Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006

ENGLISH ALLOPHONIC BOOKLET
(revised to 2013)



Phoneme


Place

Manner

Voicing

Allophones + Position

Examples

Phonemic
Transcription

Allophonic
Transcription


/ b /


Bilabial


Stop
(plosive)


Voiced
| b | Initial / medial
| b| Unreleased in syllable-final
position before a consonant
| b | Final released (when emphatic)
´back´
´absent´

‘club’
/ bæL /
/ 'æbsonl /

/ LI:b /
| bæL |
| 'æbsonl° |

| LI:b |
Devoiced | b | Before a voiceless consonant or silence ‘Bob’ / bnb / | bnb |
*Note: ‘b’ is silent as in ‘climb’, ‘dumb’, ‘comb’, &c.



/ d /




Alveolar
Stop
(plosive)

Voiced
| d | Initial ‘dime’ / daim / | daim |
| d | Medial (same as above in RP) ‘lady’ / 'Icidi / | 'IcidI |
Tap/Flap Voiced | i | Intervocalic (in SAE) ‘lady’ / 'Icidi / | 'IciiI |

Stop
(plosive)

Voiced
| d | Final released (when emphatic) ‘dad’ / dæd / | dæd |
| d| Unreleased in syllable-final
position before a consonant
‘pad Thai’ / ¡pæd 'lai/ | ¡p°æd 'l°ai |
Devoiced | d | Before a voiceless consonant or silence ‘guard’ / gu:d / | gu:d |
Dental Stop Voiced | d | Before dental consonants ‘add theirs’ / æd ðcoz / | æd ðcoz |





/ q /




Velar


Stop
(plosive)


Voiced
| g | Initial / medial ‘goal’ / gouI / | gouI |
| g | Final released (when emphatic) ‘pig’ / pig / | p°ig |
| g| Unreleased in syllable-final
position before a consonant
‘fig’ / ¡!ig 'liI:/ | ¡!ig 'l:I: |
Devoiced | g | Before a voiceless consonant or silence ‘gag’ / gæg / | gæg |
Fricative Voiced | y | Initial (Old English) / Intervocalic (Spanish)
‘ghost’ ‘lago’ /gousl/ - /Iago/ |yousl| - |Iayo|
Approximant
Voiced | µ| Intervocalic (Latin American Spanish) ‘lago’ / Iago / |Iaµo|

Palatal

Stop
(plosive)

Voiced
| g | Advanced before front closed vowels
| ¡ |
‘give’
‘get’
/ giv /
/ gcl /
| giv | - | ¡iv |
| gcl | - | ¡cl |
| g | Retracted before back open vowels ‘gods’ / gndz / | gndz |
Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006
Phoneme Place Manner Voicing Allophones + Position Examples Phonemic
Transcription
Allophonic
Transcription


/ p /



Bilabial



Stop
(plosive)



Voiceless
| p°| Initial / medial / final + v (aspirated) ‘pin’ / pin / | p°in |
| p | After ‘s’ (unaspirated) ‘spot’ / spnl / | spnl |
| p°| p + v + n (nasal) ‘open’ / 'oupon / | 'oup°n |
| p | Final released (when emphatic) ‘lap’ / Iæp / | Iæp |
| p| Unreleased in syllable-final
position before a consonant
‘pop corn’ / pnp L¬:n/ | p°np L°¬:n|
| ? | Glottal reinforcement ‘pop’ / pnp / | p°n?p |




/ t /




Alveolar




Stop
(plosive)




Voiceless
| l°| Initial / medial / final + v (aspirated) ‘tin’ / lin / | l°in |
| l | After ‘s’ (unaspirated) ‘stool’ / slu:I / | slu:¡ |
| l°| t + v + n (nasal) ‘eaten’ / 'I:lon / | 'I:?l°n |
| l | Final released (when emphatic) ‘pot’ / pnl / | p°nl |
| l| Unreleased in syllable-final
position before a consonant
‘dot com’ / ¡dnl 'Lnm/ | ¡dnl 'L°nm |
| ? | Glottal reinforcement/replacement ‘fighting’ / '!ailip / | '!ai?lip |
Tap/Flap Voiced | i | Intervocalic (in SAE) | ¡ | ‘city’ / 'sili / |'siiI| - |'si¡I|




/ k /




Velar




Stop
(plosive)




Voiceless
| L°| Initial / medial / final + v (aspirated) ‘cap’ / Læp / | L°æp |
| L | After ‘s’ (unaspirated) ‘scum’ / sL:m / | sL:m |
| L°| k + v + n (nasal) ‘bacon’ / 'bciLon / | 'bciL°n |
| L | Final released (when emphatic) ‘pack’ / pæL / | p°æL |
| L| Unreleased syllable-final position
before a consonant
‘lack for’ / IæL !¬:/ | IæL !¬: |
| ? | Glottal reinforcement ‘doctor’ / 'dnLlo(i) / | 'dn?Ll°o |
Velar

