videsthe final,distinguishing element of documentary. The exhibitor of attractions, the tellerof stories, and the poet of photog1nie condense in the figureof the documentary filmmaker as orator, speakingin a voiceall his own abouta worldwe all share. These elementsfirst came togetherin the soviet Unionthroughthe 1920sas the challenge of constructing a new societytook precedence in all the arts.This particular meldingof elements took rootin othercountries in the late 1920sand early1930sas governments, thanksto advocates like John Grierson, saw the value of usingfilm to promotea senseof participatorycitizenship and to supportthe rolein government in confronting the mostdifficult issuesof the day,such as inflation, poverty, and the Depression.Answersto these problems variedwidelyfrom democratic Britainto fascistGermanyand from a New Deal Unitedstatesto a communistRussia,butin eachcase,thevoiceof the documentarian contributed significantly to framinga national agendaand proposing coursesof action.

Nichols, Bill, Introduction to Documentary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Chapter6 WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere?

I very documentary has its own distinct voice.Like everyspeaking voice, r)very cinematic voice has a style or "grain" all its own that acts like a sigrr;rture or f ingerprint. lt atteststo the individuality of the f ilmmaker or direcl()ror, sometimes, to the determining powerof a sponsor or controlling or,vrrnization. Television newshas a voiceof its ownjust as Fredwiseman or t;hris Marker,EstherShub or MarinaGoldovskaya does. lndividual voiceslendthemselves to an auteurtheory of cinema,while ,lrared voiceslend themselves to a genretheoryof cinema.Genrestudy , onsiders the qualities that characterize variousgroupings of filmmakers ' rndfilms.In documentary filmand video,we can identify six modesof repr('sentation that function something like sub-genres of the documentary lrlrn genre itself:poetic,expository, participatory, observational, reflexive, l,crformative. Thesesix modesestablish a looseframework of affiliation withinwhich rrrr lividuals may work;they set up conventions that a givenfilm may adopt; rrrl th€! providespecificexpectations viewersanticipate havingfulfilled. I ,rr;h modepossesses examples thatwe can identify prototypes as or mod'III I I NT R O D U C T I O N TO DOCUM ENT ARY

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The order of presentation for thc..;r-. six rnodescorresponds roughry to the chronology of theirintroduction. rt may therefore seemto provide a history of documentary firm,but it does so onryimperfecily. A firm identified with a given mode need not be so entirery. A refrexive documentary can containsizabreportionsof observationar or participatory footage; an expositorydocumentary can incrudepoeticor performative segmients. The characteristics of a givenmodefunction as a dominantinagivenfirm:they grvestructure to the overall film,but they do not dictateor determrne every aspectof its organization. considerabre ratitude remainspossibre. A more recentfirmneed not havea morerecentmode as its dominant. It can revert to an earrier modewhirestiilincruding erements of ratermodes. A performative documentary can exhibitmanyquarities of a poeticdocu, mentary, for exampre. The modesdo not represent an evorutionary chain in which later modes demonstrate superiority over earrierones ano vanquishthem.once estabrished througha set of conventions and paradigmatic firms,a given mode remainsavairabre to ail. Expository documentary,for example,goes back to the 1920s but remains highryinfruential today. Mosttelevision newsand rearityTV showsdependheaviry on its quite datedconventions, as do armost ail scienceand naturedocumentaries, bi_ ographiessuch as rhe A&E Biography series,and the majorityof rargescalehistoricar documentaries such as The civirwar (19g0), Eyes on the Prize(1987,1990), TheAmericancinema(1994), or The peopte,s century

To some extent,each mode of documentary representation arisesin part througha growingsense of dissatisfaction among filmmakers with a previous mode.In this sensethe modesdo conveysome sense of a doc_ umentary history. The observationar modeof representation arose,in part, f romthe avairabirity of mobire 16mmcameras and magnetic tape recorders in the 1960s.Poeticdocumentary suddenry seemedtoo abstractand expository documentary toodidactic whenit nowproved possibre to firmevery_ oay eventswith minimalstagingor intervention. observationwas necessariry rimitedto the presentmoment as firmmakersrecordedwhat happenedbeforethem. But observation shareda trait,or convention, with poeticand expository modes of representation: it, too,camoufraged the actuar presence and shapinginfruence of the firmmaker. Participatory documentary tookshapewithrhe realization thatfilm_ maKersneed not disguisetheir crose rerationship with their sublectsby

uSthatNanookandhisfamilyface lorcxlttttple,tell lrrlcrtitlcsirrN;rrrooA findfood,buttheydo not of the northcannot ,t.rrvalion lrrrrrLcr if this-qrcirl to t,'ll us what Flaherty himsellate or whetherhe made food available of aspect fictional in the our disbelief to suspend us I l,rrrook. Flaherty asks about to us reveals he in what r,r,, storyat the priceof a certaindishonesty likeJean Rouch(Chronfilmmakers trr,, to his subject.With relation actual r,lr: of a Summer,1960),Nick Broomfield(Ihe Aileen WourmosStory, t' t92), Kazuo Hara (The Emperor's Naked Army Marches On, 1987), and becauseof the filmwhat happens lrrrr on Strike,1989) Silver(Watsonvitte presence thathappensdespltehis as anything rrr;rker's as crucial becomes )sence. I 't( the worldconwaysof representing The desireto comeup withdifferent set of circumchanging tll)utesto the formation of each mode,as does a in deficiencies to perceived ,tirnces. New modesarise partlyin response comesaboutpartlyfrom a of deficiency prr:viorJs ones,but the perception per',,)nseof what it takesto represent worldf roma particular the historical "make of it and ',pective at a givenmomentin time.The seemingneutrality quiet cinemaaroseat the end of the wlratyou will"qualityof observational formsof soobservation-based lrllies and duringthe heydayof descriptive, "endof idepresumed of a , rolog!. part the embodiment in as lt flourished of necessarily not ,,logy" with the everydayworld, but and a fascination angerof thosewho occupythe marrlfinity withthe socialplightor political r;rns of society. of perexpressiveness intensity and subjective the emotional Similarly, took strongest 1 lt tookshapein the 1980sand 990s. l()rmative documentary had grownduring rootamongthose groupswhosesense of commonality authat affirmedthe relative tlrisperiodas a resultof an identitypolitics films regroups. These marginalized of tonomyand socialdistinctiveness it not because commentary such as the voice-of-God techniques rrrcted or way to an entireepistemology, lackedhumilitybut becauseit belonged the world,no longerdeemedacceptable. of seeingand knowing We do wellto take with a grainof salt any claimsthat a new mode advancesthe art of cinemaand capturesaspectsof the world neverbefore or ulnotthe quality Whatchangesis the modeof representation, lrossible. A new mode is not so muchbetteras it limatestatusof the representation. touted,esis frequently rsdifferent, eventhoughthe ideaof "improvement" A new mode mode. of a new and practitioners pecially amongchampions prove lt will eventually and implications. set of emphases carries a different that yet anothermode of repfor limitations vulnerable, in turn,to criticism
What Types of Documentary Are There? | 101

::. it created aboutit evenas problems hadthe senseof an honesty mountable WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 103 . 1980) !!u . historical the poetic potential to see documentary of the affirms repreway of as a The poeticmode beganin tandemwith modernism inimpressions. Francis their raw materialbut transformthis materialin distinctive N.il"H: .:fi :Hl.N.ir.:t:"": .J.l. to T :: r:. The rhetorical element actsof Play of Light:Black.:: sig THE POE TIC MOD E As we saw in chapter 4. persuasion. poetic documentary shares a commonterrain *" n".i cho_osins.atjer TriniU (Jon photo Etse.for exLaszlo Moholy-Nagy's to emvariousviewsof one of his own kineticsculptures ample..rltprr-.These coherent generally of World and the effects of industrialization to the transformations make sense to eventno longerseemed The modernist War I in particular. purticularly adeptat opening rnorkr The poetic information.:J:ifi rs. imagining. "J. 1.color. tles towardits (unspecified) of a locomotive.*X:|ruililg.and looseassociations.l..lntl)tr!:.ttt):. in traditional vulnerable to erupto personalities denyingcoherence tiple perspectives. u.jff illi'." :""11. form morethan it detailsthe actualworkings The documentarydimensionto the poetic mode of representation films relyon the historistemslargelyfrom the degreeto which modernist filmssuch as Oscar Some avant-garde cal worldfor theirsourcematerial.Y. up time and spaceinto multerms. Fischinger'sCompositionin Blue (1935) use abstractpatternsof form or trato a documentary figuresand haveminimalrelation coloror animated the artist's world of rather than a world fhe historical ditionof representing world for though.or the presentaargument the prosecution of a particular mode propositions in needof solution'This aboutproblems tionof reasoned or of knowledge mood.presents phasize of lightpassingacrossthe film frameratherthan to the gradations The effectof this play itself.tone.draw on the historical Poeticdocumentaries. n a rIe i3i s :$:ffi.Breaking realist narrative. or suppressed. and deaudience. in the historical of the power homageto Abel Gance'sLa Roueandin parta poeticevocation gradually and hurbuilds up speed it as locomotive and speedof a steam rhythm and The editingstresses destination.Grey (1930).l"."* . ways.: Rain(1gzg))i.l cialactors in Jorisrvens's :.x. butwe do cometo 1 02 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTAR Y sociations and parternsjl.' sab e tt e rway ! lih'. lvrttts llto lyil(..for example. l^ .ij"l"-"Ji. "" We can now say a bit moreabouteach of the modesin turn. sentingreality qualities wereoftenattributed acts.llil?lfffi r'n'".'iorexampre.""" ntnant ranl to Io organize ideology a film.. nlg ovorArrtsturrlirrrr of alup the possibility r. Else re_ Roberr J 0ppenheimers hesirancies :liiirg: and doubts about the deveiopment otthe atomic as alost..'ir.and affectmuchmorethan displays stresses remains underdeveloped.^:. Social actorsseldom rsychological complexity lly functionon a par with Ti':1ffi .tttlttltttr :.?:. provide insurto solutions to refusing and tions from the unconscious.l. transfer of to the straightforward tcrnative knowledge formsof or pointof view. subjective in termsof a seriesof fragments.."-"i'rrl to realitv'and a new srre... nrmsell was accused ollreasorr Drgr rarlessa betterway represent the historical to worldtnana new.Similarly. ltrt:.*"'*"conven. vojce of reason ?omn period olnear_hysteria Oppenheimer :rlnq.".r* courtesy ofJon Else Post-'60s reconsiderations ol Cold War rhetoric invited arevision oflhe postwar record Filmmakers such asConnie Field in The Lie of Rosie yd_lines the Biveter andJohn Else i1 naltafter Trinity recircutate historicai lne tootage ina new context Inthrs case.and moveducea poeticimpression film and of the citysymphony the tradition filmcontinues ment. White.ltowtlt t:rc.uses shots of NewYorkCity Thompson's but gives of how NewYorklookedin the mid-1950s that provideevidence to progreaterpriorityto how these shots can be selectedand arranged of the city as a massof volume.Thompson's world anew.ciitlr-.iill.a nevl to explainour r"rrti^" new rerefi^n r^ F^^.Y.s siresto ro preoccupv preoccupyan :l:.."il"::..(1957). the material shapeof the sculpture document than the objectit refersto of lighton the viewertakeson more importance 231 (1944)is in part a Jean Mitry'sPacific world. tll tt l.t()tt .i*1t5$:1"'oo"l.ffi. take on the fufl_bloooed and a fixedview of the u otherobject..

