767 q 0.1150 0.1533 gR S 0.1917 TB 0.1917 0.1380 0.1078 0.0885 0.0750 0.0651 0.0575 0.0200 0.0200 0.0200 0.0200 0.0200 0.0200

= = = = = = =

## m/sec2 - - - - - sec sec sec sec

TC = TD = T = index 1 2 3 4 5

1 Data for soil type - T ype Spectrum Soil Type S TB TC A 1 0.15 0.4 B 1.2 0.15 0.5 C 1.15 0.2 0.6 D 1.35 0.2 0.8 E 1.4 0.15 0.5 Page: 8

TD 2 2 2 2 2

## Step 5: Define Equivalent Static Analysis

Equivalent static analysis can be used if the following case can be met:

1. Ground acceleration: Check seismic zonation map from National Annex 2. Spectrum type 1: 5.5Hz<M (High seismicity areas)

3. Ground type: Normally type B or C can be used (see EN 1998,table 3.1) 4. Lower bound factor for the horizontal design spectrum: 0.2 (EN 1998-11,cl.3.2.2.5(4)P)

## 5. Behavior factor q: See table

6. Correction factor (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(1)) =0.85 if T12TC and more than 2 storey =1.0 in all other case
Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

7. Regular in elevation

## 8. Regular in elevation and irregular in plan

9. Fundamental period:

T14T_c T12,0s

Table 1: Equivalent Static Force Case Load case name EQXA EQYA EQXB EQYB Direction and Eccentricity X Dir + Eccen. Y X Dir Eccen. Y Y Dir + Eccen. X Y Dir Eccen. X % Eccentricity 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

## Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Step 6: Define Load Combination for Equivalent lateral force analysis Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Static case COMBO 1. COMBO 2. COMBO 3. COMBO 4. COMBO 5. COMBO 6. COMBO 7. COMBO 8. COMBO 9. COMBO 10. COMBO 11. COMBO 12. COMBO 13. COMBO 14. COMBO 15. Seismic case COMBO 16. COMBO 17. COMBO 18. COMBO 19. COMBO 20. COMBO 21. COMBO 22. COMBO 23. COMBO 24. COMBO 25. COMBO 26. COMBO 27. COMBO 28. COMBO 29. COMBO 30. COMBO 31. DL + 0.3LL + EQXA + 0.3EQYA DL + 0.3LL + EQXA 0.3EQYA DL + 0.3LL - EQXA + 0.3EQYA DL + 0.3LL - EQXA 0.3EQYA DL + 0.3LL + EQYA + 0.3EQXA DL + 0.3LL + EQYA 0.3EQXA DL + 0.3LL - EQYA + 0.3EQXA DL + 0.3LL - EQYA 0.3EQXA DL + 0.3LL + EQXB + 0.3EQYB DL + 0.3LL + EQXB 0.3EQYB DL + 0.3LL - EQXB + 0.3EQYB DL + 0.3LL - EQXB 0.3EQYB DL + 0.3LL + EQYB + 0.3EQXB DL + 0.3LL + EQYB 0.3EQXB DL + 0.3LL - EQYB + 0.3EQXB DL + 0.3LL - EQYB 0.3EQXB 1.35DL + 1.5LL 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 1.5 (0.7LL + 0.5 SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 1.5 (0.7LL + 0.5 SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7WINDX + 0.5 SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7WINDY + 0.5 SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7SNOW + 0.5WINDX) 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7SNOW + 0.5WINDY) 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7LL+ 0.5WINDX) 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7LL+ 0.5WINDY) 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7WINDX + 0.5LL) 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7WINDY + 0.5LL) 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 0.7*1.5(LL+SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 0.7*1.5(LL+SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5(LL+SNOW) + 0.7*1.5WINDX 1.35DL + 1.5(LL+SNOW) + 0.7*1.5WINDY

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Step 7: Define Response Spectrum case