Stop

Voiceless
| L | Advanced before close vowels | c | ‘key’ / LI: / | L°I:| - |c°I:|
Palatal | L | Retracted before open vowels ‘car’ / Lu: / | Lu: |


/ m /
Bilabial Nasal Voiced | m | Initial / medial / final ‘cam’ / Læm / | L°æm |
Labiodental Nasal Voiced | p | Medial before –f ‘comfortable’ / 'L:m!olobI / | 'L°:p!lobI |
Bilabial Nasal Voiced | m | Final syllabic ‘bottom’ / 'bnlom / | 'bnlm |
Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006
Phoneme Place Manner Voicing Allophones + Position Examples Phonemic
Transcription
Allophonic
Transcription


/ n /

Apicodental

Nasal

Voiced

| n | Dental before /0/ /ð/
‘tenth’
‘in there’
/ 'lcn0 /
/ ¡in'ðco(i) /
| 'l°cn0 |
| ¡in'ðco |
Apicoalveolar Nasal Voiced | n | Elsewhere ‘can’ / Læn / | L°æn |
Laminoalveolar Nasal Voiced | n | Alveopalatal before /lj/ /d¸/ ‘lunch’ / I:nlj / | I:nlj |
Bilabial Nasal Voiced | m| Before bilabial plosive/stops ‘manpower’ / 'mænpauo / | 'mæmpauo |



/ q /

Dorsopalatal

Nasal

Voiced

| p | After close front vowels

‘going’

/ 'gouip /

| 'gouip |
Dorsovelar Nasal Voiced | p | After open back vowels ‘sung’ / s:p / | s:p |
Velar Nasal Voiced | p | Final syllabic
‘lock and key’
/¡InL on 'LI:/ | ¡InLp 'L°I: |



/ l /




Alveolar

Lateral-approx.

Voiced

| I | Initial apicoalveolar

‘loop’

/ Iu:p /

| Iu:p |
Alveolar
Lateral-approx.
Voiced | ¡ | Velarized (dark) before a consonant or
silence
‘call’ / L¬:I / | L¬:¡ |
Alveolar
Lateral-approx.
Devoiced | I | After a aspirated /p/ /L/ ‘plot’ / pInl / | pInl |
Alveolar
Lateral-approx.
Voiced | I | Final syllabic ‘paddle’ / 'pædI / | 'p°ædI |





/ r /





Alveolar
Lateral-approx.
Voiced | : | Initial / medial ‘rock’ / inL / | :`n?L |
Retroflex
Approximant
Voiced | ¡ | Final (SAE) ‘car’ / Lu:(i) / | Lu:¡ |

Apicoalveolar

Tap/Flap

Voiced
| i | Linking ‘r’ ‘there is’ / ¡ðcoi 'iz / | ¡ðcoi'iz |
| i | Intrusive ‘r’ ‘warsh’ / vnj / | v¬:ij |
Alveolar
Approximant
Devoiced | : | After aspirated /p/ /l/ /L/ ‘pray’ / pici / | p:ci |
Alveolar Fricative Voiced | : | After /d/ or Final (Chilean Spanish)
‘dry’ ‘cantar’ /diai/ /¡Lan'lai/ |d:ai| | ¡Lan'la: |
Alveolar Trill Voiced | i | Initial / medial (Spanish) ‘perro’ / 'pcio / | 'pcio |
Alveolar Tap/Flap Voiced | i | Medial (Spanish) ‘pero’ / 'pcio / | 'pcio |
Uvular Trill Voiced | i | Initial / final (17
th
century French) ‘rouge’ / iu:¸ / | iu¸ |
Uvular
Fricative-approx.
Voiced | n | Initial / medial / final (Modern French) ‘rouge’ / iu:¸ / | nu¸ |
Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006
Phoneme Place Manner Voicing Allophones + Position Examples Phonemic
Transcription
Allophonic
Transcription

/ I /


Labiodental

Fricative

Voiceless

Initial / medial / final

‘fan’

/ !æn /

| !æn |


/ v /

Labiodental

Fricative

Voiced

| v | Initial / medial / final

‘van’

/ væn /

| væn |
Devoiced | v | Before voiceless consonant or silence ‘have to’ /hæv lo/ | hæv l°o |


/ û /


Dental

Fricative

Voiceless

Initial / medial / final

‘ether’

/ 'I:0o /

| 'I:0o |


/ ð /

Dental

Fricative

Voiced

| ð | Initial / medial / final

‘either’

/ 'aiðo / / 'I:ðo /

| 'aiðo | | 'I:ðo |
Devoiced | ð | Before voiceless consonant or silence ‘with thanks’
/ við 0æpLs / | við 0æpLs |


/ s /


Alveolar

Fricative

Voiceless

Initial / medial / final

‘seal’

/ sI:I /

| sI:¡ |


/ z /

Alveolar

Fricative

Voiced

| z | Initial / medial / final

‘zeal’