or utilize a voice-of-authority (thespeaker commentary is heardand alsoseen).'irrrrrT orrllrc un (. and unity. The voice-of-God tradition fostered the cultivation of the professionally trained.richlytoned male voice of commentary that proveda hallmarkof the expository modeeventhoughsomeof the mostimpressive filmschose WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 105 continued aspectsof thispoeticmode 1O4 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTAR Y .rrr. advancean argument. The poeticmodehas manyfacets.aesthetic peculiar integrity to the film itself.c. Kenneth Clark's Civilization. P6terForgdcs's remarkable reworkings of amateurmoviesinto historical documents qualities stressespoetic.l ll. Arthough .lrir'r.voicesthat recitediary entries. and Dead Birds (1963).The expository modeaddresses the viewerdirectly.occasional titlesto identify time and place.olonialisrn.and hauntingmusic builda tone and mood far more than they explainthe war or describe its courseof action.cylorr(lirrllrrrkir) Iottcltcdllcitulyol rjcspitcllrr:rnroirrl:. Expository films adopt eithera voice-of-God (the speakeris heardbut neverseen).r. THE EXPOSIT OR Y M OD E This mode assembles fragments of the historical world intoa more rhetoricalor argumentative f ramethan an aesthetic or poeticone.FreeFall(1998). or recounthistory. The historical footage.The Sellingof the Pentagon(1971). 16 in WebsterGroves(1966).r'. withtitlesor voicesthat propose a perspective. selective moments of color. The City (1939). Victoryaf Sea (1952-53). (1958).but they all emphasizethe ways in whichthe filmmaker's voicegivesfragments of the historicalworld a formal.1. slowmotion.ure(1978).this stresson fragmentation and ambiguity re_ loeticdocumentaries. worksof art that were or ambiguous in theireffect. America'sMost Wanted. worlr lrl.Blood of the Beasts(1949). []cr| | l.rl Wrrr. ol r. commentary such as we find in lhe Why We Fight series.associative over transferring information pointof view.lrl':.return lo a moreclassicsenseof unityand beautyand discover tracesof them in lhe historical world. GyorgyPeto.puzznng some filmsexprored more crassicar conc"ptiJnsof the poeticas a sourceof or_ der' whoreness. onlyto be relocated in Poland. rtl()t:yhtrr (11):14). and DanubeExodus(1999)followsthe journeysof a Danubecruiseship as it takesJews from Hungaryto the BlackSea on theirflightto Palestine and then takes Germansfrom Bessarabia (the northernpart of Romania at the time) as they are drivenout by the Russians and evacuated to Germany. to tho skillol trirditionlrl a tribute r.lass blowers irrr<l llrc Ircauty of theirwork.such as we find in televisionnewscasts. or John Berger's Ways of Seeing (1974).rrrrl (i/irss r.or Les Blank's Always for Plcu:. or winningus overto a particular for example. chronicles the fate of European Jews in the 1930sand 40s through the homemovies of a successfulJewish businessman. . tintedimages.orrrrrrcrr.ottltir: .a celebration of MardiGrasfestivities in New Orleans. treezeframes.Robert Hughes'sIhe Shock of the New (1980).lly t.

tl v tttt l l totttl l t l l ttt v ott:c w c l ttl . but the French versionusesan ad-ribbed commentary by the famousFrench film director Jean Renoirwhilethe Engrish ver_ sionsrelyon orson weilesand ErnestHemingway. of the spokenargument to spatialand temporalcontinuity lraryediting. existsin at leastthreeversions.The professional strivesto builda lhe authoritative mannerof news anchorsand reporters. he also fullills the function 0f avoice ofauthority lesspolished voicesprecisery forthe credibirity gainedby avoiding too much polish. the images and understand lrlm. ) logiccarried by on an informing relyheavily rkrr:rrrttcttlitries Expositclry images in film.He brought a matter-of-fact butclearly committed tone to a film that wantedto garvanize supportmore than compassion. We can call this evidenr.wiry':. t. (some I lcrrrirtg. 19gg) courtesy ofJon Else The tension public between access and conservation isthe focus ofthis filmRobert Redford. rvens choseweilesfirst. lt comesf romsomeplace images. such as distance. it bestoweda humanistic com_ passionon the eventswhere lvens hopedfor a toughersenseof visceral engagement. as "biblical. Yosenite photo The Fate ofHeaven (Jon EIse. They illustrate.The commentary it. lt servesto orworld that accompany lromthe imagesof the historical ryanize these imagesand make sense of them just as a writtencaption and insomeof the manymeanings ryuides and emphasizes our attention presumed to be is therefore The commentary tcrpretations of a stillimage. who had writtenthe commentary. a supporting presented as distinct is typically turpoint to what is said. provedthe moreeffective voice. disinterestneutrality. of a higherorderthanthe accompanying or omniscience.like official commentator's lreingcaughtup in them.tl l :. 16 in Webster for commentary of view such as we find in CharlesKuralt's in a film such as Land without even morethoroughly or subverted Groves attackon the very notionof objectivity. tano.trttttl l .The spanish Earth (1937).ln a reversal or act in counevoke. None has a professionar commentator. Hemingway. andwellof objectivity the impression modeemphasizes The expository "above" seems literally commentary The votce-over supported argument. came from all overthe the Ptains(1936)shots of arid prairielandscapes damageto the widespread of the claim to support for example. worldwithout to judge actionsin the historical thefray.\/ ol t' ov c r l oW c l l tl :. We take our cue from the commentary news descripfor what is said.rrrangement of imagesthan the fictionfilmmaker. r.erve role.ontinuity or perspective. but his deliveryproveda bit too eregant. Editingin the expositorymode generallyserves less to establisha the as it does in the poeticmode. Joris lvens'sgreatfilm urgingsupportfor the Republican-defenders of spanish democracy. represents fhe commentary. 10 6 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTAR Y WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 1O7 . Bread.The ropein images fromfar-flung cxpositoryfilmmaker often has greater freedom in the selection and ln The Plow ThatBroke . Attthreenave identical imagetracks.with its implicit argugeneralization and large-scale facilitates Expository documentary general argument of a The imagescan supportthe basicclaims mentation." lionsof faminein Ethiopia wide-angle shots of great massesof starvingpeopleclusteredtogether on an open plain. illuminate. emphasis of the traditional tlresookenword. or omniscience.for exampre.it has the capacity tone. with objectivity but associated lhat remainsunspecified or argumentof the the perspective in fact.thanto maintain rhythm or formalpattern. Such editingmay sacrifice placesif theyhelpadvance the argument. Midwest.tcrl tl l l tr.l tl l r.s commentary falls into the category ofvojce-of-God address inasmuch as we never see lVrRedford To the extent that MrRedford's long{ime advocacy for envjronmental issues makes nrm a more informed speaker than an anonymous commentator would be.Television irs evidence or demonstration seemedprovedby for example. from qualities senseof credibiiity point to an irontc can be adapted Thesequalities edness.

t: ()l l l l o l ).The as it happened. evil of Hitler.capra's appeal seems remarkably some fifty Comideals. Odge is less like rhetoric. are galvanized.rrr. 1935) physical gap The and hierarchical distinction between leader and followers again c0mes across clearly inthis scene ofHiiler's parade through thestreets of Nuremberg The (Joris Spanish Earth lvens 193/) lvens's supportforthe Republican cause against theNazi-backed rebellion ofGeneral Franco followed political from his commitment todemocratic and socialist ideals His de-emphasis onhierarchy inthis shot ofanofficer and a soldier contrasts sharply with Riefenstahl's shooting styte ir Irittttc withitr Support or mobilizing tltlormation rvr:yttt(J r. lief in American naive and years later.a film will add workthat pre-exists by whichsuchknowlthe categories or subvert knowledge butnotchallenge pedect basisfor thistypeof a makes sense common getsorganized. of the Axis war the atrocities democracy. rdeals of American ln the blackand white and Hirohito. a sceneand recordwhat happened What Types of Documentary Are There? I 109 1 08 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM EN T A R Y . l 1.rrrtl potttl t:tl l y Tr iunph oftheWi Il (Leni Riefenstahl.lealmodc krrt . a meditation.. above. basicargument at another.ttrr.The mon sensemay changeconsiderably. patriotic democratic virtueand of in its treatment overblown values set of conditioned than a historically mon senseis lessan enduring filmsthat seem classic For this reasonsome expository and perspectives. this low-angle view of theGerman eagle and Nazi swastjka Like Hitler the eagle serves asa symbol power of German lt presides over thestream ol marching troops that pass below it. l ().l tl s i tory doc tl l l l orl l i l ty l rrt rnado sttt:r.by appealing and machine. suggests how ordinary lives jeopardized. Fuenteduena.rl . Developments such 16mm cameras around1960in various WorldWar ll culminated after suchas the Nagrathat could and Auriconand tape recorders as the Arriflex with now be synchronized could person. aboutthe world Sincecommon reoresentation to logicthan to belief. sense.Mussolini. i l l l i n w OrdS E x . Speech one by handled be easily recorders tethered that or cables equipment the useof bulky without images couldmovefreelyabout cameraand tape recorder and cameratogether.rr.for example. rrl r.galvanizing their movement into a tribute tonational unity The Spanish Earth In contrast to thepageantry of Rlefenparades stahl's endless and speeches.compelling intervention? states in the years the United and Europe.rl l ()rrl :.l l l tt:ttl .tttl tt::.()trOi l ry l l r() WOtl rl l l l r. subject for why youngAmermuchof his argument Frankcapra couldorganize ll in lhe why we war join world during the battle willingly icanmen should patriotism.l l l (l o l x )l l l l :' i tn ()< . not bythe fasci st rebel l i on the specific oftensacrificed modesof documentary Poeticand expository persuasive arguments. quitedated willSeem persUasiveness at one moment of oratorical examples as comwhat counts but maystillhavemerit.t t.r of our stockpile to the film.{.l i l tr | | \/t\/trl ' .t' tl :. situated near the shifting battlefront. were simplyto observewhat happensin front of the camerawithoutovert form of documentation? Wouldthis not be a new. the malignant wouldnot choose who "slave world." "free a versus world" of a alternatives simple-to the answer the made to defenda free world?common sense pot" be"melting imbuedwith a thoroughly predominantly white audience values. lvens captures quality themodest of everyday rural life in1930s Spain This image ofthe town.ol ri rl l l ct l l t.tv { ' tt t.In this case..l l y . the native mix of to a Fighfseries. THE OBSE R VAT ION AL M OD E Triunph af theWill The soldier's parallels salute. patterns or formal people construct to filming act of fashioned then and materials raw necessary gathered the The filmmaker filmmaker if the what perspective. or argumentfrom them. in canada. i .i l r ( ()i l '.(} tl l t:l ()l c i l ll i l l l i l l y l i l :.

and of consent no behavior filmmaker soughtthe informed repeated for the camera. play. .Thechafu(1962).rr:/r Janis Otis Redding. lromthe oresence of filmmakers. Broadway prepares in a for a role she Fonda as Jane 1'rrfiling neo-realists.likef iction.ry..setbacksandvictoriesfromtheperspectiveolthesurvivororve ran.rl l t. featuring Att)nterey Pop (1968)."1'.rl rrrttl l l tr'l . no supplementary morepart of a "cinemaof attractions" musicor sound oticor bizarre. llisionson the basisof behavior we observeor overhear. and notevenany interviews. effects. both films use purpgses footage for posthat are of the behavior on not intrudrng is the filmmaker that The impression sible only tothose who reflect on the meaning past ofthe rather than report the occurrences ofthe Do intrusion. arrangement..r 1r l 1 r ol trl c rrrnrttl tttl . profiles paris the livesof several public individuals in the he has a rightto institutions of 1960. w l l Il r' rl rrttl l l l tr'l l .rl l r.rl l ttrr.l rl .portions when he shoots verbally of chronicleof a summe4which requests consent for example. the Jefferson Jimi Hendrix. reasons? wrong for the or composition viewers that may fascinate of a sceneDecame theypossessqualities sacrificed to observing livedexperience in other filmsthatobserve. aboutBob Dylan's ll. l o rl r.Les Racquetteurs to behavior of allowing consequences the possible explain can a filmmaker (Michel Brault and GillesGroulx. FredWiseman.in orderto satisfya filmmaker All of the forms of controlthat a poeticor expository because to represent others out seek the filmmaker rl Does filmmaker is he wants? might exercise overthe staging.Socialactorsengagewith one another. in looking seems if a pleasure "atthe keyholei'can feeluncomfortable anditscontribution.r.Don'lL<tolt (11)(i/). the significance trve rolein determining that mode posesa seriesof ethicalconsiderations The observational ls such an act in othersgo abouttheir affairs.l . question or indirect of unacknowledged the others also raises moment of them. l r. t. but assumesthat when he shoots in 11 0 I INTR O DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTAR Y What Types of Documentary Are There? | 111 . callson the viewerto takea moreacof observer rctirement to the position of whatis saidand done.rorirgthe filmmakers. abouta groupof Montrearers to others? represented he and observed enjoyingvariousgamesin the snow. Airplane. behavior resulted in filmswith no voice-over commentary.This or a crisis to reveal asThe scenestend. given? To what extent and what we sawwas whattherewas. rrrvolve the act of observing lesscomDoesit placethe vieweris a necessarily rrrd of itselfvoyeuristic? Victory atSea(Henry for us contrived are Solomon In fictron. Has the than science. (l trttrrtr' !i l ttl l tt A l l . possino historical partrcipants made it reenactments. Oftenthe characters anddrawsit away theirattention requires rrurnds of theirown.ltcelebratesnavalpower ition.itadoptsacommemorativestance This poltrecallsbattlesandstrate. scenes and lsaac Kleinerman. r 1t..cctsof character The filmmaker's . gies. rely oncompilation offootage shot contemr.High School(196g).r1rlin. 195g). deare caughtup in pressing .trr". totellthe and overhear story ofWorld War ll MadeasatelevisionseriesforCBs. rrl l l rc l l C l l ' s A rl gc l s ts l x rrti l tl l y < .rl (:ol l t:tl l l . as wellas duringshooting that may. r. to and come conWe makeinferences and individuality.givingscantattentiontothegroundwarorthe vilianconsequencesthatareIo take priorityoverthe chanceto acknowledge with the one and interact atthe heart ofNight and Fog Both Iilms however. Victory atSea returns past scenesrepresent tothe recent whereasdocumentary l()oversee entirely.rctor agreedto be observed who has willingly meaning ofthe lootage they incorporate Here. spontaneously. Honoring this question oftencomesup with ethnographic thisspirit of observation in post-production seem exediting contextualization. l.11's tftr.withoutadequate cultures. tour of England .een. no intertitles.tttl t)l l . Compilation films invariably alter the playing a part in a fiction.. consentto be understood blefor such informed or so it seemedin Primary(1960).rl l lrr..t.This can be even more acutewhen the personis not an discomfort poraneously with the events towhich the Iilms now return. ltalian of the the work footageoftenrecalled The resulting igWc look in on life as it is lived. Irrtableposition than in a fictionfilm? i952_53) Like Night and Fog.rrrrl :.abouta musicfestival or Jane (1962)' and others.i tuql tl orl oi l rl l itt 19ti5.tlrelivedexperience of actualpeoplethat we happento witness. in waysthat will colorour perception lieopleconductthemselves who does not say what lor betteror worse.trrl ()trl ' (l ' rl tl r' l l l l ' l ' ( l 1)/{ )).

. 1t l: ip.' time that give the encounter the senseof concrete." Dearance. ' r' t t t lI t rl | rrl t l y occursin TwoLaws(l9B.215) in the to its presence of the camera"on the scene"testifies fhe presence with or engagement lristorical world. At two hoursrunntng anyway.. through p. lttt:'tltvtl vltltlC:' lttttt:tltvtltl l t l t l t t t t r. rk r: t i l l l l l (l l l l l l (." ("when Less qualities othermeans. Theybreakwiththe dramatic paceof marnstream fictionfilms and the sometimes hurriedassemblyof imagesthat support expository or poeticdocumentaries.the questionalso arises of when does the filmmakerhave a responsibility to intervene? what if something happensthat may jeopardize or injureone of the socialactors?should a cameraman film the immolation of a Vietnamese monk who.()l(lwltitllt .SometimesfiImmakersappeartorecognizethiswhentheytryto tnose or reintroduce films. in fact. l rt l l t t t t ' t r: l l t r: V c rl t t l l l t t l . . in several has done this quite effectively ner. since the observational filmmaker adoptsa peculiar modeof presence "on the scene"in which he or she appearsto be invisible and non-participatory. r l ro srrll I vo ll 1. ist (Nazi)Party's1934 Nuremberg troops. . of of portions filming the repeat including planned theirfilming.t). Iranscultural ls Less. style.aboutAboriginal land rights.and one of his peersaboutthe brideprice for Lorang'sdaughterin wedding camets (19g0). lllillly [ ) it r lt ot l) ir r ls n t lr y l t S c l t o t t l l o r r r r l l l r r 'l r l r 1 l. all too faithfully as it did were it not for the exyet. ' t l l t t l l l t l : l l l l ' l l { ): .sets himselfon fire to protestthe Vietnamese war.This personal it as and intimate. Lorang. t tl l r .r 'ol Ir i l r l ttr l C l tr | . similarly. livedreality. A rossoccursevenas structure and perspective are added: 11 2 I INTR O DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTA R Y aresometilms lormaking veryreasons ttrc ll t .and then turn that gift overto the policewhen bloodis found on it (as Joe Berlinger and Bruce sinofskydo in their tilm paradise Lost This last example movesus towardan unexpected [1996])? or inadvertent form of participation ratherthan observation as it also raisesbroadissues aboutthe filmmaker's relationship with his or her subjects.but such eventswould not existat all if it were not for observational This is the reverseof the basic premisebethe presenceof the camera. the intonation and tone of the voices. images massassemblies.David MacDougall exampleisthesceneinKenyaBoranwhere. 1 t V rl t r l r r r l g v l r l l r l l r r t .r l lo l r y ll r.Riefenstahl carefully were events and enormousresourcesplaced at her drsposal.empty. and speeches-occur as if the camera of Hitler. A radically different approach l{)(. observational films exhibitparticular strengthin givinga senseof the duration of actualevents. in one of the first "obproportions took on monumental This reversal of the will. how shots most cutting and overall length the reducing both irrvr.( lt . observes the makingof a thirty-second television commercial forsometwentyfive minutesof screentime in Modet(1ggo). lt c 1c v 1t I l to r .withoutpayingheedtothe beforeshootestablished camerabut in accordwiththe generalguidelines government's the of discusstheirviews tribesmen rngbegan. to establish subjects his with way participatory works in a more filmmaker manobservational the generalsubjectof a scene and then films it in an An films. to us as if theysimplyhapto whatoccursthatcan passon events of fidelity to have that very appened when they have. littlewouldhavehappened very And had press intentof the Nazi Partyto make a film of this rally. t 1 l l r 1 t : . were thatwhatwe see is whatwouldhaveoccurred films. happened have what would simplyrecorded events historical recorded having of time.tr '. when Fredwiseman. hindobservational the cameranot thereto observeit.he shiftsour attention fromwhatthe finalagreement is or whatnewnarrative issuearisesbecause of it to the feel and textureof the discussion itself: the body language and eye contact. o. After an Triumph Leni Riefenstahl's documentaries. r l r r r r s h indictment of school regimentation and discipline.r .Pressconferences.r" llrottt.two Kenyan measures. Everything fromcontent to cameralenses was opento discussionand mutualagreement.rlvo the rushes particular center progressively Boththeseprocesses lengths. knowingthat there are cameraspresenr to recordthe event.lt ltlrrr cornt)lol{)(l f rom a {ilm of editing processes ofthemThe rl(lr I lryilr0rrrirking rr lrt corrlr. intheir oftherushes preserue ofthequalities some cinema. r ppc n: t . he conveys the senseof having observed everything worth notingaboutthe shooting. of parades. toricalrecord.rrr rtnd rep rescn tativ e ev en t hough m os l c r it ic s h a v e c o n s i d e r c t l r l .for example. The rushesseem to havea densityand vitality that the editedfilm tacks. reviews Events-predominantly no f urthercommentary. or shouldthe cameraman refuseor try to dissuade the monk?should a filmmakeraccepta knifeas a gift from a participant in the courseof filminga murdertrial. been constructed ln this casethe One modestexampleis the "maskedinterview. control birth of introduction is the eventstagedto becomepartof the hisexample A morecomplex may be filmedin a purely for example. the pausesand . theimmediate. when DavidMacDougallfilms extended discussions between his principal character. .the film can givethe impression and unthinkingly.This affirmsa sense of commitment a sense affirms also occurs. to facilitate What Types of Documentary Are There? | 113 l rl rrrrrr. servational" Socialset of titlesthat set the stagefor the GermanNational rntroductory with events observes Riefenstahl rally. MacDougall himselfdescribesthe fascination of lived experience as something that is mostvividlyexperienced as a difference between rushes (the uneditedfootageas it was originally shot) and an editedsequence. wherethe film_ makersdid not film anything withoutboththe consentand collaboration of the participants. to shorter meanings.

a certainsenseof mystery. thropology. carriesan aura of dupricity.-and yet the underlying act of beingpresentat an eventbut firmingit as if absent.RoyCohn/lack Snith(JtilGodmilow. aboutobservational or disquiet. into the researcher for someformof participant-observation.A. livesamong a peoplefor an extendedperiodof where an anthropologist calls usually Such research time and then writesup what she has learned.and then reflects WhatTypesof DocumentaryAreThere? | 115 . t. invites debateas to how much of what we see wourdbe the same if the camerawere not there or how 11 4 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM E N T A R Y presence were more readilyacknowlmuchwoulddifferif the filmmaker's to f uel continues nature undecidable is by its very That suchdebate edged. 1994) Photo courtesy ofJillGodmilow Godmilows Iilm. apublic inthis case she records two plays one-man by Ron Vawter Given that such events are under_ stood performances tobe inthe place.t 'l r r.r Ir lilt t t t t t . This was the rast thingobservationalfilmmakers likeRobertDrew D.'.lrrr rlrly scxtt. first they allow the filmmaker toavoid some ofthe accu_ sati0ns presence that the ofthe camera altered what would have happened had the camera not been there (JillGo(lrr l{)w1l')l) Roy Cohn/Jack Sm[h ofJillGodmilow Photo courtesy lt ltt : r t r 'ttli' m akes use ofedilit lr G odm ilow .) Triumphof the wittdemonstratesthe power of the image to represent the historical worrdat the same momentas it participates in the construc_ tionof aspectsof the historicar worrditserf.wing.tV l to thecontraslitttl creased attention . and Fredwisemanwantedin theirown work. observes performance. usingthe on this experience. (The repeated portionsare reenacted so that they brendin with the original speeches.The feelfor what gainsa corporeal or visceral participates in the livesof others. like many documentarjes of music concerts. heavily definedby the practice remains forexample. hidingthe coilaboration that went intotheirmaking. cinema.l'r m ance as gayunder gr ound . ttttt t( tt ant Cot i Sm it h andt lght . for the mostpart.Anof f ieldwork. such participation.The integrity of their observational stancesuccessfuily avoided it. goes field. withtheir which the twomen dealt 1950s ing the somespeeches at another timeand placewhenthe original footage proved unusable. THE PART IC IPAT OR Y M OD E The social scienceshave long promotedthe study of socialgroups. as if the filmmaker weresimpry a "fryon the wail. lifein a givencontextis like. ttll rtrl gay) lawyer Roy Cohtll3yittltrtr closeted perlormanccs tltrtw'l slttr thetwoseparate w. especiaily in the contextof Nazi Germany. Richard Leacock. pennebaker.r 1r per specton ive Vit wlt t r : t lir t Ron dist inct l r .

ro :. we may see as weilas hearthe firmmaker act and respond on the spot. critic. atfirst. however. i l l l s I I fakeover(Dauid and Judith MacDougall.livedencounterbetweenfilmmaker and subjectin the spiritof DzigaVertov'sTheMan witha MovieCamera. ofwhich Takeoverisaplma example.consistenfly depended on this complexact of engagement and separation between two cuitures to define itself. a certaindegreeof potentiar powerand contror overevents. y l o r k r : . collaborator.in fact. Documentary firmmakers arso go into the fierd. . . ry. How do filmmaker and sociaractor respondto each other?How do they negotiate controland share responsibility? How much can the filmmaker insiston testimony when it is painfurto provide it?what responsibirity does the filmmaker havefor the emotionar aftermath of appearing on camera? what tiesjoin firmmaker and subjectand what needsdividelhem? The sense of bodilypresence.ratherthan absence. Jon Silver's Watsonville on Strike (1989). Thisstyleof filmmaking is what Rouchand Morintermedcin6mav6rite... when we view participatory documentaries we expectto witnessthe historical worrdas represented by someonewho activery engageswith.Jon Alpert's Hard Metals Disease (1987). The practice of participant-observation. (Almost rikeanyotherbecause thefirmmaker retains the camera. they have often served as witnesses tothe testimonial statements oftraditions and bc people liefs government that Aboriginal offer intheir disputes with the over land rights and other participatory.. poeticaily reconfigur"". stepsdown from a fly-on-the-wail perch. '( . 1 16 I INTR O DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTA R Y loo ll. The types and degreesof arteration herp definevariations withinthe participatory mode of documentarv. ratherthan unobtrusivery observes. ( x ) r ( ) l r l r . Themethods and practices of socialscienceresearch haveremained subordinate to the moreprevalent rhetorical practice of movingand persuading an audience. The possibirities of serving as mentor. 1981) Photo courtesy ofDavid MacDougall The MacDougalls have evolved a collaborative style ofIilmmaking with the subjects oltheir ethnographic films Inaseries offilms made onAboriginal issues.lrrcrierd workerdoes not alow herserf to "go native. riveamong othersand speakaboutor represent whatthey experience.lor partrcipirtiorr.or Ross McElwhee'sSherman'sMarch (1985). and with it.too. observationar documentary de-emphasizes persuasion to giveus a sense of what it is liketo be in a givensituation but withouta senseof what it is likefor the firmmaker to be there. stepsawayfrom poeticmeditation."bcing hcre"ailows forobservatiorr ilrlrrr:. ol lr t t llt r opolo( ly ( ) r r .they. l l r ( ) r o .and becomesa sociaractor (armost) rikeany other. fromthe physical act of "getting the shot"that figuresso prominenlly inThe Man witha MovieCameralothe political act of joiningforceswith one'ssubjectsas Jon Silverdoes at the start of Watsonville on Strikewhen he asks the farm workersif he can film in the unionhallor as Jon Alpertdoeswhenhe translates intoSpanish what theworkers he accompanies to Mexico try to sayto theircounterparts about the dangersof HMD (hardmetalsdisease). Anthroporogy has. but retains a degreeof detachment that differentiates her fromthoseabout whom she writes.rrcurnstances. 'r r r r . participatory documentary givesus a senseof what it is likefor the filmmaker to be in a givensituation and how that situation artersas a resurt.interrogator. unobtrusive prior orobservational much since ofthe collaboratl0n 0ccurs tolhe act offilminq Participatory documentary can stressthe actual. '. WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 117 . portraitof Jason." undernorrrrirr <. or provocateur arise. The filmmaker stepsout from behindthe cloak of voice-over commentary. locatesthe film_ maker"on the scene-" we expectthat what we rearnwiil hingeon the natureand quality of the encounter between firmmaker and subject rather than on generalizations supportedby imagesiiluminating a givenperspective. o. matters The interaction ishighly result although the can seem. hasnotbecome a paradigm.lrgumentativelyassembles thatworld.) Participatory documentaries rikechronicreof a summer. This is the encounter between one who wierds a movre cameraand one who ooesnot.Jean Rouchand EdgarMorin'sChronicle of a Summer. 1 l .or word rs ouf invorve the ethicsand poritics of encounter.The filmmaker's presence takeson heightened importance.in the same historicar arenaas the firm's subjects.ttttl tt t t : llt t t t ll.too.

butonlybecause Rouch andMorin had plannedthe scenewith her and givenher the tape recorder to carry. what forms of powerand controlcome into play.l.lrL)zrt.It. Anotheris the work of NicholasBroomfield.suchas MarcelOphuls'sTheSorrowand the pity (1g70)." tlrc idoaernphasizes tlr. she offersa quite moving monologue on herexperiences. War amongthe civilian ramifications of the Vietnam more who adoptsa brasher. ln one scene. Similarly. on French collaboration with Germanyduringworld war ll. ln somecases. discusstheir reactions to variousformsof pornography participants as theyinterview in the sexindustry.lf they had waitedfor the eventto occuron its own so they couldobserveit. an ex-stripper. apparently Union. ol l. CivilLiberties ner sponsored by the American stanceto take up In othercases. lltg lruthof an encounter ratherthan the absolute or untampered truth. redemptive role in their own lives. Linda Lee posesfor a nude photograph and then discusses how the experience made her feel. volvethe prominent in the overall voicebecomes The first-person sonaltestimonial.In one instance Marcelline Loridan.what they havelearned.. The camerafollowsher as she walks throughthe place de la concorde and thenthroughthe formerParisian market.irVcr trrlo lov'l. an eclectic groupof individuals livingin Parisin the summerof1960. lf there is a truth here it is the truth of a form of interaction that would not existwere it not for the camera. or investigative The filmmakerserves as a researcher in involvement voiceemergesfrom direct. where he exploresthe population of Vietnam.it is less the world of theirsubjects that changesthan theirown. Crumb there been the complextoexamine Zwigoff s desire with ashe collaborates toward his brothers ing attitude life ofhis ities and contradictions In other reporter. What Types of Documentary Are There? | 119 . Ircrrr. the filmmaker. As Irutlt.and what levels of revelation or rapportstem from this specific form of encounter. and LindaLee Tracy. is there insteadof ourselves.the filmmaker's This can remainwithinthe orbitof the investigative the eventsthat unfold. we see how the filmmaker and subjectnegotiate a relationship. Bonnie Ktein.involves scenesthat resultfrom the collaborative interactions of filmmakers and theirsubjects.personal cases. Les Halles.()vrol :. Michael filmmaker is the work of Canadian An example unfolding. In thissenseit is the opposite of the obpremisethat what we see is what we wouldhaveseen had we servational beentherein lieuof the camera. discussing their aim to study"thisstrangetribelivingin Paris" and assessing. a youngwomanwho latermarried the Dutchfilmmaker Joris lvens. (1998):his Kurt Courtney and not arrogant-style inhis confrontational-if susunsubstantiated despite Love's elusiveness withCourtney exasperation to film picions deathcompelsBroomfield in Kurt Cobain's of her complicity dinof her at a ceremonial denunciation spontaneous his own. howtheyacttowardone another. Rouch andMorinalsoappear on camera. to its in the storycentral involvement reporter who makeshis own personal Rubbo.ktttoptitvr*t. The two womenembarkon a journeythat is partly exploratory in a spirit similarto Rouch and Morin'sand partly confessional/redemptive in an entirely different sense.we moveawayfrom the investigative eventsthat into unfolding relationship and reflective a more responsive the diary and perus toward moves This latter choice filmmaker. in Nof a LoveStory(1981).ttr:. In participatory documentary.r. whatwe see is what we can see only when a camera.(x)i"lilrrt oly. Chronicle of a Summe[ for example. They pursued this notionof collaboration still furtherby screening partsof the film to the participants and filming the ensuingdiscussion. the filmmaker's voiceemergesprimarily as a perspective on the subjectmatterof the film. speaks about her experienceas a Jewish deporteefrom Francewho is sent to a Germanconcentration camp duringworld war ll. The act of makingthe film playsa cathartic.or filmmaker. ltllclor lrl. 11 8 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTAR Y (Ierry 1994) Zwigofl Crunb R Crumb lVany participatory artist tothe cartoon strip relationship adopts ahighly Terry Zwigofl not had Zwigoff as they do have occurred would not interactions clearly and ofthe conversations probmore himsell and a toward rellective attitude takes amore with hiscamera.rl llrr:r r. such as his Sad Song of YellowSkin (1970). at the end of the film. ncw:irr. Jean-Luc Godardonce claimed that cinemais truthtwenty-four timesa second: participatory documentary makesgoodon Godard's claim. it neverwouldhaveoccurred.llrltttr .

MariluMalletoffers an even more explicitly diary-like structure to her portraitof life as a Chileanexile livingin Montreal marriedto Canadian filmmaker Michael Rubboin Unfinished Diary(1983). 1985) Photocourtesyof Lourdes Portillo These participatory two women Iilmmakers adopt a highly relationship with the mothers who "dirty " The public risked their livesto stage demonstrations during Argentina's war sons and daugh"disappeared" ters government ofthese women were among the whom the abducted. emotionally volatile relationship he revives withhisformerwife as he and his currentpartnerfollowher overa periodof time in Extremely Personal Eros:LoveSong(1974).lnterviews that structure or guidelines medicine "case in history" work.r I i LasMadresdelaPlazadeMayo(SusanaMuflozandLourdesPortillo. becomes centralto the overall structure ol Jupiter'sWife(1995). a broader introduce to wish jects.How that is historical address to filmmaker the allows The interview the intervrew. Thesefilmsmakethe filmmaker as vivid 12 O I INTRODUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTAR Y they and confession. possibly hands atthe Ioul participatory structure of the film. throughvoice-over and subjectin participafilmmaker between commonforms of encounter tory documentarY. often exude a exopen-ended stressthe ongoing. it is EmikoOmori's efforts to retrace the suppressed history of her own family'sexperience in the Japanese-American relocation camps of WorldWar ll that givesformto Rabbitin the Moon(1999). and Re{lexive with met her uncle question ofwhether the leaves open a relative. who seemsto havea complex butnotentirely crediblehistory. NicholasNecroponte's involvement with a woman whom he meets in NewYork's Central Park.theygo by the name of the cioiogicalfield WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 121 .lt is the filmmaker's engagement with unfoldingeventsthat holdsour attention.as does KazuoHarato his chronicle of the complex. but they could draw out the stories ofthe mothers whose couraqe led them to defy a brutally repressive regime Duernel Nunca Diablo SleepslEl Devit Never The olLourcourtesy Photos (Lourdes Portillo. of play. and olten proceedings killed without any notice public orlegal Mufloz and Portillo not could shape the personal events. a personaas any other in their films.As testimonial power that is revelatory.The may filmmaker ancommon most The done? be this can in nature. Similarly. documentaries Notall participatory suband betweenfilmmaker or the interaction oerienceof the filmmaker oftenone perspective. swer involves peoplewho appearin the film formallyratherthan addressthe audience standsas one of the most The interview commentary. are a distinct lnterviews by dint and the more coerciveprocessof interrogation nary conversation protocols specific the and occur they which in framework of the institutional or sooccurin anthropological them.1995) Portillo des priasahard-boiled Portlllo Lourdes Director journey Mexico to her lilmrecounts vate eyeThe uncle olher death suspicious the toinvestigate n0netheless P0rtill0 ironic attimes. They differfrom ordiform of socialencounter.

on her controversial derful. yield of to representations how the two intertwine this modedemonstrates perspectives and that are bothcontingent worldf rom specific the historical committed.wllr lrr. This compilation of interviews and supporting materialhas given us numerousf ilm histories. MichelFoucaultarguesthat theseformsall involve regulated formsof exchange.lt couldalso be and imagesthat illustrate commentary recounted in the wordsof thosewho livedthroughthesetimes by means of interviews. to Eyes on the Prize.and in education.HorribleLife of Leni Riefenstahl(1993).. and negotiated situated engagement.As viewerswe have of the participatory tute two largecomponents the sense that we are witnessto a form of dialoguebetweenfilmmaker interaction. Leon Gasts's When We Were Kings (1996). of gays and lesbians The experience with a voice-over as a generalsocialhistory.and lrom The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter.ideally theconfessionthat will solve the mystery Although she never obtains aconlesslon.tttttt:tt <tlttxptlsttoty rl.ts or informants anddistinct position. testimony.on a coal Some. and writtenup to serveas one type of Likeoral histories that are recorded from in primarysourcematerial. it appearsas Socratic dialogue. to Shoah.duringtrials. in a givenmoment thef ilmmoresquarely Thissituates voices..U.in law the interview becomesthe pre{rial processof "discovery"and. Pittlrt:rp.t:.or lrr. couldbe recounted example.A. centeron the past and how thosewith knowledge for in the days beforeStonewall. in psychoanalysis. screened scoresof possible Adair.suchas ErrolMorris'sThe Thin background. What Types of Documentary Are There? | 123 .dwell miner's strikein Kentucky. between Muhammad career.lr. "talking primarily heads" from the of those history he his minimum. Filmmakers make use of the interview to bring different accountstogetherin a singlestory.rrtttotttaries add the activecngagcmcrll l. on television. Unlike material to a bare Adairoptsto keepsupporting Fieldor Emilede Antonio.insearchof clues.on the aftermath of the Holocaust for those wno experienced it.lrtvr ljltttll. clientand institutional and that they havetheir root in the religious tradition of the confessional. tlot.lyorr.and. perspective. the spokenpoints. it takesthe form of both the interview and the press conference.rl ol thc tilttr rkrt. of subjectsfrom the most personalto the most historical. on eventsin the presentto which the filmmmaker Some. thatstresses and subject mode of These qualitiesgive the participatory encounter..lV..in journalism. it enrichescommentarywith the grain of individual HarlanCounty.The Devil Never Sleeps Thefilmmaker. compiles who can put this chapterof Americansocialhtstoryinto their own words.S. they take the form of the therapeutic session.c lotttttllly u. r. it formsthe backbone of talk shows.The voiceof the filmmaker emerges fromthe weave of contributing voicesand the material broughtin to supportwhatthey say.inthecourseof aninterview. in fact.on the historyof the civil rightsmovement. but also differs whichthisform resembles material.tttrltctttltltltl rl loolltr.rry. Jon Adair'sWord ls Out (1977)opts for the secondchoice.lrom ln the Year of the Pig (1969).on the war in Vietnam.1r.trrry.rrlljcr.. Iilm noir-like suspense tothe film and socialwelfare.rlory voice-over exanonymous andavoid rnaker witlrlru r.like ConnieFieldfor Rosiethe Riveter.(1977). emotion-laden appealas it roamsa wide variety filmmaking considerable documentary Often. the articulateof interview and arrangement the carefulselection of thosewho speakgivesfilmsof testimony nessand emotional directness quality.on women at work during WorldWar ll.rlr. rcklo tho bt-'qittttttttls lo lcll lr r. of it now recountit. while is a participant. the sense that she mrghldo so lends an air ofnarrative. addingsome historical Blue Line.rrr.such as BarbaraKopple's or MichaelMoore'sRogerand Me (1989).on the 1974 fight The Wonor Ray Mueller's Ali and GeorgeForeman. Compilation filmssuch as EstherShub'sThe Fallof the RomanovDv1 22 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENT A R Y r:rllr. with an uneven distribution of powerbetween practitioner. subjectsbeforesettlingon the dozenor so who appearin the film. a compelling withtheir theirown directencounter Filmmakers who seekto represent issues and social who to represent broad worldandthose seek surrounding perspectives footageconstiand compilation throughinterviews historical mode.

rl worklprovrrlos the meeting modc. imaginary accessto the eventsshownon the screenas if it is only these not the film.in Reassemblage (1982).. 1992) courtesy ofJon Else placetor lhc procttsst):i ttl tttr ll the hislorrr. usinginsights themthe voicesof the interviewees wide rangeof womenbut withholding own selves. dependson the filmmode of documentary Just as the observational in the eventsrecorded.DaughterFife subvertsreliance resent. by callingthe usualmeansof this question directly Poland(1984). ask us to see docthem.BontocEulogy(1995). speaking it as well. from or non-intervention maker's apparent absence the documentary in generaldependson the viewer'sneglectof his or her a film. to appearas partof an exwho wastakenfromthe Philippines lifeat the St. LouisWorldFairin 1904throughstagedreenhibitof Filipino rulesof evidence memories that call conventional and imagined actments WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 125 . Jean-Luc umentarylor whatit is:a construct Jean-Pierre Gorincarrythis to an extremein Letterto Jane (197). address breakswith the realistconrepresentation into question:Reassemblage gazeto repthe powerof the camera's to question ventions of ethnography on soothers.and misrepresent. likeReassemblage. tho r. in favorof in front of a moviescreen.T HE RE F LE X I V T MODE pholos Cadillac (Jon Desert Else.BontocEulogyrecountsthe familyhistoryof the filmmaker's grandfather.No aspectof this apparently factualphotogoes unexamined. worldbut about not onlyaboutthe historical engagement with us.The mottothat a documeneventsthat requireinterpretation. is what the reflexive tary film is only as good as its contentis compelling calls into question.reflexive documentartes tariesto the worldbeyond Godardand or representation.symbolizes the shift that world produces: the historical reflexivity we nowattendlo howwe represent Insteadof seeingthroughdocumenas well aslo whatgets represented. a a5photoin greatdetaila journalistic minute"letter" in which they scrutinize graphof Jane Fondaduringher visit to NorthVietnam. cial actors by using two actressesto play sisters who reflecton their gathered with a from interviews relationship to their mother.otiation and subjectin the participatory bctwt:crr lilrrrrnaker filmmaker and viewerbecomethe focus between of negotiation [)rocesses in the filmmaker of attention mode. mode of documentary is the documentaries One of the issuesbroughtto the fore in reflexive to do with people? Somefilms. one with whichwe beganthis book:what or Farfrom DaughterRite(1978).Ratherthan following for the reflexive we now attendto the filmmaker's her engagement with othersocialactors. the problems and issuesof representing that she will "speak nearby"ratherthan Trinh Minh-ha'sdeclaration "speakabout"Africa.interpreting actualsituation.

represent we initially tions.when the creditsreveal of the authenticity promptsus to question we havewitnessed.or at the end. correspond pre-production tothe storyboard designed bythe filmmaker Their violation of lhe normal conventions for filming interviews both calls our attention tothe formality and conventionality ofinterviews and signals that this isnot a(normal) interview.accounts transcribed and editedby Trinhfrom interviews conducted in Vietnamby someoneelse with otherwomenl similarly. on a stage set.The overallresultdeconstructs presumably.suchas DavidHotzman's ficas disguised ultimately. Vertov thencuts to an editingroom. Minh-ha Trinh Here filmmaker might assume Theinterviewappearstobeset playanintervieweedescribingherlifeinVietnam whereshewill likeFarfronPoland. Far from poland'sdirector. surname viet Given Name Nam (19g9). 19g9) courtesy ofTrinh T Minh_ha These three successive shots.what conventions or scripted staged from a how is it different performance.Minh-ha ofTrinh (Trinh Photos courtesy 1989) T. process by which on the us to reflect to reality and invites access unimpeded throughediting. filming peopleridingin a norsedrawncarriage froma carthat runsalongside the carriage.Our of peopleengagedin everyday to be the self-presentatron believe the during hints and clues through sometimes this deception. into question.where the editor. and narrative structure. formances reveal aboutthe self "truth" do documentaries . Diary(1968). in general:what documentary performance.relieson interviews with womenin vietnamwho describe the oppressive conditions they have faced since the end of the war. Otherf ilms. Jill Godmilow.IhislilmexploresthequesinVietnambutwasactuallyshotinCalifornia {ilmmaker tothe available not directly situations ofhow torepresent tion of the impression just seen. but then halfwaythroughthe film we discover(ifvariousstylistic hintshaven't tippedus off) thatthe interviews were stagedin morewaysthanone:thewomenwho playvietnamese womenIn Vietnamare actuallyimmigrants to the Unitedstates reciting. Reflexive documentaries also addressissuesof realism.Reflexive documentaries challenge thesetechniques and conventions. assemblesstripsof filmthat represent this eventintothe sequence we have. each an extreme close-up portions that omits 0lthe interviewees face.for example. character development. 1 26 I INTR O DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTA R Y T. of realization perof the nature fabricated the film. themselves. DzigaVertovdemonstrates how the impression of reality comesto be constructed by beginning with a sceneof the cameraman. addresses us directlyto ponderthe problems of representing the solidaritymovement in Poland when she has only partialaccessto the actualevents. Daughter Rite(1978). Mikhail Kaufman.Elizaveta svilova.They rely on trainedactorsto deliverthe performances life.Vertov's wife. Thesefilms set out to heighten our awareness of the problems of representing others as much as they set out to convinceus of the authenticity or truthfulness of representation itself.surname photos viet Given Name (Trinh Nan T. This is a style that seemsto provideunproblematic accessto the world. psychological. and emotional realismthroughtechniques of evidentiaryor continuity editing. is itselfconstructed this impression and No Lies(1973). and of documentary promptus to believein the authenticity subverted? how can this beliefbe productively mode and self-questioning modeis the mostself-conscious The reflexive WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 127 .Minh-ha Nan Nane Viet Given Surname we than filmmakers Ior documentary consideration more frequent are a and costume Make-up prepares Bich Yen for a scene Tran Thi actress T.Minh-ha.in TheMan witha Movie camera.it takesform as physical.

socialor political but it is also heavily component. . l l r r . : . Judith and wedding canels(Dauid adopt MacDougall and Judith David Kenya. rr l r .t:. Vertovdoes this in TheMan witha Moviecameraro demonstrate how we constructour Knowredge of the world. 1. lox ic illir r x t gc anc l wh a t i t r c p r c : . the social on a new way of seeing. . c r r l : . Theycounter the prevailing (stereotypical) images of womenwithradically different representations and displace the hopesand desires fueledandgratified by advertising and melo- MacDougall ofDavid Photo courtesy 1980) MacDougall..nl..tv{'r'vrrlcrr r .rll llese norro nr.mak_ ing strange.u . reflexivity draws our attentionto our as- s' ""' W. r r r r rn l) ( ) : . l l r r . Reflexive documentary setsout to readjust the assumptrons and expectations of its audience. Trinh does this in Reassemblage to questionthe assumptions that underrie a given body of knowledge or modeof inquiry(ethnography). but they also soughtto producea heightened conscrousness aboutdiscrimination against womenin thecontemporary world." or what the Russianformalists termed ostranenie. Achieving a heightened form of consciousness involves a shiftin levels of awareness. makingthe familiarstrangeremindsus how documentary worksas a film genrewhoseclaimsaboutthe worldwe can receive too unthinkingly. : . t l l l c l r t o o l .reflexive doc_ umentaryprodsthe viewerto a heightened form of consciousness about her relation to a documentary and what it represents. it remindsus how society worksin accordwithconventions and codeswe mav too readily take for granted. oppresston. tqoxl r .documentaries can be reflexive from both formal and political perspectives. :lo . . or. order..Bufrueldoes this in Land withoutBreadto satirize the presumptions that accompanysuch knowledge. put thal lilmmakers the by ttlsaquestion 14re see Sometimes scenes 0tanotner process members olrepresentlng complex remind us olthe that titles itiswritten times acts reflexive Such can understand culture members o{anEnglish-speaking lna form culture Nanaok impression the want togive {ilms such lilmMany inethnographlc time rare atthe were "naturally" ot as a result nol occur. The riseof feminist documentaries in the 1970s provides a vividexample of the worksthat call socialconventions into question. llt c wot k l ."This is similar to the surrealist effortto see the everyday world rn unexpected ways. r l in( .I l( . c .llr c ol t t t t ll.a distinctperspective may havea formalor cinematic prevailing "Alienation"from assumptions than Rather in its impact.As a formalstrategy. not add new knowledge to existing cate_ gories. of provoking our awareness and the assumptions of socialorganization tariesprovokeour awareness 128 I INTRODUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTARY WhatTypes ot Documentary AreThere? | 129 . 1lt t l. as chris Markerdoesin sans soleilloquestion the assumptions that underlie the act of making filmsof the livesof othersin a worlddividedby racialand political boundaries. At its best.tlt( . they as gave: and behavior customs we witness Narth of the and subject {ilmmaker between interaction and demandsof womenwho have rejected dramaswith the experiences enones. r l r r l r l y l o I r r ) \ / t r t ( ) l ) {) l r. n 'l the reflexive documentary l)rornpts to examine the natureof such belief rirther thanattestto the validity of what is believed. Filmssuch as rhe woman'sFilm (1971).For this reason. documenpolitically reflexive primarily form.JoyceatThirty-four(1972). as a political strategy. That s uc h not ion s c a n c o m p c l fetishistic belief ()l tll)t{. . r r : t . Turkana olnorthern onthe o{films Inthis trilogy tne insnaping involvement {ilmmakers'active the aware o{ us tomake strategies reflexive several prompts some discussion.and GrowinglJp Femate (1970)followed most of the conventions of participatory documentary. emerges. From a formal perspective.rl lro nrl lrclwcc r r .o orn o u nd c r s us pic ion. laininvisible:the perceptions: common into combine experiences Individual calledsexism. ationeffects. r .(. r lr : .Such films challenge different these notionsin favorof radically had what and also serveto give nameto trenchednotionsof the feminine that can now be and hierarchy devalorization. t l) t lt ly .

. practices (1985).makesuse of recitedpoemsand enactedscenesthat addressthe inonwurah'sfilm builds in black.ti l l o tl . the performative mode raisesquestions aboutwhat is knowledge. r t r l ( ) tt ( l r 'tt{'t.t. in Benares. orwas she herself ayoung woman encouraged to recycle stereotypical images of female sexual ity? Porti Ilodoes noI answer such queslions somuch aspose inanengagthem ing way She does sopartly byshooting invideo portrait tocreate a family ofSelena and her legacy that supportit.competitionandcooperation)thatmaKeupa underscores documentary in chapter 4).not lo films. LouisWorld'sFair'Acas an objectof display f rom captivrty by amplified imaginedones.aboutthe lifeof Langston skin/white Mask (1996). i r l tl tc" l r i r d i l i tl tl e m b o d i cd ' a n d co n cr e tc a s d e scr i b e d l r l r r l o s o p h y '/ o r r : t kr r o w kXk.about the life of Frantz Fanon. 1 .abouther effortsto learnthe storyof her family's What Types of Documentary Are There? | 131 (Lourdes Carpus A Home Movie forSelena Portillo.s RobertGardner'sForest india.ReaTajiri'sHistoryand Memory in deinternment (1991). participatory of to the diaristicmode bears similarity qualities of experience to the subjective filmsgiveaddedemphasis mative MarlonRiggs'for examrecounting' factual from depart that and memory ple. 1999) Photo courtesy of Lourdes Portillo Director Lourdes Portillo lnvestigates the repercussions that followed from the murder of popular the Tex-lVlex singer Selena Was she a positive role model foryoung women who learn tochannel lheir popuenergies into becoming larsingers.ociety its of the worldby emphasizing subjective of our knowledge thecomplexity dimensions.Politically pointto us as viewreflexive documentaries ers and socialactors.tl l o tl l .l r l tl l .ia|practices(|oveandWar. (1988). and rhetoric? provides enknowledge .They tend.itics the latterpoendorses documentary Performative lrtoralure.l \i l r ]w l r ) ( l ( l o l r tl l .tl tz.and Fuentes at the 1904St.ttl tl tl t:.where we graspa principle or structure at workthat helpsaccount for whatwouldotherwisebe a representation of more localized experience. Experifor different meanings ol. Our heightened conscrousness opensup a gap between knowledge and desire.familiesandmarriages)andspecificsor. r r r r l r t t t l 0lll r l ! w o rIl '1 .cttl <l fWtl l .aboutfuneral of Blis. What countsas understanding or comprehension? What besides factualinformation goes intoour under1 30 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTA R Y .The free combinaDecome tual occurrences performation of the actualand the imaginedis a commonfeatureof the tive documentarY.l cttt l r o t l i O t l . work at processes of the moregeneral rry intoan understanding Meaningisclearlyasubjective.tl b ctte r of poetry' in the tradition experience.gay identity. autoworkers aboutthe murderof a chinese Americanby two out-of-work who reportedlymistookhim for Japanese. Perforfilmmaking. Politically reflexive documentaries acknowledge the way thingsare butalso invoke the waytheymightbecome. {)nceanctmemory. and value of questions involvement.rtion how embodied and sets out to demonstrate in society. Tongues Riggs. about issues of race and identity.tIr l ..s WorksIikeMar|on (1995) stress Eulogy Bontoc (1991).emotional aspects those of all enterintoour understanding ()ommitment and principle frameinstitutional by documentary:the addressed often most 0f the world work(governmentsandchUrches.as the agentswho can bridgethis gap between what existsand the new formswe can makefrom it.affect-ladenphenomenon'Acarorgun' people. . Instead we take a deeper look.between what is and whatmightbe.p"r. to inducean "aha!"effect. i tr td th e typ i ca l .s lJntied(1989). . l l l t l .sWhoKittedVincentChin?(1988).rndaffective lhe Ngozionwurah. Performative (as discussed :.Larry Andrews's video Black and sitver Horses(1992).tti l cl ..r :.on will bear different lrospital belief. What thesefilms and otherssuch as lsaacJulien'sLookingfor Langston or Julien'sFrantzFanon:Black Hughes. of personal lrrsed on the spccitit.! . therefore. stakesinvolved tensepersonal uptoastagedsexua|encounterbetweenherownmotherandahandsome escape enactsa fantasyabouthis grandfather's youngman. T H E P E R F OR MA T IV E MOD E Likethe poeticmodeof documentary representation. and MarlonFuentes's BodyBeautiful of the filmthe perspective from experience of complexity tne emotional noteentersintothesefilmsthat An autobiographical makerhim-orherself.ChrisChoyandReneeTajima.

"Brother to Brother.l 1991) lsBurning(Jenny Livingston Paris young gay men into inwhich cluster sub-culture enters into adistinct.recentperformative joins general to the that the give representation to a social subjectivity to particular.performative documentaries primariry addressus. socialposition of a brack.(iilllll)i.. Ever since at reastrurksib(192g). and stagedperformances that ail attestto the comprexities of racialand sexuar relations withingay subcurture strives to animateus to adoptthe position of "brother" for ourserves. .titltllltir l. Likeearrier workssuch as Listen to Britain(1941). ftlttlttrtl tlttttttt..lt wi rt ll.in stereo. but it to particular may be anchored The expressive dimension response.on the mourningof try documentaries Lenin's deathby the Sovietpeople. into the subjective positionof a feminist character's perspective on the world. or ThreeSongs of Lenin(1934)." The courseof the firmovera seriesof decrarations. in a satiricvein. Theywere presentbut not dominant. toexplain this sub-culture 0rganized performatively thal16in Webster Grovesor ol thisworld to a degree in thequality and texture noI Dead Birds does duringWorldWar ll.l ':. These firmsengageus resswith rhetoricar commandsor imperatives than with a sense of their own vivid responsiveness. butthe organizing dominant to the firms revorves arounda linearhistorythat includes these events. more unconventionar narrative structures."as if" renderings of traumatic past events(the. to the personal. rather than pointingus to the factualworldwe hold in common.documentary has exhibited many pedormative quarities. from the House of Jendell walking as fuluristic l0nrm€ queen Pllf_slt(. beginswith a voice-over cailthat ricochets from left and right. and.disappearance.1980s. and the political to the collective.Land withoutBread(1932). ilboutbcillgAsiarl-tsritislt trndgay.form of subjective is often that of the underrepreIn recentwork this social subjectivity gays and lesof womenand ethnicminorities. such as LasMadres de ra ptaza de Mayo (r9g5) and Roses in December(1982)." drag at"balls ofmimicry and other invarious categories which compete against each partly immerses us Pails ls Burningalso tononparticipants.. The firmmaker.rrrrr6rrtarry emphasisawayfroma realistrepresentation of the historical worldand toward poeticliberties. black.incrudeperformative momentsthat draw us into sub_ jective. the individual individuals.Brother to Brother. uiuioty personar per_ spective "no of specific subjects. . emotionaily and expressivery. The referentiar qualityof documentary rhat atteststo its functionas a windowonto the worrdyierds to an expressrve quality that affirmsthe highry situated. wotlt.we are invitedto experience what it is riketo occupythe subjective. po_ etic recitations..for exampre.per{ormative doc_ umentary seeksto move its audienceinto subjective arignment or affinity with its specific perspective on the worrd.rr (lIx)l).'. embodied. buttheyseldomhaveservedto organize entirefilms. gay mare. at reastfor the duration of the film. sattfor svanetia(1g30).. including the filmmaker. irrtrll. reenactments. extendsto embracea social. Paris lsBurning " "houses.. Someparticipatory documentaries of the . that"Wespeakabout WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 133 . sentedor misrepresented.ilrrr. "Brack menroving brack menis the revorutionary act.Performative documentary proclaim. llttt:.on resistance to Germanbombingby the Britishpeopre 1 32 I INTR O DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTA R Y fl An$ela J6ndsll.such as MarronRiggshimserf. "Wespeakaboutthemto usJ'They instead.of the son of one of the mothers who protested government repression in Argentinaand the rape of Jean Donovan and three otherwomenby Er sarvadoran military men respectivery).or shared. and endswitha decraration. re_ gardlessof their actuargenderand sexuar orientation. to thosefilmswhere can act as a corrective bians. Just as a feminist aesthetic may striveto moveaudience members. . via the affective chargethey applyto it and seek to maxeour own Tongues untied. sttare is a deflectiorr ol tkrr. and more suD_ jectiveformsof representation.we engagewith their represen_ tationof the historical worrdbutdo so obliquely.s re_ sponsrveness seeksto animateour own.

we continue to recognize the historical worldby meansof famil_ iar peopleand praces (Langston Hughes.musicalscores. the testimonyof others (participants in Tonguesuntied who describethe experiences of brack. so much or not to argue to explain. aboutthe Horocaust. lt does not.Visible survivors-but the voiceof Nightand Fogextendsbeyondwhat evidence f romus thatacknowledges responsiveness it callsforan emotional confirms: pre-established frameof reference within any this event how understanding judgment of the heinous at a (evenas we mayarrive is an utterimpossibility of such genocide).)withoratorical techniques for addressing the socialissuesthat neithersciencenor reasoncan resorve. and scenesbuirtaroundparticipatory or observationar modesof representation (interviews with variouspeopre in Khush and lh British but. personar quarity of the commentary movesit towardthe pedormative. polemicize." ( ) l "Wo lil) o ilk itl) o u l oU l j ol vc:. AlainResnais's Nightand Fog(1955). not hisgoalas notto lived who those like for past were experiences as to evokea senseof what are made from home moviesredocumentaries them. partiar exampre of the performative mooe. makesthispoint vividly. flashbacks and freezeframes. the san Francisco Bay Bridge. the personalvoice-over confidences of Ngozionwurah about her relationshio to her motherin The Body Beautiful). however.i l l tvo (Joc (Alain 1955) Resnais etbrouillardl FoglNuit Night and then officers. however. The film'svoice-over commentary and imagesof iilustration nomi_ nateNightand Fogtor the expository mode. conscience amoral gives ofsustaining present the burden tomemory and orof acts that defy all reasonand all narrative the sheer inconceivability and victims of bodies. monstrosity has described P6terForgdcs filmmaker spirit.trt:s it tcbttlitttcittg and corrective terrrlcrrr. observedmomentsof dairy ritein Forest of Bliss). businessman What Types of Documentary Are There? | 135 . Detroit cityscapes. ressemphasis to the serf-contained quality of the film or video than to its expressive dimensionin retationto representations that referus back to the historical world for their ultimate meaning.Hungarian In a similar judge. l." l .and so on). ressabouthistory fromabove-what happened when and why-and moreabouthistory from berow-what one personmightexpeflenceand what it mightfeel like to undergo that experience.Night and Fog sets out to represent the unrepresentabre: 13 4 I INTRO DUCTI O N TO DO CUM ENTA R Y l *. performative documentary freery mixes the expressive techniques that give textureand densityto fiction (point-of-view shots.etc.rrrl ()'. .y wrllrlrrrtorethnography(ethnographically inlormed work madeby members of the communitieswho are the traditionar subjects of westernethnography. l o yo tl. camp byconcentration presente was shot Fog and dinNight footage ofthe Much AlainResnaiscompilesthisfootageintoasearingtestim discoveredalterthewarbytheAllies Iturges HislilmofferslarmorethanvisualevidenceofNaziatrocities tothehorrorsofinhumanity past tothe ltlinks the inthese camps long ago what happened forget. suffusedby evocative tones and expressive shadingsthat constantly remindus thatthe worldis morethanthe sum of the visiole evidence we derivefrom it. butadoptsa distinct modeof reo_ resentation thatsuggests knowredge and understanding require an entirery different form of engagement. and abounds-of belongings evidence der.renderings of subjective statesof mind. The world as represented by performative documentaries becomes.finaily. .butthe haunting. tltttottlitry sll.evocative tone of the commentary by Jean cayror. beforethe observationar mode praced priority on the directfirming of sociarencounter. Likeearlydocumentary.Anotherearry. Theiilm is ressabout history thanmemory.olll:i()lvoi.misinformation withinformation. His extraordinary of the socialturmoilcaused representations organizedinto performative Jewish life of a successful the recounts Fall(1998).. Through the elliptic.a survivor of Auschwitz.gay men.GyorgyPeto. by world war ll: Free up in caught who is eventually in the 1930s. countererror withfact. suchas the numerous tapesmadeby the Kayapo peopre of the Amazonriverbasinand by the Aboriginal peopleof Australia). never and us toremember. Pedormative documentary approaches the domainof experimentar or avant-garde cinemabut gives.

and prefabricated do. a different positions ready-made sidesteps Forgdcs so many of his contemporaries. tion. beginsin response and each each mode has predecessors a commonalternative.in and out of various the war was primarily Loss occurs. . i n th e fa C e o f Br i ti sh r e si su p r i ve r l i l n c e t o t h c i r r r r v i r l o l a n y m o r e r e fu g e e s. home movies from the ig30s and 1940s suchfootagerevealslifeasitwasseenandexperiencedatagiventime Forg6csreworks the footage.The war takes its toll not from bombsalone but from these cases of the face of Europe.not to rejectanalysis beforehim. exodusthat transformed civilian to us but alsoto postand judgment leave evaluation wants to ForgScs subjective directly a more ponethis kind of reflection we experience while emoeffect. restores a senseof magnitude documentary port of entryto our personal may become that it so the lt animates bodied. .r l .alongwith dislocafor a wide varietyof reasons. this generalsketchof the six modesof documenWe can summarize likethe avant-garde. Documentary. countries. adding titles and music.tl l . Pedormative and emto the local. a n d o f Ge r m a n sw h o fl e e lrom Romaniaback to Germanywhen the Sovietarmy drivesthem from on home moviestakenby the captainof theirland. aboutthe overall an enormousflux of peoples. Like basis. isquite radicarry different intone from the classic world warll documentaries inanexpository mode such asthe Why We Fight series WhatTypes of Documentary AreThere? | 137 . f g w : . r rr r l . tone of the war: he suggestshow. the political.for some participants.r l th e l o r co d ttttq r l tl to tts o I .o l ttl to tt" l o Il tl tt ( l i l r l i l t . By focusingon these specific however.r l l p l y l l ttl tt "l ttt. l o .seen from the viewpoint war ll. Oecomes to this day. affectover He invokes events. inthis case. participant Forgdcs suggests ratherthan a historian.r ttr tl tr . as all categories. slowing down motion. r r r l l tc w i tt. r l l r t .spectfic. something. to see the world afreshand to rethinkour relationto it. and Kalatozov Resnais.) continues photos Free (P1ter Fall Forg6cs.The film reliesprimarily both of thesegroups. with these historical encounter and judgmentbut to placethem on tionover reason. in transporting . the following in taryrepresentation when a mode signify in this table (The dates to fiction.( i c t r t l t t t y ': . . tocombine asense perspecttve ofhistorical with aform ofemotional engagement The result poetic. t r l l It. rttttl r c tttt r o u te to Pa l e sti n e . l xo tl L ts( 1 9 9 9 ) te l l s t. cropping images.r Danubecruiseship involved Danube Exodus makes no attempt to tell the overall hrstoryof world of a events. and like Vertov. table. 1998) courtesy ofpeter Forgacs P6ter Forgilcs relies entirely onfound footage. great documentarians He invitesus. k t w s d o w t t l l t c l ) .

In a harsh critiqueof the documentary tradition. gaveslum dwellers (1935). namelygovernment agencies.' Poetic documentary llg2osl: reassembre fragmentsof the worldpoetically -lack of specificity. HousingProblems the opportunity to speakfor themselves. naive history. ll Chapter 7 HowHaveDocumentaries Addressed lssues? Social and Political PEOPLE AS VIC T IM S OR AGEN T S Whenwe first asked"Whatto do with people?" in Chapter1.for example. To act unethically or to misrepresent politics othersinvolves and ideology as well. but they also lrawns.defamilrarrze the othermodes -too abstract.Instead. observethingsas theyhappen -lack of history.excessive'. shoulddo something about. losesightof ac_ tualrssues Pertormativedocumentary[1g8Os]:stress subjective aspectsof a classically objective discourse -toss of emphasis on objectivity may relegate suchfilms to the avant-garde. suggest that the issuesare not ethicalalone. especially as reprejournalism.they failedto see the workeras an active.self-determining agentof change.ion fell primarily withinan ethicalframe. context Parti cipatory doc umentary [196Os] : interview or Interact with subjects. use of style. The words of actualworkersappearedon British screensfor the firsttime. the workersuffered from a "plight" that others. sentedby television Brian Winstonarguesthat 1930s documentary filmmakers in GreatBritaintook a romantic view of theirworkingclasssubjects. use archival film to retrieve history -excessive faithin witnesses.reality. our discusr. or victims? Thesequestions allowfew easyanswers. too intrusive Reflexive documentary [1980s]:ques_ tiondocumentary form.'.(i I l r r l r hr Docurnentary Modes ClriefCharacteristics -Deficiencres Hollywoodfiction [1910s]: fictional narratives of imaginary worlds -absence of '.But they appearedas if they came with hat in 139 138 I INTRODU CTI O N TO DO CUM ENTARY . too abstract Expo s itory documentary [192Os]:d irecilyaddressissu es in the historical world -overlydidactic ObservationaI documentary l1960sl : eschew com_ mentaryand reenactment. in a synchronous soundinterview formatset withintheir own homes. a sensational achievement in the days long beforetelevision or reality TV.What consequences followfrom rlifferent formsof response to and engagement with others?How may we represent or speak about others without reducingthem to stereotypes.

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