Modal Response spectrum 1. 2. 3. 4. Independently in X and Y direction, Define design spectrum, Use CQC rule for the combination of different modes (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.2(3)) Use SRS rule for combined the results of modal analysis for both horizontal directions (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.5.1(21)). 5. Accidental eccentricity of each storey cause of uncertainties locatin of masses have been taken into account 5% (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.2). 6. Modal Combination: Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) can be used if the Tj 0,9 Ti (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.2(3)P). Figure 9: Response Spectrum case Data for EQY& EQX

## Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Step 8: Define Load Combination for modal analysis

## Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Static case COMBO 1. COMBO 2. COMBO 3. COMBO 4. COMBO 5. COMBO 6. COMBO 7. COMBO 8. COMBO 9. COMBO 10. COMBO 11. COMBO 12. COMBO 13. COMBO 14. COMBO 15. 1.35DL + 1.5LL 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 1.5 (0.7LL + 0.5 SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 1.5 (0.7LL + 0.5 SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7WINDX + 0.5 SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7WINDY + 0.5 SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7SNOW + 0.5WINDX) 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7SNOW + 0.5WINDY) 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7LL+ 0.5WINDX) 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7LL+ 0.5WINDY) 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7WINDX + 0.5LL) 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7WINDY + 0.5LL) 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 0.7*1.5(LL+SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 0.7*1.5(LL+SNOW) 1.35DL + 1.5(LL+SNOW) + 0.7*1.5WINDX 1.35DL + 1.5(LL+SNOW) + 0.7*1.5WINDY

Seismic case

COMBO 16. COMBO 17. COMBO 18. COMBO 19. COMBO 20. COMBO 21. COMBO 22. COMBO 23.

DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY DL + 0.3LL + EQX 0.3EQY DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY DL + 0.3LL - EQX 0.3EQY DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX DL + 0.3LL + EQY 0.3EQX DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX DL + 0.3LL - EQY 0.3EQX

COMBO 24.

DL + LL

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G+0.3Q-Ex+0.3Ey

G+0.3Q-Ex-0.3Ey

G+0.3Q+Ey+0.3Ex

G+0.3Q+Ey-0.3Ex

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G+0.3Q-Ey+0.3Ex

G+0.3Q-Ey-0.3Ex

1.35G+1.5Q

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## Automatic meshing option for slab element only

Notes: 1. The property assignments to meshed area objectets are the same as the original area object. 2. Load and mass assignments on the original area object are appropriately broken up onto the meshed area objects.

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Step 10: Meshing/Label of wall

Edit>Mesh shells and click on the Mesh/Quads/Triangles at Intersections with visible grid lines:

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## Select area element (slab)->Assign->Shell Are-> Auto-Line Constraint

Step 12: Define mass source Combination of the seismic action with other actions (EN 1998-1-1,cl.3.2.4): 1. Define the category of building (EN 1991,Table 6.1), 2. Define the reduce factor (EN 199, Table A.1.1).

## Table 2: Combination of seismic mass

, + , (1998-1-1,Eq. 3.17) !" = !! (1998-1-1,Eq. 4.2)

## Combination coefficient for variable action is:

Values of for calculating (CYS NA EN1998-1-1:2004) Type of Variable action Categories AC1 Categories AF1 Storey

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## Table 3: Values of coefficients

Category A B C D E F G H Specific Use Domestic and residential Office Areas for Congregation Shopping Storage Traffic < 30 kN vehicle Traffic < 160 kN vehicle Roofs Snow, altitude < 1000 m Wind 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.5 0 0.2 0.2 2 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.3 0 0 0

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## Notes: 1. Minimum number of modes to be taken into account (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.1(5)): k 3.n

k is the number of modes taken into account. n is the number of storeys above the foundation or the top of a rigid basement.

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Step 14: Define restrains at the base Select the entire base joints

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## Step 1: Calculate the effective modal mass

Display> Show Tables > Modal information > Building modal information > Table modal participation mass ratios

1. The sum of the effective modal masses for the modes taken into account amounts to at least 90% of the total mass of the structure (EN 1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.1(3)). 2. All modes with effective modal masses greater than 5% of the total mass are taken into account.

## Mode 2 (Translation X - direction)

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Mode 3 (Torsional)

## Step 2: Damage limitations

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

The damage limitation requirements should be verified in terms of the interstorey drift (dr) (EN 1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3.2) using the equation below: ! => !

dr: is the difference of the average lateral displacement ds in CM at the top and bottom of storey. v: is the reduction factor which takes into account the lower return period of the seismic action. h: is the storey height Table 4: Damage limitation (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3) For non-structural elements of brittle material attached to the structure For building having ductile non structural elements For building having non-structural elements fixed in a way so as not to interfere with structural deformation drv0.005h drv0.0075h drv0.010h

Tab;e 5: Reduction factor of limitation to interstorey drift (CYA NA EN1998-11,cl.NA.2.15) Importance class I II III IV Reduction factor v 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4

## 1. Export results from ETABS to ECXEL

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## 3. Record the value of each storey in the spread sheet below:

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Damage limitation (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3)
Displacement Displacement Heigh of each Drift X Drift Y storey, h dr (m) dr (m) (m) Storey 2 Storey 1 0,0026 0,0017 0,0026 0,0017 3,00 3,00 Reduction factor v 0,50 0,50 v*dr X - direction 0,00043 0,00028 v*dr/h Y - direction 0,00043 0,00028 X-direction Y-direction dr*v<0,005-0,01 dr*v<0,005-0,01 OK OK OK OK

## Step 3: Second order effects

1. The criterion for taking into account the second order effect is based on the interstorey drift sensitivity coefficient , which is define with equation (EN 1998-11,cl.4.4.2.2(2)). = hr: is the interstorey drift, h: is the storey height, Vtot: is the total seismic storey shear Ptot: is the total gravity load at and above storey considered in the seismic design situation (G+0.3Q). Table 6: Consequences of value of P- coefficient on the analysis 0,1 0,10,2 0,20,3 0,3 No need to consider P- effects P- effects may be taken into account approximately by ! amplifying the effects of the seismic actions by !!! P- effects must be accounted for by an analysis including second order effects explicity Not permitted !"! ! !"!

## 1. Explore the results from ETABS to EXCEL

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

2. Select the combo G+0,3Q and record the highest value from each storey

## 3. Record the heist value for Vtot

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## Second order effects (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.2.2)

Ptot (kN) Storey 2 Storey 1 709 1426 Heigh of each storey, h (m) 3,00 3,00 Vtot X-direction (kN) 220,00 334,00 Vtot Displaceme Displacement Y-direction nt Drift X Drift Y (kN) dr (m) dr (m) 220,00 0,00260 0,00260 334,00 0,00170 0,00170 X-direction Y-direction 0.1 0.1 OK OK OK OK

## Step 4: Structural regularity plan

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

1. Slenderness ratio of the building =Lmax/Lmin<4 2. A compact shape: one in which the perimeter lines is always convex, or at least encloses not more than 5% re-entrant area. 3. The floor diaphragms shall be sufficient stiff in-plane not to affect the distribution of lateral loads between vertical elements. Table 7: Criteria for regularity in plan Lateral torsional rensponse condition: Torsionally rigidity condition:
Regularity in plan (cl. 4.2.3.2)
Check 1 - slenderness ratio cl.4.2.3.2(5) Slenderness ratio =Lmax/Lmin<4 = 2,80 OK

## Regularity in plan (cl. 4.2.3.2)

Check 2 - structural eccentricity & torsional radius cl.4.2.3.2(6) Length in longitudinal direction Length in trasverse direction Stifness in X direction Stifness in Y direction Torsional stifness Torsional radius Torsional radius Radius of gyration Structural eccentricity in x direction Structural eccentricity in y direction
Sx=1000/dx Sy=1000/dy Ts=1000/Rz ry=Ts/Sx rx=Ts/Sy Is=((Lmax+Lmin)12)^0,5 eox=Rz(Fx)/Rz(Mz) eox=Rz(Fy)/Rz(Mz)

= =

56 20

m m

Table 1: Criteria for regularity in plan - Torsionally rigity condition Displacement Displacement X (mm) Y (mm) dx dy Storey 2 Storey 1 7,35 5 7,14 6 Rotation Z (radians) Rz 8,18E-06 8,18E-06 Stifness X (kN/m) Sx 136054 200000 Stifness Y (kN/m) Sy 140056 166667 Torsional Stifness (kNm/radian) Ts 1,22E+08 1,22E+08 rx (m) ry (m)

29,5 27,1

30,0 24,7

## Is (m) 17,2 17,2

Is<rx

Is<ry

OK OK

OK OK

Table 2: Criteria for regularity in plan - Lateral torsional respone condition Rotation Rz for Fx=1000kN 8,18E-06 8,18E-06 Rotation Rz Rotation Rz Eccentricity for for eox Fy=1000kN Mx=1000kNm 8,18E-06 8,18E-06 1,00 8,18E-06 8,18E-06 1 Eccentricity eoy 1,00 1,00E+00 3,33eox<rx 3,33eoy<ry

Storey 2 Storey 1

OK OK

OK OK

## Apply forces as follow:

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## Forces FX1=1000kN F1=1000kN MZ1=1000kNm FX2=1000kN F2=1000kN MZ2=1000kNm

Repeat this process for all load case in order to obtain the displacement values.
Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Step 5: Structural type of the building

Table 8: Classification of structural system Wall system Frame system Frame-equivalent dual system Wall-equivalent dual system Vertical and lateral load: Wall resist Vb,wall>65%Vbtotal Vertical and lateral load: Vb,frame>65%Vbtotal Vertical and lateral load: Vb,frame>50%Vbtotal Vertical and lateral load: Vb,wall>50%Vbtotal

## Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

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ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES From load case tick the worst-case seismic design combination:

## COMBO 1. COMBO 2. COMBO 3. COMBO 4. COMBO 5. COMBO 6. COMBO 7. COMBO 8.

DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY DL + 0.3LL + EQX 0.3EQY DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY DL + 0.3LL - EQX 0.3EQY DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX DL + 0.3LL + EQY 0.3EQX DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX DL + 0.3LL - EQY 0.3EQX

## 3. Select the nodes for frames only

4. Calculate the sum of the base shear that can be resist by column in X and Y direction

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES i.e VTOTAL = 1000KN

VFRAMES, X ,Y = 500KN VTOTAL / VFRAME 500/1000*100= 50% Therefore the structural system of building is: Wall-equivalent dual system

How to checking base shear Base shear can be check as follow: Table 9: Checking the base shear Direction X direction Y direction Lower bound values Fb = %Effective mass(X dir.)*Mass *Sdx Fb = %Effective mass(Y dir.)*Mass *Sdv Upper bound values Fb = mass * Sdx Fb = mass * Sdy

## Note: The base shear should be within those limits

NOTE: REPEAT ALL THIS PROCESS FROM BEGIN WITH THE NEW Q VALUE
Revised the design spectrum input data with the new q (for example if q=1.5 adopt at initial stage and the new q=3 then you have to repeat the process with the new q)

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## ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

OUTPUT DATA

Step 1: Print data for steel/concrete design File > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design

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## Export model to SAFE

File menu > Export > Save Story as SAFE.f2k Text File

Local Axis

## Local axis 1 Local axis 2

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc ETABS MANUAL

X - direction Y- direction
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ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES Local axis 3 Local axis 2 (My) Local axis 3 (Mx) Z - direction Y- direction X - direction

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