/ zI:I /

| zI:¡ |
Alveolar Fricative Devoiced | z | Before voiceless consonant or silence ‘It is too late’ / il iz 'lu: Icil / | il° iz 'lu: Icil |



/ j /


Postalveolar


Fricative


Voiceless


Initial / medial / final
‘shower’ / 'jauo(i) / | 'jauo |
‘machine’ / mo'jI:n /
‘issue’ / 'iju:/ - / 'isju:/

‘mash’ / mæj /
Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006
Phoneme Place Manner Voicing Allophones + Position Examples Phonemic
Transcription
Allophonic
Transcription


/ ¿ /


Postalveolar


Fricative

Voiced

| ¸ | Medial / final
‘collage’ / Ln'Iu:¸ / | L°n'Iu:¸ |
‘allusion’ / o'Iju:¸on / | o'Iju:¸n |
‘seizure’ / 'sI:¸o(i) / | 'sI:¸o |
Devoiced | ¸ | Before voiceless consonant or silence ‘mirage’ / mi'iu:¸ / | mi':u:¸ |


/ b /

Glottal

Fricative
Voiceless | h | Initial / medial ‘house’ / haus / | naus |
Voiced | n | Between voiced segments ‘ahead’ / o'hcd / | o'ncd |


/ tj /

Postalveolar

Affricate

Voiceless

| lj | Initial / medial / final
‘chop’ / ljnp / | ljnp |
‘bachelor’ / 'bæljoIo(i) / | 'bæljoIo |
| ?lj | Glottal reinforcement in syllable-final
position before consonant or silence
‘match’ / mælj / | mæ?lj |



/ d¿ /


Postalveolar


Affricate

Voiced

| d¸ | Initial / medial / final
‘jumper’ / 'd¸:mpo(i) / | 'd¸:mp°o |
‘agent’ / 'cid¸onl / | 'cid¸onl |
‘George’ / d¸¬:d¸ / | d¸¬:d¸ |
Devoiced | d¸ | Before voiceless consonant or silence ‘edge’ / cd¸ / | cd¸ |


/ w /

Labiovelar
Approx. Voiced | v | Initial / medial (back, oral, glide) ‘wet’ / vcl / | vcl |
Approx. Devoiced | v | After aspirated /p/ /l/ /L/ ‘queen’ / LvI:n / | LvI:n |
Fricative Voiceless | n | Initial (back, oral, glide) ‘when’ /(h)vcn/ | ncn |


/ j /

Palatal

Approx.

Voiced

| j | Initial / medial (front, oral, glide)
‘yes’ / jcs / | jcs |
‘queue’ / Lju: / | L°ju: |
Fricative Voiceless | ç | After aspirated /p/ /l/ /L/ and /hj/ ‘tune’ ‘huge’ /lju:n/ /hju:d¸/ |lçu:n| |çu:d¸|


/ x /


Velar

Fricative

Voiceless

| x | Final (Scottish English)

‘loch’

/ InL /

| Iox |
Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006
Phoneme Place Manner Voicing Allophones + Position Examples Phonemic
Transcription
Allophonic
Transcription


/ ? /


Glottal


Stop
(plosive)


Voiceless

Medial before /p/ /l/ /L/ /lj/

‘actor’
‘top’

/ 'æLlo(i) /
/ lnp /

| 'æ?Ll°o |
| l°n?p |
Initial before central vowels ‘Uh-oh’ (Trouble)
‘Uh-uh’ (No)
/ ¡:'ou /
/ ':¡: /
| ¡?:'?ou |
| '?:¡?o |
























Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006
ENGLISH ALLOPHONES
(revised to 2013)

CONSONANTS
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Pharyngeal
Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b l d c ¡ L g ?
Nasal m p n p
Trill
Tap or Flap i
Fricative ! v 0 ð s z j ¸ x h n
Affricate lj d¸
Lateral
fricative

Approximant n v : ¡ j
Lateral
approximant
I ¡
Ejective stop
Implosive
Click
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.










Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006
SPANISH ALLOPHONES
(revised to 2013)

CONSONANTS
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Laryngeal
Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Laryngeal Glottal
Occlusive p b l d L g
Nasal m p n j p
Trill i
Tap or Flap i
Fricative ! 0 s z j ¸ ç x y _ h
Affricate lj d¸
Lateral
fricative

Approximant ç þ ð µ
Lateral
approximant
I í
Semivowel j v
Ejective stop
Implosive
Click
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.









Phonetics & Phonology Lagos & Bittner 2006
THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET
(revised to 2013)

CONSONANTS
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Pharyngeal
Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b l d ¡ q c ¡ L g q c ?
Nasal m p n p j p r
Trill s i i
Tap or Flap i ¡
Fricative ç þ ! v 0 ð s z j ¸ ¡ , ç j x y _ n h \ h n
Affricate lj d¸
Lateral
fricative
¡ [
Approximant n v u : ¡ j µ
Lateral
approximant
I ] í L
Ejective stop p` l` ¡` c` L` q`
Implosive þ 5 l u c j l g q G
Click
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible